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Sample records for unilateral zmc fractures

  1. Unilateral Mydriasis After Mandibular Fracture Fixation Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Nesioonpour, Sholeh; Khiabani, Kazem; Hassanijirdehi, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Unilateral mydriasis is a seriously significant finding in neurologic examinations indicating life-threatening conditions such as cerebral vascular injuries. Case Presentation: A 24 year old woman with mandibular trauma was referred to our center after five days for a reduction of the right mandibular angle fracture. The patient had no history of any loss of consciousness after the accident. Her physical examination showed no abnormalities, except those related to her mandibular fracture. The laboratory results were normal as well. At 8:30 am a general anesthesia was induced. The patient’s eyes were kept shut throughout the surgical procedure. The operation included an intraoral open reduction and fixation using two miniplates without any complications. After the operation, it was noticed that the left eye was completely dilated with no reaction to light, while the right eye was normal. The management and outcomes in this patient were described in the present case report. Conclusions: Evaluating the size of the patient’s pupils before, during and after the operation, careful history, consult, CT scan and MRI would help to diagnosis. Although no probable cause was found to explain the transient mydriasis in our patient. PMID:24829881

  2. Bilateral scaphoid stress fracture in a platform diver presenting with unilateral symptoms.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Haflah, Nor Hazla; Mat Nor, Noreen Fazlina; Abdullah, Shalimar; Sapuan, Jamari

    2014-10-01

    Scaphoid stress fracture is rare and occurs mainly in gymnasts. The current literature has only two reported cases: unilateral scaphoid stress fracture in a platform diver and bilateral scaphoid stress fracture in a gymnast. We herein report bilateral stress fracture of the scaphoid in a platform diver who presented with only one symptomatic side. Our patient was a 16-year-old competitive platform diver with an 18-month history of pain in the right wrist. Radiography revealed fracture of the right scaphoid at the waist. As part of our preoperative plan of measuring the scaphoid length to determine the appropriate screw, radiography of the contralateral side was performed, revealing an unexpected fracture of the left scaphoid. Due to the frequency of stress fractures in competitive sports, especially gymnastics, we recommend that bilateral scaphoid radiography be performed for athletes presenting with a unilateral scaphoid fracture, to avoid missing a fracture in the contralateral side. PMID:25631904

  3. Unilateral Adolescent Pes Planus After a Bimalleolar Ankle Fracture: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Staton L; Williams, Daniel; Jeyaseelan, Luckshmana; Bryce, Elaine; Alyas, Faisal; Vemulapalli, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 14-year-old female who presented with unilateral pes planus 30 months after a bimalleolar ankle fracture dislocation. At surgery, the tibialis posterior tendon was encased in fracture callus within the syndesmosis and required reconstruction using flexor digitorum longus transfer. Dislocation of the tibialis posterior tendon and entrapment within the tibiofibular syndesmosis has been previously reported. To our knowledge, this is the first case report tibialis posterior tendon syndesmotic entrapment presenting with unilateral pes planus. PMID:25648274

  4. Three-dimensional assessment of unilateral subcondylar fracture using computed tomography after open reduction

    PubMed Central

    Devireddy, Sathya Kumar; Kumar, R. V. Kishore; Gali, Rajasekhar; Kanubaddy, Sridhar Reddy; Rao, Dasari Mallikarjuna; Siddhartha, Mannava

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to assess the accuracy of three-dimensional anatomical reductions achieved by open method of treatment in cases of displaced unilateral mandibular subcondylar fractures using preoperative (pre op) and postoperative (post op) computed tomography (CT) scans. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 10 patients with unilateral sub condylar fractures confirmed by an orthopantomogram were included. A pre op and post op CT after 1 week of surgical procedure was taken in axial, coronal and sagittal plane along with three-dimensional reconstruction. Standard anatomical parameters, which undergo changes due to fractures of the mandibular condyle were measured in pre and post op CT scans in three planes and statistically analysed for the accuracy of the reduction comparing the following variables: (a) Pre op fractured and nonfractured side (b) post op fractured and nonfractured side (c) pre op fractured and post op fractured side. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Three-dimensional anatomical reduction was possible in 9 out of 10 cases (90%). The statistical analysis of each parameter in three variables revealed (P < 0.05) that there was a gross change in the dimensions of the parameters obtained in pre op fractured and nonfractured side. When these parameters were assessed in post op CT for the three variables there was no statistical difference between the post op fractured side and non fractured side. The same parameters were analysed for the three variables in pre op fractured and post op fractured side and found significant statistical difference suggesting a considerable change in the dimensions of the fractured side post operatively. Conclusion: The statistical and clinical results in our study emphasised that it is possible to fix the condyle in three-dimensional anatomical positions with open method of treatment and avoid post op degenerative joint changes. CT is the ideal imaging tool and should be used on a regular

  5. Conservative orthodontic treatment for a patient with a unilateral condylar fracture.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Carlos Alberto Estevanell; Allgayer, Susiane

    2012-05-01

    Trauma to the mandible often causes condylar fracture. This article reports the conservative treatment of a 10-year-old girl with a unilateral condylar fracture, highlighting the diagnostic aspects involved and the strategy used. The conservative approach used for this patient-bionator followed by full fixed orthodontic appliances-provided adequate esthetic and functional results. The outcomes throughout the 7-year follow-up and the remodeling process of the condyle observed in the panoramic radiographs proved the success of this treatment. PMID:22554763

  6. The relationship between unilateral mandibular angle fracture and temporomandibular joint function.

    PubMed

    Baltrusaityte, Ausra; Surna, Algimantas; Pileicikiene, Gaivile; Kubilius, Ricardas; Gleiznys, Alvydas; Zilinskas, Juozas

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE. Aim of this study was to analyze relation of occlusal correction and alterations of temporomandibular joint function during treatment of unilateral mandibular fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS. We compared 49 patients treated for unilateral mandibular fracture without occlusal correction with 21 patient treated for unilateral mandibular fracture along with early and consequent occlusal analysis and correction and with 49 control subjects. Patients' complaints, mandibular movements and occlusal parameters were evaluated during the period of healing. ZEBRIS ultrasound system (Jaw Motion Analyzer, Zebris Medical GmbH, Isny, Germany) was used for analysis of mandibular movements and T-Scan analyzer (Tekscan, Inc., Boston, MA, USA) was used for occlusal analysis. RESULTS. Findings of our study showed statistically significant (p<0.05) diminution of patients complaints, mandibular movement alterations and occlusal disturbances in patients who received occlusal correction during MF treatment if compared to patients treated without occlusal correction, except noises from the joint in the injured side and mandibular lateral track to the injured side in the final stage of investigation. Despite applied treatment recovery of the TMJ function was not complete and the investigated parameters remained worse if compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS. Results of this study confirmed positive influence of early and subsequent occlusal analysis and correction during stages of MF treatment on diminution of functional alterations of the temporomandibular joint function. Timely occlusal correction improves and hastens process of rehabilitation therefore it is indispensable part of MF treatment. PMID:25471992

  7. Unilateral lag-screw technique for an isolated anterior 1/4 atlas fracture

    PubMed Central

    Keskil, Semih; Göksel, Murat; Yüksel, Ulaş

    2016-01-01

    Study Design: Fractures of the atlas are classified based on the fracture location and associated ligamentous injury. Among patients with atlas fractures treated using external immobilization, nonunion of the fracture could be seen. Objective: Ideally, treatment strategy for an unstable atlas fracture would involve limited fixation to maintain the fracture fragments in a reduced position without restricting the range of motion (ROM) of the atlantoaxial and atlantooccipital joints. Summary of Background Data: Such a result can be established using either transoral limited internal fixation or limited posterior lateral mass fixation. However, due to high infection risk and technical difficulty, posterior approaches are preferred but none of these techniques can fully address anterior 1/4 atlas fractures such as in this case. Materials and Methods: A novel open and direct technique in which a unilateral lag screw was placed to reduce and stabilize a progressively widening isolated right-sided anterior 1/4 single fracture of C1 that was initially treated with a rigid cervical collar is described. Results: Radiological studies made after the surgery showed no implant failure, good cervical alignment, and good reduction with fusion of C1. Conclusions: It is suggested that isolated C1 fractures can be surgically reduced and immobilized using a lateral compression screw to allow union and maintain both C1-0 and C1-2 motions, and in our knowledge this is the first description of the use of a lag screw to achieve reduction of distracted anterior 1/4 fracture fragments of the C1 from a posterior approach. This technique has the potential to become a valuable adjunct to the surgeon's armamentarium, in our opinion, only for fractures with distracted or comminuted fragments whose alignment would not be expected to significantly change with classical lateral mass screw reduction. PMID:27041886

  8. Severe injury of bilateral elbow joints with unilateral terrible triad of the elbow and unilateral suspected terrible triad of the elbow complicated with olecranon fracture: one case report

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Guoqing; Niu, Xiaofeng; Yu, Weiguang; Xiao, Liangbao

    2015-01-01

    Terrible triad of the elbow is characterized as posterior dislocation of the elbow joint accompanied by the fractures of the radial head and coronoid process of the ulna, which is rarely seen in clinical practice, especially because the mild fracture is barely detected by imaging method In this study, we reported one case of serious complex bilateral elbow injury, presenting with unilateral typical terrible triad of the elbow and suspected terrible triad of the elbow complicated with olecranon fracture on the other side. Clinical experience was obtained during the diagnosis and treatment procedures. PMID:26550399

  9. Orthodontic treatment of a patient with severe crowding and unilateral fracture of the mandibular condyle.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hyun; Tai, Kiyoshi; Sato, Yasumori

    2016-06-01

    A 15-year-old girl who had a unilateral condylar fracture with severe crowding in both arches was treated with 4 premolar extractions followed by orthodontic therapy with a temporary skeletal anchorage device in the maxillary arch. The total active treatment time was 21 months. Her occlusion was significantly improved by orthodontic treatment, and the range of condylar movement was also improved. Posttreatment records after 30 months showed excellent results with a good stable occlusion. The remodeling process of the condyle was confirmed with cone-beam computed tomography images. PMID:27242001

  10. Prosthetic rehabilitation of a patient with unilateral dislocated condyle fracture after treatment with a mandibular repositioning splint: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Noh, Kwantae; Choi, Woojin; Pae, Ahran; Kwon, Kung-Rock

    2013-06-01

    This clinical report describes the use of a mandibular repositioning splint and the subsequent prosthodontic treatment of a unilateral dislocated condyle fracture for a patient whose injury resulted in significant mandibular deviation and malocclusion. The use of a mandibular repositioning splint considerably reduced the mandibular deviation, and a stable mandibular position was maintained with the definitive prosthesis. PMID:23763780

  11. Regularized formulation of the variational brittle fracture with unilateral contact: Numerical experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amor, Hanen; Marigo, Jean-Jacques; Maurini, Corrado

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents a modified regularized formulation of the Ambrosio-Tortorelli type to introduce the crack non-interpenetration condition in the variational approach to fracture mechanics proposed by Francfort and Marigo [1998. Revisiting brittle fracture as an energy minimization problem. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 46 (8), 1319-1342]. We focus on the linear elastic case where the contact condition appears as a local unilateral constraint on the displacement jump at the crack surfaces. The regularized model is obtained by splitting the strain energy in a spherical and a deviatoric parts and accounting for the sign of the local volume change. The numerical implementation is based on a standard finite element discretization and on the adaptation of an alternate minimization algorithm used in previous works. The new regularization avoids crack interpenetration and predicts asymmetric results in traction and in compression. Even though we do not exhibit any gamma-convergence proof toward the desired limit behavior, we illustrate through several numerical case studies the pertinence of the new model in comparison to other approaches.

  12. Unilateral atlanto-axial fractures in near side impact collisions: An under recognized entity in cervical trauma

    PubMed Central

    Lozen, Andrew M.; Pace, Jonathan; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Cusick, Joseph F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Nearside impact collisions presenting with lateral mass fractures of atlanto-axial vertebrae contralateral to the impact site represents a rare fracture pattern that does not correlate with previously described injury mechanism. We describe our clinical experience with such fractures and propose a novel description of biomechanical forces involved in this unique injury pattern. The findings serve to alert clinicians to potentially serious consequences of associated unrecognized and untreated vertebral artery injury. Material and Methods: In addition to describing our clinical experience with three of these fractures, a review of Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database was conducted to further characterize such fractures. A descriptive analysis of three recent lateral mass fractures of the atlanto-axial segment is coupled with a review of the CIREN database. A total of 4047 collisions were screened for unilateral fractures of atlas or axis. Information was screened for side of impact and data regarding impact velocity, occupant injuries and use of restraints. Results: Following screening of unilateral fractures of atlas and axis for direct side impacts, 41 fractures were identified. Cross referencing these cases for occurrence contralateral to side of impact identified four such fractures. Including our recent clinical experience, seven injuries were identified: Five C1 and two C2 fractures. Velocity ranged from 14 to 43 km/h. Two associated vertebral artery injuries were identified. Conclusions: Complexity of the atlanto-axial complex is responsible for a sequence of events that define load application in side impacts. This study demonstrates the vulnerability of vertebral artery to injury under unique translational forces and supports the use or routine screening for vascular injury. Diminished sensitivity of plain radiography in identifying these injuries suggests that computerized tomography should be used in all patients

  13. Evaluation of the Mandibular Function, after Nonsurgical Treatment of Unilateral Subcondylar Fracture: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    K M, Sudheesh; Desai, Rajendra; K Sn, Siva Bharani; S, Subhalakshmi

    2016-09-01

    There are no clearly defined guidelines for when an open or closed treatment is indicated for treatment of mandibular condylar fractures. The aim of the study is to analyze the mandibular function after nonsurgical treatment of unilateral subcondylar fractures, in a prospective study. A prospective study was conducted on 30 patients with unilateral mandibular subcondylar fracture undergoing nonsurgical treatment. Clinical and radiographic examinations were done prior to treatment and at 12-month follow-up. Pain, perceived occlusion, mouth opening, protrusion, and horizontal movements of the mandible were evaluated by clinical examination. Radiologic evaluation was done using Panoramic and Reverse Towne's radiographs. At 12-month follow-up, there was minimal pain in the temporomandibular joint region, there was an improvement in the perceived occlusion, and mouth opening did not reduce. There was insignificant absolute difference between left and right lateral mandibular movements. The amount of increase in the protrusion of mandible was insignificant. On radiographic evaluation, the degree of coronal and sagittal displacement was insignificant at follow-up. Mean ramus height pretreatment and 12 months posttreatment were 0.98 ± 0.50 and 0.87 ± 0.47, respectively. Based on this study, patients had adequate mandibular function and minimal pain after nonsurgical treatment. Unilateral subcondylar fractures of the mandible can be treated nonsurgically in patients with minimal occlusal discrepancies, adequate mouth opening, minimal displacement of condyle, and minimal ramus height shortening. PMID:27516838

  14. Monte Carlo Modeling of Diffuse Scattering from Single Crystals: The Program ZMC

    SciTech Connect

    Goossens, D.J.; Heerdegen, A.P.; Chan, E.J.; Welberry, T.R.

    2012-04-30

    Diffuse scattering probes the local ordering in a crystal, whereas Bragg peaks are descriptive of the average long-range ordering. The population of local configurations can be explored by modeling the three-dimensional distribution of diffuse scattering. Local configurations are not constrained by the average crystallographic symmetry, so one way of modeling diffuse scattering is by modeling a disordered (short-range-ordered) structure and then calculating its diffuse scattering. The structure must contain enough unit cells to give a statistically valid model of the populations of local configurations, and so requirements for a program to model this ordering are very different from programs that model average crystal structures (used to fit the Bragg diffraction). ZMC is a program that has been developed to model diffuse scattering, particularly from molecular crystals. The strategies used to tackle the problem and the way in which they are implemented will be discussed.

  15. Synthetic Metallochaperone ZMC1 Rescues Mutant p53 Conformation by Transporting Zinc into Cells as an Ionophore

    PubMed Central

    Blanden, Adam R.; Yu, Xin; Wolfe, Aaron J.; Gilleran, John A.; Augeri, David J.; O’Dell, Ryan S.; Olson, Eric C.; Kimball, S. David; Emge, Thomas J.; Movileanu, Liviu; Carpizo, Darren R.

    2015-01-01

    p53 is a Zn2+-dependent tumor suppressor inactivated in >50% of human cancers. The most common mutation, R175H, inactivates p53 by reducing its affinity for the essential zinc ion, leaving the mutant protein unable to bind the metal in the low [Zn2+]free environment of the cell. The exploratory cancer drug zinc metallochaperone-1 (ZMC1) was previously demonstrated to reactivate this and other Zn2+-binding mutants by binding Zn2+ and buffering it to a level such that Zn2+ can repopulate the defective binding site, but how it accomplishes this in the context of living cells and organisms is unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that ZMC1 increases intracellular [Zn2+]free by functioning as a Zn2+ ionophore, binding Zn2+ in the extracellular environment, diffusing across the plasma membrane, and releasing it intracellularly. It raises intracellular [Zn2+]free in cancer (TOV112D) and noncancer human embryonic kidney cell line 293 to 15.8 and 18.1 nM, respectively, with half-times of 2–3 minutes. These [Zn2+]free levels are predicted to result in ∼90% saturation of p53-R175H, thus accounting for its observed reactivation. This mechanism is supported by the X-ray crystal structure of the [Zn(ZMC1)2] complex, which demonstrates structural and chemical features consistent with those of known metal ionophores. These findings provide a physical mechanism linking zinc metallochaperone-1 in both in vitro and in vivo activities and define the remaining critical parameter necessary for developing synthetic metallochaperones for clinical use. PMID:25710967

  16. Unusual Unilateral Fracture of the Condylar and Coronoid Processes of the Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Baykul, Timuçin; Aydın, M Asım; Aksoy, Müge Çına; Fındık, Yavuz

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of condylar fracture is very high and most are not caused by direct trauma. On the other hand, fracture of the coronoid process is reported less often than fracture of other parts of the mandible. We report a case of right subcondylar and coronoid fractures without any evidence of direct trauma to the zygomatic area or an indirect trauma to the mandibular corpus or sypmheseal region. The possible cause was identified as acute reflex contraction of the temporalis muscles leading to coronoid and condylar stress fractures. PMID:25379353

  17. Management of tripod fractures (zygomaticomaxillary complex) 1 point and 2 point fixations: A 5-year review

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, K.; Ebenezer, Vijay; Dakir, Abu; Kumar, Saravana; Prakash, D.

    2015-01-01

    The zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) plays a key role in the structure, function, and esthetic appearance of the facial skeleton. They can account for approximately 40% of mid-face fractures. They are the second most common facial bone fracture after nasal bone injuries. The fracture complex results from a direct blow to the malar eminence and results in three distinct fracture components that disrupt the anchoring of the zygoma. In addition, the fracture components may result in impingement of the temporalis muscle, trismus (difficulty with mastication) and may compromise the infraorbital foramen/nerve resulting in hypesthesia within its sensory distribution. A 4-year retrospective review of all patients treated with ZMC fractures at oral and maxillofacial surgery department, sree balaji dental college and hospital was performed. Computed tomography scans were reviewed. Demographics, treatment protocols, outcomes, complications, reoperations, and length of follow-up were identified. A total of 245 patients was identified by the Current Procedural Terminology codes for ZMC fractures. Closed or open reduction methods were performed with the goal of treatment being preservation of normal facial structure, sensory function, globe position, and mastication functionality. Unacceptably poor surgical outcomes are uncommon. Significant facial asymmetry requiring surgical revision occurs in 3-4% of patients. Postoperative infection rates are extremely low, and these infections nearly always resolve with oral antibiotics. In general, the long-term prognosis after repair of ZMC fractures is very good. PMID:26015723

  18. Multiple Cerebral Infarctions due to Unilateral Traumatic Vertebral Artery Dissection after Cervical Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sang-Youl; Hwang, Jeong-Hyun; Hwang, Sung-Kyoo

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of multiple symptomatic cerebral infarctions from a traumatic vertebral artery dissection (VAD) after cervical fractures. A 73-year-old man was admitted with stuporous mentality and left hemiparesis after a motor-vehicle accident. A brain computed tomography (CT) scan at admission showed a traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage on the left parietal lobe. A cervical CT scan showed left lateral mass fractures on C2, C5, and C6, involving the transverse foramen. Cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed loss of signal void on the left vertebral artery. Neck CT angiography showed left VAD starting at the C5 level. Brain MRI revealed acute, multiple cerebral infarctions involving the pons, midbrain, thalamus, corpus callosum, and parietal and frontal lobes on diffusion weighted images. The patient was treated conservatively at the intensive care unit in the acute stage to prevent extent of stroke. Aspirin was started for antiplatelet therapy in the chronic stage. The possibility of symptomatic cerebral infarctions due to traumatic VAD following cervical fracture should be considered. PMID:27182500

  19. Bilateral atypical insufficiency fractures of the proximal tibia and a unilateral distal femoral fracture associated with long-term intravenous bisphosphonate therapy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Atypical insufficiency fractures of the femur in patients on long-term bisphosphonate therapy have been well described in recent literature. The majority of cases are associated with minimal or no trauma and occur in the subtrochanteric or diaphyseal region. Case presentation We describe the case of a 76-year-old British Caucasian woman who presented initially to an emergency department and then to her primary care physician with a long-standing history of bilateral knee pain after minor trauma. Plain radiographs showed subtle linear areas of sclerosis bilaterally in her proximal tibiae. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of insufficiency fractures in these areas along with her left distal femur. There are very few reports of atypical insufficiency fractures involving the tibia in patients on long-term bisphosphonate therapy and this appears to be the only documented bilateral case involving the metaphyseal regions of the proximal tibia and distal femur. Conclusion In addition to existing literature describing atypical fractures in the proximal femur and femoral shaft, there is a need for increased awareness that these fractures can also occur in other weight-bearing areas of the skeleton. All clinicians involved in the care of patients taking long-term bisphosphonates need to be aware of the growing association between new onset lower limb pain and atypical insufficiency fractures. PMID:22309438

  20. Unilateral perseveration.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Lealani Mae Y; Goodman, Ira J; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2013-12-01

    The brain's action-intentional ("when") programming system helps to control when to and when not to initiate an action, when to persist at an action, and when to terminate an action. Motor perseveration is a failure to terminate an action. This disengagement disorder most often results from dysfunction of the executive frontal-subcortical networks that control the action-intentional programming system. Reports of unilateral perseveration are unusual. Here we describe a patient with a form of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) who exhibited continuous right-hand motor perseveration. This 68-year-old right-handed man had impaired walking and vertical gaze, consistent with PSP. He often repeated words, and on many motor tasks he showed continuous perseveration of his right but not his left hand. Unilateral motor perseveration may be a sign of PSP, the corticobasal syndrome, or a subtype of these disorders. Future studies of patients with both disorders should use tasks that assess for asymmetric hand perseveration. The mechanism of the unilateral perseveration must also be determined. Bilateral perseveration is found most often in patients with unilateral right frontal-subcortical (basal ganglia) or insula dysfunction. Because patients with PSP or corticobasal syndrome have callosal degeneration, their unilateral perseveration might result from a callosal disconnection of the right frontal lobe from the left hemisphere's premotor and motor as well as speech areas. PMID:24366105

  1. Traumatic unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia.

    PubMed

    Doe, Joseph W; Jay, Walter M

    2006-01-01

    A 23-year-old man was admitted for a closed head injury following a fall from a height of 5 meters from a ladder. Because of a C-7 burst fracture, a halo and halo vest were applied approximately 9 hours following the fall. Approximately 21 hours after the accident, the patient complained of diplopia. On neuro-ophthalmology evaluation, a unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia was noted. MRI of the brain, performed 3 days after application of the halo and vest, showed a small infarct at the posterior aspect of the inferior midbrain, slightly left of midline. At 9.5 weeks there was 90% improvement of the internuclear ophthalmoplegia noted. Of the reported cases in the medical literature of traumatic internuclear ophthalmoplegia, 30 (83.33%) cases were male and 6 (16.67%) were female. The mean age was 31.7. 54% of the cases were bilateral; 46% unilateral. Mechanisms include: motor vehicle accident: 28 (41.79%), fall: 7 (10.45%), blunt trauma: 11 (16.42%), penetrating trauma 1: (1.49%), bike accident 3: (4.48%), other: 1 (1.49%), Unknown: 16 (23.88%). PMID:17182412

  2. Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Michael C.

    1963-01-01

    Recent studies on the epidemiology and repair of fractures are reviewed. The type and severity of the fracture bears a relation to the age, sex and occupation of the patient. Bone tissue after fracture shows a process of inflammation and repair common to all members of the connective tissue family, but it repairs with specific tissue. Cartilage forms when the oxygen supply is outgrown. After a fracture, the vascular bed enlarges. The major blood supply to healing tissue is from medullary vessels and destruction of them will cause necrosis of the inner two-thirds of the cortex. Callus rapidly mineralizes, but full mineralization is achieved slowly; increased mineral metabolism lasts several years after fracture. PMID:13952119

  3. Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... commonly happen because of car accidents, falls, or sports injuries. Other causes are low bone density and osteoporosis, which cause weakening of the bones. Overuse can cause stress fractures, which are very small cracks in the ...

  4. Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    A fracture is a break, usually in a bone. If the broken bone punctures the skin, it is called an open ... falls, or sports injuries. Other causes are low bone density and osteoporosis, which cause weakening of the ...

  5. Isolated unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy after minor head trauma.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Vivek; Kelly, Gerard; Richards, Stuart D; Saeed, Shakeel R

    2002-12-01

    Isolated unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy after fracture of the occipital condyle is rare. It usually occurs after major trauma, such as high-speed deceleration injuries following road traffic accidents. We describe a case that resulted from minor trauma. An underlying skull base malformation may have been a predisposing factor. PMID:12445924

  6. [Unilateral condylar hyperactivity].

    PubMed

    Karssemakers, L H E; Nolte, J W; Saridin, C P; Raijmakers, P G H M; Becking, A G

    2012-10-01

    Unilateral condylar hyperactivity is a growth disorder which is characterised by a progressive asymmetry in the mandibula and in some cases also secondarily in the maxilla. Various forms are hemimandibular hyperplasia, hemimandibular elongation and a hybridform. In deciding on a plan of treatment, it is important to determine whether there is a question of continuous and/or excessive condylar activity, possibly with the help of a skeletal scintigraphy. PMID:23126178

  7. Transient ipsilateral mydriasis during correction of left blowout fracture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Min; Kim, Cheul-Hong; Kim, Uk-Kyu; Chung, In-Kyo

    2014-03-01

    Mydriasis, either bilateral or unilateral, seldom occurs during reconstruction of periorbital fracture. Anisocoria, a unilateral mydriasis, requires more urgent assessment than bilateral mydriasis does. Pharmacologic agents, local anesthetic infiltration, as well as direct or indirect oculomotor nerve damage are possible causes of unilateral mydriasis. Few cases have been reported about intraoperative temporary ipsilateral mydriasis during correction of blowout fracture. We have experienced an unusual case of anisocoria and report the case with literature reviews. PMID:24561370

  8. Nodular fasciitis causing unilateral proptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Perry, R H; Ramani, P S; McAllister, V; Kalbag, R M; Kanagasundaram, C R

    1975-01-01

    A case report of an unusual case of nodular fasciitis in the orbit presenting with unilateral proptosis is described, and the radiological features are outlined. The histological features are discussed and the benign nature of the lesion stressed. Nodular fasciitis arising in the orbit and presenting as unilateral proptosis has not previously been reported in the literature. Images PMID:1060468

  9. A clinical analysis of bilateral orbital fracture.

    PubMed

    Roh, Joon Ho; Jung, Jee Woong; Chi, Mijung

    2014-03-01

    Although bilateral orbital fracture can cause serious eyeball and facial skeletal problems, few reports have been issued on the topic. We analyzed the clinical features of bilateral orbital fracture by reviewing the medical records of 147 patients and compared bilateral and unilateral fractures by reviewing the literature.Bilateral orbital fracture was most common in men aged between 50 and 59 years. A traffic accident was the leading cause of trauma, and average time between trauma and surgery was 12.2 days. Bilateral medial fracture accompanied by nasal fracture accounted for the overwhelming majority, and impure blowout fracture in at least 1 eye occurred in 69.4% of the 147 patients. Associated ocular injuries seemed to be similar for bilateral and unilateral fracture. Thirty-five patients (23.8%) had other multiple traumas affecting other than the eyes, and this significantly increased the need for surgery (P < 0.05). Of the 48 patients who underwent surgery, including 4 cases of bilateral surgery, 21 patients who had ocular motility restriction with central diplopia within 30 degrees almost completely recovered. No significant relation between the timing of surgery and improvement was found. Although unilateral surgery was performed in most cases, facial asymmetry related to enophthalmos was unclear at 6 months postoperatively.In summary, bilateral orbital fracture was found to be clinically distinguishable from unilateral fracture in several aspects. We hope these findings provide a reference guide to the approach and management of bilateral orbital fracture. PMID:24514894

  10. Unilateral cerebellar aplasia.

    PubMed

    Boltshauser, E; Steinlin, M; Martin, E; Deonna, T

    1996-02-01

    We describe three children with unilateral cerebellar aplasia (UCA). Deliveries at term and neonatal periods were uneventful. Pregnancy was normal in one and complicated by mild bleeding (in second and fourth month respectively) in two instances. Presenting signs were delayed motor development with marked contralateral torticollis (n = 1), hemiplegia (n = 1) and unusual head nodding (n = 1). Neuroradiological investigations revealed complete aplasia (n = 1) and subtotal aplasia (n = 2) of one cerebellar hemisphere with only a residual wing-like structure below the tentorium. There was contralateral underdevelopment of the brainstem. The infant with hemiplegic cerebral palsy had an additional supratentorial periventricular parenchymal defect, contralateral to the cerebellar hypoplasia. In view of literature reports, describing similar neuroradiological or neuropathological findings in asymptomatic individuals, it is doubtful whether UCA is responsible for our patient's problems. In our cases UCA has presumably resulted from a prenatal destructive lesion, possibly an infarct, but the timing and exact nature are unknown. PMID:8677027

  11. Eight indicators of unilateral pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Melchionne, Kevin

    2010-12-01

    Unintended pregnancy often leads to undesirable outcomes for both mothers and children. However, the definition of unintended pregnancy in the sociology of family formation has been restricted to the intentions of mothers. The intentions of fathers--and, with them, the possible role of disagreement about pregnancy intention--remain outside most conceptual frameworks and research programs. This article draws together a number of indicators of unilateral pregnancy in research on contemporary family formation in the United States. Studies of pregnancy intendedness and contraceptive use consistently provide evidence suggesting a significant role for unilateral pregnancy in family formation. Working on the assumption that unilateral pregnancy presents great potential for social dislocation, this article argues for the integration of the concept of unilateral pregnancy into the theoretical framework informing research on family formation. PMID:20483871

  12. Isolated unilateral rupture of the alar ligament.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sui-To; Ernest, Kimberly; Fan, Grace; Zovickian, John; Pang, Dachling

    2014-05-01

    Only 6 cases of isolated unilateral rupture of the alar ligament have been previously reported. The authors report a new case and review the literature, morbid anatomy, and pathogenesis of this rare injury. The patient in their case, a 9-year-old girl, fell head first from a height of 5 feet off the ground. She presented with neck pain, a leftward head tilt, and severe limitation of right rotation, extension, and right lateral flexion of the neck. Plain radiographs and CT revealed no fracture but a shift of the dens toward the right lateral mass of C-1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed signal hyperintensity within the left dens-atlas space on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences and interruption of the expected dark signal representing the left alar ligament, suggestive of its rupture. After 12 weeks of immobilization in a Guilford brace, MRI showed lessened dens deviation, and the patient attained full and painless neck motion. Including the patient in this case, the 7 patients with this injury were between 5 and 21 years old, sustained the injury in traffic accidents or falls, presented with marked neck pain, and were treated with external immobilization. All patients had good clinical outcome. The mechanism of injury is hyperflexion with rotation. Isolated unilateral alar ligament rupture is a diagnosis made by excluding associated fracture, dislocation, or disruption of other major ligamentous structures in the craniovertebral junction. CT and MRI are essential in establishing the diagnosis. External immobilization is adequate treatment. PMID:24679079

  13. Use of Intraoperative Computed Tomography for Revisional Procedures in Patients with Complex Maxillofacial Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mansher; Ricci, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In patients with panfacial fractures and distorted anatomic landmarks of zygomatic and orbital complex, there is a risk of zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) malpositioning even with the best efforts for surgical repair. This results in increased number of additional procedures to achieve accurate positioning. Methods: We describe the usage of intraoperative C-arm cone-beam computed tomographic (CT) scan for ZMC malpositioning in a representative patient with panfacial fractures. Results: We have successfully used intraoperative CT scan for ZMC malpositioning in 3 patients. The representative patient had ZMC malposition after the initial attempt of surgical repair without any intraoperative imaging. On using intraoperative CT scan during the next attempt, we were able to reposition the ZMC accurately. Conclusions: Intraoperative CT scan might improve the accuracy of ZMC positioning and decrease the chances of potential additional surgeries. In patients with distorted anatomical landmarks and panfacial fractures, it can be especially helpful toward correcting ZMC malposition. PMID:26301152

  14. Nose fracture

    MedlinePlus

    Fracture of the nose; Broken nose; Nasal fracture; Nasal bone fracture; Nasal septal fracture ... A fractured nose is the most common fracture of the face. It ... with other fractures of the face. Sometimes a blunt injury can ...

  15. Persistent unilateral mydriasis and headache

    PubMed Central

    Alkhalil, Mohammad; Lewis, Simon; Hawker, Matthew; Dick, David

    2009-01-01

    A 50-year-old white Caucasian woman with previously diagnosed migraine was admitted with unilateral headache and anisocoria. An initial assessment revealed no cause for this abnormality and she was thought to have mydriasis in the context of migraine. However, failure of her symptoms and signs to resolve prompted further investigation and demonstrated the diagnosis of intermittent angle-closure glaucoma. PMID:21686386

  16. Nose fracture

    MedlinePlus

    Fracture of the nose; Broken nose; Nasal fracture; Nasal bone fracture; Nasal septal fracture ... A fractured nose is the most common fracture of the face. It usually occurs after an injury and often occurs with ...

  17. Skull fracture

    MedlinePlus

    Basilar skull fracture; Depressed skull fracture; Linear skull fracture ... Skull fractures may occur with head injuries . The skull provides good protection for the brain. However, a severe impact ...

  18. Managing advanced unilateral pseudoexfoliative glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Marques, André

    2014-01-01

    The only proven therapy for glaucoma is intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction, which can be accomplished by different means. Each should be properly discussed with patients in order to best preserve visual function and quality of life. We report a case of unilateral pseudoexfoliative glaucoma, treated for years with triple topical IOP-lowering drugs. The patient presented with advanced optic neuropathy and important ocular side effects secondary to the treatment. Having discussed his options and prognosis, laser trabeculoplasty was performed while maintaining the remaining therapy considering the advanced stage of glaucoma. His IOP was effectively reduced and no progression was noted after 1-year follow-up. Although medical therapy is the mainstream in glaucoma management, its side effects should not be ignored, especially in unilateral cases. Surgery might have been a better solution, but we chose to perform laser trabeculoplasty, an effective and safer alternative, considering the unlikely but serious risk of the "wipe-out phenomenon" in this case. PMID:24850557

  19. Spinal hemianesthesia: Unilateral and posterior

    PubMed Central

    Imbelloni, Luiz Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The injection of a non-isobaric local anesthetic should induce a unilateral spinal anesthesia in patients in a lateral decubitus position. The posterior spinal hemianesthesia only be obtained with hypobaric solutions injected in the jackknife position. The most important factors to be considered when performing a spinal hemianesthesia are: type and gauge of the needle, density of the local anesthetic relative to the CSF, position of the patient, speed of administration of the solution, time of stay in position, and dose/concentration/volume of the anesthetic solution. The distance between the spinal roots on the right-left sides and anterior-posterior is, approximately, 10-15 mm. This distance allows performing unilateral spinal anesthesia or posterior spinal anesthesia. The great advantage of obtaining spinal hemianesthesia is the reduction of cardiovascular changes. Likewise, both the dorsal and unilateral sensory block predominates in relation to the motor block. Because of the numerous advantages of producing spinal hemianesthesia, anesthesiologists should apply this technique more often. This review considers the factors which are relevant, plausible and proven to obtain spinal hemianesthesia. PMID:25886320

  20. Managing advanced unilateral pseudoexfoliative glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Marques, André

    2014-01-01

    The only proven therapy for glaucoma is intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction, which can be accomplished by different means. Each should be properly discussed with patients in order to best preserve visual function and quality of life. We report a case of unilateral pseudoexfoliative glaucoma, treated for years with triple topical IOP-lowering drugs. The patient presented with advanced optic neuropathy and important ocular side effects secondary to the treatment. Having discussed his options and prognosis, laser trabeculoplasty was performed while maintaining the remaining therapy considering the advanced stage of glaucoma. His IOP was effectively reduced and no progression was noted after 1-year follow-up. Although medical therapy is the mainstream in glaucoma management, its side effects should not be ignored, especially in unilateral cases. Surgery might have been a better solution, but we chose to perform laser trabeculoplasty, an effective and safer alternative, considering the unlikely but serious risk of the “wipe-out phenomenon” in this case. PMID:24850557

  1. A Clinical Study of Mandibular Angle Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Wook-Jae; Kim, Su-Gwan; Oh, Ji-Su; You, Jae-Seek; Lim, Kyung-Seop; Shin, Seung-Min; Kim, Cheol-Man

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To establish management protocol for mandibular angle fracture, we describe pertinent factors including cause, impacted third molar and recent treatment tendency. Methods: We examined the records of 62 patients who had unilateral mandibular angle fracture. Sixty patients who had open reduction surgery were examined at postoperative weeks 1, 4, 8, 12, and 28. Results: Left mandibular angle fracture is frequent in younger males. Presence of the mandibular third molar can increase fracture risk. Because of attached muscle, favorable fractures occurred primarily in the mandibular angle area. Conclusion: Extracting the mandibular third molar can prevent angle fractures, and open reduction with only one plate adaptation is generally the proper treatment method for mandibular angle fracture. PMID:27489834

  2. Unilateral acute idiopathic maculopathy. 1991.

    PubMed

    Yannuzzi, Lawrence A; Jampol, Lee M; Rabb, Maurice F; Sorenson, John A; Beyrer, Charles; Wilcox, Lloyd M

    2012-02-01

    This is a report of nine patients who experienced sudden, severe, unilateral central vision loss following a flulike illness. Each patient had an exudative detachment of the macula. All patients experienced a spontaneous resolution of the acute macular manifestations with near-complete recovery of vision. A characteristic "bull's-eye" appearance in the macula persisted. The acute manifestations of the disorder did not recur in any of the patients during the period of follow-up. The constellation of findings was suggestive of an inflammatory disease of the retinal pigment epithelium, but a specific causative agent could not be identified. The acute clinical and angiographic features, the natural course, and the residual pigment epithelial derangement were not consistent with any previously described disorder. PMID:22451959

  3. Acute unilateral facial nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Yeong, Siew Swan; Tassone, Peter

    2011-05-01

    Mrs PS, 78 years of age, presented with acute left-sided otalgia, ear swelling and subsequent unilateral facial paralysis (Figure 1). She denied any otorrhoea or hearing loss. Past medical history relevant to the presenting complaint included: * Bell palsy diagnosed 20 years ago with no residual effect * biopsy confirmed benign parotid lump (diagnosed 3 years previously). Histopathology revealed a pleomorphic adenoma. Mrs PS declined surgical intervention at the time * chicken pox as a child * normal fasting blood glucose 1 month previously and no known immune compromise. Examination revealed yellow crusts and small vesicles on the external acoustic meatus (Figure 2). A 10 mm well defined firm and nontender nodule was palpable at the ramus of the mandible. PMID:21597548

  4. Extra Corporeal Fixation of Fractured Mandibular Condyle

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy K, Vandana; Kengagsubbiah, Srivatsa; V, Sathyabhama; Priya, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    Condylar fracture is the second most common site in the mandibular fractures. Motor vehicle accident and fall are the major causes of such fractures. Because of the anatomical weakness of the condyle and the shape of the condylar head the antero-medial dislocation of the condyle is common. Open reduction and closed reduction is always debatable. The open reduction will bring back the normal function much earlier than closed reduction. Medially dislocated condylar fracture fragments are always managed with open method. In superior or high condylar fractures,exact reduction with conventional open reduction can be difficult due to the limited surgical and visual fields. In such cases extracorporeal fixation of condyle using vertical ramus osteotomy may be better choice to achieve perfect alignment and absolute maintaince of vertical height of the ramus and facial symmetry. We here present a case of extracorporeal fixation of unilateral left high condylar fracture. PMID:25386546

  5. A novel technique of unilateral percutaneous kyphoplasty achieves effective biomechanical strength and reduces radiation exposure

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yan; Yang, Lei; Li, Haijun; Ren, Yajun; Cao, Xiaojian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a novel technique of percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) with effective biomechanical strength and lower radiation exposure. Methods: Thirty fresh lumbar vertebrae isolated from six hogs were decalcified and compressed to induce osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. Kyphoplasty was performed using three different techniques (ten for each group): conventional unilateral approach (group A), conventional bilateral approach (group B) and novel unilateral approach (group C). Biomechanical indexes including Yield load and stiffness were tested before and after kyphoplasty. The anterior height of each vertebral body (AHVB) was measured before compression, after compression and after kyphoplasty. Frequency of C-arm use and volume of bone cement were also recorded in the process. Results: Compared with group A, our novel technique in group C can significantly improve the recovery of AHVB after compression fractures. However, there was no statistical difference between group B and group C. Values of Yield load in both group B and group C were statistically higher than that in group A, however, no significant difference was found between group B and C. Statistical results of stiffness were similar to Yield load. Regarding volume of bone cement and radiation exposure, the novel technique in group C needed more bone cement and fluoroscopy use than in group A but less than in group B. Conclusions: This novel device makes unilateral kyphoplasty feasible, safe and effective. In the premise of guaranteed biomechanical strength, the new technique significantly reduces risk of radiation exposure in kyphoplasty. PMID:27158403

  6. Unilateral magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerve.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, G. H.; Kyroussis, D.; Hamnegard, C. H.; Wragg, S.; Moxham, J.; Green, M.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Electrical stimulation of the phrenic nerve is a useful non-volitional method of assessing diaphragm contractility. During the assessment of hemidiaphragm contractility with electrical stimulation, low twitch transdiaphragmatic pressures may result from difficulty in locating and stimulating the phrenic nerve. Cervical magnetic stimulation overcomes some of these problems, but this technique may not be absolutely specific and does not allow the contractility of one hemidiaphragm to be assessed. This study assesses both the best means of producing supramaximal unilateral magnetic phrenic stimulation and its reproducibility. This technique is then applied to patients. METHODS--The ability of four different magnetic coils to produce unilateral phrenic stimulation in five normal subjects was assessed from twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure (TwPDI) measurements and diaphragmatic electromyogram (EMG) recordings. The results from magnetic stimulation were compared with those from electrical stimulation. To determine whether the magnetic field affects the contralateral phrenic nerve as well as the intended phrenic nerve, EMG recordings from each hemidiaphragm were compared during stimulation on the same side and the opposite side relative to the recording electrodes. The EMG recordings were made from skin surface electrodes in five normal subjects and from needle electrodes placed in the diaphragm during cardiac surgery in six patients. Similarly, the direction of hemidiaphragm movement was evaluated by ultrasonography. To determine the usefulness of the technique in patients the 43 mm mean diameter double coil was used in 54 patients referred for assessment of possible respiratory muscle weakness. These results were compared with unilateral electrical phrenic stimulation, maximum sniff PDI, and TwPDI during cervical magnetic stimulation. RESULTS--In the five normal subjects supramaximal stimulation was established for eight out of 10 phrenic nerves with the 43

  7. Unilateral Isolated Proximal Femoral Focal Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Doğer, Emek; Köpük, Şule Y.; Çakıroğlu, Yiğit; Çakır, Özgür; Yücesoy, Gülseren

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To discuss a patient with a prenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency. Case. Antenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency was made at 20 weeks of gestation. The length of left femur was shorter than the right, and fetal femur length was below the fifth percentile. Proximal femoral focal deficiency was diagnosed. After delivery, the diagnosis was confirmed with skeletal radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. In prenatal ultrasonographic examination, the early recognition and exclusion of skeletal dysplasias is important; moreover, treatment plans should be initiated, and valuable information should be provided to the family. PMID:23984135

  8. Trilateral retinoblastoma with unilateral eye involvement.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Gabriel Costa de; Pinto, Neviçolino Pereira de Carvalho; Motono, Márcia; Chojniak, Martha Motono; Chojniak, Rubens; Bezerra, Stephania Martins

    2015-08-01

    Retinoblastomas (RB) are the main forms of intraocular tumor in childhood, with a worldwide incidence of 1 case per 15,000 to 20,000 live births. Trilateral RB (RBT) is a rare combination of unilateral or bilateral RB with a midline intracranial neoplasm of neuroblastic origin, usually found in the pineal region or the suprasellar region, presenting variable incidence of 0.5% up to 6% among patients with RB. The article reports a case of unilateral RBT in a patient treated at Hospital A.C.Camargo. PMID:26466209

  9. Asymmetric and Unilateral Hearing Loss in Children

    PubMed Central

    Vila, Peter; Lieu, Judith E. C.

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetric and unilateral hearing losses in children have traditionally been underappreciated, but health care practitioners are now beginning to understand their effect on development and the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. The common wisdom among medical and educational professionals has been that at least one normal hearing or near-normal hearing ear was sufficient for typical speech and language development in children. The objective of this review is to illustrate to the non-otolaryngologist the consequences of asymmetric and unilateral hearing loss in children on developmental and educational outcomes. In the process, etiology, detection, and management are discussed. Lastly, implications for further research are considered. PMID:26004144

  10. Case report: unilateral mydriasis following nasal cautery.

    PubMed

    Koo Ng, Nigel K F; Calder, Nick

    2010-12-01

    We report a case of unilateral mydriasis following nasal electrocautery presumed to be the result of retrograde flow of adrenaline and/or xylometazoline hydrochloride (Otrivine) through the nasolacrimal duct into the eye. We review the literature and highlight the importance of correct interpretation of finding a dilated pupil post-operatively. To our knowledge. we report the first such case involving xylometazoline hydrochloride and also following nasal electrocautery. Unilateral mydriasis is alarming after nasal surgery but must be interpreted with caution. During minimally invasive procedures it is likely to be due to the effects of topical medication to the nose rather than surgical trauma. PMID:21158576

  11. Condylar hyperplasia following unilateral temporomandibular joint replacement.

    PubMed

    Machon, V; Levorova, J; Hirjak, D; Foltan, R

    2015-06-01

    Total joint replacement of the temporomandibular joint (TJR) can be associated with intraoperative and postoperative complications. We report herein the occurrence of a postoperative open bite malocclusion, the result of condylar hyperplasia affecting the non-operated joint at 1 year after unilateral total joint replacement. PMID:25662429

  12. Unilateral Vestibular Loss Impairs External Space Representation

    PubMed Central

    Borel, Liliane; Redon-Zouiteni, Christine; Cauvin, Pierre; Dumitrescu, Michel; Devèze, Arnaud; Magnan, Jacques; Péruch, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The vestibular system is responsible for a wide range of postural and oculomotor functions and maintains an internal, updated representation of the position and movement of the head in space. In this study, we assessed whether unilateral vestibular loss affects external space representation. Patients with Menière's disease and healthy participants were instructed to point to memorized targets in near (peripersonal) and far (extrapersonal) spaces in the absence or presence of a visual background. These individuals were also required to estimate their body pointing direction. Menière's disease patients were tested before unilateral vestibular neurotomy and during the recovery period (one week and one month after the operation), and healthy participants were tested at similar times. Unilateral vestibular loss impaired the representation of both the external space and the body pointing direction: in the dark, the configuration of perceived targets was shifted toward the lesioned side and compressed toward the contralesioned hemifield, with higher pointing error in the near space. Performance varied according to the time elapsed after neurotomy: deficits were stronger during the early stages, while gradual compensation occurred subsequently. These findings provide the first demonstration of the critical role of vestibular signals in the representation of external space and of body pointing direction in the early stages after unilateral vestibular loss. PMID:24523916

  13. Modification of unilateral otolith responses following spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew H; Schönfeld, Uwe

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to resolve the issue of spaceflight-induced, adaptive modification of the otolith system by measuring unilateral otolith responses in a pre- versus post-flight design. The study represents the first comprehensive approach to examining unilateral otolith function following space flight. Ten astronauts participated in unilateral otolith function tests three times preflight and up to four times after Shuttle flights from landing day through the subsequent 10 days. During unilateral centrifugation, utricular function was examined by the perceptual changes reflected by the subjective visual vertical (SVV) and the otolith-mediated ocular counter-roll, designated as utriculo-ocular response (UOR). Unilateral saccular reflexes were recorded by measurement of collic vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP). The findings demonstrate a general increase in interlabyrinth asymmetry of otolith responses on landing day relative to preflight baseline, with subsequent reversal in asymmetry within 2-3 days. Recovery to baseline levels was achieved within 10 days. This fluctuation in asymmetry was consistent for the utricle tests (SVV and UOR) while apparently stronger for SVV. A similar asymmetry was observed during cVEMP testing. In addition, the results provide initial evidence of a dominant labyrinth. The findings require reconsideration of the otolith asymmetry hypothesis; in general, on landing day, the response from one labyrinth was equivalent to preflight values, while the other showed considerable discrepancy. The finding that one otolith response can return to one-g level within hours after re-entry while the other takes considerably longer demonstrates the importance of considering the otolith response as a result of both peripheral and associated central neural processing. PMID:26358122

  14. Elbow Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... and held together with pins and wires or plates and screws. Fractures of the distal humerus (see ... doctor. These fractures usually require surgical repair with plates and/or screw, unless they are stable. SIGNS ...

  15. Olecranon Fractures.

    PubMed

    Brolin, Tyler J; Throckmorton, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Olecranon fractures are common upper extremity injuries, with all but nondisplaced fractures treated surgically. There has been a recent shift in the surgical management of these fractures from tension band wiring to locking plate fixation and intramedullary nailing; however, this comes with increased implant cost. Although most patients can expect good outcomes after these various techniques, there is little information to guide a surgeon's treatment plan. This article reviews the epidemiology, classification, treatment, and outcomes of olecranon fractures. PMID:26498547

  16. Mandibulectomy for treatment of fractures associated with severe periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Carina Marchiori; Rahal, Sheila Canevese; dos Reis Mesquita, Luciane; Castilho, Maíra Sales; Kano, Washington Takashi; Mamprim, Maria Jaqueline

    2015-01-01

    Six cases of mandibular fractures associated with severe periodontal disease that had been treated by mandibulectomy, due to intense bone loss, were evaluated retrospectively. The dogs were mainly older, small breed dogs that had suffered a traumatic event. Four dogs had a bilateral mandibulectomy and 2 a unilateral mandibulectomy. PMID:25750452

  17. Sports fractures.

    PubMed Central

    DeCoster, T. A.; Stevens, M. A.; Albright, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    Fractures occur in athletes and dramatically influence performance during competitive and recreational activities. Fractures occur in athletes as the result of repetitive stress, acute sports-related trauma and trauma outside of athletics. The literature provides general guidelines for treatment as well as a variety of statistics on the epidemiology of fractures by sport and level of participation. Athletes are healthy and motivated patients, and have high expectations regarding their level of function. These qualities make them good surgical candidates. Although closed treatment methods are appropriate for most sports fractures, an aggressive approach to more complicated fractures employing current techniques may optimize their subsequent performance. PMID:7719781

  18. [Nursing care of unilateral neglect patients].

    PubMed

    Dai, Chin-Ying; Lin, Li-Chan

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of unilateral neglect among stroke patients has risen to 82% and 69%, respectively, in acute wards and rehabilitation units. Neglect may restrict the activities of patients and reduce their quality of life. Patients are often unaware of their neglect behavior and of their inability to see or feel persons or objects on their affected side. Healthcare providers should pay greater attention to the signs of neglect behavior in patients. Neglect is a silent syndrome for both patients and healthcare providers. This article reviews the definition of unilateral neglect as well as its associated characteristics, theoretical interpretations, rehabilitation, and nursing care. The authors hope that the contents of this article may help healthcare professionals assess and provide care to patients with neglect problems in order to decrease the negative impacts of neglect on patients and improve their daily functions. PMID:25631189

  19. Unilateral Punctate Keratitis Secondary to Wallenberg Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Boto, Ana; Del Hierro, Almudena; Capote, Maria; Noval, Susana; Garcia, Amanda; Santiago, Susana

    2014-01-01

    We studied three patients who developed left unilateral punctate keratitis after suffering left-sided Wallenberg Syndrome. A complex evolution occurred in two of them. In all cases, neurophysiological studies showed damage in the trigeminal sensory component at the bulbar level. Corneal involvement secondary to Wallenberg syndrome is a rare cause of unilateral superficial punctate keratitis. The loss of corneal sensitivity caused by trigeminal neuropathy leads to epithelial erosions that are frequently unobserved by the patient, resulting in a high risk of corneal-ulcer development with the possibility of superinfection. Neurophysiological studies can help to locate the anatomical level of damage at the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve, confirming the suspected etiology of stroke, and demonstrating that prior vascular involvement coincides with the location of trigeminal nerve damage. In some of these patients, oculofacial pain is a distinctive feature. PMID:24882965

  20. Functioning unilateral adrenocortical carcinoma in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Lechowski, Roman; Zygner, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    An 11-year-old, 24-kg, intact female Siberian husky dog in anestrus had a 2-month history of polyuria and polydipsia. The dog had signs of mineralocorticoid excess such as hypertension and hypokalemia refractory to potassium supplementation. Abdominal ultrasound revealed an irregular mass in the left adrenal gland. The ACTH stimulation test for aldosterone concentration did not reveal hyperaldosteronism. Unilateral adrenalectomy was performed and histopathology identified adrenal cortical carcinoma. All clinical signs of mineralocorticoid excess ceased after surgery. PMID:23204580

  1. Unilateral duplex horseshoe kidney with ectopic ureterocele

    SciTech Connect

    Sumner, T.E.; Volberg, F.M.; Munitz, A.; Harrison, L.H.; Mashburn, A.M.

    1985-02-01

    Horseshoe kidney results from mesial fusion of the two nephrogenic blastemas during the fourth to seventh weeks of gestation. Associated genitourinary anomalies occur in approximately 25% of patients with horseshoe kidney. The authors report a case of a horseshoe kidney with unilateral pelvis and ureteral duplication with an ectopic ureterocele obstructing its upper moiety diagnosed by intravenous urography and real-time sonography. 13 references, 2 figures.

  2. Functional impairments due to unilateral deafness.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Louis W; Welsh, John J; Rosen, Laurie F; Dragonette, Joseph E

    2004-12-01

    The authors investigated the impact of unilateral listening upon two central auditory functions: speech discrimination in a noisy environment, and the ability to process and clearly recognize modestly accelerated speech by 30% compression (shortened exposure). We determined that the negative impact of listening to speech in the milieu of noise was individually variable. The data revealed a wide range of impairment, from mild to relatively severe (ie, 0% to 60% [mean, 34%]; normative data, 4% to 36% [mean, 14%]). The performance scores for recognition of compressed sentences were not markedly influenced by unilateral deafness, but the functional results of the residual ear were correlated with a loss of high-frequency sensitivity (mean of 54% correct in severe unilateral deafness with an associated high-frequency loss versus 93% correct in normal controls). Reorganization of the central nervous system by "plasticity" or biological maturation over time failed to improve the performance of monaural listening. The currently recommended methods of remediation for this sensory deficit are discussed, and newer technologies under investigation are examined. PMID:15633902

  3. A Very Rare Presentation of Multiple Myeloma: Unilateral Raccoon Eye

    PubMed Central

    Varım, Ceyhun; Ergenc, Hasan; Uyanık, Mehmet Sevki; Kaya, Tezcan; Nalbant, Ahmet; Karacaer, Cengiz; Sunu, Cenk; Tamer, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM), the second most common hematological malignancy, is caused by the accumulation of monoclonal plasma cells in bone marrow. It accounts for 10–15% of deaths from hematological malignancies and approximately 2% of deaths from cancer. The median age at presentation is 70 years old. The diagnosis is incidental in 30% of cases. MM is often discovered through routine blood screening with a large gap between the total protein and the albumin levels. Two thirds of patients complain of bone pain, especially lower back pain. MM could be diagnosed after a pathologic fracture occurs in one third of patients. Presentation with symptoms related to hyperviscosity, hypercalcemia and bleeding tendency could also be observed. A rare presentation of MM is peri-orbital ecchymotic lesion (raccoon eye). Here, we report a 64 years old, male patient presented with unilateral raccoon eye and high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) to internal medicine outpatient. The patient was referred to hematology outpatient and was diagnosed with multiple myeloma. PMID:27275266

  4. A Very Rare Presentation of Multiple Myeloma: Unilateral Raccoon Eye.

    PubMed

    Varım, Ceyhun; Ergenc, Hasan; Uyanık, Mehmet Sevki; Kaya, Tezcan; Nalbant, Ahmet; Karacaer, Cengiz; Sunu, Cenk; Tamer, Ali

    2015-09-15

    Multiple myeloma (MM), the second most common hematological malignancy, is caused by the accumulation of monoclonal plasma cells in bone marrow. It accounts for 10-15% of deaths from hematological malignancies and approximately 2% of deaths from cancer. The median age at presentation is 70 years old. The diagnosis is incidental in 30% of cases. MM is often discovered through routine blood screening with a large gap between the total protein and the albumin levels. Two thirds of patients complain of bone pain, especially lower back pain. MM could be diagnosed after a pathologic fracture occurs in one third of patients. Presentation with symptoms related to hyperviscosity, hypercalcemia and bleeding tendency could also be observed. A rare presentation of MM is peri-orbital ecchymotic lesion (raccoon eye). Here, we report a 64 years old, male patient presented with unilateral raccoon eye and high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) to internal medicine outpatient. The patient was referred to hematology outpatient and was diagnosed with multiple myeloma. PMID:27275266

  5. [Treatment of a mandibular fracture in a common buzzard (Buteo buteo L., 1758)].

    PubMed

    Röcken jun, F E; Göbel, T

    1996-06-01

    A common buzzard with an old dislocated unilateral mandibular fracture causing apathy, inappetence and reduction of body weight was presented for surgical treatment (reduction of fracture, intramedullary pinning with a Kirschner wire). Postoperatively the wild bird recovered rapidly and could eat without assistance after four days. Evaluation of the raptor six weeks p.op. revealed normal occlusion and fracture healing. Therefore, it was decided to release the bird into wildlife. PMID:8767186

  6. Hip fracture - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Inter-trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Subtrochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Femoral neck fracture repair - discharge; Trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Hip pinning surgery - discharge

  7. Current concepts in the mandibular condyle fracture management part I: overview of condylar fracture.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kang-Young; Yang, Jung-Dug; Chung, Ho-Yun; Cho, Byung-Chae

    2012-07-01

    The incidence of condylar fractures is high, but the management of fractures of the mandibular condyle continues to be controversial. Historically, maxillomandibular fixation, external fixation, and surgical splints with internal fixation systems were the techniques commonly used in the treatment of the fractured mandible. Condylar fractures can be extracapsular or intracapsular, undisplaced, deviated, displaced, or dislocated. Treatment depends on the age of the patient, the co-existence of other mandibular or maxillary fractures, whether the condylar fracture is unilateral or bilateral, the level and displacement of the fracture, the state of dentition and dental occlusion, and the surgeonnds on the age of the patient, the co-existence of othefrom which it is difficult to recover aesthetically and functionally;an appropriate treatment is required to reconstruct the shape and achieve the function ofthe uninjured status. To do this, accurate diagnosis, appropriate reduction and rigid fixation, and complication prevention are required. In particular, as mandibular condyle fracture may cause long-term complications such as malocclusion, particularly open bite, reduced posterior facial height, and facial asymmetry in addition to chronic pain and mobility limitation, great caution should be taken. Accordingly, the authors review a general overview of condyle fracture. PMID:22872830

  8. Accommodative Performance of Children With Unilateral Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Manh, Vivian; Chen, Angela M.; Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; Cotter, Susan A.; Candy, T. Rowan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare the accommodative performance of the amblyopic eye of children with unilateral amblyopia to that of their nonamblyopic eye, and also to that of children without amblyopia, during both monocular and binocular viewing. Methods. Modified Nott retinoscopy was used to measure accommodative performance of 38 subjects with unilateral amblyopia and 25 subjects with typical vision from 3 to 13 years of age during monocular and binocular viewing at target distances of 50, 33, and 25 cm. The relationship between accommodative demand and interocular difference (IOD) in accommodative error was assessed in each group. Results. The mean IOD in monocular accommodative error for amblyopic subjects across all three viewing distances was 0.49 diopters (D) (95% confidence interval [CI], ±1.12 D) in the 180° meridian and 0.54 D (95% CI, ±1.27 D) in the 90° meridian, with the amblyopic eye exhibiting greater accommodative errors on average. Interocular difference in monocular accommodative error increased significantly with increasing accommodative demand; 5%, 47%, and 58% of amblyopic subjects had monocular errors in the amblyopic eye that fell outside the upper 95% confidence limit for the better eye of control subjects at viewing distances of 50, 33, and 25 cm, respectively. Conclusions. When viewing monocularly, children with unilateral amblyopia had greater mean accommodative errors in their amblyopic eyes than in their nonamblyopic eyes, and when compared with control subjects. This could lead to unintended retinal image defocus during patching therapy for amblyopia. PMID:25626970

  9. Some remarks on unilateral matrix equations

    SciTech Connect

    Cerchiai, Bianca L.; Zumino, Bruno

    2001-02-01

    We briefly review the results of our paper LBNL-46775: We study certain solutions of left-unilateral matrix equations. These are algebraic equations where the coefficients and the unknown are square matrices of the same order, or, more abstractly, elements of an associative, but possibly noncommutative algebra, and all coefficients are on the left. Recently such equations have appeared in a discussion of generalized Born-Infeld theories. In particular, two equations, their perturbative solutions and the relation between them are studied, applying a unified approach based on the generalized Bezout theorem for matrix polynomials.

  10. Unilateral Molar Distalization: A Nonextraction Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, M. Bhanu; Sreevalli, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the recent years, nonextraction treatment approaches and noncompliance therapies have become more popular in the correction of space discrepancies. One of the conventional approaches for space gaining in the arches without patient compliance is done by using certain extra oral appliances or intraoral appliance. The greatest advantage of certain appliances like fixed functional and molar distalization appliances is that they minimize the dependence on patient cooperation. Molar distalization appliances like pendulum appliance which distalizes the molar rapidly without the need of head gear can be used in patients as a unilateral space gaining procedure due to buccal segment crowding. PMID:23320203

  11. Fracture in the chin area: an unusual case of mandibular torus fracture.

    PubMed

    Saura-Ingles, A; Garcia-Ballesta, C; Pérez-Lajarin, L; López-Jornet, P

    2005-07-01

    Mandibular torus fracture as a result of accidental trauma has not been reported to date in the dental literature. This study describes the case of a young adult male who suffered multiple fractures affecting the teeth and mandibular torus secondary to chin area trauma due to a bicycle accident; the first manifestation of bone damage being left unilateral paraesthesia of the lip. An occlusal x-ray study of the affected area was made to evaluate possible fracture, as unlike centred periapical x-rays and orthopantomography, it is able to reveal the existence of a fracture line of the alveolar wall. In the associated presence of paraesthesia, a computed tomographic study is advisable. PMID:16003417

  12. Hypertropia in unilateral isolated abducens palsy

    PubMed Central

    Pihlblad, Matthew S.; Demer, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the incidence and features of hypertropia in abducens nerve palsy. Methods The records of consecutive patients with unilateral, isolated, previously unoperated abducens nerve palsy were reviewed for binocular alignment on cover testing, Krimsky measurement, or Hess screen testing. Patients with associated cranial nerve palsy (including bilateral abducens palsies), orbital disease, myasthenia gravis, Horner syndrome, hemiplegia, cerebellar signs, arteritis, or previous strabismus surgery were excluded. Control subjects underwent complete examination to confirm normality. Results A total of 79 patients were included (40 males; mean age 49.2 years). Hypertropia in lateral or central gazes was present in 15 of 79 cases (19%) on alternate cover or Krimsky testing, in 32 of 56 cases (57%) on Hess screen testing, and absent in all 30 normal controls. Of cases with hypertropia, the mean of the greatest hypertropia in lateral or central gaze on was 5.0Δ ± 2.3Δ (standard deviation; range, 1Δ–8Δ) routine clinical examination, and 5.8Δ ± 4.2Δ (range, 2Δ–24Δ) on Hess screen testing. Of 39 cases with partial abducens palsy evaluated by Hess screen testing, the ipsilesional eye was hypertropic in 24 (61%) and hypotropic in 15 cases (39%). Conclusions Small-angle hypertropia is common in isolated, unilateral abducens and does not necessarily imply existence of multiple cranial neuropathies or skew deviation. PMID:24924275

  13. Clinical verification of a unilateral otolith test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzig, J.; Hofstetter-Degen, K.; Maurer, J.; von Baumgarten, R. J.

    In a previous study 13 we reported promising results for a new test to differentiate in vivo unilateral otolith functions. That study pointed to a need for further validation on known pathological cases. In this presentation we will detail the results gathered on a group of clinically verified vestibular defectives (verum) and a normal (control) group. The subjects in the verum group were former patients of the ENT clinic of the university hospital. These subjects had usually suffered from neurinoma of the VIIth cranial nerve or inner ear infections. All had required surgical intervention including removal of the vestibular system. The patients were contacted usually two or more years postoperatively. A group of students from the pre- and clinical phase of medical training served as control. Both groups were subjected to standardized clinical tests. These tests served to reconfirm the intra- or postoperative diagnosis of unilateral vestibular loss in the verum group. In the control group they had to establish the normalcy of the responses of the vestibular system. Both groups then underwent testing on our exccentric rotary chair in the manner described before 13. Preliminary results of the trials indicate that this test may indeed for the first time offer a chance to look at isolated otolith apparati in vivo.

  14. Molecular Karyotype of Sporadic Unilateral Retinoblastoma Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Arupa; Nichols, Kim E.; Grant, Gregory; Rappaport, Eric; Shields, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Background Retinoblastoma (RB) is a childhood ocular malignancy associated with mutations in RB1, a tumor susceptibility gene. Inactivation of both copies of the RB1 gene in a retinal cell is followed by the sequential acquisition of additional genetic changes that define the course to tumor formation. Methods To identify the genetic events that cooperate with loss of the RB1 gene function, we performed a whole genome sampling assay (WGSA) based on SNP genotyping. We used DNA isolated from 25 sporadic, unilateral RB tumors and matched blood samples. Results Genomic profiles were analyzed to identify regions of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and/or amplification. Two major subclasses of RB tumors were defined by the presence (n=18) or absence (n=7) of LOH of chromosome 13. LOH in most cases was due to copy neutral events caused by mitotic recombination and mitotic non-disjunction. Tumors harbored novel regions of amplification at 1q44, 3p25, 11q14, 11q25, 14q23, 15q21, 16p13, 17p11.2, 19q13, and 20q13 while regions of loss included 6q22, 7q21and 21q2. Conclusion WGSA-based analysis of unilateral RB tumors revealed novel regions as significant. These minimum critical regions that are lost or amplified are expected to harbor genes that aid the process of tumorigenesis. PMID:19491728

  15. Disrupted functional brain connectome in unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haibo; Fan, Wenliang; Zhao, Xueyan; Li, Jing; Zhang, Wenjuan; Lei, Ping; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Haha; Cheng, Huamao; Shi, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is generally defined as sensorineural hearing loss of 30 dB or greater over at least three contiguous audiometric frequencies and within a three-day period. This hearing loss is usually unilateral and can be associated with tinnitus and vertigo. The pathogenesis of unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss is still unknown, and the alterations in the functional connectivity are suspected to involve one possible pathogenesis. Despite scarce findings with respect to alterations in brain functional networks in unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss, the alterations of the whole brain functional connectome and whether these alterations were already in existence in the acute period remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the alterations of brain functional connectome in two large samples of unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients and to investigate the correlation between unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss characteristics and changes in the functional network properties. Pure tone audiometry was performed to assess hearing ability. Abnormal changes in the peripheral auditory system were examined using conventional magnetic resonance imaging. The graph theoretical network analysis method was used to detect brain connectome alterations in unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Compared with the control groups, both groups of unilateral SSNHL patients exhibited a significantly increased clustering coefficient, global efficiency, and local efficiency but a significantly decreased characteristic path length. In addition, the primary increased nodal strength (e.g., nodal betweenness, hubs) was observed in several regions primarily, including the limbic and paralimbic systems, and in the auditory network brain areas. These findings suggest that the alteration of network organization already exists in unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients within the acute period

  16. Regenerate Healing Outcomes in Unilateral Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis Using Quantitative Histomorphometry

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Daniel A.; Arman, Krikor G.; Kakwan, Mehreen S.; Jamali, Ameen M.; Elmeligy, Ayman A.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The authors’ goal was to ascertain regenerate bone-healing metrics using quantitative histomorphometry at a single consolidation period. Methods Rats underwent either mandibular distraction osteogenesis (n=7) or partially reduced fractures (n=7); their contralateral mandibles were used as controls (n=11). External fixators were secured and unilateral osteotomies performed, followed by either mandibular distraction osteogenesis (4 days’ latency, then 0.3 mm every 12 hours for 8 days; 5.1 mm) or partially reduced fractures (fixed immediately postoperatively; 2.1 mm); both groups underwent 4 weeks of consolidation. After tissue processing, bone volume/tissue volume ratio, osteoid volume/tissue volume ratio, and osteocyte count per high-power field were analyzed by means of quantitative histomorphometry. Results Contralateral mandibles had statistically greater bone volume/tissue volume ratio and osteocyte count per high-power field compared with both mandibular distraction osteogenesis and partially reduced fractures by almost 50 percent, whereas osteoid volume/tissue volume ratio was statistically greater in both mandibular distraction osteogenesis specimens and partially reduced fractures compared with contralateral mandibles. No statistical difference in bone volume/tissue volume ratio, osteoid volume/tissue volume ratio, or osteocyte count per high-power field was found between mandibular distraction osteogenesis specimens and partially reduced fractures. Conclusions The authors’ findings demonstrate significantly decreased bone quantity and maturity in mandibular distraction osteogenesis specimens and partially reduced fractures compared with contralateral mandibles using the clinically analogous protocols. If these results are extrapolated clinically, treatment strategies may require modification to ensure reliable, predictable, and improved outcomes. PMID:20463629

  17. Reproducibility of Tactile Assessments for Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auld, Megan Louise; Ware, Robert S.; Boyd, Roslyn Nancy; Moseley, G. Lorimer; Johnston, Leanne Marie

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review identified tactile assessments used in children with cerebral palsy (CP), but their reproducibility is unknown. Sixteen children with unilateral CP and 31 typically developing children (TDC) were assessed 2-4 weeks apart. Test-retest percent agreements within one point for children with unilateral CP (and TDC) were…

  18. Fractures of the articular processes of the cervical spine

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, J.H.; Goldstein, S.J.

    1982-08-01

    Fractures of the articular processes occurred in 16 (20.8%) of 77 patients with cervical spine fractures as demonstrated by multidirectional tomography. Plain films demonstrated the fractures in only two patients. Acute cervical radiculopathy occurred in five of the patients with articular process fractures (superior process, two cases; inferior process, three cases). Persistent neck pain occurred in one other patient without radiculopathy. Three patients suffered spinal cord damage at the time of injury, which was not the result of the articular process fracture itself. In the other seven cases, no definite sequelae occurred. However, disruption of the facet joint may predispose to early degenerative joint disease and chronic pain; unilateral or bilateral facet dislocation was present in five patients. In patients with cervical trauma who develop cervical radiculopathy, tomography should be performed to evaluate the articular processes.

  19. Fracture Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... to hold the fracture in the correct position. • Fiberglass casting is lighter and stronger and the exterior ... with your physician if this occurs. • When a fiberglass cast is used in conjunction with a GORE- ...

  20. [Unilateral to bilateral pleurisy: Pleural tuberculosis?].

    PubMed

    Ben Ameur, S; Smaoui, S; Kamoun, F; Chabchoub, I; Kamoun, T; Messaadi, F; Aloulou, H; Hachicha, M

    2016-04-01

    Pleural tuberculosis is the first or second most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis as well as the main cause of pleural effusion in many countries. It is rare in young infants and is more common in children over 10 years of age. We report the case of a 19-month-old girl admitted for prolonged fever with unilateral pleural effusion. The mother reported a history of lymph node tuberculosis 6 years previously. Intravenous antibiotics with cefotaxime and vancomycin were started. Thoracocentesis yielded a serosanguinous exudate fluid with a lymphocyte predominance. The tuberculin skin test and PCR GeneXpert(©) on pleural fluid were negative. The initial outcome was favorable, but the chest X-rays 10 days after discharge showed bilateral pleural effusion. Pleural biopsy was proposed but the culture of pleural fluid was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The child was put under standard treatment for tuberculosis. The outcome was favorable. PMID:26922570

  1. Isolated unilateral idiopathic transient hypoglossal nerve palsy

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Viqar; Akram, Muhammad Saqub

    2014-01-01

    A 52-year-old Caucasian man presented with sudden onset of difficulty in moving his tongue to the left with preceding left-sided headache with no neck pain. Earlier, he had self-limiting chest infection without rashes or tonsillar enlargement. His medical and surgical history was unremarkable with no recent trauma. Oral examination revealed difficulty in protruding his tongue to the left with muscle bulk loss and fasciculation on the same side, suggesting left hypoglossal nerve palsy. Examination of the rest of the cranial nerves and nervous system was normal. The patient's oropharyngeal and laryngeal examination was unremarkable with no cervical lymphadenopathy. He had normal laboratory investigations and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Extensive imaging of the head, neck and chest failed to reveal any pathology. Further review by an otorhinologist and rheumatologist ruled out any other underlying pathology. He made a good recovery without treatment. English literature search revealed very few cases of idiopathic, transient, unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy. PMID:24969070

  2. Novel unilateral circuits for MMIC circulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Shinji; Tokumitsu, Tsuneo; Aikawa, Masayoshi

    1990-10-01

    A circuit which is equivalent to a four-port circulator with one port terminated, called a quasi-circulator (QC), is proposed. The QC can replace a conventional circulator even though it is not a complete circulator. Examples of novel three-port unilateral circuit modules, called QC modules, which are the main part of the QC are presented to realize very wideband circulators in MMIC form without using ferrite materials and external magnets. The modules are composed of an active out-of-phase divider and an active in-phase combiner or an active in-phase divider and an active out-of-phase combiner. The modules have many variations. All are very small and operate over a very wide frequency range. Two types of QC modules that have very broadband operation up to X or Ku band are demonstrated. A QC is also demonstrated. It is shown how an active circulator is realized by QC modules.

  3. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: a treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sabrina; da Silva Fabris, André Luis; Ferreira, Gabriel Ramalho; Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Francisconi, Giovanna Barbosa; Souza, Francisley Avila; Garcia, Idelmo Rangel

    2014-05-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a pathologic condition that causes overdevelopment of the condylar head and neck as well as the mandible. Slowly progressive unilateral enlargement of the head and the neck of the condyle causes crossbite malocclusion, facial asymmetry, and shifting of the midpoint of the chin to the unaffected side. The etiology and the pathogenesis of CH remain uncertain. The diagnosis is made by clinical and radiologic examinations and bone scintigraph. A difference in uptake of 10% or more between condyles is regarded as indicative of CH, and the affected condyles had a relative uptake of 55% or more. When the diagnosis of active CH is established, the treatment consists of removal of the growth center by a partial condylectomy. The authors present the case of a 46-year-old male patient with right active type II CH or hemimandibular hyperplasia who underwent a high condylectomy. PMID:24820728

  4. Bridging plate osteosynthesis of humeral shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Livani, Bruno; Belangero, William Dias

    2004-06-01

    This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medical Sciences and developed during November 2000 and July 2001 in the Orthopedic and Traumatology Department of UNICAMP. There were 15 patients, 11 males, age between 14 and 66 years. All fractures were unilateral. Of the 15 patients eight were polytraumatised, two of them had open fractures. The others had an isolated fracture of the humerus, of which one was open. None of the patients had previous lesions of the radial nerve, but in two patients there was a lesion of the brachial plexus. All of the patients underwent a bridging plate osteosynthesis of the humeral shaft fractures using only two small incisions proximal and distal to the fracture site. We used broad or narrow D.C.P. plates for large fragments mostly with 12 holes, fixed with two or three screws at each end. All cases united with an average time of 8-12 weeks, with the exception of one case with a grade III open fracture and a brachial plexus lesion on the same side. We had no major complications. All patients recovered good function of the limb without significant residual deformity. PMID:15135278

  5. Unilateral pupillary dilatation following septoplasty: cause for concern?

    PubMed

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Trinidade, Aaron; Khan, Imran; Johnston, Graham; Hussain, Akhtar

    2013-07-01

    We report and explain unilateral pupillary dilatation following routine septoplasty and trimming of inferior turbinates. The unilateral pupillary dilatation was caused by inadvertent instillation of sympathomimetic, (xylometazoline hydrochloride) in the eye during preparation for nasal surgery. The effect was short-lived and the patient made a full recovery. Unilateral pupillary dilatation after sinonasal surgery can be alarming due to the possibility of injury to the globe and intracranial haemorrhage but can also be explained by the mydriatic effect of the sympathomimetic nasal drops and sprays used to decongest the nose. Such possibility should be borne in mind and would help to explain and reduce the anxiety and avoid unnecessary investigations. PMID:23823962

  6. Nonprogressive Unilateral Intracranial Arteriopathy in Children with Arterial Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Yeon, Je Young

    2015-01-01

    The nonprogressive unilateral intracranial arteriopathy known as transient (focal) cerebral arteriopathy is not a well-recognized arteriopathy among practitioners of Korea and Japan, although it cannot be easily differentiated from early moyamoya disease. This review summarizes the nomenclature, pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation, clinico-radiological features, and management of nonprogressive (reversible or stable) unilateral arteriopathy based on the relevant literature and our own experiences. Nonprogressive unilateral arteriopathy should be strongly suspected in children presenting with basal ganglia infarction and arterial beading. The early identification of patients likely to have nonprogressive or progressive arteriopathy would ensure proper management and guide further research for secondary stroke prevention. PMID:26180606

  7. Unilateral Spinal Anesthesia Experience in a Supercentenarian.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Fadime; Ozen, Metehan; Tatar, Cihad; Alakus, Huseyin

    2015-10-01

    Improvement of living and socioeconomic conditions, developments, and innovations in medicine and technology has prolonged of life expectancy. We provided spinal anesthesia for a 111-year-old woman requiring internal fixation of a fractured femur. The operation lasted 75 minutes. After surgery, the patient was monitored in the intensive care unit overnight. The patient was discharged from the intensive care unit after 24-hour monitoring without any complications. She was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 2. PMID:26402023

  8. [Unilateral triangular lumbopelvic stabilization: indications and techniques].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, M F; Dudda, M; Schildhauer, T A

    2013-11-01

    Operative fixation has become treatment of choice for unstable sacral fractures. Osteosynthesis for these fractures results in loss of reduction in up to 15%. Vertical sacral fractures involving the S1 facet joint (Isler 2 and 3) may lead to multidirectional instability. Multidirectional instability of the posterior pelvic ring and lumbopelvic junction may be stabilized and forces balanced by a so-called lumbopelvic triangular fixation. Lumbopelvic triangular fixation combines vertical fixation between the lumbar vertebral pedicle and the ilium, with horizontal fixation, as an iliosacral screw or a transiliacal plate osteosynthesis. The iliac screw is directed from the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) to the anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS). Thereby, lumbopelvic fixation decreases the load to the sacrum and SI joint and transfers axial loads from the lumbar spine directly onto the ilium. Triangular lumbopelvic fixation allows early full weight bearing and therefore reduces prolonged immobilization. The placement of iliac screws may be a complex surgical procedure. Thus, the technique requires thorough surgical preparation and operative logistics. Wound-related complications may occur. Preexisting Morell-Lavalée lesions increase the risk for infection. Prominent implants cause local irritation and pain. Hardware prominence and pain are markedly reduced with screw head recession into the PSIS. PMID:24233083

  9. Pediatric Thighbone (Femur) Fracture

    MedlinePlus

    ... fractures in infants under 1 year old is child abuse. Child abuse is also a leading cause of thighbone fracture ... contact sports • Being in a motor vehicle accident • Child abuse Types of Femur Fractures (Classification) Femur fractures vary ...

  10. Hydraulic fracturing-1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book contains papers on hydraulic fracturing. Topics covered include: An overview of recent advances in hydraulic fracturing technology; Containment of massive hydraulic fracture; and Fracturing with a high-strength proppant.

  11. A Complex Facial Trauma Case with Multiple Mandibular Fractures and Dentoalveolar Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Guven, Yeliz; Zorlu, Sevgi; Cankaya, Abdulkadir Burak; Aktoren, Oya; Gencay, Koray

    2015-01-01

    The principles of management of mandibular fractures differ in children when compared to adults and depend on the specific age-related status of the growing mandible and the developing dentition. This paper presents a case report with a complex facial trauma affecting the mandibular body and condyle region and dentoalveolar complex. Clinical examination revealed soft tissue injuries, limited mouth opening, lateral deviation of the mandible, an avulsed incisor, a subluxated incisor, and a fractured crown. CBCT examination revealed a nondisplaced fracture and an oblique greenstick fracture of the mandibular body and unilateral fracture of the condyle. Closed reduction technique was chosen to manage fractures of the mandible. Favorable healing outcomes on multiple fractures of the mandible throughout the 6-year follow-up period proved the success of the conservative treatment. This case report is important since it presents a variety of pathological sequelae to trauma within one case. PMID:26339511

  12. Trigeminal neuralgia: unilateral episodic facial pain.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewska, Joanna M

    2015-06-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia is a rare cause of episodic unilateral facial pain and often in the initial presentation dental causes need to be eliminated, as it frequently presents in the lower trigeminal divisions. The pain description is characteristic of electric shock-like pain that is light-touch provoked, paroxysmal, and occurring daily; the condition can go into remission for weeks or months, however. The first-line drug is either carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine and has to be started in low doses. Over 70% of patients will initially obtain immediate relief. If efficacy or tolerability becomes a problem, then referral to a secondary care specialist should be made. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans can determine if there is a symptomatic cause and whether surgery is indicated. Surgical options provide longest pain relief periods. Patients need to be given information about all treatment options so they can make a decision about treatment. This report is adapted from paineurope 2014; Issue 4, © Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd., and is presented with permission. paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, Ltd., and is distributed free of charge to health care professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be viewed via the Web site: www.paineurope.com , at which health professionals can find links to the original articles and request copies of the quarterly publication and access additional pain education and pain management resources. PMID:26095494

  13. Neurobrucellosis developing unilateral oculomotor nerve paralysis.

    PubMed

    Işıkay, Sedat; Yılmaz, Kutluhan; Ölmez, Akgün

    2012-11-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic infectious disease that is common around the world. Its clinical course demonstrates great diversity as it can affect all organs and systems. However, the central nervous system is rarely affected in the pediatric population. Neurobrucellosis is most frequently observed with meningitis and has numerous complications, including meningocephalitis, myelitis, cranial nerve paralyses, radiculopathy, and neuropathy. Neurobrucellosis affects the second, third, sixth, seventh, and eighth cranial nerves. Involvement of the oculomotor nerves is a very rare complication in neurobrucellosis although several adult cases have been reported. In this article, we present the case of a 9-year-old girl who developed unilateral nerve paralysis as a secondary complication of neurobrucellosis and recovered without sequel after treatment. This case is notable because it is a very rare, the first within the pediatric population. Our article emphasizes that neurobrucellosis should be considered among the distinguishing diagnoses in every case that is admitted for nerve paralysis in regions where Brucella infection is endemic. PMID:22244219

  14. Influence of unilateral weight on bilateral cyclograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicer Costa, Juan José; Dusza, Jacek J.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents the results of gait parameters as a function of unilateral weight. The object of the research was a woman walking on a stationary surface and carrying in his hand weights from 0 to 15 kg. Her movement was recorded by 6 cameras recording the location of 34 markers placed at appropriate points in the body. 3D reconstruction was performed for each of the reflecting markers. Tested signals were changes in the value the joint angles of ankle, knee and hip. On the basis of about 6 cycles of movement of each load, a model for the average gait cycle was developed. The result of the experiments are graphs of changes the joint angles as a function of time, bilateral cyclograms, synchronized bilateral cyclograms and regression lines. The conclusion of the study is to determine how one-sided load affects gait asymmetry. Simple and easy to interpret method of presentation of results were also shown. Studies were conducted using VICON system.

  15. Unilateral mandibular advancement with bilateral intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seung-Won; Jung, Hwi-Dong; Park, Hyung-Sik; Jung, Young-Soo

    2015-05-01

    Intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy (IVRO) is an effective surgical procedure that is used for the correction of mandibular prognathism. However, application of IVRO for mandibular advancement has been limited because of the instability of the proximal segments caused by the gap between the distal and proximal segments. We report a case of unilateral mandibular advancement with bilateral IVRO for the correction of facial asymmetry. This case shows possible application of bilateral IVRO for unilateral mandibular advancement without any means of fixation. PMID:25974825

  16. Grip Force Coordination during Bimanual Tasks in Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islam, Mominul; Gordon, Andrew M.; Skold, Annika; Forssberg, Hans; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate coordination of fingertip forces during an asymmetrical bimanual task in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Twelve participants (six males, six females; mean age 14y 4mo, SD 3.3y; range 9-20y;) with unilateral CP (eight right-sided, four left-sided) and 15 age-matched typically…

  17. [Cause and treatment of unilateral vocal cord paralysis].

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongyue; Li, Keyong

    2016-03-01

    Unilateral vocal cord paralysis(UVCP) is defined as affected side vocal cord emerges immobility or motion weakening and abnormal tension due to unilateral intrinsic laryngeal muscles suffering from disorder about motor nerve. The patients usually present with hoarse voice, disability of high pitch, cough, aspiration, or a combination of these symptoms. There are increasing therapeutics researches and case analyses regarding UVCP in recent years. Thus this review summarized the progression about its causes and treatment methods. PMID:27382698

  18. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Bharathi, Saravana C.; Senthilnathan, S.; Kumar, Lokesh D.; Mohan, Anand C. S.; Taranath, M.

    2014-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is (CH) an uncommon malformation of the mandible involving change in size and morphology of the condylar neck and head. CH is an anomaly that usually occurs unilaterally and equally affects in both men and women. Hyperplasia of the condyle ‘differentiated into hemimandibular hyperplasia, hemimandibular elongation and CH. Here, we are presenting a case of 17-year-old male patient with unilateral CH and its review of the literature. PMID:24818099

  19. The impacts of Unilateral Stratospheric Geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A.; Haywood, J. M.; Bellouin, N.; Stephenson, D.

    2013-12-01

    Stratospheric geoengineering proposals have been suggested on the premise that the cooling impacts of volcanic eruptions could be deliberately mimicked to offset the impacts of increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the future by counterbalance global warming. Here, we examine both the impacts of hemispherically asymmetric volcanoes in the observational record and the impact of prolonged deliberate injection of stratospheric aerosol into either the northern or southern hemisphere stratosphere or into both hemispheres equally to assess the impacts on Sahelian rainfall and agriculture (Haywood et al., 2013). While the frequency of volcanic eruptions during the past 100 years is too sparse for definitive attribution, there is a suggestion that volcanic eruptions that preferentially load the northern hemisphere are the harbinger of Sahelian drought. Simulations are then performed with the HadGEM2 couple atmospheric-ocean model to assess the impacts of these volcanic eruptions and deliberate unilateral stratospheric geoengineering. Figure 1 shows the impacts of the geoengineering simulations which show that stratospheric injection into the northern hemisphere induces a severe and prolonged Sahelian drought with undoubted detrimental consequences for the local population. Conversely injection into the southern hemisphere causes a significant greening of the Sahel with vegetation productivity enhanced by over 100%. On the face of it, this suggests potential advocacy of injection into the southern hemisphere: we will investigate potential other side-effects from such a strategy...... Haywood, J.M., A. Jones, N. Bellouin, and D.B. Stephenson, Asymmetric forcing from stratospheric aerosols impacts Sahelian drought, Nature Climate Change, Vol 3, No 7, 660-665, doi: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1857, 2013.

  20. Ultrasound biomicroscopy in patients with unilateral pseudoexfoliation

    PubMed Central

    Ünsal, Erkan; Eltutar, Kadir; Muftuoglu, Ilkay; Akcetin, Tulay Alpar; Acar, Yıldız

    2015-01-01

    AIM To compare the anterior segment morphology evaluated using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) in patients with clinical pseudoexfoliation syndrome (XFS) in one eye and no clinical XFS in the fellow eye. METHODS Thirty patients with unilateral XFS were included in the study. All patients underwent evaluation of their anterior segment using UBM with and without dilatation with 1% cyclopentolate. The anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), anterior chamber angle (ACA), ciliary body thickness (CBT), scleral thickness (ST), trabeculae -ciliary processes distance (T-CPD), and iris-ciliary processes distance (I-CPD) were measured using UBM scans. All results between the eyes with clinical XFS and their fellow eyes without clinical XFS were then compared. RESULTS Before dilatation the eyes with XFS (4.350±0.531 mm) were found to have a significantly thicker lens (P=0.002) than the eyes without XFS (4.238±0.540 mm). In addition after dilatation, the eyes with XFS (4.310±0.500 mm) were found to have a significantly thicker lens than the eyes without XFS (4.160±0.480 mm) (P=0.019). The average ACD, for the group with XFS, comparing pre-dilatation (2.616±0.349 mm) and post-dilatation measurements (2.714±0.413) was found to be statistically increased (P=0.014). The average ACD, comparing pre-dilatation to post-dilatation measurements in patients without XFS (2.680±0.360), (2.720±0.500) was found to be statistically unchanged (P=0.450). DISCUSSION Crystalline lenses tended to be thicker in the eyes with clinical pseudoexfoliation than their fellow eyes without pseudoexfoliation. PMID:26309875

  1. Unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney in children.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Çağla Serpil; Torun-Bayram, Meral; Aybar, Mustafa Devran

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the clinical course and renal outcome of patients with unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 59 cases with MCDK followed at Şanlıurfa Children's Hospital between January 2009 and February 2013. The median age of the patients (boys 52.5%) was 31 months (range: 6-197) and the median follow-up period was 23 months (range: 6-111). Forty-two (71.2%) patients were diagnosed antenatally. The MCDKs were found more often on the right side (55.9%). The most frequently associated urological abnormality was contralateral vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) (26.6%). A total of 3 (5%) patients developed chronic renal insufficiency (CRI), 2 of whom had grade IV and V VUR; the other patient with CRI had a small and hyperechogenic contralateral kidney, suggesting dysplasia-hypoplasia, without any urological anomalies on imaging studies. The size of MCDK was unchanged in 20 (34%), had regressed in 26 (44%), and had increased in 9 (15.3%) patients. Total involution was documented in 4 (6.7%) patients. Compensatory hypertrophy occurred in 36/45 (80%) patients, with a mean age of 19.2±8.3 months. Proteinuria and hypertension were detected in 1 (1.7 %) patient each. In conclusion, abnormalities in the contralateral kidney in patients with MCDK increase the risk of renal failure. An initial investigation for associated urinary tract malformations should be done and the growth and function of the contralateral kidney, hypertension, and proteinuria should be monitored in all children with MCDK. PMID:24827951

  2. The clinical application and efficacy of percutaneous kyphoplasty via unilateral pedicular approach guided by CT image measurement

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Weifeng; Jia, Yongwei; Wang, Jianjie; Cheng, Liming

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the clinical application and efficacy of percutaneous kyphoplasty via unilateral pedicular approach with the reference of preoperative CT image data. 73 cases (a total of 112 vertebrae) with thoracic and lumbar osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCF) received in our department were collected in this study and underwent percutaneous kyphoplasty via unilateral pedicular approach directed by CT image measurement with the operative time and fluoroscopic times recorded. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI) were used to assess the pain status and functional activity before and after operation and at the last follow-up, while X-ray and CT image were used to measure the height of the injured spinal middle column and kyphotic Cobb angle before and after operation. 73 cases (112 vertebrae) underwent percutaneous kyphoplasty successfully. Cement leakage occurred in 7 cases without obvious neurological symptoms, and they were followed up for 10 to 60 months with the average of 23 months; adjacent vertebral refractures occurred in 3 cases during the follow-up, and their symptoms were relieved after the second surgery. There was significant difference in the height of the injured spinal middle column and kyphotic Cobb angle before and after operation (P<0.05); there was significant difference in preoperative and postoperative VAS score and ODI values (P<0.05). Postoperative CT image data showed that puncture paths of the 110 vertebrae were consistent with preoperative ones sketched using the CT image, and the consistent rate of preoperative and postoperative measurement data was 98%. All patients could ambulate with brace within 2 days after operation without serious complications. In conclusion, percutaneous kyphoplasty via unilateral pedicular approach guided by preoperative CT image data is effective in treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures, and it is convenient and safe with high

  3. Anaesthesia of the inferior alveolar and lingual nerves following subcondylar fractures of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Politis, Constantinus; Sun, Yi; De Peuter, Bruno; Vandersteen, Marjan

    2013-10-01

    A retrospective chart review of 387 patients with condylar and subcondylar fractures revealed 2 cases of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) and lingual nerve (LN) anaesthesia following the subcondylar fracture. Only 5 cases have been reported previously. The mechanism of action remains unknown but a review of the literature and an analysis of 120 dry human skulls supported the hypothesis that compression of the mandibular nerve at a high level, close to the foramen ovale, could cause anaesthesia. This complication is rare, because it requires compression at a particular angle. The antero-median angulation of the condyle must be close to the foramen ovale, and the fracture must be a unilaterally displaced fracture. The presence of an enlarged lateral pterygoid plate appeared to enhance the risk of compression. The IAN and LN anaesthesia could be resolved after open reduction of the fracture and IAN and LN anaesthesia constitute a strict indication for an early open fracture reduction. PMID:23453271

  4. Single level arthrodesis as treatment for midcervical fracture subluxation: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Harrington, James F; Park, Michael C

    2007-02-01

    Although many different techniques exist for fusion of midcervical facet fracture dislocations, limiting arthrodesis to a single level could have a theoretical advantage: fewer fused segments could lessen long-term negative effects of fusion on adjacent segments. Therefore, we prospectively treated 22 consecutive patients with midcervical fracture dislocation without vertebral body fracture with single level arthrodesis even if anterior/posterior surgery were required. Twelve patients with unilateral facet subluxation underwent anterior cervical discectomy, distraction reduction with Caspar posts (AESCULAP, Tuttlingen, Germany) with allograft fusion and anterior cervical plating. Ten patients with any component of bilateral facet subluxation underwent anterior cervical discectomy, distraction reduction with Caspar posts, allograft fusion and plating followed by posterior lateral mass plating. No patients demonstrated worsening of nerve root or spinal cord function postoperatively. Interbody stability occurred in all cases. Only complications were 4 cases of pneumonia, 1 case of wound leakage, and 1 case of superficial wound infection. Good reduction was achieved for both unilateral and bilateral facet fractures. Single level interbody arthrodesis is safe and effective strategy with both unilateral and bilateral facet fractures. Single level arthrodesis may also offer long-term benefit compared with multilevel fusions. PMID:17285051

  5. Bimodal Hearing Aid Retention after Unilateral Cochlear Implantation.

    PubMed

    Devocht, Elke M J; George, Erwin L J; Janssen, A Miranda L; Stokroos, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate contralateral hearing aid (HA) use after unilateral cochlear implantation and to identify factors of influence on the occurrence of a unilateral cochlear implant (CI) recipient becoming a bimodal user. A retrospective cross-sectional chart review was carried out among 77 adult unilateral CI recipients 1 year after implantation. A bimodal HA retention rate of 64% was observed. Associations with demographics, hearing history, residual hearing and speech recognition ability were investigated. Better pure-tone thresholds and unaided speech scores in the non-implanted ear, as well as a smaller difference in speech recognition scores between both ears, were significantly associated with HA retention. A combined model of HA retention was proposed, and cut-off points were determined to identify those CI recipients who were most likely to become bimodal users. These results can provide input to clinical guidelines concerning bimodal CI candidacy. PMID:26461124

  6. Unilateral Breast Reconstruction Using Bilateral Inferior Gluteal Artery Perforator Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Muto, Mayu; Ogawa, Marina; Shibuya, Mai; Yasumura, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Shinji; Ishikawa, Takashi; Maegawa, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    Background: For reconstructing moderate-to-high projection breasts in nulliparous patients with insufficient abdominal tissue or prior abdominal surgeries, a unilateral inferior gluteal artery perforator (IGAP) flap is an alternative procedure. In patients with slim hips, however, unilateral gluteal tissue is insufficient and inferior gluteal crease displacement may develop postoperatively. Donor-site asymmetry is also a major disadvantage. In these circumstances, bilateral IGAP flaps provide sufficient tissue without significant gluteal deformity. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 20 patients who underwent unilateral breast reconstruction using bilateral IGAP flaps by a single surgeon between November 2007 and December 2012. A quantitative outcome assessment was performed and compared with that of 22 unilateral IGAP flap patients operated on by the same surgeon. Results: Twenty patients underwent reconstruction with 40 IGAP flaps. Of the 40 flaps, 39 survived and 1 developed total necrosis due to repeated venous thrombosis. In 15 of 20 patients, the size of reconstructed breast was comparable to that of the contralateral breast. Final inset flap weight was 462.3 g for bilateral flaps and 244.3 g for unilateral flaps. Total operating time was 671.1 minutes (bilateral flaps) and 486.8 minutes (unilateral flaps). Conclusions: Use of bilateral IGAP flaps for breast reconstruction helps to avoid asymmetry of the inferior buttock volume and shape. Bilateral flaps provide sufficient tissue volume and allow for reconstruction of a breast comparable to the unaffected side. In patients with moderate-to-high projection breast whose abdominal tissue cannot be used for reconstruction, IGAP flaps may be a suitable alternative. PMID:25878925

  7. Unilateral Direct Carotid Cavernous Fistula Causing Bilateral Ocular Manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Demartini Jr., Zeferino; Liebert, Fernando; Gatto, Luana Antunes Maranha; Jung, Thiago Simiano; Rocha Jr., Carlos; Santos, Alex Marques Borges; Koppe, Gelson Luis

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral carotid cavernous fistula presents with ipsilateral ocular findings. Bilateral presentation is only seen in bilateral fistulas, usually associated with indirect (dural) carotid cavernous fistulas. Direct carotid cavernous fistulas are an abnormal communication between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. They typically begin with a traumatic disruption in the artery wall into the cavernous sinus, presenting with a classic triad of unilateral pulsatile exophthalmos, cranial bruit and episcleral venous engorgement. We report the case of a 38-year-old male with traumatic right carotid cavernous sinus fistula and bilateral ocular presentation successfully treated by interventional neuroradiology. PMID:26955353

  8. Radial head fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Elbow fracture - radial head - aftercare ... the radius bone, just below your elbow. A fracture is a break in your bone. The most common cause of a radial head fracture is falling with an outstretched arm.

  9. Hand fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000552.htm Hand fracture - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... need to be repaired with surgery. Types of hand fractures Your fracture may be in one of ...

  10. Fractured Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03084 Fractured Surface

    These fractures and graben are part of Gordii Fossae, a large region that has undergone stresses which have cracked the surface.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 16.6S, Longitude 234.3E. 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. A new biomechanical model for evaluation of fixation systems of maxillofacial fractures.

    PubMed

    Ji, Baohui; Wang, Chun; Song, Fumin; Chen, Mengshi; Wang, Hang

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new type of biomechanical model for biomechanical researches of maxillofacial fractures and then evaluate it. Twenty synthetic polyurethane maxillary and mandibular models were used to simulate the mandible and maxilla. Springs were used to represent the forces of masseter, medial pterygoid, temporalis, and lateral pterygoid muscles acting on the models. Four masticatory conditions, namely clenching in the intercuspal position (ICP), incisal clenching (INC), left unilateral molar clenching (L-MOL, contralateral side of fracture) and right unilateral molar clenching (R-MOL, fracture side) were simulated. The strain on a miniplates placed across a simulated fracture was measured using strain gauges attached to the plate surface. During INC and L-MOL, the strain on the miniplates confirmed the findings of Champy. The upper miniplate was subjected to tension force and the lower miniplate to compression. When the bite point moved to the fracture, the tension-compression zone reversed, with the upper miniplate relatively compressed and the lower miniplate tension. During ICP, the tension-compression zone changed again, with both miniplates tension. In conclusion, we have successfully developed a model which is much closer to physiological conditions than models used previously. It is reliable and useful for biomechanical tests of mandibular fractures. Models including soft tissue need developing to further understand fracture healing biomechanics. PMID:21865052

  12. Management of Young Children with Unilateral Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL) are at risk for academic, speech and language and social-emotional difficulties. To date, most of the evidence documented in the literature has been obtained from school-age children, most of whom were diagnosed with UHL after enrollment in school. Following the widespread institution of universal…

  13. Unilateral Pulmonary Agenesis and Gastric Duplication Cyst: A Rare Association

    PubMed Central

    Skokic, Fahrija; Hotic, Nesad; Husaric, Edin; Radoja, Gordana; Muratovic, Selma; Dedic, Nermina

    2013-01-01

    Lung agenesis and gastric duplication cysts are both rare congenital anomalies. Gastric duplication cysts can present with nausea, vomiting, hematemesis, or vague abdominal pain. Unilateral pulmonary agenesis can present with respiratory distress which usually occurs due to retention of bronchial secretions and inflammations. We report the unique case of right pulmonary agenesis associated with gastric duplication cyst. PMID:23844300

  14. Unilateral radiation pneumonitis in sheep: Physiological changes and bronchoalveolar lavage

    SciTech Connect

    Tillman, B.F.; Loyd, J.E.; Malcolm, A.W.; Holm, B.A.; Brigham, K.L. )

    1989-03-01

    Radiation pneumonitis is a life-threatening result of therapeutic thoracic irradiation, yet its mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied the effects of unilateral lung irradiation (3,000 rad) in sheep from the immediate response to the later development of radiation pneumonitis. We defined radiation pneumonitis by its diagnostic clinical feature, radiographic infiltration of the irradiated zone with a straight margin corresponding to the radiation port. The immediate response in the few hours after irradiation was characterized by cough, labored respiration, hypoxemia (arterial PO{sub 2} decreased 19 Torr), mild pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary arterial pressure increased 20%), and lymphopenia. Hemodynamics and gas exchange returned to normal by day 2 but became abnormal again before or during radiation pneumonitis at 32 +/- 2 days. Respiratory distress, hypoxemia, and pulmonary hypertension recurred during radiation pneumonitis. Bronchoalveolar lavage during radiation pneumonitis contained increased neutrophils (19 +/- 4%, control = 7%), increased protein (0.27 +/- 0.1 g/dl, control = 0.12 +/- 0.03), and severely impaired ability to lower surface tension. Alveolar macrophages from both lungs during unilateral radiation pneumonitis exhibited impaired generation of superoxide after phorbol myristate (only a 30% increase). Normal control alveolar macrophages increased superoxide production after stimulation greater than 400%. We conclude that unilateral lung irradiation in sheep causes a mild immediate response followed by radiation pneumonitis at 1 mo. Unilateral radiation pneumonitis in this model is associated with ipsilateral neutrophilic alveolitis, increased bronchoalveolar lavage protein, and impaired surfactant function, as well as bilateral functional abnormalities of alveolar macrophages.

  15. Unilateral nevoid acanthosis nigricans: Uncommon variant of a common disease

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anupam; Bhattacharya, Sabari; Kumar, Piyush; Gayen, Tirthankar; Roy, Kunal; Das, Nilay K.; Gharami, Ramesh C.

    2014-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a fairly common dermatosis characterized by hyperpigmented velvety plaques, having a predilection for the intertriginous areas. We herein present a case of unilateral nevoid acanthosis nigricans over the left lateral chest, in an adult male. The rarity of documentation of this entity in the world literature prompted us to report the case. PMID:25506563

  16. Bimanual Force Coordination in Children with Spastic Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits-Engelsman, B. C. M.; Klingels, K.; Feys, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this study bimanual grip-force coordination was quantified using a novel "Gripper" system that records grip forces produced while holding a lower and upper unit, in combination with the lift force necessary to separate these units. Children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) (aged 5-14 years, n = 12) were compared to age matched typically…

  17. IQ Decline Following Early Unilateral Brain Injury: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Susan C.; Kraus, Ruth; Alexander, Erin; Suriyakham, Linda Whealton; Huttenlocher, Peter R.

    2005-01-01

    We examine whether children with early unilateral brain injury show an IQ decline over the course of development. Fifteen brain injured children were administered an IQ test once before age 7 and again several years later. Post-7 IQ scores were significantly lower than pre-7 IQ scores. In addition, pre-7 IQ scores were lower for children with…

  18. Unilateral Forced Nostril Breathing Affects Dichotic Listening for Emotional Tones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saucier, Deborah M.; Tessem, Farzana Karim; Sheerin, Aaron H.; Elias, Lorin

    2004-01-01

    Unilateral forced nostril breathing (UFNB) through the left nostril is associated with enhanced spatial abilities, whereas UFNB through the right nostril is associated with enhanced verbal abilities. However, the effects of UFNB on standard tasks of laterality (e.g., dichotic listening) are unknown. This study employed dichotic listening for word…

  19. Traumatic glaucoma with features of unilateral pigment dispersion.

    PubMed

    Bowler, Gordon; Ellul, Antony; Gouws, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    We report a patient with traumatic glaucoma with features of unilateral pigment dispersion. This rare form of secondary glaucoma has only been reported twice previously, with both patients demonstrating angle recession, indicating associated damage to the trabecular meshwork. To our knowledge, this is the first such case reported in which angle recession was absent. PMID:25097455

  20. Traumatic glaucoma with features of unilateral pigment dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, Gordon; Ellul, Antony; Gouws, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Summary We report a patient with traumatic glaucoma with features of unilateral pigment dispersion. This rare form of secondary glaucoma has only been reported twice previously, with both patients demonstrating angle recession, indicating associated damage to the trabecular meshwork. To our knowledge, this is the first such case reported in which angle recession was absent. PMID:25097455

  1. Axial length in unilateral idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hoseok; Lee, Dae Yeong; Nam, Dong Heun

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the axial length (AXL) in unilateral idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). METHODS This retrospective case-control study was comprised of a consecutive case series of 35 patients with acute unilateral idiopathic CSC, and age- and sex-matched 50 control eyes. AXL of both eyes of unilateral CSC patients and the control eyes were investigated. AXL was measured by ultrasonic biometry, and the adjusted AXL was calculated for CSC eyes as measured AXL plus differences of foveal thickness between CSC and normal fellow eyes in millimeters. The main outcome measures were comparison of AXL between CSC, fellow and control eyes. RESULTS The mean age of 35 CSC patients was 45.5y, and 31 males were included. The adjusted AXL of CSC eyes was 23.52 mm, and the AXL of fellow eyes was 23.46 mm, and of control eyes 23.94 mm. The AXL of both CSC and fellow eyes were significantly shorter than control eyes (CSC vs control, P=0.044; fellow vs control, P=0.026). There was no statistically significant difference in AXL between CSC and fellow eyes. CONCLUSION In unilateral idiopathic CSC, the AXL of CSC and fellow eyes are shorter than that of control eyes. Short AXL may be related with choroidal circulation abnormality in CSC. PMID:27275428

  2. Morphofunctional Compensation of Masseter Muscles in Unilateral Posterior Crossbite Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cutroneo, G.; Vermiglio, G.; Centofanti, A.; Rizzo, G.; Runci, M.; Favaloro, A.; Piancino, M.G.; Bracco, P.; Ramieri, G.; Bianchi, F.; Speciale, F.; Arco, A.; Trimarchi, F.

    2016-01-01

    Unilateral posterior crossbite is a widespread, asymmetric malocclusion characterized by an inverse relationship of the upper and lower buccal dental cusps, in the molar and premolar regions, on one side only of the dental arch. Patients with unilateral posterior crossbite exhibit an altered chewing cycles and the crossbite side masseter results to be less active with respect to the contralateral one. Few studies about morphological features of masticatory muscle in malocclusion disorders exist and most of these have been performed on animal models. The aim of the present study was to evaluate morphological and protein expression characteristics of masseter muscles in patients affected by unilateral posterior crossbite, by histological and immunofluorescence techniques. We have used antibody against PAX-7, marker of satellite cells, and against α-, β-, γ-, δ-, ε- and ζ-sarcoglycans which are transmembrane glycoproteins involved in sarcolemma stabilization. By statistical analysis we have evaluated differences in amount of myonucley between contralateral and ipsilateral side. Results have shown: i) altered fibers morphology and atrophy of ipsilateral muscle if compared to the contralateral one; ii) higher number of myonuclei and PAX-7 positive cells in contralateral side than ipsilateral one; iii) higher pattern of fluorescence for all tested sarcoglycans in contralateral side than ipsilateral one. Results show that in unilateral posterior crossbite hypertrophic response of contralateral masseter and atrophic events in ipsilateral masseter take place; by that, in unilateral posterior crossbite malocclusion masticatory muscles modify their morphology depending on the function. That could be relevant in understanding and healing of malocclusion disorders; in fact, the altered balance about structure and function between ipsilateral and contralateral muscles could, long-term, lead and/ or worsen skeletal asymmetries. PMID:27349311

  3. Unilateral Incompatibility in Capsicum (Solanaceae): Occurrence and Taxonomic Distribution

    PubMed Central

    ONUS, A. NACI; PICKERSGILL, BARBARA

    2004-01-01

    • Background and aims Unilateral incompatibility (UI) occurs when pollinations between species are successful in one direction but not in the other. Self-incompatible (SI) species frequently show UI with genetically related, self-compatible (SC) species, as pollen of SI species is compatible on the SC pistil, but not vice versa. Many examples of unilateral incompatibility, and all those which have been studied most intensively, are found in the Solanaceae, particularly Lycopersicon, Solanum, Nicotiana and Petunia. The genus Capsicum is evolutionarily somewhat distant from Lycopersicon and Solanum and even further removed from Nicotiana and Petunia. Unilateral incompatibility has also been reported in Capsicum; however, this is the first comprehensive study of crosses between all readily available species in the genus. • Methods All readily available (wild and domesticated) species in the genus are used as plant material, including the three genera from the Capsicum pubescens complex plus eight other species. Pollinations were made on pot-grown plants in a glasshouse. The number of pistils pollinated per cross varied (from five to 40 pistils per plant), depending on the numbers of flowers available. Pistils were collected 24 h after pollination and fixed for 3–24 h. After staining, pistils were mounted in a drop of stain, squashed gently under a cover slip and examined microscopically under ultra-violet light for pollen tube growth. • Key results Unilateral incompatibility is confirmed in the C. pubescens complex. Its direction conforms to that predominant in the Solanaceae and other families, i.e. pistils of self-incompatible species, or self-compatible taxa closely related to self-incompatible species, inhibit pollen tubes of self-compatible species. • Conclusions Unilateral incompatibility in Capsicum does not seem to have arisen to prevent introgression of self-compatibility into self-incompatible taxa, but as a by-product of divergence of the C

  4. Circling behavior following unilateral kainic acid injections into rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Taylor, R J; Reavill, C; Jenner, P; Marsden, C D

    1981-12-01

    Unilateral injection of kainic acid (2.5-25 nmol) into rat anterior caudate putamen induced dose-related circling behaviour. Kainic acid (10 nmol) consistently caused initial weak ipsiversive circling lasting 1 h followed by prolonged strong contraversive rotation lasting in excess of 10 h. Unilateral intrastriatal administration of L-glutamic acid, or of monosodium L-glutamate, to normal rats, or administration of monosodium L-glutamate to rats with extensive decortication, did not induce circling behaviour. The simultaneous unilateral injection of monosodium L-glutamate (1 mumol) with kainic acid (10 nmol) did not modify circling behaviour induced by kainic acid. However, extensive decortication greatly reduced circling induced by unilateral intrastriatal kainic acid (10 nmol), and effect not reversed by the simultaneous administration of monosodium L-glutamate (1 mumol). Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the left nigrostriatal pathway abolished the initial ipsiversive rotation and potentiated the subsequent contraversive rotation for up to 4 h after intrastriatal injection of kainic acid (10 nmol). Peripheral administration of haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p.) also abolished initial ipsiversive rotation and decreased the subsequent contraversive rotation. Electro-coagulation of the ipsilateral strio-nigral pathway prolonged the initial ipsiversive rotation produced by kainic acid, but markedly attenuated contraversive rotation. These findings suggest that circling induced by intrastriatal administration of kainic acid depends on intact corticostriate pathways, but it cannot be reproduced or modified by intrastriatal administration of glutamate. Kainic acid circling appears to be mediated via strio-nigral pathways, and to be modulated by dopaminergic function. PMID:7333356

  5. Presurgical nasoalveolar moulding in unilateral cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Zuhaib, Mohammed; Bonanthaya, Krishnamurthy; Parmar, Renu; Shetty, Pritham N.; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Context: Presurgical nasoalveolar moulding (PNAM) is a non-surgical method of reshaping the cleft lip, alveolus, palate and the nose to minimize the severity of the cleft deformity, before primary cheiloplastyand palatoplasty. In this context, PNAM proves to be an invaluable asset in the management of unilateral cleft lip and palate. Aims: The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of PNAM in the management of unilateral cleft lip and palate with the following objectives: (1) To assess and compare the degree of reduction in the size of cleft palate and alveolus (pre-PNAM and post-PNAM). (2) To evaluate and compare the improvement in columellar length and correction of columellar deviation (pre-PNAM and post-PNAM). (3) To assess the changes in the position of the alar base and the alar cartilages. Settings and Design: Prospective study. Subjects and Methods: A prospective study consisting of, which included 20 patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate was conducted. The age at the start of PNAM treatment of the infants ranged from 2 to 44 days of age reporting to our institute between December 2011 and August 2013. All the patients underwent PNAM therapy before primary cheiloplasty at 6 months of age; clinical parameters were assessed pre- and post-therapy using photographs and dental study models of the maxilla. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's t-test for paired comparisons. Results: Results of the study showed a promising reduction in the cleft size before the surgery, significant improvement in nasal symmetry, including the columellar length on the cleft side. Conclusions: PNAM is a valuable adjunct to our surgical armamentarium in dealing with the challenges of primary closure of unilateral cleft lip and palate thereby enhancing the overall surgical outcome. The advantages of this method include the simplicity of the procedure and improving the quality of surgical repair, particularly in obtaining tension free muscle closure in unilateral

  6. Outcomes After Unilateral Uterine Artery Embolization: A Retrospective Review

    SciTech Connect

    Bratby, M. J.; Hussain, F. F.; Walker, W. J.

    2008-03-15

    Purpose. Bilateral uterine artery embolization (UAE) is considered necessary to provide effective treatment for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Occasionally, only unilateral embolization is performed, and this study evaluates these outcomes. Materials and Methods. As part of a prospective observational study of more than 1600 patients treated with UAE since 1996, there have been 48 patients in whom unilateral embolization has been performed. This study retrospectively reviews clinical response as assessed by our standard questionnaire and radiological response assessed by either magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound. Results. Two principal groups emerged: the largest, where only the dominant unilateral arterial supply was electively embolized (30 patients); and the second, where there was technical failure to catheterize the second uterine artery as a result of anatomical constraints (12 patients). Favorable clinical response with a reduction in menorrhagia at 1 year was seen in 85.7% (18/21) of those patients with a dominant arterial supply to the fibroid(s). In contrast, in those patients where there was technical failure to embolize one uterine artery, there was a high rate of clinical failure requiring further intervention in 58.3% (7/12). Comparison of the technical failure group with the dominant uterine artery group demonstrated a statistically significant (Fisher's exact test) difference in the proportion of patients with evidence of persistent fibroid vascularity (p < 0.001) and requiring repeat intervention (p < 0.01). Conclusion. We conclude that unilateral UAE can achieve a positive clinical result in the group of patients where there is a dominant unilateral artery supplying the fibroid(s), in contrast to the poor results seen following technical failure.

  7. Fracture channel waves

    SciTech Connect

    Nihei, K.T.; Yi, W.; Myer, L.R.; Cook, N.G.; Schoenberg, M.

    1999-03-01

    The properties of guided waves which propagate between two parallel fractures are examined. Plane wave analysis is used to obtain a dispersion equation for the velocities of fracture channel waves. Analysis of this equation demonstrates that parallel fractures form an elastic waveguide that supports two symmetric and two antisymmetric dispersive Rayleigh channel waves, each with particle motions and velocities that are sensitive to the normal and tangential stiffnesses of the fractures. These fracture channel waves degenerate to shear waves when the fracture stiffnesses are large, to Rayleigh waves and Rayleigh-Lamb plate waves when the fracture stiffnesses are low, and to fracture interface waves when the fractures are either very closely spaced or widely separated. For intermediate fracture stiffnesses typical of fractured rock masses, fracture channel waves are dispersive and exhibit moderate to strong localization of guided wave energy between the fractures. The existence of these waves is examined using laboratory acoustic measurements on a fractured marble plate. This experiment confirms the distinct particle motion of the fundamental antisymmetric fracture channel wave (A{sub 0} mode) and demonstrates the ease with which a fracture channel wave can be generated and detected. {copyright} 1999 American Geophysical Union

  8. Bilateral Neck Femur Fracture Following a Generalized Seizure- A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    M Shah, Harshad; Grover, Amit; Gadi, Daksh; Sudarshan, K

    2014-01-01

    Hip fractures are one of the most common injuries which present to an orthopaedic surgeon. Most of these cases are unilateral .Bilateral simultaneous femur neck fracture is a rare occurrence. We report a case of a bilateral neck femur fracture in a 30 year male following a generalized tonic clonic seizure in view of its rarity and also to increase the awareness of such rare injuries. The patient was operated within 3 hours. At 5 months, the patient had good radiological and functional outcome. During a convulsion, there is a powerful and forceful contraction of muscles which may lead to fracture or dislocation. The incidence of fractures following a convulsion is 1.1%. A delay in diagnosis can lead to complications like avascular necrosis, osteoarthritis, non union, functional disability and legal consequences. All orthopaedic surgeons and emergency physicians should be aware of such uncommon injuries to ensure early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25692154

  9. Bilateral neck femur fracture following a generalized seizure- a rare case report.

    PubMed

    M Shah, Harshad; Grover, Amit; Gadi, Daksh; Sudarshan, K

    2014-10-01

    Hip fractures are one of the most common injuries which present to an orthopaedic surgeon. Most of these cases are unilateral .Bilateral simultaneous femur neck fracture is a rare occurrence. We report a case of a bilateral neck femur fracture in a 30 year male following a generalized tonic clonic seizure in view of its rarity and also to increase the awareness of such rare injuries. The patient was operated within 3 hours. At 5 months, the patient had good radiological and functional outcome. During a convulsion, there is a powerful and forceful contraction of muscles which may lead to fracture or dislocation. The incidence of fractures following a convulsion is 1.1%. A delay in diagnosis can lead to complications like avascular necrosis, osteoarthritis, non union, functional disability and legal consequences. All orthopaedic surgeons and emergency physicians should be aware of such uncommon injuries to ensure early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25692154

  10. Paratrooper's Ankle Fracture: Posterior Malleolar Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Young, Ki Won; Cho, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyung Seuk; Cho, Hun Ki; Lee, Kyung Tai

    2015-01-01

    Background We assessed the frequency and types of ankle fractures that frequently occur during parachute landings of special operation unit personnel and analyzed the causes. Methods Fifty-six members of the special force brigade of the military who had sustained ankle fractures during parachute landings between January 2005 and April 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The injury sites and fracture sites were identified and the fracture types were categorized by the Lauge-Hansen and Weber classifications. Follow-up surveys were performed with respect to the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score, patient satisfaction, and return to preinjury activity. Results The patients were all males with a mean age of 23.6 years. There were 28 right and 28 left ankle fractures. Twenty-two patients had simple fractures and 34 patients had comminuted fractures. The average number of injury and fractures sites per person was 2.07 (116 injuries including a syndesmosis injury and a deltoid injury) and 1.75 (98 fracture sites), respectively. Twenty-three cases (41.07%) were accompanied by posterior malleolar fractures. Fifty-five patients underwent surgery; of these, 30 had plate internal fixations. Weber type A, B, and C fractures were found in 4, 38, and 14 cases, respectively. Based on the Lauge-Hansen classification, supination-external rotation injuries were found in 20 cases, supination-adduction injuries in 22 cases, pronation-external rotation injuries in 11 cases, tibiofibular fractures in 2 cases, and simple medial malleolar fractures in 2 cases. The mean follow-up period was 23.8 months, and the average follow-up American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score was 85.42. Forty-five patients (80.36%) reported excellent or good satisfaction with the outcome. Conclusions Posterior malleolar fractures occurred in 41.07% of ankle fractures sustained in parachute landings. Because most of the ankle fractures in parachute injuries were

  11. Retromandibular approach in the management of condylar fractures by open reduction and internal fixation a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kshirsagar, Rajesh; Singh, Vikram; Pawar, Sudhir; Shah, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the retromandibular approach in the management of condylar fractures by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients with unilateral mandibular condylar fractures underwent ORIF using retromandibular approach. Pertinent data were collected and subjected to evaluation. Results: The retromandibular approach was found to be expeditious in adequately exposing the fracture site and enabling ORIF. The anatomic reduction of the fractured segments and the fixation was satisfactory in all the cases. Average duration of surgery was 39 min (range: 17-56 min) for satisfactory exposure, reduction, and fixation of each condylar fracture. Conclusion: The retromandibular approach provides adequate exposure of the subcondylar region and should be considered as commendable alternative in the management of condylar fractures. PMID:27390493

  12. Offspring of patients treated for unilateral Wilms' tumor in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.M.; Fine, W.E.; Li, F.P.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-seven women and the wives of nine men who survived unilateral Wilms' tumor in childhood had a total of 59 live born offspring. Among the 33 infants born to women who had received orthovoltage abdominal irradiation, ten weighed less than 2500 g at birth and three died during the perinatal period. In addition, one term infant of normal weight died of complications of a breech delivery. Only one of 26 infants born to the wives of Wilms' tumor patients and unirradiated female patients weighed less than 2500 g at birth and none died. The frequency of congenital malformations and spontaneous abortions in this series was not increased, and no offspring has developed cancer. The findings suggest that the risk of Wilms' tumor is low among progeny of survivors of nonfamilial, unilateral lesions. Damage from abdominal irradiation given to girls with Wilms' tumor may predispose them to the subsequent delivery of low birthweight children.

  13. Vincristine-induced unilateral ptosis in a child.

    PubMed

    Gursel, Orhan; Sari, Erkan; Altun, Demet; Atay, A Avni; Akin, Ridvan

    2009-12-01

    Vincristine is a vinca alkaloid used in combination with other agents in the treatment of solid tumors, lymphoma, and leukemia, as well as for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. A dose-limiting complication of vinca alkaloids is neurotoxicity. Vincristine is the oldest and also the most neurotoxic agent in this group. Described here is the case of a 4-year-old girl with unilateral palpebral ptosis. She has been diagnosed with precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Ptosis was noted on the 45th day of therapy, and the last vincristine was administered on the 28th day of protocol 1. Vincristine-induced unilateral palpebral ptosis is a novel finding. Experience with this case suggests conservative treatment, with periodic examination, especially if ptosis is mild. PMID:19931172

  14. Framework Surgery for Treatment of Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Daniero, James J.; Garrett, C. Gaelyn; Francis, David O.

    2014-01-01

    Laryngeal framework surgery is the current gold standard treatment for unilateral vocal fold paralysis. It provides a permanent solution to glottic insufficiency caused by injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Various modifications to the original Isshiki type I laryngoplasty procedure have been described to improve voice and swallowing outcomes. The success of this procedure is highly dependent on the experience of the surgeon as it epitomizes the intersection of art and science in the field. The following article reviews the evidence, controversies, and complications related to laryngoplasty for unilateral vocal fold paralysis. It also provides a detailed analysis of how and when arytenoid-positioning procedures should be considered, and summarizes the literature on postoperative outcomes. PMID:24883239

  15. Unilateral Loss of Spontaneous Venous Pulsations in an Astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mader, Thomas H.; Gibson, C. Robert; Lee, Andrew G.; Patel, Nimesh; Hart, Steven; Pettit, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous venous pulsations seen on the optic nerve head (optic disc) are presumed to be caused by fluctuations in the pressure gradient between the intraocular and retrolaminar venous systems. The disappearance of previously documented spontaneous venous pulsations is a well-recognized clinical sign usually associated with a rise in intracranial pressure and a concomitant bilateral elevation of pressure in the subarachnoid space surrounding the optic nerves. In this correspondence we report the unilateral loss of spontaneous venous pulsations in an astronaut 5 months into a long duration space flight. We documented a normal lumbar puncture opening pressure 8 days post mission. The spontaneous venous pulsations were also documented to be absent 21 months following return to Earth.. We hypothesize that these changes may have resulted from a chronic unilateral rise in optic nerve sheath pressure caused by a microgravity-induced optic nerve sheath compartment syndrome.

  16. Effects of attention and unilateral neglect on auditory stream segregation.

    PubMed

    Carlyon, R P; Cusack, R; Foxton, J M; Robertson, I H

    2001-02-01

    Two pairs of experiments studied the effects of attention and of unilateral neglect on auditory streaming. The first pair showed that the build up of auditory streaming in normal participants is greatly reduced or absent when they attend to a competing task in the contralateral ear. It was concluded that the effective build up of streaming depends on attention. The second pair showed that patients with an attentional deficit toward the left side of space (unilateral neglect) show less stream segregation of tone sequences presented to their left than to their right ears. Streaming in their right ears was similar to that for stimuli presented to either ear of healthy and of brain-damaged controls, who showed no across-ear asymmetry. This result is consistent with an effect of attention on streaming, constrains the neural sites involved, and reveals a qualitative difference between the perception of left- and right-sided sounds by neglect patients. PMID:11248927

  17. Acquired unilateral melanocytic nevi in otherwise normal skin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xijun; Nagai, Hiroshi; Nishigori, Chikako; Horikawa, Tatsuya

    2008-01-01

    We describe a case with numerous melanocytic nevi in otherwise normal skin. A 5-year-old girl presented with more than 100 small pigment lesions on her left arm, shoulder and upper back without underlying light brown macule. The pigment lesions were first found on her left forearm at 3 months old and gradually increased along with her growth. Skin biopsy from a pigmented lesion shows a pathological change in compound-type melanocytic nevus without any atypical changes. Speckled lentiginous nevus is known to have multiple melanocytic lesions on the underlying brown macule from birth. Partial unilateral lentiginosis is characterized by unilateral lentigines with histopathological changes in lentigo but not melanocytic proliferation in the dermis. Agminated melanocytic nevi tend to be clustered together in a circumscribed area, whereas in the present case melanocytic nevi were segmentally arranged but not agminated. We consider that this is an unusual type of mosaicism of melanocytic disorders. PMID:18401177

  18. Contralateral flow reduction in unilateral stroke: evidence for transhemispheric diaschisis

    SciTech Connect

    Lagreze, H.L.; Levine, R.L.; Pedula, K.L.; Nickles, R.J.; Sunderland, J.S.; Rowe, B.R.

    1987-09-01

    Using clinical presentation, angiography, computed tomography, and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, 7 patients were identified who had strictly unilateral hemispheric infarction and unilateral cerebrovascular disease. In 6, cerebral blood flow measured by fluorine-18-fluoromethane inhalation and positron emission tomography was reduced in the contralateral hemisphere (p less than 0.05). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated a high correlation between contralateral flow reduction and the degree of flow impairment in the infarcted area (r = 0.941, p = 0.0014) but not with age, risk factor profile, blood pressure, PCO/sub 2/, hematocrit, or duration of stroke. We conclude that transhemispheric diaschisis best explains the contralateral flow reduction seen in supratentorial ischemic stroke.

  19. Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome Presenting with Unilateral Adrenal Hemmorhage.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Kifayat; Butt, Ghias; Neopane, Sippy; Arshi, Shahana

    2016-06-01

    The antiphospholipid antibody syndrome presents with vascular thrombosis which involve both arterial and venous systems. The clinical presentation of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome includes obstetric complications leading to recurrent abortions, presence of circulating antibodies against phospholipids, and multi-organ thromboembolisms. We report a case of a patient who presented with unilateral adrenal hemorrhage and subsequently found to have antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and lupus nephritis. PMID:27376219

  20. Unilateral eruptive vellus hair cysts occurring on the face.

    PubMed

    Lew, B-L; Lee, M-H; Haw, C-R

    2006-11-01

    Eruptive vellus hair cysts (EVHC) are small, cystic papules that usually occur on the chest and extremities. Their aetiology is unknown. Fewer than 10 cases of a variant form of EVHC that occur exclusively on the face have been reported. We describe a case of EVHC limited to the right side of the face. To the best of our knowledge, no case of unilateral EVHC has been reported. PMID:17062051

  1. Presurgical nasoalveolar molding in unilateral cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Rahul J.; Kharkar, Viraj R.; Kamath, Shamika

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients have an esthetic and functional compromise of the middle third of the face and nasal structures. To improve the esthetic result of lip repair, the concept of presurgical nasoalveolar molding (PNAM) was brought into conception. PNAM is an easy and passive method of bringing the alveolus and lips together by redirecting the forces of natural growth. This case report documents a 2-year follow-up of PNAM in UCLP. PMID:26681868

  2. Beware of "curare cleft" like changes during unilateral capnothorax.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manila; Chaudhary, Kapil; Uppal, Rajeev; Jain, Sachin

    2014-06-01

    Capnography is a standard monitoring tool during general anaesthesia. Diaphragmatic movement with the weaning of muscle relaxant effect produces the characteristic "curare cleft" on capnography. Various artefacts can mimick this trace intraoperatively. Cautious interpretation and identification of these is essential to avoid any undue overdosing of the patients with muscle relaxants. We report "curare cleft" like artefact during ventilation with a single lumen tube in a patient with unilateral capnothorax undergoing minimally invasive esophagectomy. PMID:24132805

  3. Unilateral Eye Findings: A Rare Herald of Acute Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Avni V.; Miller, John B.; Nath, Rajneesh; Shih, Helen A.; Yoon, Michael K.; Freitag, Suzanne K.; Papaliodis, George; Chen, Teresa C.; Eliott, Dean; Kim, Ivana K.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim Unilateral choroidal infiltration as the initial manifestation of leukemic relapse in adults is rare, particularly after an extended period of remission. This report describes this unique ophthalmic presentation, highlights the associated diagnostic challenges, and reviews the literature. Methods Two cases are described and an extensive literature review was conducted. Results A 59-year-old male with acute lymphoid leukemia, in remission for 18 months, presented with unilateral scleritis, exudative retinal detachment, and choroidal thickening. A 57-year-old male with a history of acute myeloid leukemia, in remission for 4 years, presented with unilateral choroidal thickening leading to secondary angle closure. In both cases, there was a significant lag from the onset of eye symptoms to establishing a systemic diagnosis of acute leukemia, leading to a delay in definitive systemic treatment, despite a high suspicion of disease based on ophthalmic findings. Conclusions These two cases illustrate the fundus findings consistent with leukemic choroidal infiltration that can represent the first sign of relapsed leukemia. The successful treatment of these patients hinges on collaboration between ophthalmologists and oncologists to optimize patient outcomes, highlighting the need for both groups to be aware of this rare ophthalmic presentation. PMID:27239459

  4. Unilateral mandibular ramus elongation by intraoral distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kofod, Thomas; Nørholt, Sven Erik; Pedersen, Thomas Klit; Jensen, John

    2005-03-01

    Successful correction of facial asymmetry by mandibular distraction osteogenesis relies on mastering vector control. Lack of necessary vector control continues to compromise the treatment modality. The purpose of this study was to describe a new simplified method for vector transfer and to evaluate this method according to the outcome and the efficacy of distraction osteogenesis in the correction of unilateral mandibular hypoplasia and asymmetry. Twenty-seven patients with unilateral hypoplasia of the mandibular ramus underwent unilateral mandibular distraction osteogenesis with intraoral distraction devices. Posterior-anterior and lateral cephalograms were analyzed by digitalization. Changes in sagittal, vertical, and transversal linear and angular dimensions after the distraction treatment were evaluated by measurements performed on headfilms taken before and after surgery. Means and variances were calculated for selected cephalometric variables for each time point. The differences between the control and the treatment side were calculated, statistically described, and compared with a paired Student t test. Correction of the mandibular asymmetry, chin position, and the canting of the occlusal plane was obtained in all patients clinically, as well as radiographically, by the use of intraoral unidirectional distraction osteogenesis. PMID:15750421

  5. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Effect of unilateral procedure on contralateral kidney function

    PubMed Central

    Sichani, Mehrdad Mohammadi; Behnamfar, Amir; Khorami, Mohammad Hatef; Nourimahdavi, Kia; Alizadeh, Farshid; Izadpanahi, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although long-term effects of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) on renal function and structure have been evaluated, knowledge regarding the immediate effects of surgery on renal function is limited. We conducted this study to evaluate the impact of unilateral PCNL on bilateral renal function during immediate post-operative period. Materials and Methods: From April to September 2012, 40 eligible patients were enrolled in this study and underwent unilateral PCNL. During the post-operative period, creatinine clearances (CrCl) of treated and untreated sides were estimated separately and pattern of changes in bilateral renal function following this procedure was evaluated. Results: Following the operation, CrCl of both kidneys showed a similar pattern of changes, of course more dramatic on treated side. We observed progressive decline in CrCl of both sides followed by bilateral improvement in renal function toward pre-operative values. Conclusions: During the early post-operative period following unilateral PCNL, both kidneys experienced a temporary drop in function warranting more intensive post-operative care. PMID:25538913

  6. Epidemiology of fragility fractures.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Susan M; Mendelson, Daniel Ari

    2014-05-01

    As the world population of older adults-in particular those over age 85-increases, the incidence of fragility fractures will also increase. It is predicted that the worldwide incidence of hip fractures will grow to 6.3 million yearly by 2050. Fractures result in significant financial and personal costs. Older adults who sustain fractures are at risk for functional decline and mortality, both as a function of fractures and their complications and of the frailty of the patients who sustain fractures. Identifying individuals at high risk provides an opportunity for both primary and secondary prevention. PMID:24721358

  7. Infant skull fracture (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Skull fractures may occur with head injuries. Although the skull is both tough and resilient and provides excellent ... or blow can result in fracture of the skull and may be accompanied by injury to the ...

  8. Fractures in anisotropic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Siyi

    Rocks may be composed of layers and contain fracture sets that cause the hydraulic, mechanical and seismic properties of a rock to be anisotropic. Coexisting fractures and layers in rock give rise to competing mechanisms of anisotropy. For example: (1) at low fracture stiffness, apparent shear-wave anisotropy induced by matrix layering can be masked or enhanced by the presence of a fracture, depending on the fracture orientation with respect to layering, and (2) compressional-wave guided modes generated by parallel fractures can also mask the presence of matrix layerings for particular fracture orientations and fracture specific stiffness. This report focuses on two anisotropic sources that are widely encountered in rock engineering: fractures (mechanical discontinuity) and matrix layering (impedance discontinuity), by investigating: (1) matrix property characterization, i.e., to determine elastic constants in anisotropic solids, (2) interface wave behavior in single-fractured anisotropic media, (3) compressional wave guided modes in parallel-fractured anisotropic media (single fracture orientation) and (4) the elastic response of orthogonal fracture networks. Elastic constants of a medium are required to understand and quantify wave propagation in anisotropic media but are affected by fractures and matrix properties. Experimental observations and analytical analysis demonstrate that behaviors of both fracture interface waves and compressional-wave guided modes for fractures in anisotropic media, are affected by fracture specific stiffness (controlled by external stresses), signal frequency and relative orientation between layerings in the matrix and fractures. A fractured layered medium exhibits: (1) fracture-dominated anisotropy when the fractures are weakly coupled; (2) isotropic behavior when fractures delay waves that are usually fast in a layered medium; and (3) matrix-dominated anisotropy when the fractures are closed and no longer delay the signal. The

  9. Bone fracture repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100077.htm Bone fracture repair - series To use the sharing features on ... to slide 4 out of 4 Indications Overview Fractures of the bones are classified in a number ...

  10. Forearm Fractures in Children

    MedlinePlus

    .org Forearm Fractures in Children The forearm is the part of the arm between the wrist and the elbow. It is ... two bones: the radius and the ulna. Forearm fractures are common in childhood, accounting for more than ...

  11. Nasal fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000554.htm Nasal fracture - aftercare To use the sharing features on this ... that gives your nose its shape. A nasal fracture occurs when the bony part of your nose ...

  12. Nasal fracture (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A nasal fracture is a break in the bone over the ridge of the nose. It usually results from a blunt ... and is one of the most common facial fracture. Symptoms of a broken nose include pain, blood ...

  13. Hip fracture surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... neck fracture repair; Trochanteric fracture repair; Hip pinning surgery; Osteoarthritis-hip ... You may receive general anesthesia before this surgery. This means ... spinal anesthesia. With this kind of anesthesia, medicine is ...

  14. Pediatric Open Fractures.

    PubMed

    Trionfo, Arianna; Cavanaugh, Priscilla K; Herman, Martin J

    2016-07-01

    Open fractures in children are rare and are typically associated with better prognoses compared with their adult equivalents. Regardless, open fractures pose a challenge because of the risk of healing complications and infection, leading to significant morbidity even in the pediatric population. Therefore, the management of pediatric open fractures requires special consideration. This article comprehensively reviews the initial evaluation, classification, treatment, outcomes, and controversies of open fractures in children. PMID:27241379

  15. Waterflood-induced fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Dikken, B.J.; Niko, H.

    1987-01-01

    Fracturing occurs quite often in water injection wells, with sometimes unforeseen consequences on waterflood sweep efficiency. One of the causes of fracturing is often the cooling of hot formations by cold injection water. A special version of a thermal reservoir simulator for prototype applications has thus been constructed that is capable of dealing with propagating waterflood-induces hydraulic fractures. With this simulator, fracture propagation and the effect of growing fractures on the sweep efficiency are studied. Infinite fracture conductivity is assumed. The limitation to a very high leak-off fractures justifies disregarding the changes in fracture volume. Fracture growth is calculated using the concept of a critical stress intensity factor. Both poro- and thermo-elastic changes in the horizontal stresses are calculated numerically and their influence on the fracture initiation/propagation is continuously taken into account. In addition, a model of fracture wall impairment because of filter-cake build-up due to poor quality injection water is included. Results are presented for both thermal and isothermal situations. It is observed in isothermal cases that the voidage replacement ratio (volume balance during injection) determined to a great extent the length to which the fracture eventually may grow.

  16. Fractured tooth (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A tooth can be chipped or fractured during an accident or a bad fall. A tooth that is chipped or not badly fractured can usually be handled on a nonemergency basis. A tooth that is badly fractured may have exposed nerve ...

  17. Transmasseteric anterior parotid approach for condylar fractures: experience of 129 cases.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Vinod; Ramadorai, Ashok; Ravi, Poornima; Nirvikalpa, Natarajan

    2012-07-01

    We have evaluated the transmasseteric anterior parotid (TMAP) approach in the treatment of 163 condylar fractures in 129 patients. Ninety-five patients presented with unilateral, and 34 with bilateral, fractures. The inclusion criteria were patient's choice for open reduction and internal fixation, displaced unilateral condylar fractures with occlusal derangement, and displaced bilateral condylar fractures with anterior open bite. Mean (SD) maximum interincisal opening after 3 months was 44(5)mm. There were no differences in lateral movements during the reviews 6 weeks and 3 months postoperatively. Protrusive movement at the end of 3 months was 7(2)mm. All patients achieved functional occlusion identical to the pretraumatic occlusion and good reduction of the condyles. No patient developed temporary or permanent facial palsy, sialocele, salivary fistula, or Frey syndrome. The mean (SD) operating time was 46(11)min. The TMAP approach avoids the complications of incision of the parotid gland, minimises the risk of facial nerve palsy, and offers excellent access to the fractured condyle. PMID:21982159

  18. Unilateral Multiple Facial Angiofibromas: A Case Report with Brief Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gutte, Rameshwar; Khopkar, Uday

    2013-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is an autosomal dominant hereditary condition with many varied forms of clinical presentation. The most frequent cutaneous findings in TSC include multiple angiofibromas, hypopigmented macules, periungual fibromas, and shagreen patch. Rarely, unilateral multiple facial angiofibromas have been reported. We report a case of unilateral multiple facial angiofibromas without any other manifestations of TSC. Although rare, unilateral multiple facial angiofibromas may be a mosaic form of TSC. PMID:23716831

  19. Talus fractures: surgical principles.

    PubMed

    Rush, Shannon M; Jennings, Meagan; Hamilton, Graham A

    2009-01-01

    Surgical treatment of talus fractures can challenge even the most skilled foot and ankle surgeon. Complicated fracture patterns combined with joint dislocation of variable degrees require accurate assessment, sound understanding of principles of fracture care, and broad command of internal fixation techniques needed for successful surgical care. Elimination of unnecessary soft tissue dissection, a low threshold for surgical reduction, liberal use of malleolar osteotomy to expose body fracture, and detailed attention to fracture reduction and joint alignment are critical to the success of treatment. Even with the best surgical care complications are common and seem to correlate with injury severity and open injuries. PMID:19121756

  20. Unilateral Eye Blinking Arising From the Ictal Ipsilateral Occipital Area.

    PubMed

    Falsaperla, Raffaele; Perciavalle, Valentina; Pavone, Piero; Praticò, Andrea Domenico; Elia, Maurizio; Ruggieri, Martino; Caraballo, Roberto; Striano, Pasquale

    2016-07-01

    We report on an 18-month-old boy with unilateral left eye blinking as a single ictal manifestation without facial twitching. The clinical onset of this phenomenon was first recorded (as an occasional event) at age 3 months, and it was overlooked. By age 6 months, the child's blinking increased to almost daily occurrence in clusters: during blinking the infant showed intact awareness and occasional jerks in the upper limbs and right leg. A video-electroencephalography (video-EEG) documented clinical correlation with a focal pattern arising from the left occipital region, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed severe brain damage, consisting in poroencephalic hollows and increased spaces in the convexities involving a large area of the left cerebral hemisphere. The boy was prescribed sodium valproate (30 mg/kg/d), resulting in drastic reduction of his clinical seizures. Follow-up to his current age documented good general status, with persistent partial right hemilateral seizures. The blinking progressively disappeared, and is no longer recorded. The pathogenic hypotheses of the unilateral ictal blinking include involvement of the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere and/or the cerebellar pathways. Review of previous reports of unilateral eye blinking, arising from the ictal ipsilateral brain, revealed that different damaged regions may give rise to blinking ictal phenomena, likely via the trigeminal fibres innervating the subdural intracranial structures and the pial vessels in the ipsilateral affected brain. The eye blinking in the present child represents a further example of an ictal phenomenon, which is predictive of the damaged brain region. PMID:25179638

  1. Unilateral Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Tonsil Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chronowski, Gregory M.; Garden, Adam S.; Morrison, William H.; Frank, Steven J.; Schwartz, David L.; Shah, Shalin J.; Beadle, Beth M.; Gunn, G. Brandon; Kupferman, Michael E.; Ang, Kian K.; Rosenthal, David I.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To assess, through a retrospective review, clinical outcomes of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil treated at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center with unilateral radiotherapy techniques that irradiate the involved tonsil region and ipsilateral neck only. Methods and Materials: Of 901 patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil treated with radiotherapy at our institution, we identified 102 that were treated using unilateral radiotherapy techniques. All patients had their primary site of disease restricted to the tonsillar fossa or anterior pillar, with <1 cm involvement of the soft palate. Patients had TX (n = 17 patients), T1 (n = 52), or T2 (n = 33) disease, with Nx (n = 3), N0 (n = 33), N1 (n = 23), N2a (n = 21), or N2b (n = 22) neck disease. Results: Sixty-one patients (60%) underwent diagnostic tonsillectomy before radiotherapy. Twenty-seven patients (26%) underwent excision of a cervical lymph node or neck dissection before radiotherapy. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 38 months. Locoregional control at the primary site and ipsilateral neck was 100%. Two patients experienced contralateral nodal recurrence (2%). The 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 95% and 96%, respectively. The 5-year freedom from contralateral nodal recurrence rate was 96%. Nine patients required feeding tubes during therapy. Of the 2 patients with contralateral recurrence, 1 experienced an isolated neck recurrence and was salvaged with contralateral neck dissection only and remains alive and free of disease. The other patient presented with a contralateral base of tongue tumor and involved cervical lymph node, which may have represented a second primary tumor, and died of disease. Conclusions: Unilateral radiotherapy for patients with TX-T2, N0-N2b primary tonsil carcinoma results in high rates of disease control, with low rates of contralateral nodal failure and a low incidence of acute toxicity

  2. Epidemiology of clavicle fractures.

    PubMed

    Postacchini, Franco; Gumina, Stefano; De Santis, Pierfrancesco; Albo, Francesco

    2002-01-01

    An epidemiologic study of 535 isolated clavicle fractures treated in a hospital of a large metropolis during an 11-year period was performed. Data regarding patient's age and sex, side involved, mechanism of injury, and season in which the fracture occurred were obtained from the clinical records. Radiographic classification was performed with the Allman system. Clavicle fractures represented 2.6% of all fractures and 44% of those in the shoulder girdle. Most patients were men (68%), and the left side was involved in 61% of cases. Fractures of the middle third of the clavicle, which were the most common (81%), were displaced in 48% of cases and comminuted in 19%. Fractures of the medial third were the least common (2%). The prevalence of midclavicular fractures was found to decrease progressively with age, starting from the first decade of life when they represented 88.2% of all clavicle fractures and were undisplaced in 55.5% of cases. In adults, the incidence of displaced fractures, independent of location, was higher than that of undisplaced fractures. Traffic accidents were the most common cause of the injury. In the period under study, the incidence of fractures showed no significant change over time and no seasonal variation. PMID:12378163

  3. Unilateral coronal craniosynostosis in Abraham Lincoln and his family.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Ronald S

    2010-09-01

    Premature closure of one coronal skull suture produces a characteristic arching or relative elevation of the superior orbital rim on the involved side. This sign is associated with facial asymmetry, and both signs are usually the most conspicuous features in patients with mild unilateral coronal craniosynostosis. Photographs suggest that at least 9 individuals over 5 generations of the Abraham Lincoln family had premature closure of 1 coronal suture. In 8 males, there was involvement of the left side; in 1 female, there was involvement of the right side. PMID:20856045

  4. Subdural empyema and unilateral pansinusitis due to a tooth infection.

    PubMed

    Derin, Serhan; Sahan, Murat; Hazer, Derya Burcu; Sahan, Leyla

    2015-01-01

    Paranasal sinus infections are very common. Dental infections, tumours and anatomical malformations can cause unilateral sinusitis. Most cases can be treated without complications. However, rare life-threatening intracranial complications can occur. Generally, an intracranial complication progresses rapidly and can cause meningismus, focal neurological disorders, loss of consciousness and seizures. In such cases, an emergency craniotomy and concurrent sinus surgery are required. This article presents a 16-year-old patient with pansinusitis and subdural empyema that developed after a dental abscess. PMID:26123452

  5. [Unilateral Solar Maculopathy after Gazing at Solar Eclipse].

    PubMed

    Mehlan, J; Linke, S J; Wagenfeld, L; Steinberg, J

    2016-06-01

    A 43-year-old male patient with unilateral metamorphosia presented after gazing at an eclipse with only one eye. Damage of the macula was demonstrated funduscopically, with OCT and angiography. Six weeks after initial presentation and oral methylprednisolone therapy (40 mg/d for 10 days), the symptoms and the morphological changes decreased. Solar retinopathy is a photochemical alteration of the retina, usually seen after sun gazing. In younger patients, it mostly presents as bilateral solar maculopathy. Some patients exhibit partial or total recovery. PMID:27055491

  6. MRI and unilateral NMR study of reindeer skin tanning processes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lizheng; Del Federico, Eleonora; Ilott, Andrew J; Klokkernes, Torunn; Kehlet, Cindie; Jerschow, Alexej

    2015-04-01

    The study of arctic or subarctic indigenous skin clothing material, known for its design and ability to keep the body warm, provides information about the tanning materials and techniques. The study also provides clues about the culture that created it, since tanning processes are often specific to certain indigenous groups. Untreated skin samples and samples treated with willow (Salix sp) bark extract and cod liver oil are compared in this study using both MRI and unilateral NMR techniques. The two types of samples show different proton spatial distributions and different relaxation times, which may also provide information about the tanning technique and aging behavior. PMID:25719858

  7. Bilateral cerebellar dysfunctions in a unilateral meso-diencephalic lesion.

    PubMed Central

    von Cramon, D

    1981-01-01

    The clinical syndrome of a 65-year-old patient with a slit-shaped right-sided meso-diencephalic lesion was analysed. A cerebellar syndrome with limb-kinetic ataxia, intention tremor and hypotonicity in all extremities as well as ataxic dysarthria was found. The disruption of the two cerebello-(rubro)-thalamic pathways probably explained the signs of bilateral cerebellar dysfunction. The uncrossed ascending limb of the right, and the crossed one of the left brachium conjunctivum may have been damaged by the unilateral lesion extending between caudal midbrain and dorsal thalamus. Images PMID:7241166

  8. Large unilateral pleural effusion secondary to Moraxella catarrhalis infection.

    PubMed

    Naha, Kushal; Prabhu, Ravindra

    2011-01-01

    A 43-year-old male with chronic kidney disease on maintenance hemodialysis presented with breathlessness, cough and right-sided abdominal pain. Examination revealed a large right-sided pleural effusion and subsequent thoracocentesis yielded an exudate. Although the fluid culture was sterile, sputum culture produced Moraxella catarrhalis. Tuberculosis was ruled out by pleural fluid analysis and pleural biopsy. Antibiotics were administered and subsequent radiograms indicated resolution of the effusion. This is a rare case of a large unilateral pleural effusion secondary to M. catarrhalis infection in a nonsmoker with no pre-existing pulmonary pathology. PMID:23393539

  9. Unilateral cacosmia: a presentation of maxillary fungal infestation.

    PubMed

    Erskine, Sally E; Schelenz, Silke; Philpott, Carl M

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of long-standing unilateral cacosmia in a healthy 67-year-old man due to maxillary fungal infestation. Treatment with septoplasty had been attempted 10 years prior but no further investigation or management undertaken and symptoms continued. Subsequent MRI scan revealed significant opacification of the left maxillary sinus. This was readily amenable to treatment by balloon sinuplasty. This yielded viscous grey mucus which grew Scedosporium apiospermum. The case highlights the need for careful investigation of olfactory symptoms, including blood tests to exclude systemic causes, endoscopy and imaging where indicated. PMID:23563684

  10. Unilateral sudden hearing loss: a rare symptom of Moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Gül, Fatih; Berçin, Sami; Müderris, Togay; Yalçıner, Gökhan; Ünal, Özkan; Kırış, Muzaffer

    2016-01-01

    A 38-year-old female patient experienced a sudden onset of unilateral sensorineural hearing loss due to Moyamoya disease. A detailed summary of audiological and neurological findings indicated that the sudden hearing loss might be due to Moyamoya disease resulting in occlusion of posterior and middle cerebral arteries. Intravenous prednisolone and trimetazidine dihydrochloride may improve hearing thresholds and speech understanding. To our knowledge, this is the first article in the literature reporting a case of sudden hearing loss as the first manifestation of Moyamoya disease in a young adult. PMID:26890714

  11. Unilateral brain oedema related to focal status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Noura Abdulwahid; Palat Chirakkara, Sudhir Kumar; Reddy, Jagan Jinna; Sinha, Shobhit

    2013-01-01

    We present a female patient in her late 30s, with baseline vegetative state following prior traumatic brain injury, who presented with prolonged right hemispheric status epilepticus. The neuroimaging revealed a striking right-sided pancortical oedema with left (crossed) cerebellar diaschisis and dilation of right hemispheric arteries. EEG was concordant and showed nearly continuous right hemispheric seizure discharges with suppressed background. Infective and vascular aetiologies were ruled out. The patient showed clinical and electrographic improvement following treatment with antiepileptic drugs. Unilateral cerebral oedema is a rare presentation of focal status epilepticus, and should be considered as a differential diagnosis in the appropriate clinical scenario. PMID:24334523

  12. Three-dimensional evaluation of unilateral cleft rhinoplasty results.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Tatiana Katharina; Caughlin, Benjamin Patrick; Munaretto, Nicholas; Toriumi, Dean M

    2013-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging is a relatively new method of objectively evaluating surgical results, allowing the surgeon to accurately measure postsurgical changes with little inconvenience to the patient. Its accuracy and reliability has been consistently demonstrated in the literature. This article describes updated methods that we use with 3D imaging software to assess rhinoplasty results at our institution. The measurements described include the assessment of symmetry, tip projection, rotation, volume, width, and topographic width. We also apply these techniques to assess the surgical changes of patients with unilateral clefts who underwent secondary rhinoplasty performed by the senior author. PMID:23564242

  13. Mechanics of Hydraulic Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detournay, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic fractures represent a particular class of tensile fractures that propagate in solid media under pre-existing compressive stresses as a result of internal pressurization by an injected viscous fluid. The main application of engineered hydraulic fractures is the stimulation of oil and gas wells to increase production. Several physical processes affect the propagation of these fractures, including the flow of viscous fluid, creation of solid surfaces, and leak-off of fracturing fluid. The interplay and the competition between these processes lead to multiple length scales and timescales in the system, which reveal the shifting influence of the far-field stress, viscous dissipation, fracture energy, and leak-off as the fracture propagates.

  14. Long term results of open reduction management of condylar fracture: a 20 years follow-up. Case report.

    PubMed

    Farronato, G; Giannini, L; Galbiati, G; Maspero, C

    2012-10-01

    Management of condylar fracture may be surgical (open reduction) or non surgical (closed treatment). The age of the patient is a key factor in the choice of treatment. Condylar fracture requires early treatment to avoid ankylosis, to reduce facial deformity, aesthetic problems and functional disturbances. The protocol described in this case report showed excellent results and achieved all the treatment objectives. Early mobilization is the key in treating condylar fractures and to allow functional remodelling. It is important that every specialist should be able to suspect condylar fracture when facial asymmetry, joint problems, muscles pain, occlusion or nerve disorders develop after an injury. An early diagnosis can permit an early treatment that prevents esthetic and functional complications. The purpose of this article is to describe the long term clinical and radiological evaluation of unilateral condylar fracture in a teenager patient treated by condylectomy, physiotherapy and fixed appliance therapy. Twenty years follow-up records are presented. PMID:23076028

  15. Modeling of Interaction of Hydraulic Fractures in Complex Fracture Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kresse, O. 2; Wu, R.; Weng, X.; Gu, H.; Cohen, C.

    2011-12-01

    A recently developed unconventional fracture model (UFM) is able to simulate complex fracture network propagation in a formation with pre-existing natural fractures. Multiple fracture branches can propagate at the same time and intersect/cross each other. Each open fracture exerts additional stresses on the surrounding rock and adjacent fractures, which is often referred to as "stress shadow" effect. The stress shadow can cause significant restriction of fracture width, leading to greater risk of proppant screenout. It can also alter the fracture propagation path and drastically affect fracture network patterns. It is hence critical to properly model the fracture interaction in a complex fracture model. A method for computing the stress shadow in a complex hydraulic fracture network is presented. The method is based on an enhanced 2D Displacement Discontinuity Method (DDM) with correction for finite fracture height. The computed stress field is compared to 3D numerical simulation in a few simple examples and shows the method provides a good approximation for the 3D fracture problem. This stress shadow calculation is incorporated in the UFM. The results for simple cases of two fractures are presented that show the fractures can either attract or expel each other depending on their initial relative positions, and compares favorably with an independent 2D non-planar hydraulic fracture model. Additional examples of both planar and complex fractures propagating from multiple perforation clusters are presented, showing that fracture interaction controls the fracture dimension and propagation pattern. In a formation with no or small stress anisotropy, fracture interaction can lead to dramatic divergence of the fractures as they tend to repel each other. However, when stress anisotropy is large, the fracture propagation direction is dominated by the stress field and fracture turning due to fracture interaction is limited. However, stress shadowing still has a strong effect

  16. Fracture corridors in carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatelée, Sébastien; Lamarche, Juliette; Gauthier, Bertrand D. M.

    2015-04-01

    Among fractures, Fracture Corridors (FC) are anomalous structures made of highly persistent fracture clusters having a strong effect on multi-phase fluid flow in the subsurface. While mechanical and geological conditions for diffuse fracture systems are well constrained, FC genetic conditions remain a matter of questioning. FC can be localized in larger structures such as folds and fault zones but recent studies suggest that a large amount of fractures and FC also arise as distributed in the host rock and formed in tabular layers during burial with early rock mechanical differentiation. In addition, while the mechanical stratigraphy is of prime importance for fracture stratigraphy, it is still unknown which factor prevails on FC genesis among the local versus regional stress-state, the host rock mechanical stratigraphy or the sedimentary facies. We present a study of fractures in a 400×300 m wide quarry (Calvisson, SE France) dug in homogeneous marly limestones of Hauterivian age. The quarry exhibits diffuse fractures as well as 16 FC. The aim of this study is to reveal the genetics factor for FC development, their global geometry and internal morphologic variations, but also to clear the impact of fracture corridors on diffuse fracture. For that, we measured >2500 fractures (strike, dip, spacing, filling, aperture, etc.) and studied microstructures in 80 thin sections. We calculated fracture density and acquired LiDAR data with >90 million points with a resolution of 4 to 15mm. Diffuse fractures are organized as two perpendicular sets, a main set NE-SW-trending and minor set NW-SE-trending. The FC have the same trend, but the NW-SE trend prevail on the NE-SW one. The LiDAR acquisition allows to visualize the 3D lateral continuity with corridors with a minimal extension of 30m. We distinguish 4 internal morphologic types in FC, depending on fracture morphology, occurrence of breccia and number of zones. The types may occur in a single FC with a lateral transition

  17. The diagnosis of unilateral testicular obstruction in subfertile males.

    PubMed

    Hendry, W F; Parslow, J M; Stedronska, J; Wallace, D M

    1982-12-01

    Thirty-two subfertile males with sperms in the ejaculate and unilateral testicular obstruction are reported: the diagnosis was established by exploration of scrotum in 26, clinically in 2, 3 had had previous partially successful epididymovasostomies, and 1 had had an epispadias repair. The past medical history gave relevant information in 27 (84%), and useful findings were made on clinical examination in a further 3 cases. Fifteen patients had sperm counts over 20 million per ml, and 15 were less than 10 million per ml. Twenty-six (81%) had serum antisperm antibodies detected by tray agglutination test (TAT), 21 (81%) of whom had evidence of head-to-head (HH) agglutinins in pure or mixed form. Comparison with 162 vasectomised males and 160 naturally infertile males with antisperm antibodies showed that 55% of the former and 24% of the latter had HH agglutinins on TAT, differences that were highly significant on statistical analysis. Evidence of obstruction was found in 14 (37%) of 38 naturally infertile males with antisperm antibodies and HH or mixed agglutination, but only in 12 (10%) of 122 with TT agglutinins: this difference was also highly significant. Clinical history, physical examination and serum antisperm antibodies, especially if HH agglutinins are present, can suggest the possibility of unilateral testicular obstruction, but confirmation of the diagnosis requires exploration of scrotum. PMID:7150940

  18. Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Oueghlani, Evelyne; O'Sullivan, Eoin; Pavesio, Carlos E

    2010-10-01

    We describe the first two cases of diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN) in the UK successfully treated with albendazole. Two patients are described who presented with unilateral reduction in vision, with clusters of yellow-white retinal lesions fading and reappearing in new locations of the fundus over a period of weeks. Based on the clinical picture, the diagnosis of DUSN was made, even though no subretinal worm could be found. Both patients were treated with albendazole 400 mg daily for 30 days. After 4 weeks the vision in the affected eye improved to 6/9 in each patient and the retinal lesions resolved completely. Over a follow-up period of 28 months and 13 months respectively, there was no recurrence of any lesion and the vision was maintained. DUSN is a sight-threatening disease and the preservation of vision relies on early diagnosis and treatment. Laser photocoagulation of the worm is the treatment of choice, but this was not possible in either case, as no worm could be found; however, oral albendazole proved to be a safe and effective alternative treatment. PMID:20336350

  19. Multiple Unilateral Vestibular Schwannomas: Segmental NF2 or Sporadic Occurrence?

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Matthew L.; Gompel, Jamie J. Van

    2016-01-01

    Objective To report a case of a patient presenting with two separate unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VSs) without other stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Study Design This article discusses a case report and review of the literature. Setting Tertiary academic referral center. Participants A 41-year-old female was referred for evaluation of a left-sided 1.8-cm cerebellopontine angle tumor centered on the porus acusticus and a separate ipsilateral 3-mm intracanalicular tumor appearing to arise from the superior vestibular nerve. The patient denied a family history of NF2. Neurotologic examination was unremarkable and close review of magnetic resonance imaging did not find any other stigmata of NF2. Results The patient underwent left-sided retrosigmoid craniotomy with gross total resection of both tumors. Final pathology confirmed benign schwannoma. The INI1/SMARCB1 staining pattern did not suggest NF2 or schwannomatosis. Conclusions This is only the third report of a case with multiple unilateral VSs occurring in a patient without other features of NF2. Herein, the authors review the two other reports and discuss potential mechanisms for this rare phenomenon. PMID:27354931

  20. Acute Unilateral Vestibular Failure Does Not Cause Spatial Hemineglect

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Julian; Habs, Maximilian; Brandt, Thomas; Dieterich, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Visuo-spatial neglect and vestibular disorders have common clinical findings and involve the same cortical areas. We questioned (1) whether visuo-spatial hemineglect is not only a disorder of spatial attention but may also reflect a disorder of higher cortical vestibular function and (2) whether a vestibular tone imbalance due to an acute peripheral dysfunction can also cause symptoms of neglect or extinction. Therefore, patients with an acute unilateral peripheral vestibular failure (VF) were tested for symptoms of hemineglect. Methods Twenty-eight patients with acute VF were assessed for signs of vestibular deficits and spatial neglect using clinical measures and various common standardized paper-pencil tests. Neglect severity was evaluated further with the Center of Cancellation method. Pathological neglect test scores were correlated with the degree of vestibular dysfunction determined by the subjective visual vertical and caloric testing. Results Three patients showed isolated pathological scores in one or the other neglect test, either ipsilesionally or contralesionally to the VF. None of the patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of spatial hemineglect or extinction. Conclusions A vestibular tone imbalance due to unilateral failure of the vestibular endorgan does not cause spatial hemineglect, but evidence indicates it causes mild attentional deficits in both visual hemifields. PMID:26247469

  1. Unilateral facial myokymia in a dog with an intracranial meningioma.

    PubMed

    Holland, C T; Holland, J T; Rozmanec, M

    2010-09-01

    A 23-month-old castrated male Cavalier King Charles spaniel was evaluated because of a 6-month history of unusual rippling/undulating movements of the right facial muscles that were continuous and persisted during sleep. Neurological examination revealed narrowing of the right palpebral fissure and unilateral right-sided facial myokymia that was characterised by myokymic, and to a lesser degree, neuromyotonic discharges on concentric needle electromyographic examination. After persisting unchanged for almost 2.5 years from its onset, the facial myokymia gradually disappeared over a 6-month period concomitant with the emergence of a persistent ipsilateral facial paralysis and head tilt. At 5 years and 9 months after the first examination, signs of ipsilateral lacrimal, pharyngeal and laryngeal dysfunction became evident and the dog was euthanased. Postmortem examination identified a malignant (WHO grade III) meningioma in the right cerebellopontomedullary angle that compressed the ventrolateral cranial medulla, effaced the jugular foramen and internal acoustic meatus and extended into the facial canal of the petrous temporal bone. Novel findings were the unique observation of isolated unilateral facial myokymia preceding diagnosis of a meningioma affecting facial nerve function within the caudal cranial fossa and the remarkably long duration of neurological signs (75 months) attributable to the neoplasm. PMID:20726972

  2. [Surgical Therapy of Acquired Unilateral Diaphragmatic Paralysis: Indication and Results].

    PubMed

    Wiesemann, S; Haager, B; Passlick, B

    2016-09-01

    Unilateral elevation of the diaphragm may be due to various causes and requires further elucidation when the aetiology is unknown. Elevation of the diaphragm is often caused by diaphragmatic paralysis, either due to damage to the phrenic nerve or to the phrenic muscle. Patients typically complain of increased respiratory distress when lying down, bending or swimming. Basic diagnostic testing consists of a chest X-ray, as well as spirometry and computer tomography of the neck and chest. In many cases, no cause can be identified for the diaphragmatic paralysis. In symptomatic patients, diaphragm plication leads to fixation and thus to a reduction in the paradoxal respiratory movement of the paralysed diaphragm. In a large majority of studies, this results in significant and lasting improvement in vital capacity and respiratory distress. Spontaneous recovery of diaphragm paralysis is possible, even after several months, so a waiting period of at least 6 months should elapse before diaphragmatic plication is performed, if the clinical situation allows. The procedure can be performed minimally invasively, with low morbidity and mortality. When cutting the phrenic nerve, a nerve suture is recommended, if possible, or otherwise diaphragm plication during the procedure, especially in the case of pneumonectomy. This review provides an overview of the causes, pathophysiology, symptoms, diagnosis, therapy and results of diaphragmatic plication in acquired, unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis in adults, and suggests an algorithm for diagnostic testing and therapy. PMID:27607888

  3. Multiple Unilateral Vestibular Schwannomas: Segmental NF2 or Sporadic Occurrence?

    PubMed

    Carlson, Matthew L; Gompel, Jamie J Van

    2016-06-01

    Objective To report a case of a patient presenting with two separate unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VSs) without other stigmata of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). Study Design This article discusses a case report and review of the literature. Setting Tertiary academic referral center. Participants A 41-year-old female was referred for evaluation of a left-sided 1.8-cm cerebellopontine angle tumor centered on the porus acusticus and a separate ipsilateral 3-mm intracanalicular tumor appearing to arise from the superior vestibular nerve. The patient denied a family history of NF2. Neurotologic examination was unremarkable and close review of magnetic resonance imaging did not find any other stigmata of NF2. Results The patient underwent left-sided retrosigmoid craniotomy with gross total resection of both tumors. Final pathology confirmed benign schwannoma. The INI1/SMARCB1 staining pattern did not suggest NF2 or schwannomatosis. Conclusions This is only the third report of a case with multiple unilateral VSs occurring in a patient without other features of NF2. Herein, the authors review the two other reports and discuss potential mechanisms for this rare phenomenon. PMID:27354931

  4. The Computerized Table Setting Test for Detecting Unilateral Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Byoung Seok; Lee, Hye Sun; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Song, Dongbeom; Kim, Young Dae; Heo, Ji Hoe; Nam, Hyo Suk

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with unilateral neglect fail to respond normally to stimuli on the left side. To facilitate the evaluation of unilateral spatial neglect, we developed a new application that runs on a tablet device and investigated its feasibility in stroke patients. Methods We made the computerized table setting test (CTST) to run on the tablet computer. Forty acute ischemic stroke patients (20 patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect, 10 patients with right hemispheric infarction without neglect, and 10 patients with left hemispheric infarction) and 10 healthy controls were prospectively enrolled to validate the CTST. The test requires subjects to set a table by dragging 12 dishes located below the table on the tablet screen. The horizontal deviation of the 12 dishes from the midline of the table, the selection tendency measured by the sequence of the dish selection, and the elapsed time for table setting were calculated automatically. Results Parameters measured by the CTST were correlated with the results of conventional neglect tests. The horizontal deviation was significantly higher in patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect compared with the other groups. The selection tendency and elapsed time also were significantly different in patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect compared with the left hemispheric infarction and control groups, but were similar to those with right hemispheric infarction without neglect. Conclusions The CTST is feasible to administer and comparable with conventional neglect tests. This new application may be useful for the initial diagnosis and follow-up of neglect patients. PMID:26771512

  5. Unilateral recurrent pleural effusion in a renal transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Binnani, Pooja; Gupta, Ruchi; Kedia, Nikhil; Bahadur, M M

    2012-01-01

    Pleural effusion is a frequent complication in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). We report a patient on HD with a novel cause of recurrent unilateral pleural effusion. A 45-year-old female patient on long-term maintenance HD presented to us with recurrent unilateral pleural effusion. She had a history of poor quality dialysis, severe anemia and severe hypertension. Despite correcting these factors and even after undergoing successful renal transplantation, she continued to have recurrent effusion. Left upper extremity venography demonstrated severe stenosis of the subclavian vein and an increased venous flow in the ipsilateral arteriovenous (AV) fistula. Ligation of the AV fistula led to dramatic resolution of the pleural effusion. Hemodialysis patients who develop unexplained pleural effusions ipsilateral to a functioning AV fistula should be investigated for stenosis in the brachiocephalic vein, particularly those patients who have had previous catheterizations of the jugular or subclavian veins on the same side as the effusion. Correcting the stenosis by venous angioplasty and/or ligation of the ipsilateral fistula can dramatically resolve the pleural effusion. A high index of suspicion is required to diagnose this complication for meaningful intervention. PMID:22237229

  6. Unilateral Agenesis of the Lung: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Urvinderpal; Jhim, Daksh; Kumar, Sunil; Mittal, Vidhu; Singh, Navdeep; Gour, Hitesh; Ramaraj, Muralidharan

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 15 Final Diagnosis: Unilateral agenesis of the lung Symptoms: Sore throat with dry cough Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Cect of the chest and bronchoscopy Specialty: Pulmonology Objective: Congenital defects/diseases Background: Agenesis of the lung, a rare congenital anomaly, arises or develops when there is disruption of evolution of the primitive lung bud, leading to complete absence of the lung, bronchi, and the main pulmonary artery. With right-sided agenesis, a variety of cardiac and other congenital malformations are more commonly seen, leading to a poor prognosis. Case Report: A young female, aged 15 years, presented with complaints of sore throat and cough. Her x-ray of the chest showed a homogeneous opacity in the middle and lower zones on the right side with marked shift of the mediastinum to the right side. Upon investigation, she was diagnosed with agenesis of the right lung with scoliosis, without any other congenital anomaly. Conclusions: Especially in adults, it requires a high level of good clinical judgement to identify and diagnose this congenital aberration, as they are often wrongly diagnosed as more common diseases associated with unilateral opaque hemithorax on x-ray. Hence, when confronted with an opaque hemithorax with shift of the mediastinum to the affected side in a young person, “agenesis of the lung” should be an important differential diagnosis while investigating the case. PMID:25659613

  7. Altered Contralateral Auditory Cortical Morphology in Unilateral Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Wenliang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Li, Jing; Zhao, Xueyan; Mella, Grace; Lei, Ping; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Haha; Cheng, Huamao; Shi, Hong; Xu, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the cerebral gray matter volume alterations in unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients within the acute period by the voxel-based morphometry method, and to determine if hearing impairment is associated with regional gray matter alterations in unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients. Study Design: Prospective case study. Setting: Tertiary class A teaching hospital. Patients: Thirty-nine patients with left-side unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss and 47 patients with right-side unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Intervention: Diagnostic. Main Outcome Measure: To compare the regional gray matter of unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients and healthy control participants. Results: Compared with control groups, patients with left side unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss had significant gray matter reductions in the right middle temporal gyrus and right superior temporal gyrus, whereas patients with right side unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss showed gray matter decreases in the left superior temporal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus. A significant negative correlation with the duration of the sudden sensorineural hearing loss (R = −0.427, p = 0.012 for left-side unilateral SSNHL and R = −0.412, p = 0.013 for right-side unilateral SSNHL) was also found in these brain areas. There was no region with increased gray matter found in both groups of unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients. Conclusions: This study confirms that detectable decreased contralateral auditory cortical morphological changes have occurred in unilateral SSNHL patients within the acute period by voxel-based morphometry methods. The gray matter volumes of these brain areas also perform a negative correlation with the duration of the disease, which suggests a gradual brain structural impairment after the progression of the disease. PMID:26595717

  8. Stress fractures in athletes.

    PubMed

    Hulkko, A; Orava, S

    1987-06-01

    During the 14-year period of 1971-1985, 368 stress fractures in 324 athletes were treated. The series contained 268 fractures in males and 100 fractures in females; 32 fractures occurred in children (less than 16 years), 117 in adolescents (16-19 years), and 219 in adults. Forty-six fractures were incurred by athletes at an international level, 274 by athletes at a national or district level and 48 by recreational athletes. Of the total cases, 72% occurred to runners and a further 12% to athletes in other sports after running exercises. The distribution of the stress fractures by site was: tibia 182, metatarsal bones 73, fibula 44, big toe sesamoid bones 15, femoral shaft 14, femoral neck 9, tarsal navicular 9, pelvis 7, olecranon 5 and other bones 10. Of the total fractures, 342 were treated conservatively and 26 fractures required surgical treatment. The operative indication was dislocation in 5 cases and delayed union/nonunion in 21 cases. The sites most often affected by delayed union were: anterior midtibia, sesamoid bones of the big toe, base of the fifth metatarsal, olecranon, and tarsal navicular. The athletes at an international level experienced the greatest risk of multiple separate fractures, protracted healing, or fractures requiring surgery. PMID:3623785

  9. [Trochanteric femoral fractures].

    PubMed

    Douša, P; Čech, O; Weissinger, M; Džupa, V

    2013-01-01

    At the present time proximal femoral fractures account for 30% of all fractures referred to hospitals for treatment. Our population is ageing, the proportion of patients with post-menopausal or senile osteoporosis is increasing and therefore the number of proximal femoral fractures requiring urgent treatment is growing too. In the age category of 50 years and older, the incidence of these fractures has increased exponentially. Our department serves as a trauma centre for half of Prague and part of the Central Bohemia Region with a population of 1 150 000. Prague in particular has a high number of elderly citizens. Our experience is based on extensive clinical data obtained from the Register of Proximal Femoral Fractures established in 1997. During 14 years, 4280 patients, 3112 women and 1168 men, were admitted to our department for treatment of proximal femoral fractures. All patients were followed up until healing or development of complications. In the group under study, 82% were patients older than 70 years; 72% of those requiring surgery were in their seventies and eighties. Men were significantly younger than women (p<0.001) and represented 30% of the group. The fractures were 2.3-times more frequent in women than in men. In the category under 60 years, men significantly outnumbered women (p<0.001). The patients with pertrochanteric fractures were, on the average, eight years older than the patients with intertrochanteric fractures, which is a significant difference (p<0.001). The mortality rate within a year of injury was about 30%. Trochanteric fractures accounted for 54.7% and femoral neck fractures for 45.3% of all fractures. The inter-annual increase was 5.9%, with more trochanteric than femoral neck fractures. There was a non-significant decrease in intertrochanteric (AO 31-A3) fractures. On the other hand, the number of pertrochanteric (AO 31-A1+2) fractures increased significantly (p<0.001). A total of 1 394 fractures were treated with a proximal

  10. Growth, children, and fractures.

    PubMed

    Jones, Graeme

    2004-09-01

    Fractures in childhood have long been considered an unavoidable consequence of growth. Studies in recent years have documented the epidemiology of these very common fractures and have also documented considerable variation by fracture type and from country to country. There have also been a number of studies aimed at identifying risk factors particularly for the most common distal forearm fracture. These studies have consistently associated bone mineral density with these fractures. Other possible risk factors include obesity, physical inactivity, sports, cola beverages, calcium intake, risk taking, and coordination. While prospective studies are required to confirm these risk factors, accumulating evidence now suggests that a substantial proportion of fractures in children are preventable. PMID:16036086

  11. Song Recognition by Young Children with Cochlear Implants: Comparison between Unilateral, Bilateral, and Bimodal Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartov, Tamar; Most, Tova

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine song identification by preschoolers with normal hearing (NH) versus preschoolers with cochlear implants (CIs). Method: Participants included 45 children ages 3;8-7;3 (years;months): 12 with NH and 33 with CIs, including 10 with unilateral CI, 14 with bilateral CIs, and 9 bimodal users (CI-HA) with unilateral CI and…

  12. Preliminary speech recognition results after cochlear implantation in patients with unilateral hearing loss: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Cochlear implants known to provide support in individuals with bilateral hearing loss may also be of great benefit for individuals with unilateral hearing loss. This case report demonstrates the positive effects of cochlear implantation on speech understanding in noise conditions in patients with unilateral hearing loss and normal hearing on the contralateral side. To the best of our knowledge, the data presented here are from the first few cases to receive a cochlear implant for unilateral hearing loss. Case presentation Four Caucasian German men, two aged 48 and the others aged 51 and 57 years old, with post-lingual unilateral hearing loss and normal hearing on the contralateral side were implanted with a cochlear implant. All our patients were members of the German army. Before and after implantation, they were given a battery of speech tests in different hearing conditions to assess the effect of unilateral cochlear implantation on speech understanding in noise conditions. Test results showed that all patients benefited from unilateral cochlear implantation, particularly in terms of speech understanding in noise conditions. Conclusions Unilateral cochlear implantation might be a successful treatment method for patients with unilateral hearing loss not benefiting from alternative treatment options. The results of this case report open up the field of cochlear implantation for expanded criteria and new areas of research. PMID:21810235

  13. Motor Learning of a Bimanual Task in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Ya-Ching; Gordon, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    Children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) have been shown to improve their motor performance with sufficient practice. However, little is known about how they learn goal-oriented tasks. In the current study, 21 children with unilateral CP (age 4-10 years old) and 21 age-matched typically developed children (TDC) practiced a simple bimanual…

  14. A Magnetoencephalographic Study of Sensorimotor Activity Differences during Unilateral and Bilateral Forearm Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakagawa, Kei

    2010-01-01

    This study compared activation of the sensorimotor area using magnetoencephalography after unilateral and bilateral movements. Thirteen healthy individuals and a patient with mild hemiplegia performed unilateral and bilateral forearm pronation movements. Among healthy participants, there were no significant differences in motor-evoked field during…

  15. Bilateral Input Protects the Cortex from Unilaterally-Driven Reorganization in Children Who Are Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Karen A.; Wong, Daniel D. E.; Papsin, Blake C.

    2013-01-01

    Unilateral hearing in childhood restricts input along the bilateral auditory pathways, possibly causing permanent reorganization. In this study we asked: (i) do the auditory pathways develop abnormally in children who are bilaterally deaf and hear with a unilateral cochlear implant? and (ii) can such differences be reversed by restoring input to…

  16. Children with Mild Bilateral and Unilateral Hearing Loss: Parents' Reflections on Experiences and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Grandpierre, Viviane; Durieux-Smith, Andrée; Gaboury, Isabelle; Coyle, Doug; Na, Eunjung; Sallam, Nusaiba

    2016-01-01

    Children with mild bilateral and unilateral hearing loss are now commonly identified early through newborn hearing screening initiatives. There remains considerable uncertainty about how to support parents and about which services to provide for children with mild bilateral and unilateral hearing loss. The goal of this study was to learn about…

  17. 12 CFR 950.11 - Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock. 950.11 Section 950.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL... Housing Associates § 950.11 Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock. (a)...

  18. Differential Stability of Reciprocal Friendships and Unilateral Relationships among Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershman, Elaine S.; Hayes, Donald S.

    1983-01-01

    It was expected that reciprocal relationships would be maintained more frequently across a six-month interval than would unilateral ones. Of secondary concern was the question of whether the dimensions children offered to justify their friendships would remain more stable for reciprocal than unilateral relationships. (RH)

  19. Unilateral enlargement of the testis in childhood: does it need exploration?

    PubMed

    MacMahon, R A; Cussen, L J

    1991-01-01

    Unilateral testicular enlargement in the pubertal boy is not an indication for exploration and biopsy, if the clinical features and investigations show no evidence of malignancy. In the prepubertal boy, unilateral testicular enlargement is not necessarily an indication for exploration if there are no clinical or investigational grounds for suspicion of neoplasia. Close follow-up is essential. PMID:2005529

  20. Longitudinal Development of Hand Function in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmefur, Marie; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Bergstrom, Jakob; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe how the usefulness of the hemiplegic hand develops in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) aged between 18 months and 8 years. Method: A prospective longitudinal study of 43 children (22 males, 21 females) with unilateral CP was conducted. Inclusion age was 18 months to 5 years 4 months (mean 2y…

  1. Unilateral septic sacro-iliitis. Importance of the anterior view of the bone scan

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Balachandran, S.

    1983-09-01

    Two cases of unilateral septic sacro-iliitis are reported. Importance of the anterior view of sacroiliac joints on the radionuclide bone scan is stressed. Limitation of the posterior view in evaluation of sacroiliac joints may lead to misdiagnosis and false negative results in unilateral sacro-illiac disease.

  2. Fracture tooth fragment reattachment

    PubMed Central

    Maitin, Nitin; Maitin, Shipra Nangalia; Rastogi, Khushboo; Bhushan, Rajarshi

    2013-01-01

    Coronal fractures of the anterior teeth are a common form of dental trauma and its sequelae may impair the establishment and accomplishment of an adequate treatment plan. Among the various treatment options, reattachment of a crown fragment is a conservative treatment that should be considered for crown fractures of anterior teeth. This clinical case reports the management of two coronal tooth fracture cases that were successfully treated using tooth fragment reattachment using glass-fibre-reinforced composite post. PMID:23853012

  3. The unilateral urogenital anomalies (UUA) rat: a new mutant strain associated with unilateral renal agenesis, cryptorchidism, and malformations of reproductive organs restricted to the left side.

    PubMed

    Amakasu, Kohei; Suzuki, Katsushi; Suzuki, Hiroetsu

    2009-06-01

    We established an inbred rat strain with unilateral urogenital anomalies from an incidentally identified male rat with unilateral renal agenesis and an undescended left testis. These rats were characterized by unilateral renal agenesis in both sexes, undescended testes with agenesis and hypoplasia of the accessory sex organs in male rats, and complete and partial agenesis of the uterine horn in female rats. All of these urogenital anomalies were unilateral and restricted to the left side; we named this phenotype unilateral urogenital anomalies (UUA). Breeding tests showed that these abnormalities were inherited as polygenic traits. The weight of right kidneys of affected rats was 1.7-fold higher than that of normal rats; histologically, glomerulosclerosis, tubular dilations, and tubular casts were detected at 30 wk of age. These alterations may have resulted from compensatory renal adaptation to the lack of 1 kidney. The cryptorchid left testes of affected male rats showed atrophy of seminiferous tubules and degeneration of spermatocytes and spermatids. These results indicate that the UUA rat may be a good model to study the etiology of unilateral renal agenesis accompanied by agenesis of the reproductive tract and to study compensatory alterations resulting from the congenital loss of 1 kidney. PMID:19619415

  4. Pathological fractures in children

    PubMed Central

    De Mattos, C. B. R.; Binitie, O.; Dormans, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Pathological fractures in children can occur as a result of a variety of conditions, ranging from metabolic diseases and infection to tumours. Fractures through benign and malignant bone tumours should be recognised and managed appropriately by the treating orthopaedic surgeon. The most common benign bone tumours that cause pathological fractures in children are unicameral bone cysts, aneurysmal bone cysts, non-ossifying fibromas and fibrous dysplasia. Although pathological fractures through a primary bone malignancy are rare, these should be recognised quickly in order to achieve better outcomes. A thorough history, physical examination and review of plain radiographs are crucial to determine the cause and guide treatment. In most benign cases the fracture will heal and the lesion can be addressed at the time of the fracture, or after the fracture is healed. A step-wise and multidisciplinary approach is necessary in caring for paediatric patients with malignancies. Pathological fractures do not have to be treated by amputation; these fractures can heal and limb salvage can be performed when indicated. PMID:23610658

  5. Fracture detection logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Benzing, William M.

    1992-06-09

    A method and apparatus by which fractured rock formations are identified and their orientation may be determined includes two orthogonal motion sensors which are used in conjunction with a downhole orbital vibrator. The downhole vibrator includes a device for orienting the sensors. The output of the sensors is displayed as a lissajou figure. The shape of the figure changes when a subsurface fracture is encountered in the borehole. The apparatus and method identifies fractures rock formations and enables the azimuthal orientation of the fractures to be determined.

  6. Capitellar and Trochlear Fractures.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Michael J; Athwal, George S; King, Graham J W; Faber, Kenneth J

    2015-11-01

    Fractures of the capitellum and trochlea account for a small proportion of elbow trauma. Clinicians need to be vigilant in their assessment as they are commonly associated with other injuries about the elbow. To optimize outcomes, the goals of management include a stable, anatomic reduction and early range of motion. Closed reduction of noncomminuted fractures may be successful but requires close follow-up. Open reduction and internal fixation is the preferred management of displaced capitellum-trochlear fractures. Elbow stiffness is the most commonly reported complication in operatively treated fractures. Arthroscopic-assisted reduction and internal fixation and arthroplasty are evolving management options. PMID:26498550

  7. Unilateral cross bite treated by corticotomy-assisted expansion: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background True unilateral posterior crossbite in adults is a challenging malocclusion to treat. Conventional expansion methods are expected to have some shortcomings. The aim of this paper is to introduce a new technique for treating unilateral posterior crossbite in adults, namely, corticotomy-assisted expansion (CAE) applied on two adult patients: one with a true unilateral crossbite and the other with an asymmetrical bilateral crossbite, both treated via modified corticotomy techniques and fixed orthodontic appliances. Methods Two cases with asymmetric maxillary constriction were treated using CAE. Results In both cases, effective asymmetrical expansion was achieved using CAE, and functional occlusion was established as well. Conclusions Unilateral CAE presents an effective and reliable technique to treat true unilateral crossbite. PMID:20482859

  8. Orbital Wall Restoring Surgery in Pure Blowout Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Nam Kyu; Oh, Sang Ah; Gu, Ja Hea

    2014-01-01

    Background Restoring orbital volume in large blowout fractures is still a technically challenge to the orbital surgeon. In this study, we restored the orbital wall using the combination of transorbital and transnasal approach with additional supports from the paranasal sinuses, and we compared the surgical outcome to that of a conventional transorbital method. Methods A retrospective review of all patients with pure unilateral blowout fractures between March 2007 and March 2013 was conducted. 150 patients were classified into two groups according to the surgical method: conventional transorbital method (group A, 75 patients, control group), and the combination of transorbital and transnasal approach with additional supports from the paranasal sinuses (group B, 75 patients, experimental group). Each group was subdivided depending on fracture location: group I (inferior wall), group IM (inferomedial wall), and group M (medial wall). The surgical results were assessed by the Hertel scale and a comparison of preoperative and postoperative orbital volume ratio (OVR) values. Results In the volumetric analysis, the OVR decreased more by the experimental groups than each corresponding control groups (P<0.05). Upon ophthalmic examination, neither the differences among the groups in the perioperative Hertel scale nor the preoperative and postoperative Hertel scales were statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusions Our surgical results suggest that orbital volume was more effectively restored by the combination of transorbital and transnasal approach with additional supports from the paranasal sinuses than the conventional method, regardless of the type of fracture. PMID:25396181

  9. Pterygoid Plate Fractures: Not Limited to Le Fort Fractures.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ravi K; Alsheik, Nila H; Afifi, Ahmed M; Gentry, Lindell R

    2015-09-01

    Pterygoid plate fractures are often described in the setting of Le Fort fractures. The goal of this study was to define other craniofacial fracture patterns causing injury to the pterygoid plates. A retrospective review of computed tomography (CT) scans obtained on craniofacial trauma patients over a 5-year period revealed 209 patients with pterygoid plate fractures. Pterygoid plate fractures in 78 patients (37.3%) were unrelated to Le Fort fractures. Common causes included sphenotemporal buttress fractures in 26 patients (33.3%), temporal bone fractures in 18 patients (23.1%), zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures in 17 patients (21.8%), and displaced mandible fractures in 14 patients (17.9%). These findings indicate that approximately one third of pterygoid plate fractures do not result from Le Fort pattern injuries and that the craniofacial surgeon should have a broad differential for causes of pterygoid plate fractures when reviewing trauma imaging. PMID:26147022

  10. Asymptomatic Unilateral Hyperlucent Lung in a Prospective Kidney Donor.

    PubMed

    Lunia, Prajay; Karkhanis, Vinaya; Joshi, J M

    2015-09-01

    A 50 year old lady, prospective kidney donor was referred to our department for opinion in view of abnormal clinical findings during preoperative evaluation. She was asymptomatic from respiratory point of view. Her vital parameters were normal and on auscultation found to have decreased breath sounds and fine crackles throughout left hemithorax. Chest x-ray (CXR) showed left sided hyperlucency with small hilum (Figure 1). High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) showed scattered areas of bronchiectasis with associated air trapping throughout left lung with small left pulmonary artery (Figure 2). Sputum for acid fast bacilli (AFB) was negative. Spirometry showed moderate obstructive abnormality with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) - 51% predicted, forced vital capacity (FVC) - 60% and FEV1/FVC - 76% with no bronchodilator reversibility. On post bronchodilator study there was paradoxical fall in FEV1/FVC to 72% consistent with small airway disease. Arterial blood gas analysis was normal. Technetium (Tc) 99m MAA lung perfusion scan (Figure3) showed normal perfusion of right lung contributing 75.4% of relative function and left lung contributing only 24.6%. Diagnosis of Swyer-James-MacLeod syndrome (SJMS) probably due to a childhood viral infection was made. Operative complications in such cases like difficult weaning and extubation, post-operative respiratory infections, collapse and respiratory failure are likely. However, our patient had an uneventful operative and post-operative course. SJMS is characterized by unilateral hyperlucency of a part of or the entire lung which was first described in 1953 by Swyer and James and later in 1954 by Macleod.1,2 It is considered to be an acquired disease as a result of post-infectious obliterative bronchiolitis. Productive cough, shortness of breath and sometimes hemoptysis are presenting symptoms. Some patients are asymptomatic and not diagnosed until they are adults.3 Radiologically it presents as predominant

  11. Unusual Presentation of Unilateral Isolated Probable Lyme Optic Neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Burakgazi, Ahmet Z.; Henderson, Carl S.

    2016-01-01

    Optic neuritis (ON) is one of the most common manifestations of central nervous system involvement caused by various etiologies. Lyme ON is an exceedingly rare ocular manifestation of Lyme disease (LD) and only a few cases have been published in the literature. Lyme ON is very rare but should be included in the differential diagnosis in unexplained cases, particularly in Lyme endemic areas. Careful and detailed examination and investigation are warranted to make the diagnosis. We report this case to increase awareness of clinicians to include Lyme disease in differential diagnosis of ON for unexplained cases of ON. Herein we present a unique case with a unilateral ON caused by LD along with pre- and posttreatment findings and literature review. PMID:26953086

  12. The problem of macular sparing after unilateral occipital lesions.

    PubMed

    Sugishita, M; Hemmi, I; Sakuma, I; Beppu, H; Shiokawa, Y

    1993-11-01

    Whether or not unilateral occipital damage produces sparing of central vision, namely macular sparing, is controversial. We tested two subjects with left occipital lesions by means of fundus perimetry combined with fundus image analysis. This method made it possible to measure the distance of the stimulus projected on the retina from the foveal centre defined as the centre of the foveal reflex. The results indicated that macular sparing, if it exists, must be less than 0.4 degree wide. Two of the four eyes during the stimulus presentation often but not always showed eccentric fixation of a small magnitude, whose mean was less than 0.6 degree from the foveal centre in the right hemiretina. PMID:8138815

  13. Overexpanded viscous supersonic jet interacting with a unilateral barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrynin, B. M.; Maslennikov, V. G.; Sakharov, V. A.; Serova, E. V.

    1986-07-01

    The interaction of a two-dimensional supersonic jet with a unilateral barrier parallel to the flow symmetry plane was studied to account for effects due to gas viscosity and backgound-gas ejection from the region into which the jet expands. In the present experiments, the incident shock wave was reflected at the end of a shock tube equipped with a nozzle. The jet emerged into a pressure chamber 6 cu m in volume and the environmental pressure ratio of the flow in the quasi-stationary phase remained constant. The light source was an OGM-20 laser operating in the giant-pulse mode. Due to background-gas ejection, the gas density in the vicinity of the barrier is much less than on the unconfined side of the jet. The resulting flow is characterized by two distinct environmental pressure ratios: the flow is underexpanded near the barrier, while on the other side it is overexpanded.

  14. Apparatus for unilateral generation of a homogeneous magnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Fukushima, Eiichi; Rath, Alan R.; Roeder, Stephen B. W.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for unilaterally producing a substantially homogeneous magnetic field. The apparatus includes two circular electromagnet coils, a small coil and a large coil, which are coaxial with one another and which are separated by a distance equal to one-half the difference in the radius of the two coils. By appropriate selection of electrical currents, which are passed through the coil in opposite directions, a region of homogeneous magnetic field is formed. This region is centered on the common axis of the two coils, at a point on the axis which is at a distance from the small coil equal to one-half the radius of the small coil, and which is on the opposite side of the small coil from the large coil. The apparatus has particular application in the field of diagnostic medical NMR and other NMR applications.

  15. Unusual Presentation of Unilateral Isolated Probable Lyme Optic Neuritis.

    PubMed

    Burakgazi, Ahmet Z; Henderson, Carl S

    2016-01-01

    Optic neuritis (ON) is one of the most common manifestations of central nervous system involvement caused by various etiologies. Lyme ON is an exceedingly rare ocular manifestation of Lyme disease (LD) and only a few cases have been published in the literature. Lyme ON is very rare but should be included in the differential diagnosis in unexplained cases, particularly in Lyme endemic areas. Careful and detailed examination and investigation are warranted to make the diagnosis. We report this case to increase awareness of clinicians to include Lyme disease in differential diagnosis of ON for unexplained cases of ON. Herein we present a unique case with a unilateral ON caused by LD along with pre- and posttreatment findings and literature review. PMID:26953086

  16. Isolated unilateral oculomotor nerve palsy due to head trauma

    PubMed Central

    Erenler, Ali Kemal; Yalçın, Anıl; Baydin, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral oculomotor nerve palsy is a rare and challenging condition for both emergency department (ED) physicians and neurosurgeons. In this report, we present you a case of head trauma with oculomotor nerve palsy whose initial neuroimaging findings were normal. A 50-year-old female presented to our ED due to head trauma secondary to fall from height. On her physical examination, ptosis, minimal lateral deviation, and dilated pupilla unresponsive to the light were determined in the left eye. A computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were performed and both were found to be normal. Patient was consulted with an ophthalmologist and any sign of direct trauma to the eye was not determined. Then, the patient was consulted with a neurosurgeon and hospitalized. In some rare instances, minor traumas to the head may result in isolated oculomotor nerve palsy without accompanying findings. Neurosurgeons and ED physicians must be careful about this rare condition. PMID:26396626

  17. Apparatus for unilateral generation of a homogeneous magnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Fukushima, E.; Rath, A.R.; Roeder, S.B.W.

    1984-05-01

    An apparatus for unilaterally producing a substantially homogeneous magnetic field. The apparatus includes two circular electromagnet coils, a small coil and a large coil, which are coaxial with one another and which are separated by a distance equal to one-half the difference in the radius of the two coils. By appropriate selection of electrical currents, which are passed through the coils in opposite directions, a region of homogeneous magnetic field is formed. This region is centered on the common axis of the two coils, at a point on the axis which is at a distance from the small coil equal to one-half the radius of the small coil, and which is on the opposite side of the small coil from the large coil. The apparatus has particular application in the field of diagnostic medical NMR and other NMR applications.

  18. Adaptations to unilateral lower limb suspension in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Gary A.; Duvoisin, Marc R.; Adams, Gregory R.; Meyer, Ronald A.; Belew, Anne H.; Buchanan, Paul

    1992-01-01

    The effect of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS) on neuromuscular function in humans is analyzed. All ambulatory activity on crutches was performed by eight subjects for 6 weeks who wear a shoe with a 10 cm sole on the right foot to unweight the left lower limb. Results show that average muscle cross sectional area (CSA) of the left knee extensor (KE) decreased 16 percent whereas the KE of the nonsuspended right limb showed no changes. Maximal integrated electromyography of vastus lateralis and overall mean power frequency of gastrocnemius medialis and soleus for submaximal isometric actions were both decreased post-ULLS. It is concluded that six weeks of ULLS induces adaptations in the neuromuscular system of humans which are comparable to those induced by bed rest and spaceflight.

  19. Non Functional Unilateral Adrenal Myelolipoma, A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Athanikar, Vidisha S.; Dinesh, U S; Nanjappa, Bhuvnesh; Patil, Preetam B.

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal myelolipoma is characterized by presence within the adrenal gland of mature adipose tissue and active bone marrow elements. Owing to their non functional nature most cases are incidental, either at autopsy or through computer tomography scan. Occasionally the lesions attain a large size to become clinically apparent. We present a case of a 58-year-old female with mass per abdomen. Preoperative computer tomography scan of abdomen, hormonal and urine analysis showed features of non functional adrenal myelolipoma. Gross specimen consists of unilateral ovoid mass, external surface having capsule with adherent fat and areas of congestion. Microscopic examination showed well encapsulated tumour tissue composed of mature adipose tissue with major blood forming elements like myeloid, erythroid and megakaryocytic series. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination of right sided adrenalectomy specimen. PMID:26266130

  20. Unilateral optical nerve hypoplasia in a Beagle dog.

    PubMed

    Negishi, H; Hoshiya, T; Tsuda, Y; Doi, K; Kanemaki, N

    2008-07-01

    Unilateral (left eye) optic nerve hypoplasia was detected in a six-month-old male Beagle dog. Vision testing indicated that the left eye had poor vision and testing the pupillary light reflex showed the left eye to have an absence of the afferent pathway of the reflex but it had a normal efferent pathway. Ophthalmoscopy revealed a small-sized optic disc, winding retinal artery and dilated retinal vasculature in the left globe. Electroretinography showed no abnormal findings even in the left globe. Histopathologically, the left optic nerve was markedly hypoplastic and was composed of sparse neural elements and a moderate amount of connective and glial tissues. In the retina of the left globe, the nerve fibre layer and the ganglion cell layer were reduced in thickness, although a small number of ganglion cells were still present. There were no abnormal findings detected in the right globe and the right optic nerve. The brain appeared normal macroscopically. PMID:18625594

  1. Unilateral sagittal split mandibular ramus osteotomy: indications and geometry.

    PubMed

    Beukes, Jacques; Reyneke, Johan P; Damstra, Janalt

    2016-02-01

    Small mandibular asymmetries may be corrected by unilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (USSO). This study had two objectives: first to define the geometric changes in the mandibular condyle and the lower incisor teeth that result from the rotation of the major segment (n=26), and secondly to examine in a clinical study the temporomandibular joints (TMJ) of 23 patients after correction of mandibular asymmetry by USSO to find out if there were any long-term adverse effects. Small mandibular asymmetries (<5mm) can be corrected by USSO. Secondary anteroposterior changes as a result of setback or advancement on the operated side should be taken into account during the planning of treatment. The small rotational changes of the condyle did not adversely affect the TMJ. PMID:26774360

  2. Isolated Unilateral Ptosis due to Paramedian Midbrain Infarction.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Eriko; Nakamura, Haruko; Endo, Masanao; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Tatsuya

    2015-05-01

    A 59-year-old man who had hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and left eye glaucoma developed sudden vertigo and left ptosis; he did not notice diplopia. He visited our hospital on day 3 after onset and neurologic examination showed left ptosis. His left visual acuity was counting fingers, and the light reflex was sluggish owing to glaucoma. Pupil sizes were equal, and eye movements and the lower lid were unremarkable. Magnetic resonance images revealed an acute infarction of the left paramedian midbrain. We considered that selective damage to the oculomotor fascicles innervating the left levator palpebrae superioris caused ipsilateral ptosis. As the fascicles for this ocular muscle run in the small area adjacent to those for the medial rectus, inferior rectus and superior rectus muscles, this is an extremely rare case of midbrain infarction presenting with isolated unilateral ptosis. PMID:25817621

  3. [Unilateral, paramedian spinal contusion after athletic injury with complete recovery].

    PubMed

    Ebert, B; Badke, A

    1995-03-01

    The acute injury of the spinal column and the spinal cord asks for immediate diagnostic techniques and adequate therapeutical intensive care in order to secure the possibility of a maximum of neurologic recovery. An impact trauma of the spinal cord in sports accidents can cause an incomplete paraplegia. In some cases, morphologic lesions of the myelon cannot be detected. We present an exceptional and striking case of a 15-year old young woman who suffered from a contusio spinalis after high jump with the clinical signs of an incomplete, sensomotoric paraplegia which showed a strictly unilateral and paramedian border at the right side of her body for about two weeks. Additionally, the diagnostic possibilities of physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and neurophysiologic diagnostic techniques in detecting spinal cord injuries are demonstrated. PMID:7778020

  4. Complex reinnervation pattern after unilateral renal denervation in rats.

    PubMed

    Rodionova, Kristina; Fiedler, Christian; Guenther, Franziska; Grouzmann, Eric; Neuhuber, Winfried; Fischer, Michael J M; Ott, Christian; Linz, Peter; Freisinger, Wolfgang; Heinlein, Sonja; Schmidt, Stephanie T; Schmieder, Roland E; Amann, Kerstin; Scrogin, Karie; Veelken, Roland; Ditting, Tilmann

    2016-05-01

    Renal denervation (DNX) is a treatment for resistant arterial hypertension. Efferent sympathetic nerves regrow, but reinnervation by renal afferent nerves has only recently been shown in the renal pelvis of rats after unilateral DNX. We examined intrarenal perivascular afferent and sympathetic efferent nerves after unilateral surgical DNX. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), CGRP, and smooth muscle actin were identified in kidney sections from 12 Sprague-Dawley rats, to distinguish afferents, efferents, and vasculature. DNX kidneys and nondenervated kidneys were examined 1, 4, and 12 wk after DNX. Tissue levels of CGRP and norepinephrine (NE) were measured with ELISA and mass spectrometry, respectively. DNX decreased TH and CGRP labeling by 90% and 95%, respectively (P < 0.05) within 1 wk. After 12 wk TH and CGRP labeling returned to baseline with a shift toward afferent innervation (P < 0.05). Nondenervated kidneys showed a doubling of both labels within 12 wk (P < 0.05). CGRP content decreased by 72% [3.2 ± 0.3 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2 ng/gkidney; P < 0.05] and NA by 78% [1.1 ± 0.1 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1 pmol/mgkidney; P < 0.05] 1 wk after DNX. After 12 wk, CGRP, but not NE, content in DNX kidneys was fully recovered, with no changes in the nondenervated kidneys. The use of phenol in the DNX procedure did not influence this result. We found morphological reinnervation and transmitter recovery of afferents within 12 wk after DNX. Despite morphological evidence of sympathetic regrowth, NE content did not fully recover. These results suggest a long-term net surplus of afferent influence on the DNX kidney may be contributing to the blood pressure lowering effect of DNX. PMID:26911463

  5. Radioimmunoassay of inhibin: serum responses to unilateral and bilateral orchidectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Schanbacher, B.

    1988-11-01

    An overnight double antibody RIA using a rabbit antiserum to porcine inhibin alpha-chain (Tyr30) (1-30) NH2 (pI alpha(1-30)), radioiodinated pI alpha(1-30), and a preprecipitated second antibody complex has been developed to measure inhibin concentrations in sera and other biological fluids. The assay is accurate, precise (intraassay coefficient of variation, 4.8%), sensitive (25 pM; 2.5 fmol/tube), and specific for inhibin. The synthetic reference standard pI alpha(1-30) produced a displacement curve that paralleled intact male ovine and bovine sera, crude bovine follicular fluid, and a partially purified porcine follicular fluid reference preparation (WHO/NIH 86/690). Bilateral castration of prepubertal and postpubertal ram lambs resulted in a rapid decrease in serum inhibin concentrations and a subsequent increase in serum FSH. Inhibin levels were high in prepubertal lambs (approximately 375 pM), but these levels were not sustained near the time of puberty (approximately 180 pM). Intensive sampling by jugular venipuncture after castration indicated a 50% drop in circulating inhibin levels within 2 h of testes removal with chronic castrate levels (approximately 75 pM) achieved by 6 h postcastration. A rapid fall in circulating levels of inhibin was also observed after unilateral castration, but these values stabilized within hours to levels intermediate (i.e. approximately 200 pM) to those of intact and bilateral castrate rams. Hemicastrates exhibited a more subtle rise in serum FSH after testis removal, with FSH and inhibin levels of prepubertal hemicastrates returning to mature intact ram values by 15 weeks of age. Serum inhibin levels remained low and FSH levels high at 14 days in unilateral castrate postpubertal rams. Inhibin immunoreactivity increased abruptly in castrate ewes and rams injected iv with 5 ml bovine follicular fluid.

  6. Emotional Perception of Music in Children with Unilateral Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Shirvani, Sareh; Jafari, Zahra; Sheibanizadeh, Abdolreza; Motasaddi Zarandy, Masoud; Jalaie, Shohre

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cochlear implantation (CI) improves language skills among children with hearing loss. However, children with CIs still fall short of fulfilling some other needs, including musical perception. This is often attributed to the biological, technological, and acoustic limitations of CIs. Emotions play a key role in the understanding and enjoyment of music. The present study aimed to investigate the emotional perception of music in children with bilaterally severe-to-profound hearing loss and unilateral CIs. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five children with congenital severe-to-profound hearing loss and unilateral CIs and 30 children with normal hearing participated in the study. The children’s emotional perceptions of music, as defined by Peretz (1998), were measured. Children were instructed to indicate happy or sad feelings fostered in them by the music by pointing to pictures of faces showing these emotions. Results: Children with CI obtained significantly lower scores than children with normal hearing, for both happy and sad items of music as well as in overall test scores (P<0.001). Furthermore, both in CI group (P=0.49) and the control one (P<0.001), the happy items were more often recognized correctly than the sad items. Conclusion: Hearing-impaired children with CIs had poorer emotional perception of music than their normal peers. Due to the importance of music in the development of language, cognitive and social interaction skills, aural rehabilitation programs for children with CIs should focus particularly on music. Furthermore, it is essential to enhance the quality of musical perception by improving the quality of implant prostheses. PMID:25320700

  7. Bilateral Anterior Fracture-Dislocation of Shoulder Joint- A rare case with Delayed Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Sunku, Nithin; Kalaiah, Kiran; Marulasidappa, G.; Gopinath, P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The shoulder is the most frequently dislocated joint. Bilateral glenohumeral dislocations are rare and almost always posterior. Bilateral anterior fracture dislocations of humeral neck in a patient with seizure are extremely rare. We report one such case of delayed presentation of bilateral anterior fracture dislocation of shoulder after an epileptic attack. Case Report: We describe a rare case of 30 year old gentleman who presented with first episode of seizure following alcohol withdrawal. Physical examination and radiographic assessment revealed fracture dislocation of bilateral proximal humeri (4 part fracture on right side and two part fracture on left). Patient presented 20 days after injury during which he was treated by local osteopath by immobilization and massage. Open reduction and internal fixation with simple T plate was done on right side and multiple K – wires were used on left side. At one year follow up the patient had acceptable range and was able to carry out daily activities. Conclusions: Bilateral anterior fracture dislocation of shoulder behave similar to unilateral fracture dislocations and treatment needs to be planned appropriately. Even in cases with delayed presentation good results can be achieved

  8. Plate versus titanium elastic nail in treatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Partha; Datta, Prasenjit; Ayan, Saankritya; Garg, Anant Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Utpal; Kundu, Srikanta

    2014-01-01

    Background: With changing trends in treatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures (DMCF), plating remains the standard procedure for fixation. An attracting alternative method of fixation is the titanium elastic nailing (TEN). However, prospective randomized studies comparing the two methods of fixation are lacking. We assessed the effectiveness of minimally invasive antegrade TEN and plating technique for the treatment of DMCF. Materials and Methods: 80 unilateral displaced midclavicular fractures operated between October 2010 and May 2013 were included in study. This prospective comparative study was approved by the local ethical committee. Followups were at 2nd and 6th weeks and subsequently at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months postoperatively. Primary outcome was measured by the Constant score, union rate and difference in clavicular length after fracture union. Secondary outcome was measured by operative time, intraoperative blood loss, wound size, cosmetic results and complications. Results: During analysis, we had 37 patients in the plate group and 34 patients in the TEN group. There was no significant difference in Constant scores between the two groups. However, faster fracture union, lesser operative time, lesser blood loss, easier implant removal and fewer complications were noted in the TEN group. Conclusion: The use of minimally invasive antegrade TEN for fixation of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures is recommended in view of faster fracture union, lesser morbidity, better cosmetic results, easier implant removal and fewer complications; although for comminuted fractures plating remains the procedure of choice. PMID:25404771

  9. TIBIAL SHAFT FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Kodi Edson; Ferreira, Ramon Venzon

    2015-01-01

    The long-bone fractures occur most frequently in the tibial shaft. Adequate treatment of such fractures avoids consolidation failure, skewed consolidation and reoperation. To classify these fractures, the AO/OTA classification method is still used, but it is worthwhile getting to know the Ellis classification method, which also includes assessment of soft-tissue injuries. There is often an association with compartmental syndrome, and early diagnosis can be achieved through evaluating clinical parameters and constant clinical monitoring. Once the diagnosis has been made, fasciotomy should be performed. It is always difficult to assess consolidation, but the RUST method may help in this. Radiography is assessed in two projections, and points are scored for the presence of the fracture line and a visible bone callus. Today, the dogma of six hours for cleaning the exposed fracture is under discussion. It is considered that an early start to intravenous antibiotic therapy and the lesion severity are very important. The question of early or late closure of the lesion in an exposed fracture has gone through several phases: sometimes early closure has been indicated and sometimes late closure. Currently, whenever possible, early closure of the lesion is recommended, since this diminishes the risk of infection. Milling of the canal when the intramedullary nail is introduced is still a controversial subject. Despite strong personal positions in favor of milling, studies have shown that there may be some advantage in relation to closed fractures, but not in exposed fractures. PMID:27026999

  10. Rib fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    A rib fracture is a crack or break in one or more of your rib bones. Your ribs are the round, flat bones in your chest ... A rib fracture can be very painful because your ribs move when you breathe, cough, and move your upper ...

  11. Biomechanical evaluation of four different posterior screw and rod fixation techniques for the treatment of the odontoid fractures

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Liu, Wen-Fei; Jiang, Hong-Kun; Li, Yun-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Problems that screw cannot be inserted may occur in screw-rod fixation techniques such as Harms technique. We compared the biomechanical stability imparted to the C-2 vertebrae by four designed posterior screw and rod fixation techniques for the management of odontoid fractures. A three-dimensional finite element model of the odontoid fracture was established by subtracting several unit structures from the normal model from a healthy male volunteer. 4 different fixation techniques, shown as follows: ① C-1 lateral mass and C-2 pedicle screw fixation (Harms technique); ② C-1 lateral mass and unilateral C-2 pedicle screw fixation combined with ipsilateral laminar screw fixation; ③ Unilateral C-1lateral mass combined with ipsilateral C-1 posterior arch, and C-2 pedicle screw fixation; and ④ Unilateral C1 lateral mass screw connected with bilateral C2 pedicle screw fixation was performed on the odontoid fracture model. The model was validated for axial rotation, flexion, extension, lateral bending, and tension for 1.5 Nm. Changes in motion in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation were calculated. The finite element model of the odontoid fracture was established in this paper. All of the four screw-rod techniques significantly decreased motion in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, as compared with the destabilized odontoid fracture complex (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in stability among the four screw techniques. We concluded that the first three fixation techniques are recommended to be used as surgical intervention for odontoid fracture, while the last can be used as supplementary for the former three methods. PMID:26309508

  12. Biomechanical evaluation of four different posterior screw and rod fixation techniques for the treatment of the odontoid fractures.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Liu, Wen-Fei; Jiang, Hong-Kun; Li, Yun-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Problems that screw cannot be inserted may occur in screw-rod fixation techniques such as Harms technique. We compared the biomechanical stability imparted to the C-2 vertebrae by four designed posterior screw and rod fixation techniques for the management of odontoid fractures. A three-dimensional finite element model of the odontoid fracture was established by subtracting several unit structures from the normal model from a healthy male volunteer. 4 different fixation techniques, shown as follows: ① C-1 lateral mass and C-2 pedicle screw fixation (Harms technique); ② C-1 lateral mass and unilateral C-2 pedicle screw fixation combined with ipsilateral laminar screw fixation; ③ Unilateral C-1lateral mass combined with ipsilateral C-1 posterior arch, and C-2 pedicle screw fixation; and ④ Unilateral C1 lateral mass screw connected with bilateral C2 pedicle screw fixation was performed on the odontoid fracture model. The model was validated for axial rotation, flexion, extension, lateral bending, and tension for 1.5 Nm. Changes in motion in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation were calculated. The finite element model of the odontoid fracture was established in this paper. All of the four screw-rod techniques significantly decreased motion in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, as compared with the destabilized odontoid fracture complex (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in stability among the four screw techniques. We concluded that the first three fixation techniques are recommended to be used as surgical intervention for odontoid fracture, while the last can be used as supplementary for the former three methods. PMID:26309508

  13. Routine removal of the plate after surgical treatment for mandibular angle fracture with a third molar in relation to the fracture line

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Matsusue, Yumiko; Horita, Satoshi; Murakami, Kazuhiro; Sugiura, Tsutomu; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to analyze the clinical course of surgically treated mandibular angle fractures from the viewpoint of routine removal of the plate because these fractures are associated with high rates of complications and plate removal. Subjects and Methods: The subjects were 40 patients with unilateral mandibular angle fracture, which was intraorally reduced and principally fixed with a single miniplate on the external oblique ridge. The third molar in relation to the fracture line was extracted in seven patients during the surgery. Clinical course was evaluated in terms of removal of the plate, preservation of the third molar and complications. Results: One patient showed a wound infection postoperatively, and two patients developed pericoronitis during the follow-up. These were managed with medication and local irrigation. One patient with a preserved third molar did not make a required visit and was lost from the follow-up. Removal of the plates was performed in 39 patients after confirmation of good fracture healing, mostly within a year. Twenty-four of 32 preserved third molars were simultaneously extracted. These procedures were generally performed under local anesthesia on an outpatient basis, and they did not cause any complications. Conclusions: Routine removal of the plate after surgical treatment for mandibular angle fractures, simultaneously with extraction of the third molar if indicated, may be beneficial to avoid complications related to the plate and the third molar later in life. PMID:26389039

  14. Limited Unilateral Decompression and Pedicle Screw Fixation with Fusion for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis with Unilateral Radiculopathy: A Retrospective Analysis of 25 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Miao, Hai-xiong; Wang, Yong; Chen, An-fu; Zhang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Objective Lumbar spinal stenosis is conventionally treated with surgical decompression. However, bilateral decompression and laminectomy is more invasive and may not be necessary for lumbar stenosis patients with unilateral radiculopathy. We aimed to report the outcomes of unilateral laminectomy and bilateral pedicle screw fixation with fusion for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis and unilateral radiculopathy. Methods Patients with lumbar spinal stenosis with unilateral lower extremity radiculopathy who received limited unilateral decompression and bilateral pedicle screw fixation were included and evaluated using visual analog scale (VAS) pain and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores preoperatively and at follow-up visits. Ligamentum flavum thickness of the involved segments was measured on axial magnetic resonance images. Results Twenty-five patients were included. The mean preoperative VAS score was 6.6±1.6 and 4.6±3.1 for leg and back pain, respectively. Ligamentum flavum thickness was comparable between the symptomatic and asymptomatic side (p=0.554). The mean follow-up duration was 29.2 months. The pain in the symptomatic side lower extremity (VAS score, 1.32±1.2) and the back (VAS score, 1.75±1.73) significantly improved (p=0.000 vs. baseline for both). The ODI improved significantly postoperatively (6.60±6.5; p=0.000 vs. baseline). Significant improvement in VAS pain and ODI scores were observed in patients receiving single or multi-segment decompression fusion with fixation (p<0.01). Conclusion Limited laminectomy and unilateral spinal decompression followed by bilateral pedicle screw fixation with fusion achieves satisfactory outcomes in patients with spinal stenosis and unilateral radiculopathy. This procedure is less damaging to structures that are important for maintaining posterior stability of the spine. PMID:26279816

  15. Dynamic fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, A. S.; Ramulu, M.

    1985-01-01

    Dynamic fracture and crack propagation concepts for ductile materials are reviewed. The equations for calculating dynamic stress integrity and the dynamic energy release rate in order to study dynamic crack propagation are provided. The stress intensity factor versus crack velocity relation is investigated. The uses of optical experimental techniques and finite element methods for fracture analyses are described. The fracture criteria for a rapidly propagating crack under mixed mode conditions are discussed; crack extension and fracture criteria under combined tension and shear loading are based on maximum circumferential stress or energy criteria such as strain energy density. The development and use of a Dugdale model and finite element models to represent crack and fracture dynamics are examined.

  16. Transphyseal Distal Humerus Fracture.

    PubMed

    Abzug, Joshua; Ho, Christine Ann; Ritzman, Todd F; Brighton, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Transphyseal distal humerus fractures typically occur in children younger than 3 years secondary to birth trauma, nonaccidental trauma, or a fall from a small height. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of a transphyseal distal humerus fracture is crucial for a successful outcome. Recognizing that the forearm is not aligned with the humerus on plain radiographs may aid in the diagnosis of a transphyseal distal humerus fracture. Surgical management is most commonly performed with the aid of an arthrogram. Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning techniques similar to those used for supracondylar humerus fractures are employed. Cubitus varus caused by a malunion, osteonecrosis of the medial condyle, or growth arrest is the most common complication encountered in the treatment of transphyseal distal humerus fractures. A corrective lateral closing wedge osteotomy can be performed to restore a nearly normal carrying angle. PMID:27049206

  17. Apparent capitellar fractures.

    PubMed

    Ring, David

    2007-11-01

    Isolated capitellar fractures are rare but are identified as such, even when they are more complex, because the displaced capitellar fracture is usually the most obvious and identifiable radiographic finding and because teaching has traditionally underemphasized the involvement of the trochlea in such fractures. The author prefers the term 'apparent capitellar fractures' and draws on his experience to explain why he favors three-dimensional CT for depicting fracture detail. This article discusses treatment options, emphasizing open reduction and internal fixation to restore the native elbow. Operative techniques, including extensile lateral exposure and olecranon osteotomy; fixation techniques; and elbow arthroplasty, are described. Complications, such as ulnar neuropathy and infection, are also covered. PMID:18054674

  18. Action planning in typically and atypically developing children (unilateral cerebral palsy).

    PubMed

    Crajé, Céline; Aarts, Pauline; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria; Steenbergen, Bert

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the development of action planning in children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP, aged 3-6 years, n=24) and an age matched control group. To investigate action planning, participants performed a sequential movement task. They had to grasp an object (a wooden play sword) and place the sword in a hole in a wooden block. Our main dependent variable was the grip type that participants used, i.e., did they adapt their initial grip choice such that they would reach a comfortable posture at the end of the action? This end-state comfort effect has been abundantly shown in research on action planning, and is taken as evidence for anticipatory planning. The first aim of the study was to investigate the development of action planning in the unilateral CP group and the control group. Our hypothesis was that action planning improves with age in the control group, but not in the unilateral CP group. The results showed that planning was impaired in the unilateral CP group compared with the control group. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found an age effect in the control group, but not in the unilateral CP group. In the control group 5 and 6 years olds showed more anticipatory planning compared with the 3 and 4 years olds. The second aim of this study was to examine whether an intervention for children with unilateral CP (i.e., constrained induced movement therapy combined with bimanual training) affected action planning. The children with unilateral CP were therefore measured on the experimental task before and after an 8-week intervention period. The results showed that planning improved after the intervention. This finding suggests that action planning ability in young children with unilateral CP may be sensitive to improvement. These findings are discussed within the context of typical and atypical development of action planning and further guidelines for intervention in children with unilateral CP are given. PMID:20451346

  19. Enhanced intensity discrimination in the intact ear of adults with unilateral deafness.

    PubMed

    Maslin, Michael R D; Taylor, Melissa; Plack, Christopher J; Munro, Kevin J

    2015-06-01

    Physiological measures of neural activity in the auditory cortex have revealed plasticity following unilateral deafness. Central projections from the remaining ear reorganize to produce a stronger cortical response than normal. However, little is known about the perceptual consequences of this increase. One possibility is improved sound intensity discrimination. Intensity difference limens were measured in 11 individuals with unilateral deafness that were previously shown to exhibit increased cortical activity to sounds heard by the intact ear. Significantly smaller mean difference limens were observed compared with controls. These results provide evidence of the perceptual consequences of plasticity in humans following unilateral deafness. PMID:26093448

  20. A case of traumatic bilateral abducens and unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy

    PubMed Central

    Selçuk, Ferda; Mut, Senem E.

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Female, 47 Final Diagnosis: Traumatic bilateral abducens • unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy Symptoms: Diplopia Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Neurology Objective: Rare disease Background: Incidence of unilateral abducens palsy from head trauma has been reported to be as high as 1% to 2.7%, but bilateral abducens nerve palsy is extremely rare. Case Report: We present a case in which bilateral abducens nerve and unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy developed with a high Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) 3 hours after head trauma due to a motor vehicle crash. Conclusions: This case highlights the occurrence and management of posttraumatic bilateral sixth nerve palsy. PMID:23847710

  1. Fracture mechanics: 26. volume

    SciTech Connect

    Reuter, W.G.; Underwood, J.H.; Newman, J.C. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    The original objective of these symposia was to promote technical interchange between researchers from the US and worldwide in the field of fracture. This objective was recently expanded to promote technical interchange between researchers in the field of fatigue and fracture. The symposium began with the Swedlow Memorial Lecture entitled ``Patterns and Perspectives in Applied Fracture Mechanics.`` The remaining 42 papers are divided into the following topical sections: Constraint crack initiation; Constraint crack growth; Weldments; Engineered materials; Subcritical crack growth; Dynamic loading; and Applications. Papers within the scope of the Energy Data Base have been processed separately.

  2. Radioimmunoassay of inhibin: serum responses to unilateral and bilateral orchidectomy.

    PubMed

    Schanbacher, B

    1988-11-01

    An overnight double antibody RIA using a rabbit antiserum to porcine inhibin alpha-chain [Tyr30] (1-30) NH2 [pI alpha(1-30)], radioiodinated pI alpha(1-30), and a preprecipitated second antibody complex has been developed to measure inhibin concentrations in sera and other biological fluids. The assay is accurate, precise (intraassay coefficient of variation, 4.8%), sensitive (25 pM; 2.5 fmol/tube), and specific for inhibin. The synthetic reference standard pI alpha(1-30) produced a displacement curve that paralleled intact male ovine and bovine sera, crude bovine follicular fluid, and a partially purified porcine follicular fluid reference preparation (WHO/NIH 86/690). Bilateral castration of prepubertal and postpubertal ram lambs resulted in a rapid decrease in serum inhibin concentrations and a subsequent increase in serum FSH. Inhibin levels were high in prepubertal lambs (approximately 375 pM), but these levels were not sustained near the time of puberty (approximately 180 pM). Intensive sampling by jugular venipuncture after castration indicated a 50% drop in circulating inhibin levels within 2 h of testes removal with chronic castrate levels (approximately 75 pM) achieved by 6 h postcastration. A rapid fall in circulating levels of inhibin was also observed after unilateral castration, but these values stabilized within hours to levels intermediate (i.e. approximately 200 pM) to those of intact and bilateral castrate rams. Hemicastrates exhibited a more subtle rise in serum FSH after testis removal, with FSH and inhibin levels of prepubertal hemicastrates returning to mature intact ram values by 15 weeks of age. Serum inhibin levels remained low and FSH levels high at 14 days in unilateral castrate postpubertal rams. Inhibin immunoreactivity increased abruptly in castrate ewes and rams injected iv with 5 ml bovine follicular fluid. Serum inhibin reached 300 pM immediately after bovine follicular fluid injection, and castrate FSH levels decreased 30% to a

  3. Clinical experience in treatment of diffuse unilateral subretinal neuroretinitis

    PubMed Central

    Relhan, Nidhi; Pathengay, Avinash; Raval, Vishal; Nayak, Sameera; Choudhury, Himadri; Flynn, Harry W

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the clinical features, management, and outcomes of patients with diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN). Methods A noncomparative, consecutive analysis of case series from two tertiary care campuses of LV Prasad Eye Institute, India, between January 2011 and April 2014 was performed. Medical records of the patients presenting with DUSN (early or late stage) were reviewed. Results The current study included 13 patients. The majority (10/13, 76.92%) of the patients were aged 20 years or less. All patients had unilateral eye involvement. Visual acuity at presentation was 20/200 or worse in 9/13 (69.23%) patients. A delay in diagnosis occurred in 6/13 patients, and initial diagnosis in these patients included retinitis pigmentosa (4 patients) and posterior uveitis (2 patients). Clinical features included early presentation (prominent vitritis, localized retinitis, and vasculitis) in 7/13 (53.85%) patients and late presentation (attenuation of vessels, retinal pigment epithelium atrophic changes, and optic atrophy) in 6/13 (46.15%) patients. Worm could not be identified in any of the cases. All the patients received laser photocoagulation of retina and oral albendazole treatment for a period of 30 days. With treatment, visual acuity improved in seven patients (six early stage, one late stage) and remained unchanged in six patients. Mean follow-up period was 8.69 months (range, 1–21 months). The mean central foveal thickness in the affected eye, done by optical coherence tomography, during the late stage of the disease was 188.20±40 µm (range, 111–242 µm), which was significantly thinner than the fellow eye, 238.70±36.90 µm (range, 186–319 µm), P=0.008. Conclusion DUSN is a serious vision threatening disease, which may progress to profound vision loss in the later stage of the disease. Visualization of subretinal worm is usually not possible. Treatment with high-dose albendazole therapy and laser photocoagulation may alter the

  4. Mechanical Coal-Face Fracturer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Radial points on proposed drill bit take advantage of natural fracture planes of coal. Radial fracture points retracted during drilling and impacted by piston to fracture coal once drilling halts. Group of bits attached to array of pneumatic drivers to fracture large areas of coal face.

  5. Contingent negative variation indicates phasic arousal for externally cued unilateral eye blink in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Strenge, H; Kropp, P; Hoffmeister, J; Verri, A; Galli, C; Gerber, W D

    1999-04-30

    The contingent negative variation (CNV) as a slow cortical potential was used to investigate cortical processing of externally cued, voluntary unilateral eye blink. Probands blinked as a response within a modified two-stimulus reaction time paradigm. Reaction time and amplitudes of CNV were determined. The activity of the orbicularis oculi muscles (OO) was registered by surface electromyography (EMG). Probands who performed unilateral eye blinks with accurately inhibiting contralateral OO activity showed a significantly higher negativity of the early CNV component compared with the bilateral eye blink condition. This effect was confined to the beginning of unilateral blinking performance. It is suggested that the unilateral eye blink is a challenging motor task, initially requiring an increased cortically driven arousal and attention as revealed by increased early CNV components. PMID:10336183

  6. Cholesterol granuloma of a Haller cell associated with unilateral exophthalmos and diplopia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Lim, Sang Chul

    2016-09-01

    Cholesterol granuloma is rare in the paranasal sinuses. We present what is to our knowledge the first case of cholesterol granuloma of a Haller cell associated with unilateral exophthalmos and diplopia in a 55-year-old man. PMID:26719083

  7. Femur fracture repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... McCormack RG, Lopez CA. Commonly encountered fractures in sports medicine. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  8. Metatarsal stress fractures - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... McCormack RG, Lopez CA. Commonly encountered fractures in sports medicine. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2014:chap. ...

  9. Clavicle Fracture (Broken Collarbone)

    MedlinePlus

    ... place and the fragments are severely out of alignment. A large bump over the fracture site may ... bone fragments are first repositioned into their normal alignment, and then held in place with special screws ...

  10. Sprains, Strains and Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... are useful for finding soft issue injuries (including torn ligaments) and stress fractures. Treatment will depend on ... weeks. Professional athletes may undergo surgery to repair torn ligaments. Oral anti-inflammatory medication, such as ibuprofen, ...

  11. Lisfranc (Midfoot) Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... broken or ligaments that support the midfoot are torn. The severity of the injury can vary from ... bones are broken (fractured) or the ligaments are torn (ruptured). Injuries can vary, from a simple injury ...

  12. Ankle fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000548.htm Ankle fracture - aftercare To use the sharing features on this ... Sit with your foot elevated higher than your knee at least 4 times a day Apply an ...

  13. Fractures in medieval Scotland.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, W J

    2001-04-01

    The prevalence of fractures in medieval Scotland is assessed, particular attention being given to excavations of cemeteries beside three Carmelite cemeteries, at Aberdeen, Perth and Linlithgow, and another one at Whithorn Abbey. In the friaries the prevalence of fractures was 7.6% and in Whithorn it was 5.0%. These figures are comparable with an estimated prevalence of 7.2% for individuals between 0 and 65 years in present day Scotland. Males were more at risk of fractures than females, but a small group from both genders had been struck on the head by weapons. A study from a rural cemetery in England indicates that both male and female peasants had a much higher risk of fractures than their urban counterparts. PMID:11394343

  14. Suspensions in hydraulic fracturing

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, S.N.

    1996-12-31

    Suspensions or slurries are widely used in well stimulation and hydraulic fracturing processes to enhance the production of oil and gas from the underground hydrocarbon-bearing formation. The success of these processes depends significantly upon having a thorough understanding of the behavior of suspensions used. Therefore, the characterization of suspensions under realistic conditions, for their rheological and hydraulic properties, is very important. This chapter deals with the state-of-the-art hydraulic fracturing suspension technology. Specifically it deals with various types of suspensions used in well stimulation and fracturing processes, their rheological characterization and hydraulic properties, behavior of suspensions in horizontal wells, review of proppant settling velocity and proppant transport in the fracture, and presently available measurement techniques for suspensions and their merits. Future industry needs for better understanding of the complex behavior of suspensions are also addressed. 74 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Definitive Management of Open Tibia Fractures Using Limb Reconstruction System

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Mahantesh Yellangouda; Gupta, Srinath Myadam; Agarwal, Saumya; Chandarana, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Open fractures are treated as surgical emergency and early administration of intravenous antibiotic coupled with early irrigation and debridement decreases the infection rate dramatically. Limb Reconstruction System (LRS) is a unilateral rail system which consists of Shanz pins, rail rods and sliding clamps. It is specifically designed to enable the surgeon to perform simple and effective surgery as it offers rigid fixation of fracture fragments, allowing early weight bearing and reduces economic burden. Aim To determine the efficacy of Limb Reconstruction System for treatment of compound tibia fractures. Materials and Methods A prospective study was carried out where in 54 cases out of 412 compound tibia fractures having Modified Gustilo Anderson Type IIIA and IIIB with a mean age of 42±5 years were treated using LRS over a period of 26 months. Limb reconstruction system was used in acute docking mode or with corticotomy and bone transport was done depending upon the bone loss. The soft tissue condition was assessed and split thickness skin grafting and flap repairs were done as per the need. Clinical and radiological assessment was done at every follow-up. Bony and functional assessment was done by Association for the Study and Application of the Methods of Illizarov (ASAMI) criteria. Results Among 54 patients, bony results as per ASAMI score were excellent in 36, good in 14, fair in 2 and poor in 2 patients. Functional results were excellent in 43, good in 7, fair in 4 patients. The average fracture union time was 8 months. Post-surgery patient satisfaction was excellent since fixation allowed weight bearing immediately. Average hospital stay was 7 days and financial burden was reduced by 40% as compared to multi staged surgery. The average time of return to work was 20 days. Conclusion LRS is an easy, simple and definitive surgical procedure that allows immediate full weight bearing walking. It reduces hospital stay, is cost effective with

  16. [Skull fracture or accessory suture in a child?].

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Katrin; Lange, Lena M; Plenzig, Stefanie; Verhoff, Marcel A; Kölzer, Sarah C

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation between accessory sutures and fractures in the skull of an infant can be difficult. Apart from the regular sutures there is a multitude of variations that may be mistaken for a fracture line. Such variations include for instance the intraparietal suture between the two ossification centers of the parietal bone or the mendosal suture between the supraoccipital and interparietal bone of the occipital squama. The presented case refers to an approximately 20-month-old female child. During autopsy, a discontinuity in the right paramedian posterior cranial fossa parallel to the internal occipital crest with connection to the foramen magnum was observed. The macroscopic findings suggested a fracture line because of its course. However, neither a hemorrhage in the soft tissue nor callus formation was discernible. The discontinuity was preserved with the adjacent parts of the occipital bone for further histological examination. In the report of a cranial CT, which was carried out five days before the child's death, an accessory suture paramedially in the right posterior cranial fossa was described. When the clinical CT records were re-evaluated, a similar discontinuity at the corresponding position on the other side was detected, though of noticeably shorter length. Additionally, the preserved occipital bone fragment including the discontinuity was histologically processed. In the radiological literature, precise (radiological) criteria for differential diagnosis are indicated. A zigzag pattern with sclerotic borders and a bilateral and fairly symmetric occurrence indicate a suture, whereas a sharp lucency with non-sclerotic edges and a unilateral occurrence indicate a fracture. Taking all the findings into account, the depicted discontinuity was regarded as an accessory suture. This case demonstrates that differentiation between a fracture and an accessory suture may be difficult in the autopsy of a child and underlines the importance of a postmortem CT

  17. Ovulation and rate of implantation following unilateral ovariectomy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Koushik

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Removal of an ovary of any side of the body is called the unilateral ovariectomy (ULO). ULO models are used to analyze the existence of functional and physiological asymmetries between the ovaries, including the ovum implantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ULO was done in mice without any specification on their stages of the estrous cycle. The animals were mated between 3rd and 15th day after ULO to observe the consequence of ULO on ovulation and ovum implantation. RESULTS: Ovulation and number of implantation were decreased in proportion to single contralateral ovary if the animals were mated within 36 hrs of ULO. It resulted in increased weight of contralateral ovary due to hypertrophy, and also in compensatory ovulation, formation of corpus luteum (CL) that reached a peak after 14th and 15th day of ULO (sacrificed on 5th day of pregnancy i.e., 19th and 20th day of ULO) compared to animals undergone sham-surgery. Numbers of implantations were also increased progressively on the contralateral ovarian side and get to a peak after similar days of compensation. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Following ULO, the remaining ovary started to compensate within 5th to 6th day of ULO even during pregnancy. Ovarian histology also showed increased formation of CL which is a marker of rate of ovulation. PMID:23869151

  18. Lateral specialization in unilateral spatial neglect: a cognitive robotics model.

    PubMed

    Conti, Daniela; Di Nuovo, Santo; Cangelosi, Angelo; Di Nuovo, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present the experimental results of an embodied cognitive robotic approach for modelling the human cognitive deficit known as unilateral spatial neglect (USN). To this end, we introduce an artificial neural network architecture designed and trained to control the spatial attentional focus of the iCub robotic platform. Like the human brain, the architecture is divided into two hemispheres and it incorporates bio-inspired plasticity mechanisms, which allow the development of the phenomenon of the specialization of the right hemisphere for spatial attention. In this study, we validate the model by replicating a previous experiment with human patients affected by the USN and numerical results show that the robot mimics the behaviours previously exhibited by humans. We also simulated recovery after the damage to compare the performance of each of the two hemispheres as additional validation of the model. Finally, we highlight some possible advantages of modelling cognitive dysfunctions of the human brain by means of robotic platforms, which can supplement traditional approaches for studying spatial impairments in humans. PMID:27018020

  19. Judgment of line orientation in children with congenital unilateral lesions.

    PubMed

    Riva, Daria; Erbetta, Alessandra; Bulgheroni, Sara

    2009-02-01

    The Judgment of Line Orientation test (JLO) is widely used to assess visuospatial processing. To investigate whether JLO is impaired compared to the normal population, whether it is worse if the lesion affects right-hemisphere or cerebral structures involved in JLO processing in adults, and how JLO correlates with the extent of the lesion, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) IQs and WISC subtests, we assessed 20 children with congenital unilateral lesion (12 left and 8 right). Only 50% of our children had a borderline or significantly impaired performance in the JLO test, with a prevalence of females and left-hemisphere-impaired participants. The brain areas affected do not generally coincide with the network identified by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on healthy adults, suggesting that the neural correlates are distributed differently in children depending on their age and on functional reorganization. Further research, including functional studies on larger samples of children of different age groups, are needed to elucidate the network subserving this ability in developmental age. PMID:19051093

  20. Unilateral, recurrent exudative retinal detachment in association with pansinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Osman Saatci, Ali; Ozbek Soylemezoglu, Zeynep; Barut Selver, Ozlem; Cenk Ecevit, M.; Ada, Emel

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To report a patient with unilateral exudative retinal detachment due to pansinusitis. Methods: Case report. Results: A 65-year-old woman with a two-month history of blurred vision, red eye and lid swelling in her left eye was referred to us. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in the right eye and 20/200 in the left. Conjunctival vessels were engorged in the OS. Funduscopy revealed a 360° exudative detachment in OS and computerized tomography (CT) imaging revealed pansinusitis. Systemic antibiotic treatment was employed and exudative detachment regressed. However, exudative detachment remitted as soon as antibiotic treatment ceased. Finally she underwent sinus surgery and decompression of the orbita. Her visual acuity improved to 20/100 just two days after the surgery, stabilized at 20/30 and no further recurrences occured during the follow-up of 10 months. Conclusion: Since exudative retinal detachment usually accompanies systemic inflammatory or neoplastic diseases, systemic screening and collaboration with other disciplines are mandatory. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a case that developed exudative retinal detachment due to pansinusitis and only recovered after decompression surgery.

  1. Alterations in gray matter volume due to unilateral hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingchao; Xu, Pengfei; Li, Peng; Wang, Zhenmin; Zhao, Fu; Gao, Zhixian; Xu, Lei; Luo, Yue-jia; Fan, Jin; Liu, Pinan

    2016-01-01

    Although extensive research on neural plasticity resulting from hearing deprivation has been conducted, the direct influence of compromised audition on the auditory cortex and the potential impact of long durations of incomplete sensory stimulation on the adult cortex are still not fully understood. In this study, using voxel-based morphometry, we evaluated gray matter (GM) volume changes that may be associated with reduced hearing ability and the duration of hearing impairment in 42 unilateral hearing loss (UHL) patients with acoustic neuromas compared to 24 normal controls. We found significant GM volume increases in the somatosensory and motor systems and GM volume decreases in the auditory (i.e., Heschl’s gyrus) and visual systems (i.e., the calcarine cortex) in UHL patients. The GM volume decreases in the primary auditory cortex (i.e., superior temporal gyrus and Heschl’s gyrus) correlated with reduced hearing ability. Meanwhile, the GM volume decreases in structures involving high-level cognitive control functions (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex) correlated positively with hearing loss duration. Our findings demonstrated that the severity and duration of UHL may contribute to the dissociated morphology of auditory and high-level neural structures, providing insight into the brain’s plasticity related to chronic, persistent partial sensory loss. PMID:27174521

  2. Unilateral germinomas involving the basal ganglia and thalamus.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Kageyama, N; Kida, Y; Yoshida, J; Shibuya, N; Okamura, K

    1981-07-01

    Clinical characteristics of six cases of germinoma involving a unilateral basal ganglion and thalamus are summarized. The incidence was estimated as 10% of all intracranial germinomas. The average age at the onset was 10.5 years. The sex incidence showed a male dominance. The clinical course was slowly progressive, and the average duration between onset and diagnosis was 2 years 5 months. Common symptoms and signs were hemiparesis in all cases, fever of unknown origin and eye symptoms in most, mental deterioration and psychiatric signs in three, and convulsions, pubertas praecox, and diabetes insipidus in two. Signs of increased intracranial pressure were found in only two cases in the later state of the disease. Early diagnosis is difficult because of nonspecific symptomatology and slow progression. Carotid angiography and pneumoencephalography showed abnormal findings compatible with basal ganglia and thalamic tumors, but not specific to germinoma. Ipsilateral cortical atrophy and ventricular dilatation might be significant findings. Radioisotope scanning was useful. Computerized tomography scans were the best method of detecting the location and nature of this tumor, and repeat scans showed response to radiation therapy. PMID:7241216

  3. Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Diffuse Unilateral Subacute Neuroretinitis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Filho, Carlos Alexandre de A.; Soares, Ana Claudia Medeiros de A. G.; Penha, Fernando Marcondes; Garcia, Carlos Alexandre de Amorim

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the SD-OCT findings in patients with diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN) and evaluate CRT and RNFL thickness. Methods. Patients with clinical diagnosis of DUSN who were submitted to SD-OCT were included in the study. Complete ophthalmologic examination and SD-OCT were performed. Cirrus scan strategy protocols used were 200 × 200 macular cube, optic nerve head cube, and HD-5 line raster. Results. Eight patients with DUSN were included. Mean RNFL thickness was 80.25 μm and 104.75 μm for affected and normal eyes, respectively. Late stage had mean RNFL thickness of 74.83 μm compared to 96.5 μm in early stage. Mean CMT was 205.5 μm for affected eyes and 255.13 μm for normal fellow eyes. Conclusion. RNFL and CMT were thinner in DUSN eyes compared to normal eyes. Late-stage disease had more pronounced thinning compared to early-stage patients. This thinning in RNFL and CMT may reflect the low visual acuity in patients with DUSN. PMID:21860780

  4. Hearing and music in unilateral spatial neglect neuro-rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Guilbert, Alma; Sylvain Clément; Moroni, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is an attention deficit in the contralesional side of space which occurs after a cerebral stroke, mainly located in the right hemisphere. USN patients are disabled in all daily activities. USN is an important negative prognostic factor of functional recovery and of socio-professional reinsertion. Thus, patient rehabilitation is a major challenge. As this deficit has been described in many sensory modalities (including hearing), many sensory and poly-sensory rehabilitation methods have been proposed to USN patients. They are mainly based on visual, tactile modalities and on motor abilities. However, these methods appear to be quite task-specific and difficult to transfer to functional activities. Very few studies have focused on the hearing modality and even fewer studies have been conducted in music as a way of improving spatial attention. Therefore, more research on such retraining needs is neccessary in order to make reliable conclusions on its efficiency in long-term rehabilitation. Nevertheless, some evidence suggests that music could be a promising tool to enhance spatial attention and to rehabilitate USN patients. In fact, music is a material closely linked to space, involving common anatomical and functional networks. The present paper aims firstly at briefly reviewing the different procedures of sensory retraining proposed in USN, including auditory retraining, and their limits. Secondly, it aims to present the recent scientific evidence that makes music a good candidate for USN patients’ neuro-rehabilitation. PMID:25566165

  5. Changes in contralateral protein metabolism following unilateral sciatic nerve section

    SciTech Connect

    Menendez, J.A.; Cubas, S.C.

    1990-03-01

    Changes in nerve biochemistry, anatomy, and function following injuries to the contralateral nerve have been repeatedly reported, though their significance is unknown. The most likely mechanisms for their development are either substances carried by axoplasmic flow or electrically transmitted signals. This study analyzes which mechanism underlies the development of a contralateral change in protein metabolism. The incorporation of labelled amino acids (AA) into proteins of both sciatic nerves was assessed by liquid scintillation after an unilateral section. AA were offered locally for 30 min to the distal stump of the sectioned nerves and at homologous levels of the intact contralateral nerves. At various times, from 1 to 24 h, both sciatic nerves were removed and the proteins extracted with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). An increase in incorporation was found in both nerves 14-24 h after section. No difference existed between sectioned and intact nerves, which is consistent with the contralateral effect. Lidocaine, but not colchicine, when applied previously to the nerves midway between the sectioning site and the spinal cord, inhibited the contralateral increase in AA incorporation. It is concluded that electrical signals, crossing through the spinal cord, are responsible for the development of the contralateral effect. Both the nature of the proteins and the significance of the contralateral effect are matters for speculation.

  6. Gait recovery pattern of unilateral lower limb amputees during rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Baker, P A; Hewison, S R

    1990-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the rate at which gait recovery as measured by temporal distance factors (velocity and symmetry) occurs in unilateral lower limb amputees. A microcomputer foot switch system was used to record the gait patterns of twenty subjects, mean age 65.1 years. The initial measurement was taken when the subject was capable of walking 6 metres with an interim prosthesis within the parallel bars. The patient sample as a whole was analyzed and subjects were further divided into four groups, depending on ambulatory aid required at discharge. Group A, n = 3 used no aid, Group B, n = 5 used a single stick, Group C, n = 6 used 2 single sticks and Group D, n = 5 required frames. A one way analysis of variance (F = 4.55, p = 0.02) showed a significant difference between the Groups, (A and D, B and D, C and D). The major velocity increase occurs within the first 30 days of the gait training programme. Overall about 55% increase in velocity can be expected within the first fifteen day period followed by an additional 30% between days 15-30. A moderately strong correlation (r = 0.78) was found between initial and discharge velocity. The correlation between initial and discharge symmetry was weaker (r = 0.50). PMID:2235305

  7. Unilateral lower limb suspension: From subject selection to "omic" responses.

    PubMed

    Tesch, Per A; Lundberg, Tommy R; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Rodrigo

    2016-05-15

    The unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS) method was developed, introduced, and validated in the quest for a simple, effective, and highly reliable human analog to study the consequences of spaceflight on muscle size and function. Because withdrawal of weight bearing for no more than 2-3 days is sufficient to inflict disturbances in protein metabolism of postural muscles, it is imperative ULLS serves as a very powerful method to manifest skeletal muscle adaptations similar to those experienced in 0 g. Thus the rate of global muscle loss appears rather constant over the first 2 mo, amounting to about 2-3% per week. At the microscopic level, these changes are accompanied by a corresponding decrease in individual muscle fiber size. ULLS alters metabolism favoring more carbohydrate over fat substrate utilization. Altogether, these changes result in impaired work and endurance capacity of muscles being subjected to ULLS. Maximal voluntary force decreases out of proportion to the muscle loss, suggesting motor control is modified. Past reviews offer near exhaustive information on ULLS-induced responses with regard to the above changes. Hence, the current brief review describes more broadly the evolution of the ULLS model, from issues of subject recruitment and compliance control, to recent advances unraveling molecular mechanisms facilitating unloading-induced muscle wasting. Such knowledge is critical in designing future studies aimed at exploring and developing exercise countermeasures or other means to combat the debilitating effects on muscle experienced by astronauts during long-haul missions in Orbit. PMID:26846557

  8. Alterations in gray matter volume due to unilateral hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingchao; Xu, Pengfei; Li, Peng; Wang, Zhenmin; Zhao, Fu; Gao, Zhixian; Xu, Lei; Luo, Yue-Jia; Fan, Jin; Liu, Pinan

    2016-01-01

    Although extensive research on neural plasticity resulting from hearing deprivation has been conducted, the direct influence of compromised audition on the auditory cortex and the potential impact of long durations of incomplete sensory stimulation on the adult cortex are still not fully understood. In this study, using voxel-based morphometry, we evaluated gray matter (GM) volume changes that may be associated with reduced hearing ability and the duration of hearing impairment in 42 unilateral hearing loss (UHL) patients with acoustic neuromas compared to 24 normal controls. We found significant GM volume increases in the somatosensory and motor systems and GM volume decreases in the auditory (i.e., Heschl's gyrus) and visual systems (i.e., the calcarine cortex) in UHL patients. The GM volume decreases in the primary auditory cortex (i.e., superior temporal gyrus and Heschl's gyrus) correlated with reduced hearing ability. Meanwhile, the GM volume decreases in structures involving high-level cognitive control functions (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex) correlated positively with hearing loss duration. Our findings demonstrated that the severity and duration of UHL may contribute to the dissociated morphology of auditory and high-level neural structures, providing insight into the brain's plasticity related to chronic, persistent partial sensory loss. PMID:27174521

  9. [Unilateral idiopathic gingival fibromatosis--a case report].

    PubMed

    Łazarz-Bartyzel, Katarzyna; Gawron, Katarzyna; Darczuki, Dagmara; Chomyszyn-Gajewska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Gingival fibromatosis is a painless gingival overgrowth. It may result in difficulties with proper dental hygiene keeping, mastication and occlusion. Herein, a case of a 10-year-old patient was described. The patient reported to the Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine of the Jagiellonian University Medical College in Krakow due to the problems with permanent teeth eruption (23-26), chewing and dental hygiene maintaining. Based on medical history, clinical examination, diagnostic tests and histopathological study of gingival tissue biopsies the patient was diagnosed with unilateral idiopathic gingival fibromatosis. After oral cavity hygienization, patient un- derwent dental surgery procedures by gingivectomy and gingivoplasty. The follow-up examination 2 and 6 months post operation showed un- eventful healing, proper tooth eruption, improved oral hygiene and chewing function. Twelve months post surgery no recurrence was noted. Due to the etiological diversity of gingival lesions occurring as an overgrowth, accurate medical history, clinical examination, laboratory tests and histopathological study are needed. Accurate diagnos- tics is crucial mainly to exclude he- matological and oncological diseases. Gingivectomy being the "gold method" of gingival fibromatosis treatment was effective and sufficient to cure the case presented in this article. PMID:27526431

  10. Primate translational vestibuloocular reflexes. IV. Changes after unilateral labyrinthectomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelaki, D. E.; Newlands, S. D.; Dickman, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of unilateral labyrinthectomy on the properties of the translational vestibuloocular reflexes (trVORs) were investigated in rhesus monkeys trained to fixate near targets. Translational motion stimuli consisted of either steady-state lateral and fore-aft sinusoidal oscillations or short-lasting transient displacements. During small-amplitude, steady-state sinusoidal lateral oscillations, a small decrease in the horizontal trVOR sensitivity and its dependence on viewing distance was observed during the first week after labyrinthectomy. These deficits gradually recovered over time. In addition, the vertical response component increased, causing a tilt of the eye velocity vector toward the lesioned side. During large, transient lateral displacements, the deficits were larger and longer lasting. Responses after labyrinthectomy were asymmetric, with eye velocity during movements toward the side of the lesion being more compromised. The most profound effect of the lesions was observed during fore-aft motion. Whereas responses were kinematically appropriate for fixation away from the side of the lesion (e.g., to the left after right labyrinthectomy), horizontal responses were anticompensatory during fixation at targets located ipsilateral to the side of the lesion (e.g., for targets to the right after right labyrinthectomy). This deficit showed little recovery during the 3-mo post-labyrinthectomy testing period. These results suggest that inputs from both labyrinths are important for the proper function of the trVORs, although the details of how bilateral signals are processed and integrated remain unknown.

  11. Sulfasalazine reduces inflammatory renal injury in unilateral ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Demirbilek, Savas; Emre, Memet Hanefi; Aydin, Engin Nasuhi; Edali, Mehmet Naci; Aksoy, Rauf Tuğrul; Akin, Melih; Gürünlüoğlu, Kubilay; Tas, Erkan; Ay, Selma; Yilmaz, Zümrüt

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether sulfasalazine has a protective action against interstitial inflammation and the development of renal fibrosis in obstructive nephropathy. Female rats were subjected to a sham (n = 10) or unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO, n = 30). UUO was induced in rats by ligating the left ureter. Three days after operation, rats subjected to UUO were randomized to receive tretment with either sulfasalazine (100 mg/kg) or vehicle every day for the last 7 days of the experiment. At 10 days following UUO, the obstructed kidney exhibited tubulointerstitial injury and leukocyte infiltration (mainly monocytes) that were associated with high levels of reactive oxygen species, cytokines, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and lipid peroxidation. Ten days after UUO, the obstructed kidney was also associated with increased nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kappabeta) expression in saline-treated rats. Compared with sham-operated rats, UUO rat kidneys showed lower concentrations of antioxidant enzymes in the obstructed kidney tissue. All of these changes were significantly attenuated by treatment with sulfasalazine in the obstructed kidney. Sulfasalazine protected against the renal interstitial inflammation and tissue damage elicited by ureteral occlusion. Inhibition of the NF-kappabeta-dependent pathway and inflammatory response and oxidative stress inhibition is likely to be involved in the beneficial effects of sulfasalazine. PMID:17294223

  12. Increased prevalence of autoimmune disease in patients with unilateral compared with bilateral moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Bin; Liu, Yi; Zhou, Liang-Xue; Sun, Hong; He, Min; You, Chao

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT This study explored whether there were differences between the autoimmune disease prevalence rates in unilateral and bilateral moyamoya disease (MMD). METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of data obtained from the medical records of their hospital, analyzing and comparing the clinical characteristics and prevalence rates of all autoimmune diseases that were associated with unilateral and bilateral MMD in their hospital from January 1995 to October 2014. RESULTS Three hundred sixteen patients with bilateral MMD and 68 with unilateral MMD were identified. The results indicated that patients with unilateral MMD were more likely to be female than were patients with bilateral MMD (67.6% vs 51.3%, p = 0.014, odds ratio [OR] 1.99). Overall, non-autoimmune comorbidities tended to be more prevalent in the unilateral MMD cases than in the bilateral MMD cases (17.6% vs 9.8%, p = 0.063, OR 1.97, chi-square test). Autoimmune thyroid disease and other autoimmune diseases also tended to be more prevalent in the unilateral MMD cases than in the bilateral MMD cases (19.1% vs 10.8%, p = 0.056, OR 1.96 and 8.8% vs 3.5%, p = 0.092, OR 2.77, respectively, chi-square test). The overall autoimmune disease prevalence in the unilateral MMD cases was significantly higher than in the bilateral MMD cases (26.5% vs 13.6%, p = 0.008, OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.22-4.28, chi-square test). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that autoimmune disease was more likely to be associated with unilateral than with bilateral MMD (p = 0.039, OR 10.91, 95% CI 1.13-105.25). CONCLUSIONS This study indicated a higher overall autoimmune disease prevalence in unilateral than in bilateral MMD. Unilateral MMD may be more associated with autoimmune disease than bilateral MMD. Different pathogenetic mechanisms may underlie moyamoya vessel formation in unilateral and bilateral MMD. PMID:26406790

  13. Associations of Anisometropia with Unilateral Amblyopia, Interocular Acuity Difference and Stereoacuity in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Gui-shuang; Huang, Jiayan; Maguire, Maureen; Quinn, Graham; Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Ciner, Elise; Cyert, Lynn; Orel-Bixler, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relation of anisometropia with unilateral amblyopia, interocular acuity difference (IAD) and stereoacuity, among Head Start preschoolers, using both clinical notation and vector notation analyses. Design Multicenter, cross-sectional study. Participants 3- to 5-year-old participants in the Vision In Preschoolers (VIP) Study (N=4040). Methods Secondary analysis of VIP data from participants who had comprehensive eye examinations including monocular visual acuity (VA) testing, stereoacuity testing, and cycloplegic refraction. VA was retested with full cycloplegic correction when retest criteria were met. Unilateral amblyopia was defined as IAD ≥2 lines in logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution (logMAR). Anisometropia was defined as ≥0.25 D (diopter) difference in spherical equivalent (SE) or in cylinder power, and also two approaches using power vector notation. The percentage with unilateral amblyopia, mean IAD, and mean stereoacuity were compared between anisometropic and isometropic children. Main Outcomes Measures The percentage with unilateral amblyopia, mean IAD, and mean stereoacuity. Results Compared with isometropic children, anisometropic children had a higher percentage of unilateral amblyopia (8% vs. 2%), larger mean IAD (0.07 vs. 0.05 logMAR) and worse mean stereoacuity (145 vs.117 arc sec) (all p<0.0001). Larger amounts of anisometropia were associated with higher percentages of unilateral amblyopia, larger IAD, and worse stereoacuity (trend p<0.001). Percentage of unilateral amblyopia was significantly increased with spherical equivalent (SE) anisometropia >0.5 D, cylindrical anisometropia >0.25 D, the vertical/horizontal meridian (J0) or oblique meridian (J45) >0.125 D, or vector dioptric distance (VDD) >0.35 D (all p<0.001). VDD had higher ability in detecting unilateral amblyopia than cylinder, SE, J0 and J45 (p<0.001). Conclusions The presence of and amount of anisometropia were associated with the presence of

  14. Dynamic fracture toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, A. S.; Ramulu, M.; Dadkhah, M. S.; Yang, K.-H.; Kang, B. S. J.

    1986-01-01

    Dynamic fracture toughness versus crack velocity relations of Homalite-100, polycarbonate, hardened 4340 steel and reaction bonded silicon nitride are reviewed and discrepancies with published data and their probable causes are discussed. Data scatter in published data are attributed in part to the observed fluctuations in crack velocities. The results reaffirmed our previous conclusion that the dynamic fracture toughness versus crack velocity relation is specimen dependent and that the dynamic arrest stress intensity factor is not a unique material property.

  15. Relative permeability through fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Diomampo, Gracel, P.

    2001-08-01

    The mechanism of two-phase flow through fractures is of importance in understanding many geologic processes. Currently, two-phase flow through fractures is still poorly understood. In this study, nitrogen-water experiments were done on both smooth and rough parallel plates to determine the governing flow mechanism for fractures and the appropriate methodology for data analysis. The experiments were done using a glass plate to allow visualization of flow. Digital video recording allowed instantaneous measurement of pressure, flow rate and saturation. Saturation was computed using image analysis techniques. The experiments showed that gas and liquid phases flow through fractures in nonuniform separate channels. The localized channels change with time as each phase path undergoes continues breaking and reforming due to invasion of the other phase. The stability of the phase paths is dependent on liquid and gas flow rate ratio. This mechanism holds true for over a range of saturation for both smooth and rough fractures. In imbibition for rough-walled fractures, another mechanism similar to wave-like flow in pipes was also observed. The data from the experiments were analyzed using Darcy's law and using the concept of friction factor and equivalent Reynold's number for two-phase flow. For both smooth- and rough-walled fractures a clear relationship between relative permeability and saturation was seen. The calculated relative permeability curves follow Corey-type behavior and can be modeled using Honarpour expressions. The sum of the relative permeabilities is not equal one, indicating phase interference. The equivalent homogeneous single-phase approach did not give satisfactory representation of flow through fractures. The graphs of experimentally derived friction factor with the modified Reynolds number do not reveal a distinctive linear relationship.

  16. Unilateral Ectrodactyly in a Newborn with Trisomy 18 Syndrome: An Unusual Association.

    PubMed

    Kislal, Fatih Mehmet; Altuntas, Nilgun; Ozdemir, Osman; Ceylaner, Serdar; Kislal, Mustafa Hayri; Andiran, Nesibe

    2015-08-01

    The case of a newborn male with trisomy 18 syndrome, having bilateral syndactyly, aplasia and hypoplasia of the foot digits, unilateral ectrodactyly of the left foot and a prominently dorsiflexed hallux, clenched hand with overlapping fingers and general hypertonia, is presented. There are only 5 cases of trisomy 18 syndrome associated with ectrodactyly in the literature. We present a case of trisomy 18 syndrome with unilateral ectrodactyly of the left foot, which is an infrequent association. PMID:26305313

  17. Electrophysiological correlates of bilateral and unilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Reza; Rostami, Reza; Khomami, Sanaz; Horacek, Jiri; Brunovsky, Martin; Novak, Tomas; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2016-06-30

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been demonstrated to have efficacy in the treatment of unipolar depression but limited research has explored the efficacy of rTMS in bipolar depression. Therefore, we conducted a comparative clinical trial evaluating clinical responses to prefrontal bilateral and unilateral rTMS in patients suffering from bipolar depression. We hypothesized that, 1) the response to the treatment would be associated with a decrease in the frequency of beta waves, 2) bilateral stimulation of the cortex would bring about more extensive changes in brain activity than unilateral stimulation, and 3) bilateral stimulation is more effective than unilateral. Thirty patients with bipolar depression were divided into two groups. Bilateral Group (n=15) who received rTMS in the left DLPFC (10Hz) and right DLPFC (1-Hz), and unilateral group (n=15) who received the stimulation only in the right DLPFC (1-Hz) during 20 treatment sessions. The proportion of responders in the bilateral stimulation group was significantly higher than that in the unilateral group [80% versus 47%]. The remission rate was 40% in the bilateral group and 40% in the unilateral group (not significant). In the responders to bilateral rTMS treatment, a significant reduction of alpha1-2, beta 1-3, and gamma frequencies were observed in medial and superior frontal and cingulate gyrus . Responders to the unilateral treatment showed decrease of gamma frequency in postcentral gyrus, precuneus, superior and inferior parietal lobule, Cuneus and angular gyrus. In conclusion, we found that bilateral stimulation was more effective than the unilateral stimulation and evidence that beta frequency activity could possibly be used as a marker for response to rTMS. PMID:27138833

  18. Orthodontic management of a borderline case with ectopic maxillary canine by unilateral premolar extractions

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, Aditi; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Mohd. Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Management of orthodontic cases often requires extraction of permanent teeth. The decision making regarding extractions depends upon the arch length tooth material discrepancies, the growth pattern, general profile, and arch asymmetries. Unique orthodontic problems may command special treatment lines to be taken. The present report describes a case with unilateral buccally blocked out canine and bilateral posterior crossbite, for which unilateral premolar extractions were performed achieve esthetic and functionally stable occlusion. PMID:27041913

  19. Hybrid fracture and the transition from extension fracture to shear fracture.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Jonathan M; Chester, Frederick M

    2004-03-01

    Fracture is a fundamental mechanism of material failure. Two basic types of brittle fractures are commonly observed in rock deformation experiments--extension (opening mode) fractures and shear fractures. For nearly half a century it has been hypothesized that extension and shear fractures represent end-members of a continuous spectrum of brittle fracture types. However, observations of transitional fractures that display both opening and shear modes (hybrids) in naturally deformed rock have often remained ambiguous, and a clear demonstration of hybrid fracture formation has not been provided by experiments. Here we present the results of triaxial extension experiments on Carrara marble that show a continuous transition from extension fracture to shear fracture with an increase in compressive stress. Hybrid fractures form under mixed tensile and compressive stress states at acute angles to the maximum principal compressive stress. Fracture angles are greater than those observed for extension fractures and less than those observed for shear fractures. Fracture surfaces also display a progressive change from an extension to shear fracture morphology. PMID:14999279

  20. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  1. Treatment of Thoracolumbar Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung-Guk; Shin, Dong-Eun

    2015-01-01

    The most common fractures of the spine are associated with the thoracolumbar junction. The goals of treatment of thoracolumbar fracture are leading to early mobilization and rehabilitation by restoring mechanical stability of fracture and inducing neurologic recovery, thereby enabling patients to return to the workplace. However, it is still debatable about the treatment methods. Neurologic injury should be identified by thorough physical examination for motor and sensory nerve system in order to determine the appropriate treatment. The mechanical stability of fracture also should be evaluated by plain radiographs and computed tomography. In some cases, magnetic resonance imaging is required to evaluate soft tissue injury involving neurologic structure or posterior ligament complex. Based on these physical examinations and imaging studies, fracture stability is evaluated and it is determined whether to use the conservative or operative treatment. The development of instruments have led to more interests on the operative treatment which saves mobile segments without fusion and on instrumentation through minimal invasive approach in recent years. It is still controversial for the use of these treatments because there have not been verified evidences yet. However, the morbidity of patients can be decreased and good clinical and radiologic outcomes can be achieved if the recent operative treatments are used carefully considering the fracture pattern and the injury severity. PMID:25705347

  2. Simultaneous Bilateral Fracture of Femoral Neck in Korea: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hwa-Jae; Shin, Hun-Kyu; Kim, Eugene; Ko, Taeg Su; Choi, Young-Min

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral femoral neck factures are common and their incidence is increasing. However, simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures are rare. Although cases of simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures have been reported, most were caused by strong muscle contractions during electroconvulsive therapy. Simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures caused by a simple fall are an extremely rare injury; therefore, limited literature is available, and no case has been reported in Korea. We report herein a case of simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures caused by a simple fall. An 83-year-old woman visited the emergency department with bilateral hip joint pain and gait disturbance, which developed 1 day after a fall. Tenderness and severe limitation in left hip joint range of motion and mild limitation in right hip joint range of motion were observed on a physical examination. A Garden type IV femoral neck fracture in the left hip joint and a Garden type I femoral neck fracture in the right hip joint were observed on plain radiography. She underwent right screw fixation and left bipolar hemiarthroplasty 2 days after admission. The patient could walk using a walker 4 weeks postoperatively. Bone union in the right femoral neck was observed at the 3 month follow-up. No specific findings were observed at the left hip hemiarthroplasty site.

  3. Bilateral versus unilateral instrumentation in spinal surgery: Systematic review and trial sequential analysis of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kevin; Leung, Vannessa; Scherman, Daniel B; Tan, Andrew R; Rao, Prashanth J; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2016-08-01

    Lumbar fusion surgical intervention is often followed by bilateral pedicle screw fixation. There has been increasing support for unilateral pedicle screw fixation in an attempt to reduce complications and costs. The following study assesses the efficacy and complications of bilateral versus unilateral pedicle screw fixation in open and minimally invasive lumbar interbody fusion techniques. A systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and recommendations. In comparison with existing meta-analyses, trial sequential analysis was implemented to reduce the potential for type I error. Of the 1310 citations screened, four observational studies and 13 randomised controlled trials were used comprising 574 bilateral cases and 549 unilateral cases. Statistical analysis showed no difference in fusion rates, total complications, dural tear rates, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score for back pain, VAS for leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index scores, and length of stay between bilateral and unilateral instrumentation. Unilateral instrumentation was significantly shorter in duration (P<0.00001) and led to significantly lower blood volume loss (P=0.0002). These results were the same for both open and minimally invasive surgical approaches. Unilateral pedicle screw fixation appears to have similar post-operative outcomes as bilateral fixation and improved efficacy in regards to procedure duration and blood volume loss. PMID:27068653

  4. An accessory skull suture mimicking a skull fracture.

    PubMed

    Wiedijk, J E F; Soerdjbalie-Maikoe, V; Maat, G J R; Maes, A; van Rijn, R R; de Boer, H H

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the sudden and unexpected death of a five-and-a-half-month-old boy. As in every Dutch case of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI), a multidisciplinary diagnostic approach was used. This included post-mortem radiography, showing a linear discontinuity of the parietal bone. Originally this was interpreted as a skull fracture, but autopsy indicated no signs of mechanical trauma. Instead the defect was defined as a unilateral accessory suture of the parietal bone. The initial erroneous diagnosis had severe adverse consequences and thus every health care professional or forensic specialist dealing with paediatric mechanical traumas should be cautious of this rare anomaly. PMID:26860068

  5. Aggravated Cardiac Remodeling post Aortocaval Fistula in Unilateral Nephrectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ye; Zou, Wusong; Zhang, Mingjing; Zhu, Pengfei; Hu, Shao

    2015-01-01

    Background Aortocaval fistula (AV) in rat is a unique model of volume-overload congestive heart failure and cardiac hypertrophy. Living donor kidney transplantation is regarded as beneficial to allograft recipients and not particularly detrimental to the donors. Impact of AV on animals with mild renal dysfunction is not fully understood. In this study, we explored the effects of AV in unilateral nephrectomized (UNX) rats. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into Sham (n = 10), UNX (right kidney remove, n = 10), AV (AV established between the levels of renal arteries and iliac bifurcation, n = 18) and UNX+AV (AV at one week after UNX, n = 22), respectively. Renal outcome was measured by glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, fractional excretion of sodium, albuminuria, plasma creatinine, and cystatin C. Focal glomerulosclerosis (FGS) incidence was evaluated by renal histology. Cardiac function was measured by echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements. Results UNX alone induced compensatory left kidney enlargement, increased plasma creatinine and cystatin C levels, and slightly reduced glomerular filtration rate and increased FGS. AV induced significant cardiac enlargement and hypertrophy and reduced cardiac function and increased FGS, these changes were aggravated in UNX+AV rats. Conclusions Although UNX only induces minor renal dysfunction, additional chronic volume overload placement during the adaptation phase of the remaining kidney is associated with aggravated cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in UNX rats, suggesting special medical care is required for UNX or congenital monokidney subjects in case of chronic volume overload as in the case of pregnancy and hyperthyroidism to prevent further adverse cardiorenal events in these individuals. PMID:26252578

  6. In-vivo corneal biomechanical analysis of unilateral keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Ayar, Orhan; Ozmen, Mehmet Cuneyt; Muftuoglu, Orkun; Akdemir, Mehmet Orcun; Koc, Mustafa; Ozulken, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate and compare corneal biomechanical findings measured by ocular response analyzer, topographic and pachymetric findings in patients with unilateral keratoconus patients and healthy controls. METHODS This is an observational, case-control study. Patients with keratoconus in one eye and forme fruste keratoconus in the fellow eye were compared with sex and age matched with controls healthy subjects. All subjects were evaluated with rotating scheimpflug imaging system. The receiver-operating-characteristic curves were analyzed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the parameters. RESULTS Twenty-seven patients with keratoconus in one eye and forme fruste keratoconus in the fellow eye were compared with 40 eyes of 40 normal subjects. Corneal hysteresis (CH) was 8.0±1.7 mm Hg in keratoconus group, 8.3±1.6 mm Hg in forme fruste keratoconus group, and 9.8±1.6 mm Hg in control groups (P=0.54 between keratoconus and forme fruste keratoconus groups, P<0.01 between control group and other groups). Corneal resistance factor (CRF) was 7.1±2.2 mm Hg in keratoconus group, 7.8±1.2 mm Hg in forme fruste keratoconus group and 9.9±1.5 mm Hg in control group (P<0.001 between control group and other groups). Using receiver-operating-characteristic analysis, the area under curve values of the parameters to distinguish forme fruste keratoconus from control subjects were: CH (0.768), CRF (0.866). Best cut-off points were 9.3 mm Hg and 8.8 mm Hg for CH and CRF respectively. CONCLUSION Ocular response analyzer parameters (CH and CRF) are found to be significantly lower in forme fruste keratoconus patients compared to normal control subjects. PMID:26682162

  7. Transient electro-oculogram impairment in unilateral acute idiopathic maculopathy.

    PubMed

    Lam, Byron L; Lopez, Pedro F; Dubovy, Sander R; Liu, Mu

    2009-10-01

    Unilateral acute idiopathic maculopathy (UAIM) is a rare distinct entity characterized by acute exudative maculopathy occurring in young persons. The purpose of this case study is to report transient electro-oculogram (EOG) impairment during the acute stage of UAIM. A 16-year-old healthy female with UAIM in the left eye underwent serial visual field, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, full-field electroretinogram (ERG), and EOG. Initial visual acuity of the affected left eye was 4/200 with macular subretinal exudates. Indocyanine green angiography disclosed early phase foveal hypocyanescence persisting into late phase along with late phase foci of pinpoint hypocyanescence scattered in the macular and mid-peripheral regions. Standard full-field ERG responses performed 18 days after the onset of symptoms were normal. Standard EOG revealed a marked reduced light-peak to dark-trough amplitude ratio (Arden ratio) of 1.20 left eye (normal >or= 1.7) and a normal ratio of 2.24 right eye. Five weeks later, the left eye improved to 20/50, and the exudative maculopathy resolved with residual irregular foveal hyperpigmentation. Repeat EOG performed 69 days after onset of symptoms showed recovery and normalization of the EOG amplitude ratio of the left eye from 1.20 to 2.54. Transient EOG impairment with a normal full-field ERG may occur during the early stage of UAIM. This finding suggests a more widespread dysfunction of the retinal pigment epithelium in at least some cases of UAIM. PMID:19533190

  8. Renal outcome of children with unilateral renal agenesis.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Çağla Serpil; Torun Bayram, Meral

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate associated urological anomalies and renal outcome in children with unilateral renal agenesis (URA). Medical records of 51 cases of URA followed at Şanlıurfa Children 's Hospital between January 2009 and December 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. In all patients, diagnosis was made by abdominal ultrasound (US) and confirmed by a radionuclide scan. The children were between 3 months and 17 years of age (median age: 5 years). There were 31 males (60.8%) and 20 females (39.2%). In 33 patients (67.3%), the left kidney was absent. Urological anomalies were found in 12/51 patients (23.5%), including ureterovesical junction obstruction in 4 (7.8%), bladder dysfunction in 2 (3.9%), and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), ureteropelvic junction obstruction, ureterovesical and ureteropelvic junction obstruction, duplicated collecting system plus grade IV VUR, ectopic kidney plus grade V VUR, and ectopic kidney in 1 patient (2%) each. Chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) developed in 5/51 patients (9.8%) (stage III in 3 patients and stage IV in 2), 4 of whom had additional urological anomaly; in the remaining 1 patient, a 17-year-old female, imaging studies were normal except for a small and hyperechogenic solitary kidney determined on US. A total of 3 patients (5.8%) developed hypertension, and all except one had an associated urological anomaly. Proteinuria was seen in 2 patients (3.8%) with stage IV CRI, one of whom was also hypertensive. In conclusion, urological anomalies usually accompany URA and should be followed closely to decrease the risk of renal failure. PMID:24577979

  9. Centrally administered naloxone blocks reflex natriuresis after acute unilateral nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Lin, S Y; Humphreys, M H

    1985-09-01

    Acute unilateral nephrectomy (AUN) leads to a natriuresis and kaliuresis by the remaining kidney through reflex mechanisms involving opiate receptors. To determine whether the opiate receptors mediating these responses are located in the central nervous system, we carried out AUN in anesthetized rats undergoing continuous ventriculocisternal perfusion (VCP) with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). AUN caused large increases in both Na (UNaV) and K (UKV) excretion without changes in glomerular filtration rate or arterial blood pressure. When the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone was added to the perfusate to achieve a perfusion rate of 32 micrograms X kg-1 X h-1, AUN failed to increase either UNaV or UKV by the remaining kidney. This dose of naloxone, however, was without effect when infused intravenously. Addition of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) to the artificial CSF to achieve a VCP rate of 50 micrograms X kg-1 X h-1 also blocked the expected increase in UNaV and UKV by the remaining kidney after AUN. Infusion of TRH intravenously at the same rate did not interfere with the postnephrectomy natriuresis or kaliuresis. Higher intravenous infusion rates of TRH (1 and 2 mg X kg-1h-1) prevented the postnephrectomy natriuresis without affecting the kaliuresis. These results indicate that the effect of naloxone to block the reflex natriuresis and kaliuresis after AUN resides largely in the central nervous system. The blockade by naloxone of the postnephrectomy natriuresis is duplicated by centrally administered TRH, providing another example of the interaction of this hormone with the endogenous opioid system. Large intravenous infusions of TRH also block the postnephrectomy natriuresis but not the kaliuresis. PMID:3929623

  10. The Unilateral, Self-Deregulation of AT&T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloff, Joel H.

    1990-01-01

    The provision of telecommunications products and services in the United States has been dominated by AT&T and the Bell System for more than one hundred years. From the early days of telephones, it was clear that some framework of logic was required to provide "universal" telephone services to the vast majority of American citizens. The concept was known as "natural monopoly", and for the most part, has served us well. We are all aware of statements concerning absolute power corrupting absolutely, and AT&T has not been immune to this law of human nature. Several times during the past century, action has been required by the Federal Government to regulate and constrain AT&T and the Bell System from anti-competitive and predatory actions. These have been called consent decrees, Computer Inquiry II, Computer Inquiry III, and the Modified Final Judgment. The regulations and constraints imposed upon AT&T, with good reason, are now becoming eroded. The perception of a more highly competitive marketplace capable of accommodating an unrestrained AT&T, the impact of uncoordinated national and regional government policies, and unilateral actions by AT&T themselves are bringing us to the edge of an abyss. There are substantial reasons to believe that AT&T will use its considerable might to eliminate its competitors, once free to do so. Must we be doomed to repeat history with still another antitrust case against AT&T some years from now? Logic demands that we learn from the past, and that telecommunications policies be based upon that knowledge.

  11. Bilateral cerebellar activation in unilaterally challenged essential tremor

    PubMed Central

    Broersma, Marja; van der Stouwe, Anna M.M.; Buijink, Arthur W.G.; de Jong, Bauke M.; Groot, Paul F.C.; Speelman, Johannes D.; Tijssen, Marina A.J.; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common hyperkinetic movement disorders. Previous research into the pathophysiology of ET suggested underlying cerebellar abnormalities. Objective In this study, we added electromyography as an index of tremor intensity to functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (EMG-fMRI) to study a group of ET patients selected according to strict criteria to achieve maximal homogeneity. With this approach we expected to improve upon the localization of the bilateral cerebellar abnormalities found in earlier fMRI studies. Methods We included 21 propranolol sensitive patients, who were not using other tremor medication, with a definite diagnosis of ET defined by the Tremor Investigation Group. Simultaneous EMG-fMRI recordings were performed while patients were off tremor medication. Patients performed unilateral right hand and arm extension, inducing tremor, alternated with relaxation (rest). Twenty-one healthy, age- and sex-matched participants mimicked tremor during right arm extension. EMG power variability at the individual tremor frequency as a measure of tremor intensity variability was used as a regressor, mathematically independent of the block regressor, in the general linear model used for fMRI analysis, to find specific tremor-related activations. Results Block-related activations were found in the classical upper-limb motor network, both for ET patients and healthy participants in motor, premotor and supplementary motor areas. In ET patients, we found tremor-related activations bilaterally in the cerebellum: in left lobules V, VI, VIIb and IX and in right lobules V, VI, VIIIa and b, and in the brainstem. In healthy controls we found simulated tremor-related activations in right cerebellar lobule V. Conclusions Our results expand on previous findings of bilateral cerebellar involvement in ET. We have identified specific areas in the bilateral somatomotor regions of the cerebellum: lobules V, VI and VIII. PMID:26909321

  12. Glucocorticoids improve acute dizziness symptoms following acute unilateral vestibulopathy.

    PubMed

    Batuecas-Caletrío, Angel; Yañez-Gonzalez, Raquel; Sanchez-Blanco, Carmen; Pérez, Pedro Blanco; González-Sanchez, Enrique; Sanchez, Luis Alberto Guardado; Kaski, Diego

    2015-11-01

    Acute unilateral vestibulopathy (AUV) is characterized by acute vertigo, nausea, and imbalance without neurological deficits or auditory symptomatology. Here, we explore the effect of glucocorticoid treatment on the degree of canal paresis in patients with AUV, and critically, establish its relationship with dizziness symptom recovery. We recruited consecutive patients who were retrospectively assigned to one of the two groups according to whether they received glucocorticoid treatment (n = 32) or not (n = 44). All patients underwent pure-tone audiometry, bithermal caloric testing, MRI brain imaging, and were asked to complete a dizziness handicap inventory on admission to hospital and just prior to hospital discharge. In the treatment group, the canal paresis at discharge was significantly lower than in the control group (mean ± SD % 38.04 ± 21.57 versus 82.79 ± 21.51, p < 0.001). We also observed a significant reduction in the intensity of nystagmus in patients receiving glucocorticoid treatment compared to the non-treatment group (p = 0.03). DHI test score was significantly lower at discharge in the treatment group (mean ± SD % 23.15 ± 12.40 versus 64.07 ± 12.87, p < 0.001), as was the length of hospital stay (2.18 ± 1.5 days versus 3.6 ± 1.7 days, p = 0.002). Glucocorticoid treatment leads to acute symptomatic improvement, with a reduced hospital stay and reduction in the intensity of acute nystagmus. Our findings suggest that glucocorticoids may accelerate vestibular compensation via a restoration of peripheral vestibular function, and therefore has important clinical implications for the treatment of AUV. PMID:26459091

  13. Unilateral intrauterine horn insemination of frozen semen in cats.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, T; Tanaka, A; Takagi, Y; Nakagawa, K; Fujimoto, Y; Murai, M; Anzai, M; Hori, T

    2000-12-01

    Frozen feline semen was prepared using two types of extenders, egg yolk Tris-fructose citric acid (EYT-FC) and egg yolk sodium citrate solution (EYC), and the semen qualities after thawing and the conception rates obtained by unilateral intrauterine horn insemination (UIUI) were investigated. Cats used in the experiment were six males and 11 females aged 2-12 years (the number of experimental cases was 17). For preparation of frozen semen, semen collected by the artificial vagina method was adjusted to I x 10(8) sperm/m/ and 7% glycerol, put in 250 microl straws, and then frozen using a cell freezer. The mean sperm motility after thawing was 30.0+/-9.7 (SE) % in the semen prepared with EYT-FC and 30.0+/-3.3% in the semen prepared with EYC. Four of seven animals were fertilized by UIUI using two straws in both extenders, and the conception rate was 57.1%. The mean ratios of number of kits to the number of ovulations in the inseminated side were 61.1+/-24.5% and 30.5+/-3.4% for EYT-FC and EYC, respectively, showing that the ratio tended to be higher in the semen prepared with EYT-FC. The above findings, comparing the two extenders for preparation of frozen feline semen, showed that EYT-FC is slightly superior to EYC. To increase conception and fertility rates, it may be important to increase the sperm count for insemination and to inseminate both uterine horns. PMID:11193339

  14. Fracture behavior across interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, E. S.; Evans, J. P.; Jeppson, T. N.

    2011-12-01

    Faults and fracture networks at depth are important fluid pathways, especially in fine-grained, low permeability seal lithologies. Discontinues in sealing lithologies can create seal bypass systems, leading to the failure of CO2 geosequestration sites or hydrocarbon traps. We characterize the occurrence of and changes in discontinuity patterns and the associated changes in elastic moduli across sedimentologic interfaces to document the importance of these discontinuities for fluid management in the subsurface and potential for re-activation in high-pressure injection scenarios. We evaluate well-exposed, fine-grained, low-permeability Mesozoic and Paleozoic units that are seals of potential CO2 repositories on the Colorado Plateau and show evidence for open fractures and fluid flow in the subsurface. Field observations document changes in fracture distributions across lithologic boundaries allowing us to identify mechano-stratigraphic units and focus on the effect of lithologic interfaces on fracture distribution. An interface marks the boundary between facies in a seal and in this study the fractures are shown to deflect or arrest at the interface. In outcrop fracture intensity varies in from 1 to 18 fractures per meter and fracture apertures range from mm to cm. The mineralized fractures often have associated alteration halos along their boundaries; their general orientation follows that of discontinuities within the underlying reservoir facies or adjacent faults. The recognition of these changes in fracture distribution is important for forward modeling of fluid flow and risk management. Studying the occurrence of and changes in fracture patterns from outcrops and scaling it up for use in modeling at a field scale is difficult due to the lack of direct correlation between outcrop observations and subsurface data. Due to the size and amount of data needed to model fluid flow at the field scale the meso-scale (cm to m) variability of rock properties is often

  15. Computed tomography of facial fractures.

    PubMed

    Furlow, Bryant

    2014-01-01

    Facial skeletal fractures are common, potentially serious, and frequently associated with other life-threatening conditions, such as traumatic brain injuries. Facial fractures can be simple or complex and sometimes involve serious complications. Computed tomography has revolutionized the rapid and precise assessment of craniofacial and neck fractures in patients with severe facial trauma. This article introduces readers to the epidemiology, skeletal anatomy and biomechanics, complications, and diagnostic imaging of facial fractures. In addition, this article describes efforts to develop and validate a quantitative scoring system for facial fracture severity and reviews treatment strategies for facial skeletal fractures. PMID:24806070

  16. Unilateral Subthalamic Nucleus Stimulation Has a Measurable Ipsilateral Effect on Rigidity And Bradykinesia in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tabbal, Samer D.; Ushe, Mwiza; Mink, Jonathan W.; Revilla, Fredy J.; Wernle, Angie R.; Hong, Minna; Karimi, Morvarid; Perlmutter, Joel S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) improves motor function in Parkinson disease (PD). However, little is known about the quantitative effects on motor behavior of unilateral STN DBS. Methods In 52 PD subjects with STN DBS, we quantified in a double-blinded manner rigidity (n= 42), bradykinesia (n= 38), and gait speed (n= 45). Subjects were tested in four DBS conditions: both on, left on, right on and both off. A force transducer was used to measure rigidity across the elbow, and gyroscopes were used to measure angular velocity of hand rotations for bradykinesia. About half of the subjects were rated using the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (part III) motor scores for arm rigidity and repetitive hand rotation simultaneously during the kinematic measurements. Subjects were timed walking 25 feet. Results All subjects had significant improvement with bilateral STN DBS. Contralateral, ipsilateral and bilateral stimulation significantly reduced rigidity and bradykinesia. Bilateral stimulation improved rigidity more than unilateral stimulation of either side, but there was no significant difference between ipsilateral and contralateral stimulation. Although bilateral stimulation also increased hand rotation velocity more than unilateral stimulation of either side, contralateral stimulation increased hand rotation significantly more than ipsilateral stimulation. All stimulation conditions improved walking time but bilateral stimulation provided the greatest improvement. Conclusions Unilateral STN DBS decreased rigidity and bradykinesia contralaterally as well ipsilaterally. As expected, bilateral DBS improved gait more than unilateral DBS. These findings suggest that unilateral STN DBS alters pathways that affect rigidity and bradykinesia bilaterally but do not support the clinical use of unilateral STN DBS since bilateral DBS clearly provides greater benefit. PMID:18329019

  17. Predictive Factors Affecting Long-Term Outcome of Unilateral Lateral Rectus Recession

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Mi-Jin; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Background There are few long-term outcome reports of unilateral lateral rectus (LR) recession for exotropia including a large number of subjects. Previous reports on unilateral LR recession commonly show extremely low rates of initial overcorrection and large exodrifts after surgery suggesting that the surgical dose may be increased. However, little is known of the long-term outcome of a large unilateral LR recession for exotropia. Objectives To determine long-term outcomes and predictive factors of recurrence after a large unilateral LR recession in patients with exotropia. Data Extraction Retrospective analysis was performed on 92 patients aged 3 to 17 years who underwent 10 mm unilateral LR recession for exotropia of ≤ 25 prism diopters (Δ) with prism and alternate cover testing and were followed up for more than 2 years after surgery. Final success rates within 10Δ of exophoria/tropia and 5Δ of esophoria/tropia at distance in the primary position, improvement in stereopsis and the predictive factors for recurrence were evaluated. Results At 24 months after surgery, 54% of patients had ocular alignment meeting the defined criteria of success, 45% had recurrence and 1% had overcorrection. After a mean follow-up of 39 months, 36% showed success, 63% showed recurrence and 1% resulted in overcorrection. The average time of recurrence was 23.4±14.7 months (range, 1–60 months) and the rate of recurrence per person-year was 23% after unilateral LR recession. Predictive factors of recurrence were a larger preoperative near angle of deviation (>16Δ) and larger initial postoperative exodeviation (>5Δ) at distance. Conclusions Long-term outcome of unilateral LR recession for exotropia showed low success rates with high recurrence, thus should be reserved for patients with a small preoperative near angle of exodeviation. PMID:26418819

  18. Fracture-Flow-Enhanced Solute Diffusion into Fractured Rock

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Ye, Ming; Sudicky, E.A.

    2007-12-15

    We propose a new conceptual model of fracture-flow-enhanced matrix diffusion, which correlates with fracture-flow velocity, i.e., matrix diffusion enhancement induced by rapid fluid flow within fractures. According to the boundary-layer or film theory, fracture flow enhanced matrix diffusion may dominate mass-transfer processes at fracture-matrix interfaces, because rapid flow along fractures results in large velocity and concentration gradients at and near fracture-matrix interfaces, enhancing matrix diffusion at matrix surfaces. In this paper, we present a new formulation of the conceptual model for enhanced fracture-matrix diffusion, and its implementation is discussed using existing analytical solutions and numerical models. In addition, we use the enhanced matrix diffusion concept to analyze laboratory experimental results from nonreactive and reactive tracer breakthrough tests, in an effort to validate the new conceptual model.

  19. TIBIAL PLATEAU FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, Mauricio Kfuri; Fogagnolo, Fabrício; Bitar, Rogério Carneiro; Freitas, Rafael Lara; Salim, Rodrigo; Jansen Paccola, Cleber Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are joint lesions that require anatomical reduction of joint surface and functional restoration of mechanical axis of a lower limb. Patient profile, soft tissue conditions, presence of associated injuries and the available infrastructure for the treatment all contribute to the decision making about the best treatment for these fractures. High-energy fractures are usually approached in a staged manner respecting the principle of damage control, and are primarily targeted to maintain limb alignment while the resolution unfavorable soft tissue conditions is pending. Low-energy trauma can be managed on a singlestage basis, provided soft tissues are not an adverse factor, with open reduction and internal fixation. Stable fixation and early painless joint movement are related to a better prognosis. New developments as locked plates, bone replacements, intraoperative 3D imaging are promising and will certainly contribute for less invasive procedures and better outcomes. PMID:27077054

  20. Talar neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Berlet, G C; Lee, T H; Massa, E G

    2001-01-01

    Clinical management of talar neck fractures is complex and fraught with complications. As Gaius Julius Caesar stated: "The die is cast"; often the outcome of a talar neck fracture is determined at the time of injury. The authors believe, however, that better results can be achieved by following some simple guidelines. The authors advocate prompt and precise anatomic surgical reduction, preferring the medial approach with secondary anterolateral approach. Preservation of blood supply can be achieved by a thorough understanding of vascular pathways and efforts to stay within appropriate surgical intervals. The authors advocate bone grafting of medial neck comminution (if present) to prevent varus malalignment and rigid internal fixation to allow for joint mobilization postoperatively. These guidelines may seem simple, but when dealing with the complexity of talar neck fractures, the foot and ankle surgeon needs to focus and rely on easily grasped concepts to reduce poor outcomes. PMID:11465133

  1. DEM Particle Fracture Model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Boning; Herbold, Eric B.; Homel, Michael A.; Regueiro, Richard A.

    2015-12-01

    An adaptive particle fracture model in poly-ellipsoidal Discrete Element Method is developed. The poly-ellipsoidal particle will break into several sub-poly-ellipsoids by Hoek-Brown fracture criterion based on continuum stress and the maximum tensile stress in contacts. Also Weibull theory is introduced to consider the statistics and size effects on particle strength. Finally, high strain-rate split Hopkinson pressure bar experiment of silica sand is simulated using this newly developed model. Comparisons with experiments show that our particle fracture model can capture the mechanical behavior of this experiment very well, both in stress-strain response and particle size redistribution. The effects of density and packings o the samples are also studied in numerical examples.

  2. Fracking, fracture, and permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcotte, D. L.; Norris, J.; Rundle, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    Injections of large volumes of water into tight shale reservoirs allows the extraction of oil and gas not previously accessible. This large volume 'super' fracking induces damage that allows the oil and/or gas to flow to an extraction well. The purpose of this paper is to provide a model for understanding super fracking. We assume that water is injected from a small spherical cavity into a homogeneous elastic medium. The high pressure of the injected water generates hoop stresses that reactivate natural fractures in the tight shales. These fractures migrate outward as water is added creating a spherical shell of damaged rock. The porosity associated with these fractures is equal to the water volume injected. We obtain an analytic expression for this volume. We apply our model to a typical tight shale reservoir and show that the predicted water volumes are in good agreement with the volumes used in super fracking.

  3. Geometrically Frustrated Fracture Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Noah; Koning, Vinzenz; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Irvine, William T. M.

    2015-03-01

    When a flat elastic sheet is forced to conform to a surface with Gaussian curvature, stresses arise in the sheet. The mismatch between initial and final metrics gives rise to new fracture behavior which cannot be achieved by boundary loading alone. Using experiments of PDMS sheets frustrated on 3D-printed surfaces and a linearized analytical model, we demonstrate the ability of curvature to govern the sheets' fracture phenomenology. In this talk, we first show that curvature can both stimulate and suppress fracture initiation, depending on the position and orientation of the initial slit. Secondly, we show that curvature can steer the path of a crack as it propagates through the material. Lastly, the curvature can arrest cracks which would otherwise continue to propagate.

  4. Fractured Petroleum Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Firoozabadi, Dr. Abbas

    2000-01-18

    In this report the results of experiments of water injection in fractured porous media comprising a number of water-wet matrix blocks are reported for the first time. The blocks experience an advancing fracture-water level (FWL). Immersion-type experiments are performed for comparison; the dominant recovery mechanism changed from co-current to counter-current imbibition when the boundary conditions changed from advancing FWL to immersion-type. Single block experiments of co-current and counter-current imbibition was performed and co-current imbibition leads to more efficient recovery was found.

  5. Temporomandibular joint ankylosis caused by condylar fractures: a retrospective analysis of cases at an urban teaching hospital in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anyanechi, C E

    2015-08-01

    Mandibular condylar fractures are common presentations to hospitals across the globe and remain the most important cause of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis. This study aimed to analyze cases of mandibular condylar fracture complicated by TMJ ankylosis after treatment. A 16-year retrospective analysis was performed at the dental and maxillofacial surgery clinic of the study institution; patient data were collected from the hospital records and entered into a pro-forma questionnaire. It was found that 56/3596 (1.6%) fractures resulted in TMJ ankylosis. The age of patients with ankylosis ranged from 12 to 47 years. The age (P=0.03) and gender (P=0.01) distributions were significant, with most cases of ankylosis occurring in those aged 11-30 years (n=43/56, 76.8%). Fractures complicated by ankylosis were intracapsular (n=22/56, 39.3%) and extracapsular (n=34/56, 60.7%). Ankylosis increased significantly with the increase in time lag between injury and fracture treatment (P=0.001). Ankylosis was associated with concomitant mandibular (85.7%) and middle third (66.1%) fractures. Treatment methods were not significantly related to ankylosis (P=0.32). All cases of ankylosis were unilateral, and complete (n=36, 64.3%) and incomplete ankylosis (n=20, 35.7%) were diagnosed clinically. The incorporation of computed tomography scans and rigid internal fixation in the management of condylar fractures will reduce ankylosis. PMID:26008733

  6. Isolated bilateral mandibular angle fractures: an extensive literature review of the rare clinical phenomenon with presentation of a classical clinical model.

    PubMed

    Elavenil, P; Mohanavalli, S; Sasikala, B; Prasanna, R Ashok; Krishnakumar, Raja V B

    2015-06-01

    Bilateral angle fractures are a rare clinical phenomenon in contrast to the incidence of unilateral angle fractures. However, the rarity has garnered less attention in spite of the uniqueness of fracture pattern and distinctive biomechanics. This article is a detailed review on the etiology, clinical presentation, and management of bilateral angle fractures with the presentation of an interesting case. The bilateral angle fracture reported is a untreated, malunited fracture representing an ideal clinical model to study its biomechanics. The clinical features were anterior open bite, increased facial height, and temporomandibular joint tenderness. The management included osteotomy at the malunion and miniplate osteosynthesis. Bilateral angle fracture presents mandible in three independent fragments (left angle, right angle, and intermediate corpus), each with strong muscles acting in different vectors. This makes the fracture vulnerable to severe displacing forces and unfavorable to achieve the optimal reduction, stability, and healing. This necessitates comprehension of the biomechanical forces involved to avoid malunion following fixation. The article details the complex biomechanics of mandibular angle and its clinical implications in the rare event of bilateral angle fractures. It describes the necessity for a systematic approach and ideal osteosynthesis principles to achieve maximal treatment outcomes and minimal complications. PMID:26000089

  7. Isolated Bilateral Mandibular Angle Fractures: An Extensive Literature Review of the Rare Clinical Phenomenon with Presentation of a Classical Clinical Model

    PubMed Central

    Elavenil, P.; Mohanavalli, S.; Sasikala, B.; Prasanna, R. Ashok; Krishnakumar, Raja V. B.

    2014-01-01

    Bilateral angle fractures are a rare clinical phenomenon in contrast to the incidence of unilateral angle fractures. However, the rarity has garnered less attention in spite of the uniqueness of fracture pattern and distinctive biomechanics. This article is a detailed review on the etiology, clinical presentation, and management of bilateral angle fractures with the presentation of an interesting case. The bilateral angle fracture reported is a untreated, malunited fracture representing an ideal clinical model to study its biomechanics. The clinical features were anterior open bite, increased facial height, and temporomandibular joint tenderness. The management included osteotomy at the malunion and miniplate osteosynthesis. Bilateral angle fracture presents mandible in three independent fragments (left angle, right angle, and intermediate corpus), each with strong muscles acting in different vectors. This makes the fracture vulnerable to severe displacing forces and unfavorable to achieve the optimal reduction, stability, and healing. This necessitates comprehension of the biomechanical forces involved to avoid malunion following fixation. The article details the complex biomechanics of mandibular angle and its clinical implications in the rare event of bilateral angle fractures. It describes the necessity for a systematic approach and ideal osteosynthesis principles to achieve maximal treatment outcomes and minimal complications. PMID:26000089

  8. Cyst infection in unilateral renal cystic disease and the role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Takase, Yasukazu; Kodama, Koichi; Motoi, Isamu; Saito, Katsuhiko

    2012-11-01

    In multicystic renal diseases, cyst infection is a complex issue because of the absence of validated diagnostic methods. Unilateral renal cystic disease is a rare multicystic disease, believed to have an acquired maldevelopmental origin. Unilateral renal cystic disease is often confused with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease but has some distinguishing characteristics: unilateral localization, negative family history, and no progression to chronic renal failure. We describe a case of unilateral renal cystic disease with cyst infection that could be detected by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, but not by conventional imaging techniques. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging can be useful for detecting infected cysts, especially in multicystic renal diseases. PMID:22990058

  9. Fractures of the coracoid process.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, K; Yoshida, A; Takahashi, M; Ui, M

    1997-01-01

    We reviewed 67 consecutive patients with fractures of the coracoid process, classifying them by the relationship between the fracture site and the coracoclavicular ligament. The 53 type-I fractures were behind the attachment of this ligament, and the 11 type-II fractures were anterior to it. The relationship of three fractures was uncertain. Type-I fractures were associated with a wide variety of shoulder injuries and consequent dissociation between the scapula and the clavicle. Treatment was usually by open reduction and fixation for type-I fractures and conservative methods for type-II. At follow-up of the 45 available patients, 87% had excellent results, with no significant differences between the operative and non-operative groups or between the type-I and type-II fractures. We consider that operative treatment should be reserved for patients with multiple shoulder injuries with severe disruption of the scapuloclavicular connection. PMID:9020438

  10. Progressive Fracture of Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Minnetyan, Levon

    2008-01-01

    A new approach is described for evaluating fracture in composite structures. This approach is independent of classical fracture mechanics parameters like fracture toughness. It relies on computational simulation and is programmed in a stand-alone integrated computer code. It is multiscale, multifunctional because it includes composite mechanics for the composite behavior and finite element analysis for predicting the structural response. It contains seven modules; layered composite mechanics (micro, macro, laminate), finite element, updating scheme, local fracture, global fracture, stress based failure modes, and fracture progression. The computer code is called CODSTRAN (Composite Durability Structural ANalysis). It is used in the present paper to evaluate the global fracture of four composite shell problems and one composite built-up structure. Results show that the composite shells and the built-up composite structure global fracture are enhanced when internal pressure is combined with shear loads.

  11. Compression fractures of the back

    MedlinePlus

    Compression fractures of the back are broken vertebrae. Vertebrae are the bones of the spine. ... bone from elsewhere Tumors that start in the spine, such as multiple myeloma Having many fractures of ...

  12. Bone fracture repair - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... main treatment options for bone fractures are: Casting Open reduction, and internal fixation- this involves a surgery to repair the fracture-frequently, metal rods, screws or plates are used to repair the bone, and remain ...

  13. Fracture After Total Hip Replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... er Total Hip Replacement cont. • Dislocation • Limb length inequality • Poor fracture healing • Repeat fracture • Lack of in- ... Surgeons (AAOS). To learn more about your orthopaedic health, please visit orthoinfo.org. Page ( 5 ) AAOS does ...

  14. Distal Radius Fracture (Broken Wrist)

    MedlinePlus

    ... choice depends on many factors, such as the nature of the fracture, your age and activity level, ... causing the cast to loosen. Depending on the nature of the fracture, your doctor may closely monitor ...

  15. Multiple mandibular fractures. Treatment outlines.

    PubMed

    Elia, Giovanni; Franco, Elena; Clauser, Luigi C

    2016-02-01

    Multiple mandibular comminuted fractures usually occur in high energy traumas. The authors describe the management and treatment of multiple mandibular fractures in a young patient after a suicide attempt. PMID:26862697

  16. Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain More than 40 million people in the United States have osteoporosis (a decrease in the amount ...

  17. Ankle Fractures Often Not Diagnosed

    MedlinePlus

    ... News, Videos & Podcasts » Articles » Text Size Print Bookmark Ankle Fractures Often Not Diagnosed Long-term Complications Result from Poor Recovery Mistaking an ankle fracture for an ankle sprain has serious consequences ...

  18. Stress fractures in young athletes.

    PubMed

    Orava, S; Jormakka, E; Hulkko, A

    1981-01-01

    In a series of 16 cases of stress fractures in 15-year-old and younger athletes 8 fractures occurred in boys and 8 in girls. There were no differences between the sexes in the athletes' training habits. Ten of the fractures were located at the tibia, seven at its upper third and three at the lower part of the bone. Three fractures were found in the fibula, in the metatarsal bones two stress fractures and in the femur one stress fracture. Most stress fractures were caused by endurance type sports. The daily training distances were not particularly high at the time of the onset of the symptoms. In most cases the diagnosis was based on a radiological evaluation. A sufficiently long pause from all athletic activity was enough treatment. Stress fractures in children are very uncommon. PMID:7295000

  19. Unilateral intrauterine horn insemination of fresh semen in cats.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, T; Tanaka, A; Takagi, Y; Nakagawa, K; Fujimoto, Y; Murai, M; Anzai, M; Hori, T

    2000-12-01

    The sperm count required were investigated to obtain a conception rate of 80% by unilateral intrauterine insemination (UIUI) of fresh semen in cats. The conception rates obtained by insemination before and after ovulation were also examined. Thirty-six female cats aged 1-7 years were used in the experiments, and the number of experimental cases was 44. Seven male cats aged 2-12 years from which semen could be collected by the artificial vagina method were used. In artificial insemination, 100 iu x 2 or 250 iu of hCG was administered on days 2-4 of estrus, and sperm were introduced into the uterine horn with a greater number of ovulations (or mature follicles) 15, 20 and 30 hr after hCG administration by laparotomy. The inseminated sperm counts were 2 x 10(6) (Exp. 1). 4 x 10(6) (Exp. 2), and 8 x 10(6) (Exp. 3). As a result, ovulation was induced in 42 of 44 cases (induction rate: 95.5%) regardless of the dosage of hCG. Conception was obtained by UIUI in two of 16 animals (conception rate: 12.5%) in the Exp. 1, five of 16 animals (31.3%) in Exp. 2, and eight of 10 animals (80.0%) in Exp. 3. Regarding the relationship between the ovulation state at insemination and conception, the conception rate obtained by insemination before ovulation was clearly higher than that obtained by insemination after ovulation (p<0.05). Regarding the number of kits compared to the number of ovulations on the inseminated side, the percentages of cases in which the number of kits exceeded the number of ovulations on the inseminated side were similar in all groups inseminated with a different number of sperm. It is therefore necessary to investigate conception rates obtained by bilateral insemination to increase the fertility rate. Based on the above findings, it was shown that the sperm count required for fertilization by UIUI is 8 x 10(6). PMID:11193338

  20. Isolated Unilateral Tongue Atrophy: A Possible Late Complication of Juxta Cephalic Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Alqahtani, Saeed A.; Agha, Caroline; Rothstein, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 51 Final Diagnosis: Radiation therapy induced unilateral tongue atrophy Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: EMG Specialty: Neurology Objective: Rare disease Background: Isolated unilateral hypoglossal nerve injury is extremely rare. It may be caused by radiation therapy targeting neoplasms of the cephalic region. Case Report: A 51-year-old man with synovial sarcoma of the left upper arm status post extensive radiation therapy in 1980 presented in late 2014 with gradual onset of speech difficulty and difficulty moving his tongue for a couple of weeks. Neurological examination revealed isolated left-sided unilateral tongue atrophy. Postradiation residual extensive cicatrix with erythema over the whole left upper extremity extending to the neck on the affected side was noticed. On head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after administration of gadolinium, he was found to have asymmetrically fatty striations, atrophy, and fibrosis in the left tongue consistent with radiation toxicity. The patient’s tongue weakness persisted without improvement. Conclusions: The diagnosis of unilateral hypoglossal nerve injury is usually difficult. Detailed neurological examinations and thorough investigations including head MRI are very helpful. Previous exposure to radiation therapy is a potential cause of hypoglossal nerve injury. To our knowledge, this is the first case report that presents isolated unilateral tongue atrophy as a late complication of juxta cephalic radiation therapy. PMID:27458010

  1. Melatonin protects kidney against apoptosis induced by acute unilateral ureteral obstruction in rats

    PubMed Central

    Badem, Hüseyin; Cakmak, Muzaffer; Yilmaz, Hakki; Kosem, Bahadir; Karatas, Omer Faruk; Bayrak, Reyhan; Cimentepe, Ersin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To investigate whether there was a protective effect of melatonin on apoptotic mechanisms after an acute unilateral obstruction of the kidney. Material and methods A total of 25 rats consisting of five groups were used in the study, designated as follows: Group 1: control, Group 2: sham, Group 3: unilateral ureteral obstruction treated with only saline, Group 4: unilateral ureteral obstruction treated with melatonin immediately, and Group 5: unilateral obstruction treated with melatonin one day after obstruction. Melatonin was administered as a 10 mg/kg dose intraperitoneally. The kidneys were evaluated according to the apoptotic index and Ki-67 scores. Results Comparison of all obstruction groups (Group 3, 4, and 5), revealed that the apoptotic index was significantly higher in Groups 1 and 2. Despite melatonin reduced apoptotic mechanisms in Groups 4 and 5, there was no significant difference between Groups 4 and 5 in terms of the reduction of apoptosis. However, the reduction of apoptosis in the melatonin treated group did not decrease to the level of Groups 1 and 2. Conclusions Despite melatonin administration, which significantly reduces the apoptotic index occurring after acute unilateral ureteral obstruction, the present study did not observe a return to normal renal histology in the obstruction groups. PMID:27551563

  2. Correlation of Hip Fracture with Other Fracture Types: Toward a Rational Composite Hip Fracture Endpoint

    PubMed Central

    Colón-Emeric, Cathleen; Pieper, Carl F.; Grubber, Janet; Van Scoyoc, Lynn; Schnell, Merritt L; Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Pearson, Megan; Lafleur, Joanne; Lyles, Kenneth W.; Adler, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose With ethical requirements to the enrollment of lower risk subjects, osteoporosis trials are underpowered to detect reduction in hip fractures. Different skeletal sites have different levels of fracture risk and response to treatment. We sought to identify fracture sites which cluster with hip fracture at higher than expected frequency; if these sites respond to treatment similarly, then a composite fracture endpoint could provide a better estimate of hip fracture reduction. Methods Cohort study using Veterans Affairs and Medicare administrative data. Male Veterans (n=5,036,536) aged 50-99 years receiving VA primary care between1999-2009 were included. Fractures were ascertained using ICD9 and CPT codes and classified by skeletal site. Pearson correlation coefficients, logistic regression and kappa statistics, were used to describe the correlation between each fracture type and hip fracture within individuals, without regards to the timing of the events. Results 595,579 (11.8%) men suffered 1 or more fractures and 179,597 (3.6%) suffered 2 or more fractures during the time under study. Of those with one or more fractures, rib was the most common site (29%), followed by spine (22%), hip (21%) and femur (20%). The fracture types most highly correlated with hip fracture were pelvic/acetabular (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.25, p<0.0001), femur (0.15, p<0.0001), and shoulder (0.11, p<0.0001). Conclusions Pelvic, acetabular, femur, and shoulder fractures cluster with hip fractures within individuals at greater than expected frequency. If we observe similar treatment risk reductions within that cluster, subsequent trials could consider use of a composite endpoint to better estimate hip fracture risk. PMID:26151123

  3. Numerical Modeling of Fracture Propagation in Naturally Fractured Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Prodanovic, M.; Olson, J. E.; Schultz, R.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing consists of injecting fluid at high pressure and high flowrate to the wellbore for the purpose of enhancing production by generating a complex fracture network. Both tensile failure and shear failure occur during the hydraulic fracturing treatment. The shear event can be caused by slip on existing weak planes such as faults or natural fractures. From core observation, partially cemented and fully cemented opening mode natural fractures, often with considerable thickness are widely present. Hydraulic fractures can propagate either within the natural fracture (tensile failure) or along the interface between the natural fracture and the rock matrix (tensile/shear failure), depending on the relative strength of cement and rock matrix materials, the bonding strength of interface, as well as the presence of any heterogeneities. In this study, we evaluate the fracture propagation both experimentally and numerically. We embed one or multiple inclusions of different mechanical properties within synthetic hydrostone samples in order to mimic cemented natural fractures and rock. A semi-circular bending test is performed for each set of properties. A finite element model built with ABAQUS is used to mimic the semi-circular bending test and study the fracture propagation path, as well as the matrix-inclusion bonding interface status. Mechanical properties required for the numerical model are measured experimentally. The results indicate that the match between experiment and modeling fracture path are extremely sensitive to the chosen interface (bonding) model and related parameters. The semi-circular bending test is dry and easily conducted, providing a good platform for validating numerical approaches. A validated numerical model will enable us to add pressurized fluid within the crack and simulate hydraulic fracture-natural fracture interaction in the reservoir conditions, ultimately providing insights into the extent of the fracture network.

  4. Chondrocyte BMP2 signaling plays an essential role in bone fracture healing

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Meng; Jin, Hongting; Wang, Baoli; Yukata, Kiminori; Sheu, Tzong-jen; Ke, Qiao Han; Tong, Peijian; Im, Hee-Jeong; Xiao, Guozhi; Chen, Di

    2012-01-01

    The specific role of endogenous Bmp2 gene in chondrocytes and in osteoblasts in fracture healing was investigated by generation and analysis of chondrocyte- and osteoblast-specific Bmp2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice. The unilateral open transverse tibial fractures were created in these Bmp2 cKO mice. Bone fracture callus samples were collected and analyzed by X-ray, micro-CT, histology analyses, biomechanical testing and gene expression assays. The results demonstrated that the lack of Bmp2 expression in chondrocytes leads to a prolonged cartilage callus formation and a delayed osteogenesis initiation and progression into mineralization phase with lower biomechanical properties. In contrast, when the Bmp2 gene was deleted in osteoblasts, the mice showed no significant difference in the fracture healing process compared to control mice. These findings suggest that endogenous BMP2 expression in chondrocytes may play an essential role in cartilage callus maturation at an early stage of fracture healing. Our studies may provide important information for clinical application of BMP2. PMID:23107765

  5. Statistical Physics of Fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Alava, Mikko; Nukala, Phani K; Zapperi, Stefano

    2006-05-01

    Disorder and long-range interactions are two of the key components that make material failure an interesting playfield for the application of statistical mechanics. The cornerstone in this respect has been lattice models of the fracture in which a network of elastic beams, bonds, or electrical fuses with random failure thresholds are subject to an increasing external load. These models describe on a qualitative level the failure processes of real, brittle, or quasi-brittle materials. This has been particularly important in solving the classical engineering problems of material strength: the size dependence of maximum stress and its sample-to-sample statistical fluctuations. At the same time, lattice models pose many new fundamental questions in statistical physics, such as the relation between fracture and phase transitions. Experimental results point out to the existence of an intriguing crackling noise in the acoustic emission and of self-affine fractals in the crack surface morphology. Recent advances in computer power have enabled considerable progress in the understanding of such models. Among these partly still controversial issues, are the scaling and size-effects in material strength and accumulated damage, the statistics of avalanches or bursts of microfailures, and the morphology of the crack surface. Here we present an overview of the results obtained with lattice models for fracture, highlighting the relations with statistical physics theories and more conventional fracture mechanics approaches.

  6. Fracture design modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Crichlow, H.B.; Crichlow, H.B.

    1980-02-07

    A design tool is discussed whereby the various components that enter the design process of a hydraulic fracturing job are combined to provide a realistic appraisal of a stimulation job in the field. An interactive computer model is used to solve the problem numerically to obtain the effects of various parameters on the overall behavior of the system.

  7. Tibia (Shinbone) Shaft Fractures

    MedlinePlus

    ... fractures in patients who are less healthy. • Early motion. Many doctors encourage leg motion early in the recovery period. For example, if ... will help you restore normal muscle strength, joint motion, and flexibility. AAOS does not endorse any treatments, ...

  8. Fracturing rigid materials.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zhaosheng; Hong, Jeong-Mo; Teran, Joseph; Fedkiw, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to fracturing (and denting) brittle materials. To avoid the computational burden imposed by the stringent time step restrictions of explicit methods or with solving nonlinear systems of equations for implicit methods, we treat the material as a fully rigid body in the limit of infinite stiffness. In addition to a triangulated surface mesh and level set volume for collisions, each rigid body is outfitted with a tetrahedral mesh upon which finite element analysis can be carried out to provide a stress map for fracture criteria. We demonstrate that the commonly used stress criteria can lead to arbitrary fracture (especially for stiff materials) and instead propose the notion of a time averaged stress directly into the FEM analysis. When objects fracture, the virtual node algorithm provides new triangle and tetrahedral meshes in a straightforward and robust fashion. Although each new rigid body can be rasterized to obtain a new level set, small shards can be difficult to accurately resolve. Therefore, we propose a novel collision handling technique for treating both rigid bodies and rigid body thin shells represented by only a triangle mesh. PMID:17218752

  9. Fracture mechanics principles.

    PubMed

    Mecholsky, J J

    1995-03-01

    The principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) were developed in the 1950s by George Irwin (1957). This work was based on previous investigations of Griffith (1920) and Orowan (1944). Irwin (1957) demonstrated that a crack shape in a particular location with respect to the loading geometry had a stress intensity associated with it. He also demonstrated the equivalence between the stress intensity concept and the familiar Griffith criterion of failure. More importantly, he described the systematic and controlled evaluation of the toughness of a material. Toughness is defined as the resistance of a material to rapid crack propagation and can be characterized by one parameter, Kic. In contrast, the strength of a material is dependent on the size of the initiating crack present in that particular sample or component. The fracture toughness of a material is generally independent of the size of the initiating crack. The strength of any product is limited by the size of the cracks or defects during processing, production and handling. Thus, the application of fracture mechanics principles to dental biomaterials is invaluable in new material development, production control and failure analysis. This paper describes the most useful equations of fracture mechanics to be used in the failure analysis of dental biomaterials. PMID:8621030

  10. Increasing Metal Fracture Toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, P. L.; Wood, W. H.; Sandefur, P. G. J.

    1982-01-01

    In technique developed at Langley Research Center several thin sheets of metal are diffusion-brazed together in vacuum furnace to create thick piece of metal that retains much of fracture toughness of its thin components. Technique is expected to make many of high-strength stainless steels, not currently suitable, usable at cryogenic temperatures.

  11. Infiltration into Fractured Bedrock

    SciTech Connect

    Salve, Rohit; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Jones, Robert

    2007-09-01

    One potential consequence of global climate change and rapid changes in land use is an increased risk of flooding. Proper understanding of floodwater infiltration thus becomes a crucial component of our preparedness to meet the environmental challenges of projected climate change. In this paper, we present the results of a long-term infiltration experiment performed on fractured ash flow tuff. Water was released from a 3 x 4 m{sup 2} infiltration plot (divided into 12 square subplots) with a head of {approx}0.04 m, over a period of {approx}800 days. This experiment revealed peculiar infiltration patterns not amenable to current infiltration models, which were originally developed for infiltration into soils over a short duration. In particular, we observed that in part of the infiltration plot, the infiltration rate abruptly increased a few weeks into the infiltration tests. We suggest that these anomalies result from increases in fracture permeability during infiltration, which may be caused by swelling of clay fillings and/or erosion of infill debris. Interaction of the infiltration water with subsurface natural cavities (lithophysal cavities) could also contribute to such anomalies. This paper provides a conceptual model that partly describes the observed infiltration patterns in fractured rock and highlights some of the pitfalls associated with direct extension of soil infiltration models to fractured rock over a long period.

  12. Fracture of articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Chin-Purcell, M V; Lewis, J L

    1996-11-01

    Crack formation and propagation is a significant element of the degeneration process in articular cartilage. In order to understand this process, and separate the relative importance of structural overload and material failure, methods for measuring the fracture toughness of cartilage are needed. In this paper, two such methods are described and used to measure fracture properties of cartilage from the canine patella. A modified single edge notch (MSEN) specimen was used to measure J, and a trouser tear test was used to measure T, both measures of fracture toughness with units of kN/m. A pseudo-elastic modulus was also obtained from the MSEN test. Several potential error sources were examined, and results for the MSEN test compared with another method for measuring the fracture parameter for urethane rubber. Good agreement was found. The two test methods were used to measure properties of cartilage from the patellae of 12 canines: 4-9 specimens from each of 12 patellae, with 5 right-left pairs were tested. Values of J ranged from 0.14-1.2 kN/m. J values correlated with T and were an average of 1.7 times larger than T. A variety of failure responses was seen in the MSEN tests, consequently a grade of 0 to 3 was assigned to each test, where 0 represented a brittle-like crack with minimal opening and 3 represented plastic flow with no crack formation. The initial cracks in 12/82 specimens did not propagate and were assigned to grade 3. The method for reducing data in the MSEN test assumed pseudo-elastic response and could not be used for the grade 3 specimens. Stiffness did not correlate with J. Neither J nor T was statistically different between right-left pairs, but varied between animals. The test methods appear useful for providing a quantitative measure of fracture toughness for cartilage and other soft materials. PMID:8950659

  13. [Postural therapy during mechanical pulmonary ventilation with PEEP in patients with unilateral lung damage].

    PubMed

    Neverin, V K; Vlasenko, A V; Mitrokhin, A A; Galushka, S V; Ostapchenko, D V; Shishkina, E V

    2000-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation of the lungs (MVL) with positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) is difficult in patients with unilateral lung damage because of uneven distribution of volumes and pressures in the involved and intact lungs. Harmful effects are easier manifested under such conditions. Selective MVL with selective PEEP is widely used abroad for optimizing MVL, but this method is rather expensive and is not devoid of shortcomings. Our study carried out in 32 patients with unilateral lung involvement showed that traditional MVL with general PEEP can effectively (in 75% cases) regulate gaseous exchange and decrease its untoward effects if MVL is performed with the patient lying on the healthy side and not supine. MVL in patients with unilateral lung injury lying on the healthy side can be a simpler and cheaper alternative to selective MVL with selective PEEP. PMID:10833838

  14. Surgical management of unilateral elevator deficiency associated with horizontal deviation using a modified Knapp's procedure.

    PubMed

    Kamlesh; Dadeya, Subhash

    2003-01-01

    Both horizontal recti are transpositioned in unilateral elevator deficiency, leaving no alternative to correct any significant ipsilateral horizontal deviation. An effective method to correct vertical and horizontal deviations simultaneously is reported. A modified Knapp's procedure was performed by transposition of the superior half of equally divided (up to 15 mm) medial and lateral recti for vertical deviation and the inferior half after suitable recession or resection for horizontal deviation. This procedure was performed in ten patients who had type II unilateral elevator deficiency with horizontal deviation ranging from 18 to 45 prism diopters (PD). We were able to correct 20 PD of horizontal deviation and 25 PD of vertical deviation with a modified Knapp's procedure without any significant adverse effects after a follow-up of 21 months. A modified Knapp's procedure is recommended for unilateral elevator deficiency associated with horizontal deviation. PMID:12757102

  15. Unilateral spectral and temporal compression reduces binaural fusion for normal hearing listeners with cochlear implant simulations

    PubMed Central

    Aronoff, Justin M.; Shayman, Corey; Prasad, Akila; Suneel, Deepa; Stelmach, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Patients with single sided deafness have recently begun receiving cochlear implants in their deaf ear. These patients gain a significant benefit from having a cochlear implant. However, despite this benefit, they are considerably slower to develop binaural abilities such as summation compared to bilateral cochlear implant patients. This suggests that these patients have difficulty fusing electric and acoustic signals. Although this may reflect inherent differences between electric and acoustic stimulation, it may also reflect properties of the processor and fitting system, which result in spectral and temporal compression. To examine the possibility that unilateral spectral and temporal compression can adversely affect binaural fusion, this study tested normal hearing listeners’ binaural fusion through the use of vocoded speech with unilateral spectral and temporal compression. The results indicate that unilateral spectral and temporal compression can hinder binaural fusion and thus may adversely affect binaural abilities in patients with single sided deafness who use a cochlear implant in their deaf ear. PMID:25549574

  16. Surgical treatment for irreducible pediatric subaxial cervical unilateral facet dislocation: case report.

    PubMed

    Qu, Wei; Hao, Dingjun; Wu, Qining; Song, Zongrang; Liu, Jijun

    2016-05-01

    Unilateral facet dislocation at the subaxial cervical spine (C3-7) in children younger than 8 years of age is rare. The authors describe a surgical approach for irreducible subaxial cervical unilateral facet dislocation (SCUFD) at C3-4 in a 5-year-old boy and present a literature review. A dorsal unilateral approach was applied, and a biodegradable plate was used for postreduction fixation without fusion after failed conservative treatment. There was complete resolution of symptoms and restored cervical stability. Two years after surgery, the patient had recovered range of motion in C3-4. In selected cases of cervical spine injury in young children, a biodegradable plate can maintain reduction until healing occurs, obviate the need to remove an implant, and recover the motion of the injured segment. PMID:26722755

  17. Ketorolac Administration Does Not Delay Early Fracture Healing in a Juvenile Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Cappello, Teresa; Nuelle, Julia A.V.; Katsantonis, Nicolas; Nauer, Rachel K.; Lauing, Kristen L.; Jagodzinski, Jason E.; Callaci, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective at controlling pain in children, especially in the treatment of fractures. Adult animal and adult clinical studies demonstrate conflicting evidence for the inhibitory relationship between NSAIDs and fracture healing. Published pediatric orthopaedic clinical studies do not demonstrate an inhibitory effect of ketorolac on bone healing. Little is known about the effects of any NSAID on bone formation in juvenile animals. This study investigates the effects of the NSAID ketorolac on fracture healing in a juvenile rat model. Methods Unilateral surgically induced and stabilized tibial shaft fractures were created in 45 juvenile (3 to 4wk old) male Sprague-Dawley rats. Either ketorolac (5 mg/kg; n=24) or saline (0.9% normal saline; n=21) was then administered to the rats 6 d/wk by intraperitoneal injections. Animals were then randomly assigned into time groups and euthanized at 7 days (n=8 ketorolac, n=7 saline), 14 days (n=8 ketorolac, n=7 saline), or 21 days (n=8 ketorolac, n=7 saline) postfracture. Biomechanical analysis was performed using a custom-designed 4-point bending loading apparatus. Statistics for tibial stiffness and strength data were performed using software package Systat 11. Specimens were also evaluated histologically using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results Strength and stiffness of all fractured tibiae increased over time from day 7 to day 21 regardless of treatment type. No statistical difference was found between the fractured tibiae strength or stiffness in the ketorolac or control-treated specimens at the same time point. In addition, the quality of the fracture callus was similar in both groups at each of the time points. Conclusions In this study of a juvenile rat model with a stabilized tibia fracture, fracture callus strength, stiffness, and histologic characteristics were not affected by the administration of ketorolac during the first 21 days of fracture healing

  18. Etiology and clinical characteristics of symptomatic unilateral maxillary sinusitis: A review of 174 cases.

    PubMed

    Troeltzsch, Matthias; Pache, Christoph; Troeltzsch, Markus; Kaeppler, Gabriele; Ehrenfeld, Michael; Otto, Sven; Probst, Florian

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the causative pathology associated with symptomatic unilateral maxillary sinusitis requiring surgical treatment. A retrospective review of all patients that have been treated surgically for unilateral symptomatic maxillary sinusitis between 2006 and 2013 at a single institution was performed. Demographic, anamnesis, clinical, radiological, microbiological and histological data were gathered and analyzed. The patients were allocated into groups depending on the underlying cause of the disease. Descriptive and inferential statistics were computed (level of significance: p ≤ 0.05). The study sample was composed of 174 patients (72 female; 102 male) with a mean age of 52.7 years (SD 16.9). Most cases (130; 75%) were triggered by odontogenic pathology following dentoalveolar surgical interventions (83/130 patients; 64%). Other etiological factors for odontogenic unilateral sinusitis were periapical (23/130 cases; 18%) and periodontal pathology (13/130 cases; 10%). Rhinogenic factors for sinusitis were detected in 13 patients (7.5%) and dental implant-associated unilateral maxillary sinusitis was diagnosed in nine patients (5.2%). Four patients (2.3%) had undergone previous sinus augmentation surgery. A leading cause for the sinus infection could not be identified in 18 patients (10%) who all had a history of midfacial surgery. Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (8) and squamous cell carcinoma (2) were incidental findings. There were no differences in the clinical appearance of the disease with respect to its etiology. Odontogenic causes for maxillary sinusitis must be considered especially in unilateral cases. Maxillary dental implants may induce symptomatic unilateral maxillary sinusitis. PMID:26319958

  19. Management of mandibular angle fracture.

    PubMed

    Braasch, Daniel Cameron; Abubaker, A Omar

    2013-11-01

    Fractures through the angle of the mandible are one of the most common facial fractures. The management of such fractures has been controversial, however. This controversy is related to the anatomic relations and complex biomechanical aspects of the mandibular angle. The debate has become even more heated since the evolution of rigid fixation and the ability to provide adequate stability of the fractured segments. This article provides an overview of the special anatomic and biomechanical features of the mandibular angle and their impact on the management of these fractures. PMID:24183373

  20. [Pathogenesis of atypical femoral fracture].

    PubMed

    Iwata, Ken; Mashiba, Tasuku

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated microdamage accumulation in the fracture sites in the patients of subtrochanteric atypical femoral fracture with long term bisphosphonate therapy and of incomplete shaft fracture of lateral femoral bowing without bisphosphonate therapy. Based on these findings, pathogenesis of atypical femoral fracture is revealed stress fracture caused by accumulation of microdamages between distal to the lesser trochanter and proximal to the supracondylar flare in the femur in association with severely suppressed bone turnover and/or abnormal lower limb alignment, that causes stress concentration on the lateral side cortex of the femur. PMID:26728533

  1. Outcome of humeral shaft fractures treated by functional cast brace

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Jitendra Nath; Biswas, Prahas; Roy, Avik; Hazra, Sunit; Mahato, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    Background: Functional brace application for isolated humeral shaft fracture persistently yields good results. Nonunion though uncommon involves usually the proximal third shaft fractures. Instead of polyethylene bivalve functional brace four plaster sleeves wrapped and molded with little more proximal extension expected to prevent nonunion of proximal third fractures. Periodic compressibility of the cast is likely to yield a better result. This can be applied on the 1st day of the presentation as an outpatient basis. Comprehensive objective scoring system befitting for fracture humeral shaft is a need. Materials and Methods: Sixty six (male = 40, female = 26) unilateral humeral shaft fractures of mean age 34.4 years (range 11–75 years) involving 38 left and 28 right hands were included in this study during April 2008 to December 2012. Fractures involved proximal (n = 18), mid (n = 35) and distal (n = 13) of humerus. Transverse, oblique, comminuted and spiral orientations in 18, 35 and 13 patients respectively. One had segmental fracture and three had a pathological fracture with cystic bone lesion. Mechanisms of injuries as identified in this study were road traffic accidents 57.6% (n = 38), fall 37.9% (n = 25). 12.1% (n = 8) had radial nerve palsy 7.6% (n = 5) had Type I open fracture. Four plaster strips of 12 layers and 5–7.5 cm broad depending on the girth of arm were prepared. Arm was then wrapped with single layer compressed cotton. Lateral and medial strips were applied and then after molding anterior and posterior strips were applied in such a way that permits full elbow range of motion and partial abduction of the shoulder. Care was taken to prevent adherence of one strip with other except in the proximal end. Limb was then put in loose collar and cuff sling intermittently allowing active motion of the elbow ROM and pendular movement of the shoulder. Weekly tightening of the cast by fresh layers of bandage over the existing cast brace continued

  2. Uterus didelphys with unilateral obstructed hemivagina and haematocolpos with ipsilateral renal agenesis - a case report.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, S; Ara, R; Begum, S A; Chowdhury, S B; Hussain, M A; Mirza, T T

    2015-01-01

    Mullerian anomalies are a relatively uncommon occurrence with implication for adolescents and adults as they may result in specific gynaecologic, fertility and obstetrical issues. Uterus didelphys with blind hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis is a rare congenital anomaly. Patient may be asymptomatic and unaware of having double uterus or may present with severe dysmenorrhoea or dyspareunia or a palpable mass due to unilateral haematocolpos. We report a case of 12 year old girl with this condition who was diagnosed as uterus didelphys with unilateral haematocolpos with ipsilateral renal agenesis on the basis of clinical association, physical examination and sonography and intravenous urogram. PMID:25725693

  3. Acquired unilateral pes planus in a child caused by a ruptured plantar calcaneonavicular (spring) ligament.

    PubMed

    Shuen, Vivien; Prem, Hari

    2009-05-01

    A traumatic cause for acquired pes planus in children is uncommon and it is not often considered as a primary diagnosis. We describe a patient, who ruptured her plantar calcaneonavicular (spring) ligament and presented late with an acquired unilateral flat foot similar to a tibialis posterior rupture. Corrective surgery in the form of calcaneal osteotomy with iliac graft lengthening and medial advancement of tibialis posterior achieved excellent results with patient remaining asymptomatic and returning to routine activities. In the presence of an acute traumatic onset of unilateral pes planus, spring ligament and tibialis posterior tendon rupture should be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:19373112

  4. Simple and Efficient Technique for Correction of Unilateral Scissor Bite Using Straight Wire

    PubMed Central

    Dolas, Siddhesh Gajanan; Chitko, Shrikant Shrinivas; Kerudi, Veerendra Virupaxappa; Bonde, Prasad Vasudeo

    2016-01-01

    Unilateral scissor bite is a relatively rare malocclusion. However, its correction is often difficult and a challenge for the clinician. This article presents simple and efficient technique for the correction of severe unilateral scissor bite in a 14 year old boy, using 0.020 S.S. A. J. Wilcock wire (premium plus) out of the spool, with minimal adjustments and placed in mandibular arch. After about six weeks time, good amount of correction was seen in the lower arch and the lower molar had been relieved of scissor bite. PMID:27231682

  5. Bilateral and Unilateral Cochlear Implant Users Compared on Speech Perception in Noise

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Camille C.; Noble, William; Tyler, Richard S.; Kordus, Monika; Gantz, Bruce J.; Ji, Haihong

    2009-01-01

    Objective Compare speech performance in noise with matched bilateral (CICI) and unilateral (CI-Only) cochlear implant users. Design Thirty CICI and 30 CI-Only subjects were tested on a battery of speech perception tests in noise that utilize an 8-loudspeaker array. Results On average, CICI subject's performance with speech in noise was significantly better than the CI-Only subjects. Conclusion The CICI group showed significantly better performance on speech perception in noise compared to the CI-Only subjects, supporting the hypothesis that bilateral cochlear implantation is more beneficial than unilateral implantation. PMID:19858720

  6. Unilateral, Linear Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome (Bean's syndrome): An Unfamiliar Presentation: First Case from India

    PubMed Central

    Sancheti, Karan; Podder, Indrashis; Das, Anupam; Choudhury, Sourav; Chandra, Somodyuti; Gharami, Ramesh Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) also called Bean's syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by multiple cutaneous venous malformations in association with visceral lesions, most commonly affecting the gastrointestinal tract. We report here, a 21-year-old woman patient, who presented with unilateral, blaschkoid distribution of cutaneous venous malformations along with blue rubber bleb nevus and recurrent episodes of hematochezia due to vascular lesions in the sigmoid colon; likely to be a case of BRBNS. The unusual unilateral, blaschkoid distribution of BRBNS prompted this present report. PMID:26677281

  7. Earth horizontal axis rotational responses in patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular deficits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furman, Joseph M. R.; Kamerer, Donald B.; Wall, Conrad, III

    1989-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) of five patients with surgically confirmed unilateral peripheral vestibular lesions is evaluated. Testing used both earth vertical axis (EVA) and earth horizontal axis (EHA) yaw rotation. Results indicated that the patients had short VOR time constants, asymmetric responses to both EVA and EHA rotation, and normal EHA modulation components. These findings suggest that unilateral peripheral vestibular loss causes a shortened VOR time constant even with the addition of dynamic otolithic stimulation and causes an asymmetry in semicircular canal-ocular reflexes and one aspect of otolith-ocular reflexes.

  8. Simple and Efficient Technique for Correction of Unilateral Scissor Bite Using Straight Wire.

    PubMed

    Dolas, Siddhesh Gajanan; Chitko, Shrikant Shrinivas; Kerudi, Veerendra Virupaxappa; Patil, Harshal Ashok; Bonde, Prasad Vasudeo

    2016-03-01

    Unilateral scissor bite is a relatively rare malocclusion. However, its correction is often difficult and a challenge for the clinician. This article presents simple and efficient technique for the correction of severe unilateral scissor bite in a 14 year old boy, using 0.020 S.S. A. J. Wilcock wire (premium plus) out of the spool, with minimal adjustments and placed in mandibular arch. After about six weeks time, good amount of correction was seen in the lower arch and the lower molar had been relieved of scissor bite. PMID:27231682

  9. Ocular Lyme borreliosis as a rare presentation of unilateral vision loss.

    PubMed

    Patterson-Fortin, Jeffrey; Kohli, Anita; Suarez, Maria J; Miller, P Elliott

    2016-01-01

    Ocular Lyme borreliosis is a rare manifestation of Lyme disease. We describe a case of an 80-year-old woman who presented with a 1-month history of unilateral painless central vision loss. Based on a temporal artery biopsy, she was initially diagnosed with giant cell arteritis and treated with a 3-day course of high-dose intravenous steroids. A more detailed history uncovered multiple previous treatments for Lyme disease and residence in an endemic Lyme area. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with ocular Lyme borreliosis and treated with intravenous antibiotics. After 5 weeks of treatment, unilateral vision loss did not progress and optic disc oedema resolved. PMID:27113793

  10. Transport in fractured porous solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattisson, Charlotte; Knackstedt, Mark A.; Senden, Tim J.

    Laboratory measurements are made of the permeability and the resistivity of sintered porous media with disordered fractures over a wide range of matrix porosity. We discuss the preparation and characterisation of the samples. Approximating the topology of a rough fracture by a single discrete fracture can introduce large errors in the prediction of the permeability. We test the validity of empirical expressions relating permeability, resistivity and porosity for fractured samples. Resistivity correlations with porosity are independent of the presence of fractures. In contrast, permeability correlations show a strong dependence. Attempts to decouple the permeability of the fractured sample as a parallel sum of matrix and fracture permeability leads to large errors. The results indicate that transport in a medium with two distinct families of pathways cannot be described by a single-valued transport coefficient.

  11. Linear elastic fracture mechanics primer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Christopher D.

    1992-07-01

    This primer is intended to remove the blackbox perception of fracture mechanics computer software by structural engineers. The fundamental concepts of linear elastic fracture mechanics are presented with emphasis on the practical application of fracture mechanics to real problems. Numerous rules of thumb are provided. Recommended texts for additional reading, and a discussion of the significance of fracture mechanics in structural design are given. Griffith's criterion for crack extension, Irwin's elastic stress field near the crack tip, and the influence of small-scale plasticity are discussed. Common stress intensities factor solutions and methods for determining them are included. Fracture toughness and subcritical crack growth are discussed. The application of fracture mechanics to damage tolerance and fracture control is discussed. Several example problems and a practice set of problems are given.

  12. Linear elastic fracture mechanics primer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Christopher D.

    1992-01-01

    This primer is intended to remove the blackbox perception of fracture mechanics computer software by structural engineers. The fundamental concepts of linear elastic fracture mechanics are presented with emphasis on the practical application of fracture mechanics to real problems. Numerous rules of thumb are provided. Recommended texts for additional reading, and a discussion of the significance of fracture mechanics in structural design are given. Griffith's criterion for crack extension, Irwin's elastic stress field near the crack tip, and the influence of small-scale plasticity are discussed. Common stress intensities factor solutions and methods for determining them are included. Fracture toughness and subcritical crack growth are discussed. The application of fracture mechanics to damage tolerance and fracture control is discussed. Several example problems and a practice set of problems are given.

  13. Fracture mechanics validity limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Dennis M.; Ernst, Hugo A.

    1994-01-01

    Fracture behavior is characteristics of a dramatic loss of strength compared to elastic deformation behavior. Fracture parameters have been developed and exhibit a range within which each is valid for predicting growth. Each is limited by the assumptions made in its development: all are defined within a specific context. For example, the stress intensity parameters, K, and the crack driving force, G, are derived using an assumption of linear elasticity. To use K or G, the zone of plasticity must be small as compared to the physical dimensions of the object being loaded. This insures an elastic response, and in this context, K and G will work well. Rice's J-integral has been used beyond the limits imposed on K and G. J requires an assumption of nonlinear elasticity, which is not characteristic of real material behavior, but is thought to be a reasonable approximation if unloading is kept to a minimum. As well, the constraint cannot change dramatically (typically, the crack extension is limited to ten-percent of the initial remaining ligament length). Rice, et al investigated the properties required of J-type parameters, J(sub x), and showed that the time rate, dJ(sub x)/dt, must not be a function of the crack extension rate, da/dt. Ernst devised the modified-J parameter, J(sub M), that meets this criterion. J(sub M) correlates fracture data to much higher crack growth than does J. Ultimately, a limit of the validity of J(sub M) is anticipated, and this has been estimated to be at a crack extension of about 40-percent of the initial remaining ligament length. None of the various parameters can be expected to describe fracture in an environment of gross plasticity, in which case the process is better described by deformation parameters, e.g., stress and strain. In the current study, various schemes to identify the onset of the plasticity-dominated behavior, i.e., the end of fracture mechanics validity, are presented. Each validity limit parameter is developed in

  14. Controversial Issues in Kyphoplasty and Vertebroplasty in Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Papanastassiou, Ioannis D.; Filis, Andreas; Gerochristou, Maria A.; Vrionis, Frank D.

    2014-01-01

    Kyphoplasty (KP) and vertebroplasty (VP) have been successfully employed for many years for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. The purpose of this review is to resolve the controversial issues raised by the two randomized trials that claimed no difference between VP and SHAM procedure. In particular we compare nonsurgical management (NSM) and KP and VP, in terms of clinical parameters (pain, disability, quality of life, and new fractures), cost-effectiveness, radiological variables (kyphosis correction and vertebral height restoration), and VP versus KP for cement extravasation and complications profile. Cement types and optimal filling are analyzed and technological innovations are presented. Finally unipedicular/bipedicular techniques are compared. Conclusion. VP and KP are superior to NSM in clinical and radiological parameters and probably more cost-effective. KP is superior to VP in sagittal balance improvement and cement leaking. Complications are rare but serious adverse events have been described, so caution should be exerted. Unilateral procedures should be pursued whenever feasible. Upcoming randomized trials (CEEP, OSTEO-6, STIC-2, and VERTOS IV) will provide the missing link. PMID:24724106

  15. An occult acetabular fracture preceding a femoral neck fracture.

    PubMed

    Lasanianos, Nikolaos; Kanakaris, Nikolaos; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2009-08-01

    This article describes the case of a 69-year-old patient with an occult acetabular fracture complicated by an ipsilateral femoral neck fracture occurring within 2 months. The acetabular fracture remained undiagnosed at examination due to insufficient clinical and radiographic data interpretation. The patient was assured of early mobilization that led to a fall and subsequent hip fracture. We focus on the potential reasons for the nondiagnosis of the acetabular fracture. Acetabular fractures in the elderly may occur after low-energy injuries. The lack of history of violent injury may lead to an incorrect diagnosis. Plain anteroposterior (AP) pelvis radiographs alone may prove an insufficient tool, especially in the hands of inexperienced personnel. As is characteristic, a retrospective review of the AP pelvis radiograph obtained after the first fall in our case revealed the undisplaced fracture of the anterior column that was missed initially. Combined fractures of the hip and the acetabulum are rarely described in the literature and are usually addressed by total hip arthroplasty (THA) alone. Similar fracture patterns that develop in 2 stages (2 injuries), as the 1 presented herein, are even more rare. The uniqueness of this combined fracture required a unique surgical treatment. The senior surgeon (P.V.G.) addressed the acetabular fracture separately to graft the anterior column fracture and facilitate union, as it was already 8 weeks old and the second fall had generated a further gap between the fragments. Stable fixation was felt appropriate prior to the THA. Thus, a double surgical approach was used. Six weeks postoperatively, the patient was able to perform full weight-bearing mobilization without an antalgic gait pattern. At 6-month follow-up, radiographs showed the metalwork to be in place with no displacement, and the fracture had progressed to union. PMID:19708620

  16. Visual Field Function in School-Aged Children with Spastic Unilateral Cerebral Palsy Related to Different Patterns of Brain Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Lena; Rydberg, Agneta; Eliasson, Ann-Christin; Kits, Annika; Flodmark, Olof

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To relate visual field function to brain morphology in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Visual field function was assessed using the confrontation technique and Goldmann perimetry in 29 children (15 males, 14 females; age range 7-17y, median age 11y) with unilateral CP classified at Gross Motor Function Classification…

  17. Effect of unilateral, bilateral, and combined plyometric training on explosive and endurance performance of young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Burgos, Carlos H; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Andrade, David C; Martínez, Cristian; Álvarez, Cristian; Castro-Sepúlveda, Mauricio; Marques, Mário C; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of bilateral, unilateral, or combined bilateral and unilateral plyometric training (PT) on muscle power output, endurance, and balance performance adaptations in young soccer players. Four groups of young soccer players (age 11.4 ± 2.2 years) were divided into control group (CG; n = 14), bilateral group (BG; n = 12), unilateral group (UG; n = 16), and bilateral + unilateral group (B + UG; n = 12). Players were measured in unilateral and bilateral countermovement jump with arms, 5 multiple bounds test, 20-cm drop jump reactive strength index, maximal kicking velocity, sprint and agility test time, endurance, and balance performance. The PT was applied during 6 weeks, 2 sessions per week, for a total of 2,160 jumps. After intervention, all PT groups showed a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) change in all performance measures, with no statistically significant differences between treatments. Among the 21 performance measures, the B + UG showed a significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher performance change in 13 of them vs. the CG, whereas the UG and BG showed only 6 and 3, respectively. The current study showed that bilateral, unilateral, and combined bilateral and unilateral PT ensured significant improvement in several muscular power and endurance performance measures in young soccer players. However, the combination of unilateral and bilateral drills seems more advantageous to induce superior performance improvements. PMID:25474338

  18. Hand Function in Relation to Brain Lesions and Corticomotor-Projection Pattern in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmstrom, Linda; Vollmer, Brigitte; Tedroff, Kristina; Islam, Mominul; Persson, Jonas Ke; Kits, Annika; Forssberg, Hans; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate relationships between hand function, brain lesions, and corticomotor projections in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Method: The study included 17 children (nine males, eight females; mean age 11.4 [SD 2.4] range 7-16y), with unilateral CP at Gross Motor Function Classification System level I and Manual Ability…

  19. Pelvic and acetabular fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Mears, D.C.; Rubash, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    This treatise focuses primarily on the clinical aspects of diagnosis and treatments of pelvic and acetabular fractures. However, considerable attention is also paid to the radiographic diagnosis of trauma and postoperative effects. The book begins with a succinct review of pelvic and acetabular anatomy and pelvic biomechanics. It continues with a radiographic classification of pelvic injury, which will represent the major source of the book's interest for radiologists. The remainder of the book is concerned with clinical management of pelvic and acetabular trauma, including preoperative planning, surgical approaches, techniques of reduction, internal fixation, eternal fixation, post-operative care, and late problems. Even throughout this later portion of the book there are extensive illustrations, including plain radiographs, computed tomographic (CT) scans, reconstructed three-dimensional CT scans, and schematic diagrams of diverse pelvic and acetabular fractures and the elementary surgical techniques for their repair.

  20. Vertebral fracture classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijne, Marleen; Pettersen, Paola C.; Tankó, László B.; Nielsen, Mads

    2007-03-01

    A novel method for classification and quantification of vertebral fractures from X-ray images is presented. Using pairwise conditional shape models trained on a set of healthy spines, the most likely unfractured shape is estimated for each of the vertebrae in the image. The difference between the true shape and the reconstructed normal shape is an indicator for the shape abnormality. A statistical classification scheme with the two shapes as features is applied to detect, classify, and grade various types of deformities. In contrast with the current (semi-)quantitative grading strategies this method takes the full shape into account, it uses a patient-specific reference by combining population-based information on biological variation in vertebra shape and vertebra interrelations, and it provides a continuous measure of deformity. Good agreement with manual classification and grading is demonstrated on 204 lateral spine radiographs with in total 89 fractures.

  1. HUMERAL SHAFT FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Benegas, Eduardo; Ferreira Neto, Arnaldo Amado; Neto, Raul Bolliger; Santis Prada, Flavia de; Malavolta, Eduardo Angeli; Marchitto, Gustavo Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Humeral shaft fractures (HSFs) represent 3% of the fractures of the locomotor apparatus, and the middle third of the shaft is the section most affected. In the majority of cases, it is treated using nonsurgical methods, but surgical indications in HSF cases are increasingly being adopted. The diversity of opinions makes it difficult to reach a consensus regarding the types of osteosynthesis, surgical technique and quantity and quality of synthesis materials that should be used. It would appear that specialists are far from reaching a consensus regarding the best method for surgical treatment of HSFs. We believe that less invasive methods, which favor relative stability, are the most appropriate methods, since the most feared complications are less frequent. PMID:27019833

  2. Probability of Hertzian fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer-Cripps, A. C.; Collins, R. E.

    1994-04-01

    The indentation strength of brittle solids is traditionally characterized by Auerbach's law, which predicts a linear relationship between the load required to initiate a Hertzian cone crack and the radius of a spherical indentor. This paper reviews both the energy balance and flaw statistical explanations of Auerbach's law. It is shown that Auerbach's law in the strictest sense only applies to well-abraded specimens. A novel application of Weibull statistics is presented which allows the distribution of fracture loads to be predicted for any specimen surface condition for a given indentor size. The indentation strength of a brittle solid, for both spherical and cylindrical indentors, is shown to be influenced by both its surface flaw statistics and the degree of interfacial friction. It is observed that the indentation strength of soda-lime glass is increased by a factor of about three times that expected for frictionless contact, and that for a fully bonded indentor, conical fractures cannot occur.

  3. Chronic unilateral locked facet joint with spinal cord injury in a 26-month-old child: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ai-Min; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Luo, Peng; Xu, Hua-Zi; Chi, Yong-Long

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study presents the successful posterior surgical reduction and fusion on a 26-month-old child with chronic unilateral locked facet joint and spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods A 26-month-old child with chronic unilateral locked facet joint and SCI treated by posterior surgical reduction and fusion. Plaster external fixation was applied and rehabilitation exercise was trained post-operatively. Results Chronic unilateral locked facet joint was reduced successfully and bone fusion of C4/5 was achieved 3 months after surgery. The function of both lower limbs was improved 1 year after surgery, aided with physical rehabilitation. Conclusion Unilateral locked facet joint in pediatric population is rare. Few clinical experiences were found in the literature. Non-surgical treatment has advantages of not being invasive and is preferred for acute patients; however, it may not be suitable for chronic unilateral locked facet joint with SCI, in which surgical intervention is needed. PMID:24673578

  4. Phase Field Fracture Mechanics.

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Brett Anthony

    2015-11-01

    For this assignment, a newer technique of fracture mechanics using a phase field approach, will be examined and compared with experimental data for a bend test and a tension test. The software being used is Sierra Solid Mechanics, an implicit/explicit finite element code developed at Sandia National Labs in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The bend test experimental data was also obtained at Sandia Labs while the tension test data was found in a report online from Purdue University.

  5. Melt fracture revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, J. M.

    2003-07-16

    In a previous paper the author and Demay advanced a model to explain the melt fracture instability observed when molten linear polymer melts are extruded in a capillary rheometer operating under the controlled condition that the inlet flow rate was held constant. The model postulated that the melts were a slightly compressible viscous fluid and allowed for slipping of the melt at the wall. The novel feature of that model was the use of an empirical switch law which governed the amount of wall slip. The model successfully accounted for the oscillatory behavior of the exit flow rate, typically referred to as the melt fracture instability, but did not simultaneously yield the fine scale spatial oscillations in the melt typically referred to as shark skin. In this note a new model is advanced which simultaneously explains the melt fracture instability and shark skin phenomena. The model postulates that the polymer is a slightly compressible linearly viscous fluid but assumes no slip boundary conditions at the capillary wall. In simple shear the shear stress {tau}and strain rate d are assumed to be related by d = F{tau} where F ranges between F{sub 2} and F{sub 1} > F{sub 2}. A strain rate dependent yield function is introduced and this function governs whether F evolves towards F{sub 2} or F{sub 1}. This model accounts for the empirical observation that at high shears polymers align and slide more easily than at low shears and explains both the melt fracture and shark skin phenomena.

  6. Rehabilitation in extremity fractures.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, E

    1975-03-01

    General principles in the rehabilitation of a patient with an extremity fracture include: treat the patient, not the x-ray; move all joints not immobilized; prevent disuse atrophy; use gravity to assist in mobilizing a joint; stabilize proximal joints to avoid reverse action of biarticular muscles; permit early protected weight bearing until adequate joint mobility is achieved; appropriately instruct the patient in a home program, and avoid all stretching. PMID:1114932

  7. Fractured Craters on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Two highly fractured craters are visible in this high resolution image of Jupiter's moon, Ganymede. NASA's Galileo spacecraft imaged this region as it passed Ganymede during its second orbit through the Jovian system. North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the southeast. The two craters in the center of the image lie in the ancient dark terrain of Marius Regio, at 40 degrees latitude and 201 degrees longitude, at the border of a region of bright grooved terrain known as Byblus Sulcus (the eastern portion of which is visible on the left of this image). Pervasive fracturing has occurred in this area that has completely disrupted these craters and destroyed their southern and western walls. Such intense fracturing has occurred over much of Ganymede's surface and has commonly destroyed older features. The image covers an area approximately 26 kilometers (16 miles) by 18 kilometers (11 miles) across at a resolution of 86 meters (287 feet) per picture element. The image was taken on September 6, 1996 by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  8. Closed reduction of displaced or dislocated mandibular condyle fractures in children using threaded Kirschner wire and external rubber traction.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Nam, D H

    2015-10-01

    Most surgeons agree that closed treatment provides the best results for condylar fractures in children. Nevertheless, treatment of the paediatric mandibular condyle fracture that is severely displaced or dislocated is controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term clinical and radiological outcomes following the treatment of displaced or dislocated condylar fractures in children using threaded Kirschner wire and external rubber traction. This procedure can strengthen the advantage of closed reduction and make up for the shortcomings of open reduction. From March 1, 2005 to December 25, 2011, 11 children aged between 4 and 12 years with displaced or dislocated mandibular condyle fractures were treated using threaded Kirschner wire and external rubber traction under portable C-arm fluoroscopy. All patients had unilateral displaced or dislocated condylar fractures. The follow-up period ranged from 24 to 42 months (mean 29.3 months). Normal occlusion and pain-free function of the temporomandibular joint, without deviation or limitation of jaw opening, was achieved in all patients. This closed reduction technique in displaced or dislocated condylar fractures in children offers a reliable solution in preventing the unfavourable sequelae of closed treatment and the open technique, such as altered morphology, functional disturbances, and facial nerve damage. PMID:26117724

  9. Periprosthetic Femur Fracture Occuring after Contralateral Neglected Femoral Neck Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Cankaya, Deniz; Toprak, Ali; IKilic, Enver; Bingol, Olgun; Tabak, Yalcin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Periprosthetic fractures of the femur are uncommon, but at times may lead to complications especially in elderly patients. As treatment of these fractures is difficult, prevention by identifying the risk factors is the best way to overcome these complex problems. Case Report: A periprosthetic right femur fracture associated with a neglected left femoral neck fracture in the contralateral femur in a 78-year-old elder woman patient is reported in the present article. We discuss the prevention of periprosthetic fractures after hip arthroplasty and address the risk factors associated with this complication. Conclusion: The present case emphasizes the importance of investigating and treating the cause of sudden onset of restriction on full weight-bearing in the contralateral limb, to prevent periprosthetic femoral fracture after hip arthroplasty in elderly patients. PMID:27299115

  10. Fracture Networks in Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vevatne, Jonas; Rimstad, Eivind; Hansen, Alex; Korsnes, Reinert; Hope, Sigmund

    2014-04-01

    Fracturing and refreezing of sea ice in the Kara sea are investigated using complex networkanalysis. By going to the dual network, where the fractures are nodes and their intersectionslinks, we gain access to topological features which are easy to measure and hence comparewith modeled networks. Resulting network reveal statistical properties of the fracturing process.The dual networks have a broad degree distribution, with a scale-free tail, high clusteringand efficiency. The degree-degree correlation profile shows disassortative behavior, indicatingpreferential growth. This implies that long, dominating fractures appear earlier than shorterfractures, and that the short fractures which are created later tend to connect to the longfractures.The knowledge of the fracturing process is used to construct growing fracture network (GFN)model which provides insight into the generation of fracture networks. The GFN model isprimarily based on the observation that fractures in sea ice are likely to end when hitting existingfractures. Based on an investigation of which fractures survive over time, a simple model forrefreezing is also added to the GFN model, and the model is analyzed and compared to the realnetworks.

  11. Permeability of naturally fractured reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Teufel, L.W. )

    1991-03-01

    Hydraulic fracture stress data collected from carbonate and clastic reservoirs show that the minimum horizontal in situ stress decreases with reservoir depletion and pore pressure drawdown. The reduction in minimum horizontal stress is, in part, a poro-elastic effect that is linear with pore pressure drawdown and can be approximated by an unlaxial compaction model. The observed change in horizontal stress is equal to 40% to 80% of the net change in pore pressure. This type of stress behavior has important implications for reservoir management of naturally fractured reservoirs, because conductivity of fractures is highly stress sensitive. Laboratory studies clearly demonstrate that with increasing effective normal stress fracture apertures close and conductivity decreases. Accordingly, in sharp contrast to the standard procedure, predictions of changes in fracture permeability during reservoir depletion should not be made simply as a function of pore pressure drawdown, but more importantly should be based on how the effective in situ stresses change during drawdown and the orientation of natural fractures relative to the in situ stress field. The increase in the effective overburden stress will be the largest and equal to the magnitude of the pore pressure decline because the overburden stress is constant and does not change with drawdown. However, the increase in the effective minimum horizontal stress will be much smaller. Accordingly, for a reservoir with several sets of fractures with similar morphology, the reduction in fracture conductivity during drawdown will be greatest for horizontal fractures and least for vertical fractures aligned with the maximum horizontal stress direction.

  12. Fractures of the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, Raphael Martus; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Teixeira, William Jacobsen; Narasaki, Douglas Kenji; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the literature on cervical spine fractures. METHODS: The literature on the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of lower and upper cervical fractures and dislocations was reviewed. RESULTS: Fractures of the cervical spine may be present in polytraumatized patients and should be suspected in patients complaining of neck pain. These fractures are more common in men approximately 30 years of age and are most often caused by automobile accidents. The cervical spine is divided into the upper cervical spine (occiput-C2) and the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), according to anatomical differences. Fractures in the upper cervical spine include fractures of the occipital condyle and the atlas, atlanto-axial dislocations, fractures of the odontoid process, and hangman's fractures in the C2 segment. These fractures are characterized based on specific classifications. In the lower cervical spine, fractures follow the same pattern as in other segments of the spine; currently, the most widely used classification is the SLIC (Subaxial Injury Classification), which predicts the prognosis of an injury based on morphology, the integrity of the disc-ligamentous complex, and the patient's neurological status. It is important to correctly classify the fracture to ensure appropriate treatment. Nerve or spinal cord injuries, pseudarthrosis or malunion, and postoperative infection are the main complications of cervical spine fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Fractures of the cervical spine are potentially serious and devastating if not properly treated. Achieving the correct diagnosis and classification of a lesion is the first step toward identifying the most appropriate treatment, which can be either surgical or conservative. PMID:24270959

  13. Procedure for estimating fracture energy from fracture surface roughness

    DOEpatents

    Williford, Ralph E.

    1989-01-01

    The fracture energy of a material is determined by first measuring the length of a profile of a section through a fractured surface of the material taken on a plane perpendicular to the mean plane of that surface, then determining the fractal dimensionality of the surface. From this, the yield strength of the material, and the Young's Modulus of that material, the fracture energy is calculated.

  14. Amplification considerations for children with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss and unilateral hearing loss.

    PubMed

    McKay, Sarah; Gravel, Judith S; Tharpe, Anne Marie

    2008-03-01

    Children with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss and unilateral hearing loss are at higher risk for academic, speech-language, and social-emotional difficulties than their normal hearing peers. The choice to fit infants with moderate or greater degrees of bilateral hearing loss has been standard practice for most clinicians, but for those with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss or unilateral hearing loss, the fitting of hearing technology must be based on limited data. Evidence does not yet exist to support all the management decisions that an audiologist must make upon identifying an infant with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss or unilateral hearing loss. It is not yet known which children are at the greatest risk for educational problems nor is it known if the provision of early amplification in this population will help a child avoid later difficulties. Some of these considerations and current hearing technology options for children with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss or unilateral hearing loss are reviewed in this article. PMID:18270178

  15. Perceptual Ratings of Vocal Characteristics and Voicing Features in Untreated Patients with Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leydon, Ciara; Bielamowicz, Steven; Stager, Sheila V.

    2005-01-01

    This study used visual analog scales to obtain perceptual ratings of features of voice production in subjects with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP), including clarity of laryngeal articulation, consistency of loudness across the utterance and the voiced/voiceless distinction. Recordings of repeated /i/, /isi/, and /izi/ from subjects…

  16. Levels of Processing with Free and Cued Recall and Unilateral Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lespinet-Najib, Veronique; N'Kaoua, Bernard; Sauzeon, Helene; Bresson, Christel; Rougier, Alain; Claverie, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the role of the temporal lobes in levels-of-processing tasks (phonetic and semantic encoding) according to the nature of recall tasks (free and cued recall). These tasks were administered to 48 patients with unilateral temporal epilepsy (right ''RTLE''=24; left ''LTLE''=24) and a normal group (n=24). The results indicated…

  17. Reliability of a Unilateral Horizontal Leg Power Test to Assess Stretch Load Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Rhianna Parker; Cronin, John

    2006-01-01

    Drop jumping has previously been used to measure fast stretch shorten cycle (SSC) ability and stretch load tolerance. To the knowledge of these authors a test does not exist to achieve this in the horizontal direction. The purpose of this study therefore was to estimate the reliability of a new unilateral horizontal leg power test to assess these…

  18. Total Limb Rotation after Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty: Side-to-Side Discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kwang-Jun; Yoon, Seok-Tae; Ko, Young-Bong

    2016-08-01

    Total limb rotation, an important anatomical feature of the lower limb, is defined as any rotation of the lower limb on its longitudinal axis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the discrepancies of rotational profiles of total limb between nonoperated and operated limb following unilateral total knee arthroplasty. We conducted an analysis of the computed tomography (CT) data from 32 patients undergoing primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty. Using these CT scan, rotational profiles of total limb, such as femoral neck anteversion angle expressed as femoral torsion angle (FTA), tibial torsion angle (TTA), knee joint rotation angle (KJRA), and total limb rotation (TLR) were measured. There were significant discrepancies of FTA and KJRA between operated and nonoperated limb following unilateral total knee arthroplasty. The mean difference of operated and nonoperated side for FTA and KJRA were -6.51 ± 11.88 degrees (p = 0.0041) and -6.83 ± 5.04 degrees (p < 0.001), respectively. However, there were no significant discrepancies of TLR, TTA. These results are due to the compensation effect of KJRA. However, excessive external rotation of the femoral component beyond the compensation effect of prosthetic knee joint can lead to a total limb rotational discrepancy in patient undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty. PMID:26571050

  19. Single-Sided Deafness Leads to Unilateral Aural Preference within an Early Sensitive Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kral, Andrej; Hubka, Peter; Heid, Silvia; Tillein, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Unilateral deafness has a high incidence in children. In addition to children who are born without hearing in one ear, children with bilateral deafness are frequently equipped only with one cochlear implant, leaving the other ear deaf. The present study investigates the effects of such single-sided deafness during development in the congenitally…

  20. The unilateral occipital transtentorial approach for pineal region meningiomas: a report of 15 cases.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bo; Wang, Yong; Ou, Shaowu; Guo, Zongze; Wang, Yunjie

    2014-10-01

    In the current study, we reviewed and re-evaluated the experiences of microsurgical management for pineal region meningiomas via the unilateral occipital transtentorial approach (Poppen's approach). Clinical data were obtained on 15 meningiomas of the pineal region, which underwent microsurgery via unilateral Poppen's approach from March 2009 to June 2012. These patients were hospitalized in our department; their data were collected and analyzed retrospectively. The tumors were removed via the right Poppen's approach in 12 cases and left Poppen's approach in 3 cases, and intraoperative external ventricular drainage was performed for hydrocephalus in 3 cases. As a result, gross total resection was achieved in 11 cases, near total resection in 3 cases and subtotal resection in 1 case. All resected tumors were pathologically confirmed. The postoperative complications included two cases of homonymous hemianopia, and deteriorated Parinaud syndrome and diplopia in one case. Ten cases were followed up (range 1-4 years) and no death occurred. On the basis of the existing literature and our experiences, the unilateral Poppen's approach is appropriate for most meningiomas of the pineal region that are small or intermediate in size. However, gross total resection might be difficult via the unilateral Poppen's approach for large-sized meningiomas with much contralateral infratentorial extension due to limited exposure. For these cases, combined supra-infratentorial or bilateral Poppen's approaches are recommended. Preoperative or intraoperative external ventricular drainage can increase tumor exposure and improve microsurgical effects. PMID:24397496

  1. 12 CFR 950.11 - Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock. 950.11 Section 950.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS ADVANCES Advances to Members § 950.11 Capital...

  2. Informational Masking and Spatial Hearing in Listeners with and without Unilateral Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothpletz, Ann M.; Wightman, Frederic L.; Kistler, Doris J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed selective listening for speech in individuals with and without unilateral hearing loss (UHL) and the potential relationship between spatial release from informational masking and localization ability in listeners with UHL. Method: Twelve adults with UHL and 12 normal-hearing controls completed a series of monaural and…

  3. Stereotactic pallidotomy for Parkinson's disease: a long-term follow-up of unilateral pallidotomy.

    PubMed

    Fazzini, E; Dogali, M; Sterio, D; Eidelberg, D; Berić, A

    1997-05-01

    Eleven patients suffering from Parkinson's disease were followed for up to 4 years after unilateral pallidotomy. We observed persistent contralateral improvement and unexpected ipsilateral improvement of motor symptoms. In addition, there was a protracted relief of contralateral dyskinesias and maintenance of relatively stable levodopa dosage. PMID:9153456

  4. Action Planning in Typically and Atypically Developing Children (Unilateral Cerebral Palsy)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craje, Celine; Aarts, Pauline; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria; Steenbergen, Bert

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the development of action planning in children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP, aged 3-6 years, n = 24) and an age matched control group. To investigate action planning, participants performed a sequential movement task. They had to grasp an object (a wooden play sword) and place the sword in a hole in a…

  5. Unilateral lacrimal fistula in a patient with uterus didelphys and renal agenesis.

    PubMed

    Turan-Vural, Ece; Atmaca, Fatih; Unlu, Cihan; Erdogan, Gurkan; Bayramlar, Huseyin; Bayramalar, Huseyin

    2012-02-01

    A 30-year-old female patient presented to our clinic because of lacrimation from an orifice close to the left lower eyelid. Ocular examinations and analyses revealed uterus didelphys and unilateral renal agenesis associated with a left lacrimal fistula. The patient underwent fistulectomy and external dacryocystorhinostomy. We decided to report on this patient owing to the unusual concurrent systemic abnormalities. PMID:22258183

  6. Sex Differences in the Effects of Unilateral Brain Damage on Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, James; Lawson, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    A sexual dimorphism in the functional asymmetry of the damaged human brain is reflected in a test-specific laterality effect in male patients, explaining some contradictions concerning the effects of unilateral brain damage on intelligence in studies in which the influence of sex was overlooked. (Author/SK)

  7. 36 CFR 223.235 - Unilateral delay, suspension, or modification of contracts, permits, or other instruments...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unilateral delay, suspension, or modification of contracts, permits, or other instruments authorizing the sale of special forest products. 223.235 Section 223.235 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  8. 36 CFR 223.235 - Unilateral delay, suspension, or modification of contracts, permits, or other instruments...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unilateral delay, suspension, or modification of contracts, permits, or other instruments authorizing the sale of special forest products. 223.235 Section 223.235 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  9. 36 CFR 223.235 - Unilateral delay, suspension, or modification of contracts, permits, or other instruments...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unilateral delay, suspension, or modification of contracts, permits, or other instruments authorizing the sale of special forest products. 223.235 Section 223.235 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  10. 36 CFR 223.235 - Unilateral delay, suspension, or modification of contracts, permits, or other instruments...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unilateral delay, suspension, or modification of contracts, permits, or other instruments authorizing the sale of special forest products. 223.235 Section 223.235 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  11. 36 CFR 223.235 - Unilateral delay, suspension, or modification of contracts, permits, or other instruments...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unilateral delay, suspension, or modification of contracts, permits, or other instruments authorizing the sale of special forest products. 223.235 Section 223.235 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  12. Unilateral syphilitic perioptic neuritis in a patient coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1

    PubMed Central

    Basta, Medhat S T; Sankar, K Nathan; Dayan, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Perioptic neuritis caused by secondary syphilis is a rare ophthalmic manifestation in the HIV‐infected host. Early diagnosis and treatment of this condition is required to prevent further visual damage. We report a case of unilateral syphilitic perioptic neuritis in a patient coinfected with HIV‐1. PMID:17569719

  13. [Antegrade unilateral perfusion of the brain through the brachiocephalic trunk in operations on the aortic arch].

    PubMed

    Kozlov, B N; Panfilov, D S; Kuznetsov, M S; Ponomarenko, I V; Nasrashvili, G G; Shipulin, V M

    2016-01-01

    Presented herein is a technique of unilateral antegrade perfusion of the brain in operations on the aortic arch. The method makes it possible to perform both systemic artificial circulation and adequate physiological perfusion of the brain, promoting minimization of the number of neurological complications. PMID:27100557

  14. Perceptual Asymmetry for Chimeric Stimuli in Children with Early Unilateral Brain Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bava, Sunita; Ballantyne, Angela O.; May, Susanne J.; Trauner, Doris A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study used a chimeric stimuli task to assess the magnitude of the left-hemispace bias in children with congenital unilateral brain damage (n=46) as compared to typically developing matched controls (n=46). As would be expected, controls exhibited a significant left-hemispace bias. In the presence of left hemisphere (LH) damage, the…

  15. Verbal Competence in Narrative Retelling in 5-Year-Olds with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintö, Kristina; Salameh, Eva-Kristina; Lohmander, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding expressive language performance in children born with cleft palate is sparse. The relationship between articulation/phonology and expressive language skills also needs to be further explored. Aims: To investigate verbal competence in narrative retelling in 5-year-old children born with unilateral cleft lip and palate…

  16. Look over There! Unilateral Gaze Increases Geographical Memory of the 50 United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Propper, Ruth E.; Brunye, Tad T.; Christman, Stephen D.; Januszewskia, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Based on their specialized processing abilities, the left and right hemispheres of the brain may not contribute equally to recall of general world knowledge. US college students recalled the verbal names and spatial locations of the 50 US states while sustaining leftward or rightward unilateral gaze, a procedure that selectively activates the…

  17. Synchronous unilateral triple breast cancers composed of invasive ductal carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma, and Paget's disease.

    PubMed

    Onoe, Shunsuke; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Akashi-Tanaka, Sadako; Hasebe, Takahiro; Iwamoto, Eriko; Hojo, Takashi; Kinoshita, Takayuki

    2014-03-01

    We report a case of synchronous unilateral triple breast cancers comprising invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), and Paget's disease. A 57-year-old woman with a left breast mass was referred to our hospital. Mammography revealed only an isodense area with foci of microcalcification in the lateral area of the left breast. Ultrasonography revealed 2 hypoechoic masses in the outer lower and inner upper areas, and these 2 lesions were diagnosed by core needle biopsy as ILC and IDC, respectively. Left total mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsies was performed. In addition to the ILC and IDC, histological examination also identified Paget's disease. Breast cancer often manifests as multiple unilateral lesions; however, it is sometimes difficult to determine whether these tumors have developed multicentrically or have multifocally invaded from an intraductal carcinoma. This case was clearly diagnosed to have occurred multicentrically because of the absence of continuity among the 3 tumors, the presence of a non-invasive component in all 3 tumors, and different histopathological findings. The synchronous unilateral development of ILCs is well known. Cases of synchronous unilateral triple or more breast cancers were reviewed, and their histopathological characteristics, including the incidence of Paget's disease, is discussed. PMID:21140247

  18. Early unilateral cochlear implantation promotes mature cortical asymmetries in adolescents who are deaf.

    PubMed

    Jiwani, Salima; Papsin, Blake C; Gordon, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    Unilateral cochlear implant (CI) stimulation establishes hearing to children who are deaf but compromises bilateral auditory development if a second implant is not provided within ∼ 1.5 years. In this study we asked: 1) What are the cortical consequences of missing this early sensitive period once children reach adolescence? 2) What are the effects of unilateral deprivation on the pathways from the opposite ear? Cortical responses were recorded from 64-cephalic electrodes within the first week of bilateral CI activation in 34 adolescents who had over 10 years of unilateral right CI experience and in 16 normal hearing peers. Cortical activation underlying the evoked peaks was localized to areas of the brain using beamformer imaging. The first CI evoked activity which was more strongly lateralized to the contralateral left hemisphere than normal, with abnormal recruitment of the left prefrontal cortex (involved in cognition/attention), left temporo-parietal-occipital junction (multi-modal integration), and right precuneus (visual processing) region. CI stimulation in the opposite deprived ear evoked atypical cortical responses with abnormally large and widespread dipole activity across the cortex. Thus, using a unilateral CI to hear beyond the period of cortical maturation causes lasting asymmetries in the auditory system, requires recruitment of additional cortical areas to support hearing, and does little to protect the unstimulated pathways from effects of auditory deprivation. The persistence of this reorganization into maturity could signal a closing of a sensitive period for promoting auditory development on the deprived side. PMID:26456629

  19. Gaze Behaviour during Interception in Children with Spastic Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kampen, P. M.; Ledebt, A.; Smorenburg, A. R. P.; Vermeulen, R. J.; Kelder, M. E.; van der Kamp, J.; Savelsbergh, G. J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Anticipatory gaze behaviour during interceptive movements was investigated in children with Spastic Unilateral Cerebral Palsy (SUCP), and related to the side of the intracerebral lesion. Five children with lesions of the right hemisphere (RHL) and five children with lesions of the left hemisphere (LHL) had to walk towards and intercept a ball that…

  20. A Comparative Study to Evaluate the Functional Effect of Unilateral Uvuloplasty after Primary Palatoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Olivencia-Flores, Claudia; Gavino-Gutierrez, Arquímedes M.; Caceres-Nano, Evelyn; Cotrina-Rabanal, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The conventional method for uvular repair suturing the 2 hemi-uvulas of the palatal cleft together in the midline does not allow us to obtain a proper anatomical repair. In our hands, the midline straight closure frequently causes retraction of the uvular tissues with the consequent abnormal appearance of the uvula. We described before a method for uvular repair in patients with cleft palate. The technique consists in preserving one of the hemi-uvulas, which is moved to the midline to form the definitive uvula. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional effects of the unilateral uvuloplasty for uvular repair in a group of patients with bilateral cleft palate. Methods: This is a retrospective, single-blinded cohort study between 2 groups of 90 patients with bilateral cleft palate who were operated on using the conventional and unilateral uvuloplasty methods of uvular repair from 2000 to 2009. Data collection was accomplished by physical examination to evaluate the presence of postoperative fistulas and hypernasal speech determined at 6 months to 5 years after surgery. In addition, postoperative dimensions of the velopharynx were measured by a single-blind examiner using a computed tomography scan. Results: Our comparative study found statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in favor of the unilateral uvuloplasty group. Conclusions: We observed that the use of unilateral uvuloplasty for uvular reconstruction reduces the velopharyngeal space and the frequency of hypernasality in patients with bilateral cleft palate. PMID:26180716

  1. Sex Differences in the Effects of Unilateral Brain Damage on Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglis, James; Lawson, J. S.

    1981-05-01

    A sexual dimorphism in the functional asymmetry of the damaged human brain is reflected in a test-specific laterality effect in male but not in female patients. This sex difference explains some contradictions concerning the effects of unilateral brain damage on intelligence in studies in which the influence of sex was overlooked.

  2. Unilateral Left-Hand Contractions Produce Widespread Depression of Cortical Activity after Their Execution

    PubMed Central

    Cross-Villasana, Fernando; Gröpel, Peter; Doppelmayr, Michael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The execution of unilateral hand contractions before performance has been reported to produce behavioral aftereffects in various tasks. These effects have been regularly attributed to an induced shift in activation asymmetry to the contralateral hemisphere produced by the contractions. An alternative explanation proposes a generalized state of reduced bilateral cortical activity following unilateral hand contractions. The current experiment contrasted the above explanation models and tested the state of cortical activity after the termination of unilateral hand contractions. Twenty right-handed participants performed hand contractions in two blocks, one for each hand. Using electroencephalogram (EEG), the broad alpha band and its asymmetry between hemispheres before, during, and after hand contractions were analyzed. During contractions, significant bilateral decrease in alpha amplitudes (indicating cortical activation) emerged for both hands around sensory-motor regions. After contractions, alpha amplitudes increased significantly over the whole scalp when compared to baseline, but only for the left hand. No modulation of hemispheric asymmetry was observed at any phase. The results suggest that unilateral hand contractions produce a state of reduced cortical activity after their termination, which is more pronounced if the left hand was used. Consequently, we propose that the reduced cortical activity (and not the persistent activation asymmetry) may facilitate engagement in subsequent behavior, probably due to preventing interference from other, nonessential cortical regions. PMID:26709832

  3. Understanding the Effects of Moving Visual Stimuli on Unilateral Neglect Following Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Prudence; Dunai, Judith; Morris, Meg E.

    2006-01-01

    Moving visual stimuli have been shown to reduce unilateral neglect (ULN), however, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain poorly understood. This study compared lateralised and non-lateralised moving visual stimuli to investigate whether the spatial characteristics or general alerting properties of moving visual stimuli are responsible for…

  4. Comparison of the Electromyographic Activation Level and Unilateral Selectivity of Erector Spinae during Different Selected Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Lan-Yuen; Wang, Yu-Lin; Huang, Yu-Han; Yang, Chich-Haung; Hou, Yi-You; Harn, Hans I-Chen; You, Yu-Lin

    2012-01-01

    For patients with scoliosis, core stabilization exercises may be beneficial in improving muscle strength and trunk dynamic control. However, few studies have examined whether the erector spinae (ES) activation status during unilateral spinal extensor strengthening meets the guideline for patients with spinal scoliosis. To determine ES activation…

  5. Isolated Unilateral Tongue Atrophy: A Possible Late Complication of Juxta Cephalic Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Saeed A; Agha, Caroline; Rothstein, Ted

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Isolated unilateral hypoglossal nerve injury is extremely rare. It may be caused by radiation therapy targeting neoplasms of the cephalic region. CASE REPORT A 51-year-old man with synovial sarcoma of the left upper arm status post extensive radiation therapy in 1980 presented in late 2014 with gradual onset of speech difficulty and difficulty moving his tongue for a couple of weeks. Neurological examination revealed isolated left-sided unilateral tongue atrophy. Postradiation residual extensive cicatrix with erythema over the whole left upper extremity extending to the neck on the affected side was noticed. On head magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after administration of gadolinium, he was found to have asymmetrically fatty striations, atrophy, and fibrosis in the left tongue consistent with radiation toxicity. The patient's tongue weakness persisted without improvement. CONCLUSIONS The diagnosis of unilateral hypoglossal nerve injury is usually difficult. Detailed neurological examinations and thorough investigations including head MRI are very helpful. Previous exposure to radiation therapy is a potential cause of hypoglossal nerve injury. To our knowledge, this is the first case report that presents isolated unilateral tongue atrophy as a late complication of juxta cephalic radiation therapy. PMID:27458010

  6. "No-Show": Therapist Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Client Unilateral Termination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jesse; Imel, Zac; Adelson, Jill; Rodolfa, Emil

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the authors examined the source of racial/ethnic minority (REM) disparities in unilateral termination (i.e., the client ending therapy without informing the therapist)--a form of dropout that is associated with poor alliance and outcome. First, the authors tested whether some therapists were more likely to have clients who…

  7. Familial occurrence of unilateral giant breasts in Nigeria: a possible new genetic entity.

    PubMed Central

    Badejo, O A

    1984-01-01

    Four cases of unilateral giant breasts from two unrelated families are described. Three of the patients were managed surgically. It is speculated from a review of available published reports that this condition may be genetic with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Images PMID:6716410

  8. Familial occurrence of unilateral giant breasts in Nigeria: a possible new genetic entity.

    PubMed

    Badejo, O A

    1984-04-01

    Four cases of unilateral giant breasts from two unrelated families are described. Three of the patients were managed surgically. It is speculated from a review of available published reports that this condition may be genetic with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. PMID:6716410

  9. Gender Differences in Unilateral Spatial Neglect within 24 Hours of Ischemic Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Jonathan T.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Davis, Cameron; Newhart, Melissa; Heidler-Gary, Jennifer; Hillis, Argye E.

    2008-01-01

    Hemispatial neglect is a common and disabling consequence of stroke. Previous reports examining the relationship between gender and the incidence of unilateral spatial neglect (USN) have included either a large numbers of patients with few neglect tests or small numbers of patients with multiple tests. To determine if USN was more common and/or…

  10. The Course and Outcome of Unilateral Intracranial Arteriopathy in 79 Children with Ischaemic Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, K. P. J.; Bulder, M. M. M.; Chabrier, S.; Kirkham, F. J.; Uiterwaal, C. S. P.; Tardieu, M.; Sebire, G.

    2009-01-01

    Arteriopathies are the commonest cause of arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS) in children. Repeated vascular imaging in children with AIS demonstrated the existence of a "transient cerebral arteriopathy" (TCA), characterized by lenticulostriate infarction due to non-progressive unilateral arterial disease affecting the supraclinoid internal carotid…

  11. Blink reflexes and magnetic resonance imaging in focal unilateral central trigeminal pathway demyelination.

    PubMed Central

    Kiers, L; Carroll, W M

    1990-01-01

    The electrically elicited blink reflex allows quantitative analysis of the corneal reflex which traverses the trigeminal and facial nerves and the brainstem. Two patients presenting with symptomatic unilateral trigeminal lesions are described, in whom the blink reflexes showed conduction block and slowing at predictable sites in the central pathways, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed precisely the clinical and electrophysiological localisation. Images PMID:2380735

  12. Unilateral hypoplastic kidney and ureter associated with diverse mesonephric remnant hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Guang-Qian; Jerome, Jean-Gilles; Wu, Guan

    2015-01-01

    Mesonephric remnants have been rarely reported in the genitourinary system and sometimes impose a diagnostic challenge both clinically and pathologically. We reported a case of mesonephric remnant hyperplasia with mixed acinar/tubular and epididymis/vas deferens-like morphologies occurring in the renal parenchyma of a unilateral hypoplastic kidney, which has not been previously described. PMID:26309900

  13. Evaluation of five fracture models in Taylor impact fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Xin-Ke; Wei, Gang; Guo, Zitao

    2012-03-01

    Taylor impact test presented in a previous study on a commercial high strength and super hard aluminum alloy 7A04-T6 are numerically evaluated using the finite element code ABAQUS/Explicit. In the present study, the influence of fracture criterion in numerical simulations of the deformation and fracture behavior of Taylor rod has been studied. Included in the paper are a modified version of Johnson-Cook, the Cockcroft-Latham(C-L), the constant fracture strain, the maximum shear stress and the maximum principle stress fracture models. Model constants for each criterion are calibrated from material tests. The modified version of Johnson-Cook fracture criterion with the stress triaxiality cut off idea is found to give good prediction of the Taylor impact fracture behavior. However, this study will also show that the C-L fracture criterion where only one simple material test is required for calibration is found to give reasonable predictions. Unfortunately, the other three criteria are not able to repeat the experimentally obtained fracture behavior. The study indicates that the stress triaxiality cut off idea is necessary to predict the Taylor impact fracture.

  14. Evaluation of Five Fracture Models in Taylor Impact Fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Xinke; Wei, Gang; Guo, Zitao

    2011-06-01

    Taylor impact test presented in a previous study on a commercial high strength and super hard aluminum alloy 7A04-T6 are numerically evaluated using the finite element code ABAQUS/Explicit. In the present study, the influence of fracture criterion in numerical simulations of the deformation and fracture behavior of Taylor rod has been studied. Included in the paper are a modified version of Johnson-Cook, the Cockcroft-Latham(C-L), the constant fracture strain, the maximum shear stress and the maximum principle stress fracture models. Model constants for each criterion are calibrated from material tests. The modified version of Johnson-Cook fracture criterion with the stress triaxiality cut off idea is found to give good prediction of the Taylor impact fracture behavior. However, this study will also show that the C-L fracture criterion where only one simple material test is required for calibration, is found to give reasonable predictions. Unfortunately, the other three criteria are not able to repeat the experimentally obtained fracture behavior. The study indicates that the stress triaxiality cut off idea is necessary to predict the Taylor impact fracture. The National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.: 11072072).

  15. Occult Intertrochanteric Fracture Mimicking the Fracture of Greater Trochanter

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Phil Hyun; Kang, Suk; Kim, Jong Pil; Kim, Young Sung; Back, In Hwa; Eom, Kyeong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Occult intertrochanteric fractures are misdiagnosed as isolated greater trochanteric fractures in some cases. We investigated the utility of three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis and outcome management of occult intertrochanteric fractures. Materials and Methods This study involved 23 cases of greater trochanteric fractures as diagnosed using plain radiographs from January 2004 to July 2013. Until January 2008, 9 cases were examined with 3D-CT only, while 14 cases were screened with both 3D-CT and MRI scans. We analyzed diagnostic accuracy and treatment results following 3D-CT and MRI scanning. Results Nine cases that underwent 3D-CT only were diagnosed with isolated greater trochanteric fractures without occult intertrochanteric fractures. Of these, a patient with displacement received surgical treatment. Of the 14 patients screened using both CT and MRI, 13 were diagnosed with occult intertrochanteric fractures. Of these, 11 were treated with surgical intervention and 2 with conservative management. Conclusion Three-dimensional CT has very low diagnostic accuracy in diagnosing occult intertrochanteric fractures. For this reason, MRI is recommended to confirm a suspected occult intertrochanteric fracture and to determine the most appropriate mode of treatment.

  16. Mortality after hip fracture with vertebral compression fracture is poor.

    PubMed

    Imai, Norio; Endo, Naoto; Hoshino, Tadashi; Suda, Ken; Miyasaka, Dai; Ito, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasing elderly population, the prevalence of osteoporotic hip fractures in Japanese patients continues to rise. It is well established that patients with either hip fracture or both symptomatic and asymptomatic morphometric vertebral compression fracture (VCF) have a poor health prognosis compared with the general population. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate vertebral fracture rates among patients with hip fracture and their influence on mortality. We examined 182 cases of osteoporotic hip fracture in patients admitted to our institution between January 2009 and May 2011. The average age at the time of fracture was 85 years. Radiographs of the lumbar spine were obtained from all of the participants and the lateral spinal radiographs were examined for evidence of VCF. The patients were classified into two groups, those with VCF and those without. A VCF was identified in approximately 78 % of the patients. The mortality rate 1 year after the hip fracture was approximately 22 % and it was significantly higher in patients with VCF. Through multivariate statistics we found that VCF, post-operative complication, loss of ambulation after operation and medication for osteoporosis were statistically significant. In other words, VCF, post-operative complication and loss of ambulation were considered to be poor prognostic factors and medication for osteoporosis was likely to improve the prognosis. We concluded that the risk of mortality after hip fracture is significantly greater in patients who also have VCF compared to patients without VCF, and that medication for osteoporosis is likely to improve prognosis. PMID:25501699

  17. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly

  18. Bilateral input protects the cortex from unilaterally-driven reorganization in children who are deaf.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Karen A; Wong, Daniel D E; Papsin, Blake C

    2013-05-01

    Unilateral hearing in childhood restricts input along the bilateral auditory pathways, possibly causing permanent reorganization. In this study we asked: (i) do the auditory pathways develop abnormally in children who are bilaterally deaf and hear with a unilateral cochlear implant? and (ii) can such differences be reversed by restoring input to the deprived ear? We measured multichannel electroencephalography in 34 children using cochlear implants and seven normal hearing peers. Dipole moments of activity became abnormally high in the auditory cortex contralateral to the first implant as unilateral cochlear implant use exceeded 1.5 years. This resulted in increased lateralization of activity to the auditory cortex contralateral to the stimulated ear and a decline in normal contralateral activity in response to stimulation from the newly implanted ear, corresponding to poorer speech perception. These results reflect an abnormal strengthening of pathways from the stimulated ear in consequence to the loss of contralateral activity including inhibitory processes normally involved in bilateral hearing. Although this reorganization occurred within a fairly short period (∼1.5 years of unilateral hearing), it was not reversed by long-term (3-4 years) bilateral cochlear implant stimulation. In bilateral listeners, effects of side of stimulation were assessed; children with long periods of unilateral cochlear implant use prior to bilateral implantation showed a reduction in normal dominance of contralateral input in the auditory cortex ipsilateral to the stimulated ear, further confirming an abnormal strengthening of pathways from the stimulated ear. By contrast, cortical activity in children using bilateral cochlear implants after limited or no unilateral cochlear implant exposure normally lateralized to the hemisphere contralateral to side of stimulation and retained normal contralateral dominance of auditory input in both hemispheres. Results demonstrate that the

  19. Resistivity logging of fractured basalt

    SciTech Connect

    Stefansson, V.; Axelsson, G.; Sigurdsson, O.

    1982-01-01

    A lumped double porosity model was studied in order to estimate the effect of fractures on resistivity - porosity relations. It is found that the relationship between resistivity and porosity for fractured rock is in general not simple and depends both on the amounts of matrix porosity as well as the fracture orientation. However, when fractures dominate over matrix porosity the exponent is close to 1.0. Resistivity-porosity relations have been determined for large amounts of basaltic formations in Iceland. An exponent close to 1.0 is found in all cases investigated. This is interpreted as fractures constitute a considerable part of the porosity of the basalts. In the IRDP-hole in Eastern Iceland it is found that the ratio of fracture porosity to total porosity decreases with depth.

  20. Fracture healing: mechanisms and interventions

    PubMed Central

    Einhorn, Thomas A.; Gerstenfeld, Louis C.

    2015-01-01

    Fractures are the most common large-organ, traumatic injuries to humans. The repair of bone fractures is a postnatal regenerative process that recapitulates many of the ontological events of embryonic skeletal development. Although fracture repair usually restores the damaged skeletal organ to its pre-injury cellular composition, structure and biomechanical function, about 10% of fractures will not heal normally. This article reviews the developmental progression of fracture healing at the tissue, cellular and molecular levels. Innate and adaptive immune processes are discussed as a component of the injury response, as are environmental factors, such as the extent of injury to the bone and surrounding tissue, fixation and the contribution of vascular tissues. We also present strategies for fracture treatment that have been tested in animal models and in clinical trials or case series. The biophysical and biological basis of the molecular actions of various therapeutic approaches, including recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins and parathyroid hormone therapy, are also discussed. PMID:25266456

  1. Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing.

    PubMed

    Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H

    2016-06-01

    Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process. PMID:27070765

  2. Endotine Midface for Soft Tissue Suspension in Zygoma Fracture.

    PubMed

    Shim, Hyung-Sup; Seo, Bommie F; Rha, Eun-Young; Byeon, Jun Hee

    2015-09-01

    Treatment of zygomatic fractures necessitates dissection beneath the soft tissues of the cheek. Inadequate resuspension may lead to deformities, including cheek ptosis, lower lid ectropion, and lateral canthal dystopia. The authors present their experience using a biodegradable suspension device for cheek flap resuspension. Patients who received open reduction for unilateral zygomatic fracture between January, 2006 and December, 2013 at a single center were included in the study. Patients could choose whether or not to have Endotine midface inserted. Patients rated satisfaction on facial symmetry. Computed tomography (CT) at 15 months was assessed for soft tissue thickness at the level of the midpoint of the nasolabial fold on each side. Photographs at 15 months were viewed by 3 blinded plastic surgeons and rated for cheek drooping. The results for all 3 parameters were compared between the Endotine group and the control group. A total of 83 patients were included (43 in the Endotine group and 39 in the control group). Patient satisfaction scores were statistically higher (P = 0.03) in the Endotine group (3.70 ± 0.76) than the control group (2.85 ± 0.96). Computed tomography soft tissue thickness score ratio between affected and unaffected side was significantly lower (P < 0.001) in the Endotine group than the ratio in the control group. Photography evaluation score difference between affected and unaffected side for the Endotine group (0.70 ± 0.77) was significantly (P = 0.041) smaller than the control group (1.92 ± 1.24). Endotine midface is easy to apply and effective in repositioning the elevated cheek flap in zygomatic fracture patients. PMID:26267573

  3. Hydrocephalus caused by unilateral foramen of Monro obstruction: A review on terminology

    PubMed Central

    Nigri, Flavio; Gobbi, Gabriel Neffa; da Costa Ferreira Pinto, Pedro Henrique; Simões, Elington Lannes; Caparelli-Daquer, Egas Moniz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hydrocephalus caused by unilateral foramen of Monro (FM) obstruction has been referred to in literature by many different terminologies. Precise terminology describing hydrocephalus confined to just one lateral ventricle has a very important prognostic value and determines whether or not the patient can be shunt free after an endoscopic procedure. Methods: Aiming to define the best term for unilateral FM obstruction, 19 terms were employed on PubMed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed) as quoted phrases. Results: A total of 194 articles were found. Four patterns of hydrocephalus were discriminated as a result of our research term query and were divided by types for didactic purpose. Type A - partial dilation of the lateral ventricle; Type B - pure unilateral obstruction of the FM; Type C - previously shunted patients with secondary obstruction of the FM; and Type D - asymmetric lateral ventricles with patent FM. Conclusion: In unilateral FM obstruction hydrocephalus, an in-depth review on terminology application is critical to avoid mistakes that may compromise comparisons among different series. This terminology review suggests that Type B hydrocephalus, i.e., the hydrocephalus confined to just one lateral ventricle with no other sites of cerebrospinal fluid circulation blockage, are best described by the terms unilateral hydrocephalus (UH) and monoventricular hydrocephalus, the first being by far the most popular. Type A hydrocephalus is best represented in the literature by the terms uniloculated hydrocephalus and loculated ventricle; Type C hydrocephalus by the terms isolated lateral ventricle and isolated UH; and Type D hydrocephalus by the term asymmetric hydrocephalus. PMID:27274402

  4. Feasibility of unilateral parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and negative or discordant localization studies.

    PubMed

    Calò, Pietro Giorgio; Medas, Fabio; Loi, Giulia; Erdas, Enrico; Pisano, Giuseppe; Nicolosi, Angelo

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of unilateral parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and negative or discordant localization studies. We included in our study 72 patients with preoperative diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism who had negative or discordant preoperative studies. In 66 patients, studies were discordant while in six were both negative. In 40 (55.6 %) patients initial approach was a bilateral exploration. In 32 cases (44.4 %) initial surgery was a unilateral exploration: in 26 conservative approach was successful, in six mini-invasive surgery failed and a bilateral exploration was necessary due to IOPTH negative test (five cases) or to the impossibility to find a pathological gland during exploration (one case). Intra-operative PTH test showed a sensitivity of 93.2 %, a specificity of 92.3 %, and an accuracy of 93.1 %. Multiple gland disease was found in 8 (11.1 %) patients (two double adenoma and six multiple gland hyperplasia). Mean operative time was lower in unilateral exploration group (87.9 ± 43.8 min). Comparing unilateral surgery in negative or discordant studies with 77 consecutive patients who underwent focused surgery with positive and concordant studies, conversion to bilateral exploration rate was statistically significantly higher in the first group (15.6 %). We believe that unilateral parathyroidectomy can be safely performed also in patients with discordant localization studies with a high cure rate; in these cases, however, the use of intra-operative PTH is absolutely necessary. We suggest the need for referral of these patients to high-volume medical centers for thyroid and parathyroid surgery. PMID:26826082

  5. Unilateral Prostate Cancer Cannot be Accurately Predicted in Low-Risk Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Isbarn, Hendrik; Karakiewicz, Pierre I.; Vogel, Susanne

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: Hemiablative therapy (HAT) is increasing in popularity for treatment of patients with low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). The validity of this therapeutic modality, which exclusively treats PCa within a single prostate lobe, rests on accurate staging. We tested the accuracy of unilaterally unremarkable biopsy findings in cases of low-risk PCa patients who are potential candidates for HAT. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 243 men with clinical stage {<=}T2a, a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration of <10 ng/ml, a biopsy-proven Gleason sum of {<=}6, and a maximum of 2 ipsilateral positive biopsy results out of 10 or more cores. All men underwent a radical prostatectomy, and pathology stage was used as the gold standard. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were tested for significant predictors of unilateral, organ-confined PCa. These predictors consisted of PSA, %fPSA (defined as the quotient of free [uncomplexed] PSA divided by the total PSA), clinical stage (T2a vs. T1c), gland volume, and number of positive biopsy cores (2 vs. 1). Results: Despite unilateral stage at biopsy, bilateral or even non-organ-confined PCa was reported in 64% of all patients. In multivariable analyses, no variable could clearly and independently predict the presence of unilateral PCa. This was reflected in an overall accuracy of 58% (95% confidence interval, 50.6-65.8%). Conclusions: Two-thirds of patients with unilateral low-risk PCa, confirmed by clinical stage and biopsy findings, have bilateral or non-organ-confined PCa at radical prostatectomy. This alarming finding questions the safety and validity of HAT.

  6. Unilateral Versus Bilateral Prostatic Arterial Embolization for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Patients with Prostate Enlargement

    SciTech Connect

    Bilhim, Tiago; Pisco, Joao; Rio Tinto, Hugo; Fernandes, Lucia; Campos Pinheiro, Luis; Duarte, Marisa; Pereira, Jose A.; Oliveira, Antonio G.; O'Neill, Joao

    2013-04-15

    This study was designed to compare baseline data and clinical outcome between patients with prostate enlargement/benign prostatic hyperplasia (PE/BPH) who underwent unilateral and bilateral prostatic arterial embolization (PAE) for the relief of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This single-center, ambispective cohort study compared 122 consecutive patients (mean age 66.7 years) with unilateral versus bilateral PAE from March 2009 to December 2011. Selective PAE was performed with 100- and 200-{mu}m nonspherical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles by a unilateral femoral approach. Bilateral PAE was performed in 103 (84.4 %) patients (group A). The remaining 19 (15.6 %) patients underwent unilateral PAE (group B). Mean follow-up time was 6.7 months in group A and 7.3 months in group B. Mean prostate volume, PSA, International prostate symptom score/quality of life (IPSS/QoL) and post-void residual volume (PVR) reduction, and peak flow rate (Qmax) improvement were 19.4 mL, 1.68 ng/mL, 11.8/2.0 points, 32.9 mL, and 3.9 mL/s in group A and 11.5 mL, 1.98 ng/mL, 8.9/1.4 points, 53.8 mL, and 4.58 mL/s in group B. Poor clinical outcome was observed in 24.3 % of patients from group A and 47.4 % from group B (p = 0.04). PAE is a safe and effective technique that can induce 48 % improvement in the IPSS score and a prostate volume reduction of 19 %, with good clinical outcome in up to 75 % of treated patients. Bilateral PAE seems to lead to better clinical results; however, up to 50 % of patients after unilateral PAE may have a good clinical outcome.

  7. Outcomes of Primary Unilateral Cheiloplasty in Same-Day Surgical Settings

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Hidayat; Aziz, Asif; Tahir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Financial, clinical, and psychological considerations have made same-day surgery an attractive option for a variety of procedures. This article aimed to analyse the postoperative results of same-day primary unilateral cleft nasolabial repair. Methods This study was performed from 2011 to 2014. Unilateral cleft lip patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were preoperatively classified as mild, moderate, and severe. All patients underwent same-day surgery and were discharged after satisfying the appropriate clinical criteria, receiving thorough counselling, and the establishment of a means of communication by phone. Postoperative outcomes were assessed and stratified according to preoperative severity and the type of repair. Results A total of 423 primary unilateral cleft lip patients were included. Fisher's anatomical subunit approximation technique was the most common procedure, followed by Noordhoff's technique. The postoperative outcome was good in 89.8% of cases, fair in 9.9% of cases, and poor in 0.2% of cases. The complication rate was 1.18% (n=5), and no instances of mortality were observed. The average hospital stay was 7.5 hours, leading to a cost reduction of 19% in comparison with patients who stayed overnight for observation. Conclusions Mild unilateral cleft lip was the most common deformity for which Fisher's anatomical subunit approximation technique was performed in most of the cases, with satisfactory postoperative outcomes. Refinements in the cleft rhinoplasty techniques over the course of the study improved the results regarding cleft nasal symmetry. Single-day primary unilateral cleft cheiloplasty was found to be a cost-effective procedure that did not pose an additional risk of complications. PMID:27218022

  8. Changes in auditory perceptions and cortex resulting from hearing recovery after extended congenital unilateral hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Firszt, Jill B.; Reeder, Ruth M.; Holden, Timothy A.; Burton, Harold; Chole, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Monaural hearing induces auditory system reorganization. Imbalanced input also degrades time-intensity cues for sound localization and signal segregation for listening in noise. While there have been studies of bilateral auditory deprivation and later hearing restoration (e.g., cochlear implants), less is known about unilateral auditory deprivation and subsequent hearing improvement. We investigated effects of long-term congenital unilateral hearing loss on localization, speech understanding, and cortical organization following hearing recovery. Hearing in the congenitally affected ear of a 41 year old female improved significantly after stapedotomy and reconstruction. Pre-operative hearing threshold levels showed unilateral, mixed, moderately-severe to profound hearing loss. The contralateral ear had hearing threshold levels within normal limits. Testing was completed prior to, and 3 and 9 months after surgery. Measurements were of sound localization with intensity-roved stimuli and speech recognition in various noise conditions. We also evoked magnetic resonance signals with monaural stimulation to the unaffected ear. Activation magnitudes were determined in core, belt, and parabelt auditory cortex regions via an interrupted single event design. Hearing improvement following 40 years of congenital unilateral hearing loss resulted in substantially improved sound localization and speech recognition in noise. Auditory cortex also reorganized. Contralateral auditory cortex responses were increased after hearing recovery and the extent of activated cortex was bilateral, including a greater portion of the posterior superior temporal plane. Thus, prolonged predominant monaural stimulation did not prevent auditory system changes consequent to restored binaural hearing. Results support future research of unilateral auditory deprivation effects and plasticity, with consideration for length of deprivation, age at hearing correction and degree and type of hearing loss. PMID

  9. The human cost of fracture.

    PubMed

    Pasco, Julie A; Sanders, Kerrie M; Hoekstra, Frouckje M; Henry, Margaret J; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Kotowicz, Mark A

    2005-12-01

    In this population-based, observational study, we document the personal burden of fracture and utilization of community and health services for women during the 12-month period following a fracture. Participants were 598 women (aged 35-92 years) with incident fracture in the years 1994-1996 who were enrolled in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Almost all hip fracture cases and 27% of nonhip fracture cases were hospitalized. Homes were modified in 14% of cases, and 32% of the women purchased or hired equipment to assist with activities of daily living. Three-quarters of women with hip, pelvis, or lower limb fractures were confined to the home, had to walk with a walking aid, or could walk only short distances for several weeks. After a year, nearly one-half had not regained prefracture mobility. One-seventh of women with upper-limb fractures did not venture outside the home for at least 6 weeks. Nearly half of all fracture cases needed help with personal care and housework during the first 6 weeks. After 6 months, 3.4% of all patients and 19.6% of hip, 12.8% of humeral, and 4.7% of spine fracture patients required assistance with bathing and showering. After a year, more than half of the hip fracture cases remained restricted regarding housework, gardening, and transport. These findings have important implications for rehabilitation therapy. A fracture, regardless of site, had a major impact on a woman's lifestyle and well-being. Most women were restricted in their activities of daily living and suffered loss of confidence and independence. Short-term morbidity was common for all fractures, with varying degrees of prolonged morbidity often extending to at least a year postfracture. PMID:16228106

  10. Method for fracturing subterranean formations

    SciTech Connect

    Almond, S. W.; Conway, M. W.

    1985-11-19

    The present invention relates to a thermally stable crosslinked gel fracturing fluid for use in the treatment of subterranean formations penetrated by a well bore. The fracturing fluid comprises an aqueous liquid, a gelling agent comprising a selected modified cellulose ether, a crosslinking agent and any additional additives that may be present. The fracturing fluid is thermally stable under shear at temperatures in excess of about 200/sup 0/ F.

  11. Periprosthetic fractures in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Van Flandern, Geoffrey J

    2005-09-01

    Periprosthetic fractures can be discussed in many formats. In this article, epidemiology, classification, and treatment are divided into the following three categories of periprosthetic fracture: intraoperative fractures detected at the time of surgery; intraoperative fractures undetected at the time of surgery, but detected postoperatively; and postoperative fractures occurring late after the arthroplasty procedure. PMID:16190043

  12. Seismic determination of saturation in fractured reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.L.; Wiggins, M.L.; Gupta, A.

    2002-01-01

    Detecting the saturation of a fractured reservoir using shear waves is possible when the fractures have a geometry that induces a component of movement perpendicular to the fractures. When such geometry is present, vertically traveling shear waves can be used to examine the saturation of the fractured reservoir. Tilted, corrugated, and saw-tooth fracture models are potential examples.

  13. Unusual presentation of a femoral stress fracture

    PubMed Central

    Ejnisman, Leandro; Wajnsztejn, Andre; Queiroz, Roberto Dantas; Ejnisman, Benno

    2013-01-01

    Stress fractures are common injuries in sports medicine. Among these fractures, femoral neck stress fractures frequently have a benign course, especially when it happens in the medial aspect of the neck. This case report describes a stress fracture of the medial aspect of the femoral neck that developed a complete fracture and underwent surgical fixation. PMID:23283621

  14. [Cervical fractures in autopsy records].

    PubMed

    Pankowski, Rafał; Wilmanowska, Anita; Gos, Tomasz; Smoczyński, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    We reviewed the autopsy records of 1872 cases of death because of politrauma, gunshot wounds and suicidal hanging. The analysis included causes and frequency of cervical spine fractures, their most common localisation, architecture of bone destruction and their influence on cervical cord. The most common cause of cervical spine injury was motor vehicle accidents. We examined 82 specimens with traumatic fractures of cervical spine obtained from accident victims. About half of the injuries occurred in upper cervical spine. The most common fracture localisation was C2 with dens fracture as the most frequent injury. The most common spinal cord lesion was complete rupture mainly at the upper cervical spine level. PMID:14564791

  15. Fracture mechanics: Perspectives and directions

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, R.P.; Gangloff, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    The present work includes twelve invited review papers with comprehensive descriptions of the challenges in six topical areas: analytical fracture mechanics, nonlinear and time-dependent fracture mechanics, microstructure and micromechanical modeling, fatigue crack propagation, environmentally assisted cracking, and fracture mechanics of nonmetals and new frontiers. Specific challenge areas include the analytical front, advanced heterogeneous materials, subcritical crack growth for both fatigue and sustained-load crack growth in deleterious environments at elevated temperatures, and problems of education. The book demonstrates that the existing fracture mechanics foundation is well positioned to meet these challenges over the next decades.

  16. BTEX biodegradation in fractured shale

    SciTech Connect

    O`Cleirigh, D.; Coryea, H.; Christopher, M.; Vaughn, C.

    1997-12-31

    A petroleum hydrocarbon groundwater plume was identified at a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) facility in Oklahoma. The affected area had an average BTEX concentration of 3.8 mg/L. Previous aquifer tests indicated preferential groundwater flow paths resulting from natural fractures present in the aquifer formation (primarily shale). A pneumatic fracturing pilot study was performed to evaluate the technology`s effectiveness in creating a more isotropic aquifer. As part of the study, pre-fracture/post-fracture pump tests were performed. Pre-fracture and post-fracture graphs confirmed the study`s hypothesis that pneumatic fracturing would eliminate preferential flow paths and increase groundwater yield. Based on the successful pneumatic fracturing test, an area within the petroleum hydrocarbon plume was fractured and a pilot-scale biodegradation system was operated for four months. The remediation system provided groundwater circulation amended with nutrients and oxygen. Results of the study indicated a significant decrease in BTEX concentrations between the injection well and the observation wells. By Day 113, the benzene concentration (0.044 mg/L) at one of the observation wells was less than the desired state cleanup goal of 0.05 mg/L.

  17. Postpartal sacral fracture without osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Rousière, M; Kahan, A; Job-Deslandre, C

    2001-02-01

    Stress fractures of the sacrum during pregnancy or the postpartum seem uncommon. We report a new case of nontrauma-related postpartal sacral fracture. Only four similar cases have been reported to date. The patient was 36 years of age and her fracture was diagnosed four weeks after her first delivery. Vitamin D levels were low, but there was no osteomalacia. Other standard laboratory tests were normal, as were absorptiometry measurements at the lumbar spine and femur. Rheumatologists should consider sacral fracture in pregnant or nursing patients with buttock pain. Magnetic resonance imaging is the diagnostic investigation of choice. PMID:11235785

  18. PERPENDICULAR DOUBLE-PLATE FIXATION WITH LOCKING SYSTEM FOR ACROMION PEDICLE FRACTURE

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Junkun; Pan, Zhijun; Zheng, Rongzong; Lan, Shuhua

    2016-01-01

    Objective : To describe the surgical technique and preliminary clinical outcomes in a series of open reduction internal fixation of basal acromion process fractures applying a double-plating technique. Methods : Nine consecutive patients, mean age 33.4 years old (range, 23-61 years old) with unilateral acromion fracture (Type 3 AO/OTA) with more than 1cm displacement who underwent fixation utilizing a locked double-plating technique, were evaluated on average at 7.8 months (range, 3-15 months) for outcomes related to pain, shoulder function, and surgical complications. Results : Eight patients recovered with complete radiographic union and favorable shoulder function. One case failed to be fully evaluated for more than 3 months follow-up. The overall scores of Constant, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) and DASH for the eight patients reviewed were 91.9± 6.31, 3.11± 3.79 and 5.2± 6.35, respectively. No post-operative infection or surgical hardware irritation was identified at final follow-up of these eight patients. Conclusion : While more evidence is needed to justify its advantages over traditional implants, perpendicular double-plate with a locking system may be indicated for acromion pedicle fracture treatment, since it performed well for fracture healing and joint function rehabilitation. Level of Evidence IV, Therapeutic Study. PMID:26981047

  19. Fracturing Experiment 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Donald W.; Keppler, H.; Kuriyagawa, Michio; Murphy, Hugh D.; Walter, Fritz

    1982-09-27

    Experiment 2016 was conducted on June 20 and 21, 1982. This experiment represented our third attempt at a fracture connection between the bottom of hole EE-2, and the openhole section of EE-3. The primary objective of Experiment 2016 was to hydraulically connect holes EE-2 and EE-3, utilizing a greater amount of injected fluid--1.3 million gallons were pumped into EE-2--and somewhat higher injection rates up to 35 BPM (as compared to 30 BPM during Expt. 2012).

  20. [Rehabilitation after periprosthetic fractures].

    PubMed

    Schmitt-Sody, M; Valle, C

    2016-03-01

    Periprosthetic fractures of the upper and lower extremities not only represent a challenge for surgeons but also for the rehabilitation team. The sometimes multimorbid patients have often undergone several surgical operations and need special planning and cooperation between an interdisciplinary team in order to achieve the best possible functional result and social reintegration. A structured rehabilitation planning after surgical treatment is a prerequisite for the patient to return to life as normal as possible. The aim is always rapid mobilization to achieve independence in activities of daily living. Special attention should be paid to postoperative immobilization and weight bearing. PMID:26923872

  1. Permeability damage to natural fractures caused by fracturing fluid polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Gall, B.L.; Sattler, A.R.; Maloney, D.R.; Raible, C.J.

    1988-04-01

    Formation damage studies using artificially fractured, low-permeability sandstone cores indicate that viscosified fracturing fluids can severely restrict gas flow through these types of narrow fractures. These studies were performed in support of the Department of Energy's Multiwell Experiment (MWX). Extensive geological and production evaluations at the MWX site indicate that the presence of a natural fracture system is largely responsible for unstimulated gas production. The laboratory formation damage studies were designed to examine changes in cracked core permeability to gas caused by fracturing fluid residues introduced into such narrow fractures during fluid leakoff. Polysaccharide polymers caused significant reduction (up to 95%) to gas flow through cracked cores. Polymer fracturing fluid gels used in this study included hydroxypropyl guar, hydroxyethyl cellulose, and xanthan gum. In contrast, polyacrylamide gels caused little or no reduction in gas flow through cracked cores after liquid cleanup. Other components of fracturing fluids (surfactants, breakers, etc.) caused less damage to gas flows. Other factors affecting gas flow through cracked cores were investigated, including the effects of net confining stress and non-Darcy flow parameters. Results are related to some of the problems observed during the stimulation program conducted for the MWX. 24 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Sequential hydraulic fracturing of a subsurface formation

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, T.C. Jr.; Hale, M.W.; Sellers, J.R.

    1989-09-26

    This patent describes a method for propagating a vertical hydraulic fracture in an earth formation surrounding a borehole wherein the original in-situ stresses favor a horizontal fracture. It comprises: pumping a first fracturing fluid into the formation at a first depth within the borehole so that a first fracturing pressure is applied to the formation by the first fracturing fluid to propagate a horizontal fracture as favored by the original in-situ stresses of the formation. The propagation of the horizontal fracture altering the original in-situ stresses in the formation; injecting a propping material into the horizontal fracture while maintaining the first fracturing pressure in the horizontal fracture in sufficient amount to prevent relaxation of the altered in-situ stresses in the formation after the pumping of the first fracturing fluid is terminated and the first fracturing pressure is removed; terminating the pumping of the first fracturing fluid into the horizontal fracture to remove the first fracturing pressure from the formation, pumping a second fracturing into the formation at a second depth within the borehole within the field of the altered in-situ stresses,; and terminating the pumping of the second fracturing fluid to the vertical fracture to remove the second fracturing pressure from the formation.

  3. Gravity-Driven Hydraulic Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germanovich, L. N.; Garagash, D.; Murdoch, L. C.; Robinowitz, M.

    2014-12-01

    This study is motived by a new method for disposing of nuclear waste by injecting it as a dense slurry into a hydraulic fracture that grows downward to great enough depth to permanently isolate the waste. Disposing of nuclear waste using gravity-driven hydraulic fractures is mechanically similar to the upward growth of dikes filled with low density magma. A fundamental question in both applications is how the injected fluid controls the propagation dynamics and fracture geometry (depth and breadth) in three dimensions. Analog experiments in gelatin [e.g., Heimpel and Olson, 1994; Taisne and Tait, 2009] show that fracture breadth (the short horizontal dimension) remains nearly stationary when the process in the fracture "head" (where breadth is controlled) is dominated by solid toughness, whereas viscous fluid dissipation is dominant in the fracture tail. We model propagation of the resulting gravity-driven (buoyant or sinking), finger-like fracture of stationary breadth with slowly varying opening along the crack length. The elastic response to fluid loading in a horizontal cross-section is local and can be treated similar to the classical Perkins-Kern-Nordgren (PKN) model of hydraulic fracturing. The propagation condition for a finger-like crack is based on balancing the global energy release rate due to a unit crack extension with the rock fracture toughness. It allows us to relate the net fluid pressure at the tip to the fracture breadth and rock toughness. Unlike the PKN fracture, where breadth is known a priori, the final breadth of a finger-like fracture is a result of processes in the fracture head. Because the head is much more open than the tail, viscous pressure drop in the head can be neglected leading to a 3D analog of Weertman's hydrostatic pulse. This requires relaxing the local elasticity assumption of the PKN model in the fracture head. As a result, we resolve the breadth, and then match the viscosity-dominated tail with the 3-D, toughness

  4. External fixator configurations in tibia fractures: 1D optimization and 3D analysis comparison.

    PubMed

    Roseiro, Luis M; Neto, M Augusta; Amaro, Ana; Leal, Rogerio P; Samarra, Miguel C

    2014-01-01

    The use of external fixation devices in orthopedic surgery is very common in open tibial fractures. A properly applied fixator may improve the healing process while one improperly applied might delay the healing process. The several external fixator systems used in clinical today, can be categorized into uniplanar-unilateral, uniplanar-bilateral, biplanar and multiplanar. The stability on the fracture focus and, therefore, the fracture healing process, is related with the type of external fixator configuration that is selected. The aim of this study is to discuss the principles for the successful application of unilateral-uniplanar external fixation, the assembly of its components, for the case of a transverse fractures using computational models. In this context, the fixation stiffness characteristics are evaluated using a simplified 1D finite element model for the tibia and external fixator. The beams are modeled with realistic cross-sectional geometry and material properties instead of a simplified model. The VABS (the Variational Asymptotic Beam Section analysis) methodology is used to compute the cross-sectional model for the generalized Timoshenko model, which was embedded in the finite element solver FEAP. The use of Timoshenko beam theory allows accounting for several kinds of loads, including torsion moments. Optimal design is performed with respect to the assembly of fixator components using a genetic algorithm. The optimization procedure is based on the evaluation of an objective function, which is dependent on the displacement at the fracture focus. The initial and optimal results are compared by performing a 3D analysis, for which different three-dimensional finite element models are created. The geometrical model of a tibia is created on the basis of data acquired by CAT scan, made for a healthy tibia of a 22 year old male. The 3D comparison of the 1D optimal results show a clear improvement on the objective function for the several load cases and

  5. Osteoporosis, Fractures, and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that osteoporosis and diabetes are prevalent diseases with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Patients with diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of bone fractures. In type 1 diabetes, the risk is increased by ∼6 times and is due to low bone mass. Despite increased bone mineral density (BMD), in patients with type 2 diabetes the risk is increased (which is about twice the risk in the general population) due to the inferior quality of bone. Bone fragility in type 2 diabetes, which is not reflected by bone mineral density, depends on bone quality deterioration rather than bone mass reduction. Thus, surrogate markers and examination methods are needed to replace the insensitivity of BMD in assessing fracture risks of T2DM patients. One of these methods can be trabecular bone score. The aim of the paper is to present the present state of scientific knowledge about the osteoporosis risk in diabetic patient. The review also discusses the possibility of problematic using the study conclusions in real clinical practice. PMID:25050121

  6. Fracture detection and mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, N.E.; Iovenitti, J.L.

    1986-03-01

    Because the costs of drilling, completing, and testing a well can be extremely high, it is important to develop better tools and methods for locating high permeability zones prior to drilling, and to develop better tools and methods for identifying and characterizing major fracture zones during the drilling and well testing stages. At the recommendation of the LBL Industry Review Panel on Geothermal Reservoir Technology, we organized and convened a one-day workshop this past July to discuss various aspects of DOE's current and planned activities in fracture detection, to review the geothermal industry's near-term and long-term research needs, to determine the priority of those needs, to disseminate to industry the status of research in progress, and to discuss the possibility of future joint research between industry and DOE. In this paper we present a brief overview of the workshop from the perspective of those who participated in it and provided us with written comments to a questionnaire that was distributed.

  7. Fracture Detection and Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Norman E.; Iovenitti, Joseph L.

    1986-01-21

    Because the costs of drilling, completing, and testing a well can be extremely high, it is important to develop better tools and methods for locating high permeability zones prior to drilling, and to develop better tools and methods for identifying and characterizing major fracture zones during the drilling and well testing stages. At the recommendation of the LBL Industry Review Panel on Geothermal Reservoir Technology, we organized and convened a one-day workshop this past July to discuss various aspects of DOE's current and planned activities in fracture detection, to review the geothermal industry's near-term and long-term research needs, to determine the priority of those needs, to disseminate to industry the status of research in progress, and to discuss the possibility of future joint research between industry and DOE. In this paper we present a brief overview of the workshop from the perspective of those who participated in it and provided us with written comments to a questionnaire that was distributed.

  8. Single-sided deafness leads to unilateral aural preference within an early sensitive period.

    PubMed

    Kral, Andrej; Hubka, Peter; Heid, Silvia; Tillein, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Unilateral deafness has a high incidence in children. In addition to children who are born without hearing in one ear, children with bilateral deafness are frequently equipped only with one cochlear implant, leaving the other ear deaf. The present study investigates the effects of such single-sided deafness during development in the congenitally deaf cat. The investigated animals were either born with unilateral deafness or received a cochlear implant in one ear and were subjected to chronic monaural stimulation. In chronically stimulated animals, implantation ages were at the following three critical developmental points: 'early' during the peak of functional cortical synaptogenesis in deaf animals; 'intermediate' at the age when synaptic activity in the deaf cats dropped to the level of hearing control cats and finally, 'late' at the age when the evoked synaptic activity fell below the level of hearing control cats. After periods of unilateral hearing, local field potentials were recorded from the cortical surface using a microelectrode at ∼100 recording positions. Stimulation was with cochlear implants at both ears. The measures evaluated were dependent only on the symmetry of aural input: paired differences of onset latencies and paired relations of peak amplitudes of local field potentials. A massive reorganization of aural preference in favour of the hearing ear was found in these measures if the onset of unilateral hearing was early (before or around the peak of functional synaptogenesis). The effect was reduced if onset of unilateral hearing was in the intermediate period, and it disappeared if the onset was late. In early onset of unilateral deafness, the used ear became functionally dominant with respect to local field potential onset latency and amplitude. This explains the inferior outcome of implantations at the second-implanted ear compared with first-implanted ear in children. However, despite a central disadvantage for the deaf ear, it still

  9. Fracture toughness of anisotropic graphites

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.R.; Kehne, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    Fracture toughness measurements have been made at 0, 30, 45, 60, and 90/sup 0/ from the extrusion axis on a reasonably anisotropic graphite, grade AGOT. It was found that the fracture toughness did not vary appreciably with orientation. An observed variation in strength was found to be the result of defect orientation.

  10. Electrothermal fracturing of tensile specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blinn, H. O.; Hanks, J. G.; Perkins, H. P.

    1970-01-01

    Pulling device consisting of structural tube, connecting rod, spring-loaded nuts, loading rod, heating element, and three bulkheads fractures tensile specimens. Alternate heating and cooling increases tensile loading by increments until fracturing occurs. Load cell or strain gage, applied to pulling rod, determines forces applied.

  11. Fracture mechanisms and fracture control in composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wone-Chul

    Four basic failure modes--delamination, delamination buckling of composite sandwich panels, first-ply failure in cross-ply laminates, and compression failure--are analyzed using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) and the J-integral method. Structural failures, including those at the micromechanical level, are investigated with the aid of the models developed, and the critical strains for crack propagation for each mode are obtained. In the structural fracture analyses area, the fracture control schemes for delamination in a composite rib stiffener and delamination buckling in composite sandwich panels subjected to in-plane compression are determined. The critical fracture strains were predicted with the aid of LEFM for delamination and the J-integral method for delamination buckling. The use of toughened matrix systems has been recommended for improved damage tolerant design for delamination crack propagation. An experimental study was conducted to determine the onset of delamination buckling in composite sandwich panel containing flaws. The critical fracture loads computed using the proposed theoretical model and a numerical computational scheme closely followed the experimental measurements made on sandwich panel specimens of graphite/epoxy faceskins and aluminum honeycomb core with varying faceskin thicknesses and core sizes. Micromechanical models of fracture in composites are explored to predict transverse cracking of cross-ply laminates and compression fracture of unidirectional composites. A modified shear lag model which takes into account the important role of interlaminar shear zones between the 0 degree and 90 degree piles in cross-ply laminate is proposed and criteria for transverse cracking have been developed. For compressive failure of unidirectional composites, pre-existing defects play an important role. Using anisotropic elasticity, the stress state around a defect under a remotely applied compressive load is obtained. The experimentally

  12. Method of evaluating subsurface fracturing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Soliman, M.Y.

    1989-06-06

    This patent describes a method of determining parameters of a subsurface operation fracturing an earth formation, comprising: fracturing the formation with a fracturing fluid; determining a first pressure decline value representative of the observed pressure decline of the fractured formation over a time interval. The first pressure decline value functionally related to the properties of the fracturing fluid during the fracturing of the formation; determining a second pressure decline value representative of the pressure decline which should have been observed if the fracturing fluid was incompressible; and determining the parameters of the fracturing operation in response to the pressure decline value.

  13. Hydraulic fracturing of a shallow subsurface formation

    SciTech Connect

    Uhri, D.C.

    1987-12-22

    A method for propagating a vertical hydraulic fracture in an earth formation surrounding a borehole where the original in-situ stresses favor a horizontal fracture is described comprising the steps of: (a) firstly supplying fracturing fluid to the formation at a first depth within the borehole to propagate a horizontal fracture favored by the original in-situ stresses of the formation, and (b) secondly supplying fracturing fluid to the formation at a second depth within the borehole, while maintaining pressure in the horizontal fracture, to propagate a vertical fracture as favored by the in-situ stresses as altered by the propagating of the horizontal fracture.

  14. Management of atrophic mandible fractures.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Matthew J; Haug, Richard H; Christensen, Bryan S; Aldridge, Eron

    2009-05-01

    Traumatic facial fractures that were once rarely encountered now present with increasing frequency in the elderly population. Included in this group of fractures are those of the atrophic edentulous mandible. As patients age and become edentulous, atrophy of the mandibular alveolar ridges and adjacent basal bone reduces bony surface area, bone density, and blood supply, making the mandible more brittle and increasing the likelihood of mandibular fracture during a traumatic event. Surgical treatment of these fractures has become more predictable and less morbid. However, because these fractures present so infrequently, many surgeons lack the relevant experience in handling them, and thus find the reduction and fixation of such injuries difficult. A number of techniques have been employed to treat this injury. This article reviews the more common modalities and presents updates on accepted surgical treatments. PMID:19348982

  15. Atypical fractures, a biased perspective.

    PubMed

    Aspenberg, Per

    2016-01-01

    When stress fractures started to show up in the femurs of elderly ladies, it was soon evident that bisphosphonate use lay behind, and the absolute risk increase due to bisphosphonate use was reasonably well estimated already in 2008. Thereafter followed a period of confusion: the term atypical fracture was introduced, with a definition so vague that the true stress fractures tended to disappear in a cloud of ambiguity. This cast doubt on the association with bisphosphonates. The association was then re-established by large epidemiological studies based on radiographic adjudication. Atypical fractures are largely caused by bisphosphonates. With a correct indication, bisphosphonates prevent many more fractures than they cause, at least during the first years of use. With an incorrect indication they are likely to cause more harm than good. PMID:26768286

  16. Fracture technology for brittle materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.

    1988-01-01

    Ceramics materials have the potential for use in high-temperature, fuel-efficient engines. However, because these materials are brittle, their fracture characteristics must be well documented prior to their application. Thus Lewis is working to understand the fracture and strength properties of brittle ceramic and ceramic matrix materials. An understanding of fracture properties aids both designers who are attempting to design high-temperature structures and materials scientists who seek to design more temperature-resistant materials. Both analytical and experimental approaches to fracture analysis are being taken. Methods for testing fracture toughness, crack growth resistance, and strength are being developed. The failure mechanisms at both room and elevated temperatures are also being investigated. Such investigations aid materials scientists in developing better high-temperature materials. Of concern is the anisotropy of ceramic materials and the experimental verification of ceramic design codes that will allow brittle material behavior to be accurately predicted at high temperature.

  17. Distal clavicle fractures in children☆

    PubMed Central

    Labronici, Pedro José; da Silva, Ricardo Rodrigues; Franco, Marcos Vinícius Viana; Labronici, Gustavo José; Pires, Robinson Esteves Santos; Franco, José Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze fractures of the distal clavicle region in pediatric patients. Methods Ten patients between the ages of five to eleven years (mean of 7.3 years) were observed. Nine patients were treated conservatively and one surgically. All the fractures were classified using the Nenopoulos classification system. Results All the fractures consolidated without complications. Conservative treatment was used for nine patients, of whom three were in group IIIB, three IIb, two IIa and one IV. The only patient who was treated surgically was a female patient of eleven years of age with a group IV fracture. Conclusion The treatment indication for distal fractures of the clavicle in children should be based on the patient's age and the displacement of the fragments. PMID:26962489

  18. Test-Free Fracture Toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Computational simulation results can give the prediction of damage growth and progression and fracture toughness of composite structures. The experimental data from literature provide environmental effects on the fracture behavior of metallic or fiber composite structures. However, the traditional experimental methods to analyze the influence of the imposed conditions are expensive and time consuming. This research used the CODSTRAN code to model the temperature effects, scaling effects and the loading effects of fiberbraided composite specimens with and without fiber-optic sensors on the damage initiation and energy release rates. The load-displacement relationship and fracture toughness assessment approach is compared with the test results from literature and it is verified that the computational simulation, with the use of established material modeling and finite element modules, adequately tracks the changes of fracture toughness and subsequent fracture propagation for any fiberbraided composite structure due to the change of fiber orientations, presence of large diameter optical fibers, and any loading conditions.

  19. Relative Permeability of Fractured Rock

    SciTech Connect

    Mark D. Habana

    2002-06-30

    Contemporary understanding of multiphase flow through fractures is limited. Different studies using synthetic fractures and various fluids have yielded different relative permeability-saturation relations. This study aimed to extend the understanding of multiphase flow by conducting nitrogen-water relative permeability experiments on a naturally-fractured rock from The Geysers geothermal field. The steady-state approach was used. However, steady state was achieved only at the endpoint saturations. Several difficulties were encountered that are attributed to phase interference and changes in fracture aperture and surface roughness, along with fracture propagation/initiation. Absolute permeabilities were determined using nitrogen and water. The permeability values obtained change with the number of load cycles. Determining the absolute permeability of a core is especially important in a fractured rock. The rock may change as asperities are destroyed and fractures propagate or st rain harden as the net stresses vary. Pressure spikes occurred in water a solute permeability experiments. Conceptual models of an elastic fracture network can explain the pressure spike behavior. At the endpoint saturations the water relative permeabilities obtained are much less than the nitrogen gas relative permeabilities. Saturations were determined by weighing and by resistivity calculations. The resistivity-saturation relationship developed for the core gave saturation values that differ by 5% from the value determined by weighing. Further work is required to complete the relative permeability curve. The steady-state experimental approach encountered difficulties due to phase interference and fracture change. Steady state may not be reached until an impractical length of time. Thus, unsteady-state methods should be pursued. In unsteady-state experiments the challenge will be in quantifying rock fracture change in addition to fluid flow changes.

  20. Fracture behavior of human molars.

    PubMed

    Keown, Amanda J; Lee, James J-W; Bush, Mark B

    2012-12-01

    Despite the durability of human teeth, which are able to withstand repeated loading while maintaining form and function, they are still susceptible to fracture. We focus here on longitudinal fracture in molar teeth-channel-like cracks that run along the enamel sidewall of the tooth between the gum line (cemento-enamel junction-CEJ) and the occlusal surface. Such fractures can often be painful and necessitate costly restorative work. The following study describes fracture experiments made on molar teeth of humans in which the molars are placed under axial compressive load using a hard indenting plate in order to induce longitudinal cracks in the enamel. Observed damage modes include fractures originating in the occlusal region ('radial-median cracks') and fractures emanating from the margin of the enamel in the region of the CEJ ('margin cracks'), as well as 'spalling' of enamel (the linking of longitudinal cracks). The loading conditions that govern fracture behavior in enamel are reported and observations made of the evolution of fracture as the load is increased. Relatively low loads were required to induce observable crack initiation-approximately 100 N for radial-median cracks and 200 N for margin cracks-both of which are less than the reported maximum biting force on a single molar tooth of several hundred Newtons. Unstable crack growth was observed to take place soon after and occurred at loads lower than those calculated by the current fracture models. Multiple cracks were observed on a single cusp, their interactions influencing crack growth behavior. The majority of the teeth tested in this study were noted to exhibit margin cracks prior to compression testing, which were apparently formed during the functional lifetime of the tooth. Such teeth were still able to withstand additional loading prior to catastrophic fracture, highlighting the remarkable damage containment capabilities of the natural tooth structure. PMID:22956116

  1. The retromandibular transparotid approach for reduction and rigid internal fixation using two locking miniplates in mandibular condylar neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Kanno, T; Sukegawa, S; Tatsumi, H; Nariai, Y; Ishibashi, H; Furuki, Y; Sekine, J

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the safety, efficacy, and morbidity associated with the treatment of displaced mandibular condylar neck fractures using a retromandibular transparotid approach to reduce and rigidly fix using two 2.0-mm locking miniplates. Our surgical inclusion criteria were: patient selection of open reduction and fixation, displaced unilateral condylar fractures with derangement of occlusion, and bilateral condylar fractures with an anterior open bite. The study group consisted of 19 patients who underwent surgery for 19 mandibular condylar neck fractures; patients were analyzed prospectively, with more than 6 months of follow-up, and were evaluated in terms of functional results, scar formation, postoperative complications, and stability of fixation. The results showed that functional occlusion identical to the preoperative condition and correct anatomical reduction of the condylar segments in centric occlusion, followed by immediate functional recovery, was achieved in all patients. No patient suffered from any major or permanent complication postoperatively, although there were two cases (11%) of temporary facial nerve palsy, which resolved completely within 3 months. Surgical scars were barely visible. The retromandibular transparotid approach with open reduction and rigid internal fixation for displaced condylar neck fractures of the mandible is a feasible and safe, minimally invasive surgical technique that provides reliable clinical results. PMID:24070772

  2. Verbal dichotic listening and manual performance in children with congenital unilateral brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Bulgheron, Sara; Nichelli, Francesca; Erbetta, Alessandra; Bagnasco, Irene; Riva, Daria

    2004-10-01

    The authors assessed manual performance and verbal dichotic listening performance in 16 epilepsy-free children with congenital unilateral brain lesions and normal IQ to investigate cerebral reorganization. In all children, the paretic hand had fair grip function, but reaction times were impaired, and cerebral reorganization of hand function in those with right hemiplegia was shown by the high incidence of pathological left-handedness. The dichotic listening results showed that most children with left lesions had a left ear advantage significantly related to the extent of brain damage. This finding suggests that extent of cortical damage and presence of thalamic involvement, irrespective of neuropathology, are the primary factors inducing rightward cerebral language reorganization in children with unilateral congenital brain lesions. PMID:15506843

  3. Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis in a healthy Korean male: the first case report in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Min; Lee, Christopher Seungkyu

    2015-03-01

    A 52-yr-old male was referred for progressive visual loss in the left eye. The decimal best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.01. Fundus examination revealed diffuse retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, focal yellow-white, infiltrative subretinal lesion with fuzzy border and a live nematode within the retina. Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN) was diagnosed and the direct laser photocoagulation was performed to destroy the live nematode. During eight months after treatment, BCVA gradually improved to 0.2 along with the gradual restoration of outer retinal layers on SD-OCT. We report on the first case of DUSN in Korea. DUSN should be included in the differential diagnosis of unexplained unilateral visual loss in otherwise healthy subjects. PMID:25729261

  4. Detection of virgin olive oil adulteration using low field unilateral NMR.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zheng; Morris, Robert H; Bencsik, Martin; Newton, Michael I

    2014-01-01

    The detection of adulteration in edible oils is a concern in the food industry, especially for the higher priced virgin olive oils. This article presents a low field unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for the detection of the adulteration of virgin olive oil that can be performed through sealed bottles providing a non-destructive screening technique. Adulterations of an extra virgin olive oil with different percentages of sunflower oil and red palm oil were measured with a commercial unilateral instrument, the profile NMR-Mouse. The NMR signal was processed using a 2-dimensional Inverse Laplace transformation to analyze the transverse relaxation and self-diffusion behaviors of different oils. The obtained results demonstrated the feasibility of detecting adulterations of olive oil with percentages of at least 10% of sunflower and red palm oils. PMID:24469355

  5. Direct and indirect effects of unilateral divorce law on marital stability.

    PubMed

    Kneip, Thorsten; Bauer, Gerrit; Reinhold, Steffen

    2014-12-01

    Previous research examining the impact of unilateral divorce law (UDL) on the prevalence of divorce has provided mixed results. Studies based on cross-sectional cross-country/cross-state survey data have received criticism for disregarding unobserved heterogeneity across countries, as have studies using country-level panel data for failing to account for possible mediating mechanisms at the micro level. We seek to overcome both shortcomings by using individual-level event-history data from 11 European countries (SHARELIFE) and controlling for unobserved heterogeneity over countries and cohorts. We find that UDL in total increased the incidence of marital breakdown by about 20 %. This finding, however, neglects potential selection effects into marriage. Accordingly, the estimated effect of unilateral divorce laws becomes much larger when we control for age at marriage, which is used as indicator for match quality. Moreover, we find that UDL particularly affects marital stability in the presence of children. PMID:25354572

  6. Decreased efficacy of combined benzodiazepines and unilateral ECT in treatment of depression.

    PubMed

    Jha, A; Stein, G

    1996-08-01

    In a retrospective study, 124 patients with depression who were concomitantly receiving ECT and benzodiazepines were compared with patients (matched for age, sex, diagnosis, and laterality of ECT) receiving ECT without benzodiazepines in order to investigate the efficacy of ECT in terms of therapeutic response and length of stay in hospital. Most of the subjects (84% of cases and 89% of controls) improved on ECT, but the benzodiazepine group of patients receiving unilateral ECT showed a significantly poorer response and a longer stay in hospital. No such difference was detected with the bilateral ECT. It is therefore concluded that prescription of benzodiazepines with ECT does compromise the therapeutic effect of unilateral ECT for depression. PMID:8883570

  7. Case Report: Bilateral reexpansion pulmonary edema following treatment of a unilateral hemothorax

    PubMed Central

    de Wolf, Steven P; Deunk, Jaap; Cornet, Alexander D; Elbers, Paul WG

    2014-01-01

    Bilateral re-expansion pulmonary edema (RPE) is an extremely rare entity. We report the unique case of bilateral RPE following a traumatic, unilateral hemopneumothorax in a young healthy male. Bilateral RPE occurred only one hour after drainage of a unilateral hemopneumothorax. The patient was treated with diuretics and supplemental oxygen. Diagnosis was confirmed by excluding other causes, using laboratory findings, chest radiography, pulmonary and cardiac ultrasound and high resolution computed tomography. His recovery was uneventful. The pathophysiology of bilateral RPE is not well known. Treatment is mainly supportive and consists of diuretics, mechanical ventilation, inotropes and steroids. In case of a pulmonary deterioration after the drainage of a traumatic pneumothorax, bilateral RPE should be considered after exclusion of more common causes of dyspnea. PMID:25713699

  8. Case Report: Bilateral reexpansion pulmonary edema following treatment of a unilateral hemothorax.

    PubMed

    de Wolf, Steven P; Deunk, Jaap; Cornet, Alexander D; Elbers, Paul Wg

    2014-01-01

    Bilateral re-expansion pulmonary edema (RPE) is an extremely rare entity. We report the unique case of bilateral RPE following a traumatic, unilateral hemopneumothorax in a young healthy male. Bilateral RPE occurred only one hour after drainage of a unilateral hemopneumothorax. The patient was treated with diuretics and supplemental oxygen. Diagnosis was confirmed by excluding other causes, using laboratory findings, chest radiography, pulmonary and cardiac ultrasound and high resolution computed tomography. His recovery was uneventful. The pathophysiology of bilateral RPE is not well known. Treatment is mainly supportive and consists of diuretics, mechanical ventilation, inotropes and steroids. In case of a pulmonary deterioration after the drainage of a traumatic pneumothorax, bilateral RPE should be considered after exclusion of more common causes of dyspnea. PMID:25713699

  9. Neural interactions in unilateral colliculus and between bilateral colliculi modulate auditory signal processing

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Hui-Xian; Cheng, Liang; Chen, Qi-Cai

    2013-01-01

    In the auditory pathway, the inferior colliculus (IC) is a major center for temporal and spectral integration of auditory information. There are widespread neural interactions in unilateral (one) IC and between bilateral (two) ICs that could modulate auditory signal processing such as the amplitude and frequency selectivity of IC neurons. These neural interactions are either inhibitory or excitatory, and are mostly mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, respectively. However, the majority of interactions are inhibitory while excitatory interactions are in the minority. Such unbalanced properties between excitatory and inhibitory projections have an important role in the formation of unilateral auditory dominance and sound location, and the neural interaction in one IC and between two ICs provide an adjustable and plastic modulation pattern for auditory signal processing. PMID:23626523

  10. Changes in the treatment of acetabular fractures over 15 years: Analysis of 1266 cases treated by the German Pelvic Multicentre Study Group (DAO/DGU).

    PubMed

    Ochs, Björn Gunnar; Marintschev, Ivan; Hoyer, Heike; Rolauffs, Bernd; Culemann, Ulf; Pohlemann, Tim; Stuby, Fabian Maria

    2010-08-01

    Epidemiological, clinical and radiological data of 1266 patients with a unilateral acetabular fracture of up to 29 hospitals was reviewed. Three time periods, 1991-1993 (Registry I; n=359), 1998-2000 (Registry II; n=503), and 2005-2006 (Registry III; n=404) were compared with regard to injury pattern and severity, fracture type, and chosen nonoperative vs. operative treatment to elucidate changes over time in the treatment of acetabular fractures. In the operatively treated group, time to operation, surgical approach, fracture fixation implants and fracture reduction quality were examined. 641 (50.6%) patients with isolated acetabular fractures, 410 (32.4%) multiple injured and 215 (17.0%) polytrauma patients with 642 (50.7%) simple and 624 (49.3%) associated acetabular fractures were evaluated. In the time period from 1991 to 2006, the rate of operative treatments increased nationwide to 77% (rho<0.001). The distribution of fracture types involving the anterior and posterior wall changed with age (rho<0.001). Across all registries, 583 (68.0%) operations were performed within 7 days, 212 (24.7%) operations between 7 and 14 days and 54 (6.3%) operations were performed later than 14 days after injury. An anatomical reduction (0-1mm displacement) was achieved in 551 (64%) acetabular fractures. The obtained reduction quality did not correlate with time to operation, was lower in associated than in simple fracture types, and also lower in patients with isolated acetabular fractures than in polytrauma patients. Most importantly, the fracture reduction quality did not improve over time despite a higher frequency of surgical interventions. The Kocher-Langenbeck approach was preferred in the nineties in nearly three quarters of all operative procedures. Currently, the Kocher-Langenbeck and the ilioinguinal approaches are used equally often. The fracture fixation did not change over time and is achieved in 51% with plates in combination with single screws. This multisurgeon

  11. Vertical gaze palsy and selective unilateral infarction of the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (riMLF).

    PubMed Central

    Bogousslavsky, J; Miklossy, J; Regli, F; Janzer, R

    1990-01-01

    We report a clinico-pathological correlation study in a patient with basilar artery thrombosis, who developed tetraplegia and combined up- and downgaze palsy involving voluntary saccades and visually-guided movements, but sparing the oculocephalic responses. At necropsy, apart from bilateral infarction in the basis pontis, there was a single unilateral infarct selectively destroying the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (riMLF) on the right. The posterior commissure and its nucleus, the nucleus of Cajal, the nucleus of Darkschewitsch and the pontine tegmentum were spared. We suggest that the unilateral riMLF lesion may have disrupted bilateral upgaze excitatory and inhibitory inputs and unilateral downgaze excitatory inputs. The functional anatomy of inhibitory and excitatory vertical gaze circuitry, which remains speculative, may explain why a unilateral lesion of the upper midbrain tegmentum may be sufficient to generate an upgaze palsy or a combined up- and downgaze palsy, while an isolated downgaze palsy requires bilateral lesions. Images PMID:2303833

  12. Unilateral Optic Neuritis: A Rare Complication after Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination in a 30-Year-Old Woman.

    PubMed

    De Giacinto, Chiara; Guaglione, Elvira; Leon, Pia E; D'Aloisio, Rossella; Vattovani, Odilla; Ravalico, Giuseppe; Tognetto, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of unilateral optic neuritis following Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccination. Methods. A 30-year-old female developed unilateral optic neuritis five days after a Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) booster vaccination. The patient displayed unilateral involvement, with severe visual loss. However, visual acuity improved significantly after four days of intravenous steroid therapy with 500 mg/day of methylprednisolone. Conclusions. Optic neuritis is one of the rare complications associated with the mumps, measles, and rubella vaccine. It may be a toxic reaction to the nonviral component of the vaccine, but the exact etiology is unknown. Postvaccination neuritis is generally bilateral and usually affects children. In adults, unilateral optic neuritis is usually correlated with multiple sclerosis (MS). PMID:27195163

  13. Unilateral Optic Neuritis: A Rare Complication after Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination in a 30-Year-Old Woman

    PubMed Central

    De Giacinto, Chiara; Guaglione, Elvira; Leon, Pia E.; D'Aloisio, Rossella; Vattovani, Odilla; Ravalico, Giuseppe; Tognetto, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of unilateral optic neuritis following Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccination. Methods. A 30-year-old female developed unilateral optic neuritis five days after a Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) booster vaccination. The patient displayed unilateral involvement, with severe visual loss. However, visual acuity improved significantly after four days of intravenous steroid therapy with 500 mg/day of methylprednisolone. Conclusions. Optic neuritis is one of the rare complications associated with the mumps, measles, and rubella vaccine. It may be a toxic reaction to the nonviral component of the vaccine, but the exact etiology is unknown. Postvaccination neuritis is generally bilateral and usually affects children. In adults, unilateral optic neuritis is usually correlated with multiple sclerosis (MS). PMID:27195163

  14. CT scan-evaluated outcome of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the treatment of acute scaphoid fractures: a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hannemann, P F W; van Wezenbeek, M R; Kolkman, K A; Twiss, E L L; Berghmans, C H J; Dirven, P A M G M; Brink, P R G; Poeze, M

    2014-08-01

    We hypothesised that the use of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) bone growth stimulation in acute scaphoid fractures would significantly shorten the time to union and reduce the number of nonunions in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre trial. A total of 102 patients (78 male, 24 female; mean age 35 years (18 to 77)) from five different medical centres with a unilateral undisplaced acute scaphoid fracture were randomly allocated to PEMF (n = 51) or placebo (n = 51) and assessed with regard to functional and radiological outcomes (multiplanar reconstructed CT scans) at 6, 9, 12, 24 and 52 weeks. The overall time to clinical and radiological healing did not differ significantly between the active PEMF group and the placebo group. We concluded that the addition of PEMF bone growth stimulation to the conservative treatment of acute scaphoid fractures does not accelerate bone healing. PMID:25086123

  15. Waardenburg syndrome with familial unilateral renal agenesis: a new syndrome variant?

    PubMed

    Webb, Katie M; Smith, Alisha J; Dansby, Linda M; Diskin, Charles J

    2015-06-01

    A 64-year-old man with Waardenburg syndrome presented with anuria and was subsequently discovered by renal ultrasound to have unilateral renal agenesis. The patient is one of three generations with incidental finding of renal agenesis also marked by the presence of Waardenburg syndrome. To our knowledge, there has been no mention elsewhere in the scientific literature of a variant of Waardenburg syndrome with associated renal agenesis. PMID:25402868

  16. Anaesthetic management of a unilateral adrenalectomy of an adrenocortical tumour in a dog.

    PubMed

    Wise, I K; Boveri, S

    2016-01-01

    Adrenalectomies in dogs are being more commonly performed, however anaesthetic management of such cases can be challenging due to the multiple aetiologies of adrenal tumours and the physiological role of adrenal glands. This case report describes the anaesthetic management of a dog with clinical signs of hyperadrenocorticism that underwent unilateral adrenalectomy via laparotomy and discusses anaesthetic preparedness, protocol selection and management of complications for dogs undergoing adrenalectomy. PMID:27200272

  17. Anaesthetic management of a unilateral adrenalectomy of an adrenocortical tumour in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Wise, I.K.; Boveri, S.

    2016-01-01

    Adrenalectomies in dogs are being more commonly performed, however anaesthetic management of such cases can be challenging due to the multiple aetiologies of adrenal tumours and the physiological role of adrenal glands. This case report describes the anaesthetic management of a dog with clinical signs of hyperadrenocorticism that underwent unilateral adrenalectomy via laparotomy and discusses anaesthetic preparedness, protocol selection and management of complications for dogs undergoing adrenalectomy. PMID:27200272

  18. Robotic unilateral and bilateral upper-limb movement training for stroke survivors afflicted by chronic hemiparesis.

    PubMed

    Simkins, Matt; Kim, Hyuchul; Abrams, Gary; Byl, Nancy; Rosen, Jacob

    2013-06-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of long-term neurological disability and the principle reason for seeking rehabilitative services in the US. Learning based rehabilitation training enables independent mobility in the majority of patients post stroke, however, restoration of fine manipulation, motor function and task specific functions of the hemiplegic arm and hand is noted in fewer than 15% of the stroke patients. Brain plasticity is the innate mechanism enabling the recovery of motor skills through neurological reorganization of the brain as a response to limbs' manipulation. The objective of this research was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy for the upper limbs with a dual arm exoskeleton system (EXO-UL7) using three different modalities: bilateral mirror image with symmetric movements of both arms, unilateral movement of the affected arm and standard care. Five hemiparetic subjects were randomly assigned to each therapy modality. An upper limb exoskeleton was used to provide bilateral and unilateral treatments. Standard care was provided by a licensed physical therapist. Subjects were evaluated before and after the interventions using 13 different clinical measures. Following these treatments all of the subjects demonstrated significant improved of their fine motor control and gross control across all the treatment modalities. Subjects exhibited significant improvements in range of motion of the shoulder, and improved muscle strength for bilateral training and standard care, but not for unilateral training. In conclusion, a synergetic approach in which robotic treatments (unilateral and bilateral depending on the level of the motor control) are supplemented by the standard of care may maximize the outcome of the motor control recover following stroke. PMID:24187321

  19. Unilateral Maxillary First Molar Extraction in Class II Subdivision: An Unconventional Treatment Alternative

    PubMed Central

    Booij, J. W.; Livas, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetrical intra-arch relationship in Class II subdivision malocclusion poses challenges in the treatment planning and mechanotherapy of such cases. This case report demonstrates a treatment technique engaging unilateral extraction of a maxillary first molar and Begg fixed appliances. The outcome stability and the enhancing effect on the eruption of the third molar in the extraction segment were confirmed by a 4-year follow-up examination. PMID:27200194

  20. Adult onset unilateral systematized porokeratotic eccrine ostial and dermal duct nevus: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bandoyopadhyay, Debabrata; Saha, Abanti

    2014-06-01

    Porokeratotic eccrine ostial and dermal duct nevus (PEODDN) is an uncommon, benign dermatosis that is characterized by asymptomatic grouped keratotic papules and plaques with a linear pattern on the extremities with distinct porokeratotic histopathological features. The lesions usually appear at birth or in childhood, although rare cases of late-onset adult PEODDN have been described. Herein we report a case of adult onset PEODDN with unilateral and segmental involvement. PMID:24945650

  1. Silent sinus syndrome as a recognised cause of unilateral painless enophthalmos

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Weh Loong

    2014-01-01

    An uncommon case of unilateral painless enophthalmos in a 44-year-old woman is presented. Despite the noticeable orbital asymmetry caused by enophthalmos, the patient has normal visual acuities in both eyes with unremarkable ophthalmic examination. Diagnosis of silent sinus syndrome was confirmed on the CT orbits and paranasal sinuses, showing complete opacification and atelectasis of the maxillary sinus. The patient achieved satisfactory improvements in her nasal symptom and facial appearance following functional endoscopic sinus surgery. PMID:24859556

  2. Unilateral striae distensae affecting the right axilla in a 16-year-old boy: brief report.

    PubMed

    Alshaiji, Jasem M; Handler, Marc Z; Schwartzfarb, Elissa; Izakovic, Jan; Schachner, Lawrence A

    2014-01-01

    Striae distensae or stretch marks are a common skin condition that occurs frequently in association with adolescent growth spurts and pregnancy. They are characterized by linear symmetrical asymptomatic smooth bands of atrophic-appearing skin on the thighs, buttocks, and breasts in girls and on the shoulders, outer thighs, and lumbosacral areas in boys. We present a rare case of unilateral striae distensae affecting the right axilla in a 16-year-old boy. PMID:23072309

  3. Upper Limb Function and Cortical Organization in Youth with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Anna; Stinear, Cathy; Stott, Susan; Byblow, Winston D.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To explore the relationship between motor cortical and descending motor pathway reorganization, lesion type, and upper limb function in youth with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Twenty participants with unilateral CP (mean age 15 ± 3 years; 11 males) completed a range of upper limb functional measures. Structural MRI, diffusion-weighted, and functional MRI were conducted to determine type and extent of brain lesion, descending white matter integrity, and whole-brain activity during affected hand use. Single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) (n = 12) was used to examine functional integrity of the corticospinal pathway as well as primary motor cortex intracortical and interhemispheric inhibition from motor-evoked potentials and silent periods. Results: Fractional anisotropy measures within the posterior limb of the internal capsule were a predictor of upper limb function (R2 = 0.41, F = 11.3, p = 0.004). Participants with periventricular lesions tended to have better upper limb function [F(2, 17) = 42.48, p < 0.0001]. Five participants with evidence of cortical reorganization and functional ipsilateral projections to their affected hand had worse upper limb function. Deficits in intracortical and interhemispheric inhibitory mechanisms were found in participants with worse upper limb function (Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function: Mann Whitney p = 0.02). Conclusion: Neuroimaging and TMS can provide useful information related to hand function of individuals with unilateral CP and may have potential to assist as a predictive tool and/or guide rehabilitation. PMID:25071705

  4. Unilateral Maxillary First Molar Extraction in Class II Subdivision: An Unconventional Treatment Alternative.

    PubMed

    Booij, J W; Livas, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetrical intra-arch relationship in Class II subdivision malocclusion poses challenges in the treatment planning and mechanotherapy of such cases. This case report demonstrates a treatment technique engaging unilateral extraction of a maxillary first molar and Begg fixed appliances. The outcome stability and the enhancing effect on the eruption of the third molar in the extraction segment were confirmed by a 4-year follow-up examination. PMID:27200194

  5. Asymmetric loading and bone mineral density at the asymptomatic knees of subjects with unilateral hip osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Shakoor, Najia; Dua, Anisha; Thorp, Laura; Mikolaitis, Rachel A.; Wimmer, Markus A.; Foucher, Kharma C.; Fogg, Louis F.; Block, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The contralateral knee of those with unilateral endstage hip OA is known to be at greater risk for endstage knee OA compared to the ipsilateral, same side knee. Likewise, in endstage hip OA, this contralateral knee is known to have increased dynamic joint loads compared to the ipsilateral knee. Here, we study a population with unilateral hip OA, who are asymptomatic at the knees, for early asymmetries in knee loading. Methods Data from 62 subjects with unilateral hip OA were evaluated. Subjects underwent gait analyses for evaluation of dynamic knee loads as well as dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) at both knees. Differences between knees were compared. Results Peak dynamic knee loads were significantly higher at the contralateral knee compared to the ipsilateral knee (2.46±0.71 vs 2.23±0.81 %BW*ht, p=0.029). Similarly, medial compartment tibial BMD was significantly higher at the contralateral knee compared to the ipsilateral knee (0.897±0.208 vs 0.854±0.206 gm/c2, p=0.033). Interestingly, there was a direct correlation between contralteral:ipsilateral dynamic knee load and contralateral:ipsilateral medial compartment tibial BMD (Spearman’s rho= 0.287, p=0.036). Conclusions This study demonstrates that at the contralateral knees of patients with unilateral hip OA, which are at higher risk of developing progressive symptomatic OA compared to the ipsilateral knees, loading and structural asymmetries appear early in the disease course, while the knees are still asymptomatic. These early biomechanical asymmetries may have corresponding long term consequences, providing further support for the potential role of loading in OA onset and progression. PMID:22127702

  6. Satisfaction following Unilateral Breast Reconstruction: A Comparison of Pedicled TRAM and Free Abdominal Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Schwitzer, Jonathan A.; Miller, H. Catherine; Pusic, Andrea L.; Matros, Evan; Mehrara, Babak J.; McCarthy, Colleen M.; Lennox, Peter A.; Van Laeken, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare patient satisfaction following unilateral pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) and free abdominal flap reconstruction. Methods: Patients who underwent unilateral breast reconstruction using pedicled TRAM or free abdominal flaps (muscle-sparing TRAM or deep inferior epigastric perforator flap) and completed the BREAST-Q were identified from 2 prospectively maintained databases. BREAST-Q scores were assessed and compared for Satisfaction with Breasts, Outcome, and Physical Well-being Chest/Abdomen. Results: Of the 138 patients who completed the BREAST-Q, 84 underwent pedicled TRAM flap reconstruction and 54 underwent free abdominal flap reconstruction. Overall, pedicled TRAM flap patients scored higher than free abdominal flap patients on all 4 BREAST-Q scales. This difference reached statistical significance in Satisfaction with Breasts (+7.74; P = 0.02). Similar results were found among patients who completed the BREAST-Q at <3 years postoperation. However, among patients at ≥3 years postoperation, there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups, with the pedicled flap cohort scoring higher in Satisfaction with Breasts and Physical Well-being Chest and the free abdominal flap cohort scoring higher in Satisfaction with Outcome and Physical Well-being Abdomen scores. Conclusions: Patients who underwent unilateral pedicled TRAM flap reconstruction experienced greater initial breast satisfaction than patients who underwent unilateral free abdominal flap reconstruction, but satisfaction equalized between the two over time, suggesting that long-term satisfaction may be equivalent between the 2 methods of reconstruction. PMID:26495195

  7. Unilateral upper extremity lymphedema deteriorates the postural stability in breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Karadibak, Didem; Yavuzşen, Tuğba; Demirbüken, İlkşan

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study There is little known about any change in postural balance caused by asymmetrical volume increase due to unilateral upper extremity lymphedema in patients who underwent breast surgery. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a change in postural balance by measuring postural sway velocity (PSV), center of gravity (CoG) displacement and directional control (DCL) in patients with unilateral upper extremity lymphedema in breast cancer survivors. Material and methods Eighteen females 38–60 (M = 53) years old diagnosed with upper extremity lymphedema due to breast cancer surgery, and 18 healthy females with similar ages (M = 52.5) were assessed using the Balance Master system (Neuro Com, Clackamas, USA). Unilateral stance (US) and bilateral stance (BS) tests in eyes open and closed conditions and the limit of stability (LOS) test were applied to quantify postural sway velocity (PSV), CoG displacement, and directional control (DCL). Results The lymphedema group showed a significant increase in PSV in the US test on the ipsilateral leg with eyes open (p = 0.02) and eyes closed (p = 0.005) as well as on the contralateral leg with eyes open (p = 0.004) and eyes closed (p = 0.0001). Average displacement and position of the CoG were 25% of LOS (p = 0.0001) towards the lymphedema side and 60.6 degrees respectively. DCL in the lymphedema group was significantly lower in forward (p = 0.0001), back (p = 0.003), ipsilateral (p = 0.002), and contralateral (p = 0.03) directions. Conclusions These findings suggest that unilateral upper extremity lymphedema may have challenging effects on postural balance. PMID:25258587

  8. Prospective Study of Elective Bilateral Versus Unilateral Femoral Arterial Puncture for Uterine Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Bratby, M. J.; Ramachandran, N.; Sheppard, N.; Kyriou, J.; Munneke, G. M.; Belli, A.-M.

    2007-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of elective bilateral femoral arterial punctures for uterine artery embolization (UAE) of symptomatic fibroids on fluoroscopy and procedural time, patient dose, and ease of procedure. We conducted a prospective study of UAE with either the intention to catheterize both uterine arteries using a single femoral puncture (n = 12) or elective bilateral arterial punctures from the outset (n = 12). The same two operators undertook each case. Main outcome measures were total procedure time, fluoroscopy time, dose-area product (DAP), and total skin dose. A simulation was then performed on an anthropomorphic phantom using the mean in vivo fluoroscopy parameters to estimate the ovarian dose. Bilateral UAE was achieved in all patients. None of the patients with initial unilateral arterial puncture required further contralateral arterial puncture. The mean fluoroscopy time in the group with elective bilateral punctures was 12.8 min, compared with a mean of 16.6 min in patients with unilateral puncture (p = 0.046). There was no significant difference in overall procedure time (p = 0.68). No puncture-site complications were found. Additional catheters were required only following unilateral puncture. The simulated dose was 25% higher with unilateral puncture. Although there was no significant difference in measured in vivo patient dose between the two groups (DAP, p = 0.32), this is likely to reflect the wide variation in other patient characteristics. Allowing for the small study size, our results show that the use of elective bilateral arterial punctures reduces fluoroscopy time, requires less catheter manipulation, and, according to the simulation model, has the potential to reduce patient dose. The overall procedure time, however, is not significantly reduced.

  9. Unilateral or bilateral vagotomy induces ovulation in both ovaries of rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Injecting estradiol valerate (EV) to pre-pubertal or adult female rat results in effects similar to those observed in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). One of the mechanisms involved in PCOS development is the hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system. In EV-induced PCOS rats, the unilateral sectioning of the superior ovarian nerve (SON) restores ovulation of the innervated ovary. This suggests that, in addition to the sympathetic innervation, other neural mechanisms are involved in the development/maintenance of PCOS. The aims of present study were analyze if the vagus nerve is one of the neural pathways participating in PCOS development. Methods Ten-day old rats were injected with EV dissolved in corn oil. At 24-days of age sham-surgery, unilateral, or bilateral sectioning of the vagus nerve (vagotomy) was performed on these rats. The animals were sacrificed at 90–92 days of age, when they presented vaginal estrous preceded by a pro-estrus smear. Results In EV-induced PCOS rats, unilateral or bilateral vagotomy restored ovulation in both ovaries. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in PCOS rats with unilateral or bilateral vagotomy were lower than in control rats. Conclusions This result suggests that in EV-induced PCOS rats the vagus nerve is a neural pathway participating in maintaining PCOS. The vagus nerve innervates the ovaries directly and indirectly through its synapsis in the celiac-superior-mesenteric ganglion, where the somas of neurons originating in the SON are located. Then, it is possible that vagotomy effects in EV-induced PCOS rats may be explained as a lack of communication between the central nervous system and the ovaries. PMID:23866168

  10. Cystosarcoma phylloides presenting as massive unilateral breast hypertrophy in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Iverson, R E; Hegg, S I

    1980-04-01

    A 14-year-old girl presented with unilateral massive breast enlargement while the opposite breast had minimal development. A 565 gm tumor, benign cystosarcoma phylloides, was removed by wide local excision. The literature regarding the controversial tumor is reviewed. Methods of treatment for each category of cystosarcoma phylloides, based upon morphological criteria, are outlined and the prognosis discussed. The special problem of cystosarcoma phylloides in the adolescent is reviewed and treatment recommended. PMID:6252807

  11. Clinical and histopathological results of the adult patients with unilateral cryptorchidism

    PubMed Central

    Ateş, Ferhat; Soydan, Hasan; Okçelik, Sezgin; Çırakoğlu, Abdullah; Yılmaz, İsmail; Malkoç, Ercan; Karademir, Kenan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical and histopathological results of adult unilateral cryptorchidism patients. Material and methods Data from adult unilateral cryptorchidism patients that underwent orchiectomy in our clinic between between January 2004 and March 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were divided into three groups as intra-abdominal, inguinal canal and superficial inguinal region according to the location of the undescended testes. Patients were also grouped according to their testicular volume (<4 cc, 4.1–12 cc, and >12 cc). Histopathology results of orchiectomy specimens were classified as follows: 1. Sertoli cells only, testicular atrophy and vanished testis (anorchia) 2. Hypospermatogenesis, and 3. Maturation arrest. Patients were grouped as normospermia, azoospermia and oligo/astheno/teratospermia groups according to semen analysis results. Correlations between testicular localization, testicular size, semen analysis and pathology results were evaluated. Incidental tumor detection rates were also calculated. Results Two hundred and forty-four adult unilateral cryptorchidism patients underwent orchiectomy in our clinic. There was no a significant relationship between location of the testis and testicular pathology results (p=0.707). Most common semen analysis results was normospermia in patients with high testicular volume group however azoospermia and oligoasthenospermia observed commonly in patients with low testicular volume group. There was a significant relationship between testicular volume and semen analysis results (p=0.023). No significant relationship was observed between semen analysis and pathological results (p=0.929). After an evaluation of all factors with possible effects on the semen analysis results, only testicular volume (p=0.036) was found to have a significant impact. Only one case (0.4%) was incidentally diagnosed seminoma after a review of 233 patients with available histopathological results on record

  12. Temporal Resolution of the Normal Ear in Listeners with Unilateral Hearing Impairment.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Dey, Ratul; Davessar, Jai Lal

    2015-12-01

    Unilateral hearing loss (UHL) leads to an imbalanced input to the brain and results in cortical reorganization. In listeners with unilateral impairments, while the perceptual deficits associated with the impaired ear are well documented, less is known regarding the auditory processing in the unimpaired, clinically normal ear. It is commonly accepted that perceptual consequences are unlikely to occur in the normal ear for listeners with UHL. This study investigated whether the temporal resolution in the normal-hearing (NH) ear of listeners with long-standing UHL is similar to those in listeners with NH. Temporal resolution was assayed via measuring gap detection thresholds (GDTs) in within- and between-channel paradigms. GDTs were assessed in the normal ear of adults with long-standing, severe-to-profound UHL (N = 13) and age-matched, NH listeners (N = 22) at two presentation levels (30 and 55 dB sensation level). Analysis indicated that within-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL were not significantly different than those for the NH subject group, but the between-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL were poorer (by greater than a factor of 2) than those for the listeners with NH. The hearing thresholds in the normal or impaired ears were not associated with the elevated between-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL. Contrary to the common assumption that auditory processing capabilities are preserved for the normal ear in listeners with UHL, the current study demonstrated that a long-standing unilateral hearing impairment may adversely affect auditory perception--temporal resolution--in the clinically normal ear. From a translational perspective, these findings imply that the temporal processing deficits in the unimpaired ear of listeners with unilateral hearing impairments may contribute to their overall auditory perceptual difficulties. PMID:26197871

  13. Adaptability of the Immature Ocular Motor Control System: Unilateral IGF-1 Medial Rectus Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, Christy L.; Fleuriet, Jérome; Walton, Mark M.; Mustari, Michael J.; McLoon, Linda K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Unilateral treatment with sustained release IGF-1 to one medial rectus muscle in infant monkeys was performed to test the hypothesis that strabismus would develop as a result of changes in extraocular muscles during the critical period of development of binocularity. Methods. Sustained release IGF-1 pellets were implanted unilaterally on one medial rectus muscle in normal infant monkeys during the first 2 weeks of life. Eye position was monitored using standard photographic methods. After 3 months of treatment, myofiber and neuromuscular size, myosin composition, and innervation density were quantified in all rectus muscles and compared to those in age-matched controls. Results. Sustained unilateral IGF-1 treatments resulted in strabismus for all treated subjects; 3 of the 4 subjects had a clinically significant strabismus of more than 10°. Both the treated medial rectus and the untreated ipsilateral antagonist lateral rectus muscles had significantly larger myofibers. No adaptation in myofiber size occurred in the contralateral functionally yoked lateral rectus or in myosin composition, neuromuscular junction size, or nerve density. Conclusions. Sustained unilateral IGF-1 treatment to extraocular muscles during the sensitive period of development of orthotropic eye alignment and binocularity was sufficient to disturb ocular motor development, resulting in strabismus in infant monkeys. This could be due to altering fusion of gaze during the early sensitive period. Serial measurements of eye alignment suggested the IGF-1-treated infants received insufficient coordinated binocular experience, preventing the establishment of normal eye alignment. Our results uniquely suggest that abnormal signaling by the extraocular muscles may be a cause of strabismus. PMID:26030103

  14. Probabilistic fracture finite elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. K.; Belytschko, T.; Lua, Y. J.

    1991-01-01

    The Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics (PFM) is a promising method for estimating the fatigue life and inspection cycles for mechanical and structural components. The Probability Finite Element Method (PFEM), which is based on second moment analysis, has proved to be a promising, practical approach to handle problems with uncertainties. As the PFEM provides a powerful computational tool to determine first and second moment of random parameters, the second moment reliability method can be easily combined with PFEM to obtain measures of the reliability of the structural system. The method is also being applied to fatigue crack growth. Uncertainties in the material properties of advanced materials such as polycrystalline alloys, ceramics, and composites are commonly observed from experimental tests. This is mainly attributed to intrinsic microcracks, which are randomly distributed as a result of the applied load and the residual stress.

  15. Localization Training Results in Individuals with Unilateral Severe to Profound Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Firszt, Jill B.; Reeder, Ruth M.; Dwyer, Noël Y.; Burton, Harold; Holden, Laura K.

    2014-01-01

    Adults with unilateral hearing loss often demonstrate decreased sound localization ability and report that situations requiring spatial hearing are especially challenging. Few studies have evaluated localization abilities combined with training in this population. The present pilot study examined whether localization of two sound types would improve after training, and explored the relation between localization ability or training benefit and demographic factors. Eleven participants with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss attended five training sessions; localization cues gradually decreased across sessions. Localization ability was assessed pre- and post-training. Assessment stimuli were monosyllabic words and spectral and temporal random spectrogram sounds. Root mean square errors for each participant and stimulus type were used in group and correlation analyses; individual data were examined with ordinary least squares regression. Mean pre- to post-training test results were significantly different for all stimulus types. Among the participants, eight significantly improved following training on at least one localization measure, whereas three did not. Participants with the poorest localization ability improved the most and likewise, those with the best pre-training ability showed the least training benefit. Correlation results suggested that test age, age at onset of severe to profound hearing loss and better ear high frequency audibility may contribute to localization ability. Results support the need for continued investigation of localization training efficacy and consideration of localization training within rehabilitation protocols for individuals with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss. PMID:25457655

  16. Unilateral periventricular heterotopia and epilepsy in a girl with Ehlers–Danlos syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Savasta, Salvatore; Verrotti, Alberto; Spartà, Maria Valentina; Foiadelli, Thomas; Villa, Maria Pia; Parisi, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS), comprising a variety of inherited connective tissue disorders, has already been described in association with various neurological features, particularly with epilepsy and periventricular heterotopia (PH). Until now, there are reports of only bilateral periventricular heterotopia associated with Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. Methods and results Here we describe a 1-year, 4-month-old female who came under our care in the Pediatric Emergency Room because of prolonged afebrile generalized seizures, whose clinical picture allowed us to suspect a diagnosis of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. Neuroradiological investigations showed unilateral periventricular heterotopias, and genetic analyses confirmed the hypothesized diagnosis, identifying in particular a mutation in the COL5A1 gene. After starting anticonvulsant therapy, her seizures showed a good response with seizure control and she had a favorable long-term course. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of unilateral periventricular heterotopia associated with Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. We first hypothesized a mosaicism as the cause of both, a unilateral localization of the heterotopias and a favorable long-term course with good response to anticonvulsant therapy; however, intriguingly, we could not demonstrate a mosaicism as the genetic condition in our patient and the neuroradiological findings and the favorable clinical outcome still remain unexplained. PMID:26110114

  17. Unilateral proptosis in thyroid eye disease with subsequent contralateral involvement: retrospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this retrospective follow-up study is to evaluate the prevalence of patients with thyroid eye disease presenting with apparent unilateral proptosis and determine the occurrence of exophthalmos in contralateral non-proptotic eye over the time. Associated features with this event were evaluated. Methods A cohort of 655 consecutive patients affected by thyroid eye disease with a minimum follow-up of 10 years was reviewed. Exophthalmos was assessed by using both Hertel exophthalmometer and computed tomography (CT). The influence of age, gender, hormonal status and of different therapies such as corticosteroids, radiotherapy and surgical decompression on this disease progression was evaluated. Results A total of 89 patients (13.5%) (95% confidence interval [CI] 15%-10%) had clinical evidence of unilateral exophthalmos at the first visit. Among these, 13 patients (14%) (95% CI 22%-7%) developed subsequent contralateral exophthalmos. The increase of protrusion ranged from 2 to 7 mm (mean of 4.2). The time of onset varied from 6 months to 7 years (mean time: 29 months). Smoking status, young age and surgical decompression are significantly associated with development of contralateral proptosis (p< .05). Conclusions Asymmetric thyroid eye disease with the appearance of unilateral exophthalmos at the initial examination is a fairly frequent event, while subsequent contralateral proptosis occurs less commonly. However, physicians should be aware that young patients, particularly if smokers, undergoing orbital decompression in one eye may need further surgery on contralateral side over time. PMID:23721066

  18. Treatment Outcome of Combined Modalities for Buccal Cancers: Unilateral or Bilateral Neck Radiation?

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.-Y.; Lee, L.-Y.; Huang, S.-F.; Kang, C.-J.; Fan, K.-H.; Wang, H.-M.; Chen, I.-H.; Liao, C.-T.

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of treatment for buccal cancers and assess the impact of unilateral vs. bilateral adjuvant neck radiation. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the course of 145 patients newly diagnosed with buccal squamous cell carcinoma without distant metastases who completed definitive treatment between January 1994 and December 2000. Of 145 patients, 112 (77%) had Stage III or IV disease. All underwent radical surgery with postoperative radiotherapy (median dose, 64 Gy), including unilateral neck treatment in most (n = 120, 82.8%). After 1997, cisplatin-based concomitant chemoradiotherapy was given for high-risk patients with more than two involved lymph nodes, extracapsular spread, and/or positive margins. Results: The 5-year disease-specific survival rate for Stages I-IV was 87%, 83%, 61%, and 60%, respectively (p = 0.01). The most significant prognostic factor was N stage, with the 5-year disease-specific survival rate for N0, N1, and N2 being 79%, 65%, and 54%, respectively (p 0.001). For patients with more than two lymph nodes or positive extracapsular spread, cisplatin-based concomitant chemoradiotherapy improved locoregional control (p = 0.02). Locoregional control did not differ between patients undergoing unilateral or bilateral neck treatments (p = 0.95). Contralateral neck failure occurred in only 2.1%. Conclusions: In patients with buccal carcinoma after radical resection, ipsilateral neck radiation is adequate. Bilateral prophylactic neck treatment does not confer an added benefit.

  19. Unilateral Blood Flow Decrease Induces Bilateral and Symmetric Responses in the Immature Brain

    PubMed Central

    Villapol, Sonia; Bonnin, Philippe; Fau, Sébastien; Baud, Olivier; Renolleau, Sylvain; Charriaut-Marlangue, Christiane

    2009-01-01

    The effects of hemodynamic changes in the developing brain have yet to be fully understood. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between perturbations of the cerebral blood flow in the developing brain via unilateral hypoperfusion in P7 rats. As expected, nuclear caspase-3 (casp3) cleavage and DNA fragmentation were detected at 48 hours after stroke in the injured cortex. Surprisingly, casp3 was also cleaved in the contralateral cortex, although without cell death markers. Delayed (48 hours) casp3 cleavage without DNA fragmentation was also identified after unilateral common carotid artery occlusion, both in the hypoperfused cortex and the unaffected cortex, producing mirror images. Upstream calpain activation, caspase-2 cleavage, and mitochondrial cytochrome c release initiated casp3 cleavage, but did not produce preconditioning. The neuronal marker NeuN co-localized with cleaved casp3 in cortical layers II–III and VI and with gaba-amino butyric acid in layer III. Indeed, collateral supply was provided from the opposite side during carotid artery occlusion but not after reperfusion, and the number of cleaved casp3-positive cells significantly negatively correlated with the common carotid artery immediate reperfusion percentage. In summary, unilateral hypoperfusion, while insufficient to induce cell death, may active bilateral and symmetric casp3 in the P7 rat brain. Additionally, the opposite healthy hemisphere is altered due to the injury and thus should not be used as an internal control. PMID:19815715

  20. From unilateral to bilateral parkinsonism: Effects of lateralization on dyskinesias and associated molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Marin, C; Bonastre, M; Mengod, G; Cortés, R; Rodríguez-Oroz, M C

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms underlying lateralization and progression of motor symptoms from unilateral to bilateral in Parkinson's disease (PD) remain to be elucidated. In addition, the molecular mechanisms involved in levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) depending on lateralization and disease progression from unilaterally to bilateral have not been described yet. We investigated motor symptoms, LIDs and associated striatal molecular markers expression after unilateral left or right, and after a sequential bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced nigrostriatal lesions in rats. Sequentially bilateral lesioned animals showed a bilateral increase in striatal preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA without changes in pre-prodynorphin (PDyn) mRNA expression. The increase in dyskinesias when parkinsonism becomes bilateral was mostly due to an increase in orolingual dyskinesias associated to a increase in PDyn mRNA expression. Right lesion induces, or facilitates when first-done, a greater level of LIDs and an increase in striatal PPE and PDyn mRNAs in the second lesioned side. We describe a new striatal molecular pattern that appears when parkinsonism becomes bilateral and the relevance of the lateralization for the development of LIDs. PMID:26113400