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1

Unilateral posterior arch fractures of the atlas.  

PubMed

Unilateral posterior arch fractures of the atlas are discussed with two clinical examples and an experimental study of their mechanism. Laboratory fracturing of posterior arches of atlas specimens with a specially adapted universal testing machine produced nonsimultaneous fractures of the two sides in four of six specimens. In three of these specimens, a complete fracture on one side was temporarily displaced because the orientation of the leverage acting on the other side changed from sagittal to oblique. The consequent increase in the effective length of the lever arm reduced the angular deformation and strain on the second side. The second fracture occurred only after additional deflection of the posterior tubercle by up to 3 mm reproduced on the second side about the same angle of deformation that had caused the first fracture. A posterior arch fracture occurring by this mechanism will remain unilateral if the deflection is arrested before failure of the second side. PMID:6437181

Suss, R A; Bundy, K J

1984-01-01

2

Three-Dimensional Analysis of Zygomatic-Maxillary Complex Fracture Patterns  

PubMed Central

Zygomatic-maxillary (ZMC) complex fractures are a common consequence of facial trauma. In this retrospective study, we present a novel method of ZMC fracture pattern analysis, utilizing three-dimensional visualization of computed tomography (CT) images to record displacement of the malar eminence in a three-dimensional coordinate plane. The pattern of fracture was then correlated with treatment outcome. Facial CT scans were obtained from 29 patients with unilateral ZMC fractures and 30 subjects without fractures and analyzed. Briefly, displacement of the malar eminence (ME) on the fractured side was measured in medial-lateral (x), superior-inferior (y), and anterior-posterior (z) dimensions, as well as Euclidean distance, by comparison to ME location on the unfractured side. Baseline natural variance in asymmetry was accounted for by comparing ME location on the left and right sides in subjects without fractures. Patients who required open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) to repair the ZMC fracture alone had significantly greater cumulative ME displacements than patients who did not require ORIF (p?=?0.02). Additionally, patients with a high fracture score of 3, 4, or 5 (assigned based on severity displacement in each dimension) had significantly higher rates of ORIF than patients with a low fracture score of 0, 1, or 2 (p?=?0.05). Severe displacement in one or more dimensions was associated with higher rates of ORIF than seen in patients with only neutral or mild displacements in all dimensions (p?=?0.05). Severe x displacement was most strongly correlated with surgical intervention (p?=?0.02). Overall, orbital floor repair was less strongly associated with most displacement measures than ZMC repair alone; however, patients requiring orbital floor repair had greater Euclidean ME displacements than patients who did not require orbital floor repair (p?=?0.02). Fracture severity, as determined by multiple parameters in this novel evaluation system, is associated with higher rates of ORIF in patients with unilateral ZMC fractures. Determination of ZMC fracture pattern may thus be informative when considering treatment options. PMID:22110833

Pau, Candace Y.; Barrera, Jose E.; Kwon, Jaehwan; Most, Sam P.

2010-01-01

3

Bilateral scaphoid stress fracture in a platform diver presenting with unilateral symptoms.  

PubMed

Scaphoid stress fracture is rare and occurs mainly in gymnasts. The current literature has only two reported cases: unilateral scaphoid stress fracture in a platform diver and bilateral scaphoid stress fracture in a gymnast. We herein report bilateral stress fracture of the scaphoid in a platform diver who presented with only one symptomatic side. Our patient was a 16-year-old competitive platform diver with an 18-month history of pain in the right wrist. Radiography revealed fracture of the right scaphoid at the waist. As part of our preoperative plan of measuring the scaphoid length to determine the appropriate screw, radiography of the contralateral side was performed, revealing an unexpected fracture of the left scaphoid. Due to the frequency of stress fractures in competitive sports, especially gymnastics, we recommend that bilateral scaphoid radiography be performed for athletes presenting with a unilateral scaphoid fracture, to avoid missing a fracture in the contralateral side. PMID:25631904

Mohamed Haflah, N H; Mat Nor, N F; Abdullah, S; Sapuan, J

2014-10-01

4

Unilateral Extrapedicular Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty in Lumbar Compression Fractures : Technique, Anatomy and Preliminary Results  

PubMed Central

Objective A single balloon extrapedicular kyphoplasty has been introduced as one of the unilateral approaches for thoracic compression fractures; however, the unilateral extrapedicular technique in the lumbar area needs a further understanding of structures in the lumbar area. The purpose of the present study is to describe methods and pitfalls of this procedure based on the anatomy of the lumbar area and to analyze clinical outcome and complications. Methods Anatomical evaluation was performed with 2 human cadavers. A retrospective review of unilateral extrapedicular approaches yielded 74 vertebral levels in 55 patients that were treated with unilateral extrapedicular vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. Radiographic assessment included the restoration rate of vertebral height and correction of kyphosis. Results Anatomical evaluation indicates that the safe needle entry zone of bone for the extrapedicular approach was located in the supero-lateral aspect of the junction between the pedicle and vertebral body. The unilateral extrapedicular procedure achieved adequate pain relief with a mean decreases in pain severity of 7.25±1.5 and 2.0±1.4, respectively. Complications were 1 retroperitoneal hematoma, 6 unilateral fillings and 3 epidural leak of the polymethylmethacrylate. Conclusion The method of a unilateral extrapedicular approach in kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty in the lumbar area might be similar to that in thoracic approach using a route via the extrapedicular space. However, different anatomical characteristics of the lumbar area should be considered. PMID:21716899

Cho, Sung-Min; Nam, Yong-Suk; Cho, Byung-Moon; Lee, Sang-Youl; Oh, Sae-Moo

2011-01-01

5

Optimizing the Surgical Management of Zygomaticomaxillary Complex Fractures  

PubMed Central

Zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures are a group of fractures that can significantly alter the structure, function, and appearance of the midface, including the globe. Like other facial fractures, the optimal management of operative ZMC fractures requires anatomic reduction of all fractures followed by rigid internal fixation. However, surgical treatment of these fractures can be quite challenging with the potential for high rates of complications. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of ZMC fractures and discuss treatment options, with an emphasis on providing surgical pearls to optimize outcomes. PMID:22550463

Lee, Edward I.; Mohan, Kriti; Koshy, John C.; Hollier, Larry H.

2010-01-01

6

Unilateral avulsion fracture of the transverse atlantal ligament: successful treatment in a rigid cervical collar.  

PubMed

A 34-year-old male sustained a unilateral avulsion fracture through the origin of the transverse atlantal ligament following a road traffic accident. This was successfully treated in a rigid neck collar for 8 weeks. Injuries to the transverse atlantal ligament are often associated with significant bony injury and atlanto-axial instability. Isolated injuries to the transverse ligament are extremely rare and the present case suggests that a trial of conservative management may be worth pursuing. PMID:15702840

Pennington, Richard G C; Gnanalingham, K K; Van Dellen, J R

2004-08-01

7

Clinical comparison between arthrocentesis and conventional conservative treatment with maxillomandibular fixation for unilateral high condylar fractures.  

PubMed

This study aimed to compare the effects of arthrocentesis and conventional closed reduction for unilateral mandibular condyle fractures. A total of 30 patients with unilateral condylar fractures were evaluated. Patients with a high condylar fracture and magnetic resonance evidence of joint effusion (JE) were divided into two groups: those treated with intra-articular irrigation and betamethasone injection (group I) and those given conservative treatment and rigid maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) (group II). All patients were assessed for mandibular range of motion (ROM), protrusive movements, lateral excursion movements on the fractured and non-fractured sides, pain in the temporomandibular joint and malocclusion, both before and after treatment. There were no significant differences in regard to protrusion, lateral excursion movement and incidence of malocclusion at 12 months after treatment between the groups (P > 0.05). In group I, ROM and joint pain showed good improvement from the early stages of treatment, and those patients had better outcomes as compared to group II for those parameters at 1 and 3 months after injury. The present findings indicate that arthrocentesis may be more effective and provide faster healing than conventional closed reduction. PMID:24372314

Nogami, S; Yamauchi, K; Kataoka, Y; Takano, H; Yamashita, Y; Takahashi, T

2014-02-01

8

Cadaveric position of unilateral vocal cord: a case of cricoid fracture with ipsilateral arytenoid dislocation  

PubMed Central

We report a case of cricoid cartilage fracture with unilateral arytenoid dislocation following a motorcycle accident. This 25 year old male sustained blunt injury to the head, face and neck. He presented late to the hospital with one week history of dysphonia. Laryngoscopy revealed cadaveric position of the non-functioning left vocal cord. CT and MRI showed laterally displaced left vocal cord. Displaced fractures were noted in the cricoid at the junction of lamina with the anterior arch on the left side and at the right side of the anterior arch, along with dislocated left arytenoid resulting in ipsilateral vocal cord palsy. Medialization thyroplasty was performed to improve his phonation. Laryngeal trauma warrants close monitoring because of the risk of airway compromise. Radiologists play a crucial role in early diagnosis and should always have high index of suspicion. Recognition of laryngeal injury is important for initial resuscitation as well as for long term airway and vocal function. PMID:22690288

Gopalakrishnan, Nirmalkumar; Mariappan, Kalaichezhian; Indiran, Venkatraman; Maduraimuthu, Prabakaran; Varadarajan, Chandrasekhar

2012-01-01

9

Unilateral neck pain: a case of Eagle syndrome with associated nontraumatic styloid fracture.  

PubMed

We present a case of Eagle syndrome in a 77-year-old woman with associated aneurysm and nontraumatic styloid process fracture, without history of tonsillectomy, who presented to the emergency department. The first set of symptoms associated with the elongation of the temporal styloid process and/or the calcification of the stylomandibular or stylohyoid ligaments was described by Eagle in 1937. Classically, unilateral pain in the oropharynx radiating to the neck and face that is exacerbated by head turning and neck rotation is characteristic of Eagle syndrome. However, styloid process elongation and stylohyoid calcification found in Eagle syndrome may also present with vascular symptomsthrough impingement and injury of the carotid arteries. Eagle syndrome is a rare but important differential that the emergency physician must consider in a patient with unilateral neck pain and positional neurological symptoms with head turning and in posttonsillectomy patients. Patients with medical history of Eagle syndrome presenting with neck pain and especially neurological symptomsmust be thoroughly evaluated for carotid and jugular venous injury. Specifically, the decision to obtain computed tomography and computed tomographic angiography to evaluate for carotid artery injury is important for patient management and disposition. PMID:24079986

Orlik, Kseniya; Griffin, Gregory D; Zoumberakis, Erick

2014-01-01

10

Evaluation of soft tissue asymmetry using cone-beam computed tomography after open reduction and internal fixation of zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture  

PubMed Central

Objectives In this study, we assessed soft tissue asymmetry that occurred after open reduction of unilateral zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures. We proposed a simple method to assess soft tissue asymmetry after reduction surgery by evaluating the symmetry between the affected and the unaffected sides. The factors affecting soft tissue contour after surgery were also analyzed. Materials and Methods Subjects included patients admitted to Wonkwang University Dental Hospital from 2008 to 2013. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of asymmetric patients who underwent open reduction at least 3 months prior were compared with healthy patients. Results The degree of asymmetry was measured in both the open reduction and control groups. Landmarks that showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups were zygion (1.73±0.24 mm), bucclae (1.08±0.26 mm), point of cheek (2.05±0.33 mm) and frontozygomatic point (1.30±0.31 mm). Conclusion When compared with the normal group, asymmetry can occur in the affected side, which usually shows depression of overlying soft tissue and is statistically significantly different. Evaluation of soft tissue asymmetry with CBCT images after open reduction of ZMC fracture is useful. PMID:25045636

Kim, Dong Hyuck; Kim, Rae Hyong; Lee, Jun; Chee, Young Deok

2014-01-01

11

Unusual Unilateral Fracture of the Condylar and Coronoid Processes of the Mandible  

PubMed Central

The incidence of condylar fracture is very high and most are not caused by direct trauma. On the other hand, fracture of the coronoid process is reported less often than fracture of other parts of the mandible. We report a case of right subcondylar and coronoid fractures without any evidence of direct trauma to the zygomatic area or an indirect trauma to the mandibular corpus or sypmheseal region. The possible cause was identified as acute reflex contraction of the temporalis muscles leading to coronoid and condylar stress fractures. PMID:25379353

Baykul, Timuçin; Ayd?n, M As?m; Aksoy, Müge Ç?na; F?nd?k, Yavuz

2014-01-01

12

Fertility after Unilateral Cryptorchidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To further evaluate whether fertility is decreased among a cohort of men with previous unilateral cryptorchidism as compared with a control group of men. Subjects and Methods: Formerly unilateral cryptorchid men who had undergone orchiopexy between the years of 1955 and 1975 at the Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh and a control group of men who were matched for age

Karyn D. Miller; Michael T. Coughlin; Peter A. Lee

2001-01-01

13

Bilateral Femoral Neck Fracture-Related Hyperparathyroidism  

PubMed Central

Bilateral femoral neck fracture is not common as unilateral femoral fracture. Femoral neck fracture generally occurs by the high energized traumas. Traffic accidents and fallings are the most common reason for this fracture kind. But suddenly and minor traumatic fractures is not common. Especially, in the hormonal and pathogenic fractures is not common. In this case minor traumatic bilateral femoral fracture is presented. The fracture occurs in the background of critical medical condition by hyperparathyroidism. It can be said chronic hyperparathyroidism conditions must be determined for femoral neck fracture. Because these patients many times fell little disturbed by this fracture, diagnosis can be missed many times.

Ezirmik, Naci; Yildiz, Kadri; Cadirci, Kenan

2011-01-01

14

Unilateral nevoid telangiectasia.  

PubMed

A 30-year-old woman, who was six months pregnant, presented with multiple, blanching, asymptomatic telangiectasies on her right upper extremity for two years. At the onset of her pregnancy, her lesions increased in number and redness. Given the unilateral distribution and worsening during pregnancy, a diagnosis of unilateral nevoid telangiectasia was made. This condition is a rare entity that has been most commonly reported in association with puberty, pregnancy, the use of oral contraceptives, and alcoholic cirrhosis. However, there have been case reports in otherwise healthy individuals. PMID:19061602

Dadlani, Chicky; Kamino, Hideko; Walters, Ruth F; Rosenman, Karla; Pomeranz, Miriam K

2008-01-01

15

VARIATIONAL LATTICE MODELS OF FRACTURE ENERGIES  

E-print Network

= Griffith brittle fracture energy) #12;Asymmetric version (z) = min z2, 1 if z > 0 z2 if z 0 -limit: |u |2 dt + #(S(u)) u+ > u- on S(u) (Griffith brittle fracture energy with unilateral constraint) #12VARIATIONAL LATTICE MODELS OF FRACTURE ENERGIES Andrea Braides (Roma Tor Vergata) Milano, 30 aprile

Braides, Andrea

16

Isolated unilateral rupture of the alar ligament.  

PubMed

Only 6 cases of isolated unilateral rupture of the alar ligament have been previously reported. The authors report a new case and review the literature, morbid anatomy, and pathogenesis of this rare injury. The patient in their case, a 9-year-old girl, fell head first from a height of 5 feet off the ground. She presented with neck pain, a leftward head tilt, and severe limitation of right rotation, extension, and right lateral flexion of the neck. Plain radiographs and CT revealed no fracture but a shift of the dens toward the right lateral mass of C-1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed signal hyperintensity within the left dens-atlas space on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences and interruption of the expected dark signal representing the left alar ligament, suggestive of its rupture. After 12 weeks of immobilization in a Guilford brace, MRI showed lessened dens deviation, and the patient attained full and painless neck motion. Including the patient in this case, the 7 patients with this injury were between 5 and 21 years old, sustained the injury in traffic accidents or falls, presented with marked neck pain, and were treated with external immobilization. All patients had good clinical outcome. The mechanism of injury is hyperflexion with rotation. Isolated unilateral alar ligament rupture is a diagnosis made by excluding associated fracture, dislocation, or disruption of other major ligamentous structures in the craniovertebral junction. CT and MRI are essential in establishing the diagnosis. External immobilization is adequate treatment. PMID:24679079

Wong, Sui-To; Ernest, Kimberly; Fan, Grace; Zovickian, John; Pang, Dachling

2014-05-01

17

Persistent unilateral mydriasis and headache  

PubMed Central

A 50-year-old white Caucasian woman with previously diagnosed migraine was admitted with unilateral headache and anisocoria. An initial assessment revealed no cause for this abnormality and she was thought to have mydriasis in the context of migraine. However, failure of her symptoms and signs to resolve prompted further investigation and demonstrated the diagnosis of intermittent angle-closure glaucoma. PMID:21686386

Alkhalil, Mohammad; Lewis, Simon; Hawker, Matthew; Dick, David

2009-01-01

18

[Renal unilateral oncocytis: case report].  

PubMed

The renal oncocytoma tumors are rare (5% of renal tumors). These benign tumors are incidentally diagnosed most often in an asymptomatic form. Sometimes it is multiple bilateral tumors affecting the renal parenchyma and forming a renal oncocytosis. We report the case of a unilateral right renal oncocytosis, very rare situation, characterized by a right renal parenchymal nodules with oncocytoma and a normal left kidney. PMID:24485085

Gryn, A; Roumiguié, M; Mazerolles, C; Bellec, L; Lagarde, S; Chauveau, D; Soulié, M; Beauval, J B

2014-02-01

19

Congenital unilateral hydrocephalus--CT findings.  

PubMed

Congenital unilateral hydrocephalus is extremely uncommon with 18 cases previously reported in the English literature. Two additional newborns with unilateral hydrocephalus are presented. The second baby also presented a mega cisterna magna. This unusual association between Dandy-Walker variant and unilateral hydrocephalus has not been previously reported. Following ventriculo-peritoneal shunt, the babies had a normal cognitive neurodevelopment. The role of cranial computed tomography (CT) in diagnosis and follow-up is emphasized. PMID:11091018

Schulman, H; Landau, D; Schulman, P; Hertzanu, Y

2000-12-01

20

Focal glomerulosclerosis in patients with unilateral nephrectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focal glomerulosclerosis in patients with unilateral nephrectomy. To investigate whether proteinuria and focal glomerulosclerosis (FSG) might develop in humans as well as in experimental models following a reduction in renal mass, we performed a retrospective study of 24 patients previously nephrectomized for unilateral renal disease. None of the patients presented signs of systemic diseases, Alport syndrome, essential hypertension, reflux nephropathy,

Pietro Zucchelli; Leonardo Cagnoli; Silvia Casanova; Ugo Donini; Sonia Pasquali

1983-01-01

21

Unilateral acute angle closure glaucoma.  

PubMed

A 52-year-old gentleman presented with 1-week history of severe right-sided headache associated with reduced vision in his right, amblyopic eye. Examination revealed raised intraocular pressure at 64 mm Hg. The anterior chamber (AC) was shallow and there was a dense cataract with no red reflex or fundal view. The contralateral eye had a deep anterior chamber with normal pressure and a clear lens. He was treated initially for acute angle closure glaucoma. The anterior chamber remained shallow and the intraocular pressure uncontrolled, despite maximum medical therapy. Owing to the absent fundal view and unilateral AC shallowing, further imaging was performed and a choroidal mass was found to be responsible for anterior displacement of the lens and shallowing of the angle. He went on to have an enucleation of the right eye, and histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of choroidal melanoma. PMID:23440984

Tan, Shi Zhuan; Sampat, Keerthika; Rasool, Sana; Nolan, Daniel

2013-01-01

22

Extra corporeal fixation of fractured mandibular condyle.  

PubMed

Condylar fracture is the second most common site in the mandibular fractures. Motor vehicle accident and fall are the major causes of such fractures. Because of the anatomical weakness of the condyle and the shape of the condylar head the antero-medial dislocation of the condyle is common. Open reduction and closed reduction is always debatable. The open reduction will bring back the normal function much earlier than closed reduction. Medially dislocated condylar fracture fragments are always managed with open method. In superior or high condylar fractures,exact reduction with conventional open reduction can be difficult due to the limited surgical and visual fields. In such cases extracorporeal fixation of condyle using vertical ramus osteotomy may be better choice to achieve perfect alignment and absolute maintaince of vertical height of the ramus and facial symmetry. We here present a case of extracorporeal fixation of unilateral left high condylar fracture. PMID:25386546

Kannadasan, Kamal; Shenoy K, Vandana; Kengagsubbiah, Srivatsa; V, Sathyabhama; Priya, Vishnu

2014-09-01

23

Extra Corporeal Fixation of Fractured Mandibular Condyle  

PubMed Central

Condylar fracture is the second most common site in the mandibular fractures. Motor vehicle accident and fall are the major causes of such fractures. Because of the anatomical weakness of the condyle and the shape of the condylar head the antero-medial dislocation of the condyle is common. Open reduction and closed reduction is always debatable. The open reduction will bring back the normal function much earlier than closed reduction. Medially dislocated condylar fracture fragments are always managed with open method. In superior or high condylar fractures,exact reduction with conventional open reduction can be difficult due to the limited surgical and visual fields. In such cases extracorporeal fixation of condyle using vertical ramus osteotomy may be better choice to achieve perfect alignment and absolute maintaince of vertical height of the ramus and facial symmetry. We here present a case of extracorporeal fixation of unilateral left high condylar fracture. PMID:25386546

Shenoy K, Vandana; Kengagsubbiah, Srivatsa; V, Sathyabhama; Priya, Vishnu

2014-01-01

24

Ankle Fractures  

MedlinePLUS

... the shin bone. Treatment: Bimalleolar Fractures or Bimalleolar Equivalent Fractures “Bi” means two. “Bimalleolar” means that two ... and the ankle is not stable. A “bimalleolar equivalent” fracture means that in addition to one of ...

25

Partial unilateral lentiginosis associated with blue naevi.  

PubMed

We report a patient with unilateral lentiginosis and blue naevi. This association has not been reported previously. Additional clinical features included right bundle branch block and lateral popliteal nerve palsy. PMID:8148284

Holder, J E; Graham-Brown, R A; Camp, R D

1994-03-01

26

An unusual stress fracture: Bilateral posterior longitudinal stress fracture of tibia  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Stress fractures (SF) occur when healthy bone is subjected to cyclic loading, which the normal carrying range capacity is exceeded. Usually, stress fractures occur at the metatarsal bones, calcaneus, proximal or distal tibia and tends to be unilateral. PRESENTATION OF CASE This article presents a 58-year-old male patient with bilateral posterior longitudinal tibial stress fractures. A 58 years old male suffering for persistent left calf pain and decreased walking distance for last one month and after imaging studies posterior longitudinal tibial stress fracture was detected on his left tibia. After six months the patient was admitted to our clinic with the same type of complaints in his right leg. All imaging modalities and blood counts were performed and as a result longitudinal posterior tibial stress fractures were detected on his right tibia. DISCUSSION Treatment of tibial stress fracture includes rest and modified activity, followed by a graded return to activity commensurate with bony healing. We have applied the same treatment protocol and our results were acceptable but our follow up time short for this reason our study is restricted for separate stress fractures of the posterior tibia. CONCLUSION Although the main localization of tibial stress fractures were unilateral, anterior and transverse pattern, rarely, like in our case, the unusual bilateral posterior localization and longitudinal pattern can be seen. PMID:24995664

Malkoc, Melih; Korkmaz, Ozgur; Ormeci, Tugrul; Oltulu, Ismail; Isyar, Mehmet; Mahirogullar?, Mahir

2014-01-01

27

Unilateral hyperhydrosis in Pourfour du Petit syndrome.  

PubMed

Upper limp hyperhydrosis is an idiopathic disease with bilateral involvement. However, Pourfour du Petit syndrome, the opposite of Horner syndrome, may result in unilateral upper limb hyperhydrosis. It occurs following hyperactivity of the sympathetic cervical chain as a consequence of irritation secondary to trauma. We report herein two cases with Pourfour du Petit syndrome showing unilateral upper limb hyperhydrosis. The patients presented with right-sided mydriasis and ipsilateral hemifacial hyperhydrosis. The onset of disease was followed by a trauma in both patients. They underwent upper thoracic sympathectomy with favorable outcome. A history of an antecedent trauma in patients with unilateral upper limb hyperhydrosis and anisocoria may imply a possible diagnosis of Pourfour du Petit syndrome. PMID:15296919

Kara, Murat; Dikmen, Erkan; Akarsu, Cengiz; Birol, Ahu

2004-08-01

28

MRI examination of the TMJ after surgical treatment of condylar fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.The position of discs in 20 adult patients whose unilateral condylar fractures were treated by open reduction was investigated by means of magnetic resonance imaging. In four (20%) of the 20 cases, the disc was anteriorly displaced in both the closed mouth and open mouth positions. Three of the four cases had a high condylar neck fracture with dislocation and

B. H. Choi; C. K. Yi; J. H. Yoo

2001-01-01

29

Scaphoid Fractures.  

PubMed

Scaphoid fractures are the most common carpal bone fracture, usually occurring in young men, although the incidence in women has increased over the past decade. Snuffbox tenderness and/or pain with axial loading of the thumb should be treated as a scaphoid fracture until proved otherwise and the diagnosis confirmed with serial radiographs and/or advanced imaging. Nearly all displaced scaphoid fractures should undergo operative intervention to reduce the risk of nonunion. Nondisplaced fractures have high union rates with cast treatment, but require extended periods of immobilization. Consideration may be given to operative fixation of these fractures to allow early return to sport. PMID:25455395

Fowler, John R; Hughes, Thomas B

2015-01-01

30

Unilateral isolated proximal femoral focal deficiency.  

PubMed

Objective. To discuss a patient with a prenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency. Case. Antenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency was made at 20 weeks of gestation. The length of left femur was shorter than the right, and fetal femur length was below the fifth percentile. Proximal femoral focal deficiency was diagnosed. After delivery, the diagnosis was confirmed with skeletal radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. In prenatal ultrasonographic examination, the early recognition and exclusion of skeletal dysplasias is important; moreover, treatment plans should be initiated, and valuable information should be provided to the family. PMID:23984135

Do?er, Emek; Köpük, Sule Y; Cak?ro?lu, Yi?it; Cak?r, Ozgür; Yücesoy, Gülseren

2013-01-01

31

Unilateral Isolated Proximal Femoral Focal Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Objective. To discuss a patient with a prenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency. Case. Antenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency was made at 20 weeks of gestation. The length of left femur was shorter than the right, and fetal femur length was below the fifth percentile. Proximal femoral focal deficiency was diagnosed. After delivery, the diagnosis was confirmed with skeletal radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. In prenatal ultrasonographic examination, the early recognition and exclusion of skeletal dysplasias is important; moreover, treatment plans should be initiated, and valuable information should be provided to the family. PMID:23984135

Do?er, Emek; Köpük, ?ule Y.; Çak?ro?lu, Yi?it; Çak?r, Özgür; Yücesoy, Gülseren

2013-01-01

32

Unilateral congenital absence of the calf muscle.  

PubMed

Congenital absence of muscles is a rare occurrence. We are reporting a 2-year 10-month-old African-American girl with congenital unilateral absence of the muscles of the posterior compartment of the calf suspected by clinical examination and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:17159539

Flynn, John M; Ramirez, Norman; Cornier, Alberto S; Colon-Negron, Edgar

2007-01-01

33

Unilateral Vestibular Loss Impairs External Space Representation  

PubMed Central

The vestibular system is responsible for a wide range of postural and oculomotor functions and maintains an internal, updated representation of the position and movement of the head in space. In this study, we assessed whether unilateral vestibular loss affects external space representation. Patients with Menière's disease and healthy participants were instructed to point to memorized targets in near (peripersonal) and far (extrapersonal) spaces in the absence or presence of a visual background. These individuals were also required to estimate their body pointing direction. Menière's disease patients were tested before unilateral vestibular neurotomy and during the recovery period (one week and one month after the operation), and healthy participants were tested at similar times. Unilateral vestibular loss impaired the representation of both the external space and the body pointing direction: in the dark, the configuration of perceived targets was shifted toward the lesioned side and compressed toward the contralesioned hemifield, with higher pointing error in the near space. Performance varied according to the time elapsed after neurotomy: deficits were stronger during the early stages, while gradual compensation occurred subsequently. These findings provide the first demonstration of the critical role of vestibular signals in the representation of external space and of body pointing direction in the early stages after unilateral vestibular loss. PMID:24523916

Borel, Liliane; Redon-Zouiteni, Christine; Cauvin, Pierre; Dumitrescu, Michel; Devèze, Arnaud; Magnan, Jacques; Péruch, Patrick

2014-01-01

34

Vertebral Fractures Predict Subsequent Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

:  This population-based study documents an increase in most types of fractures following the occurrence of a clinically recognized\\u000a vertebral fracture among 820 Rochester, Minnesota, residents. During 4349 person-years of follow-up, 896 new fractures were\\u000a observed. Relative to incidence rates in the community, there was a 2.8-fold increase in the risk of any fracture, which was\\u000a greater in men (standardized incidence

L. J. Melton III; E. J. Atkinson; C. Cooper; W. M. O’Fallon; B. L. Riggs

1999-01-01

35

Hand dominance and gender in forearm fractures in children  

PubMed Central

No published studies have addressed the role of hand dominance in various types of forearm fractures. The present study aims to investigate the effects of the dominant hand and gender in forearm fractures in children and adolescents. In a prospective study, 181 children aged 2–15 years presenting with unilateral forearm fracture were examined over a 6-year period, investigating the role of the dominant hand, fractured side, fractured site, and gender in different types of forearm fractures. Forearm fractures occur more often in boys and are more common on the left side (P = 0.001, 0.029, respectively). Isolated distal radius fracture is more common than distal radius and ulna fracture in right-handed children (P = 0.008). Increases in the number of middle forearm fractures in the dominant hand in left-handed children (P = 0.0056) may be due to mechanisms of injury other than a simple indirect fall or severe injury preventing the use of the dominant hand as a preventive measure. The mean age for boys and girls at the time of forearm fractures was 8.97 and 5.98 years, respectively, which may be attributed to older girls tending not to do as many outside-the-home activities as boys at this age. Overall, forearm fractures are more common in the non-dominant hand, in boys, and in both distal forearm bones. PMID:19030948

2008-01-01

36

Unilateral Punctate Keratitis Secondary to Wallenberg Syndrome  

PubMed Central

We studied three patients who developed left unilateral punctate keratitis after suffering left-sided Wallenberg Syndrome. A complex evolution occurred in two of them. In all cases, neurophysiological studies showed damage in the trigeminal sensory component at the bulbar level. Corneal involvement secondary to Wallenberg syndrome is a rare cause of unilateral superficial punctate keratitis. The loss of corneal sensitivity caused by trigeminal neuropathy leads to epithelial erosions that are frequently unobserved by the patient, resulting in a high risk of corneal-ulcer development with the possibility of superinfection. Neurophysiological studies can help to locate the anatomical level of damage at the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve, confirming the suspected etiology of stroke, and demonstrating that prior vascular involvement coincides with the location of trigeminal nerve damage. In some of these patients, oculofacial pain is a distinctive feature. PMID:24882965

Boto, Ana; Del Hierro, Almudena; Capote, Maria; Noval, Susana; Garcia, Amanda; Santiago, Susana

2014-01-01

37

Unilateral punctate keratitis secondary to Wallenberg Syndrome.  

PubMed

We studied three patients who developed left unilateral punctate keratitis after suffering left-sided Wallenberg Syndrome. A complex evolution occurred in two of them. In all cases, neurophysiological studies showed damage in the trigeminal sensory component at the bulbar level. Corneal involvement secondary to Wallenberg syndrome is a rare cause of unilateral superficial punctate keratitis. The loss of corneal sensitivity caused by trigeminal neuropathy leads to epithelial erosions that are frequently unobserved by the patient, resulting in a high risk of corneal-ulcer development with the possibility of superinfection. Neurophysiological studies can help to locate the anatomical level of damage at the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve, confirming the suspected etiology of stroke, and demonstrating that prior vascular involvement coincides with the location of trigeminal nerve damage. In some of these patients, oculofacial pain is a distinctive feature. PMID:24882965

Cidad, Pino; Boto, Ana; Del Hierro, Almudena; Capote, Maria; Noval, Susana; Garcia, Amanda; Santiago, Susana

2014-06-01

38

Measuring unilateral spatial neglect during stepping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the diaschisis of faultless conventional neuropsychological tests of unilateral spatial neglect (USN) and defects of activities of daily living (ADL) functions.Design: The evaluations of USN by assessments now in wide use were compared with newly developed assessments using a dual-task methodology in which a stepping activity was used as a “distracter” during USN assessment.Setting: A rehabilitation unit

Eiji Suzuki; Wuxiong Chen; Tohru Kondo

1997-01-01

39

Unilateral lung hyperlucency after mediastinal irradiation  

SciTech Connect

A 39-yr-old woman developed progressive exertional dyspnea 13 yr after receiving mediastinal irradiation for Hodgkin's disease. Chest roentgenogram showed a hyperlucent right lung. Pulmonary blood flow was markedly reduced on the right by ventilation-perfusion scanning. Pulmonary angiography showed attenuation and diffuse atrophy of the right pulmonary artery and its branches. This case represents a late and uncommon complication of mediastinal irradiation manifesting as a unilateral hyperlucent lung.

Wencel, M.L.; Sitrin, R.G.

1988-04-01

40

Bite force in pre-orthodontic children with unilateral crossbite  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In the present study bite force was examined in pre-orthodontic children with unilateral posterior crossbite and compared with an age- and sex-matched control group. The sample comprised 52 children aged 7-13 years, 26 pre-orthodontic children with unilateral posterior crossbite (crossbite group), and 26 children with neutral occlusion (control group). Unilateral bite force was measured at the first molar by

Liselotte Sonnesen; Merete Bakke; Beni Solow

2001-01-01

41

Eyebrow Ptosis After Blowout Fracture Indicates Impairment of Trigeminal Proprioceptive Evocation That Induces Reflex Contraction of the Frontalis Muscle  

PubMed Central

Objective: The mixed levator and frontalis muscles lack the interior muscle spindles normally required to induce involuntary contraction of their slow-twitch fibers. To involuntarily move the eyelid and eyebrow, voluntary contraction of the levator nonskeletal fast-twitch muscle fibers stretches the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle to evoke trigeminal proprioception, which then induces reflex contraction of the levator and frontalis skeletal slow-twitch muscle fibers. The trigeminal proprioceptive nerve has a long intraorbital course from the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle to the superior orbital fissure. Since external force to the globe may cause impairment of trigeminal proprioceptive evocation, we confirmed how unilateral blowout fracture due to a hydraulic mechanism affects ipsilateral eyebrow movement as compared with unilateral zygomatic fracture. Methods: In 16 unilateral blowout fracture patients, eyebrow heights were measured on noninjured and injured sides in primary and 60° upward gaze and statistically compared. Eyebrow heights were also measured in primary gaze in 24 unilateral zygomatic fracture patients and statistically compared. Results: In the blowout fracture patients, eyebrow heights on the injured side were significantly smaller than on the noninjured side in both gaze. In the zygomatic fracture patients, eyebrow heights on the injured side were significantly larger than on the noninjured side in primary gaze. Conclusion: Since 60° upward gaze did not recover the eyebrow ptosis observed in primary gaze in blowout fracture patients, such ptosis indicated impairment of trigeminal proprioceptive evocation and the presence of a hydraulic mechanism that may require ophthalmic examination. PMID:23814636

Ban, Ryokuya; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Ban, Midori; Yuzuriha, Shunsuke

2013-01-01

42

Fractures of the articular processes of the cervical spine  

SciTech Connect

Fractures of the articular processes occurred in 16 (20.8%) of 77 patients with cervical spine fractures as demonstrated by multidirectional tomography. Plain films demonstrated the fractures in only two patients. Acute cervical radiculopathy occurred in five of the patients with articular process fractures (superior process, two cases; inferior process, three cases). Persistent neck pain occurred in one other patient without radiculopathy. Three patients suffered spinal cord damage at the time of injury, which was not the result of the articular process fracture itself. In the other seven cases, no definite sequelae occurred. However, disruption of the facet joint may predispose to early degenerative joint disease and chronic pain; unilateral or bilateral facet dislocation was present in five patients. In patients with cervical trauma who develop cervical radiculopathy, tomography should be performed to evaluate the articular processes.

Woodring, J.H.; Goldstein, S.J.

1982-08-01

43

Clinical verification of a unilateral otolith test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a previous study 13 we reported promising results for a new test to differentiate in vivo unilateral otolith functions. That study pointed to a need for further validation on known pathological cases. In this presentation we will detail the results gathered on a group of clinically verified vestibular defectives (verum) and a normal (control) group. The subjects in the verum group were former patients of the ENT clinic of the university hospital. These subjects had usually suffered from neurinoma of the VIIth cranial nerve or inner ear infections. All had required surgical intervention including removal of the vestibular system. The patients were contacted usually two or more years postoperatively. A group of students from the pre- and clinical phase of medical training served as control. Both groups were subjected to standardized clinical tests. These tests served to reconfirm the intra- or postoperative diagnosis of unilateral vestibular loss in the verum group. In the control group they had to establish the normalcy of the responses of the vestibular system. Both groups then underwent testing on our exccentric rotary chair in the manner described before 13. Preliminary results of the trials indicate that this test may indeed for the first time offer a chance to look at isolated otolith apparati in vivo.

Wetzig, J.; Hofstetter-Degen, K.; Maurer, J.; von Baumgarten, R. J.

44

Unilateral ectrodactyly, metatarsal synostosis, and hypoplasia in an Eskimo.  

PubMed

A unilateral foot deformity in an archaeological specimen from Point Hope, Alaska, is presented. Radiographic and gross examination of the bones of the malformed left foot suggests that this adult female suffered from a rare and possibly unique limb deficiency presenting as unilateral congenital absence of the phalanges, synostosis and hypoplasia of the metatarsals, and mild hypoplasia of the calcaneus. PMID:1993973

Keenleyside, A; Mann, R W

1991-01-01

45

Delayed unilateral traumatic brain swelling in a child  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of morbidity and death in the pediatric population. In this study, we report a delayed unilateral traumatic brain swelling in a child with initial favorable evolution and sudden neurological deterioration after 4 days; highlighting clinical, physiopathological and radiological aspects of delayed unilateral brain swelling. PMID:25250079

Paiva, Wellingson S.; Beer-Furlan, André; Soares, Matheus S.; Teixeira, Manoel J.

2014-01-01

46

Bilateral Effects of Unilateral Cochlear Implantation in Congenitally Deaf Cats  

E-print Network

Bilateral Effects of Unilateral Cochlear Implantation in Congenitally Deaf Cats Jahn N. O'Neil,1-month-old con- genitally deaf cats received unilateral cochlear implants and were stimulated for a period of 10­19 weeks by using human speech processors. Implanted cats exhib- ited acoustic startle

Ryugo, David K.

47

Unilateral fixtures for sheet-metal parts with holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce unilateral fixtures , a new class of fixtures for sheet-metal parts with holes. These fixtures use cylindrical jaws with conical grooves that facilitate part alignment; each jaw provides the equivalent of four point contacts. The fixtures are unilateral in the sense that their actuating mechanisms are restricted to one side\\/surface of the part, facilitating access

Kanakasabapathi Gopalakrishnan; Ken Goldberg; Gary M. Bone; Matthew J. Zaluzec; Rama Koganti; R. Pearson; P. A. Deneszczuk

2004-01-01

48

Reproducibility of Tactile Assessments for Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A systematic review identified tactile assessments used in children with cerebral palsy (CP), but their reproducibility is unknown. Sixteen children with unilateral CP and 31 typically developing children (TDC) were assessed 2-4 weeks apart. Test-retest percent agreements within one point for children with unilateral CP (and TDC) were…

Auld, Megan Louise; Ware, Robert S.; Boyd, Roslyn Nancy; Moseley, G. Lorimer; Johnston, Leanne Marie

2012-01-01

49

Incidence of unilateral consumption taxes on world carbon emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note investigates the suitability of unilateral consumption taxes for alleviating climate change in a two-period two-country general equilibrium model with a finite stock of fossil fuel. We analyze the incidence of a unilateral consumption tax in the first period on world carbon emissions. If countries are identical or if the taxing country imports both fossil fuel and consumption goods

Thomas Eichner; Rüdiger Pethig

2011-01-01

50

EQUILIBRIUM PATHS OF MECHANICAL SYSTEMS WITH UNILATERAL CONSTRAINTS  

E-print Network

EQUILIBRIUM PATHS OF MECHANICAL SYSTEMS WITH UNILATERAL CONSTRAINTS PART II: DEPLOYABLE REFLECTOR M, by imple- menting the theory for tracing the equilibrium path of a mechanical system with unilateral had not been previously explained, is the existence of a corner limit point on the equilibrium path

Pellegrino, Sergio

51

Did Unilateral Divorce Raise Divorce Rates? Evidence from Panel Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper revisits the evidence on the impact of unilateral divorce laws on divorce rates in the United States. Most states switched from requiring mutual consent to allowing unilateral or no-fault divorce between 1970 and 1985, while the national divorce rate more than doubled after 1965. According to the Coase theorem, however, the legal shift should have had no effect

Leora Friedberg

1998-01-01

52

Partial disruption of fear conditioning in rats with unilateral amygdala damage: Correspondence with unilateral temporal lobectomy in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditioned fear in rats was assessed for the effects of pretraining amygdala lesions (unilateral vs. bilateral) across unconditioned stimulus (US) modalities (white noise vs. shock). In contrast to sham controls, unilateral amygdala lesions significantly reduced conditioned freezing responses, whereas bilateral amygdala lesions resulted in a nearly complete lack of freezing to both the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the context. The

Kevin S. LaBar; Joseph E. LeDoux

1996-01-01

53

Unilateral Idiopathic Macular Telangiectasia with Choroidal Neovascularization.  

PubMed

A 40-year-old man with decreasing visual acuity in his left eye over 1 year, diagnosed elsewhere as vein occlusion and treated unsuccessfully by systemic steroids was reported. Retrospective analysis of available previous imaging studies was undertaken, and a retrospective diagnosis of idiopathic macular telangiectasia (IMT) was made. Examination revealed subfoveal neovascularization and retinochoroidal anastomosis (RCA) in his left eye with macular edema and exudates surrounding it. The right eye was normal. Current fluorescein angiography (FA) confirmed the presence of choroidal neovascularization and RCA, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) demonstrated cystoid macular edema and subfoveal neovascularization.The patient was diagnosed with unilateral idiopathic macular telangiectasia complicated by subretinal neovascularization. The presences of a choroidal neovascularization process and an RCA have not, to our knowledge, been reported in this type of IMT. PMID:20337307

Mezad-Koursh, Daphna; Zayit-Soudry, Shiri; Barak, Adiel; Loewenstein, Anat

2010-03-01

54

Unilateral instrumented fixation for cervical dumbbell tumors  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe the radiological outcomes in patients with unilateral instrumented fixation for cervical dumbbell tumors. Patients and methods Fourteen consecutive individuals were included in the present study. We included Eden type II and III tumors in this cohort study and analyzed fixed segment fusion rates, screw failure with multiplanar reconstruction computed tomography (CT) scan radiographs and lateral radiographs with flexion-extension dynamic views, and immediate postoperative and last follow-up radiographs after surgery. Results The mean follow-up was 105.4 months. There were six men and eight women ranging in age from 32 to 70 years (mean age, 48 years). Twenty pedicle screws (PSs) and 11 lateral mass screws (LMSs) were used in total. There were seven patients with only PSs, four with only LMSs, and three with PSs at C2 and LMSs at C3. PS misplacement occurred in three screws of insertions including two screws with grade 1 misplacement and one screw with grade 2 misplacement, and no grade 3 misplacement occurred. All screws breached the lateral wall with no apparent superior or inferior misplacement. None of the LMSs were misplaced. Fortunately, no complication could be directly attributed to screw insertion. Radiological evidence showed that all patients achieved successful fusion with no screw loosening or breakage. However, two patients who received only LMS fixation had degenerative spondylolisthesis at the upper fusion segment at the last follow-up. Conclusions Grade 2 PS misplacement occurred in one screw of insertions. Unilateral pedicle screw fixation for cervical dumbbell tumors is a useful surgical method that can successfully fuse vertebrae with good postoperative alignment. PMID:24438086

2014-01-01

55

Vestibular Perception following Acute Unilateral Vestibular Lesions  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the vestibulo-perceptual (VP) system, particularly after a unilateral vestibular lesion. We investigated vestibulo-ocular (VO) and VP function in 25 patients with vestibular neuritis (VN) acutely (2 days after onset) and after compensation (recovery phase, 10 weeks). Since the effect of VN on reflex and perceptual function may differ at threshold and supra-threshold acceleration levels, we used two stimulus intensities, acceleration steps of 0.5°/s2 and velocity steps of 90°/s (acceleration 180°/s2). We hypothesised that the vestibular lesion or the compensatory processes could dissociate VO and VP function, particularly if the acute vertiginous sensation interferes with the perceptual tasks. Both in acute and recovery phases, VO and VP thresholds increased, particularly during ipsilesional rotations. In signal detection theory this indicates that signals from the healthy and affected side are still fused, but result in asymmetric thresholds due to a lesion-induced bias. The normal pattern whereby VP thresholds are higher than VO thresholds was preserved, indicating that any ‘perceptual noise’ added by the vertigo does not disrupt the cognitive decision-making processes inherent to the perceptual task. Overall, the parallel findings in VO and VP thresholds imply little or no additional cortical processing and suggest that vestibular thresholds essentially reflect the sensitivity of the fused peripheral receptors. In contrast, a significant VO-VP dissociation for supra-threshold stimuli was found. Acutely, time constants and duration of the VO and VP responses were reduced – asymmetrically for VO, as expected, but surprisingly symmetrical for perception. At recovery, VP responses normalised but VO responses remained shortened and asymmetric. Thus, unlike threshold data, supra-threshold responses show considerable VO-VP dissociation indicative of additional, higher-order processing of vestibular signals. We provide evidence of perceptual processes (ultimately cortical) participating in vestibular compensation, suppressing asymmetry acutely in unilateral vestibular lesions. PMID:23671577

Cousins, Sian; Kaski, Diego; Cutfield, Nicholas; Seemungal, Barry; Golding, John F.; Gresty, Michael; Glasauer, Stefan; Bronstein, Adolfo M.

2013-01-01

56

Hydraulic fracturing-1  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers on hydraulic fracturing. Topics covered include: An overview of recent advances in hydraulic fracturing technology; Containment of massive hydraulic fracture; and Fracturing with a high-strength proppant.

Not Available

1990-01-01

57

Postural fluctuations during pointing from a unilateral or bilateral stance.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of bilateral and unilateral stance on postural fluctuations and intralimb coordination during active balance control. Fifteen participants stood bilaterally and unilaterally while conducting a pointing task with an outstretched arm. Excursion of center of foot pressure (CoP) and limb movements were recorded with a force plate and eight dual-axis accelerometers, respectively. Compared to bilateral stance, unilateral stance resulted in wider CoP trajectories and greater postural fluctuations, especially in the lower limbs. The limb-dependent postural fluctuations during unilateral stance were associated with an increased coupling between the upper limb segments and a decreased coupling between the segments of the stance leg. Unilateral stance further resulted in greater regularity and spectral changes in postural fluctuations of the trunk and lower limb due to increased central oscillations (8-15 Hz). The observed structural differences in postural fluctuations between unilateral and bilateral stance strongly suggested that the postural control system modulates joint stiffness in a stance-dependent manner. Probably, in unilateral stance, attentive control was shifted to the stance leg at the expense of increasing arm stiffness to reduce movement redundancy. PMID:16458377

Hwang, Ing-Shiou; Huang, Chien-Ting; Cherng, Rong-Ju; Huang, Chien-Chun

2006-04-01

58

Asymmetric vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in unilateral Menière patients  

PubMed Central

Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) were measured in 22 unilateral Menière patients with monaural and binaural stimulation with 250 and 500 Hz tone bursts. For all measurement situations significantly lower VEMP amplitudes were on average measured at the affected side compared to the unaffected side. Unilateral Menière patients have, in contrast to normal subjects, asymmetric VEMPs, indicating a permanently affected vestibular (most likely otolith) system at the side of hearing loss. The diagnostic value of VEMP amplitude asymmetry measurement in individual patients is low, because of the large overlap of the VEMP amplitude asymmetry range for unilateral Menière patients with that for normal subjects. PMID:20665043

Wit, H. P.

2010-01-01

59

Mandibular fracture repair in a harbor seal.  

PubMed

A 30-year-old captive female harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) bit down upon a metal ring within a hoop-net normally used to assist in securing the seal for routine physical examination. Radiographic examination performed under general anesthesia revealed a unilateral closed fracture of the rostral left mandible between the first and second premolar teeth. The rostral fragment was displaced ventrally and slight laxity of the mandibular symphysis was noted. The fracture was repaired surgically using an oral dental acrylic splint incorporating circumferential mandibular cerclage wire. The mandibular symphysis was stabilized using interdental wire between the right and left canine teeth. The fixation device was removed following evaluation of radiographs that showed signs of bony union 12-months postoperatively. PMID:17691533

Lewer, Daniel; Gustafson, Scott B; Rist, Paul M; Brown, Steven

2007-06-01

60

Masseteric hypertrophy associated with administration of anabolic steroids and unilateral mastication: a case report.  

PubMed

In this report we present a patient with unilateral masseteric hypertrophy who used anabolic steroids and was chewing entirely unilaterally for 1 month. Computed tomography and histologic examination were used to confirm the diagnosis. The combined action of unilateral mastication and anabolic steroid use is probably responsible for the rapid development of unilateral masseteric hypertrophy. PMID:11709687

Skoura, C; Mourouzis, C; Saranteas, T; Chatzigianni, E; Tesseromatis, C

2001-11-01

61

Comparison between Bilateral C2 Pedicle Screwing and Unilateral C2 Pedicle Screwing, Combined with Contralateral C2 Laminar Screwing, for Atlantoaxial Posterior Fixation  

PubMed Central

Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose To compare clinical and radiological outcomes between bilateral C2 pedicle screwing (C2PS) and unilateral C2PS, combined with contralateral C2 laminar screwing (LS), for posterior atlantoaxial fixation. Overview of Literature Posterior fixation with C1 lateral mass screwing (C1LMS) and C2PS (C1LMS-C2PS method) is an accepted procedure for rigid atlantoaxial stabilization. However, conventional bilateral C2PS is not always allowed in this method due to anatomical variations of C2 pedicles and/or asymmetry of the vertebral artery. Although unilateral C2PS plus contralateral LS (C2PS+LS) is an alternative in such cases, the efficacy of this procedure has not been evaluated in controlled studies (i.e., with bilateral C2PS as a control). Methods Clinical and radiological records of patients who underwent the C1LMS-C2PS method, using unilateral C2PS+LS (n=9), and those treated using conventional bilateral C2PS (n=10) were compared, with a minimum two years follow-up. Results Postoperative complications related to the unilateral C2PS+LS technique included one case of spontaneous spinous process fracture of C2. A C1 anterior arch fracture occurred after a fall in one patient, who underwent bilateral C2PS and C1 laminectomy. No significant differences were seen between the groups in reduction of neck pain after surgery or improvement of neurological status, as evaluated using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score. A delayed union occurred in one patient each of the groups, with the final fusion rate being 100% in both groups. Conclusions Clinical and radiological outcomes of unilateral C2PS+LS were comparable with those of the bilateral C2PS fixation technique for the C1LMS-C2PS method. PMID:25558320

Hongo, Michio; Kobayashi, Takashi; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Abe, Eiji; Shimada, Yoichi

2014-01-01

62

Unilateral high myopia: optical components, associated factors, and visual outcomes  

PubMed Central

Aim: To elucidate the optical basis for unilateral high myopia and to identify the factors associated with its development. Methods: Medical records of 48 children (aged 4 months to 17 years; mean age 6.8 years) with unilateral high myopia (5 dioptres or more) seen consecutively by the author during a 15 year period were reviewed. 45 (94%) of the 48 patients had unilateral axial myopia. Results: The mean refractive difference between paired eyes was 9.4 (SD 3.6) dioptres and the more myopic eye was on average 3.3 (1.8) mm longer than the less myopic eye. All but three of the patients had an ocular disorder associated with reduced acuity, central nervous system abnormality, or family history of high myopia. Conclusion: Clinical conditions associated with unilateral high myopia can be identified in the majority of patients and often account for the associated visual impairment. PMID:12881349

Weiss, A H

2003-01-01

63

[Unilateral nasal cavity and paranasal sinus neoplasm in adolescent].  

PubMed

The clinical data of two adolescents with unilateral nasal cavity neoplasm were analyzed. Both were male, one was 14-year-old and the other was 17. Both were complained of unilateral nasal obstruction and nasal discharge; The course of disease of the former was one month ,and that of the latter was three month; both were found neoformation in unilateral nasal cavity in medical examination. Occupying lesion in unilateral nasal cavity and sinus were demonstrated in CT scan of two cases. Endoscopy surgery were operated in both cases, incisal opening in labiogingival groove was added in the latter. Pathology of the former was capillary hemangioma and the latter was rhabdomyosarcoma. No findings indicating recurrence has been observed in two cases under 6 months follow-up. Recognition at nasal cavity and paranasal sinus neoplasm in adolescent is essential so that proper management can be initiated. PMID:23987020

Zhou, Jianhua; Li, Yanni; Xu, Ge

2013-06-01

64

Unilateral tilted disc and ipsilateral keratoconus in the same eye  

PubMed Central

The objective of this case was to report unilateral tilted disc in a boy with ipsilateral keratoconus. The tilted disc syndrome is a non-hereditary bilateral condition. This configuration is accompanied by situs inversus of the retinal vessels, congenital inferonasal conus, thinning of the inferonasal retinal pigment epithelium and choroid, and myopic astigmatism. Unilateral tilted disc syndrome is a rare condition. Keratoconus is a disorder characterised by progressive corneal steepening. The author present a case of unilateral tilted disc in a boy with ipsilateral keratoconus. Pterygium is a common disorder and tilted disc syndrome is a bilateral condition. But unilateral tilted disc in a boy with ipsilateral keratoconus is the first report in literature. Due to these clinical presentation, this report is an exception in literature and reported an unknown clinical coincident. PMID:22692492

Ciftci, Suleyman

2011-01-01

65

The effects of plyometric exercise on unilateral balance performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of plyometric exercise on unilateral balance performance. Nine healthy adults performed baseline measurements on the dominant limb that consisted of: a 20-s unilateral stability test on a tilt balance board, where a higher stability index represented deterioration in balance performance; isokinetic plantar flexion torque at 0.52 and 3.14 rad · s; muscle

Craig Twist; Nigel Gleeson; Roger Eston

2008-01-01

66

Unilateral inguinal hernia in girls: Is routine contralateral exploration justified?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the incidence of contralateral hernia development after unilateral inguinal hernia repair in girls, collected case series from two large hospitals were analyzed retrospectively. Among the 294 girls who had undergone repair of a unilateral inguinal hernia (during a 15-year period), 245 could be traced; the mean follow-up period was 8.4 years. In 25 (10.2%) of the patients, contralateral

? Ulman; M Demircan; A Arikan; A Avano?lu; O Ergün; G Özok; A Erdener

1995-01-01

67

Grip Force Coordination during Bimanual Tasks in Unilateral Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate coordination of fingertip forces during an asymmetrical bimanual task in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Twelve participants (six males, six females; mean age 14y 4mo, SD 3.3y; range 9-20y;) with unilateral CP (eight right-sided, four left-sided) and 15 age-matched typically…

Islam, Mominul; Gordon, Andrew M.; Skold, Annika; Forssberg, Hans; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

2011-01-01

68

International Relations Theory and the Case against Unilateralism  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are the general costs associated with a U.S. shift toward unilateralism? According to the overwhelming majority of inter- national relations (IR) scholars, the costs are very high. We evaluate the key arguments that underlie this assessment, namely that increased U.S. unilateralism will: (1) spur the formation of a coalition to check U.S. power; (2) reduce efficiency gains through lost

Stephen G. Brooks; William C. Wohlforth

2005-01-01

69

Evaluation of unilateral cage-instrumented fixation for lumbar spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To investigate how unilateral cage-instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) affects the three-dimensional flexibility in degenerative disc disease by comparing the biomechanical characteristics of unilateral and bilateral cage-instrumented PLIF. METHODS: Twelve motion segments in sheep lumbar spine specimens were tested for flexion, extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending by nondestructive flexibility test method using a nonconstrained testing apparatus. The

Ti-Sheng Chang; Jia-Hao Chang; Chien-Shiung Wang; Hung-Yi Chen; Ching-Wei Cheng

2010-01-01

70

Auditory sustained attention is a marker of unilateral spatial neglect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between performance on a non-spatially-lateralized measure of sustained attention and spatial bias on tests sensitive to unilateral neglect were considered in a group of 44 patients with right hemisphere lesions following stroke. As predicted from earlier studies showing a strong association between unilateral spatial neglect and sustained attention, performance on a brief and monotonous tone-counting measure formed a

Ian H Robertson; Tom Manly; Nicoletta Beschin; Roberta Daini; Hilary Haeske-Dewick; Volker Hömberg; Mervi Jehkonen; Gino Pizzamiglio; Agnes Shiel; Eugen Weber

1997-01-01

71

Mass-induced unilateral hallux valgus.  

PubMed

Various causes of hallux valgus exist. However, mass-induced hallux valgus is a rare phenomenon. To the best of our knowledge, there has been 1 previous report on mass-induced hallux valgus in the English literature; however, that report described giant cell tumor of the extensor digitorum longus tendon sheath. We believe ours to be the first published case of osteochondroma of the second metatarsus-induced hallux valgus. A 19-year-old woman presented with pain and tenderness in the left hallux of 3 months' duration. After a diagnosis of bony mass with hallux valgus, an operative excision was performed through a dorsal approach on the first web space of the left foot. The histopathologic diagnosis was osteochondroma. One-year follow-up radiographs showed a decreased hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal angle. Unilateral hallux valgus occurs in a mass area. After excision of the mass, hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal angle decrease. The rotational deformity is not severe. There is little probability of discovering its etiology, but mass-like osteochondroma should be considered. PMID:21162492

Young, Ki Won; Lee, Kyung Tai; Kwak, Jeong Ja; Lee, Young Koo; Park, Young Uk

2010-12-01

72

Compensatory responses after unilateral ovariectomy in rabbits.  

PubMed

Compensatory ovarian and gonadotropic responses to unilateral ovariectomy (ULO) were examined in the rabbit doe, an induced ovulator. On Days 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 after ULO, ovaries from 3 hemiovariectomized does and 1 sham-hemiovariectomized doe were examined macro- and microscopically for number, size and signs of atresia of follicles. The number of surface follicles increased initially to 7 or 8 follicles 2 days after ULO, followed by an increase to 10 or more follicles by Day 15 (control ovaries had 5.7 +/- 0.4 follicles). Total numbers of antral follicles and the proportion of follicles which were atretic did not vary relative to day after ULO. However, distributions of antral follicles in classes of 0.2-mm increments were significantly different between sham-ovariectomized and hemiovariectomized does after Day 2 due to shifts of follicles into larger size classes. Peripheral serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), but not luteinizing hormone (LH), increased temporarily during the 48 h after ULO. Follicular compensation after ULO in the doe entailed nonlinear increases in numbers of preovulatory follicles, due to increased growth within the antral population of follicles, probably the result of an acute surge of FSH. A period of more than 10 days was necessary to restore the number of preovulatory follicles after ULO. Exogenous human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) induced ovulation of recruited follicles. PMID:6421337

Fleming, M W; Rhodes, R C; Dailey, R A

1984-02-01

73

Unilateral cryptorchidism in mice mutant for Ptgds.  

PubMed

The pathophysiology of cryptorchidism, abnormal testicular descent, remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that both heterozygous and homozygous mice deficient for lipocalin-type prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2) ) synthase (Ptgds) presented unilateral cryptorchidism affecting the second phase of testicular descent in 16% and 24% of cases, respectively. The adult cryptorchid testes show an increase in spermatogonia apoptosis along with a global decrease in the tubule size parameters, whereas the gubernaculum of newborn mutants present some histological abnormalities. Disruption of the inguinoscrotal phase did not present impairment of the androgen pathway but rather a decrease in Rxfp2 mRNA expression in the gubernaculum. These observations led us to investigate the role of the PGD(2) signaling pathway in human testicular migration through PTGDS sequencing of DNA from 29 children with cryptorchidism. However, none of the investigated cases presented mutations in the PTGDS gene. Nevertheless, our results identify the PTGDS enzyme as a novel component in the cryptorchidism puzzle. PMID:23076868

Philibert, Pascal; Boizet-Bonhoure, Brigitte; Bashamboo, Anu; Paris, Françoise; Aritake, Kosuke; Urade, Yoshihiro; Leger, Juliane; Sultan, Charles; Poulat, Francis

2013-02-01

74

Bite force and electromyograpy during maximum unilateral and bilateral clenching.  

PubMed

Maximum voluntary bite force has often been studied as an indicator of the functional state of the masticatory system. Bilateral, as well as unilateral, methods have been used to determine bite force. Only a few studies have compared the outcomes of both methods. The aim of this study was to measure bite force and jaw-muscle activity during bilateral as well as unilateral maximum clenching in a large number of healthy subjects, so that the results could be compared. In a group of 81 dentate subjects we observed an average bilateral bite force of 569 N. The average unilateral bite force was significantly lower, being 430 N (right) and 429 N (left). Masseter and anterior temporal muscle activities were also significantly lower during unilateral clenching as compared with bilateral clenching. The masseter muscles showed no difference in activity between the ipsilateral side and the contralateral side during unilateral clenching. In contrast, the activity of the anterior temporal muscle on the ipsilateral side was significantly higher than on the contralateral side. Thus, the change in the forces acting on the jaw during unilateral clenching compared with bilateral clenching leads to a different response in the temporal muscles than in the masseter muscles. PMID:18471239

van der Bilt, Andries; Tekamp, Anneke; van der Glas, Hilbert; Abbink, Jan

2008-06-01

75

Ocular growth in infant aphakia. Bilateral versus unilateral congenital cataracts.  

PubMed

In a prospective study the changes in the ocular axial lengths and in the overall refractions were examined in cases of unilateral and bilateral congenital cataract requiring surgery during the first year of life. Measurements were taken on 18 children with unilateral and on 20 children with bilateral congenital cataract at the time of surgery and up to eight years postoperatively. Surgery was performed via a pars plana/plicata approach, and all infants were fitted with contact lenses. In cases of unilateral cataract, the ocular axial length tended to be superior to the age-matched values already prior to surgery. After four to eight years, one third of the eyes were clearly above normal. In cases of bilateral cataract, the axial lengths were reduced at the age of surgery in the majority of cases, and particularly in eyes that required surgery during the first six months of life. The curvatures of the contact lenses tended to remain unchanged in bilateral cataract, and decreased by about 0.7 mm in unilateral cases. This also reflects the high degree of microphthalmia in bilateral cases. After four to eight years, the degree of microphthalmia had usually increased. The overall refraction decreased significantly in unilateral and bilateral cataract during the first four years of life. The mean values were higher in bilateral than in unilateral cataract at all ages. The mean decrease was 15 diopters in unilateral cataract (SD +/- 5.5 dpt), and 10 diopters in bilateral cataract (SD +/- 6 dpt). When correlating the age-matched differences in the ocular axial lengths at the time of surgery with the overall refractions after four to eight years, a good correlation was found in the unilateral cases (eight eyes), and a poor correlation in the bilateral cases (24 eyes). The data indicate that intraocular implants should not be used in bilateral cataract requiring surgery during the first year of life as long as there is no possibility to change their refraction while in place. In unilateral cases, a relatively accurate prediction appears possible in a small number of eight eyes. However, an additional important correction with glasses would be needed before reaching the final refraction resulting in a high degree of aniseiconia, and eliminating the chances for binocular vision that are small anyway. Furthermore, data from other authors would indicate that the change in refraction may be much more important than expected when using intraocular implants in unilateral congenital cataract requiring surgery during the first year of life.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8015788

Lorenz, B; Wörle, J; Friedl, N; Hasenfratz, G

1993-12-01

76

Brittle Fractures near Equilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conical indentation fractures in silicate glass are stable, so that the speed at which they spread can be controlled. The validity of the Griffith fracture condition (energy balance) has been tested for such fractures and confirmed, with qualifications. Measurements on cone fractures are a method for determining accurately the specific fracture energy of brittle materials under physical and chemical conditions

F C Roesler

1956-01-01

77

On brittle fracture paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two classes of fracture are defined: I — fracture path completely predictable, and II — fracture path predictable only after initial random propagation. Class I fractures occur when there is a line of principal stress passing through the tip of the initiating notch or slit across which the stress is a maximum away from the tip. All Class II fractures

B. Cotterell

1965-01-01

78

Unilateral craniofacial microsomia. Part I. Mandibular analysis.  

PubMed

Various attempts to describe the skeletal characteristics of unilateral craniofacial microsomia have been made with the use of cephalometric and panoramic roentgenograms. Previous studies have been only descriptive in nature. To date, a detailed (quantitative) cephalometric analysis of the mandibular deformity has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to describe the skeletal jaw deformity by means of cephalometric landmarks in the lateral view. The patient population consisted of sixteen boys and eight girls who ranged in age from 6 to 16 years. They were compared to the University of Michigan normal control population for the following measures: gonial angle, mandibular plane angle, overall oblique length of the mandible, ramal height, and body length. The affected side showed a larger gonial angle and mandibular plane angle. The oblique length of the mandible (Cd-Gn) was decreased on both sides, as were ramal height and body length. Paradoxically, body length appeared shorter on the unaffected side than on the affected side. This paradoxical observation could be attributed to a shift of the mandible in relation to the midsagittal plane of the cranial base, the film cassette, and the path of the x-ray beam. Observation of the mandible in the basilar cephalogram explained the geometry of the projection error found in the lateral view. Similar projection errors exist for patients with other types of craniofacial asymmetry. It is suggested that two radiographic views, orthogonal to each other, should be used to define the x, y, and z planes for studies of craniofacial abnormality. PMID:6577795

Grayson, B H; Boral, S; Eisig, S; Kolber, A; McCarthy, J G

1983-09-01

79

Postural compensation for unilateral vestibular loss.  

PubMed

Postural control of upright stance was investigated in well-compensated, unilateral vestibular loss (UVL) subjects compared to age-matched control subjects. The goal was to determine how sensory weighting for postural control in UVL subjects differed from control subjects, and how sensory weighting related to UVL subjects' functional compensation, as assessed by standardized balance and dizziness questionnaires. Postural control mechanisms were identified using a model-based interpretation of medial-lateral center-of-mass body-sway evoked by support-surface rotational stimuli during eyes-closed stance. The surface-tilt stimuli consisted of continuous pseudorandom rotations presented at four different amplitudes. Parameters of a feedback control model were obtained that accounted for each subject's sway response to the surface-tilt stimuli. Sensory weighting factors quantified the relative contributions to stance control of vestibular sensory information, signaling body-sway relative to earth-vertical, and proprioceptive information, signaling body-sway relative to the surface. Results showed that UVL subjects made significantly greater use of proprioceptive, and therefore less use of vestibular, orientation information on all tests. There was relatively little overlap in the distributions of sensory weights measured in UVL and control subjects, although UVL subjects varied widely in the amount they could use their remaining vestibular function. Increased reliance on proprioceptive information by UVL subjects was associated with their balance being more disturbed by the surface-tilt perturbations than control subjects, thus indicating a deficiency of balance control even in well-compensated UVL subjects. Furthermore, there was some tendency for UVL subjects who were less able to utilize remaining vestibular information to also indicate worse functional compensation on questionnaires. PMID:21922014

Peterka, Robert J; Statler, Kennyn D; Wrisley, Diane M; Horak, Fay B

2011-01-01

80

Perception of colour in unilateral tritanopia.  

PubMed Central

The unilateral tritanope described in the previous paper (Alpern, Kitahara & Krantz, 1983) was able to match every narrow-band light presented to his tritanopic eye with lights from a tristimulus colorimeter viewed in the adjacent field by the normal eye. In two regions of the spectrum (called isochromes) physically identical lights appeared identical to the observer's two eyes. One isochrome was close to 'blue' for the normal eye, the other was in the long-wave spectral region seen by the normal eye predominantly as 'red'. Between these isochromes the normal eye required less than spectral purity to match, dropping to near zero purity at 560-570 nm. A mixture of the two isochromes that appeared purple to the normal eye appeared neutral to the tritanopic eye. Hence dichoptic matches grossly violate Grassmann's additivity law. For the normal eye colour naming conformed to typical normal results. For the tritanopic eye the results were coherent with those found by dichoptic matching: the spectrum was divided into two regions by the achromatic neutral band. To the short-wave side, only the colour names 'blue' and 'white' were ever used. To the long-wave side the predominant colour names were 'red' and 'white' with some 'yellow'. Spectral lights appeared neither 'red-blue' nor greenish. Surrounding the test with an annulus either 430 nm, 650 nm, or a mixture of these, fails to induce any greenish appearance, although the achromatic band shifted in the expected directions. It is concluded that there must be exactly three functionally independent, essentially non-linear central codes for colour perception, and that these codes are different from those suggested in existing theories of colour perception. PMID:6603509

Alpern, M; Kitahara, K; Krantz, D H

1983-01-01

81

Postural Compensation for Unilateral Vestibular Loss  

PubMed Central

Postural control of upright stance was investigated in well-compensated, unilateral vestibular loss (UVL) subjects compared to age-matched control subjects. The goal was to determine how sensory weighting for postural control in UVL subjects differed from control subjects, and how sensory weighting related to UVL subjects’ functional compensation, as assessed by standardized balance and dizziness questionnaires. Postural control mechanisms were identified using a model-based interpretation of medial–lateral center-of-mass body-sway evoked by support-surface rotational stimuli during eyes-closed stance. The surface-tilt stimuli consisted of continuous pseudorandom rotations presented at four different amplitudes. Parameters of a feedback control model were obtained that accounted for each subject’s sway response to the surface-tilt stimuli. Sensory weighting factors quantified the relative contributions to stance control of vestibular sensory information, signaling body-sway relative to earth-vertical, and proprioceptive information, signaling body-sway relative to the surface. Results showed that UVL subjects made significantly greater use of proprioceptive, and therefore less use of vestibular, orientation information on all tests. There was relatively little overlap in the distributions of sensory weights measured in UVL and control subjects, although UVL subjects varied widely in the amount they could use their remaining vestibular function. Increased reliance on proprioceptive information by UVL subjects was associated with their balance being more disturbed by the surface-tilt perturbations than control subjects, thus indicating a deficiency of balance control even in well-compensated UVL subjects. Furthermore, there was some tendency for UVL subjects who were less able to utilize remaining vestibular information to also indicate worse functional compensation on questionnaires. PMID:21922014

Peterka, Robert J.; Statler, Kennyn D.; Wrisley, Diane M.; Horak, Fay B.

2011-01-01

82

Effects of unilateral decompressive craniectomy on patients with unilateral acute post-traumatic brain swelling after severe traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acute post-traumatic brain swelling (BS) is one of the pathological forms that need emergent treatment following traumatic brain injury. There is controversy about the effects of craniotomy on acute post-traumatic BS. The aim of the present clinical study was to assess the efficacy of unilateral decompressive craniectomy (DC) or unilateral routine temporoparietal craniectomy on patients with unilateral acute post-traumatic BS. Methods Seventy-four patients of unilateral acute post-traumatic BS with midline shifting more than 5 mm were divided randomly into two groups: unilateral DC group (n = 37) and unilateral routine temporoparietal craniectomy group (control group, n = 37). The vital signs, the intracranial pressure (ICP), the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS), the mortality rate and the complications were prospectively analysed. Results The mean ICP values of patients in the unilateral DC group at hour 24, hour 48, hour 72 and hour 96 after injury were much lower than those of the control group (15.19 +/- 2.18 mmHg, 16.53 +/- 1.53 mmHg, 15.98 +/- 2.24 mmHg and 13.518 +/- 2.33 mmHg versus 19.95 +/- 2.24 mmHg, 18.32 +/- 1.77 mmHg, 21.05 +/- 2.23 mmHg and 17.68 +/- 1.40 mmHg, respectively). The mortality rates at 1 month after treatment were 27% in the unilateral DC group and 57% in the control group (p = 0.010). Good neurological outcome (GOS Score of 4 to 5) rates 1 year after injury for the groups were 56.8% and 32.4%, respectively (p = 0.035). The incidences of delayed intracranial hematoma and subdural effusion were 21.6% and 10.8% versus 5.4% and 0, respectively (p = 0.041 and 0.040). Conclusions Our data suggest that unilateral DC has superiority in lowering ICP, reducing the mortality rate and improving neurological outcomes over unilateral routine temporoparietal craniectomy. However, it increases the incidence of delayed intracranial hematomas and subdural effusion, some of which need secondary surgical intervention. These results provide information important for further large and multicenter clinical trials on the effects of DC in patients with acute post-traumatic BS. Trial registration ISRCTN14110527 PMID:19930556

2009-01-01

83

Clinical and surgical management of unilateral prepubertal gynecomastia  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Gynecomastia is the benign proliferation of the glandular tissue in the male breast. This condition is thought to be caused by the imbalance between estrogen action relative to androgen action at the breast tissue level. Bilateral gynecomastia is frequently found in the neonatal period, early in puberty, and with increasing age. Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia in the absence of endocrine abnormalities is extremely rare, with only a few cases in literature. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present an otherwise healthy boy of 12 years old with unilateral breast masses. No abnormalities were found on ultrasonography and on all endocrine parameters. Treatment consisted in a new “modified” Webster technique. DISCUSSION The results confirmed validity of this technique in terms of esthetic and functional results, and patient satisfaction. Atypical presentations of gynecomastia are often not recognized. The main pathophysiology of gynecomastia is alteration in the balance between the stimulatory effect of estrogen and the inhibitory effects of androgens on the development of the breast. If there is no causal treatment, surgical resection is the therapy of first choice. CONCLUSION The exact mechanism of unilateral gynecomastia formation in our case is unclear. The evaluation of unilateral gynecomastia can therefore be complex. In conclusion, the surgical treatment of unilateral gynecomastia requires an individual approach, based on an appropriate diagnostic algorithm. PMID:25437663

Ferraro, Giuseppe Andrea; De Francesco, Francesco; Romano, Tiziana; Grandone, Anna; D’Andrea, Francesco; Miraglia Del Giudice, Emanuele; Perrone, Laura; Nicoletti, Gianfranco

2014-01-01

84

Hip fracture surgery  

MedlinePLUS

... neck fracture repair; Trochanteric fracture repair; Hip pinning surgery ... You may receive general anesthesia before this surgery. This means ... spinal anesthesia. With this kind of anesthesia, medicine is ...

85

Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia in the absence of endocrine abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Gynecomastia is defined as the excessive development of breast tissue in males, which can occur as unilateral or bilateral. Although the overall prevalence of gynecomastia is 40%-65%, the prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia in the absence of endocrine abnormalities is unusual, with only a few case reports in literature. Idiopathic gynecomastia in prepuberty is benign but a diagnosis of exclusion. We here report two cases of healthy prepubertal boys aged 8.8 and 9.6 years old, respectively, presented with painful palpable mass in their unilateral breast. Breast tissue with glandular proliferation was confirmed on ultrasonography. Serum levels of estradiol, testosterone, and other laboratory findings were within normal range. They seem to have the prepubertal idiopathic gynecomastia but further follow-up to see their progression is needed. PMID:25346921

Kang, Min; Lee, Chan Jae; Hwang, Il Tae; Lee, Kwanseop

2014-01-01

86

The Effect of Unilateral SLN Lesion on Swallowing Threshold Volume  

PubMed Central

Objectives/Hypotheses The Superior Laryngeal Nerve (SLN) is the major sensory nerve for the upper larynx. Damage to this nerve impacts on successful swallowing. The first aim of the study was to assess the effect of unilateral SLN lesion on the threshold volume sufficient to elicit swallowing in an intact pig model; this volume was defined radiographically as the maximum bolus area visible in lateral view. The second aim was to determine if a difference existed between ipsi-lateral and contra-lateral function as a result of unilateral sensory loss, measured as the radiologic density of fluid seen in the valleculae. Finally, we determined if there was a relationship between the threshold volume and the occurrence of aspiration after a unilateral SLN lesion. Study Design Repeated measures animal study. Methods Four female infant pigs underwent unilateral SLN lesion surgery. The maximum vallecular bolus area in lateral view and the relative vallecular density on each side in the dorsoventral view were obtained from videofluoroscopic recordings in both the pre-lesion control and post lesion experimental states. Results In lateral view, the lesioned group had a bigger maximum bolus area than the control group (p<0.001). Although occasional left-right asymmetry in the dorsoventral view was observed,, the vallecular densities were, on average, equal on both the left (intact) and right (lesioned) sides (p>0.05). A bigger maximum bolus area did not predict aspiration in the lesioned group (p>0.05). Conclusion Unilateral SLN lesions increased the swallowing threshold volume symmetrically in right and left valleculae but the increased threshold may not be the main mechanism for the occurrence of aspiration. The Effect of Unilateral SLN Lesion on Swallowing Threshold Volume PMID:23670486

Ding, Peng; Campbell-Malone, Regina; Holman, Shaina D.; Lukasik, Stacey L.; Thexton, Allan J.; German, Rebecca Z.

2015-01-01

87

Cold shivering activity after unilateral destruction of the vestibular apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bioelectric activity of muscles (flexors and extensors of the forelimbs and hindlimbs) during cold shivering after unilateral destruction of the vestibular apparatus. It was found, that unilateral delabyrinthing produces bilateral facilitation of cold shivering in the flexor extremities more pronounced on the ipsilateral side. In the extensor muscles there was an absence of bioelectric activity both before and after delabyrinthing. Enhancement of cold shivering in the flexor extremities following intervention was evidently conditioned by removal of the inhibiting effect of the vestibulary apparatus on the function of special centers.

Kuzmina, G. I.

1980-01-01

88

A unilateral optic perineuritis in a teenager - A case report.  

PubMed

Optic perineuritis is an uncommon inflammatory disorder that involves optic nerve sheath. Numerous case reports have been published on optic perineuritis in adults, the majority of whom had bilateral presentation. There are limited data on optic perineuritis occurring in pediatric patients. We report a teenager who presented with a unilateral sign that mimicked the presentation of optic neuritis. The orbit and brain magnetic resonance imaging confirmed features of unilateral optic perineuritis. She was treated with a high dose of corticosteroids for 2weeks, and her final visual outcome was satisfactory. No signs of relapse were noted during follow-up visits. PMID:25457086

Ameilia, Ahmad; Shatriah, Ismail; Wan-Hitam, Wan Hazabbah; Yunus, Rohaizan

2014-10-19

89

Clinical effectiveness of unilateral deep brain stimulation in Tourette syndrome  

PubMed Central

Dysfunctional basal ganglia loops are thought to underlie the clinical picture of Tourette syndrome (TS). By altering dopaminergic activity in the affected neural structures, bilateral deep brain stimulation is assumed to have a modulatory effect on dopamine transmission resulting in an amelioration of tics. While the majority of published case reports deals with the application of bilateral stimulation, the present study aims at informing about the high effectiveness of unilateral stimulation of pallidal and nigral thalamic territories in TS. Potential implications and gains of the unilateral approach are discussed. PMID:22833207

Kuhn, J; Bartsch, C; Lenartz, D; Huys, D; Daumann, J; Woopen, C; Hunsche, S; Maarouf, M; Klosterkötter, J; Sturm, V

2011-01-01

90

Clinical effectiveness of unilateral deep brain stimulation in Tourette syndrome.  

PubMed

Dysfunctional basal ganglia loops are thought to underlie the clinical picture of Tourette syndrome (TS). By altering dopaminergic activity in the affected neural structures, bilateral deep brain stimulation is assumed to have a modulatory effect on dopamine transmission resulting in an amelioration of tics. While the majority of published case reports deals with the application of bilateral stimulation, the present study aims at informing about the high effectiveness of unilateral stimulation of pallidal and nigral thalamic territories in TS. Potential implications and gains of the unilateral approach are discussed. PMID:22833207

Kuhn, J; Bartsch, C; Lenartz, D; Huys, D; Daumann, J; Woopen, C; Hunsche, S; Maarouf, M; Klosterkötter, J; Sturm, V

2011-01-01

91

Comparison of symptoms and laboratory findings in unilateral vestibular dysfunction.  

PubMed

Although vertigo is the expected symptom of unilateral vestibular disease, exceptions have been observed. To determine the relative frequency of this observation, a retrospective study of patients seen over a 1-year period was done. Of the 126 patients found to have unilateral labyrinthine impairment with bithermal caloric testing, only 58 (46%) characterized their symptoms as vertigo. The ramifications of these findings are discussed, and a question is raised as to the propriety of reserving vestibular testing for only those patients describing vertigo. PMID:6438589

Keim, R J

1984-10-01

92

Bilateral Neck Femur Fracture Following a Generalized Seizure- A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

Hip fractures are one of the most common injuries which present to an orthopaedic surgeon. Most of these cases are unilateral .Bilateral simultaneous femur neck fracture is a rare occurrence. We report a case of a bilateral neck femur fracture in a 30 year male following a generalized tonic clonic seizure in view of its rarity and also to increase the awareness of such rare injuries. The patient was operated within 3 hours. At 5 months, the patient had good radiological and functional outcome. During a convulsion, there is a powerful and forceful contraction of muscles which may lead to fracture or dislocation. The incidence of fractures following a convulsion is 1.1%. A delay in diagnosis can lead to complications like avascular necrosis, osteoarthritis, non union, functional disability and legal consequences. All orthopaedic surgeons and emergency physicians should be aware of such uncommon injuries to ensure early diagnosis and treatment.

M Shah, Harshad; Grover, Amit; Gadi, Daksh; Sudarshan, K

2014-01-01

93

Orbital trapdoor fractures  

PubMed Central

Orbital trapdoor fractures are commonly encountered in children. Awareness of trapdoor fractures is of particular importance. This is because early recognition and treatment are necessary to prevent permanent motility abnormities. In this article, we will provide a brief overview of orbital fractures. The clinical and radiographic features of trapdoor fractures will then be reviewed, followed by a discussion on their proper management. PMID:23961006

Phan, Laura T.; Jordan Piluek, W.; McCulley, Timothy J.

2012-01-01

94

Shipping and climate change: Scope for unilateral action  

E-print Network

Shipping and climate change: Scope for unilateral action Paul Gilbert, Tyndall Manchester Alice on international shipping emissions and climate change undertaken at The University of Manchester by the Tyndall considers the role that the shipping sector could play in mitigating total global emissions

Matthews, Adrian

95

Neuromuscular fatigue differs following unilateral vs bilateral sustained submaximal  

E-print Network

of fatigue induced by a unilateral vs a bilateral submaximal isometric knee extension. Ten physically active men completed two experimental sessions, randomly presented. They were asked to maintain an isometric) and peripheral (peak doublet force at rest) fatigue on the exercised leg. Time to task failure was significantly

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

96

Unilateral nevoid acanthosis nigricans: Uncommon variant of a common disease  

PubMed Central

Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a fairly common dermatosis characterized by hyperpigmented velvety plaques, having a predilection for the intertriginous areas. We herein present a case of unilateral nevoid acanthosis nigricans over the left lateral chest, in an adult male. The rarity of documentation of this entity in the world literature prompted us to report the case. PMID:25506563

Das, Anupam; Bhattacharya, Sabari; Kumar, Piyush; Gayen, Tirthankar; Roy, Kunal; Das, Nilay K.; Gharami, Ramesh C.

2014-01-01

97

Bimanual Force Coordination in Children with Spastic Unilateral Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study bimanual grip-force coordination was quantified using a novel "Gripper" system that records grip forces produced while holding a lower and upper unit, in combination with the lift force necessary to separate these units. Children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) (aged 5-14 years, n = 12) were compared to age matched typically…

Smits-Engelsman, B. C. M.; Klingels, K.; Feys, H.

2011-01-01

98

Unilateral congenital elbow luxation in a Cavalier King Charles Spaniel  

PubMed Central

Abstract A 7-week-old, intact female, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel was evaluated for nonweight bearing lameness of the right forelimb. Type III unilateral congenital elbow luxation was diagnosed radiographically. After surgical reduction, temporary placement of a transarticular pin, and external splinting of the joint, full weight bearing was achieved. Radial head subluxation persisted. PMID:15600161

2004-01-01

99

Unilateral radiation pneumonitis in sheep: Physiological changes and bronchoalveolar lavage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation pneumonitis is a life-threatening result of therapeutic thoracic irradiation, yet its mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied the effects of unilateral lung irradiation (3,000 rad) in sheep from the immediate response to the later development of radiation pneumonitis. We defined radiation pneumonitis by its diagnostic clinical feature, radiographic infiltration of the irradiated zone with a straight margin corresponding to

B. F. Tillman; J. E. Loyd; A. W. Malcolm; B. A. Holm; K. L. Brigham

1989-01-01

100

Unilateral radiation pneumonitis in sheep: Physiological changes and bronchoalveolar lavage  

SciTech Connect

Radiation pneumonitis is a life-threatening result of therapeutic thoracic irradiation, yet its mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied the effects of unilateral lung irradiation (3,000 rad) in sheep from the immediate response to the later development of radiation pneumonitis. We defined radiation pneumonitis by its diagnostic clinical feature, radiographic infiltration of the irradiated zone with a straight margin corresponding to the radiation port. The immediate response in the few hours after irradiation was characterized by cough, labored respiration, hypoxemia (arterial PO{sub 2} decreased 19 Torr), mild pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary arterial pressure increased 20%), and lymphopenia. Hemodynamics and gas exchange returned to normal by day 2 but became abnormal again before or during radiation pneumonitis at 32 +/- 2 days. Respiratory distress, hypoxemia, and pulmonary hypertension recurred during radiation pneumonitis. Bronchoalveolar lavage during radiation pneumonitis contained increased neutrophils (19 +/- 4%, control = 7%), increased protein (0.27 +/- 0.1 g/dl, control = 0.12 +/- 0.03), and severely impaired ability to lower surface tension. Alveolar macrophages from both lungs during unilateral radiation pneumonitis exhibited impaired generation of superoxide after phorbol myristate (only a 30% increase). Normal control alveolar macrophages increased superoxide production after stimulation greater than 400%. We conclude that unilateral lung irradiation in sheep causes a mild immediate response followed by radiation pneumonitis at 1 mo. Unilateral radiation pneumonitis in this model is associated with ipsilateral neutrophilic alveolitis, increased bronchoalveolar lavage protein, and impaired surfactant function, as well as bilateral functional abnormalities of alveolar macrophages.

Tillman, B.F.; Loyd, J.E.; Malcolm, A.W.; Holm, B.A.; Brigham, K.L. (Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (USA))

1989-03-01

101

Unilateral nevoid acanthosis nigricans: Uncommon variant of a common disease.  

PubMed

Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a fairly common dermatosis characterized by hyperpigmented velvety plaques, having a predilection for the intertriginous areas. We herein present a case of unilateral nevoid acanthosis nigricans over the left lateral chest, in an adult male. The rarity of documentation of this entity in the world literature prompted us to report the case. PMID:25506563

Das, Anupam; Bhattacharya, Sabari; Kumar, Piyush; Gayen, Tirthankar; Roy, Kunal; Das, Nilay K; Gharami, Ramesh C

2014-11-01

102

Coupling of FM Systems to Individuals with Unilateral Hearing Loss.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the attenuation characteristics of 5 Frequency Modulation system sound delivery options for 25 adults and children (ages 5-13). Degree of ear canal occlusion was a major factor in degree of attenuation. For children with unilateral hearing impairments, the most acoustically appropriate option was the tube-fitting. (Author/JDD)

Kopun, Judy G.; And Others

1992-01-01

103

Compounded Fractures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

This VIS image taken in the region east of Alba Patera shows the complex relations that can occur in regions of multiple structural events. There are fractures and graben in this area that intersect at multiple angles.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 43.2, Longitude 269.4 East (90.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

104

Outcomes After Unilateral Uterine Artery Embolization: A Retrospective Review  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. Bilateral uterine artery embolization (UAE) is considered necessary to provide effective treatment for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Occasionally, only unilateral embolization is performed, and this study evaluates these outcomes. Materials and Methods. As part of a prospective observational study of more than 1600 patients treated with UAE since 1996, there have been 48 patients in whom unilateral embolization has been performed. This study retrospectively reviews clinical response as assessed by our standard questionnaire and radiological response assessed by either magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound. Results. Two principal groups emerged: the largest, where only the dominant unilateral arterial supply was electively embolized (30 patients); and the second, where there was technical failure to catheterize the second uterine artery as a result of anatomical constraints (12 patients). Favorable clinical response with a reduction in menorrhagia at 1 year was seen in 85.7% (18/21) of those patients with a dominant arterial supply to the fibroid(s). In contrast, in those patients where there was technical failure to embolize one uterine artery, there was a high rate of clinical failure requiring further intervention in 58.3% (7/12). Comparison of the technical failure group with the dominant uterine artery group demonstrated a statistically significant (Fisher's exact test) difference in the proportion of patients with evidence of persistent fibroid vascularity (p < 0.001) and requiring repeat intervention (p < 0.01). Conclusion. We conclude that unilateral UAE can achieve a positive clinical result in the group of patients where there is a dominant unilateral artery supplying the fibroid(s), in contrast to the poor results seen following technical failure.

Bratby, M. J. [St George's Hospital, Radiology Department (United Kingdom); Hussain, F. F.; Walker, W. J. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Radiology Department (United Kingdom)], E-mail: wj.walker@virgin.net

2008-03-15

105

An analytical methodology for magnetic field control in unilateral NMR.  

PubMed

Traditionally, unilateral NMR systems such as the NMR-MOUSE have used the fringe field between two bar magnets joined with a yoke in a 'U' geometry. This allows NMR signals to be acquired from a sensitive volume displaced from the magnets, permitting large samples to be investigated. The drawback of this approach is that the static field (B0) generated in this configuration is inhomogeneous, and has a large, nonlinear, gradient. As a consequence, the sensitive volume of the instrument is both small and ill defined. Empirical redesign of the permanent magnet array producing the B0 field has yielded instruments with magnetic field topologies acceptable for varying applications. The drawback of current approaches is the lack of formalism in the control of B0. Rather than tailoring the magnet geometry to NMR investigations, measurements must be tailored to the available magnet geometry. In this work, we present a design procedure whereby the size, shape, field strength, homogeneity, and gradients in the sensitive spot of a unilateral NMR sensor can be controlled. Our design uses high permeability pole pieces, shaped according to the contours of an analytical expression, to control B0, allowing unilateral NMR instruments to be designed to generate a controlled static field topology. We discuss the approach in the context of previously published design techniques, and explain the advantages inherent in our strategy as compared to other optimization methods. We detail the design, simulation, and construction of a unilateral magnet array using our approach. It is shown that the fabricated array exhibits a B0 topology consistent with the design. The utility of the design is demonstrated in a sample nondestructive testing application. Our design methodology is general, and defines a class of unilateral permanent magnet arrays in which the strength and shape of B0 within the sensitive volume can be controlled. PMID:15809175

Marble, Andrew E; Mastikhin, Igor V; Colpitts, Bruce G; Balcom, Bruce J

2005-05-01

106

Orthopedic trauma: pelvic fracture.  

PubMed

1. The incidence of pelvic fractures has greatly increased; automobile and motorcycle crashes, pedestrian accidents, and falls from great height are the most common causes. Pelvic fractures caused by high-energy trauma often result in significant morbidity and mortality with mortality rates variously reported at 10% to 50%, dependent upon fracture classification and associated injuries. Mortality occurs from associated trauma to viscera, abdominal organs, and abdominal vessels, and from early complications of hemorrhage. 2. The difficulty in management of patients with pelvic fractures is determining whether fractures are stable or unstable. Single breaks with no displacement in the pelvic ring, which includes injuries to the ischium, ilium, pubis, and sacrum, are stable fractures and account for one third of all pelvic fractures. 3. Increasingly widespread use of surgical stabilization internally via rigid fixation of pelvic fractures has helped reduce the morbidity and mortality related to these fractures. Other benefits that have resulted include shortened hospitalization, decreased complications, and earlier mobility. PMID:8342218

Edwards, K P

1993-01-01

107

Hydraulic Fracturing Sand  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Fine-grained silica sand is mixed with chemicals and water before being pumped into rock formations to prevent the newly created artificial fractures from closing after hydraulic fracturing is completed....

108

Infant skull fracture (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Skull fractures may occur with head injuries. Although the skull is both tough and resilient and provides excellent ... or blow can result in fracture of the skull and may be accompanied by injury to the ...

109

Growth Plate Fractures  

MedlinePLUS

... 2013 by the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Growth Plate Fractures Description The bones of children and ... also subject to a unique injury called a growth plate fracture. Growth plates are areas of developing ...

110

High velocity impact fracture  

E-print Network

An in-depth understanding of dynamic ductile fracture is one of the most important steps to improve the survivability of critical structures such as the lost Twin Towers. In the present thesis, the macroscopic fracture ...

Teng, Xiaoqing

2005-01-01

111

Fracture Resistance of Ceramics: Edge Fracture Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fracture resistance of macrohomogeneous linear elastic yttria, scandia, alumina, zirconia, and silicon nitride ceramics was studied upon flaking of the edges of rectangular specimens with the Rockwell indenter. The correlation between the obtained estimates and fracture toughness test results gained by the single-edge V-notched beam method was demonstrated. Loads giving rise to the flaking of a part of the edge

G. A. Gogotsi; V. I. Galenko; B. I. Ozerskii; T. A. Khristevich

2005-01-01

112

[Unilateral asterixis and focal brain lesions. 12 cases].  

PubMed

Asterixis is a involuntary movement with spontaneous interruptions and intermittent muscle tone. It occurs during posture maintenance. It is usually bilateral and, in this case, is observed in metabolic encephalopathy. Unilateral asterixis is more uncommon. We report 12 cases which occurred in patients with focal brain lesions. In all cases asterixis involved the upper limb and the lower limb in only 2 cases. Asterixis was transient, discrete and always associated with other neurological signs. The causal lesions (7 infracts, 2 haematomas, 2 abscesses, 1 meningioma) were unique in 7 cases and multiple in 5. Asterixis was always contralateral to the unilateral lesions. Lesions mainly involved the thalamus (7 cases) and other structures (lenticular nucleus, frontal lobe, internal capsule, precentral regions and cerebellum). The frequency of thalamic involvement suggested dysfunction of the thalamo-cortical loop. PMID:8761619

Tatu, L; Moulin, T; Martin, V; Chavot, D; Rousselot, J P; Monnier, G; Rumbach, L

1996-02-01

113

Framework Surgery for Treatment of Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis.  

PubMed

Laryngeal framework surgery is the current gold standard treatment for unilateral vocal fold paralysis. It provides a permanent solution to glottic insufficiency caused by injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Various modifications to the original Isshiki type I laryngoplasty procedure have been described to improve voice and swallowing outcomes. The success of this procedure is highly dependent on the experience of the surgeon as it epitomizes the intersection of art and science in the field. The following article reviews the evidence, controversies, and complications related to laryngoplasty for unilateral vocal fold paralysis. It also provides a detailed analysis of how and when arytenoid-positioning procedures should be considered, and summarizes the literature on postoperative outcomes. PMID:24883239

Daniero, James J; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Francis, David O

2014-06-01

114

Binocular function in unilateral aphakia. Correlation with aniseikonia and stereoacuity.  

PubMed

Aniseikonia and stereoacuity were measured in patients with unilateral aphakia, most of whom were postoperative senile cataract cases. The New Aniseikonia test was used to evaluate aniseikonia and the Titmus Stereotest to measure stereoacuity. Ninety cases were studied, 57 (63.3%) of which had intraocular lens (IOL) implants; 27 (30%) had extended-wear soft contact lenses; and six (6.7%) had spectacle lenses. In the IOL group, aniseikonia averaged 2.8%, and 39 patients (68.4%) had good stereoacuity. In the contact lens group, aniseikonia averaged 4.6%, and 11 (40.7%) had good stereoacuity. In the spectacle lens group, aniseikonia averaged 17.8%; none of the patients had good stereoacuity. The authors concluded that in cases with unilateral aphakia, correction with an IOL implant is superior to the other alternatives in achieving good binocular function. PMID:3231446

Katsumi, O; Miyanaga, Y; Hirose, T; Okuno, H; Asaoka, I

1988-08-01

115

Miniaturized bronchoscopy enables unilateral investigation, application, and sampling in mice.  

PubMed

Lung diseases, including pneumonia and asthma, are among the most prevalent human disorders, and murine models have been established to investigate their pathobiology and develop novel treatment approaches. Whereas bronchoscopy is valuable for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in patients, no equivalent for small rodents has been established. Here, we introduce a miniaturized video-bronchoscopy system offering new opportunities in experimental lung research. With an outer diameter of 0.75 mm, it is possible to advance the optics into the main bronchi of mice. An irrigation channel allows bronchoalveolar lavage and unilateral application of substances to one lung. Even a unilateral infection is possible, enabling researchers to use the contralateral lung as internal control. PMID:24960575

Dames, Claudia; Akyüz, Levent; Reppe, Katrin; Tabeling, Christoph; Dietert, Kristina; Kershaw, Olivia; Gruber, Achim D; Meisel, Christian; Meisel, Andreas; Witzenrath, Martin; Engel, Odilo

2014-12-01

116

Unilateral Cleft Lip and Nasal Repair: Techniques and Principles  

PubMed Central

The Mashhad University of Medical Sciences and the Sheikh Hospital in Mashhad sponsored a Cleft Lip and Palate Workshop 30 April – 1 May 2009. During the Workshop, 6 surgical cases were performed and televised live to the audience attending the conference. Two of those cases were unilateral cleft lip repairs. The surgical technique used to repair these patients by the primary author (JGM) is a hybrid technique. It has evolved over the last decade as a result of prior surgical literature as well as first hand observation of various surgical colleagues. The following manuscript describes the surgical technique used at the Cleft Workshop in a step-wise or atlas-like fashion. The technique portion of the paper describes the repair of the unilateral cleft lip and nasal deformity in roughly the order the first author typically performs the procedure. More importantly, the final section of the paper details the principles that form the foundation for the techniques described. PMID:23056779

Meara, John G.; Andrews, Brian T.; Ridgway, Emily B.; Raisolsadat, Mohammad-Ali; Hiradfar, Mehran

2011-01-01

117

Unilateral Stance Strategies of Athletes With ACL Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Aberrant movement strategies are characteristic of ACL-deficient athletes with recurrent knee instability (non-copers), and may instigate premature or accelerate joint degradation. Biomechanical evaluation of kinematic changes over time may elucidate noncopers’ responses to neuromuscular intervention and ACL reconstruction (ACLR). Forty noncopers were randomized into a perturbation group or a strength training only group. We evaluated the effects of perturbation training, and then gender on knee angle and tibial position during a unilateral standing task before and after ACLR. No statistically significant interactions were found. Before surgery, the strength training only group demonstrated knee angle asymmetry, but 6 months after ACLR, both groups presented with similar knee flexion between limbs. Aberrant and asymmetrical tibial position was found only in females following injury and ACLR. Neither treatment group showed distinct unilateral standing strategies following intervention; however, males and female noncopers appear to respond uniquely to physical therapy and surgery. PMID:22983931

Di Stasi, Stephanie L.; Hartigan, Erin H.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

2013-01-01

118

Orbital fractures: a review  

PubMed Central

This review of orbital fractures has three goals: 1) to understand the clinically relevant orbital anatomy with regard to periorbital trauma and orbital fractures, 2) to explain how to assess and examine a patient after periorbital trauma, and 3) to understand the medical and surgical management of orbital fractures. The article aims to summarize the evaluation and management of commonly encountered orbital fractures from the ophthalmologic perspective and to provide an overview for all practicing ophthalmologists and ophthalmologists in training. PMID:21339801

Joseph, Jeffrey M; Glavas, Ioannis P

2011-01-01

119

[Fractures of the talus].  

PubMed

Fractures of the neck of the talus are a relatively uncommon fracture of the foot but they have potentially serious complications. This article details the Hawkins classification, operative treatment and indications, and complications of fractures of the neck of the talus. It also discusses the treatment of fractures of the body of the talus and talar head. An English full text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental. PMID:21979888

Thordarson, D B

2011-10-01

120

Micromechanisms of brittle fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical processes operating in materials on the scale of the microstructure have come to be called “micromechanisms.” The\\u000a fundamental science and the micromechanisms of brittle fracture are reviewed here, with particular emphasis on cleavage and\\u000a intergranular fracture. Extant micromechanisms for these fracture types are evaluated. The role of solutes, particularly in\\u000a intergranular fracture, is also discussed in terms of the

Anthony W. Thompson; John F. Knott

1993-01-01

121

Bilateral subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head.  

PubMed

Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head is a rarely reported lesion, often confused with osteonecrosis, transient osteoporosis of the hip, or rapidly destructive coxarthrosis. However, almost all the previous reports about this lesion have documented unilateral cases. We report the clinical and histological features of bilateral subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head in a 68-year-old woman. She reported a sudden pain in her left hip without apparent trauma. An anteroposterior radiograph 2 weeks after the onset of pain in the left hip shows a subchondral collapse of the femoral head. The entire femoral head was depicted as a low intensity area on a T1-weighted image, and there was a subchondral linear pattern of low signal intensity with a convex shape to the articular surface. On T2-weighted image, the entire femoral head was depicted as a high intensity area, and on T1-weighted image, a linear low signal intensity pattern was noted. The patient underwent hemiarthroplasty. Cross-section of the femoral head showed a fracture line identified in the subchondral area. Although the patient's postoperative course was favorable, she had idiopathic pain in the right hip. A lateral radiograph 3 weeks after the onset of pain in the right hip shows irregularity at the surface of the femoral head. Cross-section of the right femoral head showed a concave fracture line in the subchondral bone. Based on these findings, bilateral subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head was diagnosed. PMID:19292269

Sudo, Akihiro; Hasegawa, Masahiro; Kato, Ko; Uchida, Atsumasa

2008-04-01

122

Evaluation of the relationship between fracture conductivity, fracture fluid production, and effective fracture length  

E-print Network

be shorter due to fracture growth out of zone, improper proppant settling, or proppant flowback, short calculated fracture lengths can also result from incorrect analysis techniques. It is known that fracturing fluid that remains in the fracture and formation...

Lolon, Elyezer P.

2006-04-12

123

Posterior pelvic ring fractures: Closed reduction and percutaneous CT-guided sacroiliac screw fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To assess the midterm results of closed reduction and percutaneous fixation (CRPF) with computed tomography (CT)-guided sacroiliac\\u000a screw fixation in longitudinal posterior pelvic ring fractures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Thirteen patients with 15 fractures were treated. Eleven patients received a unilateral, two a bilateral, screw fixation.\\u000a Twenty-seven screws were implanted. Continuous on-table traction was used in six cases. Mean radiological follow-up was 13\\u000a months.

Augustinus Ludwig Jacob; Peter Messmer; Klaus-Wilhelm Stock; Norbert Suhm; Bernard Baumann; Pietro Regazzoni; Wolfgang Steinbrich

1997-01-01

124

Therapeutic Effect of Retinoic Acid on Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Retinoic acids, a group of natural and synthetic vitamin A derivatives, have potent anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties. We investigated the therapeutic effect of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) on unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model mice. Methods: First, to evaluate the prophylactic effect, we administered 0.5 mg of ATRA for 3 days before UUO (UUO ATRA). Then, to evaluate the therapeutic

Kazuya Kishimoto; Koji Kinoshita; Shoichi Hino; Tomohiro Yano; Yasuaki Nagare; Hideki Shimazu; Yuji Nozaki; Masafumi Sugiyama; Shinya Ikoma; Masanori Funauchi

2011-01-01

125

Sulfasalazine reduces inflammatory renal injury in unilateral ureteral obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to test whether sulfasalazine has a protective action against interstitial inflammation and\\u000a the development of renal fibrosis in obstructive nephropathy. Female rats were subjected to a sham (n?=?10) or unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO, n?=?30). UUO was induced in rats by ligating the left ureter. Three days after operation, rats subjected to UUO were randomized

Savas Demirbilek; Memet Hanefi Emre; Engin Nasuhi Ayd?n; Mehmet Naci Edali; Rauf Tu?rul Aksoy; Melih Ak?n; Kubilay Gürünlüo?lu; Erkan Tas; Selma Ay; Zümrüt Yilmaz

2007-01-01

126

Isolated unilateral neurogenic blepharoptosis secondary to eyelid trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To describe eyelid trauma as a cause of isolated neurogenic blepharoptosis.DESIGN:Observational case series.METHODS: Three previously healthy patients (two male and one female; aged 29 to 39 years) were evaluated for unilateral blepharoptosis following forceful anterior displacement of the upper eyelid. Two injuries occurred during domestic altercations and one while the patient was playing basketballRESULTS: All three patients had complete

Timothy J McCulley; Robert C Kersten; Chee-Chew Yip; Dwight R Kulwin

2002-01-01

127

Unilateral Anomalous Arterial Pattern of Human Upper Limb  

PubMed Central

A unilateral case of variations in the brachial and antebrachial arterial branching pattern of a human upper limb is reported. A high bifurcation of brachial artery along with superficial course of ulnar artery was observed. Additionally, the profunda brachii and common interosseous artery originated from the radial artery instead of brachial and ulnar arteries respectively. An atypical branching pattern of arteries in an upper limb could pose a challenging problem to vascular surgeons while performing reconstructive procedures. PMID:21748065

Mehta, Vandana; Arora, Jyoti; Suri, R K; Rath, Gayatri

2008-01-01

128

Audiovestibular profile in unilateral chronic suppurative otitis media  

Microsoft Academic Search

AudioIogical tests including middle ear impedance test and vestibular function tests were administered to seventyfive patients\\u000a of unilateral chronic suppurative otitis media. These patients were selected so as to exclude the influence of hereditory,\\u000a drugs, systemic illness and the factors of aging. The subjects were subdivided into 3 groups : group 1 cases with central\\u000a perforation; group 2 with marginal

Lal Siampara; S. B. S. Mann; Naresh K. Panda; Y. N. Mehra

1997-01-01

129

Metatarsal stress fractures - aftercare  

MedlinePLUS

... fractures. In: Eiff PM, Hatch R, eds. Fracture Management for Primary Care . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 15. McCormack RG, Lopez CA. Commonly encountered fractures in sports medicine. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee ...

130

Fractures of the Triquetrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commonest carpal fractures are those of the carpal scaphoid. Triquetral fractures are relatively uncommon, but when present, often go undiagnosed or are misdiagnosed as lunate fractures. Clinical suspicion and careful evaluation of the appropriate radiographs, especially an oblique view, should ensure the diagnosis.

J. De V. De BEER; D. A. HUDSON

1987-01-01

131

Brittle fracture in compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparent paradox of two theories of fracture depending on whether the applied load is tensile or compressive is resolved. Although in compression, fracture seems to occur when the maximum tensile stress around a hole reaches a critical value it is suggested that fracture occurs when the crack extension force at the tip of a microcrack in the neighbourhood of

B. Cotterell

1972-01-01

132

Ovarian Reserve After Laparoscopic Treatment of Unilateral Ovarian Endometrioma  

PubMed Central

Aim: To evaluate the effect of laparoscopic treatment of unilateral ovarian endometrioma on ovarian reserve using ultrasonographic markers, ovarian volume and antral follicle count (AFC), and two biochemical markers, serum levels of Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and Estradiol (E2). Material and methods: This prospective study included 40 patients in their reproductive age, between 18 and 40 years old. They were treated laparoscopically for unilateral ovarian endometrioma. Markers of ovarian reserve were investigated before and three months after surgery. Transvaginal ultrasound examination was used for measurement of ovarian volume and AFC. Biochemical markers (FSH and E2 levels) were determined by chemiluminescent tests. Results: Ovarian volume was significantly reduced after surgery. There was significant increase of AFC and non-significant increase of E2 levels in treated patients after three months. Conclusions: Laparoscopic cystectomy of unilateral ovarian endometrioma decreased ovarian reserve immediately after surgery with decrease of ovarian volume. But ovarian reserve was increased after three months with increase of AFC and estradiol levels.

Georgievska, Jadranka; Sapunov, Slavejko; Cekovska, Svetlana; Vasilevska, Kristin

2014-01-01

133

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Effect of unilateral procedure on contralateral kidney function  

PubMed Central

Background: Although long-term effects of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) on renal function and structure have been evaluated, knowledge regarding the immediate effects of surgery on renal function is limited. We conducted this study to evaluate the impact of unilateral PCNL on bilateral renal function during immediate post-operative period. Materials and Methods: From April to September 2012, 40 eligible patients were enrolled in this study and underwent unilateral PCNL. During the post-operative period, creatinine clearances (CrCl) of treated and untreated sides were estimated separately and pattern of changes in bilateral renal function following this procedure was evaluated. Results: Following the operation, CrCl of both kidneys showed a similar pattern of changes, of course more dramatic on treated side. We observed progressive decline in CrCl of both sides followed by bilateral improvement in renal function toward pre-operative values. Conclusions: During the early post-operative period following unilateral PCNL, both kidneys experienced a temporary drop in function warranting more intensive post-operative care. PMID:25538913

Sichani, Mehrdad Mohammadi; Behnamfar, Amir; Khorami, Mohammad Hatef; Nourimahdavi, Kia; Alizadeh, Farshid; Izadpanahi, Mohammad Hossein

2014-01-01

134

Intracordal auricular cartilage injection for unilateral vocal fold paralysis.  

PubMed

We evaluated the efficacy and outcome of intracordal auricular cartilage injection in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Our interest developed from findings of a canine model study that reported that histologic characteristics of cartilage were preserved 2 and 3 years after intracordal autologous cartilage injection. Between May 2002 and July 2010, 29 patients with breathy dysphonia caused by unilateral vocal fold paralysis underwent intracordal auricular cartilage injection. Each subject underwent preoperative and postoperative perceptual assessments, acoustical voice analysis, and videostroboscopy. Fourteen patients were male, and the mean age was 52-years old. Patients were tracked for a mean duration of 257 days. Injections were performed through a transoral approach under general anesthesia. Perceptual assessments by GRBAS scale, acoustic parameters of jitter, shimmer, noise-to-harmonic ratio, and maximum phonation time significantly improved at 3, 6, and 12 months after cartilage injection (p?unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Autologous auricular cartilage can be a safe, effective, and alternative material for vocal fold medialization, and can be a long lasting one. PMID:24764320

Lim, Yun-Sung; Lee, Yoon Se; Lee, Jin-Choon; Lee, Byung-Joo; Wang, Soo-Geun; Park, Hee-June; Nam, Su-Bong; Bae, Yong-Chan

2015-01-01

135

Fracture geometry: Implications for growth of fractures and fracture systems  

SciTech Connect

A field study has been carried out to determine some general properties of natural tensile fractures in rock. Vein sets have been selected for analysis that represent as closely as possible the opening (aperture) geometry of fractures at depth. Detailed measurements of the opening geometry in cross sections of over 800 veins, exposed on large planar surfaces, were recorded from 8 separate field locations. Fracture lengths span 3 orders of magnitude, ranging from 7 millimeters to 25 meters. These data indicate a linear relationship between length and maximum opening displacement with an aspect ratio of ca 10[sup [minus]3]. The profiles display displacements with centrally located maxima. They are non-elliptical with gentle displacement gradients at the tips. The observed geometry can be modeled with a elastic-plastic model such as the one proposed by Dugdale (1960). Using this model the aspect ratios measured are shown to be consistent with tensional fracture strengths an order of magnitude lower than compressive shear strengths implied by shear displacement-length ratios of ca 10[sup [minus]2], recorded for faults. The profiles can be used to calculate the minimum yield strength of the fractured rock. They may also be useful for investigating the relationship between closely spaced segments that are commonly found within fracture systems.

Vermilye, J.M.; Scholz, C.H. (Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory)

1992-01-01

136

Outpatient Treatment for Humeral Fractures in Five Calves  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Humeral fractures were treated in 5 calves using unilateral external fixation with epoxy putty fixator (type I). The surgeries were performed under sedation and analgesia, and it involved application of ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block. The surgical procedures were completed in 60 to 90 min, and each calf was returned to the farm on the same day. The fixation allowed each calf to remain with the dam and suckle without strict stall rest and was removed 11 to 62 days post-surgery. The clinical sign of diminished radial nerve function disappeared 40 days to 4 months post-surgery. These observations suggest that this repair technique represents a feasible outpatient treatment for humeral fractures in calves. PMID:25056675

YAMAGISHI, Norio; DEVKOTA, Bhuminand; TAKAHASHI, Masahiro

2014-01-01

137

Stress fractures in runners.  

PubMed

Stress fractures are a relatively common entity in athletes, in particular, runners. Physicians and health care providers should maintain a high index of suspicion for stress fractures in runners presenting with insidious onset of focal bone tenderness associated with recent changes in training intensity or regimen. It is particularly important to recognize “high-risk” fractures, as these are associated with an increased risk of complication. A patient with confirmed radiographic evidence of a high-risk stress fracture should be evaluated by an orthopedic surgeon. Runners may benefit from orthotics, cushioned sneakers, interval training, and vitamin/calcium supplementation as a means of stress fracture prevention. PMID:22341018

McCormick, Frank; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Provencher, Matthew T

2012-04-01

138

Traumatic tympanic bulla fracture.  

PubMed

A Pekingese dog was presented for evaluation of head trauma with ventral head and neck swelling, puncture wounds, palpable mandibular fractures, and loss of menace, severe miosis, and loss of palpebral reflex of the right eye. Computed tomography confirmed multiple mandibular and zygomatic fractures, a right ear canal avulsion, and a complete right tympanic bulla fracture with ventral displacement. The tympanic bulla fracture was managed conservatively. Topical lubrication and antibiotic ointment was prescribed for the right eye. A subtotal hemimandibulectomy was performed to address the mandibular fractures. A temporary oesophagostomy feeding tube was placed. No short-term complications developed as a result of the fractured bulla and avulsed ear canal being left in situ, and no complications were reported 18 months after the injury. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of a traumatic tympanic bulla fracture in the dog. PMID:23889756

Rubin, J A; Kim, S E; Bacon, N J

2013-11-01

139

Prospective evaluation of unilateral adrenal masses in patients with operable non-small-cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Although adrenal metastases are frequently noted with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at autopsy, their incidence in patients with operable NSCLC is unclear. We prospectively assessed consecutive patients with otherwise operable NSCLC for the incidence and histology of unilateral adrenal masses. Assessment included blood chemistries, lung function tests, bronchoscopy, chest x-ray, bone scan, and computed tomography (CT) of the head, chest, and upper abdomen. Of 246 patients with otherwise operable NSCLC, 10 (4.1%) had a unilateral adrenal mass. Unilateral adrenal masses were needle-aspirated under CT control. If cytology was nondiagnostic, adrenalectomy was performed. Four (40%) of 10 patients had adrenal metastases proven by needle aspiration. Of the six (60%) patients with benign unilateral adrenal masses, one was demonstrated by needle aspiration. In the other five patients, a nondiagnostic needle aspiration led to adrenalectomy, which yielded two adenomas, two hyperplastic nodules, and one hemorrhagic cyst. There was no significant difference between the patients with benign and metastatic unilateral adrenal masses with respect to patient age or stage and size of adrenal mass. Patients with benign unilateral adrenal masses underwent curative resection of their NSCLC and had significantly prolonged survival compared with patients with metastatic unilateral adrenal masses treated with chemotherapy (P = .037). Median survival of patients with benign and metastatic unilateral adrenal masses was greater than 30 months and 9 months, respectively. In conclusion, the presence of unilateral adrenal masses in patients with otherwise operable NSCLC should not preclude thoracotomy without pathologic proof of metastatic disease. PMID:1649268

Ettinghausen, S E; Burt, M E

1991-08-01

140

Monocular oral reading after treatment of dense congenital unilateral cataract  

PubMed Central

Background Good long-term visual acuity outcomes for children with dense congenital unilateral cataracts have been reported following early surgery and good compliance with postoperative amblyopia therapy. However, treated eyes rarely achieve normal visual acuity and there has been no formal evaluation of the utility of the treated eye for reading. Methods Eighteen children previously treated for dense congenital unilateral cataract were tested monocularly with the Gray Oral Reading Test, 4th edition (GORT-4) at 7 to 13 years of age using two passages for each eye, one at grade level and one at +1 above grade level. In addition, right eyes of 55 normal children age 7 to 13 served as a control group. The GORT-4 assesses reading rate, accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Results Visual acuity of treated eyes ranged from 0.1 to 2.0 logMAR and of fellow eyes from ?0.1 to 0.2 logMAR. Treated eyes scored significantly lower than fellow and normal control eyes on all scales at grade level and at +1 above grade level. Monocular reading rate, accuracy, fluency, and comprehension were correlated with visual acuity of treated eyes (rs = ?0.575 to ?0.875, p < 0.005). Treated eyes with 0.1-0.3 logMAR visual acuity did not differ from fellow or normal control eyes in rate, accuracy, fluency, or comprehension when reading at grade level or at +1 above grade level. Fellow eyes did not differ from normal controls on any reading scale. Conclusions Excellent visual acuity outcomes following treatment of dense congenital unilateral cataracts are associated with normal reading ability of the treated eye in school-age children. PMID:20603057

Birch, Eileen E.; Cheng, Christina; Christina, V; Stager, David R.

2010-01-01

141

Unilateral nasal allergic reactions increase bilateral sinus eosinophil infiltration  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that unilateral nasal challenge with antigen causes an increase in the number of eosinophils in the ipsilateral maxillary sinus. Here we aimed to determine whether there was an eosinophil response in the contralateral maxillary sinus after unilateral nasal challenge with antigen. Twenty subjects with a history of seasonal allergic rhinitis and a positive nasal challenge to ragweed or grass allergens were studied outside of their allergy season. Catheters were placed in both maxillary sinuses and the subjects were challenged with antigen via the left nostril. The subjects recorded nasal symptoms before and after each allergen challenge and hourly for 8 h afterward. We performed nasal lavages of the nose and sinuses at the same time as symptoms were recorded. The lavages were analyzed for the number of eosinophils and levels of albumin. Subjects showed a symptomatic response to challenge accompanied by an influx of eosinophils into the nose and increased vascular permeability. The number of eosinophils increased in both maxillary sinuses. The total change from diluent in eosinophils during the late phase response was higher in the ipsilateral maxillary sinus (median = 8,505; range = 0–100,360) compared with the contralateral sinus (median = 1,596; range = ?13,527–93,373; P = 0.03). We conclude that eosinophils increase in both maxillary sinuses after unilateral nasal challenge. We speculate that a central neurologic reflex initiated in the nose by the nasal challenge contributes to the bilateral eosinophil response in the maxillary sinuses. We further speculate that, since there are more eosinophils in the ipsilateral compared with the contralateral maxillary sinus, there is also an axonal reflex into the ipsilateral maxillary sinus that contributed to the eosinophil response. PMID:23970539

deTineo, Marcella; Naclerio, Robert M.

2013-01-01

142

Natural fracturing, by depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural opening-mode fractures commonly fall upon a spectrum whose end-members are veins, which have wide ranges of sizes and are mostly or thoroughly cemented, and joints, which have little opening displacement and little or no cement. The vein end-member is common in metamorphic rocks, whose high temperature and pressure of formation place them outside typical reservoir settings; conversely, many uncemented joints likely form near the surface and so too have limited relevance to subsurface exploration. Sampling of cores retrieved from tight-gas sandstone reservoirs suggest that it is intermediate fractures, not true joints or veins, that provide natural porosity and permeability. Such fractures have abundant pore space among fracture-bridging cements, which may hold fractures open despite varying states of stress through time. Thus the more sophisticated our understanding of the processes that form veins and joints, i.e., how natural fracturing varies by depth, the better our ability to predict intermediate fractures. Systematic differences between veins and joints, in terms of size-scaling and lateral and stratigraphic spatial arrangement, have been explained in the literature by the mechanical effects of sedimentary layering, which likely exert more control over fracture patterns at shallower depths. Thus stratabound joints commonly have narrow size ranges and regular spacing; non-stratabound veins have a wide range of sizes and spacings. However, new fieldwork and careful literature review suggest that the effects of mechanical layering are only half the story. Although atypical, veins may be highly stratabound and yet spatially clustered; non-stratabound fractures may nonetheless feature narrow size ranges. These anomalous fracture arrangements are better explained by the presence of precipitating cements during fracture opening than by mechanical layering. Cement is thought to be highly important for fracture permeability, but potential effects of synkinematic cement on fracture size and spacing have been largely overlooked. Such effects are currently poorly understood, but numerical models of fracture widening amid precipitating cements can replicate observed size-scaling patterns. Synkinematic fracture-bridging cements can also potentially account for irregular fracture spacing in stratabound fracture arrays.

Hooker, John; Laubach, Stephen

2013-04-01

143

Isolated Unilateral Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy Due to Vertebral Artery Dissection  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a patient with unilateral tongue weakness secondary to an isolated lower motor neuron hypoglossal nerve palsy that was caused by a right vertebral artery dissection in the lower neck. The patient had a boggy tongue with a deviation to the right side but an otherwise normal neurological examination. Magnetic resonance angiography showed a narrow lumen of the right vertebral artery in the neck. After initially treating the patient with aspirin in the emergency room and later with warfarin for three months, there was complete recanalization of the right vertebral artery. Only one other case of vertebral artery dissection and twelfth nerve palsy has been reported before. PMID:22031481

Mahadevappa, Karthik; Chacko, Thomas; Nair, Anil K.

2012-01-01

144

Unilateral onycholysis in a patient taking erlotinib (Tarceva).  

PubMed

Targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signalling pathways has become routine practice in the treatment of lung cancer. Erlotinib is an oral EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, licensed for maintenance monotherapy treatment in patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer after first-line chemotherapy. The authors present the case of a 51-year-old patient who had an excellent response to erlotinib, but developed unilateral onycholysis as an unusual side effect. The authors discuss erlotinib-induced skin and nail changes and have provided a brief literature review on the available evidence for their management. PMID:22688477

Stevenson, Robert; El-Modir, Ahmed

2011-01-01

145

Partial HELLP syndrome with unilateral exudative retinal detachment treated conservatively.  

PubMed

Peripartum vision loss, an uncommon, often reversible complication of pregnancy usually occurs in the setting of pre-eclampsia or eclampsia. The HELLP syndrome is characterized by hypertension, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets. This is a rare case of unilateral exudative retinal detachment associated with the Partial HELLP syndrome that occurred after delivery in a 23-year-old Indian woman. The retinal detachment subsequently reattached with good visual improvement under conservative treatment. This case highlights the importance of early intervention by the ophthalmologist when pregnant women complain about visual symptoms. PMID:25473354

Pradeep, A V; Rao, Sonali; Ramesh Kumar, R

2014-10-01

146

Fracture tooth fragment reattachment.  

PubMed

Coronal fractures of the anterior teeth are a common form of dental trauma and its sequelae may impair the establishment and accomplishment of an adequate treatment plan. Among the various treatment options, reattachment of a crown fragment is a conservative treatment that should be considered for crown fractures of anterior teeth. This clinical case reports the management of two coronal tooth fracture cases that were successfully treated using tooth fragment reattachment using glass-fibre-reinforced composite post. PMID:23853012

Maitin, Nitin; Maitin, Shipra Nangalia; Rastogi, Khushboo; Bhushan, Rajarshi

2013-01-01

147

Pediatric Hand Fractures  

PubMed Central

Summary Pediatric hand fractures are common childhood injuries. Identification of the fractures in the emergency room setting can be challenging owing to the physes and incomplete ossification of the carpus that are not revealed in the xrays. Most simple fractures can be treated with appropriate immobilization through buddy taping, finger splints, or casting. If correctly diagnosed, reduced and immobilized, these fractures usually result in excellent clinical outcomes. However, fractures may require operative stabilization if they have substantial angulation or rotation, extend into the joint, or cannot be held in a reduced position with splinting alone. Most fractures can be treated operatively with closed reduction and percutaneous pinning if addressed within the first week following the injury. In children, the thick, vascular-rich periosteum and bony remodeling potential make anatomic reductions and internal fixation rarely necessary. Most fractures complete bony healing in 3-4 weeks, with the scaphoid being a notable exception. Following immobilization, children rarely develop hand stiffness and formal occupational therapy is usually not necessary. Despite the high potential for excellent outcomes in pediatric hand fractures, some fractures remain difficult to diagnose and treat. PMID:24209954

Nellans, Kate W.; Chung, Kevin C.

2014-01-01

148

The osteoporotic acetabular fracture.  

PubMed

Fractures of the acetabulum are some of the most challenging fractures that face orthopedic surgeons. In geriatric patients, these challenges are enhanced by the complexity of fracture patterns, the poor biomechanical characteristics of osteoporotic bone, and the comorbidities present in this population. Nonsurgical management is preferable when the fracture is stable enough to allow mobilization, and healing in a functional position can be expected. When significant displacement and/or hip instability are present, operative management is preferred in most patients, which may include open reduction and internal fixation with or without total hip arthroplasty. PMID:23544824

Henry, Patrick D G; Kreder, Hans J; Jenkinson, Richard J

2013-04-01

149

Periprosthetic fractures: bespoke solutions.  

PubMed

We are currently facing an epidemic of periprosthetic fractures around the hip. They may occur either during surgery or post-operatively. Although the acetabulum may be involved, the femur is most commonly affected. We are being presented with new, difficult fracture patterns around cemented and cementless implants, and we face the challenge of an elderly population who may have grossly deficient bone and may struggle to rehabilitate after such injuries. The correct surgical management of these fractures is challenging. This article will review the current choices of implants and techniques available to deal with periprosthetic fractures of the femur. PMID:25381408

Yasen, A T; Haddad, F S

2014-11-01

150

Fractures in hospitalized children.  

PubMed

Hospitalized children have multiple risk factors for fragility fractures, related to disease pathophysiology, treatments, nutritional status and immobilization. Recognition and treatment of these risk factors are important to prevent morbidity associated with fractures and to promote current and future bone health. Many knowledge gaps remain regarding the ideal nutrition, physical activity, and medication regimens needed to optimize bone health and reduce the risk of fractures over the life course. This article reviews the pathogenesis, risk factors, treatment and prevention strategies for fractures in hospitalized infants and children. PMID:22959479

Huh, Susanna Y; Gordon, Catherine M

2013-03-01

151

Chart - Fracture Toughness Modulus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chart depicting fracture toughness and Young's modulus of various materials including foams, polymers, elastomers, natural materials, composites, metals, technical ceramics, and non-technical ceramics.

Ashby, Mike

2005-01-18

152

Fracture holder and primary fracture-compression device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A device used for temporary fracture fixation and primary fracture compression, intended for the optimal application of a fracture compression-fixation device, the X plate,1,2 is described. The instrument permits the lengthwise decrease of a fracture gap of up to 5 mm. This usually exceeds the clinical needs for fracture compression. The fracture holder has been used in the treatment of

G. Eriksson; L. Larsson; L. Myrén; U. Olsson; H. G. Edeland

1977-01-01

153

Efficacy of Progesterone following a Moderate Unilateral Cortical Contusion Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in an accumulation of edema and loss of brain tissue. Progesterone (PROG) has been reported to reduce edema and cortical tissue loss in a bilateral prefrontal cortex injury. This study tests the hypothesis that PROG is neuroprotective following a unilateral parietal cortical contusion injury (CCI). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a moderate unilateral TBI using the CCI model. Rats were given 8?mg/kg PROG 15?min post-injury with four subsequent injections (6?h, and days 1, 2, and 3). Edema was determined 3 days post-injury, while cortical tissue sparing was also evaluated at 7 days post-injury. Animals were injured and given one of four treatments: (I) vehicle; (II) low dose: 8?mg/kg PROG; (III) high dose: 16?mg/kg PROG; (IV) tapered: 8?mg/kg PROG. Animals were given an initial injection within 15?min, followed by five injections (6?h, and days 1, 2, 3, and 4). Group IV received two additional injections (4?mg/kg on day 5; 2?mg/kg on day 6). PROG failed to alter both cortical edema and tissue sparing at any dose. Failure to modify two major sequelae associated with TBI brings into question the clinical usefulness of PROG as an effective treatment for all types of brain injury. PMID:18476780

Gilmer, Lesley K.; Roberts, Kelly N.

2008-01-01

154

Unilateral Agenesis of the Lung: A Rare Entity  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 15 Final Diagnosis: Unilateral agenesis of the lung Symptoms: Sore throat with dry cough Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Cect of the chest and bronchoscopy Specialty: Pulmonology Objective: Congenital defects/diseases Background: Agenesis of the lung, a rare congenital anomaly, arises or develops when there is disruption of evolution of the primitive lung bud, leading to complete absence of the lung, bronchi, and the main pulmonary artery. With right-sided agenesis, a variety of cardiac and other congenital malformations are more commonly seen, leading to a poor prognosis. Case Report: A young female, aged 15 years, presented with complaints of sore throat and cough. Her x-ray of the chest showed a homogeneous opacity in the middle and lower zones on the right side with marked shift of the mediastinum to the right side. Upon investigation, she was diagnosed with agenesis of the right lung with scoliosis, without any other congenital anomaly. Conclusions: Especially in adults, it requires a high level of good clinical judgement to identify and diagnose this congenital aberration, as they are often wrongly diagnosed as more common diseases associated with unilateral opaque hemithorax on x-ray. Hence, when confronted with an opaque hemithorax with shift of the mediastinum to the affected side in a young person, “agenesis of the lung” should be an important differential diagnosis while investigating the case. PMID:25659613

Singh, Urvinderpal; Jhim, Daksh; Kumar, Sunil; Mittal, Vidhu; Singh, Navdeep; Gour, Hitesh; Ramaraj, Muralidharan

2015-01-01

155

Behavioral consequences of unilateral inferior colliculus lesions in the rat.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to determine the behavioral sensitivity to sound of rats with unilateral lesions of inferior colliculus (IC) located ipsilateral or contralateral to the projection pathway from one ear. Absolute thresholds for the detection of a broad-band noise burst were compared for rats with a profound conductive hearing loss in one ear and a lesion placed either ipsilateral or contralateral to the normally functioning ear. The rats were trained to make withdrawal responses to avoid a shock when they detected the presence of a noise burst. Sound pressure level was systematically lowered to obtain psychophysical curves from which absolute thresholds could be determined. Complete lesions of the contralateral IC resulted in substantial elevations in absolute threshold relative to normal whereas equivalent lesions of the ipsilateral IC produced relatively little elevation. In neither case did unilateral destruction of the IC produce a total inability to respond to sound. Contralateral IC lesions that included the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) produced a significantly greater elevation in behavioral thresholds than complete lesions limited to the IC. The results indicate a predominance of the contralateral over the ipsilateral pathway to IC for maintaining normal thresholds. They also indicate that other pathways that bypass the IC are likely involved in detecting the presence of a sound. PMID:23010333

Burke, Aaron J; Hatano, Miyako; Kelly, Jack B

2012-12-01

156

Apparatus for unilateral generation of a homogeneous magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an apparatus for generating within a selected volume a magnetic field having a uniform strength to a selected tolerance, comprising: a first electromagnet coil having a first number of turns N/sub 1/ at a first radius R/sub 1/ with a center of the first coil spaced axially a first distance from the selected volume; a second electromagnet coil axially concentric with and parallel to the first coil and having a second number of turns N/sub 2/ at a second radius R/sub 2/ greater than R/sub 1/ and spaced unilateral of the volume with the first coil a second distance greater than the first distance from the selected volume. The first radius and first distance and the second radius and second distance is functionally related to enable the first and second electromagnet coils to produce first and second electromagnet coils to produce first and second magnetic fields, respectively, having substantially linear gradients within the selected volume. N/sub 1/ and N/sub 2/ are effective when energized with predetermined first and second currents, respectively, to produce equal and opposite gradients of the respective first and second magnetic fields in the unilateral volume and a net magnetic field having a strength within the selected volume effective for nuclear magnetic resonance determinations.

Fukushima, E.; Rath, A.R.; Roeder, S.B.

1988-01-26

157

Microdensitometric and microarchitectural alterations in irradiated mandibular fracture repair.  

PubMed

Head and neck cancer most often requires a multimodality approach to treatment that includes the use of radiotherapy. Unfortunately, radiation treatment can cause significant locoregional adverse effects with the particularly debilitating sequelae of late pathologic fracture. We aimed to define comprehensive metrics that will allow us to evaluate the efficacy of therapies aimed at assuaging the damaging effects of radiation on fracture healing.Six male rats (XRT/Fx) received a 36-Gy preoperative radiation dose delivered in 10 fractions over 10 days to their left hemimandible, whereas 6 other rats were not irradiated (Fx). After a recovery period, a unilateral osteotomy was performed with external distractor placement set to a 2.1-mm fracture gap on all the animals. Following a 28-day consolidation interval, mandibles were harvested and scanned via micro-computed tomography. Radiomorphometrics were extracted and analyzed with significance at P < 0.05.A quantifiable decrease in bone volume fraction (73.9% vs 78.6%; P < 0.05) was observed in XRT/Fx compared with Fx, without significant change in bone mineral density. Microarchitectural metrics were significantly altered in XRT/Fx compared with Fx, specifically trabecular thickness (0.37 vs 0.30 µm; P = 0.01), trabecular number (2.18 vs 2.45 N/mm; P = 0.04), and bone surface-bone volume ratio (5.50 vs 6.70; P = 0.01).We found that the irradiated and fractured bone demonstrated a significant diminution in bone quality and strength. We have established predictable and reliable radiographic measures that quantitatively demonstrate the degradative effects of radiation on fracture repair. We can now utilize these comprehensive metrics to evaluate the benefits of therapeutic interventions to remediate the damaging effects of radiation on fracture healing. PMID:25304138

Inyang, Alero F; Tchanque-Fossuo, Catherine N; Merati, Miesha; Radzolsky, Elizabeth R; Buchman, Steven R

2014-11-01

158

Role of platelet-rich plasma in acceleration of bone fracture healing.  

PubMed

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a common therapy for acceleration of maxillofacial and spinal fusion bone-graft healing. This study analyzes the therapeutic role of PRP during long-bone fracture healing evaluated Lewis rats. Following creation of unilateral open femur fractures, either 500 microL thrombin-activated PRP (PRP treated group) or 500 microL saline (control group) were applied once to the fracture site. Fracture healing was analyzed after 1 and 4 weeks. Following 4 weeks of fracture healing, radiographic analysis demonstrated higher callus to cortex width ratio (P < 0.05) in the PRP group (PRP: 1.65 +/- 0.06; control: 1.48 +/- 0.05). Three-point load bearing showed increased bone strength following PRP treatment (PRP: 60.85 +/- 6.06 Newton, control: 47.66 +/- 5.49 Newton). Fracture histology showed enhanced bone formation in the PRP group. Immunohistochemistry and Western-blotting demonstrated healing-associated changes in transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2. Our results suggest that PRP accelerates bone fracture healing of rat femurs via modulation of TGF-beta1 and BMP-2 growth factor expression. PMID:18724139

Simman, Richard; Hoffmann, Andrea; Bohinc, R Jordan; Peterson, Wylan C; Russ, Andrew J

2008-09-01

159

Plate versus titanium elastic nail in treatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures  

PubMed Central

Background: With changing trends in treatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures (DMCF), plating remains the standard procedure for fixation. An attracting alternative method of fixation is the titanium elastic nailing (TEN). However, prospective randomized studies comparing the two methods of fixation are lacking. We assessed the effectiveness of minimally invasive antegrade TEN and plating technique for the treatment of DMCF. Materials and Methods: 80 unilateral displaced midclavicular fractures operated between October 2010 and May 2013 were included in study. This prospective comparative study was approved by the local ethical committee. Followups were at 2nd and 6th weeks and subsequently at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months postoperatively. Primary outcome was measured by the Constant score, union rate and difference in clavicular length after fracture union. Secondary outcome was measured by operative time, intraoperative blood loss, wound size, cosmetic results and complications. Results: During analysis, we had 37 patients in the plate group and 34 patients in the TEN group. There was no significant difference in Constant scores between the two groups. However, faster fracture union, lesser operative time, lesser blood loss, easier implant removal and fewer complications were noted in the TEN group. Conclusion: The use of minimally invasive antegrade TEN for fixation of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures is recommended in view of faster fracture union, lesser morbidity, better cosmetic results, easier implant removal and fewer complications; although for comminuted fractures plating remains the procedure of choice. PMID:25404771

Saha, Partha; Datta, Prasenjit; Ayan, Saankritya; Garg, Anant Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Utpal; Kundu, Srikanta

2014-01-01

160

Anti-DKK1 antibody promotes bone fracture healing through activation of ?-catenin signaling.  

PubMed

In this study we investigated if Wnt/?-catenin signaling in mesenchymal progenitor cells plays a role in bone fracture repair and if DKK1-Ab promotes fracture healing through activation of ?-catenin signaling. Unilateral open transverse tibial fractures were created in CD1 mice and in ?-catenin(Prx1ER) conditional knockout (KO) and Cre-negative control mice (C57BL/6 background). Bone fracture callus tissues were collected and analyzed by radiography, micro-CT (?CT), histology, biomechanical testing and gene expression analysis. The results demonstrated that treatment with DKK1-Ab promoted bone callus formation and increased mechanical strength during the fracture healing process in CD1 mice. DKK1-Ab enhanced fracture repair by activation of endochondral ossification. The normal rate of bone repair was delayed when the ?-catenin gene was conditionally deleted in mesenchymal progenitor cells during the early stages of fracture healing. DKK1-Ab appeared to act through ?-catenin signaling to enhance bone repair since the beneficial effect of DKK1-Ab was abrogated in ?-catenin(Prx1ER) conditional KO mice. Further understanding of the signaling mechanism of DKK1-Ab in bone formation and bone regeneration may facilitate the clinical translation of this anabolic agent into therapeutic intervention. PMID:25263522

Jin, Hongting; Wang, Baoli; Li, Jia; Xie, Wanqing; Mao, Qiang; Li, Shan; Dong, Fuqiang; Sun, Yan; Ke, Hua-Zhu; Babij, Philip; Tong, Peijian; Chen, Di

2015-02-01

161

Unilateral septic sacro-iliitis. Importance of the anterior view of the bone scan  

SciTech Connect

Two cases of unilateral septic sacro-iliitis are reported. Importance of the anterior view of sacroiliac joints on the radionuclide bone scan is stressed. Limitation of the posterior view in evaluation of sacroiliac joints may lead to misdiagnosis and false negative results in unilateral sacro-illiac disease.

Kumar, R.; Balachandran, S.

1983-09-01

162

Bilateral Input Protects the Cortex from Unilaterally-Driven Reorganization in Children Who Are Deaf  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unilateral hearing in childhood restricts input along the bilateral auditory pathways, possibly causing permanent reorganization. In this study we asked: (i) do the auditory pathways develop abnormally in children who are bilaterally deaf and hear with a unilateral cochlear implant? and (ii) can such differences be reversed by restoring input to…

Gordon, Karen A.; Wong, Daniel D. E.; Papsin, Blake C.

2013-01-01

163

Song Recognition by Young Children with Cochlear Implants: Comparison between Unilateral, Bilateral, and Bimodal Users  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine song identification by preschoolers with normal hearing (NH) versus preschoolers with cochlear implants (CIs). Method: Participants included 45 children ages 3;8-7;3 (years;months): 12 with NH and 33 with CIs, including 10 with unilateral CI, 14 with bilateral CIs, and 9 bimodal users (CI-HA) with unilateral CI and…

Bartov, Tamar; Most, Tova

2014-01-01

164

Losartan attenuates renal vasoconstriction in response to acute unilateral ureteral occlusion in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unilateral ureteral obstruction in pigs is associated with an enhanced, de novo generation of angiotensin II from the ipsilateral kidney. In order to further investigate the role of this system during unilateral ureter obstruction, the renal hemodynamic response to the non-peptide angiotensin II antagonist losartan was investigated. Danish land race pigs were operated on under general anesthesia. Catheters were placed

Jan J. Hvistendahl; Thomas S. Pedersen; Jens C. Djurhuus; Erling B. Pedersen; Jørgen Frøkiær

2002-01-01

165

Substantial generalization of sensorimotor learning from bilateral to unilateral movement conditions.  

PubMed

Controversy exists regarding whether bimanual skill learning can generalize to unimanual performance. For example, some investigators showed that dynamic adaptation could only partially generalize between bilateral and unilateral movement conditions, while others demonstrated complete generalization of visuomotor adaptation. Here, we identified three potential factors that might have contributed to the discrepancy between the two sets of findings. In our first experiment, subjects performed reaching movements toward eight targets bilaterally with a novel force field applied to both arms, then unilaterally with the force field applied to one arm. Results showed that the dynamic adaptation generalized completely from bilateral to unilateral movements. In our second experiment, the same force field was only applied to one arm during both bilateral and unilateral movements. Results indicated complete transfer again. Finally, our subjects performed reaching movements toward a single target with the force field or a novel visuomotor rotation applied only to one arm during both bilateral and unilateral movements. The reduced breadth of experience obtained during bilateral movements resulted in incomplete transfer, which explains previous findings of limited generalization. These findings collectively suggest a substantial overlap between the neural processes underlying bilateral and unilateral movements, supporting the idea that bilateral training, often employed in stroke rehabilitation, is a valid method for improving unilateral performance. However, our findings also suggest that while the neural representations developed during bilateral training can generalize to facilitate unilateral performance, the extent of generalization may depend on the breadth of experience obtained during bilateral training. PMID:23505519

Wang, Jinsung; Lei, Yuming; Xiong, Khongchee; Marek, Katie

2013-01-01

166

Central bilateral sixth nerve palsy associated with a unilateral preganglionic Horner's syndrome.  

PubMed

Unilateral peripheral sixth nerve palsy associated with an ipsilateral postganglionic Horner's syndrome has previously been described. Isolated bilateral sixth nerve palsy due to a pontine hemorrhagic lesion, however, is a rare occurrence. We describe such a case whose only other neurological finding was a unilateral preganglionic Horner's syndrome. PMID:2971682

Kellen, R I; Burde, R M; Hodges, F J; Roper-Hall, G

1988-09-01

167

Motor Learning of a Bimanual Task in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) have been shown to improve their motor performance with sufficient practice. However, little is known about how they learn goal-oriented tasks. In the current study, 21 children with unilateral CP (age 4-10 years old) and 21 age-matched typically developed children (TDC) practiced a simple bimanual…

Hung, Ya-Ching; Gordon, Andrew M.

2013-01-01

168

Dual task interference during gait in patients with unilateral vestibular disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Vestibular patients show slower and unsteady gait; they have also been shown to need greater cognitive resources when carrying out balance and cognitive dual tasks (DT). This study investigated DT interference during gait in a middle-aged group of subjects with dizziness and unsteadiness after unilateral vestibular neuronitis and in a healthy control group. METHODS: Fourteen individuals with subacute unilateral

Alberto Nascimbeni; Andrea Gaffuri; Arminio Penno; Mara Tavoni

2010-01-01

169

Effects of Unilateral Hearing Loss on Teacher Responses to the SIFTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen school children with unilateral hearing loss were compared to their peers through administration of the Screening Instrument for Targeting Educational Risk (SIFTER) to their teachers. Results indicate that children with unilateral hearing loss are given SIFTER scores significantly lower than their peers in all five SIFTER areas of academics, attention, communication, participation, and behavior. Such results support previous findings

Jess Dancer; Nola T. Burl; Sandra Waters

1995-01-01

170

Unilateral relationship enhancement in the treatment of spouses of uncooperative alcohol abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the conceptualization of unilateral relationship enhancement (URE) and a URE treatment program developed for use with the spouses of alcohol abusers unmotivated to enter treatment. Enhancing the marital relationship through a unilateral program is described as an important step in the preparation of the spouse to function as a positive rehabilitative influence with his or her alcohol-abusing

Edwin J. Thomas; Kathryn Betts Adams; Marianne R. Yoshioka; Richard D. Ager

1990-01-01

171

Longitudinal Development of Hand Function in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of this study was to describe how the usefulness of the hemiplegic hand develops in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) aged between 18 months and 8 years. Method: A prospective longitudinal study of 43 children (22 males, 21 females) with unilateral CP was conducted. Inclusion age was 18 months to 5 years 4 months (mean 2y…

Holmefur, Marie; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Bergstrom, Jakob; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

2010-01-01

172

Is Making Divorce Easier Bad for Children? The Long-Run Implications of Unilateral Divorce  

Microsoft Academic Search

I assess the long-run implications for children of growing up in a unilateral divorce environment, which increases the ease of divorce by not requiring the explicit consent of both partners. Using 40 years of census data to exploit the variation across states and over time in changes in divorce regulation, I confirm that unilateral divorce regulations do significantly increase the

Jonathan Gruber

2004-01-01

173

Obesity and fracture risk  

PubMed Central

Summary Obesity and osteoporosis are two common diseases with an increasing prevalence and a high impact on morbidity and mortality. Obese women have always been considered protected against osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. However, several recent studies have challenged the widespread belief that obesity is protective against fracture and have suggested that obesity is a risk factor for certain fractures. Fat and bone are linked by many pathways, which ultimately serve the function of providing a skeleton appropriate to the mass of adipose tissue it is carrying. Leptin, adiponectin, adipocytic estrogens and insulin/amylin are involved in this connection. However, excessive body fat, and particularly abdominal fat, produces inflammatory cytokines which may stimulate bone resorption and reduce bone strength. This review aimed to examine the literature data on the relationships of BMI and fat mass with factures in adult and elderly subjects. Even though the more recent studies have shown conflicting results, there is growing evidence that obesity, and particularly severe obesity, may be related to an increased risk of fracture at different skeletal sites which is partially independent from BMD. Moreover, the relationship between obesity and fracture appears to be markedly influenced by ethnicity, gender and fat distribution. Even though the incidence and the pathogenesis of fracture in obese individuals has not yet been clearly defined, the growing evidence that obesity may be related to an increased risk of fracture has important public health implications and emphasizes the need to develop effective strategies to reduce fracture risk in obese subjects. PMID:25002873

Gonnelli, Stefano; Caffarelli, Carla; Nuti, Ranuccio

2014-01-01

174

Avulsion fractures in athletes.  

PubMed Central

34 cases of avulsion fractures are described. Each fracture took place during athletic training or competition. Excepting six sportsmen participating in a general fitness programme, every patient was an active competitive athlete. There were six women and 28 men; their average age was 20.1 years, raised by a few middle-aged "fitness sportsmen". Most avulsion fractures took place in sprinters and hurdlers; next were middle and long distance renner, footballers, fitness joggers, skiers and ice-hockey players. The most usual location of a fracture was the anterior pelvic spines; avulsion fractures were also detected in various parts of lower limbs. There were fewer avulsion fractures in the area of the trunk and upper extremities. Roetgenologically, the diagnosis of an avulsion fracture is generally easy to make. However, the diagnosis is facilitated by knowing the mechanism of the injury, the technique of the athletic event, and some of the training methods. Generally, a fracture heals well, even if it requires both sufficient immobilisation and some delay in resuming physical exertion. PMID:884433

Orava, S.; Ala-Ketola, L.

1977-01-01

175

The fracture of rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book contains an introduction and review of natural fractures in rock and their methods of study. It begins with the theoretical background of stress, strain and elasticity. The subject of rock fracture is presented from the perspective of structural geology. It provides a tool for structural studies in various fields of applied geology: mining research, hydrogeology of rock formations

J. L. Bles; B. Fuega

1986-01-01

176

Proximal Humeral Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite more than 3,000 articles published proximal humeral fractures remain diffi cult to defi ne and classify, natural evolution\\u000a has been poorly defi ned and the best treatment option is yet to be established. Current trends in management of these complex\\u000a fractures are analyzed and rationale decision-making is presented.

C. Torrens

177

OSTEOPOROTIC FRACTURES ghouling facts  

E-print Network

· Fractures can affect any part of the body except the skull OSTEOPOROSIS · May result in "nontraumatic and increase in "hump back" deformity · May give rise to chronic pain due to muscle shortening · May re pressure directly into the fractured vertebra. · Once in position, the cement hardens in about 10 minutes

Squire, Larry R.

178

Avulsion fractures in athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

34 cases of avulsion fractures are described. Each fracture took place during athletic training or competition. Excepting six sportsmen participating in a general fitness programme, every patient was an active competitive athlete. There were six women and 28 men; their average age was 20.1 years, raised by a few middle-aged \\

S. Orava; L. Ala-Ketola

1977-01-01

179

Secondary fracture prevention.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis causes no symptoms until there is a fracture. Although screening for osteoporosis is recommended for some populations, patients may present with a fragility fracture. Such patients are at high risk for subsequent fractures. Despite this high risk and the presence of generally safe and effective osteoporosis therapy, only a minority of low trauma fracture patients have evaluation and treatment of underlying osteoporosis. A brief summary of the evaluation and medical treatment of the post-fracture patient is provided. Several institutions, integrated health systems, and countries have instituted programs to identify, evaluate, and treat fragility fracture patients. Such programs have had variable success. This article describes some of the programs that work, their cost-effectiveness, and the applicability to the generally non-integrated US health care system. It is clear that better management of the post-fracture patient (and other high-risk patients) will lead to fewer fractures, decreased morbidity and mortality, and long-term cost savings. PMID:22307391

Adler, Robert A

2012-03-01

180

Fracture of synthetic diamond  

SciTech Connect

The fracture behavior of synthetic diamond has been investigated using indentation methods and by the tensile testing of pre-notched fracture-mechanics type samples. Specifically, the fracture toughness of free-standing diamond plates, grown by chemically-vapor deposited (CVD) methods, was measured using Vickers indentations and by the use of disk-shaped compact-tension specimens; the latter method provides an evaluation of the through-thickness fracture properties, whereas the indentation method was performed on the nucleation surface of the sample. Measured fracture toughness ({ital K}{sub c}) values were found to be approximately 5--6 MPa{radical}m by both methods, indicating that the fracture resistance of CVD diamond does not vary appreciably with grain size (within the certainty of the testing procedures). Complications, however, arose with the fracture-mechanics testing regarding crack initiation from a relatively blunt notch; further work is needed to develop pre-cracking methods to permit more reliable fracture toughness testing of diamond. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

Drory, M.D. [Crystallume, 3506 Bassett Street, Santa Clara, California 95054 (United States)] [Crystallume, 3506 Bassett Street, Santa Clara, California 95054 (United States); Dauskardt, R.H.; Kant, A.; Ritchie, R.O. [Center for Advanced Materials, Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Department of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Center for Advanced Materials, Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Department of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

1995-09-01

181

Fracture of glass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this educational exercise are the following: to observe and understand the fracture behavior of a brittle material; and to quantify the effects of various treatments on that material designed to modify its strength. A brief introduction to beam bending, fracture mechanics, influence of surface defects, residual stress, and static fatigue is presented. A test procedure for specimen testing is also presented.

Henshaw, John M.

1993-01-01

182

Parameters predicting postoperative unilateral disease in patients with unilateral prostate cancer in diagnostic biopsy: a rationale for selecting hemiablative focal therapy candidates  

PubMed Central

Background: Focal hemiablative therapy for prostate cancer is a new treatment alternative. Unilateral and unifocal disease are its main limitations. The aim of this study was to identify the epidemiological, clinical and pathological parameters that may predict unilateral disease in patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients at our institution between January 2005 and January 2011. Only patients with unilateral disease in prostate biopsy were part of the study. The analysis included age, preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and its density, prostate volume, biopsy first and second Gleason pattern and Gleason summary, number of biopsy cores, percentage of cancer in biopsy material and the presence of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Their role as potential predictors was evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 161 patients had unilateral disease after prostate biopsy. A significant correlation was found between prostate volume, PSA density and percentage of cancer in biopsy material and the presence of unilateral disease in the surgical specimen. These are the same factors significant in the univariate analysis. The results of the multivariate analysis demonstrated that PSA density (p = 0.015) and percentage of cancer in biopsy material (p = 0.028) are the most significant predictors. Interpretation: Our results demonstrate that PSA density and the percentage of cancer in biopsy cores are significant predictors for prostate cancer unilaterality and should be considered for the selection of hemiablative focal therapy candidates. PMID:23671513

Sfoungaristos, Stavros; Perimenis, Petros

2013-01-01

183

Hip fractures in children.  

PubMed

Hip fractures account for <1% of all pediatric fractures. Most are caused by high-energy mechanisms, but pathologic hip fractures also occur, usually from low-energy trauma. Complications occur at a high rate because the vascular and osseous anatomy of the child's proximal femur is vulnerable to injury. Surgical options vary based on the child's age, Delbet classification type, and degree of displacement. Anatomic reduction and surgical stabilization are indicated for most displaced hip fractures. Other options include smooth-wire or screw fixation, often supplemented by spica cast immobilization in younger children, or compression screw and side plate fixation. Achievement of fracture stability is more important than preservation of the proximal femoral physis. Capsular decompression after reduction and fixation may diminish the risk of osteonecrosis. Osteonecrosis, coxa vara, premature physeal closure of the proximal femur, and nonunion are complications that account for poor outcomes. PMID:19264709

Boardman, Matthew J; Herman, Martin J; Buck, Brian; Pizzutillo, Peter D

2009-03-01

184

Osteoporotic fracture models.  

PubMed

Animal models are widely used to investigate the pathogenesis of osteoporosis and for the clinical testing of anti-resorptive drugs. However, osteoporotic fracture models designed to investigate novel ways to treat fractures of osteoporotic bone must fulfil requirements distinct from those of pharmacological testing. Bone strength and toughness, implant fixation and osteointegration and fracture repair are of particular interest. Osteoporotic models should reflect the underlying clinical scenario be that primary type 1 (post-menopausal) osteoporosis, primary type 2 (senile) osteoporosis or secondary osteoporosis. In each scenario, small and large animal models have been developed. While rodent models facilitate the study of fractures in strains specifically established to facilitate understanding of the pathologic basis of disease, concerns remain about the relevance of small animal fracture models to the human situation. There is currently no all-encompassing model, and the choice of species and model must be individualized to the scientific question being addressed. PMID:25388154

Simpson, A Hamish; Murray, Iain R

2015-02-01

185

Unilateral cross bite treated by corticotomy-assisted expansion: two case reports  

PubMed Central

Background True unilateral posterior crossbite in adults is a challenging malocclusion to treat. Conventional expansion methods are expected to have some shortcomings. The aim of this paper is to introduce a new technique for treating unilateral posterior crossbite in adults, namely, corticotomy-assisted expansion (CAE) applied on two adult patients: one with a true unilateral crossbite and the other with an asymmetrical bilateral crossbite, both treated via modified corticotomy techniques and fixed orthodontic appliances. Methods Two cases with asymmetric maxillary constriction were treated using CAE. Results In both cases, effective asymmetrical expansion was achieved using CAE, and functional occlusion was established as well. Conclusions Unilateral CAE presents an effective and reliable technique to treat true unilateral crossbite. PMID:20482859

2010-01-01

186

Automated bone fracture detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractures of bone are a common affliction. In most developed countries the number of fractures associated with age-related bone loss is increasing rapidly. Each year many fractures are missed during x-ray diagnosis, resulting in ineffective patient management and expensive litigation. From both an orthopaedic and radiologic point of view, the fully automatic detection and classification of fractures in long-bones is an important but difficult problem. In this paper, a fully automated method of detecting fractures in the diaphysis of a long-bone is described. X-rays are very difficult to process automatically, so to extract the required information a non-linear anisotropic diffusion method, the Affine Morphological Scale Space, was implemented to smooth the image without losing information about the location of boundaries within the image. Next, an iterative peak detection algorithm is used to accurately locate the bone centreline and articular surfaces. A method based on orthogonal projections calculated from a modified Hough transform is used to automatically locate the long-bone diaphysis. At this point, our algorithm accurately localises the area of the fracture, and would allow further image registration if necessary. Finally, a gradient-based algorithm is used to detect fractures present in the region of interest. The magnitude and direction of the gradient are combined to produce a measure of the likelyhood of the presence of a fracture. A library of long-bone fracture images was created. Experimental tests performed on a series of x-ray images show that the method is capable of accurately segmenting the diaphysis from the epiphyses, and is also able to detect many mid-shaft fractures of long-bones.

Donnelley, Martin; Knowles, Greg

2005-04-01

187

Eye Socket Fracture (Fracture of the Orbit)  

MedlinePLUS

... including eye socket fractures, occur each year in the United States. About 85% of these injuries happen by accident, during contact sports, at work, in car crashes or while doing home repair projects. About 15% are ... more often than women do. The average age of the injured person is about ...

188

Apparatus for unilateral generation of a homogeneous magnetic field  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for unilaterally producing a substantially homogeneous magnetic field. The apparatus includes two circular electromagnet coils, a small coil and a large coil, which are coaxial with one another and which are separated by a distance equal to one-half the difference in the radius of the two coils. By appropriate selection of electrical currents, which are passed through the coil in opposite directions, a region of homogeneous magnetic field is formed. This region is centered on the common axis of the two coils, at a point on the axis which is at a distance from the small coil equal to one-half the radius of the small coil, and which is on the opposite side of the small coil from the large coil. The apparatus has particular application in the field of diagnostic medical NMR and other NMR applications.

Fukushima, Eiichi (Los Alamos, NM); Rath, Alan R. (San Diego, CA); Roeder, Stephen B. W. (La Mesa, CA)

1988-01-01

189

Unilateral shunt formation with thoracic aortic dissection in a whippet.  

PubMed

A three-year-old neutered male whippet was presented with intermittent, exercise-induced paraparesis. Femoral pulses were bilaterally absent. Neurologic examination was suggestive of a thoracolumbar myelopathy. Blood pressure measurements revealed hypotension in both pelvic limbs, hypertension in the right thoracic limb and it was immeasurable in the left thoracic limb. Echocardiography was within reference limits. A clear vascular pulsation was palpable on the right ventral abdominal wall. Computed tomographic angiography revealed a dissection of the aortic wall between the left subclavian artery and the brachiocephalic trunk with subsequent thrombus formation. A shunt between the right internal thoracic, cranial and caudal epigastric arteries to preserve blood flow to the pelvic limbs was visualized. Necropsy was declined by the owner. This is the first case report describing the formation of a unilateral vascular shunt following a thoracic aortic occlusion, which presented as exercise-induced paraparesis. PMID:24602076

Cornelis, I; Bosmans, T; Doom, M; Binst, D; Van der Vekens, E; Kromhout, K; Cornillie, P; Van Ham, L

2014-06-01

190

Apparatus for unilateral generation of a homogeneous magnetic field  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for unilaterally producing a substantially homogeneous magnetic field. The apparatus includes two circular electromagnet coils, a small coil and a large coil, which are coaxial with one another and which are separated by a distance equal to one-half the difference in the radius of the two coils. By appropriate selection of electrical currents, which are passed through the coils in opposite directions, a region of homogeneous magnetic field is formed. This region is centered on the common axis of the two coils, at a point on the axis which is at a distance from the small coil equal to one-half the radius of the small coil, and which is on the opposite side of the small coil from the large coil. The apparatus has particular application in the field of diagnostic medical NMR and other NMR applications.

Fukushima, E.; Rath, A.R.; Roeder, S.B.W.

1984-05-01

191

Multiple Unilateral Zosteriform Connective Tissue Nevi on the Trunk  

PubMed Central

Connective tissue nevus is not a true tumor, but rather a hamartoma involving various components of connective tissue. It presents as a slow-growing, painless, flesh-colored, or pink nodule or plaque that is evident from childhood. While any region of the body may be affected, there is a predilection for the trunk and extremities. A 20-month-old girl presented with three ipsilateral confluent popular plaques with zosteriform distribution that had formed over the previous 17 months on the left chest and abdomen. The patient remained asymptomatic. Unlike all previously reported cases demonstrating a single lesion, we report a connective tissue nevi in a child who presented with multiple unilateral zosteriform lesions, an unusual pattern of distribution without evidence of tuberous sclerosis complex. PMID:22148061

Choi, Young Jun; Lee, Seung Jae; Choi, Chong Won; Kim, Won-Serk

2011-01-01

192

Adenocarcinoid tumor of appendix presenting as unilateral Krukenberg tumor.  

PubMed

We report a case of adenocarcinoid tumor of the appendix that presented initially as a unilateral Krukenberg tumor (a signet ring cell mucinous adenocarcinoma with prominent cellular stroma). The primary tumor in the appendix was discovered 10 months later at the time of a "second look" laparotomy. The ovarian metastasis showed both goblet cell elements and tubular formations with numerous argyrophilic cells, indicating that both components of these tumors may metastasize, a finding at variance with the conclusions of some authors who suggest that only the mucinous component may metastasize. Theories of histogenesis of these tumors are discussed, and 12 previously reported cases presenting as Krukenberg tumors (all bilateral) are reviewed. Because the primary tumor in the appendix may be small and easily missed, appendectomy is recommended in all patients with Krukenberg tumors when another primary site cannot be identified at the time of surgery. PMID:2826924

Miller, R T; Sarikaya, H; Jenison, E L

1988-01-01

193

Unilateral Peters' anomaly complicated by a corneal tattoo.  

PubMed

Anterior segment dysgenesis is characterized by a spectrum of congenital anomalies involving the cornea, the iris, and the anterior chamber angle; it may be further complicated by systemic anomalies and glaucoma. Peters' anomaly, a specific type of mesenchymal anterior segment dysgenesis, is characterized by a central corneal leukoma, iridocorneal adhesions, and abnormalities of the posterior corneal stroma, Descemet's membrane, corneal endothelium, lens, and anterior chamber. Eighty percent of the cases are bilateral. We present an unusual unilateral case of Peters' anomaly complicated by postsurgical ocular muscle deviation, an iatrogenic corneal tattoo, cataract, and papillary conjunctivitis associated with contact lens wear. This article illustrates the classification of variants of anterior segment dysgenesis and the technique of corneal tatooing, as well as the use of prosthetic contact lenses in the management of corneal opacities. We stress that successful management of Peters' anomaly requires proper diagnosis of the condition, age-appropriate treatment with surgical consultation, and careful follow-up in affected patients. PMID:9778695

Pomella, K M; Wagner, H

1998-09-01

194

[Unilateral, paramedian spinal contusion after athletic injury with complete recovery].  

PubMed

The acute injury of the spinal column and the spinal cord asks for immediate diagnostic techniques and adequate therapeutical intensive care in order to secure the possibility of a maximum of neurologic recovery. An impact trauma of the spinal cord in sports accidents can cause an incomplete paraplegia. In some cases, morphologic lesions of the myelon cannot be detected. We present an exceptional and striking case of a 15-year old young woman who suffered from a contusio spinalis after high jump with the clinical signs of an incomplete, sensomotoric paraplegia which showed a strictly unilateral and paramedian border at the right side of her body for about two weeks. Additionally, the diagnostic possibilities of physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and neurophysiologic diagnostic techniques in detecting spinal cord injuries are demonstrated. PMID:7778020

Ebert, B; Badke, A

1995-03-01

195

Listening to classical music ameliorates unilateral neglect after stroke.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. We determined whether listening to excerpts of classical music ameliorates unilateral neglect (UN) in stroke patients. METHOD. In this within-subject study, we recruited and separately tested 16 UN patients with a right-hemisphere stroke under three conditions within 1 wk. In each condition, participants were asked to complete three subtests of the Behavioral Inattention Test while listening to classical music, white noise, or nothing. All conditions and the presentation of the tests were counterbalanced across participants. Visual analog scales were used to provide self-reported ratings of arousal and mood. RESULTS. Participants generally had the highest scores under the classical music condition and the lowest scores under the silence condition. In addition, most participants rated their arousal as highest after listening to classical music. CONCLUSION. Listening to classical music may improve visual attention in stroke patients with UN. Future research with larger study populations is necessary to validate these findings. PMID:23597691

Tsai, Pei-Luen; Chen, Mei-Ching; Huang, Yu-Ting; Lin, Keh-Chung; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Hsu, Yung-Wen

2013-01-01

196

Emotional Perception of Music in Children with Unilateral Cochlear Implants  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Cochlear implantation (CI) improves language skills among children with hearing loss. However, children with CIs still fall short of fulfilling some other needs, including musical perception. This is often attributed to the biological, technological, and acoustic limitations of CIs. Emotions play a key role in the understanding and enjoyment of music. The present study aimed to investigate the emotional perception of music in children with bilaterally severe-to-profound hearing loss and unilateral CIs. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five children with congenital severe-to-profound hearing loss and unilateral CIs and 30 children with normal hearing participated in the study. The children’s emotional perceptions of music, as defined by Peretz (1998), were measured. Children were instructed to indicate happy or sad feelings fostered in them by the music by pointing to pictures of faces showing these emotions. Results: Children with CI obtained significantly lower scores than children with normal hearing, for both happy and sad items of music as well as in overall test scores (P<0.001). Furthermore, both in CI group (P=0.49) and the control one (P<0.001), the happy items were more often recognized correctly than the sad items. Conclusion: Hearing-impaired children with CIs had poorer emotional perception of music than their normal peers. Due to the importance of music in the development of language, cognitive and social interaction skills, aural rehabilitation programs for children with CIs should focus particularly on music. Furthermore, it is essential to enhance the quality of musical perception by improving the quality of implant prostheses. PMID:25320700

Shirvani, Sareh; Jafari, Zahra; Sheibanizadeh, Abdolreza; Motasaddi Zarandy, Masoud; Jalaie, Shohre

2014-01-01

197

Ovarian compensatory hypertrophy following unilateral ovariectomy in the suckled sow.  

PubMed

The effects of unilateral ovariectomy on ovarian compensatory hypertrophy (OCH), endocrine profiles and the pituitary response to gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) were studied in 46 multiparous suckled sows. On d 20 of lactation (d 0 of experiment), sows were subjected to sham ovariectomy (Sham; n = 23) or unilateral ovariectomy (ULO; n = 23). On d 1 (n = 16), 2 (n = 15) or 8 (n = 15) following initial surgery the remaining ovaries in both Sham and ULO sows were removed. Immediately following removal of the remaining ovaries, GnRH (10 micrograms) was administered to each sow. Peripheral blood samples were taken every 10 min for 80 min beginning 20 min prior to GnRH administration. No difference in ovarian weight was observed between ULO and Sham sows until d 8, when ovarian weight was greater (P less than .05) for the remaining ovary from ULO sows (3.96 +/- .21 vs 5.91 +/- .39 g). Ovarian follicular fluid weights from ULO sows were greater (P less than .05) than Sham sows on both d 2 and 8. On d 1, plasma concentrations of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were greater (P less than .05) in ULO sows than in Sham sows (2.9 +/- .2 vs 2.1 +/- .1 ng/ml). Plasma FSH concentrations, however, did not differ between Sham and ULO sows on either d 2 or 8. Ovarian venous concentrations of estradiol-17 beta were also greater (P less than .05) in ULO sows compared with Sham sows on d 2 but not d 8. PMID:3093437

Martin, M J; Redmer, D A; Ford, J J; Christenson, R K; Day, B N

1986-08-01

198

Factors affecting ovarian compensation after unilateral ovariectomy in gilts.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to identify the temporal limits of an ovarian compensatory response after unilateral ovariectomy (ULO) in gilts and to examine ovarian and hormonal factors that might be related to this response. In the first study, all eight gilts that were unilaterally ovariectomized on d 12, 14 or 16 of an estrous cycle and two of four ULO on d 18 had a significant compensatory increase in ovulation rate per ovary compared with controls. Ovulatory compensation failed to occur, however, in two of four and four of four gilts ULO on d 18 or 19 of an estrous cycle, respectively. In the second study, blood samples were collected from 26 gilts beginning on d 14 of an estrous cycle, and animals were assigned to sham-surgery or ULO on d 17, 18 or 19. Ovarian compensation occurred after ULO on all 3 d of surgery in the second study, but most follicles failed to ovulate and formed large luteinized cysts. The ability to compensate was related positively to the number of medium-sized follicles on the intact ovary at the time of ULO, to an increase in concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone 12 to 18 h after ULO and to the interval from ULO to the preovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone. In a third experiment, interruption of the ovulatory mechanism and development of cystic follicles similar to those observed in the second study were induced simply by physical manipulation of the d 19 preovulatory ovary while contralateral untouched ovaries ovulated normally. PMID:6430861

Coleman, D A; Fleming, M W; Dailey, R A

1984-07-01

199

Frontal Sinus Fractures  

PubMed Central

The management of frontal sinus fractures has changed over the past 20 years. Whereas the indications for an invasive procedure had been much broader in the past, it has become more common to treat these fractures conservatively, due to improved imaging modalities, the advent of endoscopic surgical treatment of the nasofrontal outflow tracts, and the improved understanding of frontal sinus physiology. A variety of algorithms have been proposed for the management of frontal sinus fractures; however, we present a simplified treatment algorithm, which uses cranialization, obliteration, reconstruction, observation, and endoscopic sinus surgery. PMID:22550461

Echo, Anthony; Troy, Jared S.; Hollier, Larry H.

2010-01-01

200

Analysis of Sidewalk Fractures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sidewalks provide a good analog for the study of fractures when outcrops are not available. This exercise is taught as the first lab of the semester in an undergraduate structural geology course. Students learn to make systematic observations, measure the orientation and location of fractures, manipulate and analyze data, and consider some kinematic and dynamic questions regarding the origin and significance of fractures. Their experiences are also used later in the course to reinforce key concepts of brittle deformation. Done as a group project, it emphasizes the importance of group work and encourages students to propose and defend their ideas.

Onasch, Charles

201

Mechanical Coal-Face Fracturer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radial points on proposed drill bit take advantage of natural fracture planes of coal. Radial fracture points retracted during drilling and impacted by piston to fracture coal once drilling halts. Group of bits attached to array of pneumatic drivers to fracture large areas of coal face.

Collins, E. R., Jr.

1984-01-01

202

Systemic administration of sclerostin monoclonal antibody accelerates fracture healing in the femoral osteotomy model of young rats.  

PubMed

Genetic studies have demonstrated that sclerostin was a key negative regulator of bone formation. Sclerostin monoclonal antibody (Scl-Ab) treatment enhanced bone healing in experimental fracture healing. The purpose was to investigate the effects of systemic Scl-Ab administration on open fracture healing in young rats. Unilateral femoral fractures were generated in eight-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were treated with vehicle or Scl-Ab for 6weeks. Fracture healing was evaluated by western blotting, immunohistochemistry, histology, radiography, micro-CT, and biomechanical testing. In addition, the bone mass of intact femur was also evaluated by micro-CT. The results showed that, at 1 and 2weeks after fracture, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) score and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) expression in the Scl-Ab group were significantly increased compared with the control group. A decrease in cartilage in the Scl-Ab group was also observed after fracture, and this was accompanied by more rapider fracture healing. At 4 and 6weeks, there were significant increases in bone mass and mechanical properties in the calluses from Scl-Ab group compared with control group. In addition, Scl-Ab treatment also showed significant anabolic effects in intact femur. In conclusion, systemic Scl-Ab administration has a significant enhancement in a rat femoral osteotomy model. These results support the therapeutic potential of Scl-Ab as a noninvasive strategy to enhance open fracture healing. PMID:25479724

Feng, Gao; Chang-Qing, Zhang; Yi-Min, Chai; Xiao-Lin, Li

2015-01-01

203

Tibia (Shinbone) Shaft Fractures  

MedlinePLUS

... heal. If that occurs, you may need a secondary surgical procedure, such as bone gra ing or revision ? xation. Complications A tibial sha fracture can cause further injury and complications. • Sharp fragments may cut or tear ...

204

Lateral tibial plateau fracture.  

PubMed

The patient was a 30-year-old man who was initially seen by a physical therapist for a chief complaint of left knee pain. Due to concern for a fracture, the physical therapist ordered radiographs of the left knee, which revealed a fracture of the left lateral tibial plateau. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2012;42(9):819. doi:10.2519/jospt.2012.0416. PMID:22951597

Flautt, Warren; Miller, Joseph; Ratcliff, Jennifer Robyn

2012-09-01

205

Interlaminar fracture of composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fracture mechanics has been found to be a useful tool for understanding composite delamination. Analyses for calculating strain energy release rates associated with delamination growth have been developed. These analyses successfully characterized delamination onset and growth for particular sources of delamination. Low velocity impact has been found to be the most severe source of composite delamination. A variety of test methods for measuring interlaminar fracture toughness are being developed to identify new composite materials with enhanced delamination resistance.

Obrien, T. K.

1984-01-01

206

The mechanism of fracture  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference on the fracture mechanics of metals. Topics considered at the conference included microcrack mechanics, pressurized thermal shock behavior of LWR pressure vessels, stress intensity factors, submerged arc welding, weldments in power plants, pipeline weld quality, natural gas tanks, cast iron for spent nuclear fuel shipping casks, pipe ruptures, physical radiation effects, pressure tubes, hydrogen embrittlement, critical flaw size curves, and the fracture mechanics of steels in turbines of power stations.

Goel, V.S.

1985-01-01

207

Pediatric Orbital Fractures  

PubMed Central

It is wise to recall the dictum “children are not small adults” when managing pediatric orbital fractures. In a child, the craniofacial skeleton undergoes significant changes in size, shape, and proportion as it grows into maturity. Accordingly, the craniomaxillofacial surgeon must select an appropriate treatment strategy that considers both the nature of the injury and the child's stage of growth. The following review will discuss the management of pediatric orbital fractures, with an emphasis on clinically oriented anatomy and development. PMID:24436730

Oppenheimer, Adam J.; Monson, Laura A.; Buchman, Steven R.

2013-01-01

208

Antihypertensive effect of Silymarin on DOCA salt induced hypertension in unilateral nephrectomized rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Silymarin in DOCA salt induced hypertension\\u000a in unilateral nephrectomized rats. Unilateral nephrectomy was performed in female Wistar rats (150–200 g). A week after unilateral\\u000a nephrectomy, hypertension was induced by DOCA (25 mg\\/kg, once a week; s.c; for 4 weeks) dispersed in cottonseed oil. The effect\\u000a of Silymarin (300 mg\\/kg and 500 mg\\/kg,

G. B. Jadhav; C. D. Upasani

209

FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

Subhash Shah

2000-08-01

210

Fracture toughness of graphene.  

PubMed

Perfect graphene is believed to be the strongest material. However, the useful strength of large-area graphene with engineering relevance is usually determined by its fracture toughness, rather than the intrinsic strength that governs a uniform breaking of atomic bonds in perfect graphene. To date, the fracture toughness of graphene has not been measured. Here we report an in situ tensile testing of suspended graphene using a nanomechanical device in a scanning electron microscope. During tensile loading, the pre-cracked graphene sample fractures in a brittle manner with sharp edges, at a breaking stress substantially lower than the intrinsic strength of graphene. Our combined experiment and modelling verify the applicability of the classic Griffith theory of brittle fracture to graphene. The fracture toughness of graphene is measured as the critical stress intensity factor of and the equivalent critical strain energy release rate of 15.9 J m(-2). Our work quantifies the essential fracture properties of graphene and provides mechanistic insights into the mechanical failure of graphene. PMID:24777167

Zhang, Peng; Ma, Lulu; Fan, Feifei; Zeng, Zhi; Peng, Cheng; Loya, Phillip E; Liu, Zheng; Gong, Yongji; Zhang, Jiangnan; Zhang, Xingxiang; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Zhu, Ting; Lou, Jun

2014-01-01

211

Getting a Grip on Memory: Unilateral Hand Clenching Alters Episodic Recall  

PubMed Central

Unilateral hand clenching increases neuronal activity in the frontal lobe of the contralateral hemisphere. Such hand clenching is also associated with increased experiencing of a given hemisphere’s “mode of processing.” Together, these findings suggest that unilateral hand clenching can be used to test hypotheses concerning the specializations of the cerebral hemispheres during memory encoding and retrieval. We investigated this possibility by testing effects of unilateral hand clenching on episodic memory. The hemispheric Encoding/Retrieval Asymmetry (HERA) model proposes left prefrontal regions are associated with encoding, and right prefrontal regions with retrieval, of episodic memories. It was hypothesized that right hand clenching (left hemisphere activation) pre-encoding, and left hand clenching (right hemisphere activation) pre-recall, would result in superior memory. Results supported the HERA model. Also supported was that simple unilateral hand clenching can be used as a means by which the functional specializations of the cerebral hemispheres can be investigated in intact humans. PMID:23638094

Propper, Ruth E.; McGraw, Sean E.; Brunyé, Tad T.; Weiss, Michael

2013-01-01

212

Management of small unilateral renal cell carcinomas: Radical versus nephron-sparing surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives.There is controversy concerning the management of small unilateral renal cell carcinomas. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the relative efficacy of radial nephrectomy versus nephron-sparing surgery in such patients.

Brian P. Butler; Andrew C. Novick; David P. Miller; Steven A. Campbell; Mark R. Licht

1995-01-01

213

Do Audiologic Characteristics Predict Outcomes in Children with Unilateral Hearing Loss?  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether audiologic characteristics of unilateral hearing loss in children were associated with language, cognitive or achievement scores. Study design Case-control study Setting Pediatric otolaryngology ambulatory practice Patients Cases (n=109) were children aged 6–12 years with permanent unilateral hearing loss; controls (n=95) were siblings with normal bilateral hearing. Interventions Audiologic characteristics measured included side and severity of hearing loss, and word recognition scores in quiet and in noise. Main outcome measures Cognitive abilities were measured using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence; reading, math and writing achievement was measured with the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition-Abbreviated; and oral language skills were measured with the Oral Written and Language Scales. Results Children with unilateral hearing loss had worse verbal cognitive and oral language scores than children with normal hearing, but no differences in achievement scores. Children with profound unilateral hearing loss tended to have worse cognitive scores and had significantly lower oral language scores. Higher word recognition scores in quiet of the normal hearing ear were associated with higher cognitive, oral language, and reading achievement scores. Higher word recognition scores in noise were slightly correlated with higher oral language scores. Conclusions As expected, children with unilateral hearing loss had worse language scores than their siblings with normal hearing with trends toward worse cognitive scores. Children with profound unilateral hearing loss tended to have worse outcomes than children with normal hearing or less severe unilateral loss. However, there were no differences in outcomes between children with right or left unilateral hearing loss. PMID:24232067

Lieu, Judith E. C.; Karzon, Roanne K.; Ead, Banan; Tye-Murray, Nancy

2014-01-01

214

[Complete unilateral dilation of the vas deferens as a cause of an inguinal mass].  

PubMed

The complete unilateral dilation of the vas deferens is an extremely rare radiologic finding. Most cystic structures adjacent to the prostate can be grouped into cysts and diverticula. The finding of an inguinal mass makes it necessary to rule out intestinal hernias and other entities. We present the case of a patient who developed an inguinal mass secondary to unilateral dilation of the vas deferens. PMID:21733536

Gómez Herrera, J J; Zabía Galíndez, E; Carrera Terrón, R; Borruel Nacenta, S

2013-01-01

215

Pharmacologic agents in fracture healing.  

PubMed

Bone fractures are a known risk of athletic participation and can result in significant lost playing time. A variety of medications have been investigated in animal studies regarding their effects on fracture healing. Parathyroid hormone and the bisphosphonates may have future uses in the prevention and treatment of athletic-related stress fractures and acute fractures. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been implicated in effecting fracture healing in some animal models, but little clinical evidence supports these findings. Large randomized clinical trials are needed to further delineate the role of these and other drugs and their effects on fracture healing. PMID:16324974

Koester, Michael C; Spindler, Kurt P

2006-01-01

216

Subtotal petrosectomy and cerebrospinal fluid leakage in unilateral anacusis.  

PubMed

Objective?This study presents a group of patients experiencing recurrent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage associated with ipsilateral anacusis who underwent subtotal petrosectomies with the goal of stopping the CSF leak and preventing meningitis. Materials and Methods?Eight patients with CSF leakage were enrolled: three patients with giant vestibular schwannomas had CSF leakage after gamma knife failure and subsequent removal via a retrosigmoid approach; two patients had malformations at the level of the inner ear with consequent translabyrinthine fistulas; two had posttraumatic CSF leakages; and one had a CSF leakage coexisting with an encephalocele. Two patients developed meningitis that resolved with antibiotic therapy. Each patient had preoperative anacusis and vestibular nerve areflexia on the affected side. Results?The patients with congenital or posttraumatic CSF leaks had undergone at least one unsuccessful endaural approach to treat the fistula. All eight patients were treated successfully with a subtotal petrosectomy. The symptoms disappeared within 2 months postoperatively. No meningitis, signs of fistula, or other symptoms occurred during the follow-up. Conclusion?A subtotal petrosectomy should be the first choice of treatment in patients with recurrent CSF leakage whenever there is associated unilateral anacusis. PMID:25452896

Magliulo, Giuseppe; Iannella, Giannicola; Ciniglio Appiani, Mario; Re, Massimo

2014-12-01

217

Primate translational vestibuloocular reflexes. IV. Changes after unilateral labyrinthectomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of unilateral labyrinthectomy on the properties of the translational vestibuloocular reflexes (trVORs) were investigated in rhesus monkeys trained to fixate near targets. Translational motion stimuli consisted of either steady-state lateral and fore-aft sinusoidal oscillations or short-lasting transient displacements. During small-amplitude, steady-state sinusoidal lateral oscillations, a small decrease in the horizontal trVOR sensitivity and its dependence on viewing distance was observed during the first week after labyrinthectomy. These deficits gradually recovered over time. In addition, the vertical response component increased, causing a tilt of the eye velocity vector toward the lesioned side. During large, transient lateral displacements, the deficits were larger and longer lasting. Responses after labyrinthectomy were asymmetric, with eye velocity during movements toward the side of the lesion being more compromised. The most profound effect of the lesions was observed during fore-aft motion. Whereas responses were kinematically appropriate for fixation away from the side of the lesion (e.g., to the left after right labyrinthectomy), horizontal responses were anticompensatory during fixation at targets located ipsilateral to the side of the lesion (e.g., for targets to the right after right labyrinthectomy). This deficit showed little recovery during the 3-mo post-labyrinthectomy testing period. These results suggest that inputs from both labyrinths are important for the proper function of the trVORs, although the details of how bilateral signals are processed and integrated remain unknown.

Angelaki, D. E.; Newlands, S. D.; Dickman, J. D.

2000-01-01

218

Efficacy and cognitive effects of right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy.  

PubMed

The efficacy, memory, and cognitive effects of right unilateral (RUL) electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) at 2.5 times threshold in 32 inpatients with moderate to severe major depressive disorder were evaluated at baseline, during the course of treatment, and 1 month after treatment. Neuropsychological assessment included the Randt Memory Test, Personal Memory Test, short-version Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, and Self-Rating Scale of Memory Functions. At the treatment end point, although the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale mean score was decreased by 54.2%. the response rate of 2.5 times threshold RUL ECT using stringent criteria was only 31.2%. Treatment was associated with significant anterograde memory impairment in the short term. Mean total scores of the Randt Memory Test and Personal Memory Test were decreased from baseline by 14.8% and 32.5%, respectively, after six sessions of ECT. These memory deficits were significantly improved by the 1 month follow-up examination. Subjective memory scores increased consistently during treatment, correlating with improvements in mood. No adverse effects on nonmemory cognition were found. Although RUL ECT at 2.5 times threshold is not associated with marked or persistent cognitive disturbances, its efficacy may be insufficient in clinical practice. PMID:11314875

Ng, C; Schweitzer, I; Alexopoulos, P; Celi, E; Wong, L; Tuckwell, V; Sergejew, A; Tiller, J

2000-12-01

219

Bilateral Effects of Unilateral Cochlear Implantation in Congenitally Deaf Cats  

PubMed Central

Congenital deafness results in synaptic abnormalities in auditory nerve endings. These abnormalities are most prominent in terminals called endbulbs of Held, which are large, axosomatic synaptic endings whose size and evolutionary conservation emphasize their importance. Transmission jitter, delay, or failures, which would corrupt the processing of timing information, are possible consequences of the perturbations at this synaptic junction. We sought to determine whether electrical stimulation of the congenitally deaf auditory system via cochlear implants would restore the endbulb synapses to their normal morphology. Three and 6-month-old congenitally deaf cats received unilateral cochlear implants and were stimulated for a period of 10–19 weeks by using human speech processors. Implanted cats exhibited acoustic startle responses and were trained to approach their food dish in response to a specific acoustic stimulus. Endbulb synapses were examined by using serial section electron microscopy from cohorts of cats with normal hearing, congenital deafness, or congenital deafness with a cochlear implant. Synapse restoration was evident in endbulb synapses on the stimulated side of cats implanted at 3 months of age but not at 6 months. In the young implanted cats, post-synaptic densities exhibited normal size, shape, and distribution, and synaptic vesicles had density values typical of hearing cats. Synapses of the contralateral auditory nerve in early implanted cats also exhibited synapses with more normal structural features. These results demonstrate that electrical stimulation with a cochlear implant can help preserve central auditory synapses through direct and indirect pathways in an age-dependent fashion. PMID:20437534

O'Neil, Jahn N.; Limb, Charles J.; Baker, Christa A.; Ryugo, David K.

2014-01-01

220

Qualitative analysis of verbal fluency before and after unilateral pallidotomy.  

PubMed

This study examined qualitative aspects of phonemic and semantic fluency before and after unilateral pallidotomy in patients with intractable Parkinson's Disease (PD). Specifically, clustering (number of similar words generated sequentially) and switching (number of changes or switches from one cluster to another) were evaluated for both fluency tasks. Twenty-five PD patients participated and were grouped according to whether they improved or declined on each of the fluency measures after surgery. Decliners evidenced decreased switching, but not clustering, suggesting difficulties with set-shifting and cognitive flexibility rather than a diminished semantic store of information or retrieval difficulties. Though consistent with hypotheses about difficulties with executive processing after pallidotomy, a series of correlational analyses with composite measures of neuropsychological functioning (attention, language, executive processing, and memory) suggest caution in interpreting these findings. In these analyses, clustering was not meaningfully related to any of the composites whereas switching was significantly and positively related to the composites; this pattern emerged, for the most part, on both fluency measures before and after surgery. Switching, but not clustering, was also significantly and positively correlated with total words generated on both semantic and phonemic fluency. Switching changes across time were also related to DRS changes post-pallidotomy. These correlational analyses challenge the specificity of the switching variable and, more broadly, the validity of these qualitative measures of verbal fluency. PMID:14704883

Demakis, George J; Mercury, Michael G; Sweet, Jerry J; Rezak, Michael; Eller, Theodore; Vergenz, Sandy

2003-08-01

221

Hearing and music in unilateral spatial neglect neuro-rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is an attention deficit in the contralesional side of space which occurs after a cerebral stroke, mainly located in the right hemisphere. USN patients are disabled in all daily activities. USN is an important negative prognostic factor of functional recovery and of socio-professional reinsertion. Thus, patient rehabilitation is a major challenge. As this deficit has been described in many sensory modalities (including hearing), many sensory and poly-sensory rehabilitation methods have been proposed to USN patients. They are mainly based on visual, tactile modalities and on motor abilities. However, these methods appear to be quite task-specific and difficult to transfer to functional activities. Very few studies have focused on the hearing modality and even fewer studies have been conducted in music as a way of improving spatial attention. Therefore, more research on such retraining needs is neccessary in order to make reliable conclusions on its efficiency in long-term rehabilitation. Nevertheless, some evidence suggests that music could be a promising tool to enhance spatial attention and to rehabilitate USN patients. In fact, music is a material closely linked to space, involving common anatomical and functional networks. The present paper aims firstly at briefly reviewing the different procedures of sensory retraining proposed in USN, including auditory retraining, and their limits. Secondly, it aims to present the recent scientific evidence that makes music a good candidate for USN patients’ neuro-rehabilitation. PMID:25566165

Guilbert, Alma; Sylvain Clément; Moroni, Christine

2014-01-01

222

Ovulation and rate of implantation following unilateral ovariectomy in mice  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Removal of an ovary of any side of the body is called the unilateral ovariectomy (ULO). ULO models are used to analyze the existence of functional and physiological asymmetries between the ovaries, including the ovum implantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ULO was done in mice without any specification on their stages of the estrous cycle. The animals were mated between 3rd and 15th day after ULO to observe the consequence of ULO on ovulation and ovum implantation. RESULTS: Ovulation and number of implantation were decreased in proportion to single contralateral ovary if the animals were mated within 36 hrs of ULO. It resulted in increased weight of contralateral ovary due to hypertrophy, and also in compensatory ovulation, formation of corpus luteum (CL) that reached a peak after 14th and 15th day of ULO (sacrificed on 5th day of pregnancy i.e., 19th and 20th day of ULO) compared to animals undergone sham-surgery. Numbers of implantations were also increased progressively on the contralateral ovarian side and get to a peak after similar days of compensation. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Following ULO, the remaining ovary started to compensate within 5th to 6th day of ULO even during pregnancy. Ovarian histology also showed increased formation of CL which is a marker of rate of ovulation. PMID:23869151

Bhattacharya, Koushik

2013-01-01

223

Effect of unilateral ovariectomy and subsequent ovum implantation in mice.  

PubMed

Unilateral ovariectomy (ULO) was done on any stage of the cycle and the animals were mated within day 1 to day 21 to observe the acute and long term effect of ULO on ovum implantation. Implantation reduced in proportion to single ovary if the animals were mated within 24 hr of ULO. Increase in ovarian weight along with an increase in implantation number continued in mated mice and reached at peak on day 19-21 of ULO (sacrificed after 6 days i.e., 25-27 days of ULO). After ULO the remaining ovary compensated within day 5-6 of ULO even during pregnancy. Ovarian histology showed stimulation of small antral follicles in mice mated on day 3 of ULO (sacrificed after 6 days i.e., day 9 of ULO) along with a decrease of large antral follicles and pre-antral follicles. Preantral follicles were at peak on day 12-14. Large antral follicles attained a peak on day 4 which slowly decreased. The occurrence of implantation in such ULO conditions are discussed. PMID:1478713

Pakrasi, P L; Kumar, P; Kumar, A

1992-09-01

224

Association between auditory and visual symptoms of unilateral spatial neglect.  

PubMed

Unilateral spatial neglect due to right brain damage (RBD) can occur in several different sensory modalities in the same patient. Previous studies of the association between auditory and visual neglect have yielded conflicting outcomes. Most such studies have compared performance on relatively simple clinical measures of visual neglect, such as target cancellation, with that on more sophisticated measures of auditory perception. This is problematic because such tasks are typically not matched for the cognitive processes they exercise. We overcame this limitation by using equivalent visual and auditory versions of extinction and temporal-order judgment (TOJ) tasks. RBD patients demonstrated lateralized deficits on both visual and auditory tasks when compared with same-aged, healthy controls. Critically, a significant association between the severity of visual and auditory deficits was apparent on the TOJ task but not the extinction task, suggesting that even when task demands are matched across modalities, dissociations between visual and auditory neglect can be apparent. Across the auditory tasks, patients showed more pronounced deficits for verbal stimuli than for non-verbal stimuli. These findings have implications for recent models proposed to explain the role of spatial attention in multimodal perception. PMID:17451758

Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Irvine, Dexter R F; Mattingley, Jason B

2007-06-18

225

Dental maturation of unilateral cleft lip and palate  

PubMed Central

Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is the most common craniofacial abnormality and the fourth most common birth defect in Singapore. Many reports suggest that CLP children have delayed dental development and asymmetrical timing of tooth-pair formation. The aim of this study was to investigate the timing of development of permanent teeth in unilateral CLP (UCLP) children and to compare the findings with non-CLP children in Singapore. A total of 60 UCLP children aged between 5 and 9 years (mean 6.64 ± 0.90 years) and a non-CLP control group matched for age, gender, and race were investigated and compared. Dental records and radiographs were studied and the dental maturation was determined using the Demirjian's method (1973). The dental maturation of UCLP children were delayed compared with non-CLP children by a mean of 0.55 ± 0.75 years and the delay was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The UCLP group also had significantly higher risk of asymmetrically developing tooth pairs than the control group (P < 0.001). The most commonly delayed tooth in development was the maxillary cleft-sided lateral incisor. In conclusion, the UCLP children in Singapore demonstrated delayed dental maturation and a higher occurrence of asymmetrical tooth-pair formation than the non-CLP children. PMID:23483778

Tan, Elaine Li Yen; Yow, Mimi; Kuek, Meaw Charm; Wong, Hung Chew

2012-01-01

226

Dental maturation of unilateral cleft lip and palate.  

PubMed

Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is the most common craniofacial abnormality and the fourth most common birth defect in Singapore. Many reports suggest that CLP children have delayed dental development and asymmetrical timing of tooth-pair formation. The aim of this study was to investigate the timing of development of permanent teeth in unilateral CLP (UCLP) children and to compare the findings with non-CLP children in Singapore. A total of 60 UCLP children aged between 5 and 9 years (mean 6.64 ± 0.90 years) and a non-CLP control group matched for age, gender, and race were investigated and compared. Dental records and radiographs were studied and the dental maturation was determined using the Demirjian's method (1973). The dental maturation of UCLP children were delayed compared with non-CLP children by a mean of 0.55 ± 0.75 years and the delay was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The UCLP group also had significantly higher risk of asymmetrically developing tooth pairs than the control group (P < 0.001). The most commonly delayed tooth in development was the maxillary cleft-sided lateral incisor. In conclusion, the UCLP children in Singapore demonstrated delayed dental maturation and a higher occurrence of asymmetrical tooth-pair formation than the non-CLP children. PMID:23483778

Tan, Elaine Li Yen; Yow, Mimi; Kuek, Meaw Charm; Wong, Hung Chew

2012-07-01

227

Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Diffuse Unilateral Subacute Neuroretinitis  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To describe the SD-OCT findings in patients with diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN) and evaluate CRT and RNFL thickness. Methods. Patients with clinical diagnosis of DUSN who were submitted to SD-OCT were included in the study. Complete ophthalmologic examination and SD-OCT were performed. Cirrus scan strategy protocols used were 200 × 200 macular cube, optic nerve head cube, and HD-5 line raster. Results. Eight patients with DUSN were included. Mean RNFL thickness was 80.25??m and 104.75??m for affected and normal eyes, respectively. Late stage had mean RNFL thickness of 74.83??m compared to 96.5??m in early stage. Mean CMT was 205.5??m for affected eyes and 255.13??m for normal fellow eyes. Conclusion. RNFL and CMT were thinner in DUSN eyes compared to normal eyes. Late-stage disease had more pronounced thinning compared to early-stage patients. This thinning in RNFL and CMT may reflect the low visual acuity in patients with DUSN. PMID:21860780

Garcia Filho, Carlos Alexandre de A.; Soares, Ana Claudia Medeiros de A. G.; Penha, Fernando Marcondes; Garcia, Carlos Alexandre de Amorim

2011-01-01

228

Fracture-Flow-Enhanced Solute Diffusion into Fractured Rock  

SciTech Connect

We propose a new conceptual model of fracture-flow-enhanced matrix diffusion, which correlates with fracture-flow velocity, i.e., matrix diffusion enhancement induced by rapid fluid flow within fractures. According to the boundary-layer or film theory, fracture flow enhanced matrix diffusion may dominate mass-transfer processes at fracture-matrix interfaces, because rapid flow along fractures results in large velocity and concentration gradients at and near fracture-matrix interfaces, enhancing matrix diffusion at matrix surfaces. In this paper, we present a new formulation of the conceptual model for enhanced fracture-matrix diffusion, and its implementation is discussed using existing analytical solutions and numerical models. In addition, we use the enhanced matrix diffusion concept to analyze laboratory experimental results from nonreactive and reactive tracer breakthrough tests, in an effort to validate the new conceptual model.

Wu, Yu-Shu; Ye, Ming; Sudicky, E.A.

2007-12-15

229

Fracture of the coronoid process associated with frontosphenoidal fractures.  

PubMed

Coronoid process fractures are rarely encountered, commonly undiagnosed, usually asymptomatic, and most commonly treated conservatively, hence very little written about. We present two cases of coronoid process fractures with associated frontosphenoidal injuries. PMID:25383159

Baliga, Mohan; Baptist, Joanna

2014-12-01

230

Simulation of Hydraulic Fractures and their Interactions with Natural Fractures  

E-print Network

on stimulated volume and fracture network complexity. This thesis presents a boundary element and finite difference based method for modeling this interaction during hydraulic fracturing process. In addition, an improved boundary element model is developed...

Sesetty, Varahanaresh

2012-10-19

231

Quantitative measures of damage to subchondral bone are associated with functional outcome following treatment of displaced acetabular fractures.  

PubMed

Current analysis of displaced acetabular fractures is limited in its ability to predict functional outcome. This study aimed to (1) quantify initial acetabular damage following acetabular fracture through measurement of subchondral bone density and fracture lines, and (2) evaluate associations between acetabular damage and functional outcomes following fracture. Subchondral bone intensity maps were created for 24 patients with unilateral acetabular fractures. Measures of crack length and density differences between corresponding regions in the fractured acetabuli, normalized by the unfractured side, were generated from preoperative CT images. Damage measures were compared to quality of life survey data collected for each patient at least 2 years post-injury (Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment [MFA] and Short Form-36 [SF-36], with specific focus on parameters that best describe patients' physical health). CT image quantification of initial damage to acetabular subchondral bone was associated with functional outcome post-injury. In general, damage as quantified through differences in density in the superior dome region (zones 8 and 12) and the central anterior region of the acetabulum (zone 3) were found to be the strongest significant predictors of functional outcome (adjusted R(2) = 0.3-0.45, p < 0.05). Damage to the superior dome was predictive of worse functional outcome whereas damage to the central anterior region indicated a better functional outcome. Once automated, this approach may form a basis to score acetabular fractures toward improving clinical prognoses. PMID:23940014

Lubovsky, Omri; Kreder, Michael; Wright, David A; Kiss, Alex; Gallant, Aimee; Kreder, Hans J; Whyne, Cari M

2013-12-01

232

Reservoir fracture characterizations from seismic scattered waves  

E-print Network

The measurements of fracture parameters, such as fracture orientation, fracture density and fracture compliance, in a reservoir is very important for field development and exploration. Traditional seismic methods for ...

Fang, Xinding

2012-01-01

233

Fracture Conductivity of the Eagle Ford Shale  

E-print Network

conductivity is influenced by several variables including fracture surface roughness, fracture closure stress, proppant size, and proppant concentration. The proppant concentration within a fracture can significantly affect the magnitude of fracture...

Guzek, James J

2014-07-25

234

Compression fractures of the back  

MedlinePLUS

... fractures (Vertos II): an open-label randomised trial. Lancet . 2010 Sep 25;376(9746):1085-92. Wardlaw ... vertebral compression fracture (FREE): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet . 2009;373(9668):1016-24.

235

JAMA Patient Page: Bone Fractures  

MedlinePLUS

... Fixator With Pins and Wires Intramedullary Nail Cast Internal Fixation External Fixation Simple Fracture, Displaced Comminuted Fracture Simple ... the bones have healed, the pins are removed. • Internal fixation—In a surgical procedure, metal rods, wires, or ...

236

Numerical simulation of fracture  

SciTech Connect

The Bedded Crack Model (BCM) is a constitutive model for brittle materials. It is based on effective modulus theory and makes use of a generalized Griffith criterion for crack growth. It is used in a solid dynamic computer code to simulate stress wave propagation and fracture in rock. A general description of the model is given and then the theoretical basis for it is presented. Some effects of finite cell size in numerical simulations are discussed. The use of the BCM is illustrated in simulations of explosive fracture of oil shale. There is generally good agreement between the calculations and data from field experiments.

Margolin, L.G.; Adams, T.F.

1982-01-01

237

What Is Hydraulic Fracturing?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hydraulic fracturing is a process used in nine out of 10 natural gas wells in the United States, where millions of gallons of water, sand and chemicals are pumped underground to break apart the rock and release the gas. Scientists are worried that the chemicals used in fracturing may pose a threat either underground or when waste fluids are handled and sometimes spilled on the surface. This poster presentation illustrates the under surface process of hydraulic fracking and the distribution flow to the market.

2012-01-01

238

Statistics and thermodynamics of fracture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A probabilistic model of the fracture processes unifying the phenomenological study of long term strength of materials, fracture mechanics and statistical approaches to fracture is briefly outlined. The general framework of irreversible thermodynamics is employed to model the deterministic side of the failure phenomenon. The stochastic calculus is used to account for thg failure mechanisms controlled by chance; particularly, the random roughness of fracture surfaces.

Chudnovsky, A.

1984-01-01

239

Fatigue, degradation, and fracture 1990  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers presented at the 1990 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference. It is organized under the following headings: Environmental fatigue crack growth; Fatigue analysis and fracture assessment; Fatigue and fracture of piping; Fatigue and fracture of vessels; Degradation of ferritic, austenitic, and duplex stainless alloys in nuclear service.

Bamford, W.H. (Westinghouse Energy Systems (US)); Becht, C. IV (Becht Engineering Co., Inc. (US)); Bhandari, S. (Framatome (FR)); Gilman, J.D. (Electric Power Research Institute (US)); James, L.A. (Westinghouse Bettis Laboratory (US)); Prager, M. (Materials Properties Council (US))

1990-01-01

240

Brittle fracture of polycrystalline tungsten  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of the brittle fracture of three varieties of polycrystalline tungsten has been carried out using mainly impact tests, scanning electron microscopy and Auger spectroscopy. It indicates the occurrence of two modes of brittle fracture, namely cleavage and intergranular fractures, whose proportions depend on temperature and on phosphorus segregation at the grain boundaries. Scanning Auger images indicate unambiguously

Tran-Huu-Loi; J. P. Morniroli; M. Gantois; M. Lahaye

1985-01-01

241

Relative Permeability of Fractured Rock  

E-print Network

SGP-TR-172 Relative Permeability of Fractured Rock Mark D. Habana June 2002 Financial support experiments on a naturally-fractured rock from The Geysers geothermal field. The steady-state approach permeability of a core is especially important in a fractured rock. The rock may change as asperities

Stanford University

242

Prevention of Railroad Wheel Fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Railroad wheel brittle fractures normally occur from the tips of thermal cracks originating in the tread or flange. Tensile stress that contributes to the fracture is produced by abnormal brake heating. In the US, there used to be a comparable number of derailments due to such brittle wheel fractures. In Japan, brake conditions have not been so severe, and maintenance

Haruo Sakamoto; Kenji Hirakawa

2003-01-01

243

Viscoelastic rocket grain fracture analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A viscoelastic fracture analysis has been developed for rocket grain fracture predictions. The fracture analysis uses a stress intensity factor technique to predict crack velocity histories under thermal and pressurization loading conditions. The theory is compared with two-dimensional pressurized tests of two typical rocket motor geometries using the viscoelastic material, Solithane 113.

E. C. Francis; C. H. Carlton; R. E. Thompson

1974-01-01

244

Wormhole formation in dissolving fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the dissolution of artificial fractures with three-dimensional, pore-scale numerical simulations. The fluid velocity in the fracture space was determined from a lattice Boltzmann method, and a stochastic solver was used for the transport of dissolved species. Numerical simulations were used to study conditions under which long conduits (wormholes) form in an initially rough but spatially homogeneous fracture. The

P. Szymczak; A. J. C. Ladd

2009-01-01

245

Computer simulation of hydraulic fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a brief historical background of the development of hydraulic fracturing models for use in the petroleum and other industries. We discuss scaling laws and the propagation regimes that control the growth of hydraulic fractures from the laboratory to the field scale. We introduce the mathematical equations and boundary conditions that govern the hydraulic fracturing process, and discuss numerical

J. Adachi; E. Siebrits; A. Peirce; J. Desroches

2007-01-01

246

Penny-shaped fractures revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

All methods of seismic characterization of fractured reservoirs are based on effective media theories that relate geometrical and material properties of fractures and surrounding rock to the effective stiffnesses. In exploration seismology, the first-order theory of Hudson is the most popular. It describes the effective model caused by the presence of a single set of thin, aligned vertical fractures in

V. Grechka

2005-01-01

247

Reflex Cardiovascular Depression during Unilateral Lung Hyperinflation in the Dog  

PubMed Central

We have examined whether lung hyperinflation in the anesthetized dog reflexly depresses cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate, and blood pressure and whether these changes persist for more than a minute. To eliminate any mechanical restriction to venous return and pulmonary blood flow during lung hyperinflation, a model was developed in which all pulmonary artery blood flow and all ventilation were directed to the right lung in dogs with widely open chest and the left lung was hyperinflated before and after left cervical vagotomy. Heart rate, stroke volume, and blood pressure decreased by 24, 20, and 27%, respectively, within 15 s of left lung inflation to 30 cm H2O. Heart rate increased to preinflation levels by 1 min, but stroke volume and blood pressure remained depressed during lung hyperinflation for at least 15 min. Upon deflation, stroke volume and blood pressure returned to control levels within 1 min. Division of the left vagosympathetic trunk at the neck interrupted all autonomic afferent and efferent nerves of the left lung, but left intact the right vagal sympathetic and parasympathetic afferent and efferent nerves of the heart. After left cervical vagotomy the transient fall in heart rate, stroke volume, and blood pressure during left lung hyperinflation was greatly reduced or eliminated. These results suggest that unilateral lung hyperinflation reflexly depresses heart rate and blood pressure, which are partially compensated with time, and reflexly depresses stroke volume, which persists uncompensated until the lung is deflated. These findings may explain the depressed cardiovascular function observed during regional lung overdistention especially when it occurs during positive pressure ventilation. PMID:457873

Cassidy, Sharon S.; Eschenbacher, William L.; Johnson, Robert L.

1979-01-01

248

A murine model of irreversible and reversible unilateral ureteric obstruction.  

PubMed

Obstruction of the kidney may affect native or transplanted kidneys and results in kidney injury and scarring. Presented here is a model of obstructive nephropathy induced by unilateral ureteric obstruction (UUO), which can either be irreversible (UUO) or reversible (R-UUO). In the irreversible UUO model, the ureter may be obstructed for variable periods of time in order to induce increasingly severe renal inflammation and interstitial fibrotic scarring. In the reversible R-UUO model the ureter is obstructed to induce hydronephrosis, tubular dilation and inflammation. After a suitable period of time the ureteric obstruction is then surgically reversed by anastomosis of the severed previously obstructed ureter to the bladder in order to allow complete decompression of the kidney and restoration of urinary flow to the bladder. The irreversible UUO model has been used to investigate various aspects of renal inflammation and scarring including the pathogenesis of disease and the testing of potential anti-inflammatory or anti-fibrotic therapies. The more challenging model of R-UUO has been used by some investigators and does offer significant research potential as it allows the study of inflammatory and immune processes and tissue remodeling in an injured and scarred kidney following the removal of the injurious stimulus. As a result, the R-UUO model offers investigators the opportunity to explore the resolution of kidney inflammation together with key aspects of tissue repair. These experimental models are of relevance to human disease as patients often present with obstruction of the renal tract that requires decompression and are commonly left with significant residual kidney impairment that has no current treatment options and may lead to eventual end stage kidney failure. PMID:25549273

Hesketh, Emily E; Vernon, Madeleine A; Ding, Peng; Clay, Spike; Borthwick, Gary; Conway, Bryan; Hughes, Jeremy

2014-01-01

249

Unilateral microfibrillar abnormalities in a case of asymmetric Marfan syndrome.  

PubMed Central

The Marfan syndrome is a dominantly inherited connective-tissue disorder characterized by ocular, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal abnormalities. Although the underlying biochemical and molecular defect(s) of this pleiotropic disease is currently unknown, we have consistently observed apparent diminished content of elastin-associated microfibrillar fibers accumulating in skin, or produced by cultured fibroblasts, from patients with the Marfan syndrome and have documented the cosegregation of these immunofluorescent abnormalities of microfibrillar fibers with the Marfan syndrome phenotype in family studies. Recently, an unusual patient has been described with unilateral phenotypic features of the Marfan syndrome, providing an unique opportunity to compare microfibrillar fibers and other connective-tissue components between the affected and nonaffected sides. In the present report, we demonstrate striking differences in apparent content of microfibrillar fibers, as determined by indirect immunofluorescence of skin and fibroblast cultures, that are revealed when multiple homologous samples derived from different sides of the patient's body are compared. In contrast, no differences in apparent content of type III collagen or in the biosynthesis and apparent structure of types I and III (pro)collagens were found. HLA types and chromosome heteromorphisms were identical in fibroblasts from both sides of the body, eliminating the formal possibility of chimerism and suggesting that a postzygotic mutation accounts for the asymmetric manifestation of the Marfan syndrome in this patient. The observation of striking decreases in microfibrillar fibers on the affected side of the body provides further evidence that abnormalities of this component of the elastic fiber system may be central to the pathogenesis and possibly the etiology of the Marfan syndrome. Images Figure 5 Figure 4 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 PMID:2180285

Godfrey, M; Olson, S; Burgio, R G; Martini, A; Valli, M; Cetta, G; Hori, H; Hollister, D W

1990-01-01

250

The Unilateral, Self-Deregulation of AT&T  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The provision of telecommunications products and services in the United States has been dominated by AT&T and the Bell System for more than one hundred years. From the early days of telephones, it was clear that some framework of logic was required to provide "universal" telephone services to the vast majority of American citizens. The concept was known as "natural monopoly", and for the most part, has served us well. We are all aware of statements concerning absolute power corrupting absolutely, and AT&T has not been immune to this law of human nature. Several times during the past century, action has been required by the Federal Government to regulate and constrain AT&T and the Bell System from anti-competitive and predatory actions. These have been called consent decrees, Computer Inquiry II, Computer Inquiry III, and the Modified Final Judgment. The regulations and constraints imposed upon AT&T, with good reason, are now becoming eroded. The perception of a more highly competitive marketplace capable of accommodating an unrestrained AT&T, the impact of uncoordinated national and regional government policies, and unilateral actions by AT&T themselves are bringing us to the edge of an abyss. There are substantial reasons to believe that AT&T will use its considerable might to eliminate its competitors, once free to do so. Must we be doomed to repeat history with still another antitrust case against AT&T some years from now? Logic demands that we learn from the past, and that telecommunications policies be based upon that knowledge.

Maloff, Joel H.

1990-01-01

251

Diabetic glomerulopathy following unilateral nephrectomy in the dog.  

PubMed

To elucidate the important features of early renal disease in the diabetic dog, renal capillary permselectivity and fractional mesangial expansion with and without unilateral nephrectomy (NX) were examined. Pancreatectomized mongrel dogs (N = 9) received 10-20 U Regular and NPH insulin daily. Weekly blood glucose monitoring, 300 +/- 75 mg/dl (means +/- SD). Three dogs without NX had serial open needle biopsies 6-23 months post-pancreatectomy, revealing significant glomerular basement membrane widening and mesangial expansion. Without NX, inulin clearance increased from 2.55 +/- 0.89 (pre-diabetes) to 4.30 +/- 0.70 ml/min/kg body weight (N = 4, means +/- SD, p less than 0.05), whereas albuminuria, measured by radioimmunoassay, remained unchanged 2.57 +/- 1.03 (pre-diabetes) to 2.83 +/- 1.63 micrograms/min/kg body weight up to 23 months post-pancreatectomy. To determine whether altered renal capillary permselectivity occurred despite normal albuminuria, glomerular charge and size selectivity was analysed with serial fractional anionic dextran (20-44 A Stokes Einstein Radius) clearances. Furthermore, peritubular capillary permselectivity was probed with anionic and neutral 3H-dextran (26 A) using the multiple indicator dilution method. Fractional anionic dextran clearances remained unchanged up to 23 months, as did peritubular capillary permselectivity. Five diabetic dogs were compared to non-diabetic dogs with (N = 4) and without (N = 10) NX. To identify whether angiotensin II converting enzyme inhibition modified glomerular function or morphology, 3 diabetic + NX dogs received Captopril (5 mg/kg/day). At one year, diabetes + NX had an additive effect on renal hypertrophy, although fractional mesangial expansion was not enhanced by NX. Albuminuria was unaffected by NX or Captopril.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1703467

Whiteside, C; Katz, A; Cho, C; Silverman, M

1990-10-01

252

Clinical Application of 3D-FIESTA Image in Patients with Unilateral Inner Ear Symptom  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Unilateral auditory dysfunction such as tinnitus and hearing loss could be a warning sign of a retrocochlear lesion. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) and internal auditory canal magnetic resonance image (MRI) are suggested as novel diagnostic tools for retrocochlear lesions. However, the high cost of MRI and the low sensitivity of the ABR test could be an obstacle when assessing patients with unilateral ear symptoms. The purpose of this study was to introduce the clinical usefulness of three-dimensional fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (3D-FIESTA) MRI in patients with unilateral ear symptoms. Subjects and Methods Two hundred and fifty-three patients with unilateral tinnitus or unilateral hearing loss who underwent 3D-FIESTA temporal bone MRI as a screening test were enrolled. We reviewed the abnormal findings in the 3D-FIESTA images and ear symptoms using the medical records. Results In patients with unilateral ear symptoms, 51.0% of the patients had tinnitus and 32.8% patients were assessed to have sudden sensory neural hearing loss. With 3D-FIESTA imaging, twelve patients were diagnosed with acoustic neuroma, four with enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome, and two with posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm. Inner ear anomalies and vestibulocochlear nerve aplasia could be diagnosed with 3D-FIESTA imaging. Conclusions 3D-FIESTA imaging is a highly sensitive method for the diagnosis of cochlear or retrocochlear lesions. 3D-FIESTA imaging is a useful screening tool for patients with unilateral ear symptoms. PMID:24653918

Oh, Jae Ho; Chung, Jae Ho; Min, Hyun Jung; Cho, Seok Hyun; Park, Chul Won

2013-01-01

253

Reverse-sequencing chewing patterns evaluation in anterior versus posterior unilateral crossbite patients.  

PubMed

It is well established that patients with a unilateral posterior crossbite exhibit reverse-sequencing chewing patterns when chewing on the affected side. The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of reverse-sequencing chewing cycles in patients with anterior versus posterior unilateral crossbite during chewing soft and hard boluses. Eighty-six children (39 boys, 47 girls) were included in the study: 26 (10.4 ± 2.7 years) with unilateral anterior crossbite, 43 (10.2 ± 4.2 years) with unilateral posterior crossbite, and 17 (10.6 ± 2 years) with normal occlusion were selected for the study. Mandibular movements were measured with a kinesiograph (K7, Myotronics Inc. Tukwila). The kinematic signals were analyzed using custom-made software. The results showed a low prevalence of reverse-sequencing chewing cycles in patients with anterior crossbite, without any significant difference between sides and with the control group, with both soft (P = 0.33) and hard (P = 0.29) bolus. The patients with posterior unilateral crossbite showed a significant higher prevalence of reverse-sequencing chewing cycles during chewing on the crossbite side with respect to the non-crossbite side (P < 0.001) and to the control group (P < 0.001). Comparing the patients with anterior versus posterior unilateral crossbite, a significant difference (P < 0.001) in the prevalence of reverse chewing cycles was demonstrated during chewing on the posterior crossbite side only with both soft and hard bolus. In conclusion, patients with anterior versus posterior unilateral crossbite show different functional characteristics depending on which dental region is involved. PMID:21921301

Piancino, Maria G; Comino, Elena; Talpone, Francesca; Vallelonga, Teresa; Frongia, Gianluigi; Bracco, Pietro

2012-10-01

254

Prenatal diagnosis of fetal unilateral lung agenesis complicated with cardiac malposition  

PubMed Central

Background Fetal unilateral lung agenesis, complicated with cardiac shifting, is a rare anomaly, the diagnosis of which remains a challenge for many sonographers in routine screening programs. The present study describes a systematic approach for the diagnosis of fetal unilateral lung agenesis and cardiac malpositions in routine prenatal screening. Methods A total of 18 cases of fetal unilateral lung agenesis complicated with cardiac malposition were reviewed. A systematic method was proposed to identify the fetal left side and right side according to the fetal head position and posture by acquiring a long axis and transverse view of the fetus. Fetal unilateral lung agenesis was diagnosed by evaluation of the ipsilateral pulmonary artery. The diagnosis was confirmed by postnatal echocardiography, digital radiology, and computed tomography after birth or by autopsy findings. Results The left-sided fetal heart with the cardiac apex rotating to the left and posterior were confirmed in all 7 left lung agenesis cases, while the rightward shifting of the fetal heart together with the cardiac axis deviating to the right were confirmed in all 11 cases of right lung agenesis. The disappearance of the ipsilateral pulmonary artery was confirmed in all 18 cases of unilateral lung agenesis. Cardiac anomalies were present in a total of 7 of the18 cases of lung agenesis with 4 of 7 in cases of left lung agenesis and 3 of 11 in cases of right agenesis. Conclusions The systematic approach introduced in the current report is helpful in the diagnosis of fetal unilateral lung agenesis complicated with cardiac malposition. The information provided by this study may be helpful to better understand unilateral lung agenesis anatomically and to facilitate its potential examination. PMID:23530545

2013-01-01

255

Fracture Surfaces of Paperclips  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video features a Penn State University professor, Dr. Chris Muhlstein, who explains that the fracture surface of a paper clip is a map of how it failed, to a trained eye. He invites us to view a variety of surfaces with a virtual microscope.

Wpsu

2008-11-12

256

Proximal Humeral Fractures  

PubMed Central

The purpose of our study was to biomechanically compare, under cyclic loading conditions, fracture site motion, humeral head collapse, and intra-articular hardware penetration in simulated 3-part osteoporotic proximal humeral fractures stabilized with 1 of 2 locking-plate constructs. We performed fixation on simulated 3-part proximal humeral fractures in 10 pairs of cadaveric osteoporotic humeri with a Hand Innovations S3 Proximal Humerus Plate (S3 plate) or an LCP Proximal Humerus Plate (LCP plate; 1 each for each pair). The specimens were potted, mounted on a materials testing machine, and subjected to 5000 cycles of abduction in the scapular plane, loading through the supraspinatus tendon. Interfragmentary displacement at 2 virtual points (the most medial aspect of the calcar and the most superior aspect of the osteotomy line between the greater tuberosity and humeral head) was measured using an optical tracking system. Humeral head rotation was also measured. We used a generalized linear latent and mixed model to check for an effect of cyclic loading and treatment on the parameters of interest (significance, P < .05). After cyclic loading, the S3 plate humeri showed significantly greater displacement of the greater tuberosity fragment and rotation of the humeral head and a trend (not a significant difference) toward greater displacement at the calcar. No hardware penetration was noted for either repair. Although the S3 plate repairs resulted in significantly more fracture site motion, it is unknown whether the magnitude of the motion is clinically significant. PMID:23569665

Rose, David M.; Sutter, Edward G.; Mears, Simon C.; Gupta, Rohit R.; Belkoff, Stephen M.

2010-01-01

257

Statistical Physics of Fracture  

SciTech Connect

Disorder and long-range interactions are two of the key components that make material failure an interesting playfield for the application of statistical mechanics. The cornerstone in this respect has been lattice models of the fracture in which a network of elastic beams, bonds, or electrical fuses with random failure thresholds are subject to an increasing external load. These models describe on a qualitative level the failure processes of real, brittle, or quasi-brittle materials. This has been particularly important in solving the classical engineering problems of material strength: the size dependence of maximum stress and its sample-to-sample statistical fluctuations. At the same time, lattice models pose many new fundamental questions in statistical physics, such as the relation between fracture and phase transitions. Experimental results point out to the existence of an intriguing crackling noise in the acoustic emission and of self-affine fractals in the crack surface morphology. Recent advances in computer power have enabled considerable progress in the understanding of such models. Among these partly still controversial issues, are the scaling and size-effects in material strength and accumulated damage, the statistics of avalanches or bursts of microfailures, and the morphology of the crack surface. Here we present an overview of the results obtained with lattice models for fracture, highlighting the relations with statistical physics theories and more conventional fracture mechanics approaches.

Alava, Mikko [Helsinki University of Technology, Helsinki, Finland; Nukala, Phani K [ORNL; Zapperi, Stefano [University of La Sapienza, Rome

2006-05-01

258

Bone Fractures and Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the role engineers and engineering play in repairing severe bone fractures. They acquire knowledge about the design and development of implant rods, pins, plates, screws and bone grafts. They learn about materials science, biocompatibility and minimally-invasive surgery.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering,

259

Suspensions in hydraulic fracturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspensions or slurries are widely used in well stimulation and hydraulic fracturing processes to enhance the production of oil and gas from the underground hydrocarbon-bearing formation. The success of these processes depends significantly upon having a thorough understanding of the behavior of suspensions used. Therefore, the characterization of suspensions under realistic conditions, for their rheological and hydraulic properties, is very

Shah

1996-01-01

260

Brittle fracture in compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initiation and propagation of microfractures and their contribution to material failure in compression are examined. The early part of the fracture process, the lateral and the axial yield points of the stress-strain curves, are identified with the onset of microfracture, respectively at the tensile and the compressive stress concentrations of the elastic flaw boundary. Later stages, including the initiation

E. Z. Lajtai

1974-01-01

261

Infiltration into Fractured Bedrock  

SciTech Connect

One potential consequence of global climate change and rapid changes in land use is an increased risk of flooding. Proper understanding of floodwater infiltration thus becomes a crucial component of our preparedness to meet the environmental challenges of projected climate change. In this paper, we present the results of a long-term infiltration experiment performed on fractured ash flow tuff. Water was released from a 3 x 4 m{sup 2} infiltration plot (divided into 12 square subplots) with a head of {approx}0.04 m, over a period of {approx}800 days. This experiment revealed peculiar infiltration patterns not amenable to current infiltration models, which were originally developed for infiltration into soils over a short duration. In particular, we observed that in part of the infiltration plot, the infiltration rate abruptly increased a few weeks into the infiltration tests. We suggest that these anomalies result from increases in fracture permeability during infiltration, which may be caused by swelling of clay fillings and/or erosion of infill debris. Interaction of the infiltration water with subsurface natural cavities (lithophysal cavities) could also contribute to such anomalies. This paper provides a conceptual model that partly describes the observed infiltration patterns in fractured rock and highlights some of the pitfalls associated with direct extension of soil infiltration models to fractured rock over a long period.

Salve, Rohit; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Jones, Robert

2007-09-01

262

Entablature: fracture types and mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entablature is the term used to describe zones or tiers of irregular jointing in basaltic lava flows. It is thought to form when water from rivers dammed by the lava inundates the lava flow surface, and during lava-meltwater interaction in subglacial settings. A number of different fracture types are described in entablature outcrops from the Búrfell lava and older lava flows in Þjórsárdalur, southwest Iceland. These are: striae-bearing, column-bounding fractures and pseudopillow fracture systems that themselves consist of two different fracture types—master fractures with dimpled surface textures and subsidiary fractures with curved striae. The interaction of pseudopillow fracture systems and columnar jointing in the entablature produces the chevron fracture patterns that are commonly observed in entablature. Cube-jointing is a more densely fractured version of entablature, which likely forms when more coolant enters the hot lava. The entablature tiers display closely spaced striae and dendritic crystal shapes which indicate rapid cooling. Master fracture surfaces show a thin band with an evolved composition at the fracture surface; mineral textures in this band also show evidence of quenching of this material. This is interpreted as gas-driven filter pressing of late-stage residual melt that is drawn into an area of low pressure immediately preceding or during master fracture formation by ductile extensional fracture of hot, partially crystallised lava. This melt is then quenched by an influx of water and/or steam when the master fracture fully opens. Our findings suggest that master fractures are the main conduit for coolant entering the lava flow during entablature formation.

Forbes, A. E. S.; Blake, S.; Tuffen, H.

2014-05-01

263

Seismic characterization of fracture properties  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to show that there is a relationship, both empirical and theoretical, between the measured seismic response, the mechanical stiffness (also referred to as specific stiffness) of fractures and their hydraulic conductivity. Laboratory measurements of the mechanical stiffness, hydraulic conductivity and seismic properties of natural fractures are summarized. A theoretical model for the amplitude and group time delay for compressional and shear waves transmitted across a single fracture is presented. Predictions based on this model are compared with laboratory measurements. Finally, the results for a single fracture are extended to multiple parallel fractures. 13 refs., 6 figs.

Myer, L.R.; Hopkins, D.; Cook, N.G.W. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Pyrak-Nolte, L.J. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)

1990-01-01

264

[Osteoporotic fractures of axial skeleton].  

PubMed

Osteoporotic fractures most frequently first occur in the axial skeleton, especially in the vertebral bodies of the thoracolumbar transition. Beside pain, these fractures cause increasing kyphosis leading to changes in statics and a shift of the bodies' center of gravity. This results in physiological, functional as well as neurological consequences that cannot be managed by means of a conservative therapy. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief overview on diagnostics and therapy of such fractures. Furthermore, fractures of the pubic rami need to be mentioned. They pose another frequent location for osteoporotic fractures and are also associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. PMID:22878945

Scheyerer, M J; Simmen, H-P; Wanner, G A; Werner, C M L

2012-08-01

265

Numerical simulation research to both the external fixation surgery scheme of intertrochanteric fracture and the healing process, and its clinical application.  

PubMed

In this paper, the single arm external fixation of intertrochanteric fracture healing process after surgery was simulated to obtain a postoperative fracture healing and stress distribution in the external fixator. Firstly CT images of intertrochanteric fracture are reconstructed into the femur solid model. Then based, the external fixator is installed on the model, which lastly formed a finite element model of unilateral external fixation for intertrochanteric fracture. The calculated results show: during the beginning of the fracture healing, there is much higher stress in both screws and femur in the model with solid screws than that in the model with hollow screw. The stress of the femur in the model with hollow screw is more evenly. During the middle time of Fracture healing, stress in the femoral head significantly decreases. And the stress at fracture site gradually increased with the healing occurrence. According to the results, the authors designed hollow screws to use external fixation surgery. Surgery confirmed that the use of hollow screws in fractures treatment can satisfy the strength requirements, and can effectively reduce operative time, less patient suffering. The research for external fixation can provide a reference, and promote the use of external fixation hollow screws. PMID:24211947

Wang, Xian-Kang; Ye, Jin-Duo; Gu, Fu-Shun; Wang, Ai-guo; Zhang, Chun-Qiu; Tian, Qian-Qian; Li, Xue; Dong, Li-Min

2014-01-01

266

Controversial Issues in Kyphoplasty and Vertebroplasty in Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures  

PubMed Central

Kyphoplasty (KP) and vertebroplasty (VP) have been successfully employed for many years for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. The purpose of this review is to resolve the controversial issues raised by the two randomized trials that claimed no difference between VP and SHAM procedure. In particular we compare nonsurgical management (NSM) and KP and VP, in terms of clinical parameters (pain, disability, quality of life, and new fractures), cost-effectiveness, radiological variables (kyphosis correction and vertebral height restoration), and VP versus KP for cement extravasation and complications profile. Cement types and optimal filling are analyzed and technological innovations are presented. Finally unipedicular/bipedicular techniques are compared. Conclusion. VP and KP are superior to NSM in clinical and radiological parameters and probably more cost-effective. KP is superior to VP in sagittal balance improvement and cement leaking. Complications are rare but serious adverse events have been described, so caution should be exerted. Unilateral procedures should be pursued whenever feasible. Upcoming randomized trials (CEEP, OSTEO-6, STIC-2, and VERTOS IV) will provide the missing link. PMID:24724106

Papanastassiou, Ioannis D.; Filis, Andreas; Gerochristou, Maria A.; Vrionis, Frank D.

2014-01-01

267

Fracture mechanics validity limits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fracture behavior is characteristics of a dramatic loss of strength compared to elastic deformation behavior. Fracture parameters have been developed and exhibit a range within which each is valid for predicting growth. Each is limited by the assumptions made in its development: all are defined within a specific context. For example, the stress intensity parameters, K, and the crack driving force, G, are derived using an assumption of linear elasticity. To use K or G, the zone of plasticity must be small as compared to the physical dimensions of the object being loaded. This insures an elastic response, and in this context, K and G will work well. Rice's J-integral has been used beyond the limits imposed on K and G. J requires an assumption of nonlinear elasticity, which is not characteristic of real material behavior, but is thought to be a reasonable approximation if unloading is kept to a minimum. As well, the constraint cannot change dramatically (typically, the crack extension is limited to ten-percent of the initial remaining ligament length). Rice, et al investigated the properties required of J-type parameters, J(sub x), and showed that the time rate, dJ(sub x)/dt, must not be a function of the crack extension rate, da/dt. Ernst devised the modified-J parameter, J(sub M), that meets this criterion. J(sub M) correlates fracture data to much higher crack growth than does J. Ultimately, a limit of the validity of J(sub M) is anticipated, and this has been estimated to be at a crack extension of about 40-percent of the initial remaining ligament length. None of the various parameters can be expected to describe fracture in an environment of gross plasticity, in which case the process is better described by deformation parameters, e.g., stress and strain. In the current study, various schemes to identify the onset of the plasticity-dominated behavior, i.e., the end of fracture mechanics validity, are presented. Each validity limit parameter is developed in detail, and then data is presented and the various schemes for establishing a limit of the validity are compared. The selected limiting parameter is applied to a set of fracture data showing the improvement of correlation gained.

Lambert, Dennis M.; Ernst, Hugo A.

1994-01-01

268

Fracture in Electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the World’s largest industrial sector, Electronics has received relatively little attention with regard to mechanical failure of its equipment. Design strategies against fracture are advanced for applications, such as aerospace, automotive, pressure vessel and engine applications. So a fundamental question arises as to the extent to which these can be applied to Electronics. The paper describes the special characteristics of electronics equipment in service, and outlines common modes of failure, with emphasis on thermomechanical fatigue. The particular challenge of size is considered when behaviour determined from conventional bulk samples is no longer representative of actual components. Two case studies are presented that illustrate the special nature of electronics. It is suggested that as miniaturisation continues, fracture will become a major cause of failure.

Plumbridge, William J.

269

Pelvic and acetabular fractures  

SciTech Connect

This treatise focuses primarily on the clinical aspects of diagnosis and treatments of pelvic and acetabular fractures. However, considerable attention is also paid to the radiographic diagnosis of trauma and postoperative effects. The book begins with a succinct review of pelvic and acetabular anatomy and pelvic biomechanics. It continues with a radiographic classification of pelvic injury, which will represent the major source of the book's interest for radiologists. The remainder of the book is concerned with clinical management of pelvic and acetabular trauma, including preoperative planning, surgical approaches, techniques of reduction, internal fixation, eternal fixation, post-operative care, and late problems. Even throughout this later portion of the book there are extensive illustrations, including plain radiographs, computed tomographic (CT) scans, reconstructed three-dimensional CT scans, and schematic diagrams of diverse pelvic and acetabular fractures and the elementary surgical techniques for their repair.

Mears, D.C.; Rubash, H.E.

1986-01-01

270

Fracturing the optimal paths.  

PubMed

Optimal paths play a fundamental role in numerous physical applications ranging from random polymers to brittle fracture, from the flow through porous media to information propagation. Here for the first time we explore the path that is activated once this optimal path fails and what happens when this new path also fails and so on, until the system is completely disconnected. In fact many applications can also be found for this novel fracture problem. In the limit of strong disorder, our results show that all the cracks are located on a single self-similar connected line of fractal dimension D(b) approximately = 1.22. For weak disorder, the number of cracks spreads all over the entire network before global connectivity is lost. Strikingly, the disconnecting path (backbone) is, however, completely independent on the disorder. PMID:20366106

Andrade, J S; Oliveira, E A; Moreira, A A; Herrmann, H J

2009-11-27

271

Bilateral segmental aplasia with unilateral uterine horn torsion in a Pomeranian bitch.  

PubMed

Bilateral segmental aplasia of the uterine horns with unilateral pyometra and uterine horn torsion were diagnosed in a Pomeranian bitch that presented with chronic abdominal distension and an acute onset of anorexia and lethargy. Because radiographic and ultrasonographic findings revealed the presence of markedly enlarged bilateral uterine horns filled with fluid in the caudal abdomen, a tentative diagnosis of either pyometra or hydrometra with uterine horn torsion was made. Exploratory laparotomy showed bilateral, segmentally distended uterine horns with unilateral uterine horn torsion. Ovariohysterectomy was performed, and bilateral segmental aplasia of the uterine horns with the development of unilateral uterine horn torsion was diagnosed histopathologically. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of uterine horn torsion in conjunction with segmental aplasia of the uterine horn in a bitch. PMID:22843825

Nakamura, Kensuke; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Osaki, Tomohiro; Ohta, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Noboru; Aoshima, Keisuke; Kimura, Takashi; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

2012-01-01

272

Auditory processing deficits in unilaterally and bilaterally injured hypoxic-ischemic rats.  

PubMed

Hypoxic-ischemic represents a common cause of damage to the prenatal brain and can co-occur with prematurity. Prematurity is associated with emergent language impairments, and it has been suggested that rapid auditory processing deficits play a causal role in language difficulties. We previously demonstrated rapid auditory processing deficits in juvenile rats receiving neonatal unilateral hypoxic-ischemic injury, but these deficits appeared to resolve by adulthood. The current study compared unilaterally and bilaterally injured hypoxic-ischemic rats on auditory tasks, to assess whether rapid auditory processing recovery in adulthood is related to this aspect of injury. Current results indicate that while neonatal unilateral and bilateral hypoxic-ischemic injury both lead to rapid auditory processing deficits in the juvenile period, only rats with bilateral hypoxic-ischemic injury exhibit deficits that persist into adulthood. PMID:16056130

McClure, Melissa M; Threlkeld, Steven W; Rosen, Glenn D; Holly Fitch, R

2005-08-22

273

Unilateral persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous: intensive management approach with excellent outcome beyond visual maturation.  

PubMed

Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) is an ocular developmental disorder resulting from incomplete apoptosis of the embryonic hyaloid vasculature. Unilateral PHPV is traditionally associated with a poor prognosis because of the challenges associated with managing progressive anisometropic amblyopia. We report a child with unilateral PHPV who underwent cataract extraction, primary posterior capsulotomy with anterior vitrectomy and intraocular lens implantation followed by combined trabeculectomy/trabeculotomy within the first 8?weeks of life. Intensive optometric and orthoptic input was required for many years to manage the increasing anisometropic amblyopia with final visual acuity of 20/40 unaided in the affected eye and without evidence of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. This case illustrates the excellent visual outcome possible in a child with complex, unilateral PHPV using an intensive management approach comprising: early surgical intervention for congenital cataract and secondary glaucoma, meticulous monitoring of refraction, visual acuity and intraocular pressure and motivated parents who engaged in the management. PMID:25564632

Yusuf, Imran H; Patel, Chetan Kantibhai; Salmon, John F

2015-01-01

274

Relative Dating Via Fractures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

This VIS image of the eastern part of the Tharsis region illustrates how fractures can be used in relative dating of a surface. The fractured materials on the right side of the image are embayed by younger volcanic flows originating to the west of the image. Note how the younger flows cover the ends of the fractures, and are not at all fractured themselves.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 43.2, Longitude 269.4 East (90.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

275

On fracture toughness evaluation for semi-brittle fracture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The existing methods of assessing the fracture toughness of materials exhibiting semi-brittle fracture are critically reviewed. The methods concern the Crack Growth Resistance (R-curve), the Crack Opening Displacement (COD), and the J-integral. An analysis of the shortcomings of the methods described makes it possible to formulate a new definition of fracture toughness appropriate to semi-brittle fracture. An improved simple experimental method for measuring fracture toughness for semi-brittle fracture is proposed which takes into account both crack growth and plastic nonlinear effects at crack front. The proposed method is shown to be free of the theoretical and experimental discrepancies encountered in the R-curve, COD, and J-integral methods.

Eftis, J.; Liebowitz, H.

1975-01-01

276

Fractures of the cervical spine  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the literature on cervical spine fractures. METHODS: The literature on the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of lower and upper cervical fractures and dislocations was reviewed. RESULTS: Fractures of the cervical spine may be present in polytraumatized patients and should be suspected in patients complaining of neck pain. These fractures are more common in men approximately 30 years of age and are most often caused by automobile accidents. The cervical spine is divided into the upper cervical spine (occiput-C2) and the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), according to anatomical differences. Fractures in the upper cervical spine include fractures of the occipital condyle and the atlas, atlanto-axial dislocations, fractures of the odontoid process, and hangman's fractures in the C2 segment. These fractures are characterized based on specific classifications. In the lower cervical spine, fractures follow the same pattern as in other segments of the spine; currently, the most widely used classification is the SLIC (Subaxial Injury Classification), which predicts the prognosis of an injury based on morphology, the integrity of the disc-ligamentous complex, and the patient's neurological status. It is important to correctly classify the fracture to ensure appropriate treatment. Nerve or spinal cord injuries, pseudarthrosis or malunion, and postoperative infection are the main complications of cervical spine fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Fractures of the cervical spine are potentially serious and devastating if not properly treated. Achieving the correct diagnosis and classification of a lesion is the first step toward identifying the most appropriate treatment, which can be either surgical or conservative. PMID:24270959

Marcon, Raphael Martus; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Teixeira, William Jacobsen; Narasaki, Douglas Kenji; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa

2013-01-01

277

Fractured Craters on Ganymede  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two highly fractured craters are visible in this high resolution image of Jupiter's moon, Ganymede. NASA's Galileo spacecraft imaged this region as it passed Ganymede during its second orbit through the Jovian system. North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the southeast. The two craters in the center of the image lie in the ancient dark terrain of Marius Regio, at 40 degrees latitude and 201 degrees longitude, at the border of a region of bright grooved terrain known as Byblus Sulcus (the eastern portion of which is visible on the left of this image). Pervasive fracturing has occurred in this area that has completely disrupted these craters and destroyed their southern and western walls. Such intense fracturing has occurred over much of Ganymede's surface and has commonly destroyed older features. The image covers an area approximately 26 kilometers (16 miles) by 18 kilometers (11 miles) across at a resolution of 86 meters (287 feet) per picture element. The image was taken on September 6, 1996 by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

1997-01-01

278

Pterional approach versus unilateral frontal approach on tuberculum sellae meningioma: Single centre experiences  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Tuberculum Sellae Meningioma is one of the most challenging surgeries among neurosurgeons. Many approaches have been established in the effort of removing the tumor and some of them are supported by an advanced neurosurgical technology. In this study, we aim to compare the efficacy of the two most common approaches, the pterional and the unilateral frontal. Materials and Methods: This was a restrospective study that aimed to observe the efficacy of the two most common approaches used in our center, the pterional and the unilateral frontal, in resecting the tuberculum sellae meningioma, which was held in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung, from July 2007-July 2010. Twenty patients were enrolled with half of them operated by the pterional approach and the rest by unilateral frontal approach. We evaluated six parameters: tumor size, degree of tumor removal, surgery duration, post-operative cerebral edema, patients' outcome, and length of stay, which were evaluated to take measure of the efficacy of each procedure. Results: We found that the pterional approach gave more advantages than the unilateral frontal. Total tumor removal, especially in tumor size ? 3 cm was achieved in a greater number of subjects in the pterional (P<0.023). Other advantages of the pterional compared to the unilateral frontal were a shorter surgical duration (P=0.024), shorter length of stay (P=0.009) and less frequency of post-operative cerebral edema incidence (P=0.023). Conclusion: According to our facilities and conditions, it seems that the pterional approach have more advantages than the unilateral frontal approach in tuberculum sellae meningioma surgery. PMID:22639687

Arifin, Muhammad Zafrullah; Mardjono, Ignatius; Sidabutar, Roland; Wirjomartani, Beny Atmadja; Faried, Ahmad

2012-01-01

279

Effects on Contralateral Muscles after Unilateral Electrical Muscle Stimulation and Exercise  

PubMed Central

It is well established that unilateral exercise can produce contralateral effects. However, it is unclear whether unilateral exercise that leads to muscle injury and inflammation also affects the homologous contralateral muscles. To test the hypothesis that unilateral muscle injury causes contralateral muscle changes, an experimental rabbit model with unilateral muscle overuse caused by a combination of electrical muscle stimulation and exercise (EMS/E) was used. The soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of both exercised and non-exercised legs were analyzed with enzyme- and immunohistochemical methods after 1, 3 and 6 weeks of repeated EMS/E. After 1 w of unilateral EMS/E there were structural muscle changes such as increased variability in fiber size, fiber splitting, internal myonuclei, necrotic fibers, expression of developmental MyHCs, fibrosis and inflammation in the exercised soleus muscle. Only limited changes were found in the exercised gastrocnemius muscle and in both non-exercised contralateral muscles. After 3 w of EMS/E, muscle fiber changes, presence of developmental MyHCs, inflammation, fibrosis and affections of nerve axons and AChE production were observed bilaterally in both the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles. At 6 w of EMS/E, the severity of these changes significantly increased in the soleus muscles and infiltration of fat was observed bilaterally in both the soleus and the gastrocnemius muscles. The affections of the muscles were in all three experimental groups restricted to focal regions of the muscle samples. We conclude that repetitive unilateral muscle overuse caused by EMS/E overtime leads to both degenerative and regenerative tissue changes and myositis not only in the exercised muscles, but also in the homologous non-exercised muscles of the contralateral leg. Although the mechanism behind the contralateral changes is unclear, we suggest that the nervous system is involved in the cross-transfer effects. PMID:23284946

Song, Yafeng; Forsgren, Sture; Yu, Jiguo; Lorentzon, Ronny; Stål, Per S.

2012-01-01

280

Procedure for estimating fracture energy from fracture surface roughness  

DOEpatents

The fracture energy of a material is determined by first measuring the length of a profile of a section through a fractured surface of the material taken on a plane perpendicular to the mean plane of that surface, then determining the fractal dimensionality of the surface. From this, the yield strength of the material, and the Young's Modulus of that material, the fracture energy is calculated.

Williford, Ralph E. (Kennewick, WA)

1989-01-01

281

Unilateral Heliotrope Rash in Juvenile Dermatomyositis: An Unusual Presentation of an Underlying Serious Disease  

PubMed Central

Background. Heliotrope rash is one of the characteristic skin manifestations of juvenile dermatomyositis. It is a reddish-purple rash on the upper eyelids that is usually bilateral. Case Presentation. We report a boy who presented with unilateral heliotrope rash, Gottron's papules, and muscle weakness. Muscle biopsy was consistent with inflammatory myositis. Patient was started on prednisolone and methotrexate with an excellent response in both the skin and muscles. Conclusion. Unilateral heliotrope rash can occur in patients with juvenile dermatomyositis. Being a paraneoplastic condition caution should be taken not to miss any underlying malignancy. PMID:25587479

Al-Janobi, Ghada; Alkhalidi, Hisham; Omair, Mohammed A.

2014-01-01

282

Prediction of Composite Laminate Fracture: Micromechanics and Progressive Fracture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes an investigation to predict first-ply failure and final fracture in selected composite laminates subjected to inplane loads. The laminates were composed of glass fiber and graphite fibers in epoxy matrices. Failure envelopes based on first-ply failure and laminate fracture were generated for combined loading of these laminates. Predictions were evaluated by micromechanics-based theory and progressive fracture. The results show that, for most cases, combined tensile loading significantly enhanced the laminate fracture stress in comparison to the uniaxial loading.

Gotsis, P. K.; Chamis, C. C.; Minnetyan, L.

1996-01-01

283

Distal phalanx fracture in adults: Seymour-type fracture.  

PubMed

Seymour's fracture is an extra-articular, transverse, physeal, and juxta-epiphyseal open fracture of the distal phalanx seen in childhood. In this study, we present 10 adult cases of fractures localized to the metaphyseal region, 1-2 mm distal to the insertion of the extensor tendon. Mean age was 38 years. Four patients were treated conservatively with a mallet finger splint. Closed reduction and osteosynthesis with Kirschner wires (K-wires) was performed in three of the patients. Three of the patients had open fractures in whom closed reduction could not be performed. They underwent open reduction and osteosynthesis with K-wires. We recommend that extra-articular distal phalanx fractures mimicking mallet finger in adults are called Seymour-type fracture to establish a common language among clinicians to define this type of fracture. These fractures generally occur by hyperflexion of the distal phalanx and can be treated by conservative or surgical methods. The outcomes of conservative and surgical management of Seymour-type fractures depend on the appropriate reduction as well as efficient physical therapy. PMID:24194615

Ugurlar, M; Saka, G; Saglam, N; Milcan, A; Kurtulmus, T; Akp?nar, F

2014-03-01

284

Recovery of walking speed and symmetrical movement of the pelvis and lower extremity joints after unilateral THA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 17 patients with unilateral hip disease who underwent total hip arthroplasty (THA), the gait was analyzed preoperatively and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after unilateral THA using a Vicon system to assess the recovery of walking speed and symmetrical movement of the hip, knee, ankle, and pelvis.The walking speed of these patients reached that of normal Japanese persons

Hidenobu Miki; Nobuhiko Sugano; Keisuke Hagio; Takashi Nishii; Hideo Kawakami; Akihiro Kakimoto; Nobuo Nakamura; Hideki Yoshikawa

2004-01-01

285

EFFECT OF UNILATERAL, BILATERAL AND COMBINED PLYOMETRIC TRAINING ON EXPLOSIVE AND ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE OF YOUNG SOCCER PLAYERS.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to compare the effects of bilateral, unilateral, or combined bilateral and unilateral plyometric training (PT) on muscle power output, endurance and balance performance adaptations in young soccer players. Four groups of young soccer players (age 11.4 ± 2.2 y) were divided into: control (CG; n = 14), bilateral group (BG; n = 12), unilateral group (UG; n = 16), and bilateral + unilateral group (B+UG; n = 12). Players were measured in unilateral and bilateral countermovement jump with arms (CMJA), 5 multiple bounds test (MB5), 20 cm drop jump reactive strength index (RSI20), maximal kicking velocity (MKV), sprint and agility test time, endurance and balance performance. The PT was applied during 6 weeks, 2 sessions per week, for a total of 2160 jumps. After intervention, all PT groups showed a statistically significant (p<0.05) change in all performance measures, with no statistically significant differences between treatments. Among the 21 performance measures, the B+UG showed a significantly (p<0.05) higher performance change in 13 of them vs. the CG, while the UG and BG showed only 6 and 3, respectively. The current study showed that bilateral, unilateral and combined bilateral and unilateral PT ensured significant improvement in several muscular power and endurance performance measures in young soccer players. However, the combination of unilateral and bilateral drills seems more advantageous to induce superior performance improvements. PMID:25474338

Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Burgos, Carlos; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Andrade, David C; Martínez, Cristian; Alvarez, Cristian; Castro-Sepúlveda, Mauricio; Marques, Mário C; Izquierdo, Mikel

2014-12-01

286

Visual Field Function in School-Aged Children with Spastic Unilateral Cerebral Palsy Related to Different Patterns of Brain Damage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To relate visual field function to brain morphology in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Visual field function was assessed using the confrontation technique and Goldmann perimetry in 29 children (15 males, 14 females; age range 7-17y, median age 11y) with unilateral CP classified at Gross Motor Function Classification…

Jacobson, Lena; Rydberg, Agneta; Eliasson, Ann-Christin; Kits, Annika; Flodmark, Olof

2010-01-01

287

Hand Function in Relation to Brain Lesions and Corticomotor-Projection Pattern in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To investigate relationships between hand function, brain lesions, and corticomotor projections in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Method: The study included 17 children (nine males, eight females; mean age 11.4 [SD 2.4] range 7-16y), with unilateral CP at Gross Motor Function Classification System level I and Manual Ability…

Holmstrom, Linda; Vollmer, Brigitte; Tedroff, Kristina; Islam, Mominul; Persson, Jonas Ke; Kits, Annika; Forssberg, Hans; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

2010-01-01

288

Functional and Physiologic Results of Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Diaphragm Plication in Adult Patients With Unilateral Diaphragm Paralysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Plication of the hemidiaphragm for uni- lateral diaphragm paralysis is infrequently performed in adults. Barriers to diaphragm plication have included the perceived need for thoracotomy and uncertainty of the potential benefits. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of video-assisted thoracoscopic dia- phragm plication in symptomatic adult patients with unilateral diaphragm paralysis. Methods. Patients with unilateral

Richard K. Freeman; Thomas C. Wozniak; Edward B. Fitzgerald

2010-01-01

289

Abstract--The work focuses on the study of hybrid mechanical systems under unilateral constraints on the  

E-print Network

the continuous state hits certain prescribed sets in the continuous state space (Branicky, Borkar & Mitter, 1998- impulse hybrid systems, also recognized as dynamical systems under unilateral constraints (Brogliato, 1996 involves a state feedback loop; and the function , represents a unilateral constraint that is imposed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

290

Tibial plateau fractures in alpine skiing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tibial plateau fractures are uncommon in sports. Be tween 1977 and 1986, the authors studied 18 skiers who suffered tibial plateau fractures. Fracture patterns were diverse and displacement minimal. Hyperexten sion-valgus displacement caused compression fracture of the anterolateral tibial plateau in a characteristic form in 44%. Detection of these fractures is difficult by clinical and plain radiograph assessment, thus diagnosis

J. P. McConkey; Winne Meeuwisse

1988-01-01

291

Unusual presentation of a femoral stress fracture  

PubMed Central

Stress fractures are common injuries in sports medicine. Among these fractures, femoral neck stress fractures frequently have a benign course, especially when it happens in the medial aspect of the neck. This case report describes a stress fracture of the medial aspect of the femoral neck that developed a complete fracture and underwent surgical fixation. PMID:23283621

Ejnisman, Leandro; Wajnsztejn, Andre; Queiroz, Roberto Dantas; Ejnisman, Benno

2013-01-01

292

Brittle fracture propagation in rock under compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of studies of the initiation and propagation of fracture from a single Griffith crack in a biaxial compressive stress field are reported. It is concluded that Griffith's theory of brittle fracture offers a reliable prediction of the fracture initiation stress but that the resulting fracture propagation from a single crack cannot account for the macroscopic fracture of a

E. Hoek; Z. T. Bieniawski

1965-01-01

293

Brittle fracture propagation in rock under compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of studies ot the initiation and propagation of fracture front a single Grifith crack in a biaxial Compressive stress field are reported. In is concluded that Griffith's theory of brittle fracture offers a reliable prediction of the fracture initiation stress but that the resulting fracture propagation froth a single crack cannot account for the macroscopic fracture of a

E. Hoek; Z. T. Bieniawski

1984-01-01

294

Heterotopic ossification after surgery for distal humeral fractures.  

PubMed

We retrospectively reviewed 89 consecutive patients (45 men and 44 women) with a mean age at the time of injury of 58 years (18 to 97) who had undergone external fixation after sustaining a unilateral fracture of the distal humerus. Our objectives were to determine the incidence of heterotopic ossification (HO); identify risk factors associated with the development of HO; and characterise the location, severity and resultant functional impairment attributable to the presence of HO. HO was identified in 37 elbows (42%), mostly around the humerus and along the course of the medial collateral ligament. HO was hazy immature in five elbows (13.5%), mature discrete in 20 (54%), extensive mature in 10 (27%), and complete bone bridges were present in two elbows (5.5%). Mild functional impairment occurred in eight patients, moderate in 27 and severe in two. HO was associated with less extension (p = 0.032) and less overall flexion-to-extension movement (p = 0.022); the flexion-to-extension arc was < 100º in 21 elbows (57%) with HO compared with 18 elbows (35%) without HO (p = 0.03). HO was removed surgically in seven elbows. The development of HO was significantly associated with sustaining a head injury (p = 0.015), delayed internal fixation (p = 0.027), the method of fracture fixation (p = 0.039) and the use of bone graft or substitute (p = 0.02).HO continues to be a substantial complication after internal fixation for distal humerus fractures. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2014;96-B:1681-7. PMID:25452373

Foruria, A M; Lawrence, T M; Augustin, S; Morrey, B F; Sanchez-Sotelo, J

2014-12-01

295

Acute effects of unilateral sectioning the superior ovarian nerve of rats with unilateral ovariectomy on ovarian hormones (progesterone, testosterone and estradiol) levels vary during the estrous cycle.  

PubMed

The present study analyzed the participation of the left and right superior ovarian nerves (SON) in regulating progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol serum levels in unilaterally ovariectomized rats on each day of the estrous cycle. For this purpose, ovarian hormone concentrations in serum were measured in animals with either sham-surgery, unilateral ovariectomy (ULO), unilateral sectioning of the SON, or sectioning of the SON innervation of the in situ ovary in rats with ULO.This investigation results show that the right and left ovaries have different capacities to maintain normal hormone levels, that such capacity varies during the estrous cycle, and that it depends on the integrity of the SON innervation. In rats with only one ovary, the effects of ovarian denervation on hormone levels varied according to which ovary remained in situ, the specific hormone, and the day of the estrous cycle when treatment was performed. Present results support the idea that the ovaries send and receive neural information that is processed in the central nervous system and we propose that this information participates in controlling the secretion of gonadotropins related to the regulation of ovarian functions. PMID:21414235

Flores, Angélica; Velasco, Jacqueline; Gallegos, Alma I; Mendoza, Fernando D; Everardo, Pamela M; Cruz, María-Esther; Domínguez, Roberto

2011-01-01

296

Acute effects of unilateral sectioning the superior ovarian nerve of rats with unilateral ovariectomy on ovarian hormones (progesterone, testosterone and estradiol) levels vary during the estrous cycle  

PubMed Central

The present study analyzed the participation of the left and right superior ovarian nerves (SON) in regulating progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol serum levels in unilaterally ovariectomized rats on each day of the estrous cycle. For this purpose, ovarian hormone concentrations in serum were measured in animals with either sham-surgery, unilateral ovariectomy (ULO), unilateral sectioning of the SON, or sectioning of the SON innervation of the in situ ovary in rats with ULO. This investigation results show that the right and left ovaries have different capacities to maintain normal hormone levels, that such capacity varies during the estrous cycle, and that it depends on the integrity of the SON innervation. In rats with only one ovary, the effects of ovarian denervation on hormone levels varied according to which ovary remained in situ, the specific hormone, and the day of the estrous cycle when treatment was performed. Present results support the idea that the ovaries send and receive neural information that is processed in the central nervous system and we propose that this information participates in controlling the secretion of gonadotropins related to the regulation of ovarian functions. PMID:21414235

2011-01-01

297

Pediatric elbow fractures: MRI evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in eight patients under the age of 8 years who suffered elbow fractures, to\\u000a assess possible fracture extension into the distal nonossified epiphysis of the humerus in seven cases and to determine the\\u000a displacement and location of the radial head in one case. MRI allowed accurate depiction of the fracture line when it extended

Javier Beltran; Zehava S. Rosenberg; Moises Kawelblum; Lourdes Montes; A. Gabrielle Bergman; Alan Strongwater

1994-01-01

298

Internal fixation of osteoporotic fractures.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis leads to bone fragility and increased risk of fracture. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, the prevalence continues to rise. Osteoporotic fracture treatment has a unique set of difficulties related to poor bone quality and traditional approaches, and implants may not perform well. Fixation failure and repeat surgery are poorly tolerated and highly undesirable in this patient population. This review illustrates the most recent updates in internal fixation, implant design, and surgical theory regarding treatment of patients with osteoporotic fractures. PMID:25424965

Rothberg, David L; Lee, Mark A

2015-02-01

299

External fixation and limited internal fixation for complex fractures of the tibial plateau.  

PubMed

Twenty-one complex fractures of the tibial plateau in twenty patients were treated with closed reduction, interfragmental screw fixation of the articular fragments, and application of a unilateral half-pin external fixator. The average duration of external fixation was twelve weeks (range, three to twenty weeks). The fixator was left in situ until the fracture had united in all but two patients. All of the fractures healed. The complications with this technique were attributable primarily to the proximal half-pins of the external fixator. Seven patients needed antibiotics for an infection at a pin site, and two had septic arthritis that necessitated arthrotomy and débridement. The average duration of follow-up was thirty-eight months. The range of motion of nineteen of the twenty-one knees was at least a 115-degree arc. Laxity was evident in seven knees, but no patient complained of instability of the knee. Radiographs showed malalignment of more than 6 degrees in three knees compared with the normal, contralateral knee and evidence of post-traumatic osteoarthrosis in five knees. The Iowa knee score, determined for nineteen patients, averaged 87 points (range, 55 to 100 points). The SF-36 general health survey demonstrated that most patients had function close to that of age-matched controls. We concluded that external fixation with limited internal fixation is a satisfactory technique for the treatment of selected complex fractures of the tibial plateau. PMID:7744891

Marsh, J L; Smith, S T; Do, T T

1995-05-01

300

Posterior pelvic ring fractures: Closed reduction and percutaneous CT-guided sacroiliac screw fixation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To assess the midterm results of closed reduction and percutaneous fixation (CRPF) with computed tomography (CT)-guided sacroiliac screw fixation in longitudinal posterior pelvic ring fractures. Methods. Thirteen patients with 15 fractures were treated. Eleven patients received a unilateral, two a bilateral, screw fixation. Twenty-seven screws were implanted. Continuous on-table traction was used in six cases. Mean radiological follow-up was 13 months. Results. Twenty-five (93%) screws were placed correctly. There was no impingement of screws on neurovascular structures. Union occurred in 12 (80%), delayed union in 2 (13%), and nonunion in 1 of 15 (7%) fractures. There was one screw breakage and two axial dislocations. Conclusion. Sacroiliac CRPF of longitudinal fractures of the posterior pelvic ring is technically simple, minimally invasive, well localized, and stable. It should be done by an interventional/surgical team. CT is an excellent guiding modality. Closed reduction may be a problem and succeeds best when performed as early as possible.

Jacob, Augustinus Ludwig [Kantonsspital-Universitaetskliniken, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology (Switzerland); Messmer, Peter [Kantonsspital-Universitaetskliniken, Department of Surgery (Switzerland); Stock, Klaus-Wilhelm [Kantonsspital-Universitaetskliniken, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology (Switzerland); Suhm, Norbert [Kantonsspital-Universitaetskliniken, Department of Surgery (Switzerland); Baumann, Bernard [Kantonsspital-Universitaetskliniken, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology (Switzerland); Regazzoni, Pietro [Kantonsspital-Universitaetskliniken, Department of Surgery (Switzerland); Steinbrich, Wolfgang [Kantonsspital-Universitaetskliniken, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology (Switzerland)

1997-07-15

301

Fracture characterization and estimation of fracture porosity of naturally fractured reservoirs with no matrix porosity using stochastic fractal models  

E-print Network

and natural fractures were investigated in this study using an X-Ray CT Scanner. Fractal dimension, D, and amplitude parameter, A, of fracture aperture approaches a constant value with increased sampling area, similar to the behavior of fracture roughness...

Kim, Tae Hyung

2009-05-15

302

Contaminant transport in fractured porous media: analytical solution for a single fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general analytical solution is developed for the problem of contaminant transport along a discrete fracture in a porous rock matrix. The solution takes into account advective transport in the fracture, longitudinal mechanical dispersion in the fracture, molecular diffusion in the fracture fluid along the fracture axis, molecular diffusion from the fracture into the matrix, adsorption into the face of

D. H. Tang; E. O. Frind; E. A. Sudicky

1981-01-01

303

Microstructure-Properties: IMicrostructure-Properties: I Lecture 6A: FractureLecture 6A: Fracture  

E-print Network

microstructure dependent fracture resistance. · This section focuses on basic theory of brittle fracture. · Fracture can be either ductile or brittle. · Brittle fracture impl-Properties: IMicrostructure-Properties: I Lecture 6A: FractureLecture 6A: Fracture 27-301 Fall, 2007 Prof. A. D. Rollett

Rollett, Anthony D.

304

Critical Fracture Stress and Fracture Strain Models for the Prediction of Lower and  

E-print Network

energy brittle fractures at low temperatures (lower shelf) to high energy ductile fractures at higher temCritical Fracture Stress and Fracture Strain Models for the Prediction of Lower and Upper Shelf fracture stress and stress modified fracture strain models are utilized to describe the variation of lower

Ritchie, Robert

305

Tibial tuberosity fractures in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Tibial tuberosity fractures in adolescents are uncommon. We retrospectively reviewed all tibial tuberosity fractures in adolescents\\u000a (10–19) who presented to our level 1 pediatric trauma center over a 7-year period to review fracture morphology, mechanism\\u000a of injury, fracture management including return to play, as well as complications. Additionally, we present a review of the\\u000a literature and treatment algorithm.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We reviewed

Steven Frey; Harish Hosalkar; Danielle B. Cameron; Aaron Heath; B. David Horn; Theodore J. Ganley

2008-01-01

306

Complications in Ankle Fracture Surgery.  

E-print Network

??Mikko Ovaska. Complications in Ankle Fracture Surgery. Helsinki Bone and Joint Research Group, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki,… (more)

Ovaska, Mikko

2014-01-01

307

Spacecraft sustained load fracture control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The opportunities for sustained load fracture control in spacecraft are indicated. Emphasis is given to verification by small scale laboratory testing. Sustained load fracture must be eliminated or controlled in service. For this purpose, a comprehensive fracture control plan is outlined. Materials and environments in aerospace structures and systems are considered and stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen embrittlement, and liquid metal embrittlement are discussed as major sustained load fracture. The laboratory testing is defined and placed in categories of major importance which provides the plans for preparing detailed test plans and proposals to systematically investigate the various categories of materials, environments, and types of test.

Wanhill, R. J. H.

1989-05-01

308

Dynamic Fracture of Nonglassy Suspensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the dynamic fracture of thin layers of suspensions of non-Brownian rigid particles. The impact of a projectile triggers a liquid-to-solid transition and a hole opens in the layer. We show that the occurrence of fracture and the spatial and dynamic features of the cracks depend mostly on the thickness of the layer and the particle volume fraction. In contrast, the properties of the fractured material seem independent of volume fraction. Finally, we measure the velocity of the crack tip, from which we estimate an effective value of the shear modulus of the fractured material.

Roché, Matthieu; Myftiu, Eglind; Johnston, Mitchell C.; Kim, Pilnam; Stone, Howard A.

2013-04-01

309

External fixation of tibial fractures.  

PubMed

External fixation for definitive or initial management of tibial fractures has a long history, with pin-to-bar external fixation being the standard of care for definitive management of tibial fractures. However, the use of this method lessened because of the increased popularity of intramedullary nailing and drawbacks associated with external fixation. This method is still commonly in use in the military environment and can be used for temporary stabilization of tibial fractures, especially in the setting of periarticular injuries. These fixators also may be useful for salvage of open and/or infected fractures that are unsuitable for internal fixation. PMID:25613987

Tejwani, Nirmal; Polonet, David; Wolinsky, Philip R

2015-02-01

310

Permeability damage to natural fractures caused by fracturing fluid polymers  

SciTech Connect

Formation damage studies using artificially fractured, low-permeability sandstone cores indicate that viscosified fracturing fluids can severely restrict gas flow through these types of narrow fractures. These studies were performed in support of the Department of Energy's Multiwell Experiment (MWX). Extensive geological and production evaluations at the MWX site indicate that the presence of a natural fracture system is largely responsible for unstimulated gas production. The laboratory formation damage studies were designed to examine changes in cracked core permeability to gas caused by fracturing fluid residues introduced into such narrow fractures during fluid leakoff. Polysaccharide polymers caused significant reduction (up to 95%) to gas flow through cracked cores. Polymer fracturing fluid gels used in this study included hydroxypropyl guar, hydroxyethyl cellulose, and xanthan gum. In contrast, polyacrylamide gels caused little or no reduction in gas flow through cracked cores after liquid cleanup. Other components of fracturing fluids (surfactants, breakers, etc.) caused less damage to gas flows. Other factors affecting gas flow through cracked cores were investigated, including the effects of net confining stress and non-Darcy flow parameters. Results are related to some of the problems observed during the stimulation program conducted for the MWX. 24 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

Gall, B.L.; Sattler, A.R.; Maloney, D.R.; Raible, C.J.

1988-04-01

311

Investigation of Created Fracture Geometry through Hydraulic Fracture Treatment Analysis  

E-print Network

fracture geometry illustrates that it is not possible to reach the full fracture geometry implied by microseismic given the finite amount of fluid and proppant that was pumped. The model does show however that the created geometry appears to be much larger...

Ahmed, Ibraheem 1987-

2012-11-30

312

Fracture compliance estimation using borehole tube waves  

E-print Network

We tested two models, one for tube-wave generation and the other for tube-wave attenuation at a fracture intersecting a borehole that can be used to estimate fracture compliance, fracture aperture, and lateral extent. In ...

Bakku, Sudhish Kumar

313

Fractured petroleum reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Total compressibility in a fractured reservoir is estimated using the pressure response due to gravitational potential variations. Both the moon and the sun gravitational potentials are accounted for using the full expression by inclusion of longer-period components. The semi-diurnal and diurnal pressure data show substantial long-term variations. The gravitational potential also contains the same variation trend; the ratio between the potential and pressure has a fairly uniform value over successive cycles. The computed total compressibility is also fairly constant and independent of the cycle. Results show the effects of the time interval over which the pressure measurements are performed as well as the location.

Firoozabadi, A.; Chang, E.; Tang, G.Q.

2000-01-10

314

Analysis of a unilateral contact problem taking into account adhesion and friction  

E-print Network

Analysis of a unilateral contact problem taking into account adhesion and friction Elena Bonetti) adhesion and of the friction are taken into account. We describe the adhesion phenomenon in terms conditions, and friction by a nonlocal Coulomb law. All the constraints on the internal variables as well

Rossi, Riccarda

315

Analysis of a unilateral contact problem taking into account adhesion and friction  

E-print Network

Analysis of a unilateral contact problem taking into account adhesion and friction Elena Bonetti) adhesion and of the friction are taken into account. We describe the adhesion phenomenon in terms conditions and the friction by a nonlocal Coulomb law. All the constraints on the internal variables as well

Rossi, Riccarda

316

Reliability of a Unilateral Horizontal Leg Power Test to Assess Stretch Load Tolerance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drop jumping has previously been used to measure fast stretch shorten cycle (SSC) ability and stretch load tolerance. To the knowledge of these authors a test does not exist to achieve this in the horizontal direction. The purpose of this study therefore was to estimate the reliability of a new unilateral horizontal leg power test to assess these…

Simpson, Rhianna Parker; Cronin, John

2006-01-01

317

Comparison of the Electromyographic Activation Level and Unilateral Selectivity of Erector Spinae during Different Selected Movements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For patients with scoliosis, core stabilization exercises may be beneficial in improving muscle strength and trunk dynamic control. However, few studies have examined whether the erector spinae (ES) activation status during unilateral spinal extensor strengthening meets the guideline for patients with spinal scoliosis. To determine ES activation…

Guo, Lan-Yuen; Wang, Yu-Lin; Huang, Yu-Han; Yang, Chich-Haung; Hou, Yi-You; Harn, Hans I-Chen; You, Yu-Lin

2012-01-01

318

A FREE BOUNDARY PROBLEM WITH UNILATERAL CONSTRAINTS DESCRIBING THE EVOLUTION OF A TUMOUR CORD  

E-print Network

model for the evolution of the cord is presented taking into account the following facts: the in uenceA FREE BOUNDARY PROBLEM WITH UNILATERAL CONSTRAINTS DESCRIBING THE EVOLUTION OF A TUMOUR CORD UNDER the steady state and the evolution problem are considered, showing existence and uniqueness of the solution

Fasano, Antonio

319

Effects of unilateral superior colliculus ablation on oculomotor and vestibulo-ocular responses in the cat  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Unilateral lesions of the superior colliculus were made in normal cats. Following the operation, animals exhibited a typical neglect for contralateral visual space and forced circling toward the ipsilateral side. Optokinetic nystagmus was decreased for a stimulus moving toward the ipsilateral side, particularly in the temporal-to-nasal direction when the eye contralateral to the lesion was stimulated alone. — 2.

J. M. Flandrin; M. Jeannerod

1981-01-01

320

Effects of unilateral isometric strength training on joint angle specificity and cross-training  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of unilateral isometric leg extension strength training on the strength and integrated electromyogram (IEMG) of both the trained and untrained limbs at multiple joint angles. A training (TRN) group [nine women; mean (SD) age, 20(1) years] exercised for 6 weeks with isometric leg extensions at 80% of maximal isometric torque.

Joseph P. Weir; Terry J. Housh; Loree L. Weir; Glen O. Johnson

1995-01-01

321

Q What is a unilateral hearing loss? What causes a hearing loss in only one ear?  

E-print Network

Q· What is a unilateral hearing loss? · What causes a hearing loss in only one ear? · Will the hearing in my child's better ear get worse? · Why would my child have trouble hearing if one ear has normal hearing? · Will my child benefit from wearing a hearing aid in the ear with the hearing loss

O'Toole, Alice J.

322

The effects of pentoxifylline on renal function and free radical production in unilateral ureteral obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an ongoing discussion about ureteral obstruction-related renal dysfunction. In this study, we aimed to test the effect of pentoxifylline (PTX) on both kidneys in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), and to determine its interaction of with prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2), and diclofenac sodium (DIS). A sham operation was performed in group 1. Placebo, PTX, DIS, and PTX+DIS were

Adnan Aslan; Güngör Karagüzel; F?rat Güngör; Nimet ?zgüt-Uysal; Funda Ayd?n; Mustafa Meliko?lu

2003-01-01

323

Frames of reference in unilateral neglect and visual perception: A computational perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurological patients with unilateral neglect fail to orient and respond to stimuli on one side, typically the left. A key research issue is whether neglect is exhibited with respect to the left side of the viewer or of objects. When deficits in attentional allocation depend not merely on an object's location with respect to the viewer but on the object's

Michael C. Mozer

2002-01-01

324

Action Planning in Typically and Atypically Developing Children (Unilateral Cerebral Palsy)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present study, we investigated the development of action planning in children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP, aged 3-6 years, n = 24) and an age matched control group. To investigate action planning, participants performed a sequential movement task. They had to grasp an object (a wooden play sword) and place the sword in a hole in a…

Craje, Celine; Aarts, Pauline; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria; Steenbergen, Bert

2010-01-01

325

Randomised controlled trial of treatment of unilateral visual impairment detected at preschool vision screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To test the efficacy of treatment for unilateral visual loss detected by preschool vision screening and the extent to which effectiveness varies with initial severity. Design Randomised controlled trial of full treatment with glasses and patching, if required, compared with glasses only or no treatment. Masked assessment of best corrected acuity after one year of follow up. Setting Eight

M P Clarke; C M Wright; S Hrisos; J D Anderson; J Henderson; S R Richardson

2003-01-01

326

Unilateral Molariform Macrodont Mandibular Second Premolar: An Unusual Case Report in A Nonsyndromic Patient  

PubMed Central

Macrodontia is a rare dental anomaly that refers to teeth appears larger than normal. It can be generalized or isolated macrodontia. Isolated macrodontia involving premolar is very rare. This case report presents an unusual unilateral molarifrom macrodontia of mandibular second premolar. PMID:25177648

Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Masamatti, Vinay Kumar; Tiwari, Samarth; Malik, Sidharath

2014-01-01

327

Partial unilateral lesions of the mushroom bodies affect olfactory learning in honeybees Apis mellifera L.  

E-print Network

been associated with olfactory learning and memory. Here we used hydroxyurea (HU) to treat honeybee). They have been traditionally associated with olfactory learning and memory following studies principallyPartial unilateral lesions of the mushroom bodies affect olfactory learning in honeybees Apis

Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

328

The Course and Outcome of Unilateral Intracranial Arteriopathy in 79 Children with Ischaemic Stroke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arteriopathies are the commonest cause of arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS) in children. Repeated vascular imaging in children with AIS demonstrated the existence of a "transient cerebral arteriopathy" (TCA), characterized by lenticulostriate infarction due to non-progressive unilateral arterial disease affecting the supraclinoid internal carotid…

Braun, K. P. J.; Bulder, M. M. M.; Chabrier, S.; Kirkham, F. J.; Uiterwaal, C. S. P.; Tardieu, M.; Sebire, G.

2009-01-01

329

Bilateral internal carotid artery dissection presenting as isolated unilateral Horner syndrome.  

PubMed

A 52-year-old man developed a unilateral Horner syndrome following a skiing accident. He was otherwise asymptomatic. Neuroimaging with magnetic resonance revealed bilateral internal carotid artery dissections, and he was urgently treated with anticoagulation. Immediate neuroimaging should be performed in any patient with Horner syndrome following trauma, regardless of other symptoms or signs. PMID:19935255

Demetriades, Anna M; Miller, Neil R; Garibaldi, Daniel C

2009-01-01

330

Stance stability with unilateral and bilateral light touch of an external stationary object.  

PubMed

Unilateral light fingertip touch of a stationary object has a significant stabilizing effect on postural sway during stance. The purpose of this study was to find out if this effect is enhanced by bilateral light touch of parallel stationary objects. The postural sway of 54 healthy subjects was tested in four stance conditions: no touch; unilateral left light touch of the left handle of a walker; unilateral right light touch of the right handle of the same walker; and bilateral light touch of the two handles. During testing, subjects stood blindfolded on two foam pads placed on the left and right force plates of the Tetrax balance system. Testing in each condition lasted 45 s and was executed twice in a random order. As expected, postural sway was significantly reduced by unilateral left or right light fingertip touch. It was significantly further decreased by bilateral light touch. In addition, light touch conditions were associated with a reduction in pressure fluctuations between the heel and forefoot of the same foot as well as those of the contralateral foot, with a concomitant increase in weight shift fluctuations between the two feet. The decrease in postural sway with bilateral light touch suggests cortical modulation of the bilateral touch inputs, with enhancement of the stabilizing response. PMID:16503584

Dickstein, Ruth

2005-12-01

331

Antisperm Autoantibody Response After Unilateral Vas Deferens Ligation in Rats: When Does it Develop?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unilateral obstruction or injury to the vas deferens can result in significant injury to the contralateral testicle. Antisperm au- toantibodies are thought to play a significant role in this phenome- non. It has been reported that early surgical repair of the vas, before the development of antisperm autoantibodies, will prevent any po- tential damage to the contralateral testicle. This led

MICHEAL J. CHEHVAL; RAJEN DOSHI; CHARLES F. KIDD; THOMAS WINKELMANN; VINCENT CHEHVAL

332

Gaze Behaviour during Interception in Children with Spastic Unilateral Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anticipatory gaze behaviour during interceptive movements was investigated in children with Spastic Unilateral Cerebral Palsy (SUCP), and related to the side of the intracerebral lesion. Five children with lesions of the right hemisphere (RHL) and five children with lesions of the left hemisphere (LHL) had to walk towards and intercept a ball that…

van Kampen, P. M.; Ledebt, A.; Smorenburg, A. R. P.; Vermeulen, R. J.; Kelder, M. E.; van der Kamp, J.; Savelsbergh, G. J. P.

2012-01-01

333

Upper Limb Function and Cortical Organization in Youth with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Aim: To explore the relationship between motor cortical and descending motor pathway reorganization, lesion type, and upper limb function in youth with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Twenty participants with unilateral CP (mean age 15?±?3?years; 11 males) completed a range of upper limb functional measures. Structural MRI, diffusion-weighted, and functional MRI were conducted to determine type and extent of brain lesion, descending white matter integrity, and whole-brain activity during affected hand use. Single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) (n?=?12) was used to examine functional integrity of the corticospinal pathway as well as primary motor cortex intracortical and interhemispheric inhibition from motor-evoked potentials and silent periods. Results: Fractional anisotropy measures within the posterior limb of the internal capsule were a predictor of upper limb function (R2?=?0.41, F?=?11.3, p?=?0.004). Participants with periventricular lesions tended to have better upper limb function [F(2, 17)?=?42.48, p?Unilateral Upper Limb Function: Mann Whitney p?=?0.02). Conclusion: Neuroimaging and TMS can provide useful information related to hand function of individuals with unilateral CP and may have potential to assist as a predictive tool and/or guide rehabilitation. PMID:25071705

Mackey, Anna; Stinear, Cathy; Stott, Susan; Byblow, Winston D.

2014-01-01

334

Consistency of Intermanual Discrepancies in Normal and Unilateral Brain Lesion Patients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The distribution of intermanual discrepancies on three motor tests (Grooved Pegboard, Finger Tapping and Dynamometer) were examined in normal and unilateral brain lesion samples. Considerable variability in the intermanual discrepancies was observed in all three samples. Therefore, the consistency of discrepancies across tasks was examined. The…

Bornstein, R. A.

1986-01-01

335

Amplification Considerations for Children With Minimal or Mild Bilateral Hearing Loss and Unilateral Hearing Loss  

PubMed Central

Children with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss and unilateral hearing loss are at higher risk for academic, speech-language, and social-emotional difficulties than their normal hearing peers. The choice to fit infants with moderate or greater degrees of bilateral hearing loss has been standard practice for most clinicians, but for those with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss or unilateral hearing loss, the fitting of hearing technology must be based on limited data. Evidence does not yet exist to support all the management decisions that an audiologist must make upon identifying an infant with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss or unilateral hearing loss. It is not yet known which children are at the greatest risk for educational problems nor is it known if the provision of early amplification in this population will help a child avoid later difficulties. Some of these considerations and current hearing technology options for children with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss or unilateral hearing loss are reviewed in this article. PMID:18270178

McKay, Sarah; Gravel, Judith S.; Tharpe, Anne Marie

2008-01-01

336

Long term outcome of unilateral pallidotomy: follow up of 15 patients for 3 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESWith the advent of new antiparkinsonian drug therapy and promising results from subthalamic and pallidal stimulation, this study evaluated the long term efficacy of unilateral pallidotomy, a technique which has gained popularity over the past decade for the management of advanced Parkinson's disease.METHODSThe 15 patients reported here are part of the original cohort of 24 patients who underwent posteroventral pallidotomy

P K Pal; A Samii; A Kishore; M Schulzer; E Mak; S Yardley; I M Turnbull; D B Calne

2000-01-01

337

Perceptual Ratings of Vocal Characteristics and Voicing Features in Untreated Patients with Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used visual analog scales to obtain perceptual ratings of features of voice production in subjects with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP), including clarity of laryngeal articulation, consistency of loudness across the utterance and the voiced/voiceless distinction. Recordings of repeated /i/, /isi/, and /izi/ from subjects…

Leydon, Ciara; Bielamowicz, Steven; Stager, Sheila V.

2005-01-01

338

CLINICAL REVIEW: Current Concepts in the Management of Unilateral Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Paralysis after Thyroid Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was designed to provide an update on the pathophysiological concepts and patient management in a common complication of thyroid surgery, unilateral recur- rent laryngeal nerve paralysis (URLNP). Method: Recent publications in physiology and head and neck surgery were reviewed. Results: Even for experienced surgeons, URLNP may occur after thyroid surgery, especially for thyroid cancer and in case

Dana M. Hartl; Jean-Paul Travagli; Sophie Leboulleux; Eric Baudin; Daniel F. Brasnu; Martin Schlumberger

339

Gender Differences in Unilateral Spatial Neglect within 24 Hours of Ischemic Stroke  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hemispatial neglect is a common and disabling consequence of stroke. Previous reports examining the relationship between gender and the incidence of unilateral spatial neglect (USN) have included either a large numbers of patients with few neglect tests or small numbers of patients with multiple tests. To determine if USN was more common and/or…

Kleinman, Jonathan T.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Davis, Cameron; Newhart, Melissa; Heidler-Gary, Jennifer; Hillis, Argye E.

2008-01-01

340

Comparison of Unilateral versus Bilateral Kyphoplasty in Multiple Myeloma Patients and the Importance of Preoperative Planning  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective comparative study and technical note. Purpose To determine if there is a difference in clinical and radiographic parameters between unilateral and bilateral kyphoplasty in a uniform cancer population and to stress the importance of preoperative planning. Overview of Literature While unipedicular kyphoplasty is gaining popularity, a few comparative studies have reported on superior kyphotic reduction with the bipedicular approach. Methods We reviewed 69 myeloma patients with 105 operated levels (51 levels were done bilaterally vs. 54 unilaterally). Pain reduction, height restoration, cement volume and complications were recorded up to three months postoperatively. A technical note to identify the skin entry point on the basis of the magnetic resonance imaging and fluoroscopy (lateral view) is being described. Results Both procedures resulted in significant pain reduction (5.4-5.6/10 points, p=0.8). There was significant height restoration after the operation (p<0.001), while there was no sustained difference between the procedures (p=0.5) up to three months postoperatively. More cement was injected in the bilateral group (4.1 mL vs. 4.9 mL, p=0.002); no difference in cement extravasation in the spinal canal was observed (p=0.5). Conclusions There was no difference in the clinical or radiological outcomes between the unilateral and bilateral approaches. Therefore, unilateral kyphoplasty may be performed whenever it is technically feasible and this may be determined preoperatively. PMID:24967037

Eleraky, Mohamed; Murtagh, Ryan; Kokkalis, Zinon T; Gerochristou, Maria; Vrionis, Frank D

2014-01-01

341

Unilateral Lymphangiomatous Polyp of the Palatine Tonsil in a Very Young Child: A Clinicopathologic Case Report  

PubMed Central

Childhood lymphangiomatous polyp of the palatine tonsil is a very unusual lesion found in the head and neck. Tonsillectomy has been reported to be the curative procedure of choice for this lesion. We report a case of a very young child with unilateral lymphangiomatous polyp of the palatine tonsil. PMID:22606515

Park, Edward; Pransky, Seth M.; Malicki, Denise M.; Hong, Paul

2011-01-01

342

THE R\\\\l=O^\\\\LE OF THE EPIDIDYMIS AND DUCTUS DEFERENS IN THE DIRECT AND UNILATERAL CONTROL OF THE PROSTATE AND SEMINAL VESICLES OF THE RAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Unilateral castration and unilateral vasectomy both bring about a reduction in the androgen-dependent activity of the RNA poly- merase enzymes of the ipsilateral lobes of the prostate and seminal vesicles compared to that of the equivalent organs on the contralateral side. After unilateral orchidectomy (i.e. the epididymis was not removed with the testis), the ipsilateral lobes of the prostate

C. G. PIERREPOINT; P. DAVIES; D. W. WILSON

343

Broken ribs: paleopathological analysis of costal fractures in the human identified skeletal collection from the Museu Bocage, Lisbon, Portugal (late 19th to middle 20th centuries).  

PubMed

Although rarely reported in the anthropological literature, rib fractures are commonly found during the analysis of human skeletal remains of past and modern populations. This lack of published data precludes comparison between studies and restricts an accurate understanding either of the mechanisms involved in thoracic injuries or their impact on past societies. The present study aimed: 1) to report rib fracture prevalence in 197 individuals, 109 males, and 88 females, with ages at death ranging from 13 to 88 years old, from the Human Identified Skeletal Collection, Museu Bocage, Portugal (late 19th-middle 20th centuries); 2) to test the hypothesis that a higher prevalence of rib stress fractures existed in the 133 individuals who died from respiratory diseases, in a period before antibiotics. The macroscopic analysis revealed 23.9% (n = 47) of individuals with broken ribs. 2.6% (n = 124) out of 4,726 ribs observed were affected. Males presented more rib fractures, and a significantly higher prevalence was noted for older individuals. Fractures were more frequently unilateral (n = 34), left sided (n = 19) and mainly located on the shaft of ribs from the middle thoracic wall. Nineteen individuals presented adjacent fractured ribs. Individuals who died from pulmonary diseases were not preferentially affected. However, a higher mean rate of fractures was found in those who died from pneumonia, a scenario still common nowadays. Since rib involvement in chest wall injury and its related outcomes are important issues both for paleopathology and forensic anthropology, further investigations are warranted. PMID:19294742

Matos, Vítor

2009-09-01

344

Thoracolumbar Spine Fractures in the Geriatric Fracture Center  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Thoracolumbar spine fractures are common osteoporotic fractures among elderly patients. Several studies suggest that these fractures can be treated successfully with a nonoperative management. The aim of this study is to evaluate the conservative treatment of elderly patients with a vertebral fracture. Methods: This study is a retrospective cohort study, which included all patients with an age of 65 years and older, who were diagnosed with a vertebral fracture and where therefore admitted to the Geriatric Fracture Center over a period of 2 years. Primary outcome was the level of functioning 6 weeks and 3 months after admission. Results: We included 106 patients with 143 vertebral fractures, of which 61 patients were evaluated after 3 months. In our population, 53% of the patients had a fracture involving both middle and anterior columns. The majority of the patients functioned sufficiently 6 weeks and 3 months after admission. Analysis showed that age <80 years is an independent predictor of a sufficient level of functioning after 6 weeks. Discussion: The nonoperative treatment of elderly patients with a vertebral fracture leads to a sufficient level of functioning 6 weeks and 3 months after admission. In our population, only age <80 years is an independent predictor for a sufficient level of functioning 6 weeks after admission. The level of functioning at 6 weeks predicts the level of functioning 3 months after admission. On comparison, the level of functioning after early ambulation is equal to the level of functioning after immobilization. Where immobilization may lead to complications, early ambulation was not associated with new complications or neurological damage. Based on these advantages, the treatment of elderly patients with a fracture involving both middle and anterior columns may be altered from immobilization to mobilization in the future. PMID:25360330

Folbert, E. C.; Kraai, M.; Smit, R. S.; Hegeman, J. H.; van der Velde, D.

2014-01-01

345

Changes in auditory perceptions and cortex resulting from hearing recovery after extended congenital unilateral hearing loss  

PubMed Central

Monaural hearing induces auditory system reorganization. Imbalanced input also degrades time-intensity cues for sound localization and signal segregation for listening in noise. While there have been studies of bilateral auditory deprivation and later hearing restoration (e.g., cochlear implants), less is known about unilateral auditory deprivation and subsequent hearing improvement. We investigated effects of long-term congenital unilateral hearing loss on localization, speech understanding, and cortical organization following hearing recovery. Hearing in the congenitally affected ear of a 41 year old female improved significantly after stapedotomy and reconstruction. Pre-operative hearing threshold levels showed unilateral, mixed, moderately-severe to profound hearing loss. The contralateral ear had hearing threshold levels within normal limits. Testing was completed prior to, and 3 and 9 months after surgery. Measurements were of sound localization with intensity-roved stimuli and speech recognition in various noise conditions. We also evoked magnetic resonance signals with monaural stimulation to the unaffected ear. Activation magnitudes were determined in core, belt, and parabelt auditory cortex regions via an interrupted single event design. Hearing improvement following 40 years of congenital unilateral hearing loss resulted in substantially improved sound localization and speech recognition in noise. Auditory cortex also reorganized. Contralateral auditory cortex responses were increased after hearing recovery and the extent of activated cortex was bilateral, including a greater portion of the posterior superior temporal plane. Thus, prolonged predominant monaural stimulation did not prevent auditory system changes consequent to restored binaural hearing. Results support future research of unilateral auditory deprivation effects and plasticity, with consideration for length of deprivation, age at hearing correction and degree and type of hearing loss. PMID:24379761

Firszt, Jill B.; Reeder, Ruth M.; Holden, Timothy A.; Burton, Harold; Chole, Richard A.

2013-01-01

346

Some Fundamental Mechanisms of Hydraulic Fracturing.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation focuses mainly on three topics: (1) mixed-mode branching and segmentation of hydraulic fractures in brittle materials, (2) hydraulic fracture propagation in particulate materials,… (more)

Wu, Ruiting

2006-01-01

347

Isolated Transverse Sacrum Fracture: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Sacral fracture commonly results from high-energy trauma. Most insufficiency fractures of the sacrum are seen in women after the age of 70. Fractures of the sacrum are rare and generally combined with a concomitant pelvic fracture. Transverse sacral fractures are even less frequent which constitute only 3–5% of all sacral fractures. This type of fractures provide a diagnostic challenge. We report a unique case of isolated transverse fracture of sacrum in a young man sustained low-energy trauma. The patient presented to our emergency department after several hours of injury, and diagnosed by clinical features and roentgenogram findings. PMID:22046545

Kavalci, Cemil; Akdur, Gökhan; Sayhan, Mustafa Burak; Sogut, Ozgur; Gökdemir, Mehmet Tahir

2011-01-01

348

FRACTURE CONTROL PROGRAM ADVISORY COMMITTEE  

E-print Network

of Mechanical Components Bolted Joints Fretting Fatigue Fasteners Widespread Fatigue Damage Welded Joints CaseFRACTURE CONTROL PROGRAM ADVISORY COMMITTEE MEETING AND FATIGUE AND FRACTURE (BASIC COURSE) A short 26, 2007 8:30 - 11:30 am Dr. Stephen Downing Factors Influencing Fatigue Mean Stress Variable

Thomas, Brian G.

349

Fracture detection and mapping  

SciTech Connect

Because the costs of drilling, completing, and testing a well can be extremely high, it is important to develop better tools and methods for locating high permeability zones prior to drilling, and to develop better tools and methods for identifying and characterizing major fracture zones during the drilling and well testing stages. At the recommendation of the LBL Industry Review Panel on Geothermal Reservoir Technology, we organized and convened a one-day workshop this past July to discuss various aspects of DOE's current and planned activities in fracture detection, to review the geothermal industry's near-term and long-term research needs, to determine the priority of those needs, to disseminate to industry the status of research in progress, and to discuss the possibility of future joint research between industry and DOE. In this paper we present a brief overview of the workshop from the perspective of those who participated in it and provided us with written comments to a questionnaire that was distributed.

Goldstein, N.E.; Iovenitti, J.L.

1986-03-01

350

Fracture Detection and Mapping  

SciTech Connect

Because the costs of drilling, completing, and testing a well can be extremely high, it is important to develop better tools and methods for locating high permeability zones prior to drilling, and to develop better tools and methods for identifying and characterizing major fracture zones during the drilling and well testing stages. At the recommendation of the LBL Industry Review Panel on Geothermal Reservoir Technology, we organized and convened a one-day workshop this past July to discuss various aspects of DOE's current and planned activities in fracture detection, to review the geothermal industry's near-term and long-term research needs, to determine the priority of those needs, to disseminate to industry the status of research in progress, and to discuss the possibility of future joint research between industry and DOE. In this paper we present a brief overview of the workshop from the perspective of those who participated in it and provided us with written comments to a questionnaire that was distributed.

Goldstein, Norman E.; Iovenitti, Joseph L.

1986-01-21

351

Osteoporosis, Fractures, and Diabetes  

PubMed Central

It is well established that osteoporosis and diabetes are prevalent diseases with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Patients with diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of bone fractures. In type 1 diabetes, the risk is increased by ?6 times and is due to low bone mass. Despite increased bone mineral density (BMD), in patients with type 2 diabetes the risk is increased (which is about twice the risk in the general population) due to the inferior quality of bone. Bone fragility in type 2 diabetes, which is not reflected by bone mineral density, depends on bone quality deterioration rather than bone mass reduction. Thus, surrogate markers and examination methods are needed to replace the insensitivity of BMD in assessing fracture risks of T2DM patients. One of these methods can be trabecular bone score. The aim of the paper is to present the present state of scientific knowledge about the osteoporosis risk in diabetic patient. The review also discusses the possibility of problematic using the study conclusions in real clinical practice. PMID:25050121

2014-01-01

352

Test-Free Fracture Toughness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computational simulation results can give the prediction of damage growth and progression and fracture toughness of composite structures. The experimental data from literature provide environmental effects on the fracture behavior of metallic or fiber composite structures. However, the traditional experimental methods to analyze the influence of the imposed conditions are expensive and time consuming. This research used the CODSTRAN code to model the temperature effects, scaling effects and the loading effects of fiberbraided composite specimens with and without fiber-optic sensors on the damage initiation and energy release rates. The load-displacement relationship and fracture toughness assessment approach is compared with the test results from literature and it is verified that the computational simulation, with the use of established material modeling and finite element modules, adequately tracks the changes of fracture toughness and subsequent fracture propagation for any fiberbraided composite structure due to the change of fiber orientations, presence of large diameter optical fibers, and any loading conditions.

Minnetyan, Levon; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

353

Fracture technology for brittle materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ceramics materials have the potential for use in high-temperature, fuel-efficient engines. However, because these materials are brittle, their fracture characteristics must be well documented prior to their application. Thus Lewis is working to understand the fracture and strength properties of brittle ceramic and ceramic matrix materials. An understanding of fracture properties aids both designers who are attempting to design high-temperature structures and materials scientists who seek to design more temperature-resistant materials. Both analytical and experimental approaches to fracture analysis are being taken. Methods for testing fracture toughness, crack growth resistance, and strength are being developed. The failure mechanisms at both room and elevated temperatures are also being investigated. Such investigations aid materials scientists in developing better high-temperature materials. Of concern is the anisotropy of ceramic materials and the experimental verification of ceramic design codes that will allow brittle material behavior to be accurately predicted at high temperature.

Salem, Jonathan A.

1988-01-01

354

Perioperative Risk Assessment in Patients Aged 75 Years or Older: Comparison between Bilateral and Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the risk of sequential bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) under 1 anesthesia in patients 75 years or older. Materials and Methods Patients aged 75 years or older who underwent sequential bilateral TKA (bilateral group, n=159) and unilateral TKA (unilateral group, n=159) between 2002 and 2012 were selected. All patients were evaluated for underlying medical diseases, such as cardiac, pulmonary, and renal problems, and high-risk patients were recommended to postpone the surgery. We compared the underlying diseases, major postoperative complications, and the length of hospital stay between bilateral and unilateral groups. Results The prevalence of underlying diseases of the bilateral group was 74.8% and major complications occurred in 6 patients (3.8%). The prevalence of underlying diseases of the unilateral group was 52.4% and complications were observed in 4 patients (2.4%). Although the complication rate of the bilateral group was slightly higher than that of the unilateral group, the difference was not statistically meaningful (p=0.204). The length of hospital stay was 21.9 days for the bilateral group and 24.9 days for the unilateral group. Conclusions There was no significant difference in postoperative complications between groups. The result shows that bilateral TKA can be relatively safe compared with unilateral TKA in patients 75 years or older. However, careful selection of low-risk patients is advised. PMID:25505704

Choi, Young-Joon; Ra, Ho Jong; Hwang, Do-Yon; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Shim, Sang-Jun

2014-01-01

355

Mechanisms of basilar skull fracture.  

PubMed

Basilar skull fractures comprise a broad category of injuries that have been attributed to a variety of causal mechanisms. The objective of this work is to develop an understanding of the biomechanical mechanisms that result in basilar skull fractures, specifically focusing on mandibular impact and neck loading as potential mechanisms. In the characterization of the injury mechanisms, three experimental studies have been performed. The first study evaluated the response of the base of the skull to midsymphysis loading on the mental protuberance (chin) of the mandible. Five dynamic impacts using a vertical drop track and one quasi-static test in a servohydraulic test frame have been performed. In each test, clinically relevant mandibular fractures were produced but no basilar skull fractures were observed. The second study assessed the fracture tolerance of the base of the skull subject to direct loading on the temporomandibular joint in conjunction with tensile loading imposed locally around the foramen magnum to simulate the effect of the ligaments and musculature of the neck. Among four specimens that sustained either complete or incomplete basilar skull ring fractures remote from the sites of load application, the mean load at fracture was 4300 +/- 350 N. Energy to fracture was computed in three of those tests and averaged 13.0 +/- 1.7 J. Injuries produced were consistent with clinical observations that have attributed basilar skull ring fractures to mandibular impacts. In the third series of experimental tests, loading responses resulting from cranial vault impacts were investigated using unembalmed human cadaver heads and ligamentous cervical spines. Multiaxis load cells and accelerometers, coupled with high-speed digital video, were used to quantify impact dynamics. The results of these experiments suggest that while there is a greater probability of cervical spine injury, basilar skull ring fractures can result when the head is constrained on the impact surface and the inertia of the torso drives the vertebral column onto the occiput. PMID:8683618

McElhaney, J H; Hopper, R H; Nightingale, R W; Myers, B S

1995-08-01

356

CT scan-evaluated outcome of pulsed electromagnetic fields in the treatment of acute scaphoid fractures: a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.  

PubMed

We hypothesised that the use of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) bone growth stimulation in acute scaphoid fractures would significantly shorten the time to union and reduce the number of nonunions in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre trial. A total of 102 patients (78 male, 24 female; mean age 35 years (18 to 77)) from five different medical centres with a unilateral undisplaced acute scaphoid fracture were randomly allocated to PEMF (n = 51) or placebo (n = 51) and assessed with regard to functional and radiological outcomes (multiplanar reconstructed CT scans) at 6, 9, 12, 24 and 52 weeks. The overall time to clinical and radiological healing did not differ significantly between the active PEMF group and the placebo group. We concluded that the addition of PEMF bone growth stimulation to the conservative treatment of acute scaphoid fractures does not accelerate bone healing. PMID:25086123

Hannemann, P F W; van Wezenbeek, M R; Kolkman, K A; Twiss, E L L; Berghmans, C H J; Dirven, P A M G M; Brink, P R G; Poeze, M

2014-08-01

357

Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in the treatment of fresh scaphoid fractures. A multicenter, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial  

PubMed Central

Background The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured of the carpal bones. In the Netherlands 90% of all carpal fractures is a fracture of the scaphoid bone. The scaphoid has an essential role in functionality of the wrist, acting as a pivot. Complications in healing can result in poor functional outcome. The scaphoid fracture is a troublesome fracture and failure of treatment can result in avascular necrosis (up to 40%), non-union (5-21%) and early osteo-arthritis (up to 32%) which may seriously impair wrist function. Impaired consolidation of scaphoid fractures results in longer immobilization and more days lost at work with significant psychosocial and financial consequences. Initially Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields was used in the treatment of tibial pseudoarthrosis and non-union. More recently there is evidence that physical forces can also be used in the treatment of fresh fractures, showing accelerated healing by 30% and 71% reduction in nonunion within 12 weeks after initiation of therapy. Until now no double blind randomized, placebo controlled trial has been conducted to investigate the effect of this treatment on the healing of fresh fractures of the scaphoid. Methods/Design This is a multi center, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Study population consists of all patients with unilateral acute scaphoid fracture. Pregnant women, patients having a life supporting implanted electronic device, patients with additional fractures of wrist, carpal or metacarpal bones and pre-existing impairment in wrist function are excluded. The scaphoid fracture is diagnosed by a combination of physical and radiographic examination (CT-scanning). Proven scaphoid fractures are treated with cast immobilization and a small Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields bone growth stimulating device placed on the cast. Half of the devices will be disabled at random in the factory. Study parameters are clinical consolidation, radiological consolidation evaluated by CT-scanning, functional status of the wrist, including assessment by means of the patient rated wrist evaluation (PRWE) questionnaire and quality of life using SF-36 health survey questionnaire. Primary endpoint is number of scaphoid unions at six weeks, secondary endpoints are time interval to clinical and radiological consolidation, number of non-unions, functional status at 52 weeks and non-adherence to the treatment protocol. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR2064 PMID:21548951

2011-01-01

358

Fracturing ranked surfaces  

PubMed Central

Discretized landscapes can be mapped onto ranked surfaces, where every element (site or bond) has a unique rank associated with its corresponding relative height. By sequentially allocating these elements according to their ranks and systematically preventing the occupation of bridges, namely elements that, if occupied, would provide global connectivity, we disclose that bridges hide a new tricritical point at an occupation fraction p = pc, where pc is the percolation threshold of random percolation. For any value of p in the interval pc < p ? 1, our results show that the set of bridges has a fractal dimension dBB ? 1.22 in two dimensions. In the limit p ? 1, a self-similar fracture is revealed as a singly connected line that divides the system in two domains. We then unveil how several seemingly unrelated physical models tumble into the same universality class and also present results for higher dimensions. PMID:22470841

Schrenk, K. J.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Andrade Jr, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

2012-01-01

359

Numerical simulation of fracture  

SciTech Connect

A constructive model for brittle, and quasi-brittle materials is described. The Bedded Crack Model contains a microphysical description of fracture based on Griffith theory. The effect of cracks on material properties is described by effective modulus theory. Underlying the model is a statistical framework in which the evolution in time of a statistical distribution of cracks is calculated. The theory upon which the model is based is described. The model is implemented in a finite difference computer code. Our model is contrasted with the phenomenologic models usually found in computer codes. A computational simulation of the strain rate dependence of failure stress is presented and compared with laboratory data. A simulation of a gas gun experiment is presented, and the mechanism of spall described.

Margolin, L.G.

1983-01-01

360

Losartan attenuates renal vasoconstriction in response to acute unilateral ureteral occlusion in pigs.  

PubMed

Unilateral ureteral obstruction in pigs is associated with an enhanced, de novo generation of angiotensin II from the ipsilateral kidney. In order to further investigate the role of this system during unilateral ureter obstruction, the renal hemodynamic response to the non-peptide angiotensin II antagonist losartan was investigated. Danish land race pigs were operated on under general anesthesia. Catheters were placed in both renal veins by x-ray and ultrasonic flow probes were mounted on the renal arteries. Losartan (2 mg/kg/h) was administered intravenously to an experimental group ( n=9) continuously over 8 h of unilateral ureteral occlusion. This group was then compared to a matched control group which received only saline ( n=6). Ipsilateral pelvic pressure, renal blood flow using ultrasound transit time, glomerular filtration rate, mean arterial pressure and heart rate were measured. Renal handling of angiotensin II was examined by determining the renal extraction and secretion rates of immunoreactive angiotensin II. The anticipated reduction in ipsilateral renal blood flow after the onset of obstruction was attenuated in the losartan treated pigs, but the ipsilateral glomerular filtration rate was unaffected as compared with the controls. In the losartan group, the increase in renal vascular resistance was significantly reduced compared with un-treated controls (141+/-25% vs 217+/-24%, P<0.05). Plasma immunoreactive angiotensin II increased significantly from all three sample locations in both groups after the onset of obstruction, being more pronounced in the losartan treated group in which immunoreactive angiotensin II from the ipsilateral renal vein increased from 5.1+/-0.5 pmol/l to 41.6+/-19.6 pmol/l, P=0.027. In the controls immunoreactive angiotensin II increased from 2.7+/-0.3 pmol/l to 24.8+/-10.2 pmol/l. Furthermore, plasma aldosterone was significantly reduced after losartan administration (from 80.4 pmol/l to 36.0 pmol/l, P=0.005), indicating effective blockade of the angiotensin II type-1 receptor. The results from the present study suggest that continuous intravenous administration of losartan blocks the angiotensin II receptor mediated effects in the pig. Losartan is able to reduce ipsilateral vasoconstriction in the obstructed kidney during unilateral ureter obstruction supporting the view that angiotensin II is an important mediator of vasoconstriction during unilateral ureter obstruction in the pig model with acute unilateral occlusion of the ureter. PMID:12111180

Hvistendahl, Jan J; Pedersen, Thomas S; Djurhuus, Jens C; Pedersen, Erling B; Frøkiaer, Jørgen

2002-07-01

361

Stress fractures and bone pain  

SciTech Connect

Stress fractures result from an unusual repetitive physical activity causing absorption of bone in excess of repair and bone formation. This leads to the weakening of the bone and subsequently to a fracture. It is a benign condition that if recognized in time does not need any treatment besides rest. However, if diagnosis is not made and physical activity continues it may result in severe injury to the bone and a frank fracture may result. Pain is the typical clinical feature and bone scintigraphy, being more sensitive than radiography, is done to establish early diagnosis. The presence of asymptomatic sites of abnormal bone uptake typical of stress fracture in which pain appeared only about 2 weeks after scintigraphy, drew the authors' attention to the question of how close is the relationship between stress fractures and bone pain. Sixty-four military recruits diagnosed as suffering from stress fracture were investigated in order to correlate sites with abnormal uptake of Tc-99m MDP on bone scintigraphy with sites of local pain. In 37 (58%) subjects multiple sites of abnormal uptake were recognised. Of 123 sites of abnormal uptake, 31 (25%) were asymptomatic. In three patients bone pain appeared at the site of the abnormal uptake two weeks after scintigraphy. Bone scintigraphy appears to be more sensitive than bone pain in the diagnosis of stress fractures. The osteoblastic activity which manifests itself by abnormal uptake appears in some cases earlier than the pain caused by the fracture. Present findings may suggest that under certain circumstances, in a population prone to stress fracture, bone scan should be considered as a screening method.

Groshar, D.; Even-Sapir, E.; Lam, M.; Israel, O.; Front, D.

1984-01-01

362

Dynamic fracture toughness of glass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimentally determined dynamic crack propagation histories in wedge-loaded, modified tapered, and rectangular double cantilever beam specimens were used to drive a dynamic finite element code in its generation phase. The resultant dynamic fracture toughness versus crack velocity relation, during the initial crack acceleration phase of these dynamic fracture specimens, was erratic but followed the standard Gamma-shaped curves of brittle polymers and metals during subsequent crack propagation at terminal velocity and crack deceleration phases. The distinct initiation phase of dynamic crack propagation, which was not observed in dynamic fracture of brittle polymer and metal specimens, is attributed to the lower stored energy in the glass specimen.

Kobayashi, A. S.; Emery, A. F.; Liaw, B. M.

1983-01-01

363

[Midfacial fractures. Diagnosis and treatment].  

PubMed

The clinical diagnosis and treatment of midfacial fractures have been optimized by modern computer tomography and the development of plate osteosynthesis. Even complex fractures involving the orbit and scull base can be accurately reconstructed and stabilized. The use of titanium mini- and micro-plates as well as resorbable materials allows customized treatment of this esthetically and functionally important area. The preservation of basic functions such as vision, scent, speech, occlusion and swallowing, in addition to aesthetic aspects, should be the primary goals of surgical treatment. In general, reconstruction is not required immediately and polytrauma patients will need interdisciplinary care. Conservative treatment of midfacial fractures should be the exception. PMID:22012484

Bärmann, M; Stasche, N

2011-11-01

364

Fracture of an aluminosilicate fiberboard  

SciTech Connect

Mode-I fracture of aluminosilicate fiberboard that is used in large mirror casting molds was studied. The material was idealized as a transversely isotropic, layered composite that was composed of planar sheets of crosslinked fibers. Plastic constants, the toughness (K{sub R}) curve, and the fracture work were measured at room temperature. The observed rising K{sub R} behavior was attributed to crack bridging. Experimental measurements of the bridging stress were made using a specimen-renotching technique. Relationships between the bridging stress, K{sub R}, and fracture work were explored and shown to be consistent.

Olbert, B.H. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Steward Observatory Mirror Lab.; Schenck, S.R. [Rex Roto Corp., Fowlerville, MI (United States)

1997-11-01

365

Insufficiency fracture after radiation therapy  

PubMed Central

Insufficiency fracture occurs when normal or physiological stress applied to weakened bone with demineralization and decreased elastic resistance. Recently, many studies reported the development of IF after radiation therapy (RT) in gynecological cancer, prostate cancer, anal cancer and rectal cancer. The RT-induced insufficiency fracture is a common complication during the follow-up using modern imaging studies. The clinical suspicion and knowledge the characteristic imaging patterns of insufficiency fracture is essential to differentiate it from metastatic bone lesions, because it sometimes cause severe pain, and it may be confused with bone metastasis. PMID:25568849

Oh, Dongryul

2014-01-01

366

Compression fracture in postpartum osteoporosis.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is mainly a problem in postmenopausal women. However, we had a case of postpartum compression fracture associated with osteoporosis. A 42-year-old multiparous woman had undergone tertiary cesarean section without complications 1 month before. She was breast-feeding her baby and had no other bone-related complication history. She did not exercise on a regular basis. She experienced back pain abruptly and was diagnosed with a recent compression fracture of T12, L1, and L3. We evaluated this rare case of postpartum osteoporosis and compression fracture. PMID:24524068

Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Jeon, Dong-Su; Byun, Dong Won

2013-11-01

367

Definition, classification and treatment of destructive fractures.  

PubMed

Destructive injury is defined as a very serious damage both to the bone and the soft tissues. But in clinical practice we found that in some fracture cases, the damage to soft tissues is not as severe as "destructive injury" indicates, whereas comminuted fractures still cannot show the severity of bone damage. Therefore we proposed a new term "destructive fractures" after combining the definition of destructive injury with typical clinic cases. Destructive fractures refer to the fractures whose osseous tissues are damaged too seriously to be repaired, but soft tissues, nerves and veins are less severely injured and can be repaired. From the year 2001 to 2010, 75 cases of destructive fractures were admitted in our department. According to whether the fractures interlinked with the external environment, together with the fracture sites, they were divided into 6 types: a1 type, closed diaphysis destructive fracture; a2 type, open diaphysis destructive fracture; b1 type, closed joint-involved destructive fracture; b2 type, open joint-involved destructive fracture; c1 type, closed mixed destructive fracture; c2 type, open mixed destructive fracture. Corresponding clinical treatments were conducted for each type.The new classification criterion of destructive fracture is simple and practical and thus can be used as an important guide to make reasonable treatment plans for destructive fractures. PMID:22118486

Fang, Guo-Jun; Qu, Zhi-Guo; Liu, Zhuo; Chen, Yuan

2011-01-01

368

Mixed mode fracture toughness of engineering materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of mixed mode loading on the fracture toughness of engineering materials is rationalized in terms of the operative fracture mechanisms as well as the deformation field ahead of the crack tip. It was found that mixed mode fracture is of utmost importance in materials which fail by stable ductile fracture caused by second phase particles, since in such

S. V. Kamat; J. P. Hirth

1995-01-01

369

Practical 2P5 SEM and Fracture  

E-print Network

that the fracture stress of a brittle material is no longer a well defined material property Instead it can varyPractical 2P5 SEM and Fracture Introduction When a material fails by fracture there is complete separation of the two broken halves and a new surface, the fracture surface, is formed. It is often possible

Paxton, Anthony T.

370

Modelling fracture connectivity in sedimentary rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In fractured reservoirs, it is now known that one of the most important parameters controlling fluid flow is fracture connectivity. In the horizontal plane, bedding surfaces have shown that this parameter is often very high if more than one fracture set is present. In cliffs, vertical connectivity is highly dependent on the mechanical layering of the sequence; most fractures abut

T. Rives; K. D. Rawnsley; J. P. Petit

1995-01-01

371

Electronics reliability fracture mechanics. Volume 2: Fracture mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the second of two volumes. The other volume (WL-TR-92-3015) is 'Causes of Failures of Shop Replaceable Units and Hybrid Microcircuits.' The objective of the Electronics Reliability Fracture Mechanics (ERFM) program was to develop and demonstrate a life prediction technique for electronic assemblies, when subjected to environmental stresses of vibration and thermal cycling, based upon the mechanical properties of the materials and packaging configurations which make up an electronic system. The application of fracture mechanics to microscale phenomena in electronic assemblies was a pioneering research effort. The small scale made the experiments very difficult; for example, the 1-mil-diameter bond wires in microelectronic devices are 1/3 the diameter of a human hair. A number of issues had to be resolved to determine whether a fracture mechanics modelling approach is correct for the selected failures; specifically, the following two issues had to be resolved: What fraction of the lifetime is spent in crack initiation? Are macro fracture mechanics techniques, used in large structures such as bridges, applicable to the tiny structures in electronic equipment? The following structural failure mechanisms were selected for modelling: bondwire fracture from mechanical cycling; bondwire fracture from thermal (power) cycling; plated through hole (PTH) fracture from thermal cycling. The bondwire fracture test specimens were A1-1 percent Si wires, representative of wires used in the parts in the modules selected for detailed investigation in this program (see Vol. 1 of this report); 1-mil-diameter wires were tested in this program. The PTH test specimens were sections of 14-layer printed wiring boards of the type used.

Kallis, J.; Duncan, L.; Buechler, D.; Backes, P.; Sandkulla, D.

1992-05-01

372

Hydraulic Fracture Propagation in Layered Rock: Experimental Studies of Fracture Containment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fracture geometry is an important concern in the design of a massive hydraulic fracture for improved natural gas recovery from low-permeability reservoirs. Determination of the extent of vertical fracture growth and containment in layered rock, a priori, requires an improved understanding of the parameters that may control fracture growth across layer interfaces. We have conducted laboratory hydraulic fracture experiments and

Lawrence Teufel; James Clark

1984-01-01

373

Neural interactions in unilateral colliculus and between bilateral colliculi modulate auditory signal processing  

PubMed Central

In the auditory pathway, the inferior colliculus (IC) is a major center for temporal and spectral integration of auditory information. There are widespread neural interactions in unilateral (one) IC and between bilateral (two) ICs that could modulate auditory signal processing such as the amplitude and frequency selectivity of IC neurons. These neural interactions are either inhibitory or excitatory, and are mostly mediated by ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, respectively. However, the majority of interactions are inhibitory while excitatory interactions are in the minority. Such unbalanced properties between excitatory and inhibitory projections have an important role in the formation of unilateral auditory dominance and sound location, and the neural interaction in one IC and between two ICs provide an adjustable and plastic modulation pattern for auditory signal processing. PMID:23626523

Mei, Hui-Xian; Cheng, Liang; Chen, Qi-Cai

2013-01-01

374

Metastatic breast carcinoma presenting as unilateral pulsatile tinnitus: A case report.  

PubMed

Pulsatile tinnitus is a rare symptom, yet it may herald life-threatening pathology in the absence of other symptoms or signs. Pulsatile tinnitus tends to imply a vascular cause, but metastatic disease also can present in this way. Clinicians should therefore adopt a specific diagnostic algorithm for pulsatile tinnitus and always consider the possibility of metastatic disease. A history of malignant disease and new cranial nerve palsies should raise clinical suspicion for skull base metastases. We describe the case of a 63-year-old woman presenting with unilateral subjective pulsatile tinnitus and a middle ear mass visible on otoscopy. Her background included the diagnosis of idiopathic unilateral vagal and hypoglossal nerve palsies 4 years previously, with normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Repeat MRI and computed tomography imaging were consistent with metastatic breast carcinoma. This case raises important questions about imaging protocols and the role of serial scanning in patients at high risk of metastatic disease. PMID:25651358

Moore, Andrew; Cunnane, Max; Fleming, Jason C

2015-02-01

375

Maxilla Unilateral Swelling as the First Diagnostic Symptom of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Relapse: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) is the most prevalent hematological malignant tumor during childhood. Unilateral infiltration into the gums is less prevalent and more often observed in the AML type. A 12-year-old girl with symptoms of pain and swelling in the buccal vestibule and also at the posterior part of the right palate of the maxilla was referred to a private dental office. The patient had been inflicted by ALL and had undergone complete chemotherapy. A week prior to her admittance into the hospital, the workup of the patient’s blood revealed her recovery. The clinical and radiographic evidence did not show any dental problems. The histological examinations on the patient’s jaw revealed the correct diagnosis of ALL and the patient underwent chemotherapy for the second time. This case has been reported to point out that intraoral unilateral swelling of the upper jaw may be propounded as the primary diagnostic symptom of ALL. PMID:21998807

Fallahinejad Ghajari, M.; Moshref, M.; Taghipour, Elaheh

2011-01-01

376

A 12-year-old boy presenting with unilateral proximal interphalangeal joint swelling  

PubMed Central

Pachydermodactyly is a rare and benign superficial dermal fibromatosis, characterised by asymptomatic soft tissue hypertrophy of the lateral and dorsal aspects of the proximal interphalangeal joints. The majority affected are males, with only a few reported female cases, and usually begins to develop around the age of puberty. Pachydermodactyly affects the second, middle and ring fingers of the hand symmetrically and bilaterally. The majority of reported cases demonstrate bilateral involvement of joints, only a small proportion report unilateral involvement. In this case report the authors review literature and discuss a case of pachydermodactyly presenting a unilateral swelling of the proximal interphalangeal joints of only the left hand in a right-handed young male. PMID:22700997

Small, S; Murthy, V; Sridhar, A V

2011-01-01

377

Detection of Virgin Olive Oil Adulteration Using Low Field Unilateral NMR  

PubMed Central

The detection of adulteration in edible oils is a concern in the food industry, especially for the higher priced virgin olive oils. This article presents a low field unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for the detection of the adulteration of virgin olive oil that can be performed through sealed bottles providing a non-destructive screening technique. Adulterations of an extra virgin olive oil with different percentages of sunflower oil and red palm oil were measured with a commercial unilateral instrument, the profile NMR-Mouse. The NMR signal was processed using a 2-dimensional Inverse Laplace transformation to analyze the transverse relaxation and self-diffusion behaviors of different oils. The obtained results demonstrated the feasibility of detecting adulterations of olive oil with percentages of at least 10% of sunflower and red palm oils. PMID:24469355

Xu, Zheng; Morris, Robert H.; Bencsik, Martin; Newton, Michael I.

2014-01-01

378

Staged unilateral versus bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulator implantation in Parkinson disease.  

PubMed

In 17 consecutive patients with Parkinson disease (PD), bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulators were implanted during staged surgeries. The Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and the Dyskinesia Disability Scale were completed both off and on medication prior to any surgery and also OFF and ON stimulation after each surgery. On-medication UPDRS activities of daily living (ADL) and motor examination scores changed little with unilateral or bilateral stimulation. Off-medication UPDRS motor examination scores improved to similar degrees after each staged STN electrode implantation. Most of the improvements in off-medication ADL scores, dyskinesia scores, complications of therapy, and medication dose reduction occurred after unilateral STN stimulation with smaller improvements after the second operation. PMID:17523194

Samii, Ali; Kelly, Valerie E; Slimp, Jefferson C; Shumway-Cook, Anne; Goodkin, Robert

2007-07-30

379

Asymmetrical effects of unilateral right or left amygdala damage on auditory cortical processing of vocal emotions.  

PubMed

We tested whether human amygdala lesions impair vocal processing in intact cortical networks. In two functional MRI experiments, patients with unilateral amygdala resection either listened to voices and nonvocal sounds or heard binaural vocalizations with attention directed toward or away from emotional information on one side. In experiment 1, all patients showed reduced activation to voices in the ipsilesional auditory cortex. In experiment 2, emotional voices evoked increased activity in both the auditory cortex and the intact amygdala for right-damaged patients, whereas no such effects were found for left-damaged amygdala patients. Furthermore, the left inferior frontal cortex was functionally connected with the intact amygdala in right-damaged patients, but only with homologous right frontal areas and not with the amygdala in left-damaged patients. Thus, unilateral amygdala damage leads to globally reduced ipsilesional cortical voice processing, but only left amygdala lesions are sufficient to suppress the enhanced auditory cortical processing of vocal emotions. PMID:25605886

Frühholz, Sascha; Hofstetter, Christoph; Cristinzio, Chiara; Saj, Arnaud; Seeck, Margitta; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Grandjean, Didier

2015-02-01

380

A case of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy presented with unilateral ptosis  

PubMed Central

Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy is an autoimmune disease with progressive and relapsing courses. The main clinical presentations are diffuse deep tendon hyporeflexia or areflexia and symmetric proximal-distal muscles weakness. Myasthenia gravis is also an immune mediated disease with fluctuating ocular and bulbar symptoms and sometimes weakness. Although both myasthenia gravis and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are immune mediated disorders, clinical presentations are obviously different in the two diseases. Herein, we will report a case of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy who presented with isolated unilateral ptosis. Initially, the patient was managed as ocular type of myasthenia gravis, but after progression to general limb weakness and areflexia, the diagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy was made. Although unilateral ptosis is a typical feature of myasthenia gravis, it may be seen as the first presentation of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy as well which mimics myasthenia gravis disease. PMID:25250274

Izadi, Sadegh; Karamimagham, Sina; Poursadeghfard, Maryam

2014-01-01

381

Reduced Quadriceps Motor-Evoked Potentials in an Individual with Unilateral Knee Osteoarthritis: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

One male with unilateral osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee underwent testing of corticospinal (CS) excitability (as quantified from motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in the rectus femoris (RF) using transcranial magnetic stimulation) and quadriceps muscle strength. Baseline data indicated reduced MEP amplitudes in the RF of the affected limb compared to the unaffected limb. Increases in RF MEP amplitudes from both limbs were observed immediately following a 30-minute exercise session focusing on muscle strengthening. Following an 8-week muscle strengthening intervention, the participant exhibited increased MEP amplitudes and muscle strength in the affected limb. These findings suggest that alterations in peripheral muscle function found in patients with knee OA may have an origin centrally within the motor cortex and that interlimb differences may be evident in those with unilateral disease. These findings also suggest that CS excitability may be improved following a muscle strengthening intervention. PMID:22937446

Hunt, Michael A.; Zabukovec, Jeanie R.; Peters, Sue; Pollock, Courtney L.; Linsdell, Meghan A.; Boyd, Lara A.

2011-01-01

382

Direct and indirect effects of unilateral divorce law on marital stability.  

PubMed

Previous research examining the impact of unilateral divorce law (UDL) on the prevalence of divorce has provided mixed results. Studies based on cross-sectional cross-country/cross-state survey data have received criticism for disregarding unobserved heterogeneity across countries, as have studies using country-level panel data for failing to account for possible mediating mechanisms at the micro level. We seek to overcome both shortcomings by using individual-level event-history data from 11 European countries (SHARELIFE) and controlling for unobserved heterogeneity over countries and cohorts. We find that UDL in total increased the incidence of marital breakdown by about 20 %. This finding, however, neglects potential selection effects into marriage. Accordingly, the estimated effect of unilateral divorce laws becomes much larger when we control for age at marriage, which is used as indicator for match quality. Moreover, we find that UDL particularly affects marital stability in the presence of children. PMID:25354572

Kneip, Thorsten; Bauer, Gerrit; Reinhold, Steffen

2014-12-01

383

Amifostine Protects Vascularity and Improves Unions in a Model of Irradiated Mandibular Fracture Healing  

PubMed Central

Background Pathologic fractures after irradiation (XRT) can be a devastating problem for cancer patients as XRT has a pernicious effect on bone healing in a large part due to impairment of vascularity. Our aim is to ascertain whether Amifostine (AMF), a radio-protective drug, will preserve the vascularity of the irradiated mandible, thereby improving bony healing and unions after exposure to a human equivalent dose of radiation (HEDR) in our murine model of mandibular fracture repair. Methods Rats were randomized into: Fx (n=9), XRT/Fx (n=5) and AMF/XRT/Fx (n=7). XRT/Fx and AMF/XRT/Fx underwent HEDR directed at the left hemimandible. AMF/XRT/Fx received AMF concomitantly with HEDR. All animals underwent unilateral left-mandibular osteotomy with external fixation set to a 2.1mm fracture gap. Fracture healing was allowed for 40 days prior to perfusion with Microfil. Vascular radiomorphometrics were quantified with micro-computed tomography. Results We observed a 100% rate of bony union in the non-irradiated Fx compared to 25% in XRT/Fx. Union rate in AMF/XRT/Fx more than doubled to 57%. We also saw substantial increase in Vessel Number (123%,p<0.05) and a corresponding decrease in Vessel Separation (55.5%,p<0.05) in AMF/XRT/Fx versus XRT/Fx and no differences between Fx and AMF/XRT/Fx. Conclusions We report that AMF prophylaxis maintains vascularity at levels seen in non-irradiated Fx specimens, correlating with a significant increase in bony unions after HEDR. Our results set the stage for exploration of this targeted therapy alone, and in combination with other treatments, to mitigate the harmful effects of XRT on fracture repair and bone healing in the clinical setting. PMID:24281582

Sarhaddi, Deniz; Tchanque-Fossuo, Catherine N.; Poushanchi, Behdod; Donneys, Alexis; Deshpande, Sagar S.; Weiss, Daniela M.; Buchman, Steven R.

2013-01-01

384

Reduction of gastrointestinal motility by unilateral thyroparathyroidectomy plus subdiaphragmatic vagotomy in rats  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate whether the combined methods of unilateral thyroparathyroidectomy (TPX) and subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (VAX) can be adapted for rats and used as a reliable method to produce a rat model of long-term reduction of gastrointestinal (GI) motor function. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, normal, sham-operated and unilateral TPX plus VAX. The TPX plus VAX rats received VAX 7 d after application of TPX, and dietary intake and fecal output were then measured daily for 1 wk. After completion of the experiments, gastric emptying and small bowel transit were measured in vivo, and the contractile responses of colonic strips to excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters were estimated using isometric force transducers in vitro. RESULTS: In comparison with normal and sham-operated rats, rats which received unilateral TPX plus VAX showed a significant decrease in body weight and in fecal pellet number and weight throughout the entire week. Application of TPX plus VAX to rats markedly delayed gastric emptying and small bowel transit. In TPX plus VAX rats, the longitudinal muscles of the proximal colon showed a significant reduction in contractile responses to acetylcholine (5 × 10-6 mol/L), and a dramatic attenuation of contractile responses was also observed in both the longitudinal and circular muscles of the distal colon. However, the spontaneous contractility of the colonic strips from TPX plus VAX rats was not significantly affected by treatment with N-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (0.1 mol/L). CONCLUSION: The results indicate that unilateral TPX plus VAX reduced the motor function of the GI tract in rats, and the reduced gut motility is likely mediated, at least in part, by inhibition of the excitatory neurotransmitter system. PMID:22969231

Lee, Jun Ho; Kwon, Oh Deog; Ahn, Seon Ho; Choi, Keun Han; Park, Ji Hye; Lee, Seoul; Choi, Bong Kyu; Jung, Kyu Yong

2012-01-01

385

Sensory strategies in human postural control before and after unilateral vestibular neurotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vestibular inputs tonically activate the antigravitative leg muscles during normal standing in humans, and visual information\\u000a and proprioceptive inputs from the legs are very sensitive sensory loops for body sway control. This study investigated the\\u000a postural control in a homogeneous population of 50 unilateral vestibular-deficient patients (Ménière’s disease patients).\\u000a It analyzed the postural deficits of the patients before and after

M. Lacour; J. Barthelemy; L. Borel; J. Magnan; C. Xerri; A. Chays; M. Ouaknine

1997-01-01

386

Unilateral striae distensae affecting the right axilla in a 16-year-old boy: brief report.  

PubMed

Striae distensae or stretch marks are a common skin condition that occurs frequently in association with adolescent growth spurts and pregnancy. They are characterized by linear symmetrical asymptomatic smooth bands of atrophic-appearing skin on the thighs, buttocks, and breasts in girls and on the shoulders, outer thighs, and lumbosacral areas in boys. We present a rare case of unilateral striae distensae affecting the right axilla in a 16-year-old boy. PMID:23072309

Alshaiji, Jasem M; Handler, Marc Z; Schwartzfarb, Elissa; Izakovic, Jan; Schachner, Lawrence A

2014-01-01

387

Robotic unilateral and bilateral upper-limb movement training for stroke survivors afflicted by chronic hemiparesis.  

PubMed

Stroke is the leading cause of long-term neurological disability and the principle reason for seeking rehabilitative services in the US. Learning based rehabilitation training enables independent mobility in the majority of patients post stroke, however, restoration of fine manipulation, motor function and task specific functions of the hemiplegic arm and hand is noted in fewer than 15% of the stroke patients. Brain plasticity is the innate mechanism enabling the recovery of motor skills through neurological reorganization of the brain as a response to limbs' manipulation. The objective of this research was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy for the upper limbs with a dual arm exoskeleton system (EXO-UL7) using three different modalities: bilateral mirror image with symmetric movements of both arms, unilateral movement of the affected arm and standard care. Five hemiparetic subjects were randomly assigned to each therapy modality. An upper limb exoskeleton was used to provide bilateral and unilateral treatments. Standard care was provided by a licensed physical therapist. Subjects were evaluated before and after the interventions using 13 different clinical measures. Following these treatments all of the subjects demonstrated significant improved of their fine motor control and gross control across all the treatment modalities. Subjects exhibited significant improvements in range of motion of the shoulder, and improved muscle strength for bilateral training and standard care, but not for unilateral training. In conclusion, a synergetic approach in which robotic treatments (unilateral and bilateral depending on the level of the motor control) are supplemented by the standard of care may maximize the outcome of the motor control recover following stroke. PMID:24187321

Simkins, Matt; Kim, Hyuchul; Abrams, Gary; Byl, Nancy; Rosen, Jacob

2013-06-01

388

Choosing the optimal timing for contralateral symmetry procedures after unilateral free flap breast reconstruction.  

PubMed

Achieving symmetry in unilateral free flap breast reconstruction often requires a contralateral procedure; however, no large studies exist that examine the factors related to revisions performed on the contralateral breast. The present study examines the relationship between revision and complication rate, and the type and timing of the contralateral procedure. Retrospective analysis was performed of all unilateral free flap breast reconstructions from January 2000 to December 2010 at a single academic institution. Overall, 1120 patients underwent unilateral free flap breast reconstruction with 558 (49.8%) patients undergoing a contralateral procedure, 154 (27.6%) immediate and 404 (72.4%) delayed. Contralateral procedures included 106 augmentations, 168 reductions, 240 mastopexies, and 37 augmentation-mastopexies. Revision of the symmetry procedure was performed in 114 (20.8%) patients. Augmentation and mastopexy were associated with significantly higher revision rates when performed immediately. The complication rate was higher in immediate contralateral procedures than delayed [15 (9.7%) vs 16 (4.0%), P = 0.01]. The average number of procedures per patient was significantly higher in delayed contralateral procedures than immediate (2.45 vs 1.84, P < 0.0005). In summary, approximately half of patients undergoing a unilateral free flap for breast reconstruction will also undergo a contralateral balancing procedure. Immediate contralateral augmentation and mastopexy carry a higher revision rate and consideration should be given to performing them in a staged fashion. There were no differences in the rate of revisions for breast reductions, and therefore, performance of simultaneous contralateral reduction is a reasonable option. Although complication rates were higher in the immediate cohort, overall "symmetry" was achieved in significantly fewer operations. PMID:23759969

Chang, Edward I; Selber, Jesse C; Chang, Eric I; Nosrati, Naveed; Zhang, Hong; Robb, Geoffrey L; Chang, David W

2015-01-01

389

Fanconi anemia patient with bilaterally hypoplastic scapula and unilateral winging associated with scoliosis and rib abnormality.  

PubMed

Fanconi anemia is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by bone marrow failure, variable congenital physical abnormalities, and predisposition to hematologic malignancy and several solid tumors. The most frequently associated congenital malformations are those of the skeletal system, mainly radius and thumb. Herein, we report bilaterally hypoplastic scapula with unilateral winging associated with scoliosis and rib abnormality, a previously unreported skeletal abnormality in Fanconi anemia patients. PMID:17006268

Unal, Sule; Gumruk, Fatma

2006-09-01

390

Long-term risk of chronic kidney disease in unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical spectrum of renal dysplasia includes the non-functioning multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK). We report our\\u000a experience of the outcome of unilateral MCDK and its contralateral kidney in 101 children with the diagnosis of MCDK from\\u000a 1985 to 2009. Data collected included urine protein\\/creatinine ratio, estimated GFR (eGFR), blood pressure, surgical intervention,\\u000a renal length and abnormalities of the contralateral kidney,

Omer Mansoor; Jayanthi Chandar; Maria M. Rodriguez; Carolyn L. Abitbol; Wacharee Seeherunvong; Michael Freundlich; Gaston Zilleruelo

2011-01-01

391

Changes in brain functional activation during resting and locomotor states after unilateral nigrostriatal damage in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate functional neuronal compensation after partial damage to the nigrostriatal system, we lesioned rats unilaterally in the striatum with 6-hydroxydopamine. Five weeks later, cerebral perfusion was mapped at rest or during treadmill walking using [14C]-iodoantipyrine. Regional CBF-related tissue radioactivity (CBF-TR) was quantified by autoradiography and analyzed by statistical parametric mapping and region-of- interest analysis. Lesions were confirmed by tyrosine

J. Yang; T. R. Sadler; T. K. Givrad; J.-M. I. Maarek; D. P. Holschneider

2007-01-01

392

[Aniseikonia. A clinical study of 51 unilateral pseudophakic patients and practical applications].  

PubMed

The subjective aniseiconia was measured with spatial eiconometer on 51 isometropic and unilateral pseudophakic patients in relation with the post-operative anisometropia. The median value of subjective aniseiconia is 2-3% for anisometropia minus or equal to 5 diopters, without statistic correlation, related to a probably "sensorial brain adaptation". So error of intra-ocular lens power calculation less than 7.5 diopters may be accepted. PMID:2235018

Boissonnot, M; Risse, J F; Ingrand, P

1990-01-01

393

An experimental model for unilateral ischaemic acute renal failure in dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the recovery of unilateral ischaemic acute renal failure in both ischaemic and non-ischaemic canine kidneys.\\u000a Split renal clearance studies were repeated for seven weeks after 90 minutes of left renal artery clamping. Clearance of inulin\\u000a and para-aminohippuric acid in the ischaemic kidneys dropped significantly for 3 weeks. Significant increase of the fractional\\u000a excretion of sodium in those kidneys

Y. Tsuji; A. Ariyoshi; K. Sakamoto

1993-01-01

394

Audiol Neurootol 2000;5:225234 Unilateral Neglect after Right-Hemisphere  

E-print Network

of the lesion [De Renzi et al., 1984; Heilman et al., 1970; Rapcsak et al., 1987]. Both unilateral neglect], suggesting that the #12;226 Audiol Neurootol 2000;5:225­234 Deouell/Hämäläinen/Bentin source of the disorder also be manifested in the auditory and tac- tile modalities [De Renzi et al., 1984, 1989; Soroker et al

Deouell, Leon Y.

395

Clinical results of sacral neuromodulation for chronic voiding dysfunction using unilateral sacral foramen electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the long-term clinical efficacy and complications of neuromodulation with a unilateral\\u000a sacral foramen electrode in 36 patients with chronic voiding dysfunction. Following a positive effect of a percutaneous nerve\\u000a evaluation test, patients underwent open surgery. A permanent electrode was implanted in 24 patients with urge incontinence,\\u000a in 6 with urgency-frequency syndrome, and

E. H. J. Weil; J. L. Ruiz-Cerdá; P. H. A. Eerdmans; R. A. Janknegt; P. E. V. A. Van Kerrebroeck

1998-01-01

396

Unilateral renal oncocytosis and combined hybrid tumor: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Renal oncocytosis is a very rare cause of multiple renal masses. Imaging features of renal oncocytosis and combined tumors have rarely been reported. Here, we describe a case of unilateral left renal oncocytosis and a combined hybrid tumor between chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma, which were depicted on CT and MR imaging as multiple enhancing solid masses with one dominant mass. Additionally, we reviewed the literature. PMID:24866250

Shin, Mack; Park, Sung Bin; Lee, Jong Beum; Park, Hyun Jeong; Chang, In Ho; Lee, Tae-Jin

2014-09-01

397

Unilateral contact problems with fractal geometry and fractal friction laws: methods of calculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper deals with two interrelated subjects: the fractal geometry and the fractal behaviour in unilateral contact\\u000a problems. More specifically, throughout this paper both the interfaces and the friction laws holding on these interfaces are\\u000a modelled by means of the fractal geometry. It is important to notice here that the fractality of the induced friction laws\\u000a takes into account

E. S. Mistakidis; O. K. Panagouli; P. D. Panagiotopoulos

1998-01-01

398

Implementation of a Model of Coupled Elastic-Plastic Unilateral Damage Material to Finite Element Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuum damage mechanics-based elasto-plastic damage theory, that extends the total form of Hayakawa and Murakami equations, is developed. Weak elastic-plastic dissipation coupling is assumed by the use of two dissipation potentials, plastic and damage, where only isotropic plasticity and damage hardening is included, whereas kinematic hardening is not accounted for. Unilateral damage condition, based on the concept of generalized

J. Bielski; J. J. Skrzypek; H. Kuna-Ciskal

2006-01-01

399

Blood pressure and water and electrolyte intake and excretion in rats (Brattleboro strain) after unilateral nephrectomy.  

PubMed

Using Brattleboro rats with and without hereditary diabetes insipidus (DI, non-DI), blood pressure, water intake and the excretion of water, sodium, potassium and osmotically active substances were measured in intact individuals and in animals subjected to unilateral nephrectomy at the age of 23 or 80 days. The development of blood pressure (BP) changes, determined in unilaterally nephrectomized animals at the age of 4--6 months, depended on the age at which the kidney was removed. After nephrectomy at the age of 25 days, hypertension developed only in DI females given 0.6% NaCl solution to drink. The BP of those which drank water was unaffected. Unilateral nephrectomy at the age of 80 days produced a slight BP increase in females irrespective of whether they drank water or 0.6% NaCl, but in males only if they drank 0.6% NaCl solution. No hypertension was observed in intact animals. No relationship was found between water intake and the blood pressure level. The BP increase in water-drinking females uninephrectomized at 80 days was accompanied by a raised urine flow and raised excretion of osmotically active substances. Sodium losses in DI animals were greater than in non-DI animals and the urinary sodium concentration, in maximum dehydration, attained minimum values in DI and maximum values in non-DI animals. Unilateral nephrectomy at 25 days increased sodium losses in all the animals except non-DI females, but when performed at 80 days, only in DI males. No relationship between these results and BP changes was found. The possible relationship of the extrarenal consequences of absence of vasopressin to the development of experimental hypertension are discussed. PMID:147474

Dlouhá, H; Krecek, J; Zicha, J

1977-01-01

400

A Comparison of Patient Recovery Following Unilateral and Bilateral Endoscopic Preperitoneal Herniorrhaphy  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The advantage of using minimally invasive techniques over open techniques in the repair of inguinal hernias remains unclear. One of the more established indications for the performance of minimally invasive (e.g. endoscopic preperitoneal) herniorrhaphy is the presence of bilateral hernias. However, no prior study has compared the recovery following unilateral and bilateral endoscopic preperitoneal hernia repairs. Patients and Methods: From July 15, 1994 through August 16, 1996 one primary surgeon performed 373 hernia repairs on 250 patients. Unilateral herniorrhaphy (UH) was performed on 114 males and 13 females with an average age of 58 (range 18–89). Bilateral herniorrhaphy (BH) was performed on 121 males and 2 females with an average age of 53 (range 18 – 86) (p>0.05). Within the UH group there were 105 virgin hernias and 22 recurrent hernias. The BH group included 212 virgin hernias and 34 recurrent (p>0.05). Bilateral repairs took longer to perform than unilateral repairs (65 minutes vs. 45 minutes) (p<0.05). At the time of discharge, all patients were given a postoperative survey and asked to record their level of pain, narcotic use and level of activity on the day of surgery and postoperative days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, and 28. Results: No differences were found in pain perception, narcotic use or level of activity on any of the days measured between the two groups (p>0.05). In addition, both groups returned to work at a similar time (UH: 6.32 +/?3.29 days, BH: 6.68 +/? 4.13 days) (p>0.05). Conclusion: Bilateral endoscopic preperitoneal herniorrhaphy can be performed with the same expected patient recovery as unilateral repairs. PMID:9876677

Ahmad, Syed A.

1997-01-01

401

Effects of unilateral ovariectomy on recruitment and growth of follicles in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virgin female rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were unilaterally ovariectomised at various stages of ovarian development to investigate the effect of the removal of one\\u000a ovary on subsequent recruitment and growth of follicles in the remaining ovary. The right ovary was removed from groups of\\u000a 12–15 fish, 12, 7 and 4 months before they were due to ovulate, and the gonadosomatic

C. R. Tylerl; J. J. Nagler; T. G. Pottinger; M. A. Turner

1994-01-01

402

Optic coherence tomography in a patient with diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To measure retinal nervous fiber layer (RNFL) thickness using OCT3 (Carl-Zeiss) in patients with diffuse unilateral subacute neu- roretinitis (DUSN) with or without live worm and correlate it with visual acuity. Methods: RNFL thickness, using RNFL thickness 3.4 program and best corrected visual acuity were measured in patients with DUSN between January 2005 and December 2006. Results: Thirty-eight patients,

Alexandre Henrique Gomes; Carlos Alexandre de Amorim Garcia; Paulo de Souza Segundo; Carlos Alexandre de Amorim Garcia Filho; Ana Claudia de Amorim Garcia

2009-01-01

403

Common and uncommon adult unilateral renal masses other than renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Abstract Many different masses can involve the kidney other than the commonly encountered renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The purpose of this article is to review the characteristic clinical and imaging findings of common and uncommon masses that predominantly present unilaterally in the adult patient, other than RCC. Awareness of such lesions and knowing the clinical scenario is important for appropriate diagnosis and management, especially in a multidisciplinary care setting. PMID:22752221

Le, Ott; Roy, Anjali; Silverman, Paul M.; Kundra, Vikas

2012-01-01

404

Prospective Study of Elective Bilateral Versus Unilateral Femoral Arterial Puncture for Uterine Artery Embolization  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of elective bilateral femoral arterial punctures for uterine artery embolization (UAE) of symptomatic fibroids on fluoroscopy and procedural time, patient dose, and ease of procedure. We conducted a prospective study of UAE with either the intention to catheterize both uterine arteries using a single femoral puncture (n = 12) or elective bilateral arterial punctures from the outset (n = 12). The same two operators undertook each case. Main outcome measures were total procedure time, fluoroscopy time, dose-area product (DAP), and total skin dose. A simulation was then performed on an anthropomorphic phantom using the mean in vivo fluoroscopy parameters to estimate the ovarian dose. Bilateral UAE was achieved in all patients. None of the patients with initial unilateral arterial puncture required further contralateral arterial puncture. The mean fluoroscopy time in the group with elective bilateral punctures was 12.8 min, compared with a mean of 16.6 min in patients with unilateral puncture (p = 0.046). There was no significant difference in overall procedure time (p = 0.68). No puncture-site complications were found. Additional catheters were required only following unilateral puncture. The simulated dose was 25% higher with unilateral puncture. Although there was no significant difference in measured in vivo patient dose between the two groups (DAP, p = 0.32), this is likely to reflect the wide variation in other patient characteristics. Allowing for the small study size, our results show that the use of elective bilateral arterial punctures reduces fluoroscopy time, requires less catheter manipulation, and, according to the simulation model, has the potential to reduce patient dose. The overall procedure time, however, is not significantly reduced.

Bratby, M. J.; Ramachandran, N. [St George's Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Sheppard, N. [University of London, St George's Hospital Medical School (United Kingdom); Kyriou, J. [St George's Hospital, Radiological Protection Centre (United Kingdom); Munneke, G. M.; Belli, A.-M. [St George's Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Anna.Belli@stgeorges.nhs.uk

2007-11-15

405

[Anterior osteosynthesis of odontoid fractures].  

PubMed

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The conservative treatment of an odontoid fracture with immobilization in a halo-vest or collar often results in pseudoarthrosis. Therefore, surgical treatment is preferred, and the Magerl-Böhler anterior osteosynthesis of the C2 dens is one of the options for achieving good bony union. The aim of this study was to show that the success of reducing an odontoid fracture is related to the direction of fracture lines and that of displacement, and that anterior osteosynthesis of the C2 dens provides sufficient stability when fixed either with one or two screws. MATERIAL Patients treated for odontoid fracture at the Department of Neurosurgery, Teaching Hospital of the Faculty of Medicine, Palacky University in Olomouc, were followed up and prospectively evaluated. From February 1994 to October 2006, 50 patients between 17 and 98 years of age (average age, 51.16 years) underwent surgery by the Magerl-Böhler method. Of them, 40 were men (average age, 46.0 years) and 10 were women (average age, 71.8 years). The minimum follow-up period was 1 year. METHODS In each patient, X-ray examination of the upper cervical spine in antero-posterior and lateral projections was done and a CT scan of the C2 vertebra was obtained. The radiographs were evaluated for location of the fracture, direction of the fracture line and direction of dens displacement. The fracture was then categorized according to the conventional classifications of Anderson- D'Alonzo (1974), Roy-Camille (1973) and White-Panjabi (1978). The patients with type II and some with type III fractures (shallow type) were indicated for surgery, regardless of fracture line direction and the direction and extent of displacement. Patients suspected of spinal cord injury were immobilized and the fracture was reduced by skull traction as soon as possible after injury. In patients without neurological deficit the fracture was reduced under general anaesthesia before surgery carried out by the Magerl-Böhler method from the anterior approach. The extent of antero-posterior displacement of the odontoid fracture was measured on lateral X-ray images at the first week after surgery and then at complete bony union. The results were statistically evaluated. RESULTS An anatomical position of the dens after reduction was achieved in 18 patients (38 %). In the remaining 32 patients, reduction was not complete but sufficient to permit screw insertion. Fractures with an anterior oblique fracture line were more difficult to reduce than fractures with a posterior oblique or a transverse fracture line. The average displacement values following reduction of the fractures were as follows: anterior displacement of 3.88 mm; posterior displacement of 1.86 mm; and anterior or posterior displacement of 1.08 mm. The differences were statistically significant. A recurrent displacement during bone healing occurred in 13 patients (26 %). It affected type A fracture in five of 17 patients (29.4 %), type B fracture in seven of 21 patients (33.3 %) and type C fracture in one patient out of 12 (8.3 %). The average extent of displacement was 1.53 mm in type A, 1.20 mm in type B, and 0.08 mm in type C fractures. The average displacement for the whole group was 1.04 mm. This implies that recurrent displacement of the dens was more frequent in fractures with an anterior oblique fracture line than in those with either posterior oblique or transverse fracture line, and this was statistically significant. Of the 43 patients with single-screw fixation, 12 (28 %) experienced recurrent displacement during healing, and of the seven patients with two screws one patient had displacement (14 %). Although the extent of displacement was higher in one-screw than in two-screw fixation (average, 1.17 mm and 0.29 mm, respectively), the difference was not statistically significant. In patients under 70 years of age, 21.6 % and, in patients over 70 years of age, 41.7 % of the fractures had recurrent displacement (average, 0.78 mm and 1.83 mm, respectively). This was not statistically significant. Bony union was ach

Hrabálek, L; Burval, S; Vaverka, M

2008-10-01

406

Fracture After Total Hip Replacement  

MedlinePLUS

... back more quickly. Talk with your surgeon if postoperative pain becomes a problem. Rehabilitation In most cases, ... to improve your strength and general health. Possible Complications of Surgery Complications following surgery for periprosthetic fractures ...

407

Femur Shaft Fractures (Broken Thighbone)  

MedlinePLUS

... is another common cause, as are falls from heights and gunshot wounds. A lower-force incident, such as a fall from standing, may cause a femoral sha fracture in an older person who has weaker bones. ...

408

Hip Fractures among Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Fractures among Older Adults Falls in Nursing Homes Data & Statistics Cost of Fall Injuries Publications & Resources Preventing Falls: What Works. A CDC Compendium of Effective Community–based Interventions ...

409

FRACTURE STIMULATION IN ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL  

E-print Network

FRACTURE STIMULATION IN ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS A REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (Principal Advisor) #12;#12;v Abstract Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) are geothermal reservoirs formed, mass and energy transport, elastostatics (including the Displacement Discontinuity method), Coulomb

Stanford University

410

Sensitivity analysis of fracture scattering  

E-print Network

We use a 2-D finite difference method to numerically calculate the seismic response of a single finite fracture in a homogeneous media. In our experiments, we use a point explosive source and ignore the free surface effect, ...

Fang, Xinding, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

411

Computed tomography of calcaneal fractures  

SciTech Connect

Computed tomography (CT) of 25 fractured calcanei was performed to investigate the potential of CT in evaluating the pattern and biomechanics of these fractures. The characteristic findings of typical fractures are presented, including the number and type of principal fragments, size and dislocation of the sustentacular fragment, and involvement of the anterior and posterior facets of the subtalar joint. In 17 cases, the calcaneus consisted of four or more fragments. Furthermore, in 17 cases the sustentacular fragment included all or part of the posterior facet joint. In 18 of the 25 cases, the sustentacular fragment was displaced. It is concluded that well performed CT is an invaluable adjunct in understanding the fracture mechanism and in detecting pain-provoking impingement between the fibular malleolus and the tuberosity fragment.

Heger, L.; Wulff, K.; Seddiqi, M.S.A.

1985-07-01

412

Fracture in macro-molecules  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques available for the observation of molecular bond rupture during fracture of polymers are briefly outlined. Additional pertinent information can also often be inferred from microscopic and macroscopic measures.

Devries, K. L.

1976-01-01

413

The role of unilateral spatial neglect in rehabilitation of right brain[ndash ]damaged ischemic stroke patients: A matched comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paolucci S, Antonucci G, Grasso MG, Pizzamiglio L. The role of unilateral spatial neglect in rehabilitation of right brain-damaged ischemic stroke patients: a matched comparison. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:743-9. Objective: To assess the specific influence of unilateral spatial neglect (USN) on rehabilitation outcome. Design: A case-control study in consecutive stroke inpatients. Setting: Rehabilitation hospital. Patients: One hundred seventy-eight patients

Stefano Paolucci; Gabriella Antonucci; Maria Grazia Grasso; Luigi Pizzamiglio

2001-01-01

414

Long-term follow-up in a patient after pneumonectomy and SILASTIC prosthetic placement for unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis.  

PubMed

Unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis is an exceedingly rare condition. The authors report the case of a 9-year-old girl with unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis who presented with exertional hemoptysis. The patient underwent a right pneumonectomy with placement of an expandable. SILASTIC(R) (Dow Corning, Midland, MI) prosthesis in the right thorax. A 13-year follow-up is reported, and management of this condition is discussed. PMID:15213911

Nichol, Peter F; Decock, David; Noon, John; Gutenberger, James E

2004-07-01

415

Fracturing fluid characterization facility (FFCF)  

SciTech Connect

The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility project has as its main focus the design, fabrication, and construction of a high pressure simulator (HPS) and a low pressure simulator (LPS) to be used to experimentally investigate the rheological properties and transport characteristics of proppant laden fracturing fluids. A discussion of each apparatus is provided as well as the auxiliary equipment, and data acquisition and control systems associated with the simulators.

Evans, R.D.; Roegiers, J.C.; Fagan, J.

1993-12-31

416

The Fractures of the Olecranon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subcutaneous location of the olecranon makes it vulnerable to trauma [1]. Isolated fractures of the olecranon comprise approximately 10% of fractures about the elbow [2, 3], with an estimated incidence of 1.08 per 10,000 person-years [3]. Most result from low energy trauma such as a fall from a height of less than 2 m, a direct blow to the

Julie E. Adams; Scott P. Steinmann

417

Maxillofacial fractures resulting from falls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was performed to clarify the characteristics of facial fractures caused by falls with a particular focus on aetiology.Patients: Of 505 patients with facial fractures treated in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial\\/Craniofacial Surgery, Heidelberg University Hospital from January 1997 to May 2001, 129 patients injured by falls were analysed.Study design: Aetiological analysis was performed according to falling

Seiji Iida; Stefan Hassfeld; Tobias Reuther; Hans-Gert Schweigert; Claudia Haag; Johannes Klein; Joachim Mühling

2003-01-01

418

Hydraulic conductivity of rock fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flow of a single-phase fluid through a rough-walled rock fracture is discussed within the context of fluid mechanics. The derivation of the ‘cubic law’ is given as the solution to the Navier-Stokes equations for flow between smooth, parallel plates - the only fracture geometry that is amenable to exact treatment. The various geometric and kinematic conditions that are necessary

Robert W. Zimmerman; Gudmundur S. Bodvarsson

1996-01-01

419

Quasi-static brittle fracture  

SciTech Connect

Recent work on the phenomenon of diffusion-controlled quasi-static brittle fracture, known as dynamic embrittlement, is reviewed here with reference to sulfur-induced embrittlement of steel, tin-induced embrittlement of Cu-Sn alloys, and oxygen-induced embrittlement of copper-based and nickel-based alloys. The mechanisms of this generic form of intergranular brittle fracture are discussed.

Pfaendtner, J.A. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; [GE Aircraft Engines, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Muthiah, R.C. [Lucent Technologies, Breinigsville, PA (United States); McMahon, C.J. Jr. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1999-08-01

420

Acquired Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis: Retrospective Analysis of a Single Institutional Experience  

PubMed Central

Background: Vocal cord paralysis continues to be an important issue in laryngology and is considered as a sign of underlying disease; the etiologies of this problem are varied and changing. Aims: The study was to carry out a retrospective analysis of patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis diagnosed. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 53 patients diagnosed and treated for unilateral vocal fold paralysis were studied retrospectively. Data regarding age, sex, duration of symptoms, etiology, and side of paralysis were recorded. Results: Out of the 53 cases, 36 were females and 17 males with a ratio of 2.1:1. The age of the patients ranged from 17-75 years. In 18.9% the cause was idiopathic. Surgical trauma (iatrogenic) problems was the most encountered etiology (66%), others included malignancy (non laryngeal) (7.5%), central (3.8%), external neck trauma (1.9%) and radiation therapy 1.9%. Thyroid surgery was the most commonly reported neck surgery in 50.9%. Conclusions: Thyroidectomy continues to be the single most common surgical procedure responsible for unilateral vocal cord paralysis. For this reason, routine pre and postoperative laryngoscopy should be considered in all patients undergoing surgeries with a potential risk for recurrent nerve paralysis to reduce the postoperative morbidity. PMID:24404552

Al-Khtoum, Nemer; Shawakfeh, Nabil; Al-Safadi, Eyad; Al-Momani, Osama; Hamasha, Khalid

2013-01-01

421

Is unilateral antegrade cerebral perfusion equivalent to bilateral cerebral perfusion for patients undergoing aortic arch surgery?  

PubMed

A best evidence topic in cardiothoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether unilateral antegrade cerebral perfusion is equivalent to bilateral cerebral plegia for cerebral protection during aortic arch surgery. Altogether 233 papers were found using the reported search, of which 17 presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results, and study weaknesses of these papers are tabulated. These papers documented antegrade selective cerebral perfusion in a total of 3548 patients: bilateral cerebral perfusion in 2949 patients and unilateral perfusion in 599 patients. Both methods of cerebral perfusion resulted in neurological injury rates of <5%, but the period of antegrade cerebral perfusion allowed by bilateral perfusion was significantly higher. While unilateral perfusion allowed around 30-50 min, bilateral perfusion allowed 86 to over 164 min of ASCP with an acceptably low CVA rate. Therefore, we conclude that while both methods are acceptable, once the ASCP time is expected to rise over 40-50 min, bilateral cerebral perfusion is the technique that is best documented to be safe. PMID:18644821

Malvindi, Pietro Giorgio; Scrascia, Giuseppe; Vitale, Nicola

2008-10-01

422

Localization training results in individuals with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss.  

PubMed

Adults with unilateral hearing loss often demonstrate decreased sound localization ability and report that situations requiring spatial hearing are especially challenging. Few studies have evaluated localization abilities combined with training in this population. The present pilot study examined whether localization of two sound types would improve after training, and explored the relation between localization ability or training benefit and demographic factors. Eleven participants with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss attended five training sessions; localization cues gradually decreased across sessions. Localization ability was assessed pre- and post-training. Assessment stimuli were monosyllabic words and spectral and temporal random spectrogram sounds. Root mean square errors for each participant and stimulus type were used in group and correlation analyses; individual data were examined with ordinary least squares regression. Mean pre-to post-training test results were significantly different for all stimulus types. Among the participants, eight significantly improved following training on at least one localization measure, whereas three did not. Participants with the poorest localization ability improved the most and likewise, those with the best pre-training ability showed the least training benefit. Correlation results suggested that test age, age at onset of severe to profound hearing loss and better ear high frequency audibility may contribute to localization ability. Results support the need for continued investigation of localization training efficacy and consideration of localization training within rehabilitation protocols for individuals with unilateral severe to profound hearing loss. PMID:25457655

Firszt, Jill B; Reeder, Ruth M; Dwyer, Noël Y; Burton, Harold; Holden, Laura K

2015-01-01

423

The contralateral foot in children with unilateral clubfoot, is the unaffected side normal?  

PubMed

The unilateral unaffected clubfoot has previously been used as a control in longitudinal studies of clubfoot outcomes. However, we have observed that the unaffected clubfoot does not necessarily exhibit the same pedobarographic measurements as seen in normal control subjects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the unaffected foot is indeed normal or if there are differences in the pedobarographic measurements of the unaffected foot compared to healthy normal controls.The Tekscan HR Mat™ was used to dynamically test the walking pattern of 103 subjects with unilateral clubfeet and compare the results to our previously published series of normal controls. Patients were divided into three groups: Group 1 (< 2 years), Group 2 (2-5 years) and Group 3 (>5 years). An unpaired t-test (p < 0.05) was used to compare percentage of stance at initiation of force, the percentage of stance at maximum force, the percentage of stance at termination of force, the maximum percentage force and the average force/time integral between a group of normal age matched controls and the unaffected foot in patients with unilateral clubfoot. Significant differences were identified between the unaffected side and normal controls for the pressure distribution, order of initial contact and foot contact time. These differences evolved and changed with age. The pedobarographic measurements of patients with clubfoot are not normal for the unaffected foot. As such the unaffected foot should not be referred to as normal, nor should it be used as a control. PMID:25001577

Cooper, Anthony; Chhina, Harpreet; Howren, Alyssa; Alvarez, Christine

2014-07-01

424

Monochromatic Pupillometry in Unilateral Glaucoma Discloses no Adaptive Changes Subserved by the ipRGCs  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To detect signs of a possible adaptive mechanism of the intrinsically photosensitive ganglion cells in unilateral glaucoma. Method: Eleven patients with unilateral glaucoma, classified by automated perimetry (glaucoma: mean deviation <0), were studied by monochromatic pupillometry, employing red (660?nm) or blue (470?nm) light, and by optical coherence tomography of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer. The main outcome measure in pupillometry, the area under the curve (AUC), i.e., the product of pupillary contraction amplitude and time, was determined during and after light exposure in glaucomatous and unafflicted fellow eyes and compared to the AUCs of a healthy, age-matched control group. Results: The AUC to stimulation with blue light was significantly reduced in glaucomatous eyes, both during and after stimulus, compared with that of fellow, unafflicted eyes (p???0.014). The AUC to red light stimulation was reduced during (p?=?0.035), but not after (p???0.072), exposure in glaucomatous eyes. In the unafflicted fellow eyes, the pupillary response to blue light did not differ from that of healthy controls. Conclusion: The pupillary response to blue light was decreased in the glaucomatous eyes of unilateral glaucoma. No difference was detected between the pupillary light response of the unafflicted fellow eyes and that of a healthy, age-matched control group. Thus no sign of an adaptive mechanism was detected, neither in the glaucomatous nor in the unafflicted fellow eyes, and consequently glaucoma appears to differ from non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. PMID:24550887

Nissen, Claus; Sander, Birgit; Milea, Dan; Kolko, Miriam; Herbst, Kristina; Hamard, Pascale; Lund-Andersen, Henrik

2014-01-01

425

Corticospinal adaptations and strength maintenance in the immobilized arm following 3 weeks unilateral strength training.  

PubMed

Cross-education strength training has being shown to retain strength and muscle thickness in the immobilized contralateral limb. Corticospinal mechanisms have been proposed to underpin this phenomenon; however, no transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) data has yet been presented. This study used TMS to measure corticospinal responses following 3 weeks of unilateral arm training on the contralateral, immobilize arm. Participants (n = 28) were randomly divided into either immobilized strength training (Immob + train) immobilized no training (Immob) or control. Participants in the immobilized groups had their nondominant arm rested in a sling, 15 h/day for 3 weeks. The Immob + train group completed unilateral arm curl strength training, while the Immob and control groups did not undertake training. All participants were tested for corticospinal excitability, strength, and muscle thickness of both arms. Immobilization resulted in a group x time significant reduction in strength, muscle thickness and corticospinal excitability for the untrained limb of the Immob group. Conversely, no significant change in strength, muscle thickness, or corticospinal excitability occurred in the untrained limb of the Immob + train group. These results provide the first evidence of corticospinal mechanisms, assessed by TMS, underpinning the use of unilateral strength training to retain strength and muscle thickness following immobilization of the contralateral limb. PMID:22429184

Pearce, A J; Hendy, A; Bowen, W A; Kidgell, D J

2013-12-01

426

Effects of early unilateral mandibular first molar extraction on condylar and ramal vertical asymmetry  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of the following study is to investigate the mandibular vertical asymmetry in a group of patients with early unilateral mandibular first molar extractions. Materials and Methods: Mandibular asymmetry index measurements (condylar, ramal and condylar-plus-ramal) were performed on the panoramic radiographs of a study group including 51 patients (mean age: 18.60 ± 1.11 years) and a control group of 51 patients (mean age: 18.53 ± 1.29 years). Group I included patients with a unilateral mandibular first molar extracted before the age of 12 years. Group II included patients with no extractions and had excellent Class I relationships, no missing teeth and slight or moderate anterior crowding. A paired t-test was used to determine possible statistically significant differences between the sides for the measurements. Student's t-test was used for the comparison of asymmetry index values between the groups and genders. Results: No group showed statistically significant sex-or side-specific differences for posterior vertical height measurements. Condylar asymmetry index and ramal asymmetry index measurements were not statistically different between the groups, while condylar-plus-ramal asymmetry index (CRAI) measurements were statistically different between the groups (P = 0.019). Conclusions: A slight difference for CRAI value was found in patients with early unilateral mandibular first molar extractions. PMID:24966767

Halicioglu, Koray; Celikoglu, Mevlut; Buyuk, Suleyman K.; Sekerci, Ahmet E.; Candirli, Celal

2014-01-01

427

Unilateral cryptorchidism induces morphological changes of testes and hyperplasia of Sertoli cells in a dog  

PubMed Central

Cryptorchidism is one of the most common genital defects in dogs. This study investigated the effects of abdominal cryptorchidism on morphology, cell proliferation, and Sertoli cell condition in a dog with spontaneous unilateral cryptorchidism. Elective orchidectomy was performed on the abdominal right testis and the scrotal left testis. Significant reductions in numbers of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids were observed in hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of the cryptorchid testis. The size of the epididymal duct was smaller than that of the control testis. Based on Ki67 immunohistochemistry, the proliferative activity of spermatogonia and spermatocytes was significantly decreased in the cryptorchid testis. However, proliferative activity was increased in the epididymal duct. Based on GATA-4 immunohistochemistry, Sertoli cells were relatively resistant to cryptorchidism, and the proliferative activity of Sertoli cells was markedly increased in the cryptorchid testis than in the control testis. These results suggest that spontaneous unilateral cryptorchidism causes morphological defects in spermatogonia and spermatocytes in the testis and changes the size of the efferent ductule of the epididymis. In addition, spontaneous unilateral cryptorchidism increases proliferative activity of Sertoli cells, which may be a predisposing factor for Sertoli cell cancer in cryptorchid testes.

Moon, Joon Ho; Yoo, Dae Young; Jo, Young Kwang; Kim, Geon A; Jung, Hyo Young; Choi, Jung Hoon

2014-01-01

428

Unilateral Blood Flow Decrease Induces Bilateral and Symmetric Responses in the Immature Brain  

PubMed Central

The effects of hemodynamic changes in the developing brain have yet to be fully understood. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between perturbations of the cerebral blood flow in the developing brain via unilateral hypoperfusion in P7 rats. As expected, nuclear caspase-3 (casp3) cleavage and DNA fragmentation were detected at 48 hours after stroke in the injured cortex. Surprisingly, casp3 was also cleaved in the contralateral cortex, although without cell death markers. Delayed (48 hours) casp3 cleavage without DNA fragmentation was also identified after unilateral common carotid artery occlusion, both in the hypoperfused cortex and the unaffected cortex, producing mirror images. Upstream calpain activation, caspase-2 cleavage, and mitochondrial cytochrome c release initiated casp3 cleavage, but did not produce preconditioning. The neuronal marker NeuN co-localized with cleaved casp3 in cortical layers II–III and VI and with gaba-amino butyric acid in layer III. Indeed, collateral supply was provided from the opposite side during carotid artery occlusion but not after reperfusion, and the number of cleaved casp3-positive cells significantly negatively correlated with the common carotid artery immediate reperfusion percentage. In summary, unilateral hypoperfusion, while insufficient to induce cell death, may active bilateral and symmetric casp3 in the P7 rat brain. Additionally, the opposite healthy hemisphere is altered due to the injury and thus should not be used as an internal control. PMID:19815715

Villapol, Sonia; Bonnin, Philippe; Fau, Sébastien; Baud, Olivier; Renolleau, Sylvain; Charriaut-Marlangue, Christiane

2009-01-01

429

Familiarity does not affect the unilateral field advantage for repetition detection.  

PubMed

We have previously reported evidence that repetitions of letters, colors, sizes, and common motion paths are more rapidly detected when they are presented unilaterally (i.e., both in the same visual field) versus bilaterally (one element in each visual field; Butcher and Cavanagh (Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 70:714-724, 2008). Here, we report evidence that this unilateral field advantage (UFA) for repetition detection does not depend on prior experience with the elements that comprise the repetition. In Experiment 1, native English, Persian, and Japanese speakers were tested on a repetition detection task involving characters from Western, Arabic, and Japanese character sets. The character sets were tested in blocks, in each of which subjects were presented with four characters for 16 ms and asked to report whether any two of the characters were identical. The subjects were faster detecting repetitions that were presented unilaterally rather than bilaterally, and there was no interaction with stimulus familiarity. A second experiment replicated this finding with native English speakers only, using a longer stimulus duration (150 ms). We had previously proposed that the UFA arises because the low-level processes that group physically identical items operate more efficiently within than across hemifields. Our data now indicate that this grouping process is insensitive to item familiarity, supporting the claim that the process is low-level. PMID:22532384

Butcher, Serena J; Cavanagh, Patrick

2012-08-01

430

Assessment of self-selection bias in a pediatric unilateral hearing loss study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the differences between participants and non-participants in a study of children with unilateral hearing loss that might contribute to selection bias. Study Design Case-control study Setting Academic pediatric otolaryngology practice Subjects and Methods Comparison of clinical and socio-demographic characteristics between the 81 participants and 78 non-participants with unilateral hearing loss in a case-control study. Results Compared to non-participants, the study participants were younger but diagnosed at an older age. Participants were more likely to have been diagnosed through a primary care screen and have normal ear anatomy, and less likely to have an attributed etiology for their unilateral hearing loss or tried assistive hearing devices. No other significant demographic, socioeconomic or clinical differences were identified. Conclusions Self-selection bias may jeopardize both internal and external validity of study results and should be evaluated whenever possible. Methods to minimize self-selection bias should be considered and implemented during the planning stages of clinical studies. PMID:20172393

Lieu, Judith E C; Dewan, Karuna

2010-01-01

431

En-bloc Transplantation: an Eligible Technique for Unilateral Dual Kidney Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Background: Kidney transplantation is the best available treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease. Objective: To evaluate the en bloc anastomosis technique for unilateral dual kidney transplantation (DKT). Methods: From May to October 2011, 5 patients (4 women and 1 man) with mean age of 31.8 years underwent unilateral DKT with this technique in which distal end of the aorta and proximal end of inferior vena cava (IVC) were closed with running sutures. Then, proximal end of the aorta and distal end of the IVC were anastomosed to internal (or external) iliac artery and external iliac vein, respectively. Results: Post-operative course was uneventful. No vascular and urologic complications developed; all patient had acceptable serum creatinine at discharge time and up of 2–6 months of post-operation follow up. Conclusion: Unilateral DKT is a safe method for performing DKT. The proposed en bloc anastomosis can improve the outcome of the graft by reducing the cold ischemia and the operation time. PMID:25013633

Salehipour, M.; Bahador, A.; Nikeghbalian, S.; Kazemi, K.; Shamsaeifar, A. R.; Ghaffaripour, S.; Sahmeddini, M. A.; Salahi, H.; Bahreini, A.; Janghorban, P.; Gholami, S.; Malek-Hosseini, S. A.

2012-01-01

432

Presurgical Unilateral Cleft Lip Anthropometrics and the Presence of Dental Anomalies.  

PubMed

Objective : To investigate associations between cleft lip anthropometrics and dental anomalies in the permanent dentition in unilateral cleft lip patients. Design : Retrospective cross-sectional study. Patients : Children with unilateral clefts of the lip, with or without cleft palate. Methods : Anthropometric lip measurements, made immediately prior to lip repair, were available for each patient. The presence of dental anomalies in the permanent dentition was assessed radiographically. The presence of associations between anthropometric lip measurements and prevalence rates of different dental anomalies were determined using logistic regression analyses. Results : In the 122 included patients, the cleft lateral lip element was deficient in height in 80% and in transverse length in 84% of patients. Patients with more deficient cleft side lateral lip height and less deficient cleft side lateral lip transverse length were more likely to present with cleft side maxillary lateral incisor agenesis. On the other hand, patients with a less deficient cleft side lateral lip height and more deficient cleft side lateral lip transverse length were more likely to present with a cleft side supernumerary maxillary lateral incisor. When looking only at incomplete clefts, the cleft side lateral lip transverse length deficiency was more predictive of the presence of supernumerary maxillary lateral incisors (P = .030), while for complete clefts, the cleft side lateral lip height deficiency was more predictive of the presence of maxillary lateral incisor agenesis (P = .035). Conclusions : In patients with unilateral clefts, cleft lip anthropometrics have a predictive role in determining the occurrence of dental anomalies. PMID:24437562

Antonarakis, Gregory S; Fisher, David M

2014-01-17

433

External work is deficient in both limbs of patients with unilateral PAD  

PubMed Central

External work was utilized to measure differences between the unaffected and the affected limb in patients with unilateral peripheral arterial disease compared to healthy controls. Patients with unilateral peripheral arterial disease have shown deficits in peak joint powers during walking in the unaffected and affected legs. However, no research has detailed the amount of work that is being performed by each leg compared to healthy controls even though such an analysis would provide valuable information on the energy output from the affected and the unaffected legs. Two hypotheses were tested: a) the unaffected and affected leg would perform less work than healthy controls in a pain-free state, and b) the onset of symptomatic claudication pain would result in further changes in the external work. Results showed that during a pain-free state, both the unaffected and affected legs perform less work than the healthy controls. After onset of claudication pain, the work output by the affected limb becomes further decreased while the unaffected limb experiences changes in negative external work. These findings combined with recent evidence of decreased peak powers in both legs in unilateral peripheral arterial disease patients reflects altered pathomechanics in both limbs compared to healthy controls. PMID:22321812

Wurdeman, Shane R.; Myers, Sara A.; Johanning, Jason M.; Pipinos, Iraklis I.; Stergiou, Nicholas

2012-01-01

434

Growth effects of botulinum toxin type A injected unilaterally into the masseter muscle of developing rats*  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the effects of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) on mandible skeletal development by inducing muscle hypofunction. Methods: Four-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n=60) were divided into three groups: Group 1 animals served as controls and were injected with saline; Group 2 animals were injected unilaterally with BTX-A (the contralateral side was injected with saline); and Group 3 animals were injected bilaterally with BTX-A. In Group 2, the saline-injected side was designated the control side (Group 2-1), whereas the BTX-A-injected side was designated the experimental side (Group 2-2). After four weeks, the animals were sacrificed, dry skulls were prepared, and mandibles were measured. Results: In the unilateral group, the experimental side (Group 2-2) had reduced dimensions for all mandible measurements compared with the control side (Group 2-1), suggesting a local effect of BTX-A on mandible growth, likely due to muscle reduction. Conclusions: Localized BTX-A injection induced a change in craniofacial growth, and the skeletal effect was unilateral despite both sides of the mandible functioning as one unit. PMID:25559955

Park, Chanyoung; Park, Kitae; Kim, Jiyeon

2015-01-01

435

A Tutorial on Implantable Hearing Amplification Options for Adults with Unilateral Microtia and Atresia  

PubMed Central

Background. Patients with unilateral atresia and microtia encounter problems in sound localization and speech understanding in noise. Although there are four implantable hearing devices available, there is little discussion and evidence on the application of these devices on patients with unilateral atresia and microtia problems. Objective. This paper will review the details of these four implantable hearing devices for the treatment of unilateral atresia. They are percuteaneous osseointegrated bone anchored hearing aid, Vibrant Soundbridge middle ear implant, Bonebridge bone conduction system, and Carina fully implantable hearing device. Methods. Four implantable hearing devices were reviewed and compared. The clinical decision process that led to the recommendation of a device was illustrated by using a case study. Conclusions. The selection of appropriate implantable hearing devices should be based on various factors, including radiological findings and patient preferences, possible surgical complications, whether the device is Food and Drug Administration- (FDA-)/CE-approved, and the finances. To ensure the accurate evaluation of candidacy and outcomes, the evaluation methods should be adapted to suite the type of hearing device. PMID:24991564

Yu, Joannie Ka Yin; Wong, Lena Lai Nar; Tsang, Willis Sung Shan; Tong, Michael Chi Fai

2014-01-01

436

Rehabilitation of a child with partial unilateral cryptophthalmos and multiple congenital anomalies.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: This paper describes the surgical rehabilitation of a child with craniofacial anomalies, unilateral syndactyly, and partial unilateral cryptophthalmos associated with inferior colobomata of the iris and optic nerve and agenesis of the inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscles. The clinical presentation of cryptophthalmos is described. METHODS: The medical literature since the original description of cryptophthalmos in 1872 was reviewed to define patterns of inheritance and the incidence of associated anomalies. RESULTS: Including this patient, 149 case reports of cryptophthalmos were identified. In two families transmission from parent to child suggests dominant inheritance. None of the five dominant cases had any other anomalies, and all had bilateral complete cryptophthalmos. The incidence of cryptophthalmos in the remaining families is consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. This group includes patients with bilateral, unilateral, and partial cryptophthalmos. Other anomalies are common, including those of the ear and nose, limbs, genitourinary system, and mouth and palate. Mortality in the perinatal period is associated with renal agenesis, laryngeal atresia, and pulmonary hypoplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Cryptophthalmos is a rare congenital anomaly with two patterns of inheritance. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:8719680

Konrad, H; Merriam, J C; Jones, I S

1995-01-01

437

A unified enrichment scheme for fracture Safdar Abbas  

E-print Network

of fracture Types of fracture Strain Ductile Fracture Brittle Fracture Stress Brittel Ductile From: FractureA unified enrichment scheme for fracture problems Safdar Abbas Thomas-Peter Fries AICES, RWTH XFEM in fracture mechanics Numerical examples (cohesionless cracks) Numerical examples (cohesive cracks

438

Unilateral and bilateral fatiguing contractions similarly alter postural stability but differently modify postural position on bipedal stance.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of unilateral and bilateral muscle fatigue on bipedal postural control and neuromuscular activities. Nineteen subjects completed bilateral fatiguing contractions (BI group), and seventeen subjects completed unilateral fatiguing contractions (UNI group) of the quadriceps femoris. Postural control, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and central activation ratio (CAR) were measured before and after the completion of fatiguing tasks for both groups. Postural control was evaluated by using a force platform, which recorded the center of foot pressure (COP). MVC was quantified with an ergometer and CAR was determined with the superimposed electrical stimulation technique. Spatio-temporal COP parameters were used to evaluate postural stability (displacements of COP) and postural position (coordinates of COP) and a frequency analysis of COP excursions (wavelet transform) was performed to estimate the contribution of different neuronal loops. Postural stability, MVC and CAR were similarly affected after unilateral and bilateral fatiguing contractions. Moreover, the impairment of postural position was higher after unilateral fatiguing contractions than after bilateral fatiguing contractions. The study's results indicated that unilateral and bilateral fatigue equally disturbs postural control as well as central drive. However, unilateral muscle fatigue creates postural asymmetries while bilateral muscle fatigue does not engender any. PMID:23628361

Paillard, Thierry; Borel, Liliane

2013-04-01

439

Unilateral Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Caused by an Occult Ganglion in the Carpal Tunnel: A Report of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) usually presents bilaterally and a secondary nature should be suspected in patients with unilateral symptoms, especially those with a long-standing history, and when the symptomatic hand shows severe neurophysiologic impairment, while the contralateral hand is neurophysiologically intact. Space-occupying lesions are known to cause CTS and the incidence of space-occupying lesions in unilateral CTS is higher than that of bilateral CTS. It is easy to detect a mass when it is palpable; however, occult lesions are usually overlooked. Whenever a patient presents with unilateral symptoms and unilateral neurophysiologic impairment, the possibility of a space-occupying lesion compressing the median nerve should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis. This study presents two cases with an occult ganglion in the carpal tunnel compressing the median nerve and causing unilateral symptoms of CTS. We stress on the importance of imaging studies in patients with unilateral symptoms that are usually not used in CTS. The reported patients were evaluated and magnetic resonance images revealed an intratunnel space-occupying lesion. PMID:25105046

Yalcinkaya, Merter; Akman, Yunus Emre; Bagatur, A. Erdem

2014-01-01

440

Capillary fracture of soft gels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A liquid droplet resting on a soft gel substrate can deform that substrate to the point of material failure, whereby fractures develop on the gel surface that propagate outwards from the contact line in a starburst pattern. In this paper, we characterize (i) the initiation process, in which the number of arms in the starburst is controlled by the ratio of the surface tension contrast to the gel's elastic modulus, and (ii) the propagation dynamics showing that once fractures are initiated they propagate with a universal power law L?t3/4. We develop a model for crack initiation by treating the gel as a linear elastic solid and computing the deformations within the substrate from the liquid-solid wetting forces. The elastic solution shows that both the location and the magnitude of the wetting forces are critical in providing a quantitative prediction for the number of fractures and, hence, an interpretation of the initiation of capillary fractures. This solution also reveals that the depth of the gel is an important factor in the fracture process, as it can help mitigate large surface tractions; this finding is confirmed with experiments. We then develop a model for crack propagation by considering the transport of an inviscid fluid into the fracture tip of an incompressible material and find that a simple energy-conservation argument can explain the observed material-independent power law. We compare predictions for both linear elastic and neo-Hookean solids, finding that the latter better explains the observed exponent.

Bostwick, Joshua B.; Daniels, Karen E.

2013-10-01

441

Equine-related facial fractures.  

PubMed

Horseback riding is a common recreational activity that can cause injuries to both mounted and dismounted participants. This study examines the patterns of equine-related maxillofacial fractures presenting in a tertiary referral centre. Patients presenting over an 11-year period from 1996 to 2006 with equine-related maxillofacial fractures were identified through the trauma database. The extent of the injuries, surgical treatment and follow-up details were documented. 45 patients were identified, with an increasing incidence over the study period. 69% were male and 31% female. 31% of patients were 16-30 years of age. 73% of fractures were in the midfacial region. 67% of patients were actively treated, with 60% of these patients requiring internal fixation. 64% of patients were hospitalized. Equine-related maxillofacial fractures frequently involve a young and predominantly female population, compared with facial fractures due to other causes. Midfacial fractures were the most common site of injury. Alcohol was rarely implicated. A high proportion of patients required surgery and hospitalization. PMID:18583096

Lee, K H; Steenberg, L J

2008-11-01

442

ACR Appropriateness Criteria® rib fractures.  

PubMed

Rib fracture is the most common thoracic injury, present in 10% of all traumatic injuries and almost 40% of patients who sustain severe nonpenetrating trauma. Although rib fractures can produce significant morbidity, the diagnosis of associated complications (such as pneumothorax, hemothorax, pulmonary contusion, atelectasis, flail chest, cardiovascular injury, and injuries to solid and hollow abdominal organs) may have a more significant clinical impact. When isolated, rib fractures have a relatively low morbidity and mortality, and failure to detect isolated rib fractures does not necessarily alter patient management or outcome in uncomplicated cases. A standard posteroanterior chest radiograph should be the initial, and often the only, imaging test required in patients with suspected rib fracture after minor trauma. Detailed radiographs of the ribs rarely add additional information that would change treatment, and, although other imaging tests (eg, computed tomography, bone scan) have increased sensitivity for detection of rib fractures, there are little data to support their use. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 3 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review process include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:25340388

Henry, Travis S; Kirsch, Jacobo; Kanne, Jeffrey P; Chung, Jonathan H; Donnelly, Edwin F; Ginsburg, Mark E; Heitkamp, Darel E; Kazerooni, Ella A; Ketai, Loren H; McComb, Barbara L; Parker, J Anthony; Ravenel, James G; Restrepo, Carlos Santiago; Saleh, Anthony G; Shah, Rakesh D; Steiner, Robert M; Suh, Robert D; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H

2014-11-01

443

Seismic attenuation in fractured media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prime objective of this paper is to quantitatively estimate seismic attenuation caused by fractures with different physical parameters. In seismic wave simulation, the fractured media are treated as the anisotropic media and fractures are represented by frequency-dependent elastic constants. Based on numerical experiments with three different parameters, namely viscosity, porosity and the Lamé parameters, this paper has the following observations. First, seismic attenuation is not affected by the viscosity within fractures, although it increases with the increase of porosity and decreases with the increase of the Lamé parameters within fractures. Among the latter two parameters, seismic attenuation is more sensitive to the Lamé parameters than to the porosity. Second, for the attenuation anisotropy, low frequencies have more anisotropic effect than high frequencies. For example, a 50?Hz wavefield has the strongest anisotropy effect if compared to 100 and 150?Hz wavefields. The attenuation anisotropy for low frequency (say 50?Hz) is more sensitive to the viscosity than the porosity and the Lamé parameters have the weakest effect among these three parameters. These observations suggest that low-frequency seismic attenuation, and especially the attenuation anisotropy in low frequency, would have great potential for fluid discrimination within fractured media.

Rao, Ying; Wang, Yanghua

2015-02-01

444

Estimation of fracture compliance from tubewaves generated at a fracture intersecting a borehole  

E-print Network

Understanding fracture compliance is important for characterizing fracture networks and for inferring fluid flow in the subsurface. In an attempt to estimate fracture compliance in the field, we developed a new model to ...

Bakku, Sudhish Kumar

2011-01-01

445

Elbow deformities after fracture.  

PubMed

Nonunion of the lateral humeral condyle,cubitus varus, cubitus valgus, and fishtail deformity represent particularly challenging problems to the upper extremity surgeon. Although closed or open reduction and pinning of supracondylar fractures of the distal humerus can restore anatomic alignment and avoid anatomic deformities in most cases, closed reduction is still a common form of treatment. In those hopefully few cases in which reduction is less than optimal, or when a good reduction is performed but subsequently lost between follow-up visits, the aforementioned deformities of the distal humerus can develop. Even when anatomic reduction is obtained and held, avascular necrosis of the trochlea may develop, leading to the so-called fishtail deformity. Although not recognized for several years, and when initially recognized, not necessarily taken seriously, fishtail deformity may be one of the more devastating deformities in that it is not correctable by traditional methods of osteotomy. Flexion contracture when present may be treated by standard release; however, when a bony block exists as a result of the shape of the fishtail, nonsurgical options exist and the patient often is left with a permanent loss of motion. PMID:16504784

Storm, Shawn W; Williams, D Patrick; Khoury, Joseph; Lubahn, John D

2006-02-01

446

Fracture Reactivation in Chemically Reactive Rock Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactivation of existing fractures is a fundamental process of brittle failure that controls the nucleation of earthquake ruptures, propagation and linkage of hydraulic fractures in oil and gas production, and the evolution of fault and fracture networks and thus of fluid and heat transport in the upper crust. At depths below 2-3 km, and frequently shallower, brittle processes of fracture growth, linkage, and reactivation compete with chemical processes of fracture sealing by mineral precipitation, with precipitation rates similar to fracture opening rates. We recently found rates of fracture opening in tectonically quiescent settings of 10-20 ?m/m.y., rates similar to euhedral quartz precipitation under these conditions. The tendency of existing partially or completely cemented fractures to reactivate will vary depending on strain rate, mineral precipitation kinetics, strength contrast between host rock and fracture cement, stress conditions, degree of fracture infill, and fracture network geometry. Natural fractures in quartzite of the Cambrian Eriboll Formation, NW Scotland, exhibit a complex history of fracture formation and reactivation, with reactivation involving both repeated crack-seal opening-mode failure and shear failure of fractures that formed in opening mode. Fractures are partially to completely sealed with crack-seal or euhedral quartz cement or quartz cement fragmented by shear reactivation. Degree of cementation controls the tendency of fractures for later shear reactivation, to interact elastically with adjacent open fractures, and their intersection behavior. Using kinematic, dynamic, and diagenetic criteria, we determine the sequence of opening-mode fracture formation and later shear reactivation. We find that sheared fracture systems of similar orientation display spatially varying sense of slip We attribute these inconsistent directions of shear reactivation to 1) a heterogeneous stress field in this highly fractured rock unit and 2) variations in the degree of fracture cement infill in fractures of same orientation, allowing fractures to reactivate at times when adjacent, more cemented fractures remain dormant. The observed interaction of chemical and mechanical fracture growth and sealing processes in this chemically reactive and heavily deformed rock unit results in a complex fracture network geometry not generally observed in less chemically reactive, shallower crustal environments.

Eichhubl, P.; Hooker, J. N.

2013-12-01

447

Unilateral Muscle Overuse Causes Bilateral Changes in Muscle Fiber Composition and Vascular Supply  

PubMed Central

Unilateral strength training can cause cross-transfer strength effects to the homologous contralateral muscles. However, the impact of the cross-over effects on the muscle tissue is unclear. To test the hypothesis that unilateral muscle overuse causes bilateral alterations in muscle fiber composition and vascular supply, we have used an experimental rabbit model with unilateral unloaded overstrain exercise via electrical muscle stimulation (E/EMS). The soleus (SOL) and gastrocnemius (GA) muscles of both exercised (E) and contralateral non-exercised (NE) legs (n?=?24) were morphologically analyzed after 1w, 3w and 6w of EMS. Non-exercised rabbits served as controls (n?=?6). After unilateral intervention the muscles of both E and NE legs showed myositis and structural and molecular tissue changes that to various degrees mirrored each other. The fiber area was bilaterally smaller than in controls after 3w of E/EMS in both SOL (E 4420 and NE 4333 µm2 vs. 5183 µm2, p<0.05) and GA (E 3572 and NE 2983 µm2 vs. 4697 µm2, p<0.02) muscles. After 6w of E/EMS, the percentage of slow MyHCI fibers was lower than in controls in the NE legs of SOL (88.1% vs. 98.1%, p<0.009), while the percentage of fast MyHCIIa fibers was higher in the NE legs of GA (25.7% vs. 15.8%, p?=?0.02). The number of capillaries around fibers in the E and NE legs was lower (SOL 13% and 15%, respectively, GA 25% and 23%, respectively, p<0.05) than in controls. The overall alterations were more marked in the fast GA muscle than in the slow SOL muscle, which on the other hand showed more histopathological muscle changes. We conclude that unilateral repetitive unloaded overuse exercise via EMS causes myositis and muscle changes in fiber type proportions, fiber area and fiber capillarization not only in the exercised leg, but also in the homologous muscles in the non-exercised leg. PMID:25545800

Song, Yafeng; Forsgren, Sture; Liu, Jing-Xia; Yu, Ji-Guo; Stål, Per

2014-01-01

448

Optimal scaling in ductile fracture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is concerned with the derivation of optimal scaling laws, in the sense of matching lower and upper bounds on the energy, for a solid undergoing ductile fracture. The specific problem considered concerns a material sample in the form of an infinite slab of finite thickness subjected to prescribed opening displacements on its two surfaces. The solid is assumed to obey deformation-theory of plasticity and, in order to further simplify the analysis, we assume isotropic rigid-plastic deformations with zero plastic spin. When hardening exponents are given values consistent with observation, the energy is found to exhibit sublinear growth. We regularize the energy through the addition of nonlocal energy terms of the strain-gradient plasticity type. This nonlocal regularization has the effect of introducing an intrinsic length scale into the energy. We also put forth a physical argument that identifies the intrinsic length and suggests a linear growth of the nonlocal energy. Under these assumptions, ductile fracture emerges as the net result of two competing effects: whereas the sublinear growth of the local energy promotes localization of deformation to failure planes, the nonlocal regularization stabilizes this process, thus resulting in an orderly progression towards failure and a well-defined specific fracture energy. The optimal scaling laws derived here show that ductile fracture results from localization of deformations to void sheets, and that it requires a well-defined energy per unit fracture area. In particular, fractal modes of fracture are ruled out under the assumptions of the analysis. The optimal scaling laws additionally show that ductile fracture is cohesive in nature, i.e., it obeys a well-defined relation between tractions and opening displacements. Finally, the scaling laws supply a link between micromechanical properties and macroscopic fracture properties. In particular, they reveal the relative roles that surface energy and microplasticity play as contributors to the specific fracture energy of the material. Next, we present an experimental assessment of the optimal scaling laws. We show that when the specific fracture energy is renormalized in a manner suggested by the optimal scaling laws, the data falls within the bounds predicted by the analysis and, moreover, they ostensibly collapse---with allowances made for experimental scatter---on a master curve dependent on the hardening exponent, but otherwise material independent.

Fokoua Djodom, Landry

449

Scaling of Fractured Rock Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractured rocks exhibit a hierarchical structure which renders their attributes scale-dependent. Published data indicate a tendency for fracture length scales to be distributed according to a power law, average fracture aperture to be given by a power of the fracture length scale, and fracture density as well as log permeability to exhibit power-law scaling. We illustrate such scaling on log air permeabilities measured on a nominal support scale of 1-m along vertical and inclined boreholes spanning a 30×20×30 m3 block of unsaturated fractured tuff near Superior, Arizona. Log permeability sample structure functions of order q scale as powers ?(q) of separation scale (lag) over limited ranges of lags. A procedure known as extended self-similarity (ESS) extends power-law scaling to all lags and yields a nonlinear (concave) functional relationship between ? and q. Whereas the literature associates such nonlinear power-law scaling with multifractals or fractional Laplace motions, our analysis shows that this behavior is consistent with sub-Gaussian random fields subordinated to truncated (monofractal) fractional Brownian motion (tfBm). While the frequency distribution of the log permeability data appears to be Gaussian, those of increments corresponding to small lags exhibit heavy tails consistent with such sub-Gaussian fields. The same scaling theory allowed us to develop previously a consistent statistical relationship between fracture length, aperture, density and log permeability. In particular, for fractures having a given length scale L, variances of density and log permeability that exhibit power-law scaling grow as positive powers of L and decrease as negative powers of the smallest length scale sampled. For nominal parameters that are most representative of published values inferred from field data, the variance of fracture densities increases quadratically with L and that of log permeability increases as L3/2; for a given L the variance of log permeability is proportional to that of fracture density, the constant of proportionality being a (positive, zero or negative) power of L, and the standard deviation of log permeability is proportional to a positive power ? of the average aperture where 0

Neuman, S. P.; Guadagnini, A.; Riva, M.

2012-12-01

450

Hydraulic fracture optimization using hydraulic fracture and reservoir modeling in the Piceance Basin, Colorado.  

E-print Network

??Hydraulic fracturing is an important stimulation method for producing unconventional gas reserves. Natural fractures are present in many low-permeability gas environments and often provide important… (more)

Reynolds, Harris Allen

2012-01-01

451

A stress fracture of the lumbar spine in a professional rugby player  

PubMed Central

In modern rugby, the spine is subjected to great physical pressure, with an increased number of impacts, on both the cervical and the lumbar spine. This case report illustrates overuse injuries of the lumbar spine in international professional rugby players. A 32?year?old sportsman had been practising rugby for 24 years and was playing for a championship level French team when he started suffering from a right lateral pain in the lumbosacral spine. A CT scan showed a unilateral isthmolysis and a coronal irregular fracture of the right pars interarticularis of L5. This led to discussion of (1) the importance of the decision on the date of return to playing rugby and (2) the future of professional rugby players with chronic spinal injuries. PMID:17138643

Castinel, Bernard H; Adam, Philippe; Prat, Christophe

2007-01-01

452

Fatigue fracture of tibial arthroplasty implant masked by contralateral knee arthritis  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION The wear of polyethylene components is a well-recognised long-term complication of total knee arthroplasty. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a case of fatigue fracture of a geomedic tibial tray 17 years after implantation. The symptoms were masked by primary osteoarthritis of the contralateral knee. DISCUSSION The mode of failure in this case differs from that most commonly reported in the literature in that it occurred late as the result of prolonged use, not due to implant failure, physiological factors, or surgical technique. The case also demonstrates the incredible ‘masking’ effect of arthritic knee pain. CONCLUSION This case highlights the importance to clinicians of keeping a high index of suspicion for prosthesis complications in patients with unilateral joint replacement with contralateral arthropathy. PMID:23562901

O’Neill, Barry J.; Cleary, May; McElwain, John P.

2013-01-01

453

Fractal modeling of natural fracture networks  

SciTech Connect

West Virginia University will implement procedures for a fractal analysis of fractures in reservoirs. This procedure will be applied to fracture networks in outcrops and to fractures intersecting horizontal boreholes. The parameters resulting from this analysis will be used to generate synthetic fracture networks with the same fractal characteristics as the real networks. Recovery from naturally fractured, tight-gas reservoirs is controlled by the fracture network. Reliable characterization of the actual fracture network in the reservoir is severely limited. The location and orientation of fractures intersecting the borehole can be determined, but the length of these fractures cannot be unambiguously determined. Because of the lack of detailed information about the actual fracture network, modeling methods must represent the porosity and permeability associated with the fracture network, as accurately as possible with very little a priori information. In the sections following, the authors will (1) present fractal analysis of the MWX site, using the box-counting procedure; (2) review evidence testing the fractal nature of fracture distributions and discuss the advantages of using the fractal analysis over a stochastic analysis; and (3) present an efficient algorithm for producing a self-similar fracture networks which mimic the real MWX outcrop fracture network.

Ferer, M.; Dean, B.; Mick, C.

1995-06-01

454

Fractures of the proximal humerus.  

PubMed

Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate. The bandages were further supported by splints made of wood or coarse grass. Healing was expected in forty days. Different fracture patterns have been discussed and classified since Ancient Greece. Current classification of proximal humeral fractures mainly relies on the classifications proposed by Charles Neer and the AO/OTA classification. Since the late 1980's it has been known that intra- and inter-observer variation was high within the two systems. I conducted a series of observer studies to qualify the disagreement further and to study to what extent improvement of agreement could be obtained. No clinically significant differences in observer agreement were found at different levels of clinical experience, by reducing the number of categories, or by adding high quality radiographs, CT or 3D CT scans. A consistently low agreement on the Neer classification within and between untrained orthopaedic doctors was found. However, we also found that inter-observer agreement on treatment recommendation was higher than the agreement on the Neer classification. In a randomized trial we found that agreement could improve significantly by training of doctors, especially among specialists. However, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis or reverse arthroplasty in complex fractures patterns. No randomized trials or well-conducted comparative studies were identified. High failure rates suggest that the use of these implants for complex fractures of the humerus should not be used outside clinical protocols. I recommend the conduct of randomized trials, and a design of such study is proposed. PMID:24303817

Brorson, Stig

2013-10-01

455

Fracture process zone in granite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In uniaxial compression tests performed on Aue granite cores (diameter 50 mm, length 100 mm), a steel loading plate was used to induce the formation of a discrete shear fracture. A zone of distributed microcracks surrounds the tip of the propagating fracture. This process zone is imaged by locating acoustic emission events using 12 piezoceramic sensors attached to the samples. Propagation velocity of the process zone is varied by using the rate of acoustic emissions to control the applied axial force. The resulting velocities range from 2 mm/s in displacement-controlled tests to 2 ??m/s in tests controlled by acoustic emission rate. Wave velocities and amplitudes are monitored during fault formation. P waves transmitted through the approaching process zone show a drop in amplitude of 26 dB, and ultrasonic velocities are reduced by 10%. The width of the process zone is ???9 times the grain diameter inferred from acoustic data but is only 2 times the grain size from optical crack inspection. The process zone of fast propagating fractures is wider than for slow ones. The density of microcracks and acoustic emissions increases approaching the main fracture. Shear displacement scales linearly with fracture length. Fault plane solutions from acoustic events show similar orientation of nodal planes on both sides of the shear fracture. The ratio of the process zone width to the fault length in Aue granite ranges from 0.01 to 0.1 inferred from crack data and acoustic emissions, respectively. The fracture surface energy is estimated from microstructure analysis to be ???2 J. A lower bound estimate for the energy dissipated by acoustic events is 0.1 J. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

Zang, A.; Wagner, F.C.; Stanchits, S.; Janssen, C.; Dresen, G.

2000-01-01

456

Monitoring hydraulic fracture growth: Laboratory experiments  

SciTech Connect

The authors carry out small-scale hydraulic fracture experiments to investigate the physics of hydraulic fracturing. The laboratory experiments are combined with time-lapse ultrasonic measurements with active sources using both compressional and shear-wave transducers. For the time-lapse measurements they focus on ultrasonic measurement changes during fracture growth. As a consequence they can detect the hydraulic fracture and characterize its shape and geometry during growth. Hence, this paper deals with fracture characterization using time-lapse acoustic data. Hydraulic fracturing is used in the oil and gas industry to stimulate reservoir production.

Groenenboom, J.; Dam, D.B. van

2000-04-01

457

Test-Free Fracture Toughness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computational simulation results can give the prediction of damage growth and progression and fracture toughness of composite structures. The experimental data from literature provide environmental effects on the fracture behavior of metallic or fiber composite structures. However, the traditional experimental methods to analyze the influence of the imposed conditions are expensive and time consuming. This research used the CODSTRAN code to model the temperature effects, scaling effects and the loading effects of fiber/braided composite specimens with and without fiber-optic sensors on the damage initiation and energy release rates. The load-displacement relationship and fracture toughness assessment approach is compared with the test results from literature and it is verified that the computational simulation, with the use of established material modeling and finite element modules, adequately tracks the changes of fracture toughness and subsequent fracture propagation for any fiber/braided composite structure due to the change of fiber orientations, presence of large diameter optical fibers, and any loading conditions.

Minnetyan, Levon; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

2003-01-01

458

Rehabilitation of tibial eminence fracture  

PubMed Central

Tibial eminence fractures occur as a result of high amounts of tension placed upon the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The incidence of these fractures is higher among adolescent girls due to their inherent skeletal immaturity. In such an injury, direct trauma causes an avulsion fracture occurring at the tibial eminence while the ACL is spared. Imaging is used to confirm the diagnosis of a tibial eminence fracture and regardless of the extent of injury, rehabilitation is crucial for a full recovery. The following is a case study of a 17-year-old girl who was involved in a motor vehicle accident. In the accident, she sustained a left lateral tibial eminence fracture, along with soft tissue injuries at the cervical and lumbar spine. Her treatment included passive and active range of motion (ROM), strength training, physical modalities, and proprioceptive training of the injured areas. An improvement was noted post-treatment and after a 5-month follow-up according to subjective reports and objective assessments (ROM and girth measurements). PMID:17657303

Salehoun, Roya; Pardisnia, Nima

2007-01-01

459

Clinical Analysis of Midfacial Fractures  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To analyze the features of midfacial fractures. Methods: Data of 320 patients treated for midfacial fractures during the past 10 years were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Patients were 192 male and 128 female. Their age ranged from 1 to 96 years old with the average of 42.1. Injury most frequently occurred by traffic accidents in 168 patients, followed by falls in 78, assaults in 31 and sports in 25. Pattern of the fractures was classified into zygoma in 159 patients, alveolus in 60, multiple sites in 54, maxilla in 45 and nasal bone in 2. Facial injury severity scale ranged from 1 to 12 with the average of 1.52. Injuries to other sites of the body were found in 90 patients. Fractures of multiple sites showed higher facial injury severity scale and were associated with injuries to other sites of the body at a higher rate. Observation was most frequently chosen in 153 patients, followed by open reduction and internal fixation in 72, intramaxillary fixation in 43 and transcutaneous reduction in 26. Conclusions: Midfacial fractures showed a variety of features in terms of the site and severity and associated injuries. Understanding these features is important to manage these patients properly. PMID:24757396

Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Matsusue, Yumiko; Horita, Satoshi; Murakami, Kazuhiro; Sugiura, Tsutomu; Kirita, Tadaaki

2014-01-01