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Unilateral Beau's lines associated with a fractured olecranon.  


We report a case of unilateral Beau's lines developing after an olecranon fracture of the right elbow. Unilateral Beau's lines are an uncommon phenomenon but have been previously reported after trauma to the wrist, hands, forearm and elbow. PMID:20546225

Avery, Helen; Cooper, Hywel L; Karim, Amin



Comparison of unilateral versus bilateral balloon kyphoplasty for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-one patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCF) were treated with unilateral balloon kyphoplasty (BKP), and 31 patients were treated with bilateral BKP. The efficacy of unilateral and bilateral BKP was assessed by comparing operation time, X-ray exposure times, incidence of complications, vertebral height restoration, and improvement of the visual analogue scale (VAS) scores. The mean operative time and the

Zhirong Wang; Genlin Wang; Huilin Yang


Comparative study of balloon kyphoplasty with unilateral versus bilateral approach in osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyses the radiological and clinical results according to the two techniques of unilateral and bilateral balloon\\u000a kyphoplasty in osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. Fifty-two patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures\\u000a occurring at the thoracolumbar junction were enrolled in this study. All patients were classified into two groups; group I\\u000a was treated with a unilateral approach and group II with

Hyung Jin Chung; Kook Jin Chung; Hoi Soo Yoon; In Hyup Kwon



[Treatment of fragmented femur fracture following unilateral hip hemiarthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty].  


In this paper is presented a case of the 80 years old patient with femur fracture after unilateral hip arthroplasty because of femur neck fracture and knee arthroplasty following osteoarthritis. First was done the stabilization of the fracture using a plate. Because of second fracture and damage the plate stabilization next operation was done using intramedullary Küntscher nail which was non typically inserted and with additional fixation by bone cement. The result were good stabilization and healing of the fracture after 4 months. PMID:12703192

Dutka, Julian; Ciszewski, Alfred; Zawiejska, Beata; Sorysz, Tomasz



Unilateral Extrapedicular Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty in Lumbar Compression Fractures : Technique, Anatomy and Preliminary Results  

PubMed Central

Objective A single balloon extrapedicular kyphoplasty has been introduced as one of the unilateral approaches for thoracic compression fractures; however, the unilateral extrapedicular technique in the lumbar area needs a further understanding of structures in the lumbar area. The purpose of the present study is to describe methods and pitfalls of this procedure based on the anatomy of the lumbar area and to analyze clinical outcome and complications. Methods Anatomical evaluation was performed with 2 human cadavers. A retrospective review of unilateral extrapedicular approaches yielded 74 vertebral levels in 55 patients that were treated with unilateral extrapedicular vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. Radiographic assessment included the restoration rate of vertebral height and correction of kyphosis. Results Anatomical evaluation indicates that the safe needle entry zone of bone for the extrapedicular approach was located in the supero-lateral aspect of the junction between the pedicle and vertebral body. The unilateral extrapedicular procedure achieved adequate pain relief with a mean decreases in pain severity of 7.25±1.5 and 2.0±1.4, respectively. Complications were 1 retroperitoneal hematoma, 6 unilateral fillings and 3 epidural leak of the polymethylmethacrylate. Conclusion The method of a unilateral extrapedicular approach in kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty in the lumbar area might be similar to that in thoracic approach using a route via the extrapedicular space. However, different anatomical characteristics of the lumbar area should be considered.

Cho, Sung-Min; Nam, Yong-Suk; Cho, Byung-Moon; Lee, Sang-Youl; Oh, Sae-Moo



Kinematic adjustability of unilateral external fixators for fracture reduction and alignment of axial dynamization.  


Bone fracture reduction and bone axial dynamization are important operations which effectiveness can be further enhanced by the use of a unilateral external fixator. By design, axial dynamization can be performed through reciprocating one of its translational joints. However, non-axial dynamization may occur after correcting residual fracture deformity. To explore and to maximize its full potential, the joint adjustment constraint equations for fracture reduction and alignment of axial dynamization under unilateral external fixation are derived. Their physical implications and criteria on the kinematic structure of a fixator are then established. In order to correctly make the alignment of axial dynamization with the proper fracture reduction, this study shows that the linkage of a bone-fixator system should have a minimum of eight degrees-of-freedom (DOFs) with at least two nonparallel rotational DOFs adjacent to both ends of the designated single translational DOF for axial dynamization. Thus, the adjustment of the connection between bone pin/pin clamp of Othofix fixator is required, while the alignment of one of the translational joints of Dynafix fixator with its bone segment axis during fracture stabilization procedure is a crucial step. A conceptual fixator that requires neither an adjustment of the pin/pin clamp connection nor special pre-alignment is demonstrated. Based on the constraint equations and criteria developed throughout this study, the creation of an effective frame design of external fixation device becomes feasible. PMID:19535080

Ou, Yeong-jeong



Cadaveric position of unilateral vocal cord: a case of cricoid fracture with ipsilateral arytenoid dislocation.  


We report a case of cricoid cartilage fracture with unilateral arytenoid dislocation following a motorcycle accident. This 25 year old male sustained blunt injury to the head, face and neck. He presented late to the hospital with one week history of dysphonia. Laryngoscopy revealed cadaveric position of the non-functioning left vocal cord. CT and MRI showed laterally displaced left vocal cord. Displaced fractures were noted in the cricoid at the junction of lamina with the anterior arch on the left side and at the right side of the anterior arch, along with dislocated left arytenoid resulting in ipsilateral vocal cord palsy. Medialization thyroplasty was performed to improve his phonation. Laryngeal trauma warrants close monitoring because of the risk of airway compromise. Radiologists play a crucial role in early diagnosis and should always have high index of suspicion. Recognition of laryngeal injury is important for initial resuscitation as well as for long term airway and vocal function. PMID:22690288

Gopalakrishnan, Nirmalkumar; Mariappan, Kalaichezhian; Indiran, Venkatraman; Maduraimuthu, Prabakaran; Varadarajan, Chandrasekhar



Monte Carlo Modeling of Diffuse Scattering from Single Crystals: The Program ZMC  

SciTech Connect

Diffuse scattering probes the local ordering in a crystal, whereas Bragg peaks are descriptive of the average long-range ordering. The population of local configurations can be explored by modeling the three-dimensional distribution of diffuse scattering. Local configurations are not constrained by the average crystallographic symmetry, so one way of modeling diffuse scattering is by modeling a disordered (short-range-ordered) structure and then calculating its diffuse scattering. The structure must contain enough unit cells to give a statistically valid model of the populations of local configurations, and so requirements for a program to model this ordering are very different from programs that model average crystal structures (used to fit the Bragg diffraction). ZMC is a program that has been developed to model diffuse scattering, particularly from molecular crystals. The strategies used to tackle the problem and the way in which they are implemented will be discussed.

Goossens, D.J.; Heerdegen, A.P.; Chan, E.J.; Welberry, T.R. (ANU)



The use of vacuum-formed splints for temporary intermaxillary fixation inthe management of unilateral condylar fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a simple, effective method of managing displaced unilateral condylar fractures with occlusal disruption using vacuum-formed thermoplastic foil splints with bonded wire cleats. The cleats enable intermaxillary fixation in the form of orthodontic elastics to be used, which guide then maintain the occlusion in centric relation. A case is presented in which this technique was used successfully.

T. Lloyd; C. Nightingale; R. Edler



Unilateral spinal anaesthesia in a patient with Osteogenesis Imperfecta with a lower leg fracture: a case report.  


Osteogenesis Imperfecta is a rare, genetically determined disease with several possible complications in anaesthesia. Anaesthesiologists therefore pay special attention to the treatment of patients suffering from Osteogenesis Imperfecta since they commonly suffer from a difficult airway and intraoperative positioning difficulties. We report here the case of unilateral spinal anaesthesia in a patient suffering from Osteogenesis Imperfecta type I. A 28-year-old patient diagnosed with Osteogenesis Imperfecta type I was admitted to the hospital due to lower leg fracture requiring surgical treatment. The patient had blue sclerae, triangular-shaped face, macroglossia, scoliosis of thoracic and lumbar parts of the spine, pectus carinatum and thrombocytopenia. Upon the correction of thrombocytopenia, unilateral spinal anaesthesia with hyperbaric levobupivacain was chosen in order to avoid possible complications typical for general anaesthesia. Consequently, unilateral spinal anaesthesia with a customized local anesthetic could be consdered as a safe anesthetic method for such patients. PMID:24060019

Baranovic, Senka; Lubina, Ivan Zvonimir; Vlahovic, Tomislav; Bakota, Bore; Maldini, Branka



Athletes With Unilateral Spondylolysis Are at Risk of Stress Fracture at the Contralateral Pedicle and Pars InterarticularisA Clinical and Biomechanical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Unilateral spondylolysis is common in youths; its clinical and biomechanical features, especially effects on the contralateral side, are not fully understood.Hypothesis: Unilateral spondylolysis predisposes the contralateral side to stress fracture, especially in athletes actively engaged in sporting activities involving torsion of the trunk.Study Design: Case series and descriptive laboratory study.Methods: Thirteen athletes younger than age 20 with unilateral spondylolysis

Koichi Sairyo; Shinsuke Katoh; Takahiro Sasa; Natsuo Yasui; Vijay K. Goel; Sasidhar Vadapalli; Akiyoshi Masuda; Ashok Biyani; Nabil Ebraheim



Clinical and radiographie results of unilateral transpedicular balloon kyphoplasty for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Introduction  Most previous reports indicate that traditional bilateral kyphoplasty improves patient function and restores height of collapsed\\u000a vertebral bodies, but limited data about the effects of unilateral kyphoplasty on clinical and radiological outcome are available.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Material and methods  One hundred five patients were treated by unilateral kyphoplasty between January 2004 and December 2006. These patients underwent\\u000a 105 operations to treat 132 vertebral

S.-B. Lee; Kyoung-Suok Cho; P.-W. Huh; D.-S. Yoo; S.-G. Rang; D.-S. Kim; C.-K. Park


Bilateral atypical insufficiency fractures of the proximal tibia and a unilateral distal femoral fracture associated with long-term intravenous bisphosphonate therapy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Atypical insufficiency fractures of the femur in patients on long-term bisphosphonate therapy have been well described in recent literature. The majority of cases are associated with minimal or no trauma and occur in the subtrochanteric or diaphyseal region. Case presentation We describe the case of a 76-year-old British Caucasian woman who presented initially to an emergency department and then to her primary care physician with a long-standing history of bilateral knee pain after minor trauma. Plain radiographs showed subtle linear areas of sclerosis bilaterally in her proximal tibiae. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of insufficiency fractures in these areas along with her left distal femur. There are very few reports of atypical insufficiency fractures involving the tibia in patients on long-term bisphosphonate therapy and this appears to be the only documented bilateral case involving the metaphyseal regions of the proximal tibia and distal femur. Conclusion In addition to existing literature describing atypical fractures in the proximal femur and femoral shaft, there is a need for increased awareness that these fractures can also occur in other weight-bearing areas of the skeleton. All clinicians involved in the care of patients taking long-term bisphosphonates need to be aware of the growing association between new onset lower limb pain and atypical insufficiency fractures.



Prospective blind comparative clinical study of two point fixation of zygomatic complex fracture using wire and mini plates  

PubMed Central

Background The zygomatic maxillary complex (ZMC) fractures are one of the most frequent injuries of the facial skeleton due to its position and facial contour. Assaults, road traffic accidents and falls are the principal etiologic factors that may cause fractures of zygomatic bone. The different fixation methods are applied to treat the zygomatic bone fractures, with many more classifications which have been described in the literature for the ease of management. The type of the fracture, its severity and associated facial fractures usually interferes the treatment modality. Purpose of study The aim of this paper is to show the results of 18yrs prospective blind comparative study using wire and plate osteosynthesis which needed open reduction and internal fixation involving Type II to Type IV Spissel and Schroll ZMC fractures. Materials and methods Total 80 cases included in the study out of 1780 ZMC cases which were treated using wire and plate osteosynthesis over a period of 18 yrs, involving only Type II to Type IV Spissel and Schroll ZMC fractures. Other types excluded from study to prevent observer bias. All the fixations carried out through Standard Dingman's incision using stainless steel 26 gauze wire and titanium 1.5 mm mini plate system under general anesthesia by single maxillofacial surgeon and evaluated by another maxillofacial surgeon who is blinded for surgical procedure after 2 and 4 wks of follow-up for facial symmetry, wound healing, functional assessment (mouth opening, diplopia), and sensory disturbance. All the data tabulated in Excel software (Microsoft) for statistical analysis. P-value calculated to know the Significance of treatment modality in all aspects. Results Result shows no significant p-values indicating both the operating techniques are equally efficient in the surgical management of ZMC fracture. Conclusion Osteosynthesis by mini plates is simple, logical and effective treatment compared to wire osteosynthesis in regard to stability of fracture fragments. Wire osteosynthesis will be helpful in emergency surgeries or where the mini plates are not available. Even though the wire osteosynthesis is economical compared to mini plate fixation; but the time and skill is required for fixation of wires.



Bilateral Clavicle Fracture in Two Newborn Infants  

PubMed Central

Background The fracture of clavicle is the most frequently observed bone fracture as birth trauma and it is usually unilateral. It is seen following shoulder dystocia deliveries or breech presentation of macrosomic newborns. Case Presentation We report two macrosomic newborns with bilateral clavicle fracture and brachial plexus palsy due to birth trauma. Chest X-rays confirmed bilateral fracture of clavicles. Both patients were recovered without any sequel. Conclusion Bilateral clavicular fracture should be considered in any neonate with bilateral absent Moro reflexes.

Kanik, Ali; Sutcuoglu, Sumer; Aydinlioglu, Halil; Erdemir, Aydin; Arun Ozer, Esra



Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis.  


Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN) is a usually unilateral inflammatory disease characterized by an insidious, usually severe loss of peripheral and central vision. Clinical characteristics are manifested in early and late stages. Parasites of different sizes and several species of nematodes have been reported as the etiology of DUSN without conclusive evidence about the specific agent. Because serologic testing has been variable, the definitive diagnosis is made when the clinical characteristics of DUSN are found in conjunction with an intraocular worm. Laser photocoagulation, pars plana vitrectomy, thiabendazole, and albendazole have been used to treat DUSN with variable success. PMID:23244243

Arevalo, J Fernando; Arevalo, Fernando A; Garcia, Reinaldo A; de Amorim Garcia Filho, Carlos Alexandre; de Amorim Garcia, Carlos Alexandre



Unilateral cleft foot deformity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 17-year-old girl with unilateral atypical cleft foot deformity is reported. In this case the deformity was associated with deafness, mandibular retrognathia and congenital bilateral temporomandibular joint luxation. Family history of cleft foot deformity was not found. A syndactylization procedure with shortening of the big toe was done. The temporomandibular joint luxation was also corrected.

T. Kolda?; F. ?irin; T. Hayirho?lu



Unilateral rhythmic testicular movements.  


A male patient came to our clinic because of a continuous up and down movement of his right testis, which was present even during sleep. The nature and localization of the unilateral rhythmic cremasteric activity is investigated by electrophysiological methods. Investigations of the cremasteric muscles and genitofemoral nerve determined that the movement was similar to myokymia. The localization of this peculiar spontaneous movement is probably in motor fibers somewhere between the L1-L2 motor neuron pool, motor roots and/or the genitofemoral nerve. PMID:20591560

Bademkiran, Fikret; Acarer, Ahmet; Aydogdu, Ibrahim; Ertekin, Cumhur



Unilateral lower leg purpura.  


We present a case of an extensive, purpuric eruption on the lower leg with peculiar clinical findings in 55-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis. The purpuric lesions were present unilaterally on the left lower leg, where prominent varices and telangiectasia were noted. Histological examination revealed a perivascular infiltration of lymphocytic cells and eosinophils and extravasation of erythrocytes in the upper and middle dermis. There was no evidence of vasculitis. The eruption responded well to treatment with hemostatic agents and elastic stockings. Based on the clinical and histological findings, we concluded that the main pathophysiology of the purpuric eruption is an extravasation of erythrocytes related to increased venous pressure secondary to venous stasis. PMID:23374958

Ogawa, Satoshi; Oka, Masahiro; Kunisada, Makoto; Nishigori, Chikako



The unilateral stapes gusher.  


A stapes gusher is an alarming situation occurring during stapes surgery for mixed hearing loss. It is characterized by the sudden profuse flow of cerebrospinal fluid in the middle ear and external ear canal after opening the vestibule of the inner ear. An adult patient with unilateral stapes gusher is described; he was operated on both ears with a good hearing result on both sides. The stapes on the side with the cerebrospinal fluid leak was malformed, especially in the posterior crus--a finding which may suggest the possibility of a stapes gusher. The small-hole stapedotomy is a safe technique when dealing with a profuse cerebrospinal fluid leak, and it enables the closure of the leak with additional tamponade of the oval niche and the achievement of a good hearing result. PMID:15506322

Rebol, Janez



Skull fracture  


Basilar skull fracture; Depressed skull fracture; Linear skull fracture ... Skull fractures may occur with head injuries . Although the skull is tough, resilient, and provides excellent protection for the ...


Clinical significance of unilateral sinusitis.  

PubMed Central

In general, the etiologic factors of chronic paranasal sinusitis are systemic conditions such as nutrition, predisposition, allergy, and local factors such as nasal anatomic conditions. Among these factors, the development of unilateral sinusitis is a model case verifying the influence of local factors. In my study of 640 cases over a certain period of time, a comparison was made between 161 cases of unilateral sinusitis and 479 cases of bilateral sinusitis in order to verify the effects of local factors in the development of this disease. Patients with a history of previous sinus surgery or tumors were eliminated from the cases. 1. The male-female incidence rate, and the age distribution of the patients at the initial visit showed no prominent differences between unilateral and bilateral cases. 2. It was found that a larger number of cases of unilateral sinusitis had a duration of less than one year as compared to bilateral sinusitis which were longer than and year. Therefore it can be said that the duration of unilateral sinusitis is usually shorter than that of bilateral sinusitis. 3. In unilateral cases the patients with moderate to severe nasal septal deviation, one number of patients with septal deviation towards the diseased side was twice as high as that on the non-affected side. 4. The incidence rate of polyps occurring in the middle meatus was shown to be about twice as high in bilateral cases as in unilateral cases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Shin, H. S.



Pacing for Unilateral Diaphragm Paralysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symptoms of unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis can range from sleep-related symptoms to exert ional dyspnea or orthopnea.\\u000a At times unilateral diaphragm paralysis is found on routine chest radiograph alone when an elevated hemidiaphragm is seen.\\u000a Ventilatory failure will usually only result if there is bilateral diaphragmatic involvement. When diaphragmatic paralysis\\u000a is suspected, confirmatory testing is done by inspiratory fluoroscopy (sniff test)

Raymond P. Onders


Skull Fracture  


... fractures, most skull fractures require no specific treatment. Fractures at the Base of the Skull: People with ... of the skull are rarely helpful. Depressed Skull Fractures: In this type of fracture, one or more ...


Nose fracture  


Fracture of the nose; Broken nose; Nasal fracture ... A fractured nose is the most common fracture of the face. It usually occurs after an injury and often occurs with other fractures of the face. Sometimes a blunt injury can ...


Unilateral parathyroid exploration.  


Unilateral neck exploration (UNE) for primary hyperparathyroidism can be done with the same excellent results as bilateral neck exploration (BNE) with decreased operative time and postoperative complications with a good preoperative localization study. One hundred six charts were reviewed retrospectively in patients operated on between May 1989 and October 1996 with primary hyperparathyroidism. Seventy-seven of these patients had preoperative ultrasounds (US) performed by a radiologist interested in parathyroid ultrasonography. UNE was performed if the operative findings were consistent with the US and a normal gland was identified on the same side. If a normal gland was not identified on the initial side or there was a question of hyperplasia a BNE was performed. Forty-six of the 77 patients had UNE, and 31 had BNE. Sixty-nine of these patients were found to have accurate US. Based on these results there is a 90 per cent accuracy rate for US performed by an interested radiologist. Comparing operative times between patients with UNE and BNE, there was a statistical difference (P = 0.001). Complications were also recorded in each group. Patients with UNE had a 22 per cent complication rate, whereas patients with BNE had a 45 per cent complication rate. This difference was statistically significant (P = 0.04) (Fisher's exact test). The majority of complications were asymptomatic and symptomatic hypocalcemia. Two patients in the BNE group experienced transient hoarseness. The advantages of UNE include reduced morbidity, decreased operative time and avoidance of scarring in the contralateral neck. In the total study population (n = 106), 99 patients (93.4%) had a single adenoma. An accurate, noninvasive, low-cost preoperative localization study is necessary to practice UNE for primary hyperparathyroidism. Parathyroid US, done by an interested radiologist, with a 90 per cent accuracy rate, meets all these criteria. PMID:9655284

Vogel, L M; Lucas, R; Czako, P



Comparison of ultrasonography with computed tomography in the diagnosis of nasal bone fractures  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study is to compare ultrasonography with CT in the diagnosis of nasal bone fractures. Methods 40 patients (9 female and 31 male) with mid-facial fractures, which were suspected nasal bone fractures, were included. All of the patients had mid-facial CT images. Ultrasonography with a 7.5 MHz transducer (Aloka 3500, Tokyo, Japan) was used to evaluate the nasal bone fractures. All of the sonograms were compared with CT findings for sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. A ?2 test was applied to the data to assess statistical significance. Results CT diagnosed nasal bone fractures in 24 of the 40 patients (9 unilateral fractures and 15 bilateral fractures) while ultrasonography diagnosed the fractured bones in 23 patients (9 unilateral fractures and 14 bilateral fractures). Ultrasonography missed one fractured bone in a bilateral fractured case and a unilateral fracture was also missed (two false-negative results). The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography in assessing nasal bone fracture in comparison with CT were 94.9% and 100%, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) of ultrasonographic evaluation of the nasal bone fractures were 100% and 95.3%, respectively. The ?2 test did not show any significant difference between CT and ultrasonography in diagnosis of nasal bone fractures (P = 0.819). Conclusion Ultrasonography can be used as a first line of diagnostic imaging for evaluating nasal bone fractures, especially in children and pregnant women.

Javadrashid, R; Khatoonabad, M; Shams, N; Esmaeili, F; Jabbari Khamnei, H



[Unilateral hemiarcus lipoides corneae inferior].  


We document a case of unilateral hemiarcus lipoides, which developed de novo 10 months after trabeculectomy in the left eye of a 54-year-old woman. The involved eye showed heterochromia complicata Fuchs and had undergone intracapsular cataract extraction 11 years and trabeculectomy one year earlier. Except for intermittent hypercholesterolemia, the patient did not present any signs of systemic disease. The possible roles of relative ocular hypotony and modified aqueous circulation after trabeculectomy in the development of unilateral hemiarcus lipoides are discussed. PMID:2280570

Naumann, G O; Küchle, M



Transdermal hyoscine induced unilateral mydriasis.  


The authors present a case of unilateral mydriasis in a teenager prescribed transdermal hyoscine hydrobromide (scopolamine) for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. The authors discuss the ocular side-effects associated with this particular drug and delivery system and the potential use of transdermal hyoscine as an antiemetic agent in this group. PMID:22605696

Hannon, Breffni; Jennings, Valerie; Twomey, Marie; O'Reilly, Maeve



Isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy is presented. A review of the literature revealed only one report of temporalis hypertrophy, probably caused by psychogenic muscle hyperactivity. The temporalis muscle hypertrophy in the patient described was idiopathic and its management was surgical.

A. Serrat; J. M. García-Cantera; L. M. Redondo



Mild proteinuria in patients with unilateral kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Arterial blood pressure, 24 h urinary excretion, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in 24 patients with unilateral kidney were compared with an age and sex matched control group of healthy persons. Of the patients with unilateral kidney, 13 were uninephrectomized and 11 patients had a congenital unilateral kidney. The 24 h urinary protein excretion in patients with one kidney

G. Oberle; H. P. H. Neumann; P. Schollmeyer; W. H. Boesken; R. A. K. Stahl



Rotated subcondylar process fracture in the growing animal: An experimental study in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.Unilateral, rotated subcondylar fractures were surgically induced in young rats under general anaesthesia. A decrease in body weight was observed in the fractured animals, with recovery at the end of the experimental period. A tendency of deviation of the mandible to the fracture side was noticed on axial radiographs, but without significant difference between experimental and sham-operated animals. Histological data

João G. C. Luz; Vera C. de Araújo



Noncompliance unilateral maxillary molar distalization:.  


The aim of this prospective study was the three-dimensional (3-D) analysis of tooth movements after unilateral upper molar distalization by means of a noncompliance intraoral appliance, the Keles slider. This appliance exerts a distalizing force of 150 g at approximately the level of the center of resistance of the upper first molar. Twelve patients (six girls and six boys with a mean age of 13.1 years) with a unilateral Class II molar relationship participated in the study. Dental casts were taken immediately before placement and after removal of the appliance. The casts were digitized using a 3-D surface laser scanner and superimposed on a predefined area of the palate. The average unilateral upper first molar distal movement was 3.1 mm (range: 2.4 to 5.3 mm). Anchorage loss was expressed by a 2.1 mm (range: 0.8 to 3.8 mm) proclination of the central incisors and a 6.1 degrees mesial inclination of the ipsilateral first premolar (range: 1.7 degrees to 12.3 degrees ). There was approximately 1 mm of midline deviation toward the contralateral side and a 1.6 mm (range: 0.8 to 2.3 mm) buccal displacement of the contralateral first premolar. A substantial variation was observed among patients. Noncompliance unilateral upper molar distalization was an efficient treatment approach. There was, however, a substantial anchorage loss. Case selection is strongly recommended because significant anterior crowding, ectopic canines, or spacing can lead to significant anchorage loss. PMID:16637715

Mavropoulos, Anestis; Sayinsu, Korkmaz; Allaf, Ferdi; Kiliaridis, Stavros; Papadopoulos, Moschos A; Keles, Ahmet Ozlem



Unilateral punctate porokeratosis - Case report*  

PubMed Central

This case report involves a 20-year-old man with unilateral punctate porokeratosis. The patient presented an 8-year history of numerous asymptomatic keratotic papules and pits with linear distribution on his left pal-mar surface and fifth finger of the left hand. Histopathological examination of the keratotic plug revealed findings of distinct epidermal depressions containing cornoid lamellae. This report review draws attention to differential diagnoses of punctate porokeratosis.

Teixeira, Vera Barreto; Reis, Jose Pedro; Vieira, Ricardo; Tellechea, Oscar; Figueiredo, Americo



Formation fracturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fracturing process is described in which a fracture formed in a formation is acid etched near the well and particle propped in the more remote portions of the fracture. A fracture is formed in the formation extending from the well and an acidizing fluid is injected into the fracture, in order to acid etch the walls thereof adjacent to

J. L. Fitch; T. C. Jr. Vogt



Elbow Fractures  


... Figure 1: The elbow joint How do elbow fractures happen? Elbow fractures may result from falling onto an outstretched arm, ... may occur at the same time as a fracture. What are the signs and symptoms? Pain, swelling, ...


Treatments of unilateral neglect: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pierce SR, Buxbaum LJ. Treatments of unilateral neglect: a review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:256-68. Objectives: To review the existing literature on treatments of unilateral neglect, to synthesize findings, and to offer recommendations for future studies. Data Sources: Computerized databases including MEDLINE and PsychINFO. Study Selection: All studies investigating treatment(s) of unilateral neglect. Data Extraction: Authors reviewed design and other

Samuel R. Pierce; Laurel J. Buxbaum



Consequences of Unilateral Hearing Loss: Cortical Adjustment to Unilateral Deprivation  

PubMed Central

The effect of unilateral hearing loss on 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake in the central auditory system was studied in post-natal day 21 gerbils. Three weeks following a unilateral conductive hearing loss (CHL) or cochlear ablation (CA), animals were injected with 2-DG and exposed to an alternating auditory stimulus (1 and 2 kHz tones). Uptake of 2-DG was measured in the inferior colliculus (IC), medial geniculate (MG), and auditory cortex (fields AI and AAF) of both sides of the brain in experimental animals and in anesthesia-only sham animals (SH). Significant differences in uptake, compared to SH, were found in the IC contralateral to the manipulated ear (CHL or CA) and in AAF contralateral to the CHL ear. We hypothesize that these findings may result from loss of functional inhibition in the IC contralateral to CA, but not CHL. Altered states of inhibition at the IC may affect activity in pathways ascending to auditory cortex, and ultimately activity in auditory cortex itself. Altered levels of activity in auditory cortex may explain some auditory processing deficits experienced by individuals with CHL.

Hutson, K.A.; Durham, D.; Imig, T.; Tucci, D.L.



Fracturing process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a method of obtaining fractures of high flow-capacity, a fracture is created in a subsurface formation penetrated by the well and a monolayer of propping agent particles is deposited in the fracture from the well into the region where dune formation begins. A liquid free of propping agent is then displaced into the fracture to wash and enlarge channels

J. L. Huitt; D. K. Lowe



Unilateral renal cystic disease in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unilateral renal cystic disease ( URCD) is Cases morphologically indistinguishable from autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) except Case 1 for its unilaterality. Unlike ADPKD, URCD patients A 31-year-old man visited the ADPKD clinic with show neither a genetic background nor progressive pain in the right flank. He had been experiencing a deterioration in renal function; thus, the diVerential mild,

Dae Yeon Hwang; Curie Ahn; Jung Geon Lee; Seung Hyup Kim; Ha Young Oh; Yong Yim Kim; E. S. Lee; Jin Suk Han; Suhnggwon Kim; Jung Sang Lee



Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study the contact problem for small and large dee ctions of thin elastic plate, the lateral displacement of which are constrained by a presence of a unilateral support. The problems considered here are systems of nonlinear variational inequalities in transverse displacement w and stress of points on the middle plane of the plate. The unilateral constraint

Aliki D. Muradova-Contadaki; Georgios E. Stavroulakis


Prolonged Unilateral Disuse Osteopenia 14 Years Post External Fixator Removal: A Case History and Critical Review  

PubMed Central

Disuse osteopenia is a complication of immobilisation, with reversal generally noted upon remobilisation. This case report focuses on a patient who was seen 18 years following a road traffic collision when multiple fractures were sustained. The patient had an external fixator fitted for a tibia and fibula fracture, which remained in situ for a period of 4 years. Following removal, the patient was mobilised but, still required a single crutch to aid walking. Fourteen years post removal of the fixator, the patient had a DXA scan which, demonstrated a T-score 2.5 SD lower on the affected hip. This places the patient at an increased risk of hip fracture on this side, which requires monitoring. There appear to be no current studies investigating prolonged disuse-osteopenia in patients following removal of long-term external fixators. Further research is required to quantify unilateral long-term effects to bone health and fracture risk in this population.

Knapp, Karen M.; Rowlands, Ann V.; Welsman, Joanne R.; MacLeod, Kenneth M.



Acute unilateral facial nerve palsy.  


Mrs PS, 78 years of age, presented with acute left-sided otalgia, ear swelling and subsequent unilateral facial paralysis (Figure 1). She denied any otorrhoea or hearing loss. Past medical history relevant to the presenting complaint included: * Bell palsy diagnosed 20 years ago with no residual effect * biopsy confirmed benign parotid lump (diagnosed 3 years previously). Histopathology revealed a pleomorphic adenoma. Mrs PS declined surgical intervention at the time * chicken pox as a child * normal fasting blood glucose 1 month previously and no known immune compromise. Examination revealed yellow crusts and small vesicles on the external acoustic meatus (Figure 2). A 10 mm well defined firm and nontender nodule was palpable at the ramus of the mandible. PMID:21597548

Yeong, Siew Swan; Tassone, Peter



Unilateral Lumbosacral Dislocation: Case Report and a Comprehensive Review  

PubMed Central

Lumbosacral fracture-dislocation is a rare occurrence. There are more than 73 cases reported in the English literature. We report on the imaging findings and surgical treatment in a patient suffered of unilateral traumatic L5-S1 dislocation associated with severe disruption of the posterior ligamentous complex. The patient underwent open reduction and stabilization of L4-S1 vertebrae with posterior instrumentation system. Open reduction and internal fixation was mandatory as post-traumatic ligamentous insufficiency would lead to abnormal motion. Operative treatment managed to produce a solid arthrodesis and restore stability of the lumbosacral junction. Follow-up revealed excellent results. This study reports a rare injury of the lumbosacral junction, and the literature concerning this unusual condition is extensively reviewed.

Grivas, Theodoros B; Papadakis, Stamatios A; Katsiva, Vassiliki; Koufopoulos, George; Mouzakis, Vassilios



Obstetric fractures.  


The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors predisposing to an obstetric fracture, and their long-term outcome. We reviewed 28 obstetric fractures treated in the County of Vaud, Switzerland, between 1976 and 1989. There were 12 fractures of long bones, 10 clavicles and 6 depressed skull fractures. The belief that obstetric fractures occur in large babies or after breech deliveries is no longer valid. The common risk factors of these fractures are obstetric maneuvers during delivery (75% of cases), especially Cesarean sections (35%), prolonged labor (33%), and prematurity (25%). Cephalic presentation (64.2% of cases) is more frequent than breech position (32.1%). Weight, size, age of gestation, age of the mother, parity, gestity, and time of delivery cannot be considered as risk factors for obstetric fractures. For each type of fracture some specific risk factors are pointed out: maneuvers at birth for depressed skull fracture, Cesarean section, breech delivery with assistance and low birth weight for the fractures of long bones. All fractures were treated conservatively, except for skull fractures with a depression of more than 2 cm. Early consolidation is achieved within 2 weeks. Long-term prognosis for obstetric fractures is good without sequelae. PMID:1498109

Nadas, S; Reinberg, O



Thumb Fractures  


Copyright 2007 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Thumb Fractures A broken thumb is a serious problem. It ... Top of page Cause X-ray showing a fracture fragment at the base of the thumb. Reproduced ...


Greenstick Fractures  


Greenstick fractures Basics In-Depth Multimedia Resources Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Greenstick fractures By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www. ...


Cervical Fracture  


... Copyright 2007 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Cervical Fracture (Broken Neck) The seven bones in the neck ... connect it to the shoulders and body. A fracture, or break, in one of the cervical vertebrae ...


Moebius' syndrome with unilateral cerebellar hypoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case is reported of a child with Moebius' syndrome who also has unilateral cerebellar hypoplasia. We suggest that this combination of abnormalities could result from a vascular disruption occurring in the basilar artery early in its development.

M G Harbord; J P Finn; M A Hall-Craggs; E M Brett; M Baraitser



Unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy: case report.  


A case of unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy is presented. It is suggested that the aetiology of this condition is the same as that in cases of masseteric hypertrophy, and treatment is supportive only. PMID:2124600

Wilson, P S; Brown, A M



Penile fracture repair: assessment of early results and complications using color Doppler ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine early results and complications of penile fracture treated with immediate surgical repair by means of color Doppler ultrasound study. Four patients with the clinical features of penile fracture were submitted to immediate surgical exploration via a subcoronal incision with repair of the torn cavernosal albuginea (unilateral in three cases, bilateral in one

P Gontero; PS Sidhu; GH Muir



Distal Radius Fracture (Colles' Fracture)  


... 2013 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Distal Radius Fractures (Broken Wrist) The radius is the larger of ... the wrist is called the distal end. A fracture of the distal radius occurs when the area ...


Subsequent Hip Fracture in Osteoporotic Hip Fracture Patients  

PubMed Central

Purpose A significant number of patients who have experienced previous surgical treatment for an osteoporotic hip fracture experience a subsequent hip fracture (SHF) on the opposite side. This study aims to analyze the risk factors and the correlation between osteoporosis and SHF on the opposite side in order to assess the usefulness of bisphosphonate treatment for the prevention of SHFs. Materials and Methods We included 517 patients treated from March 1997 to April 2009 in this study. The inclusion criteria included previous unilateral hip fracture, without osteoporotic treatment, and a T-score less than -3.0 at the time of the fracture. We studied these patients in terms of death, SHF, alcoholism, living alone, dementia, dizziness, health status, osteoporotic treatment after fracture and bone mineral density (BMD). In total, 34 patients experienced a SHF. We selected another 34 patients without a SHF who had similar age, sex, body mass index, BMD, diagnosis, treatment and a follow up period for a matched pair study. We compared these two groups. The average follow up was 8.3 years and 8.1 years, respectively. Results The mortality rate of the 517 patients was 138 (27%). The BMD at the time of fracture demonstrated no statistical difference between the two groups (p>0.05). Nine patients (26%) within the SHF group were prescribed Risedronate and 18 patients (53%) received the same treatment in the non-SHF group. There was a statistical relationship with the treatment of osteoporosis (p=0.026). The average BMD of patients with SHF was -5.13 and -5.02 in patients without SHF was (p>0.05). Conclusion Although primary surgical treatments are important for an excellent outcome in osteoporotic hip fractures, treatment of osteoporosis itself is just as important for preventing SHFs.

Lee, Sang Ho; Lee, Tong Joo; Cho, Kyu Jung; Shin, Sang Hyun



Hip fracture - discharge  


Inter-trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Subtrochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Femoral neck fracture repair - discharge; Trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Hip pinning surgery - ...


Stress Fractures (Fatigue Fractures, Marsh-Fractures)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In consequence of cyclic long-continued or oft-repeated stress like prolonged walking, dancing, or running, infraction or\\u000a complete fracture can develop on certain sites of the skeleton. There is no specific single causative injury in the history,\\u000a like in trauma-related fractures. It occurs mostly in two groups of young adults: in those who are not accustomed to sudden\\u000a physical activity (fresh

M. Szendr?i


Hand dominance and gender in forearm fractures in children  

PubMed Central

No published studies have addressed the role of hand dominance in various types of forearm fractures. The present study aims to investigate the effects of the dominant hand and gender in forearm fractures in children and adolescents. In a prospective study, 181 children aged 2–15 years presenting with unilateral forearm fracture were examined over a 6-year period, investigating the role of the dominant hand, fractured side, fractured site, and gender in different types of forearm fractures. Forearm fractures occur more often in boys and are more common on the left side (P = 0.001, 0.029, respectively). Isolated distal radius fracture is more common than distal radius and ulna fracture in right-handed children (P = 0.008). Increases in the number of middle forearm fractures in the dominant hand in left-handed children (P = 0.0056) may be due to mechanisms of injury other than a simple indirect fall or severe injury preventing the use of the dominant hand as a preventive measure. The mean age for boys and girls at the time of forearm fractures was 8.97 and 5.98 years, respectively, which may be attributed to older girls tending not to do as many outside-the-home activities as boys at this age. Overall, forearm fractures are more common in the non-dominant hand, in boys, and in both distal forearm bones.



Current Concepts in the Mandibular Condyle Fracture Management Part I: Overview of Condylar Fracture  

PubMed Central

The incidence of condylar fractures is high, but the management of fractures of the mandibular condyle continues to be controversial. Historically, maxillomandibular fixation, external fixation, and surgical splints with internal fixation systems were the techniques commonly used in the treatment of the fractured mandible. Condylar fractures can be extracapsular or intracapsular, undisplaced, deviated, displaced, or dislocated. Treatment depends on the age of the patient, the co-existence of other mandibular or maxillary fractures, whether the condylar fracture is unilateral or bilateral, the level and displacement of the fracture, the state of dentition and dental occlusion, and the surgeonnds on the age of the patient, the co-existence of othefrom which it is difficult to recover aesthetically and functionally;an appropriate treatment is required to reconstruct the shape and achieve the function ofthe uninjured status. To do this, accurate diagnosis, appropriate reduction and rigid fixation, and complication prevention are required. In particular, as mandibular condyle fracture may cause long-term complications such as malocclusion, particularly open bite, reduced posterior facial height, and facial asymmetry in addition to chronic pain and mobility limitation, great caution should be taken. Accordingly, the authors review a general overview of condyle fracture.

Yang, Jung-Dug; Chung, Ho-Yun; Cho, Byung-Chae



[Calcaneus fractures].  


Fractures of the calcaneus generally occur in the setting of high-energy trauma, resulting in complex, three-dimensionally oriented fracture patterns. Surgical treatment is typically indicated for displaced intra-articular fractures, permitting restoration of calcaneal height, width and overall morphology, in addition to the posterior facet articular surface where possible, and enabling late in situ arthrodesis as a means of salvage in the event of post-traumatic arthritis. The present article briefly discusses our preferred methods for the management of calcaneal fractures. An English full text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental. PMID:21979889

Clare, M P; Sanders, R W



Two Cases of Unilateral Ashy Dermatosis  

PubMed Central

Ashy dermatosis is a typically asymptomatic disease of unknown origin that causes symmetrical gray spots to appear on the trunk and extremities. We report 2 cases of ashy dermatosis with unilateral distribution. To our knowledge, only 5 cases of ashy dermatosis with unilateral lesion have been reported so far. Case 1: an 11-year-old woman presented with asymptomatic slate-gray pigmented plaques on the left trunk and left upper arm. The skin biopsy specimen demonstrated a mild lymphohistiocytotic infiltrate in the upper dermis with epidermal and dermal melanosis. Q-Switched ruby laser did not improve such lesions. Case 2: a 21-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of asymptomatic slate-gray pigmented plaques on the left trunk and left upper arm. Histopathological findings were compatible with a mild lymphocytic infiltration with melanin incontinence in the upper dermis. The mechanism that governs unilateral distribution of ashy dermatosis, including in our cases, remains unclear.

Imanishi, Hisayoshi; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Ishii, Masamitsu; Nakagawa, Koichi



Electroretinogram findings in unilateral optic neuritis.  


To report the electrophysiological findings in patients with unilateral optic neuritis (ON), with particular reference to the electroretinogram (ERG). A retrospective analysis of full-field ERG, pattern ERG (PERG) and pattern visual evoked potential findings from 46 patients with clinical and electrophysiological findings in keeping with unilateral ON. ISCEV standard ERGs did not significantly differ between the optic neuritis and fellow eyes, nor between patients with and without MS. Differences were present in the N95 component of the PERG, which was significantly lower in the affected eye, and the pattern reversal visual evoked potential, which showed significantly longer peak time (latency) in the affected eye. In addition, there was a significant difference between patients with and without multiple sclerosis (MS). No significant inter-ocular asymmetry in ISCEV standard ERGs was present in these cases of unilateral optic neuritis, either as a clinically isolated syndrome or as part of multiple sclerosis. All ERGs recorded were normal. PMID:22038575

Fraser, Clare L; Holder, Graham E



Unilateral magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerve.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND--Electrical stimulation of the phrenic nerve is a useful non-volitional method of assessing diaphragm contractility. During the assessment of hemidiaphragm contractility with electrical stimulation, low twitch transdiaphragmatic pressures may result from difficulty in locating and stimulating the phrenic nerve. Cervical magnetic stimulation overcomes some of these problems, but this technique may not be absolutely specific and does not allow the contractility of one hemidiaphragm to be assessed. This study assesses both the best means of producing supramaximal unilateral magnetic phrenic stimulation and its reproducibility. This technique is then applied to patients. METHODS--The ability of four different magnetic coils to produce unilateral phrenic stimulation in five normal subjects was assessed from twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure (TwPDI) measurements and diaphragmatic electromyogram (EMG) recordings. The results from magnetic stimulation were compared with those from electrical stimulation. To determine whether the magnetic field affects the contralateral phrenic nerve as well as the intended phrenic nerve, EMG recordings from each hemidiaphragm were compared during stimulation on the same side and the opposite side relative to the recording electrodes. The EMG recordings were made from skin surface electrodes in five normal subjects and from needle electrodes placed in the diaphragm during cardiac surgery in six patients. Similarly, the direction of hemidiaphragm movement was evaluated by ultrasonography. To determine the usefulness of the technique in patients the 43 mm mean diameter double coil was used in 54 patients referred for assessment of possible respiratory muscle weakness. These results were compared with unilateral electrical phrenic stimulation, maximum sniff PDI, and TwPDI during cervical magnetic stimulation. RESULTS--In the five normal subjects supramaximal stimulation was established for eight out of 10 phrenic nerves with the 43 mm double coil. Supramaximal unilateral magnetic stimulation produced a higher TwPDI than electrical stimulation (mean (SD) 13.4 (2.5) cm H2O with 35 mm coil; 14.1 (3.8) cm H2O with 43 mm coil; 10.0 (1.7) cm H2O with electrical stimulation). Spread of the magnetic field to the opposite phrenic nerve produced a small amplitude contralateral diaphragm EMG measured from skin surface electrodes which reached a mean of 15% of the maximum EMG amplitude produced by ipsilateral stimulation. Similarly, in six patients with EMG activity recorded directly from needle electrodes, the contralateral spread of the magnetic field produced EMG activity up to a mean of 3% and a maximum of 6% of that seen with ipsilateral stimulation. Unilateral magnetic stimulation of the phrenic nerve was rapidly achieved and well tolerated. In the 54 patients unilateral magnetic TwPDI was more closely related than unilateral electrical TwPDI to transdiaphragmatic pressure produced during maximum sniffs and cervical magnetic stimulation. Unilateral magnetic stimulation eliminated the problem of producing a falsely low TwPDI because of technical difficulties in locating and adequately stimulating the nerve. Eight patients with unilateral phrenic nerve paresis, as indicated by a unilaterally elevated hemidiaphragm on a chest radiograph and maximum sniff PDI consistent with hemidiaphragm weakness, were all accurately identified by unilateral magnetic stimulation. CONCLUSIONS--Unilateral magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation is easy to apply and is a reproducible technique in the assessment of hemidiaphragm contractility. It is well tolerated and allows hemidiaphragm contractility to be rapidly and reliably assessed because precise positioning of the coils is not necessary. This may be particularly useful in patients. In addition, the anterolateral positioning of the coil allows the use of the magnet in the supine patient such as in the operating theatre or intensive care unit. Images

Mills, G H; Kyroussis, D; Hamnegard, C H; Wragg, S; Moxham, J; Green, M



Trilateral retinoblastoma with unilateral eye involvement.  


Trilateral retinoblastoma (TRb) is a rare combination of unilateral or bilateral retinoblastoma with an ectopic midline intracranial neuroblastic neoplasm (primitive neuroectodermal tumour) usually in the area of pineal gland or sellar region. TRb can occur with both familial and sporadic forms of retinoblastoma. An occurrence of this rare tumour in a 12-year-old boy who had unilateral retinoblastoma in association with ectopic suprasellar primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) is reported here. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report in Pakistan on TRb with suprasellar mass. PMID:23901719

Shah, Irfanullah; Baig, Adnan; Razzaq, Abdul; Faruqi, Anum; Ali, Aun; Khan, Faraz Qayyum



Unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis: an electrophysiological study.  

PubMed Central

An electrophysiological study was carried out on four patients with unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis. Whereas neurogenic involvement of the paralysed hemidiaphragm was roughly similar in all cases, neurogenic patterns could be detected in the normally moving contralateral hemidiaphragm in three cases, and the degree of involvement could be correlated with the respiratory state of the patients. EMG also showed that the neuropathic process affected the limb muscles. Thus unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis may be, at least in some cases, the localised expression of a more diffuse neuropathy, perhaps a peculiar form of neuralgic amyotrophy.

Lagueny, A; Ellie, E; Saintarailles, J; Marthan, R; Barat, M; Julien, J



[Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN): current update].  


Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN) is a form of uveitis that can potentially lead to blindness. In Brazil and other parts of South America, diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis is an important cause of posterior uveitis in children and healthy young adults. If diagnosed and treated in early stage, allows a resolution of symptoms with improvement of visual acuity. If the disease progresses to the late stage, can result in significant visual loss. In this study, through a literature review, we describe the main characteristics of this disease, including the following aspects: history, etiology, physiopathology, clinical features, diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24061842

Rosa, Alexandre Antonio Marques; Rodrigues Neto, Taurino Dos Santos



A curious case of unilateral spider nevi, cirrhosis and stroke: unilateral nevoid telangiectasia syndrome.  


A 55-year-old Caucasian man presented with unilateral right facial spider nevi. Relevant medical history included a right-sided cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in 1997 and decompensated alcoholic liver disease, diagnosed in 2007. The literature describes approximately 100 cases of unilateral spider nevi associated with different aetiologies, grouped under 'unilateral nevoid telangiectasia syndrome' (UNTS). This is a rare presentation of a commonly observed sign in clinical practice. This case offers an opportunity to explore the origins of spider nevi and highlights the benefit of sharing knowledge in order to help elucidate the potential mechanisms underlying common signs. PMID:24087800

Park, J J; Yeo, J M; Hayes, P



A Numerical Approach to the Dynamic Unilateral Contact Problem of Soil-Pile Interaction Under Instabilizing and Environmental Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with a numerical approach for the dynamic soil-pile interaction, considered as an inequality problem of structural\\u000a engineering. So, the unilateral contact conditions due to tensionless and elastoplastic softening\\/fracturing behavior of the\\u000a soil as well as due to gapping caused by earthquake excitations are taken into account. Moreover, second-order geometric effects\\u000a for the pile behavior due to preexisting

Asterios A. Liolios; Konstantina Iossifidou; Konstantinos Liolios; Khairedin Abdalla; Stefan Radev



Sternal fractures.  


Sternal fractures have become more common since the introduction of seat belt legislation. However, the injury often heals well with minimal or no sternal deformity. Morbidity and mortality in patients with fractures of the sternum are usually due to other organ injuries. PMID:8353662

Purkiss, S F; Graham, T R


Stress Fractures  


... fractures are more common in people who participate in sports such as track and field, basketball, tennis or ... cures for tomorrow References Choi L. Stress fractures. In: DeLee JC, et al. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2009. ...


Hand fracture - aftercare  


Boxer’s fracture; Metacarpal fracture ... are called the metacarpal bones. You have a fracture (break) in one or more of these bones. This is called a hand (or metacarpal) fracture. Some hand fractures require wearing a splint or ...


Growth Plate Fractures  


... Harris classification of growth plate fractures. Type I Fractures These fractures break through the bone at the ... and completely disrupting the growth plate. Type II Fractures These fractures break through part of the bone ...


Unilateral masseteric hypertrophy. A case report.  


Masseteric hypertrophy (MH) is a relatively common condition seen in the dental office. Patients often present with a complaint of a "swollen cheek" or are referred with a tentative diagnosis of parotid gland swelling. MH is usually bilateral, but the unilateral nature of this reported case led to a tentative diagnosis of parotid gland disease. PMID:20863041

Furdui-Carr, Gabriela; Mandel, Louis


Unilateral masseter muscle hypertrophy: a case report.  


Masseteric hypertrophy is a benign increase in the size of the masseter muscle, secondary to muscle hypertrophy. It produces facial asymmetry and is important in the differential diagnosis of other entities. The aim of this article is to report a case of unilateral masseteric muscle hypertrophy. The characteristics and diagnostic features of such alterations and options for treatment will be presented. PMID:12553622

Trujillo, Roberto; Fontão, Flávia Noemy Gasparini Kiatake; de Sousa, Simone Maria Galvão


[Unilateral primary adrenal lymphoma: a case report].  


The authors report a case of unilateral primary adrenal lymphoma presenting with abdominal and dorsal pain. Primary lymphoma of the genitourinary tract, specifically adrenal localisation, is a rare disease. CT is the current best imaging modality for evaluating retroperitoneal masses and improving detection, characterization as well as assessing extension. Diagnosis is based on histology. PMID:15669567

Devaux, M; Ragu, N; Lacheheub, K; Thiebaut, C; Lopez, F M



Unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis with vertebral anomaly.  


We report a two-and-half-year-old boy who presented with recurrent respiratory tract infections. He had cortriatum of right atrium, spina bifida occulta, hemivertebra and dysplastic right thumb. On CT of chest, he had also unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis. The case is being reported because of common manifestations of rare disease and its associated cardiac and skeletal abnormalities. PMID:23784756

Prasad, Rajniti; Srivastava, G N; Mishra, O P; Singh, Utpal Kant



Deep seabed mining and unilateral legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mining and other kinds of exploitation of the deep seabed and the ocean floor as well as the subsoil thereof are fairly new developments, made possible by modern technology. It is contended here that unilateral exploitation of these areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction is not authorized by existing principles, by the common heritage of mankind concept, or by

Gonzalo Biggs



Unilateral regional odontodysplasia with ipsilateral mandibular malformation.  


Regional odontodysplasia is a rare developmental anomaly with an unknown cause. This disorder involves both the ectodermal and mesodermal dental layers. The affected teeth generally cannot be rehabilitated for functional use; therefore, the treatment of choice is extraction with prosthetic replacement. A unique case of unilateral regional odontodysplasia with ipsilateral mandibular malformation is reported. PMID:2356083

Raez, A G



Heart rate differences between right and left unilateral electroconvulsive therapy.  

PubMed Central

Left and right unilateral electrode placements were alternately applied in electroconvulsive therapy given to 21 men with melancholia. Accompanying heart rate elevations were greater following right unilateral treatment than left unilateral, apparently because of longer persistence of peak rates. This is consistent with right cerebral hemisphere superiority in the control of heart rate activity in neurologically intact humans.

Swartz, C M; Abrams, R; Lane, R D; DuBois, M A; Srinivasaraghavan, J



Efficacy analysis of pedicle screw internal fixation of fractured vertebrae in the treatment of thoracolumbar fractures  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to discuss the method and effect of posterior internal fixation of thoracolumbar fractures strengthened by the vertical stress pedicle screw fixation of fractured vertebrae. Patients with single thoracolumbar fractures were examined retrospectively. Fourteen patients (group A) had been treated with vertical stress pedicle screw fixation of a fractured vertebra and sixteen patients (group B) received traditional double-plate fixation, as a control. All patients were diagnosed with fresh fractures with a complete unilateral or bilateral pedicle and no explosion of the inferior half of the vertebral body or inferior endplate. In group A, patients received conventional posterior distraction and lumbar lordosis restoration, as well as pedicle screws in the fractured vertebra in a vertical direction to relieve stress to achieve a local stress balance. All patients were followed up postoperatively for 4–18 months (average, 12.6 months). The vertical stress pedicle screw fixation assisted in the reduction of vertebrae fracture, which reduced the postoperative Cobb’s angle loss. There was a significant difference in the change of Cobb’s angle between the two groups one year after surgery (P<0.01). Conditional application of pedicle screws in a single thoracolumbar fracture enhances the stability of the internal fixation system and is conducive to the correction of kyphosis and maintenance of the corrective effects.




Ankle Fractures  


... the more bones that are broken, the more unstable the ankle becomes. There may be ligaments damaged ... is out of place or your ankle is unstable, your fracture may be treated with surgery. During ...


Hip Fractures  


... cases, if the patient falls and complains of hip pain, an incomplete fracture may not be seen on ... injuries may be approached either from either the front or back of the hip. In some cases, both approaches are required in ...


Jaw Fracture  


... Dental Disorders Symptoms of Oral and Dental Disorders Biology of the Mouth Lip and Tongue Disorders Salivary ... the spine in the neck or cause a concussion or bleeding within the skull. Jaw fractures cause ...


Subsurface formation fracturing method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this fracturing method, the well is first prepared for fracturing by cutting the casing and notching the formation at the desired level in the well. Fracturing fluid is then applied at the notch under sufficient pressure to initiate a fracture in the formation. During propagation of the fracture, fracturing fluid containing propping agent is pumped into the fracture in

J. L. Huitt; B. B. McGlothlin; J. Papaila



Fractures of the articular processes of the cervical spine  

SciTech Connect

Fractures of the articular processes occurred in 16 (20.8%) of 77 patients with cervical spine fractures as demonstrated by multidirectional tomography. Plain films demonstrated the fractures in only two patients. Acute cervical radiculopathy occurred in five of the patients with articular process fractures (superior process, two cases; inferior process, three cases). Persistent neck pain occurred in one other patient without radiculopathy. Three patients suffered spinal cord damage at the time of injury, which was not the result of the articular process fracture itself. In the other seven cases, no definite sequelae occurred. However, disruption of the facet joint may predispose to early degenerative joint disease and chronic pain; unilateral or bilateral facet dislocation was present in five patients. In patients with cervical trauma who develop cervical radiculopathy, tomography should be performed to evaluate the articular processes.

Woodring, J.H.; Goldstein, S.J.



External fixation of pediatric femoral fractures.  


Fifteen pediatric femoral fractures in 14 patients were treated with external fixation using the EBI Orthofix unilateral external fixator. The average patient age was 8.5 years (range, 3-13 years). There were 7 children with multiple injuries and 7 with isolated fractures. The average duration in the fixator was 63 days; average followup was 34 months. All 15 fractures healed without additional operative intervention. Average angulation at the fracture site was 4.4 degrees in the anteroposterior plane (range, 0 degrees-10 degrees) and 4.6 degrees in the lateral plane (range, 0 degrees-11 degrees). There were 5 pin tract infections, all of which resolved with systemic antibiotics. There was 1 case of refracture in a boy with muscular dystrophy. Ten patients had clinically equal leg lengths, 3 patients had < 1 cm of inequality, and 1 patient had a 1.5 cm discrepancy. External fixation is a well-proven technique for managing pediatric femoral fractures in the child with multiple injuries. It is also an effective means of treating isolated femoral fractures in the pediatric population. PMID:7671516

Davis, T J; Topping, R E; Blanco, J S



Eyebrow ptosis after blowout fracture indicates impairment of trigeminal proprioceptive evocation that induces reflex contraction of the frontalis muscle.  


Objective: The mixed levator and frontalis muscles lack the interior muscle spindles normally required to induce involuntary contraction of their slow-twitch fibers. To involuntarily move the eyelid and eyebrow, voluntary contraction of the levator nonskeletal fast-twitch muscle fibers stretches the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle to evoke trigeminal proprioception, which then induces reflex contraction of the levator and frontalis skeletal slow-twitch muscle fibers. The trigeminal proprioceptive nerve has a long intraorbital course from the mechanoreceptors in Müller's muscle to the superior orbital fissure. Since external force to the globe may cause impairment of trigeminal proprioceptive evocation, we confirmed how unilateral blowout fracture due to a hydraulic mechanism affects ipsilateral eyebrow movement as compared with unilateral zygomatic fracture. Methods: In 16 unilateral blowout fracture patients, eyebrow heights were measured on noninjured and injured sides in primary and 60° upward gaze and statistically compared. Eyebrow heights were also measured in primary gaze in 24 unilateral zygomatic fracture patients and statistically compared. Results: In the blowout fracture patients, eyebrow heights on the injured side were significantly smaller than on the noninjured side in both gaze. In the zygomatic fracture patients, eyebrow heights on the injured side were significantly larger than on the noninjured side in primary gaze. Conclusion: Since 60° upward gaze did not recover the eyebrow ptosis observed in primary gaze in blowout fracture patients, such ptosis indicated impairment of trigeminal proprioceptive evocation and the presence of a hydraulic mechanism that may require ophthalmic examination. PMID:23814636

Ban, Ryokuya; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Ban, Midori; Yuzuriha, Shunsuke



Unilateral seminoma in a dromedary camel.  


A 10-year-old, clinically healthy, male dromedary camel had presented a history of progressive unilateral testicular enlargement over the past 5 years. The animal had mated with 32 females during that period; all had conceived. The sex ratio of his offspring was one male to 31 females. Ultrasound examination of the right testicle revealed a diffusely heterogeneous parenchyma with no identifiable normal testicular tissue. The enlarged testicle was surgically removed. Macroscopically, the testicle had a glistening pink surface and contained multiple soft, bulging nodules. Histopathologically, a well-differentiated, diffuse seminoma was diagnosed. In conclusion, this study describes the fertility, sex ratio, clinical findings and ultrasonographic imaging in a male dromedary camel affected with unilateral testicular seminoma. PMID:22646829

Ali, A; Ahmed, A F; Mehana, E E; El-Tookhy, O; Al-Hawas, A



Isolated unilateral post-traumatic internuclear ophthalmoplegia.  


A patient developed an isolated unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) after head trauma. An uncommon complication of closed head trauma, INO usually occurs bilaterally and is often associated with other neurologic deficits. The mechanism may be shear injury caused by angular acceleration leading to downward displacement of the posterior brainstem downward, stretching of the nerve fibers of the medial longitudinal fasciculus, or compression and tearing of its arterial supply. PMID:11725189

Chan, J W



Unilateral ovarian agenesis and fallopian tube maldescent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unilateral ovarian agenesis (UOA) and fallopian descent problems are very rare congenital defects. We present an unusual\\u000a case of UOA associated with fallopian-tube maldescent discovered incidentally during a laparotomy in a female infant for a\\u000a persistent heterogeneous right ovarian cyst refractory to needle aspiration. A necrotic, hemorrhagic paratubal cyst was found\\u000a associated with a normal right adnexa. The left ovary

A. Dueck; D. Poenaru; M. A. Jamieson; I. K. Kamal



Unilateral molar distalization with a modified slider.  


Although there are numerous publications on bilateral non-compliance molar distalization appliances, there is limited information on problems such as asymmetrical unilateral Class II malocclusions. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the distalization of molars unilaterally in patients with a unilateral Class II molar relationship utilizing a Keles Slider, designed without a bite plane. Ten girls (mean age 13.94 +/- 2.13 years) and seven boys (mean age 13.12 +/- 1.51 years) comprised the study material. Following insertion of the appliance, the patients were seen monthly and the screw was reactivated every 2 months. After a super-Class I molar relationship was achieved, the appliance was removed and the molars were stabilized with a Nance appliance for 2 months before the second-phase of orthodontic treatment. The Nance appliance was maintained in the palate until the end of canine distalization. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were obtained before and immediately after insertion of the molar distalizer. The results showed that the maxillary first molars were distalized bodily on average by 2.85 mm. The maxillary first premolars moved forward bodily 2 mm and were extruded 2.03 mm. In all, 1.32 mm of protrusion, 1.12 mm of extrusion, and 1.79 degrees of proclination of the upper incisors were observed. The mandibular incisors and mandibular molars erupted 0.83 and 0.95 mm, respectively. The unilateral Keles Slider distalized molars successfully to a Class I molar relationship. PMID:16648210

Sayinsu, Korkmaz; Isik, Fulya; Allaf, Ferdi; Arun, Tülin



Functioning unilateral adrenocortical carcinoma in a dog  

PubMed Central

An 11-year-old, 24-kg, intact female Siberian husky dog in anestrus had a 2-month history of polyuria and polydipsia. The dog had signs of mineralocorticoid excess such as hypertension and hypokalemia refractory to potassium supplementation. Abdominal ultrasound revealed an irregular mass in the left adrenal gland. The ACTH stimulation test for aldosterone concentration did not reveal hyperaldosteronism. Unilateral adrenalectomy was performed and histopathology identified adrenal cortical carcinoma. All clinical signs of mineralocorticoid excess ceased after surgery.

Gojska-Zygner, Olga; Lechowski, Roman; Zygner, Wojciech



Functioning unilateral adrenocortical carcinoma in a dog.  


An 11-year-old, 24-kg, intact female Siberian husky dog in anestrus had a 2-month history of polyuria and polydipsia. The dog had signs of mineralocorticoid excess such as hypertension and hypokalemia refractory to potassium supplementation. Abdominal ultrasound revealed an irregular mass in the left adrenal gland. The ACTH stimulation test for aldosterone concentration did not reveal hyperaldosteronism. Unilateral adrenalectomy was performed and histopathology identified adrenal cortical carcinoma. All clinical signs of mineralocorticoid excess ceased after surgery. PMID:23204580

Gójska-Zygner, Olga; Lechowski, Roman; Zygner, Wojciech



Remote epidural hemorrhage after unilateral decompressive hemicraniectomy in brain-injured patients.  


Epidural hemorrhage (EDH) that develops remote from the decompressed hemisphere can be associated with devastating morbidity after hemicraniectomy for traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study, we investigated the incidence, risk factors, and outcome influence of post-craniectomy remote EDH. For this retrospective study, we enrolled 139 patients undergoing unilateral hemicraniectomy for TBI. The patients were subdivided into two groups based on whether EDH remote from the site of bone decompression was present (n=11) or not (n=128). We identified the intergroup differences in clinical parameters and outcomes. Multivariate odds regression was used to adjust for independent risk factors of the development of EDH. The incidence of remote EDH following decompressive hemicraniectomy for TBI was 7.9%. There were two independent risk factors for remote EDH, including absence of contusional hemorrhage (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval=6.158, 1.090-34.802; p=0.040) and presence of remote skull fracture (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval=19.770, 2.194-178.152; p=0.008) in preoperative computed tomography scans. The mean Glasgow Outcome Scale did not differ between the patients with and without EDH. In conclusion, remote EDH in patients undergoing unilateral decompressive hemicraniectomy for TBI is not uncommon. The absence of contusional hemorrhage and presence of remote skull fracture are independent risk factors. Although postcraniectomy remote EDH is devastating, timely computed tomography scanning and immediate hematoma evacuation are efficient and crucial for patient outcomes. PMID:23013227

Huang, Yu-Hua; Lee, Tao-Chen; Lee, Tsung-Han; Yang, Ka-Yen; Liao, Chen-Chieh



Improved external skeletal fixation for unstable fractures.  


A novel external fixation device (EX-FI-RE) is described with which it is possible to manipulate fracture fragments under complete control of stability. EX-FI-RE is a unilateral, telescopic, single-frame device, consisting of two functionally separate components, the correction unit and the fixation unit. The correction unit allows reduction of angular, parallel, and longitudinal dislocations. Sustained transverse compression of an oblique fracture is a special feature. After reduction has been achieved, pin retainers and transcutaneous pins can be transferred to the fixation unit without change of position of the fracture fragments. Its mechanical behavior under load is analyzed and compared with that of a Hoffman-Vidal Adrey quadrilateral system. In axial loading, the two systems were similar within the loading range of 0-1000 N. In the anteroposterior plane, the stiffness ratio of the EX-FI-RE was significantly higher. In lateral bending and axial loading, the two systems were comparable. The turning moment required to induce a 5 degree angular deformation of the quadrilateral system was 4.8 +/- 0.6 Nm; the corresponding figure for the unilateral system was 8.8 +/- 0.4 Nm. After more than two years of clinical experience with this new device, closed atraumatic reduction, sustained transverse compression, and early weight-bearing were found to promote union. There were no pin tract infections or mechanical failures in more than 70 cases treated. PMID:3829504

Hammer, R; Helland, P



Radial Head Fractures  


... displacement (movement from the normal position). Type I Fractures Type I fractures are generally small, like cracks, ... bones may shift and become displaced. Type II Fractures Type II fractures are slightly displaced and involve ...


Fracture types (1) (image)  


... fracture which goes at an angle to the axis Comminuted - a fracture of many relatively small fragments Spiral - a fracture which runs around the axis of the bone Compound - a fracture (also called ...


Hydraulic fracturing-1  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers on hydraulic fracturing. Topics covered include: An overview of recent advances in hydraulic fracturing technology; Containment of massive hydraulic fracture; and Fracturing with a high-strength proppant.

Not Available



Fracture mechanics  

SciTech Connect

The papers presented at the symposium are grouped under the following headings: elastoplastic analyses, linear elastic analyses, temperature and environmental effects, elastoplastic experiments, fatigue crack growth, applications, dynamic fracture mechanics, and basic considerations. Papers are presented on an evaluation of analytical solutions for corner cracks at holes; a model for creep/fatigue interactions in Alloy 718; analysis of bending parameters for bending-type specimens; and characterization of crack closure. Papers are also included on the crack arrest behavior of a high-strength aluminum alloy; observations of a fracture mechanics approach to fatigue crack initiation in Ti-6Al-4V; and elastic-plastic failure analysis of pressure vessel tests.

Kanninen, M.F.; Hopper, A.T.



Fracture Blisters  

PubMed Central

Fracture blisters are a relatively uncommon complication of fractures in locations of the body, such as the ankle, wrist elbow and foot, where skin adheres tightly to bone with little subcutaneous fat cushioning. The blister that results resembles that of a second degree burn. These blisters significantly alter treatment, making it difficult to splint or cast and often overlying ideal surgical incision sites. Review of the literature reveals no consensus on management; however, most authors agree on early treatment prior to blister formation or delay until blister resolution before attempting surgical correction or stabilization.

Uebbing, Claire M.; Walsh, Mark; Miller, Joseph B.; Abraham, Mathew; Arnold, Clifford



Hydraulic fracturing process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for hydraulically fracturing a permeable subterranean formation in which the fracture faces are treated to reduce their permeability to the fracturing fluid. Propping agent is placed in the fracture in a conventional manner whereby the bulk of the propping agent is deposited in the fracture at a location remote from the well. Thereafter the fracture faces




Congenital unilateral absence of orbit with anophthalmos and partial arhinia.  


Congenital unilateral absence of orbit is a very rare clinical entity. An 18 month old female child with an unilateral absence of orbit with clinical anophthalmos and partial arhinia is presented. X-ray of the skull revealed an absence of the bony orbit on the left side. Unlike previously described cases of absence of the orbit, this maldevelopment is unilateral and present in an otherwise normal thriving child. PMID:1841889

Shorey, P; Lobo, G


Fracture mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The papers presented at the symposium are grouped under the following headings: elastoplastic analyses, linear elastic analyses, temperature and environmental effects, elastoplastic experiments, fatigue crack growth, applications, dynamic fracture mechanics, and basic considerations. Papers are presented on an evaluation of analytical solutions for corner cracks at holes; a model for creep\\/fatigue interactions in Alloy 718; analysis of bending parameters for

M. F. Kanninen; A. T. Hopper



Hydraulic fracturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described of fracturing a subterranean formation which contains at least 2 fluids of different densities, which are located in superimposed strata substantially in accordance with their densities. At least 2 piping systems or injection means are employed which provide independent injection of different fluids simultaneously down the wellbore. Down one of these means a fluid is injected




Unilateral cerebellar hypoplasia with different clinical features.  


Unilateral cerebellar hypoplasia (UCH) is a rare pathological condition characterized by the loss of volume in cerebellar hemispheres ranging from mild asymptomatic to severe symptomatic cases. As the designation of UCH remains problematic, the underlying etiopathogenesis also lacks explanation. We investigated the patients admitted to Departments of Child Neurology, Neurology, and Genetics between the years 1992 and 2010 and detected 12 patients with unilateral cerebellar volume loss, with the exclusion of all other cerebellar pathologies. The ages of patients ranged between 6 months to 55 years. Five patients had a delay in developmental milestones, and one of these was diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 1. Two patients had epileptic seizures, one patient had peripheral facial paralysis as a component of Moebius syndrome, and four patients were incidentally diagnosed during etiological work-up for headache. The clinical outcomes of patients varied from healthy subjects to marked developmental impairment. Radiologically, five patients had severe disproportionate UCH, six had moderate disproportionate, and one had mild proportionate UCH. Cerebellar peduncles were affected in all, and vermis was partly hypoplastic in eight patients. Brainstem was involved in four patients, and seven patients showed involvement of white matter and/or corpus callosum. Imaging features supported that patients with severe disproportionate UCH also displayed additional cerebral and commissural changes, which were related to ischemic or vascular injuries, implying a prenatally acquired disruption. In the presence of such a wide spectrum of clinical and radiological features, a prenatally acquired lesion and, thus, a disruption seem to be more explanatory rather than a primary developmental process or malformation in the etiopathogenesis of unilateral cerebellar hypoplasia. PMID:20967575

Benbir, Gulcin; Kara, Simay; Yalcinkaya, Beyza Citci; Karhkaya, Geysu; Tuysuz, Beyhan; Kocer, Naci; Yalcinkaya, Cengiz



Unilateral trifid mandibular condyle: a case report.  


Trifid mandibular condyle is an exceptionally rare entity, diagnosed accidentally on radiographic examination. Its etiology is controversial. Dental professionals should have knowledge of this anatomic abnormality and of the problems caused by it in normal function, as well as appropriate treatment modalities. In the literature, only three such cases have been reported. The current case report (the fourth reported) is of a unilateral trifid condyle reported in a 37-year-old woman seeking treatment for a missing tooth. A panoramic radiograph accidentally revealed a discrete modification of the right mandibular condyle. Computed tomography (CT) with 3-D construction was done to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:21370772

Warhekar, Ashish M; Wanjari, Panjab V; Phulambrikar, Tushar



Unilateral absence of latissimus dorsi muscle.  


Latissimus dorsi (LD) is the broadest muscle of the back responsible for extension and adduction of shoulder. The authors report a case of isolated unilateral absence of the latissimus dorsi muscle observed during an ablative surgical procedure and flap reconstruction. The left LD muscle was completely absent in our patient and no tendon fibers belonging to this muscle could be observable on further dissection. The surrounding muscle anatomy was normal and in place suggesting a developmental etiology for its absence. Awareness of this possible variation is of importance in considering reconstructive options. PMID:22431308

Izadpanah, Ali; Babaei, Sepideh; Luc, Mario; Zadeh, Teanoosh



Some remarks on unilateral matrix equations  

SciTech Connect

We briefly review the results of our paper LBNL-46775: We study certain solutions of left-unilateral matrix equations. These are algebraic equations where the coefficients and the unknown are square matrices of the same order, or, more abstractly, elements of an associative, but possibly noncommutative algebra, and all coefficients are on the left. Recently such equations have appeared in a discussion of generalized Born-Infeld theories. In particular, two equations, their perturbative solutions and the relation between them are studied, applying a unified approach based on the generalized Bezout theorem for matrix polynomials.

Cerchiai, Bianca L.; Zumino, Bruno



Congenital Horner's syndrome with unilateral facial flushing.  

PubMed Central

Two patients with congenital Horner's syndrome had unilateral facial flushing. Both showed pupillary supersensitivity to epinephrine as well as anhidrosis on the affected side of the face and neck. Facial skin temperature after exercise increased on the intact side, but decreased on the affected side. Thermal vasodilation in the major portions of the face is regulated by sympathetic vasodilator fibres, and less predominantly by adrenergic vasoconstrictor fibres. The asymmetry of facial flushing may have been caused by impaired sympathetic vasodilation and further intensified by active vasoconstriction due to supersensitivity to circulating catecholamine on the affected side.

Saito, H



Metallization thickness in bilateral and unilateral Finlines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory and numerical results are presented to the effective dielectric constant and characteristic impedance of bilateral and unilateral finlines with metallization thickness. The full wave analysis of the transverse transmission line — TTL method is used to determine the electromagnetic fields of the structure in Fourier transform domain — FTD. Applying the suitable boundary conditions and the moment method, a homogeneous matrix system is obtained and the effective dielectric constant is extracted. The characteristic impedance is obtained using the relation between the voltage in slot and the transmitted power. Computational programs are developed to obtain numerical results to the effective dielectric constant and characteristic impedance.

Fernandes, Humberto César Chaves; Martins de Souza, Eduardo Amorim; de Souza Queiroz Júnior, Idalmir



Potency after unilateral nerve sparing surgery: a report on functional and oncological results of unilateral nerve sparing surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to evaluate unilateral nerve sparing prostate surgery. Patient files of men who underwent unilateral nerve sparing radical prostatectomy were analyzed retrospectively after a minimum follow-up period of 18 months. Of 46 patients who received unilateral nerve sparing surgery, 14 (30.4%) regained full potency after surgery. In 92.9% of these patients, recovery occurred within a

F Van der Aa; S Joniau; D De Ridder; H Van Poppel



Controlling fracture growth  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a fire extinguisher apparatus. It comprises: fire extinguisher medium storing means for storing a fire extinguishing medium; into at least one fracture formed therein. The first fracturing fluid having a known density and containing a diverting agent; introducing a second fracturing fluid into the fracture having a known density different from density of the first fracturing fluid whereby the second fracturing fluid selectably the overrides or underrides the first fracturing fluid and forces the first fracturing fluid to the bottom or top of the fracture whereby the diverting agent contained therein is caused to screen out along the bottom or top of the fracture and to thereby impede further downward or upward growth of the fracture; and continuing the introduction of the second fracturing fluid into the fracture until the fracture is extended a desired amount.

Lord, D.L.; McDaniel, B.W.; Harris, L.E.; Manrique, J.E.



Kinetic asymmetry in female runners with and without retrospective tibial stress fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gait asymmetry may be linked to the tendency for runners to sustain chronic overuse injuries. This paper compares gait asymmetry in female runners who have never sustained a running-related injury to those who have sustained unilateral tibial stress fractures. The symmetry index was used to characterize asymmetry in the kinetics of both subject groups. There were three aims to this

Rebecca Avrin Zifchock; Irene Davis; Joseph Hamill



Hip fracture  

PubMed Central

Introduction Between 12% and 37% of people will die in the year after a hip fracture, and 10% to 20% of survivors will move into a more dependent residence. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of surgical interventions in people with hip fracture? What are the effects of perisurgical medical interventions on surgical outcome and prevention of complications in people with hip fracture? What are the effects of rehabilitation interventions and programmes after hip fracture? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 55 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: anaesthesia (general, regional); antibiotic regimens; arthroplasty; choice of implant for internal fixation; conservative treatment; co-ordinated multidisciplinary approaches for inpatient rehabilitation of older people; cyclical compression of the foot or calf; early supported discharge followed by home-based rehabilitation; extramedullary devices; fixation (external, internal); graduated elastic compression; intramedullary devices; mobilisation strategies; nerve blocks for pain control; nutritional supplementation (oral multinutrient feeds, nasogastric feeds); perioperative prophylaxis with antibiotics, with antiplatelet agents, or with heparin (low molecular weight or unfractionated); preoperative traction to the injured limb; and systematic multicomponent home-based rehabilitation.



36 CFR 223.235 - Unilateral delay, suspension, or modification of contracts, permits, or other instruments...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unilateral delay, suspension, or modification...Authorizing Instruments § 223.235 Unilateral delay, suspension, or modification...Service may compensate a person for the unilateral delay, suspension or...



36 CFR 223.235 - Unilateral delay, suspension, or modification of contracts, permits, or other instruments...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Unilateral delay, suspension, or modification...Authorizing Instruments § 223.235 Unilateral delay, suspension, or modification...Service may compensate a person for the unilateral delay, suspension or...



12 CFR 950.11 - Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock. 950...11 Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock. ( stock in the Bank. (b) Unilateral redemption of excess capital...



12 CFR 950.11 - Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock. 950...11 Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock. ( stock in the Bank. (b) Unilateral redemption of excess capital...



Quadratic finite element methods for unilateral contact problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is concerned with the frictionless unilateral contact problem between two elastic bodies in a bidimensional context. We consider a mixed formulation in which the unknowns are the displacement field and the contact pressure. We introduce a finite element method using quadratic elements and continuous piecewise quadratic multipliers on the contact zone. The discrete unilateral non-interpenetration condition is

Patrick Hild; Patrick Laborde



Stereopsis and binocular vision after surgery for unilateral infantile cataract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To assess the prevalence and level of binocular function in children with unilateral congenital or very early infantile cataract. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients with unilateral congenital or very early infantile cataract who underwent operation before 4 months of age, at the W. K. Kellogg Eye Center\\/University of Michigan Hospitals, from 1985 to 1995. Amblyopia

Sandra M. Brown; Steven Archer; Monte A. Del Monte



Opportunism and unilateral commitment: the moderating effect of relational capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper focuses on the decision by firms to commit and to invest unilaterally. It is concerned with the intriguing question as to whether unilateral commitments are mechanisms that help a firm manage risks in alliance relationships in a proactive manner. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The hypotheses are tested with survey data on 344 alliance relationships of European biotechnology small

Hélène Delerue-Vidot



Reproducibility of Tactile Assessments for Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A systematic review identified tactile assessments used in children with cerebral palsy (CP), but their reproducibility is unknown. Sixteen children with unilateral CP and 31 typically developing children (TDC) were assessed 2-4 weeks apart. Test-retest percent agreements within one point for children with unilateral CP (and TDC) were…

Auld, Megan Louise; Ware, Robert S.; Boyd, Roslyn Nancy; Moseley, G. Lorimer; Johnston, Leanne Marie



A MEG Study Of Gamma Oscillations During Unilateral Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have found the consistent contralateral high gamma activities in sensorimotor cortex in adults during a unilateral finger movement. However, no study has ever reported the same phenomenon in children. We hypothesized that the contralateral high gamma activities also exist in children during a unilateral finger movement. Sixty normal children (6-17 years old) were studied with a 275-channel MEG

Xiaolin Huo; Jing Xiang




Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To report pattern of unilateral nasal obstruction caused by sino-nasal neoplasms seen in two teaching hospitals in Sindh, Pakistan. DESIGN: A case series. SETTING: Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) departments of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Ka- rachi and People's Medical College, Nawabshah between June 1995 to June 1998. METHODS: This study included 51 patients who presented with unilateral nasal

Syed Mosaddaque Iqbal; Syed Iqbal Hussain


Unilateral fixtures for sheet-metal parts with holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce unilateral fixtures , a new class of fixtures for sheet-metal parts with holes. These fixtures use cylindrical jaws with conical grooves that facilitate part alignment; each jaw provides the equivalent of four point contacts. The fixtures are unilateral in the sense that their actuating mechanisms are restricted to one side\\/surface of the part, facilitating access

Kanakasabapathi Gopalakrishnan; Ken Goldberg; Gary M. Bone; Matthew J. Zaluzec; Rama Koganti; R. Pearson; P. A. Deneszczuk



Unilateral thyroidectomy for the treatment of benign multinodular goiter  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Benign multinodular goiter (MNG) is one of the most commonly treated thyroid disorders. While bilateral resection is the accepted surgical treatment for bilateral MNG, the appropriate surgical resection for unilateral MNG continues to be debated. Bilateral resection generally has lower recurrence rates but higher complication rates than unilateral resection. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to define the recurrence and complication rates of unilateral and bilateral resections in order to determine the appropriate intervention for patients with unilateral, benign MNG. METHODS We reviewed a prospectively maintained database of all patients who underwent a thyroidectomy for treatment of benign MNG at a single institution between May 1994 and December 2011. All patients with bilateral MNG were treated with bilateral resection. Surgical treatment for unilateral MNG was determined by surgeon preference, with all but one surgeon opting for unilateral resection to treat unilateral MNG. Data were reported as means ± standard error of the mean. Chi-squared analysis was used to determine statistical significance at a level of p<0.05. RESULTS A total of 683 patients underwent thyroidectomy for MNG. Of these patients, 420 (61%) underwent unilateral resection and 263 patients (39%) underwent total thyroidectomy. The mean age was 52±17 years, and 542 patients (79%) were female. The mean follow-up time was 46.1±1.9 months. The rate of recurrent disease was similar between unilateral (2%, n=10) and bilateral (1%, n=3) resections (p=0.248). Unilateral resection patients had a lower total complication rate than patients with bilateral resections (8% vs. 26%, p<0.001); however, there was no difference in the rate of permanent complications (0.2% vs. 1%, p=0.133). Thyroid hormone replacement was rare in unilateral resection patients, but necessary in all patients with bilateral resection (19% vs. 100%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Patients that had unilateral resections endured less overall morbidities than those who had bilateral resections, and their risk of recurrent disease was similar. They were also significantly less likely to require lifelong hormone replacement therapy post-operatively. Although bilateral resection remains the recommended treatment for bilateral MNG, this data strongly supports the use of unilateral thyroidectomy for the treatment of unilateral, benign MNG.

Bauer, Philip S.; Murray, Sara; Clark, Nicholas; Pontes, David S.; Sippel, Rebecca S.; Chen, Herbert



Unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome and space-occupying lesions.  


To assess the association between unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome and space-occupying lesions, 128 patients have been reviewed. They were divided into bilateral, subclinical (unilateral signs and symptoms, and bilateral slowing in the median nerve conduction) and unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. Space-occupying lesions were investigated on the basis of physical examination and wrist imaging using plain radiographs and ultrasonograms. Of 20 patients with unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome, space-occupying lesions were found in seven (occult ganglion in five and occult calcified mass in two). In contrast, none of 89 patients with bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome and 19 with subclinical carpal tunnel syndrome had space-occupying lesions. We conclude that careful examination and wrist imaging on suspicion of local pathology, especially a space-occupying lesion, are needed when the condition is unilateral and the aetiology is not clear from the history and on physical examination. PMID:8308434

Nakamichi, K; Tachibana, S



Evaluation of unilateral cage-instrumented fixation for lumbar spine  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate how unilateral cage-instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) affects the three-dimensional flexibility in degenerative disc disease by comparing the biomechanical characteristics of unilateral and bilateral cage-instrumented PLIF. Methods Twelve motion segments in sheep lumbar spine specimens were tested for flexion, extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending by nondestructive flexibility test method using a nonconstrained testing apparatus. The specimens were divided into two equal groups. Group 1 received unilateral procedures while group 2 received bilateral procedures. Laminectomy, facectomy, discectomy, cage insertion and transpedicle screw insertion were performed sequentially after testing the intact status. Changes in range of motion (ROM) and neutral zone (NZ) were compared between unilateral and bilateral cage-instrumented PLIF. Results Both ROM and NZ, unilateral cage-instrumented PLIF and bilateral cage-instrumented PLIF, transpedicle screw insertion procedure did not revealed a significant difference between flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial rotation direction except the ROM in the axial rotation. The bilateral group's ROM (-1.7 ± 0. 8) of axial rotation was decreased significantly after transpedicle screw insertion procedure in comparison with the unilateral group (-0.2 ± 0.1). In the unilateral cage-instrumented PLIF group, the transpedicle screw insertion procedure did not demonstrate a significant difference between right and left side in the lateral bending and axial rotation direction. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, unilateral cage-instrumented PLIF and bilateral cage-instrumented PLIF have similar stability after transpedicle screw fixation in the sheep spine model. The unilateral approach can substantially reduce exposure requirements. It also offers the biomechanics advantage of construction using anterior column support combined with pedicle screws just as the bilateral cage-instrumented group. The unpleasant effect of couple motion resulting from inherent asymmetry was absent in the unilateral group.



Unilateral Idiopathic Macular Telangiectasia with Choroidal Neovascularization.  


A 40-year-old man with decreasing visual acuity in his left eye over 1 year, diagnosed elsewhere as vein occlusion and treated unsuccessfully by systemic steroids was reported. Retrospective analysis of available previous imaging studies was undertaken, and a retrospective diagnosis of idiopathic macular telangiectasia (IMT) was made. Examination revealed subfoveal neovascularization and retinochoroidal anastomosis (RCA) in his left eye with macular edema and exudates surrounding it. The right eye was normal. Current fluorescein angiography (FA) confirmed the presence of choroidal neovascularization and RCA, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) demonstrated cystoid macular edema and subfoveal neovascularization.The patient was diagnosed with unilateral idiopathic macular telangiectasia complicated by subretinal neovascularization. The presences of a choroidal neovascularization process and an RCA have not, to our knowledge, been reported in this type of IMT. PMID:20337307

Mezad-Koursh, Daphna; Zayit-Soudry, Shiri; Barak, Adiel; Loewenstein, Anat



Infections After Fracture  


... during surgery to set the broken bones. Open Fractures If the bone breaks in such a way ... wound penetrates down to the broken bone, the fracture is called an "open" or compound fracture. The ...


Hip Fracture Prevention  


... Copyright 2013 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Hip Fracture Prevention Hip fractures are breaks in the thighbone (femur) just below ... and older. Women are especially vulnerable to hip fractures. According to 2010 data from the National Hospital ...


Fracture of the Finger  


Copyright 2007 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Fracture of the Finger If you think a broken (fractured) finger is a minor injury, think again. Without proper treatment a fractured finger can ...


Patellar (Kneecap) Fractures  


... 2010 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Patellar (Kneecap) Fractures Because your kneecap (patella) acts like a shield ... for example, is a common cause of patellar fractures. These fractures are serious injuries and often require ...


Radial head fracture - aftercare  


Elbow fracture - radial head ... the radial bone, just below your elbow. A fracture is a break in your bone. The most common cause of a radial head fracture is breaking a fall with an outstretched arm.


Esa Fracture Control Requirements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fracture control requirements imposed on ESA space systems are described. The responsibilities of the different partners within the fracture control program are listed. Potential fracture critical items are identified and evaluated. Analytical life pr...



Potency after unilateral nerve sparing surgery: a report on functional and oncological results of unilateral nerve sparing surgery.  


The objective of the study was to evaluate unilateral nerve sparing prostate surgery. Patient files of men who underwent unilateral nerve sparing radical prostatectomy were analyzed retrospectively after a minimum follow-up period of 18 months. Of 46 patients who received unilateral nerve sparing surgery, 14 (30.4%) regained full potency after surgery. In 92.9% of these patients, recovery occurred within a period of 18 months. Age is the single most important factor in the recuperation of potency after unilateral nerve sparing surgery. Most of the patients (84.8%) reported the ability to achieve orgasm. Of eight patients with positive section margins, two had positive section margins at the spared side only. Unilateral nerve sparing surgery remains a feasible treatment option for prostate cancer. PMID:12664068

Van der Aa, F; Joniau, S; De Ridder, D; Van Poppel, H



Vestibular Perception following Acute Unilateral Vestibular Lesions  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the vestibulo-perceptual (VP) system, particularly after a unilateral vestibular lesion. We investigated vestibulo-ocular (VO) and VP function in 25 patients with vestibular neuritis (VN) acutely (2 days after onset) and after compensation (recovery phase, 10 weeks). Since the effect of VN on reflex and perceptual function may differ at threshold and supra-threshold acceleration levels, we used two stimulus intensities, acceleration steps of 0.5°/s2 and velocity steps of 90°/s (acceleration 180°/s2). We hypothesised that the vestibular lesion or the compensatory processes could dissociate VO and VP function, particularly if the acute vertiginous sensation interferes with the perceptual tasks. Both in acute and recovery phases, VO and VP thresholds increased, particularly during ipsilesional rotations. In signal detection theory this indicates that signals from the healthy and affected side are still fused, but result in asymmetric thresholds due to a lesion-induced bias. The normal pattern whereby VP thresholds are higher than VO thresholds was preserved, indicating that any ‘perceptual noise’ added by the vertigo does not disrupt the cognitive decision-making processes inherent to the perceptual task. Overall, the parallel findings in VO and VP thresholds imply little or no additional cortical processing and suggest that vestibular thresholds essentially reflect the sensitivity of the fused peripheral receptors. In contrast, a significant VO-VP dissociation for supra-threshold stimuli was found. Acutely, time constants and duration of the VO and VP responses were reduced – asymmetrically for VO, as expected, but surprisingly symmetrical for perception. At recovery, VP responses normalised but VO responses remained shortened and asymmetric. Thus, unlike threshold data, supra-threshold responses show considerable VO-VP dissociation indicative of additional, higher-order processing of vestibular signals. We provide evidence of perceptual processes (ultimately cortical) participating in vestibular compensation, suppressing asymmetry acutely in unilateral vestibular lesions.

Cousins, Sian; Kaski, Diego; Cutfield, Nicholas; Seemungal, Barry; Golding, John F.; Gresty, Michael; Glasauer, Stefan; Bronstein, Adolfo M.



Paediatric hand fractures.  


This retrospective study reviews the demographics, morphology and management of paediatric hand fractures. Notes of all children with hand injuries attending a plastic surgery paediatric trauma clinic over a one-year period were reviewed. Non-bony injuries were excluded. A total of 303 fractures in 283 patients were included. Fracture incidence rose after the age of seven, peaking at 14 years of age; 76% of fractures occurred in males. Sporting injuries accounted for 47% of fractures. Physeal fractures were present in 39% of cases. Open fractures accounted for only 4% of all fractures. Management was primarily conservative. Only 5% of cases required surgical fixation; 6% of patients experienced complications. PMID:23340758

Young, K; Greenwood, A; Macquillan, A; Lee, S; Wilson, S



Unilateral Auditory Neuropathy Caused by Cochlear Nerve Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Objective. To explore possible corelationship between the cochlear nerve deficiency (CND) and unilateral auditory neuropathy (AN). Methods. From a database of 85 patients with unilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss, eight who presented with evoked otoacoustic emissions (EOAEs) or cochlear microphonic (CM) in the affected ear were diagnosed with unilateral AN. Audiological and radiological records in eight patients with unilateral AN were retrospectively reviewed. Results. Eight cases were diagnosed as having unilateral AN caused by CND. Seven had type “A” tympanogram with normal EOAE in both ears. The other patient had unilateral type “B” tympanogram and absent OAE but CM recorded, consistent with middle ear effusion in the affected ear. For all the ears involved in the study, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were either absent or responded to the maximum output and the neural responses from the cochlea were not revealed when viewed by means of the oblique sagittal MRI on the internal auditory canal. Conclusion. Cochlear nerve deficiency can be seen by electrophysiological evidence and may be a significant cause of unilateral AN. Inclined sagittal MRI of the internal auditory canal is recommended for the diagnosis of this disorder.

Liu, Cheng; Bu, Xingkuan; Wu, Feiyun; Xing, Guangqian



Unilateral Versus Bilateral Neck Exploration for Primary Hyperparathyroidism  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare unilateral and bilateral neck exploration for primary hyperparathyroidism in a prospective randomized controlled trial. Summary Background Data Based on the assumption that unilateral neck exploration for a solitary parathyroid adenoma should reduce operating time and morbidity, a variety of minimally invasive procedures have challenged the idea that bilateral neck exploration is the gold standard for the surgical treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism. However, to date, no open prospective randomized trial has been published comparing unilateral and bilateral neck exploration. Methods Ninety-one patients with the preoperative diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism were randomized to unilateral or bilateral neck exploration. Preoperative scintigraphy and intraoperative parathyroid hormone measurement guided the unilateral exploration. Gross morphology and frozen section determined the extent of parathyroid tissue resection in the bilateral group. The primary end-point was the use of postoperative medication for hypocalcemic symptoms. Results Eighty-eight patients (97%) were cured. Histology and cure rate did not differ between the two groups. Patients in the bilateral group consumed more oral calcium, had lower serum calcium values on postoperative days 1 to 4, and had a higher incidence of early severe symptomatic hypocalcemia compared with patients in the unilateral group. In addition, for patients undergoing surgery for a solitary parathyroid adenoma, unilateral exploration was associated with a shorter operative time. The cost for the two procedures did not differ. Conclusions Patients undergoing a unilateral procedure had a lower incidence of biochemical and severe symptomatic hypocalcemia in the early postoperative period compared with patients undergoing bilateral exploration. Unilateral neck exploration with intraoperative parathyroid hormone assessment is a valid surgical strategy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism with distinct advantages, especially for patients with solitary parathyroid adenoma.

Bergenfelz, Anders; Lindblom, Pia; Tibblin, Sten; Westerdahl, Johan



The Effective Fracture Toughness in Hydraulic Fracturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effective fracture toughness approach which is used in hydraulic fracturing in order to explain the\\u000a high net-pressures that are often observed in field operations. The effective fracture toughness is calculated using a fully\\u000a deterministic elasto-plastic hydraulic fracturing model. Rock is modelled by Mohr–Coulomb flow theory of plasticity for cohesive-frictional\\u000a dilatant material. Fluid flow is modelled by

Panos Papanastasiou



External fixation of pediatric femoral shaft fractures: a consecutive study based on 45 fractures.  


Forty-five displaced femur fractures in children were treated with unilateral external fixation as a standard treatment from March 2007 to March 2009 and the last follow-up was completed in May 2012. The average age of the children at presentation was 9.93 years. Patients were followed up till union, at 1 year, and at an average of 3.5 years after fixation. The fixator was removed at an average of 12.23 weeks. Twenty-one (47%) patients had a minor complication of pin-site infection. One patient had a major complication of refracture. Treatment of uncomplicated femur fractures using an external fixator in children yields satisfactory results. Our series had a longer duration of follow-up and fewer refractures compared with other series. PMID:23852034

Wani, Mubashir M; Dar, Reyaz A; Latoo, Irfan A; Malik, Tariq; Sultan, Asif; Halwai, Manzoor A



Unilateral lobectomy for Hurthle cell adenoma.  


Considerable controversy exists regarding the ability to predict the biologic behavior of Hurthle cell tumors. Some have found the clinicopathologic criteria used to differentiate benign from malignant lesions to be unreliable and have advocated total thyroidectomy for all Hurthle cell neoplasms. From January 1980 to December 1995, 39 patients had surgery for Hurthle cell tumors of the thyroid. The surgical pathologic findings were reviewed by an experienced pathologist (JP). Eight patients had histologic findings of capsular or vascular invasion consistent with carcinoma and had total thyroidectomy. Four of these patients had postoperative evidence of residual disease and were treated by radiation ablation. No evidence of invasion was found in 31 patients diagnosed with Hurthle cell adenoma. Twenty-three of these patients had unilateral lobectomy; total thyroidectomy was done in the remaining 8 patients, 5 of whom were found to have an associated papillary carcinoma at the time of operation. There were no operative deaths or significant morbidity. Twenty-two adenomas (71%) were found in females, whereas males had malignant tumors in 6 of 8 cases (P = 0.025). The mean age of adenoma patients is 54.1 years, and that of the carcinoma patients is 55.8 years. Mean size of benign tumors was 2.8 cm and of malignant tumors 4.1 cm (P = 0.04). Four of seven (57%) carcinomas were larger than 4 cm as compared with 6 of 30 (20%) adenomas (P = 0.069). Follow-up has ranged from 1 month to 15 years, with a mean of 3.2 years. There have been no deaths, and no patients with Hurthle cell adenoma have had evidence of recurrence or metastases during follow-up. Our data suggest that carcinoma patients tend to be male and tumor size is larger. An association was found when trying to predict malignancy by using 4 cm as a threshold size. We conclude that pathologic evidence of capsular or angioinvasion can accurately differentiate benign from malignant tumors. Unilateral thyroid lobectomy is adequate therapy for the treatment of Hurthle cell adenoma, with total thyroidectomy reserved for those patients with histologically proven carcinoma. PMID:9697901

Wasvary, H; Czako, P; Poulik, J; Lucas, R



Masseteric hypertrophy associated with administration of anabolic steroids and unilateral mastication: a case report.  


In this report we present a patient with unilateral masseteric hypertrophy who used anabolic steroids and was chewing entirely unilaterally for 1 month. Computed tomography and histologic examination were used to confirm the diagnosis. The combined action of unilateral mastication and anabolic steroid use is probably responsible for the rapid development of unilateral masseteric hypertrophy. PMID:11709687

Skoura, C; Mourouzis, C; Saranteas, T; Chatzigianni, E; Tesseromatis, C



Masseteric hypertrophy associated with administration of anabolic steroids and unilateral mastication: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report we present a patient with unilateral masseteric hypertrophy who used anabolic steroids and was chewing entirely unilaterally for 1 month. Computed tomography and histologic examination were used to confirm the diagnosis. The combined action of unilateral mastication and anabolic steroid use is probably responsible for the rapid development of unilateral masseteric hypertrophy. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral

Cornilia Skoura; Costas Mourouzis; Theodosios Saranteas; Emmy Chatzigianni; Christina Tesseromatis



Flow Through Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow through fractures is often idealized as flow between 2 parallel plates (plane Poiseuille flow). The opening or aperture between parallel plates is unambiguous and its relation to flow rate is well known. However, fractures in rock have uneven walls and a variable aperture. A model for flow in a fracture is proposed wherein the fracture is represented by a

C. E. Neuzil; James V. Tracy



Ankle fracture - aftercare  


An ankle fracture is a break in 1 or more ankle bones. These fractures may: Be partial (the bone is only partially ... Severe ankle fractures may require surgery. Fractures that may need surgery if: The ends of the bone are out of line ...


Fracture channel waves  

SciTech Connect

The properties of guided waves which propagate between two parallel fractures are examined. Plane wave analysis is used to obtain a dispersion equation for the velocities of fracture channel waves. Analysis of this equation demonstrates that parallel fractures form an elastic waveguide that supports two symmetric and two antisymmetric dispersive Rayleigh channel waves, each with particle motions and velocities that are sensitive to the normal and tangential stiffnesses of the fractures. These fracture channel waves degenerate to shear waves when the fracture stiffnesses are large, to Rayleigh waves and Rayleigh-Lamb plate waves when the fracture stiffnesses are low, and to fracture interface waves when the fractures are either very closely spaced or widely separated. For intermediate fracture stiffnesses typical of fractured rock masses, fracture channel waves are dispersive and exhibit moderate to strong localization of guided wave energy between the fractures. The existence of these waves is examined using laboratory acoustic measurements on a fractured marble plate. This experiment confirms the distinct particle motion of the fundamental antisymmetric fracture channel wave (A{sub 0} mode) and demonstrates the ease with which a fracture channel wave can be generated and detected. {copyright} 1999 American Geophysical Union

Nihei, K.T.; Yi, W.; Myer, L.R.; Cook, N.G. [Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States); Schoenberg, M. [Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, Connecticut (United States)



Proximal ulna fractures.  


Proximal ulna fractures are relatively common. They range in severity from a simple transverse olecranon fracture to a highly complex fracture dislocation involving a comminuted coronoid process. The anatomy, fracture pathology, treatment approach, and rehabilitation are presented in this article. PMID:19181239

Sahajpal, Deenesh; Wright, Thomas W



Orbital trapdoor fractures  

PubMed Central

Orbital trapdoor fractures are commonly encountered in children. Awareness of trapdoor fractures is of particular importance. This is because early recognition and treatment are necessary to prevent permanent motility abnormities. In this article, we will provide a brief overview of orbital fractures. The clinical and radiographic features of trapdoor fractures will then be reviewed, followed by a discussion on their proper management.

Phan, Laura T.; Jordan Piluek, W.; McCulley, Timothy J.



Epidural haematoma and unilateral exophthalmos—a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Based on 9 cases in the literature and one of our own a review is made on the occurrence of an association of an intracranial epidural haematoma with unilateral exophthalmos. The possible pathogenesis of this infrequent phenomenon is discussed.

F. Umansky; Sh. Pomeranz



Unilateral thalamic infarction and vertical gaze palsy: cause or coincidence?  


Although vertical gaze palsy (VGP) is commonly associated with lesions of the rostral mesencephalon, there is some evidence that VGP may also be caused by a unilateral thalamic lesion. The case of a 68-year-old man with persistent upward gaze palsy after a unilateral thalamic infarction, demonstrated on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans, is presented. Subsequent high-resolution magnetic resonance scanning, however, showed involvement of the rostral mesencephalon as well. The authors suggest that in previous patients with VGP ascribed to a unilateral thalamic infarction, a coexisting mesencephalic involvement may have been missed because of inappropriate imaging techniques. Strong evidence of unilateral thalamic infarction as a cause of VGP is still lacking. PMID:10870929

van der Graaff, M M; Vanneste, J A; Davies, G A



The S-locus and unilateral incompatibility.  


Plants have many ways to regulate the type of pollen that arrives on the stigma surface. Once there, further control mechanisms regulate compatibility. The latter controls are largely based on biochemical interactions that support compatible pollination and prevent incompatible matings. S-RNase-based self-incompatibility (SI) systems are the most phylogenetically widespread mechanisms for controlling pollination. Studies of Nicotiana establish a firm link between SI and unilateral interspecific incompatibility. Although implicated in both inter- and intraspecific compatibility, S-RNase operates through at least three distinct genetic mechanisms that differ in their dependence on non-S-RNase factors. Identification and characterization of these non-S-RNase factors is currently an area of active research. Searching for genetic and biochemical interactions with S-RNase can identify candidate non-S-RNase factors. HT-protein is one factor that is required for S-allele-specific pollen rejection in the Solanaceae. Major style arabinogalactan proteins such as TTS interact biochemically with S-RNase. These glycoproteins are known to interact with compatible pollen tubes and have long been suggested as possible recognition molecules. Their binding to S-RNase implies a link between stylar systems for compatibility and incompatibility. Thus, genetic and biochemical studies suggest a highly networked picture of pollen-pistil interactions. PMID:12831479

Hancock, C Nathan; Kondo, Katsuhiko; Beecher, Brian; McClure, Bruce



Congenital Unilateral Hypoplasia of Depressor Anguli Oris  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Asymmetric facial appearance may originate from abnormalities of facial musculature or facial innervation. We describe clinical features of congenital hypoplasia of depressor anguli oris muscle in a child. Material and Methods. Chart of a 10-month-old female referred to a tertiary care pediatric hospital for assessment of facial paralysis was reviewed. Data included relevant history and physical examination, diagnostic work up, and management. Results. The child presented with asymmetric movement of lower lip since birth. Asymmetry of lower lip was more pronounced when she smiled and cried. Rest of the face movement was symmetric. On examination, the face appeared symmetric at rest. The child had inward deviation of right lower lip when she smiled. Facial nerve function, as determined by frowning/forehead, wrinkling, eye closure, nasolabial fold depth, and tearing, was symmetric. Magnetic resonance imaging of the temporal bones and internal auditory canals were within normal limits. Echocardiogram did not show cardiac abnormality. Auditory brainstem response showed no abnormality. Conclusions. Congenital hypoplasia of depressor anguli oris is a rare anomaly that causes asymmetric crying face. Pediatricians and otolaryngologists need to be cognizant of cardiac, head and neck, and central nervous system anomalies associated with congenital unilateral hypoplasia of depressor anguli oris.

Ulualp, Seckin O.; Deskin, Ronald



The S-locus and unilateral incompatibility.  

PubMed Central

Plants have many ways to regulate the type of pollen that arrives on the stigma surface. Once there, further control mechanisms regulate compatibility. The latter controls are largely based on biochemical interactions that support compatible pollination and prevent incompatible matings. S-RNase-based self-incompatibility (SI) systems are the most phylogenetically widespread mechanisms for controlling pollination. Studies of Nicotiana establish a firm link between SI and unilateral interspecific incompatibility. Although implicated in both inter- and intraspecific compatibility, S-RNase operates through at least three distinct genetic mechanisms that differ in their dependence on non-S-RNase factors. Identification and characterization of these non-S-RNase factors is currently an area of active research. Searching for genetic and biochemical interactions with S-RNase can identify candidate non-S-RNase factors. HT-protein is one factor that is required for S-allele-specific pollen rejection in the Solanaceae. Major style arabinogalactan proteins such as TTS interact biochemically with S-RNase. These glycoproteins are known to interact with compatible pollen tubes and have long been suggested as possible recognition molecules. Their binding to S-RNase implies a link between stylar systems for compatibility and incompatibility. Thus, genetic and biochemical studies suggest a highly networked picture of pollen-pistil interactions.

Hancock, C Nathan; Kondo, Katsuhiko; Beecher, Brian; McClure, Bruce



Asymmetric vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in unilateral Menière patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) were measured in 22 unilateral Menière patients with monaural and binaural stimulation\\u000a with 250 and 500 Hz tone bursts. For all measurement situations significantly lower VEMP amplitudes were on average measured\\u000a at the affected side compared to the unaffected side. Unilateral Menière patients have, in contrast to normal subjects, asymmetric\\u000a VEMPs, indicating a permanently affected vestibular

C. M. Kingma; H. P. Wit



Unilateral ectopic breast tissue on vulva in an adult female.  


Among the ectopic breasts, an ectopic breast tissue on vulva is an extremely rare case, especially in adult period. To our knowledge only 38 cases of ectopic breast tissue on vulva are documented in the world literature, out of which only 10 cases of unilateral ectopic breast tissue on vulva has been reported. Because of its rarity here we report a case of unilateral ectopic breast tissue on vulva in an adult female. PMID:23904730

Deshmukh, Santoshkumar Nagnath; Maske, Audumbar N; Deshpande, Akshay P; Shende, Shweta P



Evaluation of unilateral cage-instrumented fixation for lumbar spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To investigate how unilateral cage-instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) affects the three-dimensional flexibility in degenerative disc disease by comparing the biomechanical characteristics of unilateral and bilateral cage-instrumented PLIF. METHODS: Twelve motion segments in sheep lumbar spine specimens were tested for flexion, extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending by nondestructive flexibility test method using a nonconstrained testing apparatus. The

Ti-Sheng Chang; Jia-Hao Chang; Chien-Shiung Wang; Hung-Yi Chen; Ching-Wei Cheng



Grip Force Coordination during Bimanual Tasks in Unilateral Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate coordination of fingertip forces during an asymmetrical bimanual task in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Twelve participants (six males, six females; mean age 14y 4mo, SD 3.3y; range 9-20y;) with unilateral CP (eight right-sided, four left-sided) and 15 age-matched typically…

Islam, Mominul; Gordon, Andrew M.; Skold, Annika; Forssberg, Hans; Eliasson, Ann-Christin



Increased oxidative stress in mouse kidneys with unilateral ureteral obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased oxidative stress in mouse kidneys with unilateral ureteral obstruction.BackgroundUnilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) is a well-established experimental model of renal injury leading to interstitial fibrosis. The molecular and cellular mechanism(s) of interstitial fibrosis in UUO kidney is beginning to be elucidated. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various forms of renal injury; however, little is known about

Noritaka Kawada; Toshiki Moriyama; Akio Ando; Megumu Fukunaga; Toshio Miyata; Kiyoshi Kurokawa; Enyu Imai; Masatsugu Hori



Tapia syndrome after repairing a fractured zygomatic complex: a case report and review of the literature.  


Tapia syndrome is known as a rare complication of airway manipulation, which can occur after any type of surgery under endotracheal general anesthesia. This syndrome is characterized by neurologic deficits involving the hypoglossal (XII) and recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagal nerve (X) that result in the tongue muscle's unilateral paralysis associated with the vocal cord's unilateral palsy. This article describes the first case of Tapia syndrome, which occurred after repair of a fractured zygomatic complex. In this article, we discuss the diagnosis, possible causes, clinical manifestations, treatment methods, and preventive strategies as described in 10 case reports in the literature that have been attributed to manipulation of the airway. PMID:23850042

Varedi, Payam; Shirani, Gholamreza; Karimi, Abbas; Varedi, Peyman; Khiabani, Kazem; Bohluli, Behnam



Postural Compensation for Unilateral Vestibular Loss  

PubMed Central

Postural control of upright stance was investigated in well-compensated, unilateral vestibular loss (UVL) subjects compared to age-matched control subjects. The goal was to determine how sensory weighting for postural control in UVL subjects differed from control subjects, and how sensory weighting related to UVL subjects’ functional compensation, as assessed by standardized balance and dizziness questionnaires. Postural control mechanisms were identified using a model-based interpretation of medial–lateral center-of-mass body-sway evoked by support-surface rotational stimuli during eyes-closed stance. The surface-tilt stimuli consisted of continuous pseudorandom rotations presented at four different amplitudes. Parameters of a feedback control model were obtained that accounted for each subject’s sway response to the surface-tilt stimuli. Sensory weighting factors quantified the relative contributions to stance control of vestibular sensory information, signaling body-sway relative to earth-vertical, and proprioceptive information, signaling body-sway relative to the surface. Results showed that UVL subjects made significantly greater use of proprioceptive, and therefore less use of vestibular, orientation information on all tests. There was relatively little overlap in the distributions of sensory weights measured in UVL and control subjects, although UVL subjects varied widely in the amount they could use their remaining vestibular function. Increased reliance on proprioceptive information by UVL subjects was associated with their balance being more disturbed by the surface-tilt perturbations than control subjects, thus indicating a deficiency of balance control even in well-compensated UVL subjects. Furthermore, there was some tendency for UVL subjects who were less able to utilize remaining vestibular information to also indicate worse functional compensation on questionnaires.

Peterka, Robert J.; Statler, Kennyn D.; Wrisley, Diane M.; Horak, Fay B.



Perception of colour in unilateral tritanopia.  

PubMed Central

The unilateral tritanope described in the previous paper (Alpern, Kitahara & Krantz, 1983) was able to match every narrow-band light presented to his tritanopic eye with lights from a tristimulus colorimeter viewed in the adjacent field by the normal eye. In two regions of the spectrum (called isochromes) physically identical lights appeared identical to the observer's two eyes. One isochrome was close to 'blue' for the normal eye, the other was in the long-wave spectral region seen by the normal eye predominantly as 'red'. Between these isochromes the normal eye required less than spectral purity to match, dropping to near zero purity at 560-570 nm. A mixture of the two isochromes that appeared purple to the normal eye appeared neutral to the tritanopic eye. Hence dichoptic matches grossly violate Grassmann's additivity law. For the normal eye colour naming conformed to typical normal results. For the tritanopic eye the results were coherent with those found by dichoptic matching: the spectrum was divided into two regions by the achromatic neutral band. To the short-wave side, only the colour names 'blue' and 'white' were ever used. To the long-wave side the predominant colour names were 'red' and 'white' with some 'yellow'. Spectral lights appeared neither 'red-blue' nor greenish. Surrounding the test with an annulus either 430 nm, 650 nm, or a mixture of these, fails to induce any greenish appearance, although the achromatic band shifted in the expected directions. It is concluded that there must be exactly three functionally independent, essentially non-linear central codes for colour perception, and that these codes are different from those suggested in existing theories of colour perception.

Alpern, M; Kitahara, K; Krantz, D H



Hydraulic fracture analysis method  

SciTech Connect

A method of determining the orientation of a hydraulic fracture plane in the earth is described, consisting of: positioning an array of sensors for measuring seismic ground motion above a region which includes the fracture, providing a well bore having fluid therein communicating with the fracture to be defined, perturbing the fluid to cause transient pressure or flow oscillations in the fluid column in the well bore, measuring seismic ground motion induced by the transient pressure and flow oscillations in the fracture, calculating, using theory of wave propagation, the ground motion expected of fractures of different orientations, comparing the measured ground motion with the calculated ground motion patterns representing fractures of different orientations, selecting the fracture orientation that yields calculated seismic ground motions most closely resembling the measured seismic ground motions as the most probable fracture orientation, and calculating a probable fracture orientation based on the seismic motion of the ground.

Holzhausen, G.R.; St. Lawrence, W.



Fracture energy and fracture process zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fracture energy Gf can be determined following a RILEM recommendation. However, it has been found that fracture energy depends on both size\\u000a and geometry of the test specimen. The underlying fictitious crack model postulates that fracture energy, tensile strength,\\u000a the critical opening of the fictitious crack, and the shape of the softening curve (softening factor) are constants for a

X.-Z. Hu; F. H. Wittmann



Short Course on Fracture and Fracture Mechanics of Metallic Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The visual presentation sheets of a course on fracture and fracture mechanics in metallic materials are reproduced. The course includes an introduction to fracture mechanics; fracture mechanisms in metallic materials; and the influence of material behavio...

R. J. H. Wanhill



Equilibrium fracture acidizing  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for acidizing a formation penetrated by a well comprising: injecting acid into the formation at a pressure sufficient to initiate and propagate a fracture in the formation; reducing the injection rate of the acid into the fracture to a rate sufficient to hold the fracture open without significant further extension, such that the acid contacts and etches the fracture; and reducing the injection rate of the acid into the fracture to a rate that is sufficient to hold the fracture open.

Tinker, S.J.



'Unilateral' decision making and patient participation in primary care.  


Using conversation analysis as a method, we examine patients' responses to doctors' treatment decision deliveries in Finnish primary care consultations for upper respiratory tract infection. We investigate decision-making sequences that are initiated by doctors' 'unilateral' decision delivery (Collins et al. 2005). In line with Collins et al., we see the doctors' decision deliveries as unilateral when they are offered as suggestions, recommendations or conclusions that make relevant patients' acceptance of the decision rather than their further contributions to the decision. In contrast, more 'bilateral' decision making encourages and is dependent in part on patient's contributions, too (Collins et al. 2005). We examine how patients respond to unilaterally made decisions and how they participate in and contribute to the outcome of the decision-making process. Within minimal responses patients approve the doctor's unilateral agency in decision making whereas within two types of extended responses patients voice their own perspectives. 1) In positive responses they appraise the doctor's decision as appropriate; 2) in other instances, patients may challenge the decision with an extended response that initiates a negotiation on the decision. We suggest that, firstly, unilateral decision making may be collaboratively maintained in consultations and that, secondly, patients have means for challenging it. PMID:23264979

Ijäs-Kallio, Taru; Ruusuvuori, Johanna; Peräkylä, Anssi



Vertebral Compression Fractures  


Living with OI: Information on Vertebral Compression Fractures Compression fractures are a common, painful problem for children and adults who have OI. This occurs when an injury causes the spinal bone ...


Femur fracture repair - discharge  


You had a fracture (break) in the femur, also called the thigh bone, in your leg. You may have needed surgery to repair ... surgeon will make a cut to open your fracture. Your surgeon will then use special metal devices ...


Forearm Fractures in Children  


... Copyright 2010 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Forearm Fractures in Children Description The bones of the forearm ... to you and the radius is farther away. Fractures of the forearm can occur near the wrist ...


Internal Fixation for Fractures  


... American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Internal Fixation for Fractures When members of the American Academy of Orthopaedic ... bones together. Can be used alone to treat fractures of small bones, such as those found in ...


Displaced patella fractures.  


Displaced patella fractures often result in disruption of the extensor mechanism of the knee. An intact extensor mechanism is a requirement for unassisted gait. Therefore, operative treatment of the displaced patella fracture is generally recommended. The evaluation of the patella fracture patient includes examination of extensor mechanism integrity. Operative management of patella fractures normally includes open reduction with internal fixation, although partial patellectomy is occasionally performed, with advancement of quadriceps tendon or patellar ligament to the fracture bed. Open reduction with internal fixation has historically been performed utilizing anterior tension band wiring, although comminution of the fracture occasionally makes this fixation construct inadequate. Supplementation or replacement of the tension band wire construct with interfragmentary screws, cerclage wire or suture, and/or plate-and-screw constructs may add to the stability of the fixation construct. Arthrosis of the patellofemoral joint is very common after healing of patella fractures, and substantial functional deficits may persist long after fracture healing has occurred. PMID:23966286

Della Rocca, Gregory J



Fracture mechanics applied to rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fracture of rock and theories to predict fracture loads are reviewed in light of the observed mechanisms of fracture in rock. A zone of microcracking precedes the formation of a fracture. In this zone, considerable energy is absorbed by the material. Hence the specific work of fracture (the energy to form a unit of projected fracture surface) is much



Growth, children, and fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractures in childhood have long been considered an unavoidable consequence of growth. Studies in recent years have documented\\u000a the epidemiology of these very common fractures and have also documented considerable variation by fracture type and from\\u000a country to country. There have also been a number of studies aimed at identifying risk factors particularly for the most common\\u000a distal forearm fracture.

Graeme Jones



Orbital fractures: a review  

PubMed Central

This review of orbital fractures has three goals: 1) to understand the clinically relevant orbital anatomy with regard to periorbital trauma and orbital fractures, 2) to explain how to assess and examine a patient after periorbital trauma, and 3) to understand the medical and surgical management of orbital fractures. The article aims to summarize the evaluation and management of commonly encountered orbital fractures from the ophthalmologic perspective and to provide an overview for all practicing ophthalmologists and ophthalmologists in training.

Joseph, Jeffrey M; Glavas, Ioannis P



Hydraulic fracture design optimization  

SciTech Connect

This research and development investigation, sponsored by US DOE and the oil and gas industry, extends previously developed hydraulic fracture geometry models and applied energy related characteristic time concepts towards the optimal design and control of hydraulic fracture geometries. The primary objective of this program is to develop rational criteria, by examining the associated energy rate components during the hydraulic fracture evolution, for the formulation of stimulation treatment design along with real-time fracture configuration interpretation and control.

Lee, Tae-Soo; Advani, S.H.



Hydraulic fracture design optimization  

SciTech Connect

This research and development investigation, sponsored by US DOE and the oil and gas industry, extends previously developed hydraulic fracture geometry models and applied energy related characteristic time concepts towards the optimal design and control of hydraulic fracture geometries. The primary objective of this program is to develop rational criteria, by examining the associated energy rate components during the hydraulic fracture evolution, for the formulation of stimulation treatment design along with real-time fracture configuration interpretation and control.

Lee, Tae-Soo; Advani, S.H.



Unilateral Opercular Infarction Presenting with Foix-Chavany-Marie Syndrome.  


A 76-year-old man with a history of pontine, cerebellar infaction suddenly became speechless during the procedure of percutaneous coronary intervention. On examination, he was unable to close his mouth voluntarily, but spontaneous closing was preserved when smiling. He had anarthria and hypophonia, although his comprehension was preserved. He also had a severe dysphagia. Radiological studies revealed an acute stroke in the left anterior operculum, indicating Foix-Chavany-Marie Syndrome (FCMS) caused by a unilateral opercular lesion. Pathophysiology of the previous cases reported as unilateral FCMS remains controversial, but in our case, it could be delineated by the combination of the new lesion in the unilateral operculum and the old one in the contralateral pons. Since FCMS is not only related to biopercular lesions, we should consider thorough radiologic examination to clarify its anatomic basis. PMID:23040957

Ohtomo, Ryo; Iwata, Atsushi; Tsuji, Shoji



Results of Nephrectomy in Hypertension Associated with Unilateral Renal Disease  

PubMed Central

Nephrectomy has been carried out in 34 patients with hypertension associated with unilateral parenchymal renal disease (28 with unilateral pyelonephritis, 3 tuberculosis, 2 hypoplasia, and 1 adenocarcinoma). In 13 of the patients the blood pressure was corrected, in four it was improved, and in 17 it was unaffected. The intravenous pyelogram (by the infusion technique with nephrotomography if necessary) and renogram give adequate information in most patients with unilateral parenchymal renal disease but may need to be supplemented by aortography, or retrograde pyelography, or divided renal function studies in a few special circumstances. When the function of the damaged kidney is less than 25% of the total (which is well maintained), and the contralateral kidney is intact, nephrectomy is recommended provided the hypertension is significant; success is more likely in younger patients with a short history of hypertension.

Luke, R. G.; Kennedy, A. C.; Briggs, J. D.; Struthers, N. W.; Stirling, W. Barr



Unilateral midbrain infarction causing upward and downward gaze palsy.  


We report on a 47-year-old-woman who developed sudden complete loss of vertical saccades, smooth pursuit, and vestibular eye movements bilaterally. MRI revealed a unilateral midbrain infarct involving the rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (riMLF) and the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) and spared the posterior commissure (PC). The lesion is presumed to have interrupted the pathways involved in vertical gaze just before they decussate, inducing an anatomically unilateral but functionally bilateral lesion. Previous reports of bidirectional vertical gaze palsy have shown lesions involving the PC or both riMLFs. This case is the first to show that a unilateral lesion of the riMLF and the INC that spares the PC may cause complete bidirectional vertical gaze palsy. PMID:16966933

Alemdar, Murat; Kamaci, Senol; Budak, Faik



Unilateral hippocampal damage impairs spatial cognition in rats.  


Unilateral temporal lobectomy to treat seizure disorders in humans often results in cognitive impairment after the surgery. To determine the potential utility of a rodent model of unilaterally induced cognitive deficits, the present experiment evaluated spatial cognition in adult rats after either left or right hemisphere lesioning of temporal neocortex and underlying hippocampal regions. Evaluation of performance in the eight arm radial maze revealed that both lesioned groups committed more reference memory errors than did nonoperated controls. Working memory errors did not differ statistically between groups. The production of a spatial learning deficit by unilateral damage suggests that this rodent model could serve to test potential improvements in interventional strategies aimed at attenuating cognitive effects of the surgical treatment. PMID:10938560

Port, R L; Finamore, T L; Noble, M M; Seybold, K S


Mechanics of Ductile Fracture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The phenomenon of ductile fracture in plate specimens is described by a finite element stress analysis coupled with the strain energy density fracture criterion. The last ligament of failure tends to curve developing a cup-and-cone type of fracture in ten...

G. C. Sih



Periprosthetic Femoral Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postoperative femoral periprosthetic fracture is an uncommon complication of total hip arthroplasty surgery, but several centers worldwide have recently reported an increase in total numbers of such fractures. This severe complication is costly for society and results in high morbidity. Our analysis of 1049 periprosthetic fractures occurring in Sweden between 1979 and 2000 and recorded in the Swedish National Hip

Hans Lindahl; Henrik Malchau; Peter Herberts; Göran Garellick



Fracture Education in Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fracture mechanics is a multidisciplinary topic which is being introduced to undergraduate engineering students in such courses as materials engineering. At a recent Conference on Fracture held at the University of Waterloo, a session was devoted to fracture education. Some of the ideas presented at that session are included and discussed here.…

Sidey, D.; And Others


Epidemiology of clavicle fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epidemiologic study of 535 isolated clavicle fractures treated in a hospital of a large metropolis during an 11-year period was performed. Data regarding patient's age and sex, side involved, mechanism of injury, and season in which the fracture occurred were obtained from the clinical records. Radiographic classification was performed with the Allman system. Clavicle fractures represented 2.6% of all

Franco Postacchini; Stefano Gumina; Pierfrancesco De Santis; Francesco Albo



Fracturing formations in wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fracturing technique prevents the backflow of fracture propping materials into the well bore. The fracturing fluid with its propping material is followed into the well bore by a mixture of a carried liquid and a particulate material, preferably an alkaline earth carbonate, having particle size between 4 and 40 mesh. The quantity of particulate material is the carrier fluid

H. H. Spain; J. W. Kenneday; O. R. Harrison; C. Jr. Dean



Teaching neuroimages: anoxic brain injury with unilateral hemispheric cortical involvement.  


A 55-year-old woman collapsed with chest pain and cardiac arrest. Her pulse was restored after 6 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, but she remained comatose. Brain MRI (figure) revealed bilateral basal ganglia and right hemispheric cortical lesion, which was typical for anoxic brain injury except for the unilateral cortical involvement. Neck CT angiography showed severe stenosis in the right proximal internal carotid artery. The unilateral cortical injury could be explained by compromised cerebral blood flow due to preexisting carotid stenosis. This case demonstrates an atypical pattern of anoxic brain injury secondary to focal vascular stenosis. PMID:23547273

Kim, Yong-Won; Seo, Ji-Hye; Park, Sung-Pa; Hwang, Yang-Ha



Hyponatremic-hypertensive syndrome: think of unilateral renal artery stenosis.  


Hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome (HHS) is an uncommon disorder, in which hypertension is associated with profound hyponatremia. It is mostly encountered in adults with unilateral renal artery stenosis. Although renovascular hypertension is one of the commonest causes for severe hypertension in children, HHS is rarely reported in childhood. The authors report a 9-y old boy with hypertensive emergency and severe hyponatremia due to unilateral renal artery stenosis who was successfully managed by vascular stenting of the affected vessel. Prompt recognition of this disorder can be life-saving and can subsequently lead to appropriate referral and treatment as in the present case. PMID:23152163

Pandey, Meenu; Sharma, Rajni; Kanwal, Sandeep Kumar; Chhapola, Viswas; Awasthy, Neeraj; Mathur, Atul; Kumar, Virendra



Creation of multiple sequential hydraulic fractures via hydraulic fracturing combined with controlled pulse fracturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for creating multiple sequential hydraulic fractures via hydraulic fracturing combined with controlled pulse fracturing is described comprising: (a) creating more than two simultaneous multiple vertical radial fractures via a controlled pulse fracturing method; (b) applying thereafter hydraulic pressure to the formation in an amount sufficient to fracture; (c) maintaining the hydraulic pressure on the formation while pumping alternate




Subsurface fracture spacing  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken in order to document and analyze the unique set of data on subsurface fracture characteristics, especially spacing, provided by the US Department of Energy's Slant Hole Completion Test well (SHCT-1) in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Two hundred thirty-six (236) ft (71.9 m) of slant core and 115 ft (35.1 m) of horizontal core show irregular, but remarkably close, spacings for 72 natural fractures cored in sandstone reservoirs of the Mesaverde Group. Over 4200 ft (1280 m) of vertical core (containing 275 fractures) from the vertical Multiwell Experiment wells at the same location provide valuable information on fracture orientation, termination, and height, but only data from the SHCT-1 core allow calculations of relative fracture spacing. Within the 162-ft (49-m) thick zone of overlapping core from the vertical and deviated wellbores, only one fracture is present in vertical core whereas 52 fractures occur in the equivalent SHCT-1 core. The irregular distribution of regional-type fractures in these heterogeneous reservoirs suggests that measurements of average fracture spacing'' are of questionable value as direct input parameters into reservoir engineering models. Rather, deviated core provides data on the relative degree of fracturing, and confirms that cross fractures can be rare in the subsurface. 13 refs., 11 figs.

Lorenz, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Hill, R.E. (CER Corp., Las Vegas, NV (USA))



Neuromuscular electrical stimulation enhances fracture healing: results of an animal model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) could simulate physiological muscle functions known to be associated with the normal bone healing process. The object of the present study was to evaluate the effect of NMES on fracture healing, using an animal model. Thirty rabbits received unilateral, transverse, mid-tibial, 3-mm gapped osteotomies that were stabilized with double-bar external fixators. The femoral vein was ligated

Sang-Hyun Park; Mauricio Silva



Posterior pelvic ring fractures: Closed reduction and percutaneous CT-guided sacroiliac screw fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To assess the midterm results of closed reduction and percutaneous fixation (CRPF) with computed tomography (CT)-guided sacroiliac\\u000a screw fixation in longitudinal posterior pelvic ring fractures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Thirteen patients with 15 fractures were treated. Eleven patients received a unilateral, two a bilateral, screw fixation.\\u000a Twenty-seven screws were implanted. Continuous on-table traction was used in six cases. Mean radiological follow-up was 13\\u000a months.

Augustinus Ludwig Jacob; Peter Messmer; Klaus-Wilhelm Stock; Norbert Suhm; Bernard Baumann; Pietro Regazzoni; Wolfgang Steinbrich



Comparison of Fracture Versus Radiolucent Table in the Treatment of Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Compare slipped capital femoral epiphysis stabilized on fracture versus radiolucent table. Methods: Twenty unilateral stable mild slipped capital femoral epiphyses were stabilized in-situ with a single screw. Age, sex, side, body-mass index, type of table, anesthesia time, surgery time, fluoroscopy time, number of fluoroscopy images, preoperative/postoperative lateral head-shaft angle, and number of screw threads engaging the epiphysis were noted. Results: There were no differences in the measured parameters. Conclusions: Stabilization of mild slipped capital femoral epiphysis can be accomplished reliably and safely with the use of either a radiolucent or fracture table.

Carney, Brian T; Talwalkar, Vishwas; Grothaus, Matthew; Levine, Jason



Impaired griplift synergy in children with unilateral brain lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Children with spastic hemiplegia have impaired dexterity in the affected extremity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the force co-ordination pattern during precision grip in 13 children between 4 and 10 years of age with predominant unilateral brain lesions is related to manual dexterity and to the location and size of the brain lesion. The

Hans Forssberg; Ann-Christin Eliasson; Christine Redon-Zouitenn; Eugenio Mercuri; Lilly Dubowitz



Coupling of FM Systems to Individuals with Unilateral Hearing Loss.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the attenuation characteristics of 5 Frequency Modulation system sound delivery options for 25 adults and children (ages 5-13). Degree of ear canal occlusion was a major factor in degree of attenuation. For children with unilateral hearing impairments, the most acoustically appropriate option was the tube-fitting. (Author/JDD)

Kopun, Judy G.; And Others



Unicornuate uterus and unilateral ovarian agenesis associated with pelvic kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, we present a case of unilateral müllerian and ovarian agenesis associated with pelvic kidney. The patient was a 27-year-old woman who complained of an inability to conceive. We performed a hysterosalpingogram, hysteroscopy, laparoscopy, and an excretory urogram (IVP). At laparoscopy, we found an unicornuate uterus without a rudimentary horn. The right round ligament, fallopian tube, and ovary

B. Mülayim; O. Oral


Unilateral parathyroidectomy: the role of thallium-technetium subtraction scans.  


The rationale for using the thallium-technetium subtraction scan as a preoperative localizing study in previously untreated patients with primary hyperparathyroidism is presented. The concept of unilateral parathyroidectomy is also presented, and the role of preoperative localizing studies in this approach to parathyroid surgery is carefully analyzed. PMID:2165235

Davis, R K; Hoffmann, J; Dart, D; Datz, F L



Unilateral Forced Nostril Breathing Affects Dichotic Listening for Emotional Tones  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Unilateral forced nostril breathing (UFNB) through the left nostril is associated with enhanced spatial abilities, whereas UFNB through the right nostril is associated with enhanced verbal abilities. However, the effects of UFNB on standard tasks of laterality (e.g., dichotic listening) are unknown. This study employed dichotic listening for word…

Saucier, Deborah M.; Tessem, Farzana Karim; Sheerin, Aaron H.; Elias, Lorin



Animal model of unilateral ventilator-induced lung injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To design, im- plement, and test a selective lung ventilator for setting a rat model of unilateral ventilator-induced lung in- jury (VILI). Design and setting: In- terventional animal study in a uni- versity laboratory for animal re- search. Subjects: Anesthetized and paralyzed male Wistar rats. Inter- ventions: A selective ventilator de- signed to apply varying tidal volume, PEEP, and

Ramon Farre; Susana Granell; Mar Rotger; Anna Serrano-Mollar; Daniel Closa; Daniel Navajas



Weight changes associated with unilateral STN DBS and advanced PD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weight gain following bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) in Parkinson disease (PD) has been characterized previously, but little is known about changes in weight following unilateral STN DBS. Weight gain of approximately 10kg at one year after bilateral STN DBS for PD has been noted in previous studies, and PD in the absence of DBS has been

Harrison C. Walker; Michael Lyerly; Gary Cutter; Johnson Hagood; Natividad P. Stover; Stephanie L. Guthrie; Barton L. Guthrie; Ray L. Watts



Postural control in Parkinson's disease after unilateral posteroventral pallidotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Postural control changes were studied in 27 patients the patients were in the 'on' state, LOS posturography variables of average time to target, average path length with Parkinson's disease after unilateral posteroventral deviation, and the number of targets missed were the pallidotomy (PVP). Patients were evaluated before PVP only variables significantly improved at 3 months post- and at 3,

Deborah Roberts-Warrior; Averell Overby; Joseph Jankovic; Sharon Olson; Eugene C. Lai; J. K. Krauss; Robert Grossman



IQ Decline Following Early Unilateral Brain Injury: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We examine whether children with early unilateral brain injury show an IQ decline over the course of development. Fifteen brain injured children were administered an IQ test once before age 7 and again several years later. Post-7 IQ scores were significantly lower than pre-7 IQ scores. In addition, pre-7 IQ scores were lower for children with…

Levine, Susan C.; Kraus, Ruth; Alexander, Erin; Suriyakham, Linda Whealton; Huttenlocher, Peter R.



Unilateral asterixis due to a lesion of the ventrolateral thalamus.  

PubMed Central

A case of unilateral asterixis in a man with a focal ischaemic lesion of the contralateral ventral thalamus is presented. Atypically, the movements were present at rest and had a pattern of activation that resulted in an initial misdiagnosis of epilepsia partialis continua. This case emphasises the importance of electromyographic analysis in establishing the correct diagnosis of involuntary movements before starting specific treatment. Images

Stell, R; Davis, S; Carroll, W M



Dissociation between Awareness and Spatial Coding: Evidence from Unilateral Neglect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalent theories about consciousness propose a causal relation between lack of spatial coding and absence of conscious experience: The failure to code the position of an object is assumed to prevent this object from entering consciousness. This is consistent with influential theories of unilateral neglect following brain damage, according to which spatial coding of neglected stimuli is defective, and this

Barbara Treccani; Roberto Cubelli; Roberta Sellaro; Carlo Umiltà; Sergio Della Sala



Abnormal /sup 201/Tl limb scan due to unilateral tremor  

SciTech Connect

A abnormal intra- and interextremity distribution pattern on /sup 201/Tl was observed on the limb scan of a patient with a unilateral tremor. This is ascribed to the increased blood flow in the muscles responsible for the tremor. The suggestion is made that the existence of tremor should be considered as a possible explanation for unexpected abnormalities on /sup 201/Tl limb scintigrams.

Simons, M.; Schelstraete, K.; Bratzlavsky, M.



Development and Evaluation of Unilateral and Bilateral Cardiac Assist Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program is to develop and evaluate unilateral and bilateral cardiac assist devices which will ultimately be used for temporary and chronic cardiac support. A family of pumps has been developed and used as right and left heart assist ...

J. T. Keiser W. F. Bernhard



The 1994 Haiti intervention: A unilateral operation in multilateral Clothes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observers of United States (US) interventions have almost universally characterized the 1994 Haiti intervention as multilateral, a model for how international cooperation can achieve common security goals. A closer analysis of the intervention reveals that the planning and execution of the intervention were almost entirely unilateral and therefore cost the US few if any of the theoretical costs of coalition

Sarah E. Kreps



Memory for Emotional Words Following Unilateral Temporal Lobectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently reported that patients who had received unilateral temporal lobectomy, including the amygdala and hippocampus, show impaired acquisition in a fear conditioning task (LaBar, LeDoux, Spencer, & Phelps, 1995), indicating a deficit in emotional memory. In the present paper, we examined performance of these patients on two verbal, emotional memory tasks in an effort to determine the extent of

Elizabeth A. Phelps; Kevin S. LaBar; Dennis D. Spencer



Unilateral Spatial Neglect in The Late Stage of Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report two patients with presumptive diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer's type (AD) who manifested a clear unilateral neglect syndrome in the late stage of the disease. At onset, their cognitive profiles were broadly similar to the usual cases of degenerative dementia, but, as the disease progressed, neglect appeared, becoming gradually more severe. MRI showed more pronounced cerebral atrophy

Annalena Venneri; Roberta Pentore; Biagio Cotticelli; Sergio Della Sala



Stimulated intrauterine insemination in women with unilateral tubal occlusion  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the value of stimulated intrauterine insemination (IUI) in women with unilateral tubal occlusion. Methods Superovulation and IUI was performed during 2003-2010 and the medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Thirty-seven infertile women (52 cycles) with unilateral tubal occlusion diagnosed by hysterosalpingography and without other causes of infertility were selected. One-hundred fourteen patients with unexplained infertility served as a control group (182 cycles). The main outcome was the clinical pregnancy rate per cycle. Results The pregnancy rate per cycle was similar, 17.3% for the unilateral tubal occlusion group and 16.5% for the unexplained infertility group. The rate of miscarriage (11.1% vs. 23.3%) and ectopic pregnancy (11.1% vs. 6.7%) was similar between the two groups. The pregnancy rate was higher in patients with proximal occlusion (25.0%) compared with distal occlusion (13.9%) or unexplained infertility, but not statistically significant. Conclusion Stimulated IUI can be suggested as the initial treatment option in women with unilateral proximal or distal tubal occlusion.

Yi, Gwang; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun



Unilateral congenital elbow luxation in a Cavalier King Charles Spaniel.  


A 7-week-old, intact female, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel was evaluated for nonweight bearing lameness of the right forelimb. Type III unilateral congenital elbow luxation was diagnosed radiographically. After surgical reduction, temporary placement of a transarticular pin, and external splinting of the joint, full weight bearing was achieved. Radial head subluxation persisted. PMID:15600161

McDonell, Heather L



Unilateral masticatory muscle hypertrophy with mandibular ramus hyperostosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquired masseteric muscle hypertrophy is a benign diagnosis that is often made clinically as a result of consultation for facial asymmetry. However, there may need to investigate for existing salivary gland pathology when history is not compelling for known causes not compelling for known causes of unilateral masticatory muscle hypertrophy. Differentiation of masticatory muscle hypertrophy from congenital hemifacial hypertrophy, partial

Opeyemi O. Daramola; Mary Lou Sabino; Valerie A. Flanary


Bimanual Force Coordination in Children with Spastic Unilateral Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study bimanual grip-force coordination was quantified using a novel "Gripper" system that records grip forces produced while holding a lower and upper unit, in combination with the lift force necessary to separate these units. Children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) (aged 5-14 years, n = 12) were compared to age matched typically…

Smits-Engelsman, B. C. M.; Klingels, K.; Feys, H.



Management of Young Children with Unilateral Hearing Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL) are at risk for academic, speech and language and social-emotional difficulties. To date, most of the evidence documented in the literature has been obtained from school-age children, most of whom were diagnosed with UHL after enrollment in school. Following the widespread institution of universal…

McKay, Sarah



IQ decline following early unilateral brain injury: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine whether children with early unilateral brain injury show an IQ decline over the course of development. Fifteen brain injured children were administered an IQ test once before age 7 and again several years later. Post-7 IQ scores were significantly lower than pre-7 IQ scores. In addition, pre-7 IQ scores were lower for children with larger lesions, but children

Susan C. Levine; Ruth Kraus; Erin Alexander; Linda Whealton Suriyakham; Peter R. Huttenlocher



IQ Decline Following Early Unilateral Brain Injury: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine whether children with early unilateral brain injury show an IQ decline over the course of development. Fifteen brain injured children were administered an IQ test once before age 7 and again several years later. Post-7 IQ scores were significantly lower than pre-7 IQ scores. In addition, pre-7 IQ scores were lower for children with…

Levine, Susan C.; Kraus, Ruth; Alexander, Erin; Suriyakham, Linda Whealton; Huttenlocher, Peter R.



Fasudil attenuates interstitial fibrosis in rat kidneys with unilateral ureteral obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate possible effects of the Rho-kinase inhibitor, fasudil, on the progression of renal failure in rats with unilateral ureteral obstruction. The renal failure markers monitored were the extent of renal interstitial fibrosis and that of macrophage infiltration. In kidneys with unilateral ureteral obstruction, interstitial fibrosis was observed, using Sirius-Red staining, on day 16 after unilateral

Shin-ichi Satoh; Tamami Yamaguchi; Asako Hitomi; Norihiro Sato; Kazumi Shiraiwa; Ichiro Ikegaki; Toshio Asano; Hiroaki Shimokawa



The age dependent relationship between facial fractures and skull fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To provide clinical evidence to support the age dependent relationship between facial fractures and skull fractures. Design: Retrospective chart review of all children and adults admitted with combined facial fractures and skull fractures and skull fractures alone between January 1991 and November 1997. Setting: The Albany Medical Center Hospital, a tertiary level-one trauma center. Patients: Two hundred and one

James Chan; Michelle A Putnam; Paul J Feustel; Peter J Koltai



Influence of natural fractures on hydraulic fracture propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydraulic fracturing has become a valuable technique for the stimulation of oil, gas, and geothermal reservoirs in a variety of reservoir rocks. In many applications, only short fractures are needed for economic production. In low-permeability reservoirs, however, long penetrating fractures are generally needed, and in this case, natural fractures can be the cause of many adverse effects during a fracture

L. W. Teufel; N. R. Warpinski



Detection of vertebral fractures.  


Despite the importance of vertebral compression fractures, there is much that remains uncertain. There is no "gold standard" for the definition which has led to epidemiologic and study differences. Height loss is a way to suspect vertebral fractures but it has its own issues. There are multiple radiographic systems for defining vertebral fractures, both prevalent and incident; risk factors for prevalent fractures have already been delineated. Recent studies have elucidated the risk factors for incident vertebral fractures including age, low weight, late menarche, lower bone mineral density, history of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures, smoking, and use of a walking aid. Fan beam densitometers have had improving ability to image the spine, a procedure now known as vertebral fracture assessment (VFA). Recently (in the United States) a CPT code and reimbursement was established. Yet, many vertebral fractures go undiagnosed, diagnosed but unreported, or reported but not utilized in patient care. Because of this, the International Osteoporosis Foundation developed a Vertebral Fracture Initiative for radiologists and the International Society for Clinical Densitometry began a VFA course. Both teaching programs use the semi-quantitative assessment of Genant to aid the radiologists and clinicians in detecting vertebral fractures. PMID:16303112

Schwartz, Elliott N; Steinberg, Dee



Fractures after antiretroviral initiation  

PubMed Central

Background Bone mineral density declines by 2–6% within 1–2 years after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART); however, it is uncertain whether this results in an immediate or cumulative increase in fracture rates. Methods We evaluated the incidence and predictors of fracture in 4640 HIV-positive participants from 26 randomized ART studies followed in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Longitudinal-Linked Randomized Trial study for a median of 5 years. Fragility and nonfragility fractures were recorded prospectively at semiannual visits. Incidence was calculated as fractures/total person-years. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated effects of traditional fracture risks, HIV disease characteristics, and ART exposure on fracture incidence. Results Median (interquartile range) age was 39 (33, 45) years; 83% were men, 48% white, and median nadir CD4 cell count was 187 (65, 308) cells/?l. Overall, 116 fractures were reported in 106 participants with median time-to-first fracture of 2.3 years. Fracture incidence was 0.40 of 100 person-years among all participants and 0.38 of 100 person-years among 3398 participants who were ART naive at enrollment into ACTG parent studies. Among ART-naive participants, fracture rates were higher within the first 2 years after ART initiation (0.53/100 person-years) than subsequent years (0.30/100 person-years). In a multivariate analysis of ART-naive participants, increased hazard of fracture was associated with current smoking and glucocorticoid use but not with exposure to specific antiretrovirals. Conclusion Fracture rates were higher within the first 2 years after ART initiation, relative to subsequent years. However, continuation of ART was not associated with increasing fracture rates in these relatively young HIV-positive individuals.

Yin, Michael T.; Kendall, Michelle A.; Wu, Xingye; Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Hochberg, Marc; Huang, Jeannie S.; Glesby, Marshall J.; Bolivar, Hector; McComsey, Grace A.



The Fornix in Patients with SeizuresCaused by Unilateral Hippocampal Sclerosis: Detectionof Unilateral Volume Loss on MR Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE. Because some of the axons of the fonnix originate in the pyramidal cells of the hippocampus, we hypothesize that neuronal loss within the hippocampus may result in wallenian degeneration and subsequent atrophy of the Ipsilatenal fornix. Using high-resolution MR imaging, we evaluated the size of the fonnix In patients who had lateralizing partial complex temporal lobe seizures after unilateral

G. Nicholas Baldwin; Jay S. Tsuruda; Kenneth R. Maravilla


Intracortical inhibition and facilitation with unilateral dominant, unilateral nondominant and bilateral movement tasks in left and right handed adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate intracortical inhibition and facilitation in response to unilateral dominant, nondominant and bilateral biceps activation and short-term upper extremity training in right and left-handed adults. Methods Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to measure intracortical excitability in motor dominant and nondominant cortices of 26 nondisabled adults. Neural facilitation and inhibition were measured in each hemisphere during unilateral dominant, nondominant and bilateral arm activation and after training in each condition. Results No differences were seen between right and left- handed subjects. Intracortical facilitation and decreased inhibition were seen in each hemisphere with unilateral activation/training of contralateral muscles and bilateral muscle activation/training. Persistent intracortical inhibition was seen in each hemisphere with ipsilateral muscle activation/training. Inhibition was greater in the nondominant hemisphere during dominant hemisphere activation (dominant arm contraction). Conclusion Strongly dominant individuals show no difference in intracortical responses given handedness. Intracortical activity with unilateral and bilateral arm activation and short-term training differs based on hemispheric dominance, with the motor dominant hemisphere exerting a larger inhibitory influence over the nondominant hemisphere. Bilateral activation and training has a disinhibitory effect in both dominant and nondominant hemispheres.

Waller, Sandy McCombe; Forrester, Larry; Villagra, Federico; Whitall, Jill



Predisposing factors in obstetrical fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare various obstetrical methods with different types of obstetrical fractures, 29 neonates with fractures were evaluated retrospectively. Plain films of skull, limbs and chest were obtained. Transfontanellar ultrasonography was performed in one case and a computed tomographic scan of the skull in two. We reviewed 12 fractures of long bones, 7 fractures of the skull, and 10 fractures of

Silva Nadas; F. Gudinchet; P. Capasso; O. Reinberg



Hydraulic Fracture Containment in Sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of hydraulic fracturing in soft, high permeability material is considered fundamentally different from that in hard, low permeability rock, where a tensile fracture is created and conventional linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) applies. The fracturing and associated modeling work is then a relatively new area. Particularly, the fracture containment in layered formations remains unknown. This research is aiming

Y. Dong



Fracturing method in solution mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this solution mining method, a channel is created between wells by fracturing without undue extension of the fracture. The method involves creating a horizontal fracture in a subterranean soluble formation extending between at least 2 boreholes. A propping agent is then placed in the fracture. The pressure is reduced when the fracture reaches the desired limits of extension. Thereafter,

D. A. Shock; Davis J. G. II



Method of fracturing subterranean strata  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method or process for fracturing and propping a subterranean stratum to provide high permeability for the flow of oil through the fracture is described. The subterranean stratum is fractured with a suitable fracturing fluid through a well penetrating the stratum. This is followed by injecting sequentially into alternate segmental portions of the fracture around the well, a permanent propping



Fracturing method and propping agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a method of fracturing a formation and creating fractures of high fluid-flow capacity in a well. It is an advantage to inject propping agents along with the hydraulic fracturing fluid, during fracturing operations. These propping agents enter the fractures and hold the fissures open after the pressure is released. The propping agents described consist of an inert core

J. L. Huitt; J. Papaila



Multiple fracturing of subterranean formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of fracturing subterranean formations is described wherein a formation is fractured and propped 2 or more times to increase the width of the propped fracture. The method involves the steps of propping the fracture with particulate material, consolidating the particulate material into a permeable mass, and thereafter refracturing the formation and then propping the fracture produced by the

C. E. Jr. Cooke; J. W. Graham; T. W. Muecke



Dyslipidemia and sternum fracture.  


Tenderness over the sternum is a clue for possible sternal fracture. Sternal fractures usually occur at the body or manubrium. Lateral chest radiography could detect a sternum fracture, but the diagnosis is usually made by chest tomography. Traumatic sternum fracture considered as a marker of seriously life-threatening, high-energy injury. In hyperlipidemia, oxidized lipids accumulate in vascular tissues and trigger atherosclerosis. Such lipids also deposit in bone tissues where they may promote osteoporosis. In the literature, there is no previously reported traumatic sternal fracture due to hyperlipidemia-induced osteoporosis. Here, we report a case of a combined mixed type familial hyperlipidemia-induced osteoporosis in which the patient having seat belt on had an unexpected sternum fracture in a low-energy motor vehicle accident. PMID:23478107

Can, Cagdas; Gulact?, Umut; Sar?han, Aydin; Topacoglu, Hakan



Kane Fracture Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kane Fracture Zone probably is better covered by geophysical survey data, acquired both by design and incidentally, than\\u000a any other fracture zone in the North Atlantic Ocean. We have used this data to map the basement morphology of the fracture\\u000a zone and the adjacent crust for nearly 5700 km, from near Cape Hatteras to the middle of the Mesozoic

Brian E. Tucholke; Hans Schouten



[Epidemiology of limb fractures].  


To analyze age- and sex-specific frequencies of peripheral fractures, we used data from the third MONICA-Augsburg Survey (1994/95). The study comprises 2404 male and 2450 female participants (age 25 to 74 years) who were questioned regarding fracture history. We investigated fracture prevalence, age-specific incidence rates, and the circumstances under which the fractures occurred. The age-standardized, cumulative fracture prevalence among men (m) 25 to 74 years of age was 45% and among women (w) of the same age 31%. Fracture prevalence among women was more than 10% lower than among men in the younger age groups (age 25 to 64 years), but after an significant increase in the 65 to 74-year-olds the fracture prevalence corresponded to that of men (m: 42%, w: 40%). A peak of incidence rates was found among men at age 15-24 (overall incidence rate: 2017 fractures/100,000 person-years) and at age 45-54 (overall incidence rate: 1640 fractures/100,000 PY), respectively, and among women at age 65-74 (overall incidence rate: 3214 fractures/100,000 PY). The prevalence of self-reported osteoporosis (age 25 to 74 years) was higher in women (7%) than in men (1%). Falls caused 43% (w: 59%, m: 33%) of all fractures, external violence 40% (m: 47%, w: 29%), and sports activities 15% (m: 18%, w: 10%). Further investigation of risk factors related to fractures can contribute to the development of specific preventive measures in that field. In the future, the prevention and efficient treatment of an existing or an often undiagnosed osteoporosis and also the prevention of falls in elderly persons should be an important public health concern. PMID:11963475

Meisinger, C; Wildner, M; Stieber, J; Heier, M; Sangha, O; Döring, A



Natural fracture systems studies  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this program are (1) to develop a basinal-analysis methodology for natural fracture exploration and exploitation, and (2) to determine the important characteristics of natural fracture systems for use in completion, stimulation, and production operations. Natural-fracture basinal analysis begins with studies of fractures in outcrop, core and logs in order to determine the type of fracturing and the relationship of the fractures to the lithologic environment. Of particular interest are the regional fracture systems that are pervasive in western US tight sand basins. A Methodology for applying this analysis is being developed, with the goal of providing a structure for rationally characterizing natural fracture systems basin-wide. Such basin-wide characterizations can then be expanded and supplemented locally, at sites where production may be favorable. Initial application of this analysis is to the Piceance basin where there is a wealth of data from the Multiwell Experiment (MWX), DOE cooperative wells, and other basin studies conducted by Sandia, CER Corporation, and the USGS (Lorenz and Finley, 1989, Lorenz et aI., 1989, and Spencer and Keighin, 1984). Such a basinal approach has been capable of explaining the fracture characteristics found throughout the southern part of the Piceance basin and along the Grand Hogback.

Lorenz, J.C.; Warpinski, N.R.



Chart - Fracture Toughness Modulus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chart depicting fracture toughness and Young's modulus of various materials including foams, polymers, elastomers, natural materials, composites, metals, technical ceramics, and non-technical ceramics.

Ashby, Mike



Pathological fractures in children  

PubMed Central

Pathological fractures in children can occur as a result of a variety of conditions, ranging from metabolic diseases and infection to tumours. Fractures through benign and malignant bone tumours should be recognised and managed appropriately by the treating orthopaedic surgeon. The most common benign bone tumours that cause pathological fractures in children are unicameral bone cysts, aneurysmal bone cysts, non-ossifying fibromas and fibrous dysplasia. Although pathological fractures through a primary bone malignancy are rare, these should be recognised quickly in order to achieve better outcomes. A thorough history, physical examination and review of plain radiographs are crucial to determine the cause and guide treatment. In most benign cases the fracture will heal and the lesion can be addressed at the time of the fracture, or after the fracture is healed. A step-wise and multidisciplinary approach is necessary in caring for paediatric patients with malignancies. Pathological fractures do not have to be treated by amputation; these fractures can heal and limb salvage can be performed when indicated.

De Mattos, C. B. R.; Binitie, O.; Dormans, J. P.



Evaluation of the relationship between fracture conductivity, fracture fluid production, and effective fracture length  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-permeability gas wells often produce less than predicted after a fracture treatment. One of the reasons for this is that fracture lengths calculated after stimulation are often less than designed lengths. While actual fracture lengths may be shorter due to fracture growth out of zone, improper proppant settling, or proppant flowback, short calculated fracture lengths can also result from incorrect

Elyezer P. Lolon



Optic nerve trauma with unilateral edema as a result of head injury.  


We encountered a patient who suffered a head injury that translated to the optic nerves, leading to dramatic unilateral right optic nerve edema. The decedent was a 20-year-old unsecured passenger in a convertible. The car collided with a pickup truck. The patient survived for 8 h. At autopsy, a comminuted skull fracture involving the right frontal bone including the right orbital plate was found. The right optic nerve measured 1.2 cm in diameter, compared to only 0.4 cm for the left optic nerve. Microscopically, the right optic nerve was markedly edematous, but the nerve fibers and nuclei were viable and intact. The dramatic difference in size between the right and left optic nerves can be attributed to several mechanisms. The survival interval was essential for the asymmetrical swelling to take place. Optic nerve trauma is relatively rare in head injuries, reported to be present in 0.5% of automobile accidents and assaults. Other causes of optic nerve trauma and edema include tumors, osteopetrosis, or reaction to a peripheral hemodialysis shunt. PMID:20569958

Carson, Henry J; Lingamfelter, Daniel; Dudley, Mary H



Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain  


MENU Return to Web version Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain More than 40 million people in the ... bones that puts them at risk for spine fractures (broken bones). Thinning of the bones can occur ...


Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics Primer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This primer is intended to remove the blackbox perception of fracture mechanics computer software by structural engineers. The fundamental concepts of linear elastic fracture mechanics are presented with emphasis on the practical application of fracture m...

C. D. Wilson



Analysis of zygomatic fractures.  


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the natural history of zygomatic fractures in 469 cases over 14 years. The medical records of patients seeking treatment for zygomatic fractures were reviewed. The zygomatic fractures were classified as monopod, dipod, or tripod fractures for most patients. The monopod fractures included (1) zygomaticofrontal, (2) zygomaticomaxillary, and (3) zygomatic arch fractures. The dipod fractures were subclassified into 3 types according to combination of the previously mentioned 3 sites, which were 1 and 2, 1 and 3, and 2 and 3. Tripod fracture included all 1, 2, and 3. Among 469 cases of zygomatic fractures, tripod fractures (n = 238, 50.7%), zygomaticomaxillary fracture (n = 121, 25.8%), and isolated fracture of the zygomatic arch (n = 98 20.9%) formed most of the cases (n = 457, 97.4%). About one-half cases were tripod fractures (n = 238, 50.7%), and another half cases were monopod fractures (n = 220, 46.9%). Only 11 cases (2.4%) were dipod fractures. Most of the monopod fractures were zygomaticomaxillary (n = 121, 25.8%) and zygomatic arch fractures (n = 98, 20.9%). Among the dipod fractures, no cases of zygomaticofrontal and zygomatic arch fractures were reported. An open reduction was performed in 73.8% (346 cases), closed reduction in 24.5% (115 cases), and conservative treatment in only 1.7%. In tripod fracture (n = 238), an open reduction and internal fixation was performed for most of the cases (n = 225, 94.5%), and closed reduction was performed in only 11 cases (4.6%). In monopod zygomaticomaxillary fracture (n = 121), internal fixation was performed for most of the cases (n = 108, 89.3%), and closed reduction was performed in only 9 cases (7.7%). However, in monopod fracture of the zygomatic arch (n = 98), most of the cases (n = 95, 96.9%) were treated with closed reduction; open reduction was performed in only 1 case (1.0%). At zygomaticofrontal area (n = 241), internal fixation was performed in most of the cases (n = 198, 82.2%). At the infraorbital rim (n = 364), internal fixation was carried out in most cases (n = 257, 70.6%). At the zygomaticomaxillary buttress (n = 279), internal fixation was performed in about one third of the cases (n = 91, 32.6%). At the zygomatic arch (n = 339), only 1 case (0.3%) was fixed internally. The postoperative complication rate occurred in 88 cases (19.1%) among 461 cases operated. The most common complication was hypesthesia (50 cases, 56.8%), followed by diplopia (15 cases, 17.0%), limitation of mouth opening or closure (11 cases, 12.5%), infection (6.8%), and hematoma (4.5%). Most patients with hypesthesia improved at 2 months. About 90% of the patients with diplopia improved within 2 months. Limitation of mouth opening was improved immediately after operation in most of the cases. Our findings demonstrate significant differences in the demographics and clinical presentation that will enable a more accurate diagnosis and prediction of concomitant injuries and sequelae. PMID:21772174

Hwang, Kun; Kim, Dong Hyun



Unilateral parathyroidectomy: the value of the localizing scan.  


Surgery for correction of primary hyperparathyroidism utilizing a standard bilateral neck exploration has a success rate of approximately 90 to 95%. With the inception of pre-operative localization studies that were 90% accurate in localizing the diseased gland, the concept arose that a unilateral exploration could be as successful as a bilateral exploration. Bilateral exploration of the neck for hyperparathyroidism exposes the patient to a greater potential of morbidity for hypoparathyroidism and recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. It is our feeling based on personal experience that unilateral parathyroidectomy in selective cases can be as successful as the bilateral operation and be more cost effective, saving over $1,100 (U.S.) per case. PMID:8230383

Petti, G H; Chonkich, G D; Morgan, J W



Unilateral Stance Strategies of Athletes With ACL Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Aberrant movement strategies are characteristic of ACL-deficient athletes with recurrent knee instability (non-copers), and may instigate premature or accelerate joint degradation. Biomechanical evaluation of kinematic changes over time may elucidate noncopers’ responses to neuromuscular intervention and ACL reconstruction (ACLR). Forty noncopers were randomized into a perturbation group or a strength training only group. We evaluated the effects of perturbation training, and then gender on knee angle and tibial position during a unilateral standing task before and after ACLR. No statistically significant interactions were found. Before surgery, the strength training only group demonstrated knee angle asymmetry, but 6 months after ACLR, both groups presented with similar knee flexion between limbs. Aberrant and asymmetrical tibial position was found only in females following injury and ACLR. Neither treatment group showed distinct unilateral standing strategies following intervention; however, males and female noncopers appear to respond uniquely to physical therapy and surgery.

Di Stasi, Stephanie L.; Hartigan, Erin H.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn



Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced unilateral tongue angioedema.  


Angioedema is a frequently reported side effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The literature suggests that immunosuppressed transplant patients are at an increased risk for this adverse condition. A 62-year-old African American man presented with acute unilateral angioedema attributed to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor initiation. A PubMed literature search regarding unilateral angioedema produced only 3 reported cases confirming an uncommon presentation of an otherwise common adverse drug event. The cases raised questions regarding evidence-based management of drug-induced angioedema, effectiveness of current medical management regimens and the potential of other treatment options. Our objective was to review the presentation, diagnosis and acute management of a common adverse drug effect based on an uncommon patient presentation. PMID:22986608

Kuhlen, James Lee; Forcucci, Jessica



Offspring of patients treated for unilateral Wilms' tumor in childhood  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-seven women and the wives of nine men who survived unilateral Wilms' tumor in childhood had a total of 59 live born offspring. Among the 33 infants born to women who had received orthovoltage abdominal irradiation, ten weighed less than 2500 g at birth and three died during the perinatal period. In addition, one term infant of normal weight died of complications of a breech delivery. Only one of 26 infants born to the wives of Wilms' tumor patients and unirradiated female patients weighed less than 2500 g at birth and none died. The frequency of congenital malformations and spontaneous abortions in this series was not increased, and no offspring has developed cancer. The findings suggest that the risk of Wilms' tumor is low among progeny of survivors of nonfamilial, unilateral lesions. Damage from abdominal irradiation given to girls with Wilms' tumor may predispose them to the subsequent delivery of low birthweight children.

Green, D.M.; Fine, W.E.; Li, F.P.



Leg Length Discrepancy in Unilateral Congenital Clubfoot Following Surgical Treatment  

PubMed Central

Length discrepancy secondary to limb hypoplasia has been described as an associated finding in patients with unilateral clubfoot. In this manuscript we bring attention to limb length discrepancy as a result of surgical treatment in unilateral clubfoot. Three patients who underwent extensive posterior, medial and lateral release were noted to have an average discrepancy in foot height of 2.1 centimeters (range, 2.0-2.3 centimeters). A decrease in foot height in addition to baseline limb hypoplasia may lead to a significant discrepancy that may justify surgical treatment. In this manuscript we point out that length discrepancy in such cases may not be adequately quantified on standard anteroposterior scanograms. Standing lateral foot radiographs will document loss in foot height as a possible factor in length discrepancy in surgically treated clubfoot patients.

Noonan, Kenneth J; Meyers, Alex M; Kayes, Kosmas



Induced fractures: well stimulation through fracturing  

SciTech Connect

Seven fracture stimulation treatments were planned and executed under the Department of Energy-funded Geothermal Well Stimulation Program. The objective of this program is to demonstrate that geothermal well stimulation offers a technical alternative to additional well drilling and redrilling for productivity enhancement which can substantially reduce development costs. Well stimulation treatments have been performed at Raft River, Idaho; East Mesa, California; The Geysers, California; and the Baca Project Area in New Mexico. Six of the seven stimulation experiments were technically successful in stimulating the wells. The two fracture treatments in East Mesa more than doubled the production rate of the previously marginal producer. The two fracture treatments at Raft River and the two at Baca were all successful in obtaining significant production from previously nonproductive intervals. The acid etching treatment in the well at the Geysers did not have any material effect on production rate.

Hanold, R.J.



Unilateral anomalies of kidney development: why is left not right?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal renal development results in congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. As many studies suggest that renal malformations are more often found on the left side, a meta-analysis was performed on the distribution of five different unilateral anomalies: multicystic dysplastic kidney, renal agenesis\\/aplasia, renal ectopia, pelviureteral junction obstruction, and non-obstructive non-refluxing megaureter. Of these anomalies, the left side

Michiel F Schreuder



Unilateral Gigantomastia Related to Juvenile Fibroadenoma with Idiopathic Thoracic Scoliosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 15-year-old girl was referred to our Department by the orthopedic surgeons, showing a massive unilateral gigantomastia of her right breast and a progressive idiopathic thoracic scoliosis. Ventral positioning of the patient for the planned scoliosis correction was impossible without prior treatment of the hypertrophic breast.In the first operation the fibroadenoma with a total weight of 3020 g was resected

Dolores Wolfram; Hannes Behensky; Hildegunde Piza-Katzer



Silent Intravascular Lymphoma Initially Manifesting as a Unilateral Adrenal Incidentaloma  

PubMed Central

Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare subtype of malignant lymphoma. Although the involvement of adrenal glands in IVLBCL is often observed, primary adrenal IVLBCL is rare. Most reported cases of adrenal IVLBCL showed bilateral lesions resulting in rapidly progressive adrenal failure and poor prognosis. Here, we report a case of slowly progressive primary adrenal IVLBCL manifesting initially with unilateral adrenal incidentaloma. This case is a silent IVLBCL and shows that the enlargement of both adrenal glands can be followed.

Takahashi, Yoshiko; Iida, Keiji; Hino, Yasuhisa; Ohara, Takeshi; Kurahashi, Toshifumi; Tashiro, Takashi; Chihara, Kazuo



Comparison of maximal unilateral versus bilateral voluntary contraction force  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to determine whether the difference in maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) forces between\\u000a unilateral (UL) and bilateral (BL) contractions could be due to a difference in the timing of MVC peak force production between\\u000a legs during BL MVC, or due to the maximal voluntary activation level (VAL) in each leg between UL and BL

Boris Matkowski; Alain Martin; Romuald Lepers


Nasopharyngeal amyloidosis: an unusual cause of unilateral hearing loss  

PubMed Central

Amyloidosis is typically a systemic depositional disease, diagnosed on clinical symptoms and signs in conjunction with histopathology. When occurring on a localized basis in the head and neck, the lesion is most commonly observed in the larynx. Primary localized nasal amyloidosis however is an uncommon finding, with 25 reported cases in the literature to date. We present the case of a young woman presenting with primary localized nasal amyloidosis secondary to the curious symptoms of unilateral hearing loss.

Mirza, A.H.; El-Shunnar, Suliman; Sama, Anshul



Unilateral Multiple Primary Tumours in an Atomic-bomb Survivor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here a case of an atomic-bomb survivor with sequential, unilateral, multiple-organ primary tumours after exposure to direct external radiation. This 67-year-old woman was 8 years old when she was exposed to radiation from the atomic bomb. At the time of the explosion, she was in an open area, but hiding behind a tree, which shielded her left side.

M. Morishita; A. Ohtsuru; M. Nakashima; S. Yamashita



Perioperative outcomes after unilateral and bilateral total knee arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Background The safety of bilateral total knee arthroplasties (BTKA) during the same hospitalization remains controversial. We sought to study differences in perioperative outcomes between unilateral and BTKA, and further compare BTKAs performed during the same versus different operations during the same hospitalization. Methods Nationwide Inpatient Sample data from 1998 to 2006 were analyzed. Entries for unilateral and BTKA procedures performed on the same day (simultaneous) and separate days (staged) during the same hospitalization were identified. Patient and health-care system related demographics were determined. The incidence of in-hospital mortality and procedure related complications was estimated and compared between groups. Multivariate regression was used to identify independent risk factors for morbidity and mortality. Results Despite younger average age and lower comorbidity burden, procedure related complications and in-hospital mortality were more frequent after BTKA than after unilateral procedures (9.45% vs. 7.07% and 0.30% vs. 0.14%, P<0.0001 each). An increased rate of complications was associated with a staged versus simultaneous approach with no difference in mortality (10.30% vs. 9.15% (P<0.0001) and 0.29% vs. 0.26% (P=0.2875)). Independent predictors for in-hospital mortality included: BTKA (simultaneous: OR 2.23, CI=[1.69; 2.95], P<0.0001; staged: OR 2.01, CI=[1.28; 3.41], P=0.0031), male gender (OR 2.02, CI=[1.75, 2.34], P<0.0001), age above 75 years (OR 3.96 CI=[2.77, 5.66], P<0.0001), and the presence of a number of comorbidities and complications. Conclusion BTKAs carry increased risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality compared to unilateral procedures. Staging BTKA procedures during the same hospitalization offers no mortality benefit, and may even expose patients to increased morbidity.

Memtsoudis, Stavros G.; Ma, Yan; Gonzalez Della Valle, Alejandro; Mazumdar, Madhu; Gaber-Baylis, Licia K.; MacKenzie, C. Ronald; Sculco, Thomas P.



[Isolated unilateral hypoglossal nerve paralysis in carotid dissection].  


A 41-year-old man presented with a unilateral atrophy and paresis of his tongue which were not explained by any pathological finding in the brainstem or at the base of the skull. The diagnosis of right internal carotid artery dissection was suggested by magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound examination and confirmed by arterial angiography. During anticoagulant therapy clinical recovery and angiographical improvement occurred. PMID:8105395

Zipp, F; Herdt, P; Goetz, G F; Klös, G; Enzensberger, W; Fischer, P A



Recurrence of Isolated Unilateral Temporalis Muscle Hypertrophy: Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy of unknown cause is presented. It had been treated surgically\\u000a 10 years previously. The histologic workup showed normal muscle tissue. A year before, the patient had reported a slowly enlarging\\u000a mass in the right temporal region next to the eye. The recurrence of temporalis muscle hypertrophy was idiopathic. It was\\u000a managed using

L. Prantl; N. Heine; D. Ulrich; M. Eisenmann-Klein



Neural adaptations underlying cross-education after unilateral strength training  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 4-week (16 sessions) unilateral, maximal isometric strength training\\u000a on contralateral neural adaptations. Subjects were randomised to a strength training group (TG, n = 15) or to a control group (CG, n = 11). Both legs of both groups were tested for plantar flexion maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs), surface\\u000a electromyogram (EMG), H-reflexes and

Marius S. Fimland; Jan Helgerud; Gerd Marie Solstad; Vegard Moe Iversen; Gunnar Leivseth; Jan Hoff



Successful unilateral thoracoscopy for bilateral ectopic mediastinal parathyroidectomy.  


Ectopic parathyroid glands are frequently located in the thymus and may become hyperplasic in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. When medical management fails, surgical removal is required, using either a traditional open sternotomy approach or video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). We were able to excise large, bilateral, mediastinal parathyroid glands using only left VATS. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of the use of unilateral thoracoscopic subtotal thymectomy for the excision of bilateral ectopic mediastinal parathyroid glands. PMID:20376735

Fama', F; Berry, M G; Linard, C; Gioffre'-Florio, M; Metois, D



Prosthetic gait of unilateral transfemoral amputees: A kinematic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The prosthetic gait of unilateral transfemoral amputees. Design: Case series. Setting: Laboratory of Gait Analysis (GIGA-system of K-lab) in the Department of Rehabilitation of a university hospital. Patients: Eleven men with transfemoral amputation (mean age 35.7 years) participated. The amputation was performed at least 2 years ago and was caused by trauma or osteosarcoma. Main Outcome Measures: Stride parameters

Sonja M. H. J. Jaegers; J. Hans Arendzen; Henry J. de Jongh



Acute midshaft clavicular fracture.  


Clavicular fractures represent 2.6% to 5% of all fractures, and middle third fractures account for 69% to 82% of fractures of the clavicle. The junction of the outer and middle third is the thinnest part of the bone and is the only area not protected by or reinforced with muscle and ligamentous attachments. These anatomic features make it prone to fracture, particularly with a fall on the point of the shoulder, which results in an axial load to the clavicle. Optimal treatment of nondisplaced or minimally displaced midshaft fracture is with a sling or figure-of-8 dressing; the nonunion rate is very low. However, when midshaft clavicular fractures are completely displaced or comminuted, and when they occur in elderly patients or females, the risk of nonunion, cosmetic deformity, and poor outcome may be markedly higher. Thus, some surgeons propose surgical stabilization of a complex midshaft clavicular fracture with either plate-and-screw fixation or intramedullary devices. Further randomized, prospective trials are needed to provide better data on which to base treatment decisions. PMID:17426295

Jeray, Kyle J



Avulsion fractures in athletes.  

PubMed Central

34 cases of avulsion fractures are described. Each fracture took place during athletic training or competition. Excepting six sportsmen participating in a general fitness programme, every patient was an active competitive athlete. There were six women and 28 men; their average age was 20.1 years, raised by a few middle-aged "fitness sportsmen". Most avulsion fractures took place in sprinters and hurdlers; next were middle and long distance renner, footballers, fitness joggers, skiers and ice-hockey players. The most usual location of a fracture was the anterior pelvic spines; avulsion fractures were also detected in various parts of lower limbs. There were fewer avulsion fractures in the area of the trunk and upper extremities. Roetgenologically, the diagnosis of an avulsion fracture is generally easy to make. However, the diagnosis is facilitated by knowing the mechanism of the injury, the technique of the athletic event, and some of the training methods. Generally, a fracture heals well, even if it requires both sufficient immobilisation and some delay in resuming physical exertion.

Orava, S.; Ala-Ketola, L.



Assessment of fracture risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD). There are a number of clinical risk factors that provide information on fracture risk over and above that given by BMD. The assessment of fracture risk thus needs to be distinguished from diagnosis to take account of the independent value of the clinical risk factors. These

John A. Kanis; Frederik Borgstrom; Chris De Laet; Helena Johansson; Olof Johnell; Bengt Jonsson; Anders Oden; Niklas Zethraeus; Bruce Pfleger; Nikolai Khaltaev



Periprosthetic femoral fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periprosthetic fractures of the femur are a challenging complication following total joint arthroplasty. They can occur in either the perioperative or postoperative periods and although they are separate entities, the principles on which management decisions are based remain the same. The Vancouver classification system is becoming the most widely accepted for fractures following total hip arthroplasty and that of Lewis

P. Campbell; T. G. McWilliams



Fatigue Fracture of Polymethylmethacrylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two distinct fracture morphologies have been observed in commercial grade polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cycled to failure at room temperature in uniaxial loading. In extruded PMMA the fatigue striations are concentric with one origin, increasing in spacing until final fracture occurs. Some of the fatigue striations are serrated owing to the crack being stalled by flaws which are inherent to the material.

T. A. Johnson



Introduction into Fracture Mechanics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present report gives an introduction to the basic principles of fracture mechanics. First the behaviour of a linear elastic body containing a crack is described. This is followed by a survey of experimental methods for the determination of fracture me...

K. H. Schwalbe



Fractures in myelomeningocele  

PubMed Central

Background In patients with myelomeningocele (MMC), a high number of fractures occur in the paralyzed extremities, affecting mobility and independence. The aims of this retrospective cross-sectional study are to determine the frequency of fractures in our patient cohort and to identify trends and risk factors relevant for such fractures. Materials and methods Between March 1988 and June 2005, 862 patients with MMC were treated at our hospital. The medical records, surgery reports, and X-rays from these patients were evaluated. Results During the study period, 11% of the patients (n = 92) suffered one or more fractures. Risk analysis showed that patients with MMC and thoracic-level paralysis had a sixfold higher risk of fracture compared with those with sacral-level paralysis. Femoral-neck z-scores measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) differed significantly according to the level of neurological impairment, with lower z-scores in children with a higher level of lesion. Furthermore, the rate of epiphyseal separation increased noticeably after cast immobilization. Mainly patients who could walk relatively well were affected. Conclusions Patients with thoracic-level paralysis represent a group with high fracture risk. According to these results, fracture and epiphyseal injury in patients with MMC should be treated by plaster immobilization. The duration of immobilization should be kept to a minimum (<4 weeks) because of increased risk of secondary fractures. Alternatively, patients with refractures can be treated by surgery, when nonoperative treatment has failed.

Bresch, Bjoern; Raiss, Patric; Furstenberg, Carl Hans; Bruckner, Thomas; Seyler, Thorsten; Carstens, Claus; Abel, Rainer



Avulsion fractures in athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

34 cases of avulsion fractures are described. Each fracture took place during athletic training or competition. Excepting six sportsmen participating in a general fitness programme, every patient was an active competitive athlete. There were six women and 28 men; their average age was 20.1 years, raised by a few middle-aged \\

S. Orava; L. Ala-Ketola



Hydraulic fracturing technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This improved hydraulic fracturing method consists of injecting into previously formed fractures filled with a very viscous fluid, a relatively nonviscous fluid containing sand or other propping agent material. The low viscosity fluid fingers through the high viscosity fluid in radial channels and when the fingers containing the propping agent reach the extremity of the highly viscous fluid, they mushroom



Well fracturing method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a process wherein a well is fractured using a plurality of solid particles as propping agent, the propping agent particles are color-coded so that if propping particles are subsequently produced out of one or more of the propped fractures, these produced propping particles, when recovered at the earth's surface, can, because of their color-coding, give an indication as to




Computerized Posturographic Measurement in Elderly Women with Unilateral Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify the subtle change of postural control in elderly patients with unilateral knee osteoarthritis (OA) with computerized dynamic posturography. Method Twenty-two healthy women and twenty-six women with unilateral knee OA, aged 60 and over, were enrolled. The computerized posturographic measures included a weight bearing pattern during squatting and sit-to-stand, sway velocity of center of gravity (COG) during one leg standing, on-axis velocity and directional control of COG during rhythmic weight shift, rising index during sit-to-stand, end sway during tandem walk, and movement time during step up/over. Results It was shown that patients bore significantly less weight on the affected side during the 30° and 60° squat and sit-to-stand. Sway velocity of COG during one leg standing was greater whereas the on-axis velocity and directional control during the front/back rhythmic weight shift were significantly lower in the patient group. The rising index during sit-to-stand was significantly lower and movement time during step up/over with the affected side was significantly longer in patients. Conclusion This study demonstrated in detail a decline of postural balance by utilizing computerized posturography in elderly women with unilateral knee OA. They had less weight-bearing, more sway, and less ability of intentional postural control on the affected side.

Lim, Kil-Byung



Abnormal primary somatosensory function in unilateral polymicrogyria: an MEG study.  


The purpose of this study is to investigate the primary somatosensory function in patients with unilateral polymicrogyria. Somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs) due to median and posterior tibial nerve stimulation were compared in the normal and dysplastic cortices of five patients with unilateral polymicrogyria. SEFs were observed in all five normal hemispheres and three dysplastic hemispheres. Latencies of N20m and P38m, the first cortical components of and SEFs for median nerve and tibial nerve stimulation, were all within the normal range in both normal and dysplastic hemispheres. The amplitudes of the N20m and P38m in the dysplastic hemispheres were smaller in one patient and larger in two patients compared to the normal hemispheres. Equivalent current dipoles of N20m and P38m were localized on the anatomical central sulcus of the normal hemispheres and over the central area of the dysplastic hemispheres. P38m dipoles were localized medial and upward to the N20m dipole in both normal and dysplastic hemispheres. N20m dipole orientation was normal in all normal hemispheres and in one dysplastic hemisphere, but abnormally inferior in two dysplastic hemispheres. P38m dipole had normal medial orientation in all hemispheres except one dysplastic hemisphere. Abnormality of the primary somatosensory function in the dysplastic cortex of patients with unilateral polymicrogyria was clearly demonstrated by magnetoencephalography with high resolution in time and space. The normal somatotopic arrangement was preserved. PMID:15626537

Ishitobi, Mamiko; Nakasato, Nobukazu; Yoshimoto, Takashi; Iinuma, Kazuie



Fractures of the Scapula  

PubMed Central

The scapula plays a critical role in the association between the upper extremity and the axial skeleton. Fractures of the scapula account for 0.4% to 1% of all fractures and have an annual incidence of approximately 10 per 100,000 inhabitants. Scapular fractures typically result from a high-energy blunt-force mechanism and are often associated with other traumatic injuries. The present review focuses on the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of fractures of the scapula. Indications for surgical treatment of glenoid fossa, scapular neck, and scapular body fractures are presented in detail. Finally, the authors' preferred surgical technique, including positioning, approach, reduction, fixation, and post-operative management, is described.

Voleti, Pramod B.; Namdari, Surena; Mehta, Samir



Intraoperative lacrimal intubation to prevent epiphora as a result of injury to the nasolacrimal system after fracture of the naso-orbitoethmoid complex.  


Treatment of fracture of the naso-orbitoethmoid (NOE) complex is difficult. There are not only aesthetic issues but also functional consequences related to the lacrimal system. Because prophylactic lacrimal intubation for such fractures remains controversial, we have assessed the effectiveness of intraoperative lacrimal intubation to prevent epiphora as a result of such injuries. Thirteen patients diagnosed with craniomaxillofacial fractures including fractures of the NOE complex were included in the study; 10 had unilateral fractures and 3 bilateral. Computed tomography (CT) showed all patients had displaced fragments that had the potential to damage the lacrimal duct. In 7 patients the fractures included the canthal region and in 6 they did not. All patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation under general anaesthesia, followed by intraoperative lacrimal intubation unilaterally or bilaterally as required. Lacrimal intubation with a silicone tube was successful in all 13 patients (16 sides). The tube was removed 2-9months (mean 3.8) postoperatively and no subsequent epiphora were seen during follow-up (mean (3-29months) 11.3months). Lacrimal intubation for at least 2months may prevent epiphora caused by injury to the nasolacrimal system after fractures of the NOE complex. PMID:22853979

Iwai, Toshinori; Yasumura, Kazunori; Yabuki, Yuichiro; Omura, Susumu; Matsui, Yoshiro; Kobayashi, Shinji; Fujimaki, Ryo; Okubo, Makiko; Tohnai, Iwai; Maegawa, Jiro



Maxillofacial fractures in children.  


Maxillofacial fractures in Japanese children were retrospectively analyzed. The subjects were 287 patients aged 15 years and younger seeking treatment for maxillofacial fractures in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nara Medical University. The patients were 186 males and 101 females. Injuries most frequently occurred as a result of traffic accidents in 125 patients, 92 of which were bicycle-related accidents. Injuries by falling from one level to another were found in 49, primarily in younger children. One hundred seventy-nine fractures occurred in the mandible, 100 in the midface, and 8 in both. In the mandible, fractures most frequently occurred in condyle followed by symphysis. In the midface, alveolus was mostly involved. The facial injury severity scale ranged from 1 to 9 with an average of 1.83 and was higher in traffic accidents. Injury to other sites of the body was found in 33 patients, 28 of which occurred in traffic accidents. Observation was most frequently chosen in 84 patients. Intramaxillary fixation was chosen in 79, primarily for alveolar fractures and in younger children. Maxillomandibular fixation was chosen in 62 for mandibular fractures in older children. Open reduction and internal fixation was performed in 40, primarily in older children. The facial injury severity scale was higher in patients treated by open reduction and internal fixation and maxillomandibular fixation. Maxillofacial fractures in Japanese children showed characteristic features primarily depending on their age in terms of etiology, patterns, and treatment modalities. PMID:23348275

Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Matsusue, Yumiko; Horita, Satoshi; Murakami, Kazuhiro; Sugiura, Tsutomu; Kirita, Tadaaki



Method of fracturing subsurface formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a method of forming a multilayer pack of rigid, spherical propping agent particles in a fracture in a relatively soft formation, after the formation has been fractured, the faces of the fracture are sealed for only a part of the distance from the well. A liquid carrying the propping agent is then displaced into the fracture whereby the liquid

J. L. Huitt; B. B. McGlothlin



Analysis of Sidewalk Fractures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sidewalks provide a good analog for the study of fractures when outcrops are not available. This exercise is taught as the first lab of the semester in an undergraduate structural geology course. Students learn to make systematic observations, measure the orientation and location of fractures, manipulate and analyze data, and consider some kinematic and dynamic questions regarding the origin and significance of fractures. Their experiences are also used later in the course to reinforce key concepts of brittle deformation. Done as a group project, it emphasizes the importance of group work and encourages students to propose and defend their ideas.

Onasch, Charles


Frontal Sinus Fractures  

PubMed Central

The management of frontal sinus fractures has changed over the past 20 years. Whereas the indications for an invasive procedure had been much broader in the past, it has become more common to treat these fractures conservatively, due to improved imaging modalities, the advent of endoscopic surgical treatment of the nasofrontal outflow tracts, and the improved understanding of frontal sinus physiology. A variety of algorithms have been proposed for the management of frontal sinus fractures; however, we present a simplified treatment algorithm, which uses cranialization, obliteration, reconstruction, observation, and endoscopic sinus surgery.

Echo, Anthony; Troy, Jared S.; Hollier, Larry H.



Periprosthetic patellar fractures.  


Periprosthetic patellar fractures represent a spectrum of injuries to a patient with a total knee arthroplasty. They range in severity from an inconsequential injury, which does not compromise function, to a severely debilitating injury that may require advanced reconstructive measures. This article will outline the epidemiology and risk factors associated with periprosthetic patellar fractures. Treatment options as they relate to injury mechanism, fracture severity, patellar component stability, and remaining bone stock will also be discussed. Finally, a review of the current literature regarding the results of treatment will be presented. PMID:23975335

Adigweme, Obinna O; Sassoon, Adam A; Langford, Joshua; Haidukewych, George J



Predictors of femoral neck fracture following hip resurfacing: a cadaveric study.  


We aimed to establish if radiological parameters, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and quantitative CT (qCT) could predict the risk of sustaining a femoral neck fracture following hip resurfacing. Twenty-one unilateral fresh frozen femurs were used. Each femur had a plain digital anteroposterior radiograph, DEXA scan and qCT scan. Femurs were then prepared for a Birmingham Hip Resurfacing femoral component and loaded to failure. Results demonstrated that gender and qCT measurements showed strong correlation with failure load. QCT could be used as an individual measure to predict risk of post-operative femoral neck fracture. However, when qCT is unavailable; gender, pre-operative DEXA scan and Neck Width measurements can be used together to assess risk of post-operative femoral neck fracture in patients due to undergo hip resurfacing. PMID:22770857

Davis, Edward T; Olsen, Michael; Zdero, Rad; Smith, Gemma M; Waddell, James P; Schemitsch, Emil H



Unilateral right anterior capsulotomy for refractory major depression with comorbid obsessive–compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Treatment-resistant major depression (MDD) and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) remain a major cause of suffering and disability. These disorders may be treated with functional neurosurgery that almost always is bilateral but some patients might benefit from unilateral procedures. Methods: We performed a unilateral right anterior capsulotomy (AC) in a 45-year-old right-handed woman with MDD and comorbid OCD. This unilateral procedure

Alonso R. Riestra; Jaime Aguilar; Gerardo Zambito; Gabriela Galindo y Villa; Fernando Barrios; Carla García; Kenneth M. Heilman



Unilateral Multiple Facial Angiofibromas: A Case Report with Brief Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Tuberous sclerosis (TSC) is an autosomal dominant hereditary condition with many varied forms of clinical presentation. The most frequent cutaneous findings in TSC include multiple angiofibromas, hypopigmented macules, periungual fibromas, and shagreen patch. Rarely, unilateral multiple facial angiofibromas have been reported. We report a case of unilateral multiple facial angiofibromas without any other manifestations of TSC. Although rare, unilateral multiple facial angiofibromas may be a mosaic form of TSC.

Gutte, Rameshwar; Khopkar, Uday



Lateral specificity in resistance training: the effect of bilateral and unilateral training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximal voluntary strength of simultaneous bilateral exertion has been shown to be small compared to the sum of the unilateral\\u000a exertions. Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of bilateral and unilateral resistance training on this\\u000a bilateral deficit and to compare these in hands, arms, and legs. In each experiment, the subjects were divided into three\\u000a groups: unilateral training

Yuko Taniguchi



Hearing in Patients Operated Unilaterally for Otosclerosis. Self-assessment of Hearing and Audiometric Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lundman L, Mendel L, Bagger-Sjoback D, Rosenhall U. Hearing in patients operated unilaterally for otosclerosis. Self-assessment of hearing and audiometric results. Acta Otolaryngol (Stockh) 1999; 119: 453-458. The objective of this study was to examine the outcome of unilateral stapes surgery in one patient group with bilateral hearing loss and one group with unilateral hearing loss. The patients' own estimations



Osteoporotic fractures in older adults  

PubMed Central

Osteoporotic fractures are emerging as a major public health problem in the aging population. Fractures result in increased morbidity, mortality and health expenditures. This article reviews current evidence for the management of common issues following osteoporotic fractures in older adults including: (1) thromboembolism prevention; (2) delirium prevention; (3) pain management; (4) rehabilitation; (5) assessing the cause of fracture; and (6) prevention of subsequent fractures. Areas for practice improvement and further research are highlighted.

Colon-Emeric, Cathleen S.; Saag, Kenneth G.



Criteria for impulsive rock fracture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosive or percussive breakage of rock relies on impulsive rock fracture and both the fracture stress and fracture energy under such conditions are observed to be significantly greater than measured quasi-statically. The implication of rate dependence has been verified in recent tensile fracture studies and in the present report this data has been compiled, significant trends noted, and comparisons made with earlier impulsive fracture criteria.

Grady, D. E.; Lipkin, J.



Metatarsal stress fractures - aftercare  


... blood pressure, kidney disease, or have had stomach ulcers or bleeding, talk with your health care provider ... pain. When you restart an activity after a stress fracture, build up slowly. If your foot begins ...


Hydraulic Fracturing Near Interfaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Theoretical and experimental studies are being conducted of pressure driven fractures near interfaces that separate differing materials. When a crack propagates in material A toward a well bonded interface at half the dilatational wave speed, there is an ...

R. J. Shaffer M. E. Hanson G. D. Anderson



Thick Section Fracture Toughness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this program was to evaluate plane stress and plane strain fracture toughness for eight alloys suitable for thich section application on the supersonic transport. A preliminary heat treat study was conducted using precracked Charpy specimen...



Osteoporotic fracture: missed opportunity for intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

As prior fracture is consistently associated with increased risk of subsequent fracture, subjects with a history of prior fracture represent a high risk group which should be targeted for intervention to reduce future fracture rates. The aim of this study was to investigate whether prior osteoporotic fracture affected treatment patterns among subjects admitted with hip fractures. All hip fracture admissions

Leah Port; N. Kathy Briffa; Tuan Nguyen; Robert Cumming; John Eisman



Central auditory impairment in unilateral diencephalic and telencephalic lesions.  


The extent of perceptual impairment following unilateral lesions in the auditory cortex, its thalamic or callosal afferents was studied with psychoacoustic tests. Thresholds for the discrimination of signal frequency, intensity and duration were acquired under three different conditions of headphone stimulation ('monaural', 'interaural', and 'dichotic signal/noise tests') using the three-alternative forced-choice procedure. The different test alternatives generated distinct auditory percepts, which is in accordance with the assumption of specific signal processing at the level of the auditory brainstem and at thalamocortical auditory areas. Twenty-one patients from neurology were studied who suffered from unilateral lesions in the auditory cortex, the auditory thalamus, or the acoustic radiation. Location and extent of the lesions were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Monaural tests of either ear revealed no deficits in auditory performance. The patients showed impaired discrimination of signal frequency, intensity and duration in the dichotic signal/noise tests, when the signals were presented to the ear contralateral and the noise ipsilateral to the lesion. With inverted signal and noise stimulation, however, the thresholds were in the range of age-matched controls. All patients were able to master the interaural tests, which indicates the preserved ability to lateralize sound sources to the left and to the right with either one of the auditory cortices left intact. Another 24 patients were studied who had lesions mostly close to but sparing the before-mentioned auditory structures. All of them showed unimpaired performance in all test alternatives. The results indicate the specificity of the dichotic signal/noise tests for the identification of unilateral lesions in thalamocortical auditory structures. In addition, the results also point to the capacity of each telencephalic hemisphere to process the full range of auditory lateralization from left to right. PMID:18057870

Biedermann, Franziska; Bungert, Peggy; Dorrscheidt, Gerd Joachim; von Cramon, D Yves; Rubsamen, Rudolf



Refractive State in Children with Unilateral Congenital Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate refractive state in children with unilateral congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO). Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study includes consecutive children with unilateral congenital NLDO. Examination under anesthesia was performed to perform cycloplegic refraction and was followed by appropriate intervention in each patient. Refractive errors of the involved and sound fellow eyes were compared. Results Ninety-four children with mean age of 25.4±20.4 months (range, 6 months to 10 years) were enrolled from May 2007 to January 2010. Based on spherical equivalent refractive error, hyperopia was more common in the affected eyes, however this difference failed to reach statistical significance (P=0.5). Anisometropia more and less than 0.5 diopters (D) was present in 25% and 43% of patients respectively. Interocular difference was significant in terms of spherical refractive error and spherical equivalent (P=0.003) but not cylindrical refractive error. When the comparison was limited to hyperopic eyes, the interocular difference became more significant in terms of spherical refractive error and spherical equivalent (P<0.001). Each month of increase in age was associated with an interocular difference of 0.007D in spherical refractive error (r=0.242, P=0.02). Older age at the time of intervention was associated with more procedures (r=0.297, P=0.004). Conclusion Unilateral congenital NLDO is associated with anisometropia especially anisohyperopia which may predispose affected children to amblyopia. With increasing age, the degree of anisometropia and the number of required procedures increase. It is prudent to perform refraction and initiate proper intervention at a younger age.

Bagheri, Abbas; Safapoor, Sharareh; Yazdani, Shahin; Yaseri, Mehdi



Skin Temperature Changes in Patients With Unilateral Lumbosacral Radiculopathy  

PubMed Central

Objective To clarify the relationship of skin temperature changes to clinical, radiologic, and electrophysiological findings in unilateral lumbosacral radiculopathy and to delineate the possible temperature-change mechanisms involved. Methods One hundred and one patients who had clinical symptoms and for whom there were physical findings suggestive or indicative of unilateral lumbosacral radiculopathy, along with 27 normal controls, were selected for the study, and the thermal-pattern results of digital infrared thermographic imaging (DITI) performed on the back and lower extremities were analyzed. Local temperatures were assessed by comparing the mean temperature differences (?T) in 30 regions of interest (ROIs), and abnormal thermal patterns were divided into seven regions. To aid the diagnosis of radiculopathy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electrophysiological tests were also carried out. Results The incidence of disc herniation on MRI was 86%; 43% of patients showed electrophysiological abnormalities. On DITI, 97% of the patients showed abnormal ?T in at least one of the 30 ROIs, and 79% showed hypothermia on the involved side. Seventy-eight percent of the patients also showed abnormal thermal patterns in at least one of the seven regions. Patients who had motor weakness or lateral-type disc herniation showed some correlations with abnormal DITI findings. However, neither pain severity nor other physical or electrophysiological findings were related to the DITI findings. Conclusion Skin temperature change following lumbosacral radiculopathy was related to some clinical and MRI findings, suggesting muscle atrophy. DITI, despite its limitations, might be useful as a complementary tool in the diagnosis of unilateral lumbosacral radiculopathy.

Ra, Jong Yun; An, Sun; Lee, Geun-Ho; Kim, Tae Uk; Lee, Seong Jae



Unilateral colour vision defects and the dimensions of dichromat experience.  


The standard view, that protanopes and deuteranopes see only varieties of yellow and blue, is often taken to be supported by the reports of people with one colour-blind eye and one normal (or near-normal) eye. Judd's survey of 89 years of unilateral cases might seem authoritative: 'The color perceptions of both protanopic and deuteranopic observers are confined to two hues, yellow and blue', corresponding to 575 and 470 nm (DB Judd, J Research National Bureau Standards, 41: 247-271, 1948). A critical re-examination reveals, however, that the cases do not support Judd's claim: the original publications indicate in most cases substantial (though limited) red-green discrimination with the dichromatic eye under favourable conditions (e.g. with large fields), and evidence of red/green sensation; in the main case where researchers find sensation only of yellow and blue, it is by using experimental methods that are almost guaranteed not to reveal the full range of the subject's sensation. More recent reports (from the 1950s and later) show that, if the colour experience space of a dichromat eye collapses to a 2D slice through the 3D space of a normal trichromat, the slice may be not flat but curved (and curved in more than one dimension): there are further reasons to think that dichromat colour experience, whether unilateral or bilateral, may not collapse to a plane at all. The unilateral cases are unclear in many ways, but they certainly give no support to a 'yellow-and-blue' view of dichromat experience. PMID:20883354

Broackes, Justin



Temporal bone fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal bone injury is frequently associated with severe brain injury which limits the clinical evaluation and detracts from\\u000a the clinical signs of temporal bone fracture such as sensorineural hearing loss, conductive hearing loss, and facial nerve\\u000a paralysis. Radiologists are often the first to note the presence of temporal bone fractures and should be familiar with common\\u000a types of injuries and

Piya V. Saraiya; Nafi Aygun



Relative permeability through fractures  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism of two-phase flow through fractures is of importance in understanding many geologic processes. Currently, two-phase flow through fractures is still poorly understood. In this study, nitrogen-water experiments were done on both smooth and rough parallel plates to determine the governing flow mechanism for fractures and the appropriate methodology for data analysis. The experiments were done using a glass plate to allow visualization of flow. Digital video recording allowed instantaneous measurement of pressure, flow rate and saturation. Saturation was computed using image analysis techniques. The experiments showed that gas and liquid phases flow through fractures in nonuniform separate channels. The localized channels change with time as each phase path undergoes continues breaking and reforming due to invasion of the other phase. The stability of the phase paths is dependent on liquid and gas flow rate ratio. This mechanism holds true for over a range of saturation for both smooth and rough fractures. In imbibition for rough-walled fractures, another mechanism similar to wave-like flow in pipes was also observed. The data from the experiments were analyzed using Darcy's law and using the concept of friction factor and equivalent Reynold's number for two-phase flow. For both smooth- and rough-walled fractures a clear relationship between relative permeability and saturation was seen. The calculated relative permeability curves follow Corey-type behavior and can be modeled using Honarpour expressions. The sum of the relative permeabilities is not equal one, indicating phase interference. The equivalent homogeneous single-phase approach did not give satisfactory representation of flow through fractures. The graphs of experimentally derived friction factor with the modified Reynolds number do not reveal a distinctive linear relationship.

Diomampo, Gracel, P.



Osteoporosis and Skeletal Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis affects millions of individuals worldwide, rendering them susceptible to fragility fractures of the spine, hip,\\u000a and wrist and leading to significant morbidity, mortality, and economic cost. Given the substantial impact of osteoporosis\\u000a on both patients and the medical community, it is imperative that physicians improve awareness and knowledge of osteoporosis\\u000a in the setting of low-energy fractures. In this review,

Michael J. Gardner; Demetris Demetrakopoulos; Michael K. Shindle; Matthew H. Griffith



Scale Independent Fracture Mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Fracture mechanics is considered from the viewpoint of a field theoretical approach based on the physical principle known\\u000a as gauge invariance. The advantage of this approach is scale independent and universal. All stages of deformation, from the\\u000a elastic stage to fracturing stage can be treated on the same theoretical foundation. A quantity identified as the deformation\\u000a charge is found to

Sanichiro Yoshida; Diwas Bhattarai; Tatsuo Okiyama; Kensuke Ichinose


Epidemiology of hip fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

There were an estimated 1.66 million hip fractures worldwide in 1990. According to the epidemiologic projections, this worldwide annual number will rise to 6.26 million by the year 2050. This rise will be in great part due to the huge increase in the elderly population of the world. However, the age-specific incidence rates of hip fractures have also increased during

P. Kannus; J. Parkkari; H. Sievänen; A. Heinonen; I. Vuori; M. Järvinen



Symmetry and cleavage fracture  

SciTech Connect

The role of the symmetry of the interaction of shock waves with free and supported surfaces in the formation of cleavage fractures is studied. A qualitative analysis is made of the schemes of two limiting cases of the development of relief processes in a plate compressed by a shock wave. The results of the analysis are compared with our experiments and those of other researchers. The data obtained indicate that the process of cleavage fractures can be controlled by changing the loading symmetry.

Lebedev, M.A.; Litvinov, B.V.



Oil fracturing propping agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil-soluble prilled resins are characterized by the freedom from an oil-insoluble resinous residue. The use of such resins in the fracturing of crude oil formations is described. Substantially spherical oil-soluble propping particles for use in fracturing undergrouond oil or gas formations comprise polymerized alicyclic olefinic hydrocarbons containing anti-oxidants which inhibit the formation of oil-insoluble residue in such particles. The oil-soluble

V. B. Mazzara; J. M. Fesperman



Unilateral cacosmia: a presentation of maxillary fungal infestation.  


We present a case of long-standing unilateral cacosmia in a healthy 67-year-old man due to maxillary fungal infestation. Treatment with septoplasty had been attempted 10 years prior but no further investigation or management undertaken and symptoms continued. Subsequent MRI scan revealed significant opacification of the left maxillary sinus. This was readily amenable to treatment by balloon sinuplasty. This yielded viscous grey mucus which grew Scedosporium apiospermum. The case highlights the need for careful investigation of olfactory symptoms, including blood tests to exclude systemic causes, endoscopy and imaging where indicated. PMID:23563684

Erskine, Sally E; Schelenz, Silke; Philpott, Carl M



Surgical correction of unilateral and bilateral facial palsy  

PubMed Central

Unilateral and bilateral facial palsies are debilitating and depressing conditions for the patient. For the past 30 years attempts have been made to improve the reanimation of these patients. The ability to transfer axons over significant distances with nerve grafts and the transfer of muscle that can be revascularised by microvascular surgery greatly improves results of this surgery. The revascularisation of muscle has been the important step forward but the re-focusing of interest in this condition has brought about a number of peripheral advances.

Harrison, D



Silent intravascular lymphoma initially manifesting as a unilateral adrenal incidentaloma.  


Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare subtype of malignant lymphoma. Although the involvement of adrenal glands in IVLBCL is often observed, primary adrenal IVLBCL is rare. Most reported cases of adrenal IVLBCL showed bilateral lesions resulting in rapidly progressive adrenal failure and poor prognosis. Here, we report a case of slowly progressive primary adrenal IVLBCL manifesting initially with unilateral adrenal incidentaloma. This case is a silent IVLBCL and shows that the enlargement of both adrenal glands can be followed. PMID:22927863

Takahashi, Yoshiko; Iida, Keiji; Hino, Yasuhisa; Ohara, Takeshi; Kurahashi, Toshifumi; Tashiro, Takashi; Chihara, Kazuo



Unilateral Hydronephrosis and Renal Damage after Acute Leukemia  

PubMed Central

A 14-year-old boy presented with asymptomatic right hydronephrosis detected on routine yearly ultrasound examination. Previously, he had at least two normal renal ultrasonograms, 4 years after remission of acute myeloblastic leukemia, treated by AML-BFM-93 protocol. A function of the right kidney and no damage on the left was confirmed by a DMSA scan. Right retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy revealed 3 renal arteries with the lower pole artery lying on the pelviureteric junction. Histologically chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis was detected. In the pathogenesis of this severe unilateral renal damage, we suspect the exacerbation of deleterious effects of cytostatic therapy on kidneys with intermittent hydronephrosis.

Simanauskiene, Egle; Daugelaviciene, Valentina; Laurinavicius, Arvydas; Mickys, Ugnius; Simonyte, Vaida; Vaitkeviciene, Goda; Verkauskas, Gilvydas



[Unilateral congenital ptosis with ipsilateral superior rectus muscle overaction].  


Congenital ptosis may be frequently accompanied by weakness of the ipsilateral superior rectus muscle. We report a case of ptosis with ipsilateral superior rectus muscle overaction. The 45-year-old patient presented with unilateral congenital ptosis. Ipsilateral superior rectus muscle overaction was found in the upgaze, with an inferior sclera show. This can be found in 40% of congenital ptosis. The authors give two possible causes: either an exaggerated Bell reflex or misdirection innervations of the superior rectus muscle by the superior division of the oculomotor nerve, initially innervating the upper eyelid elevator muscle. Histological or electrophysiological studies can be useful to determine the physiopathology of this association. PMID:21665327

Ben Rayana, N; Knani, L; Touzani, F; Ben Hadj Hamida, F



Renoprotective effects of telmisartan after unilateral renal ablation in rats  

PubMed Central

Purpose The renoprotective function of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) is well-known in various studies, including the animal model of renal failure. However, detailed temporal changes of pathological and molecular findings after unilateral nephrectomy are not fully understood. The main purpose of this study was to clarify the renoprotective effects and pathological changes induced by the ARB in rat-remnant kidney (RK) tissues after unilateral nephrectomy, but not after a 5/6 nephrectomy. Methods Telmisartan, which is structurally and functionally unique among ARB, was used in this study. Three rat groups were examined: A) no ARB administrated (RK, n=21); B) continuous subcutaneous infusion of an ARB administrated (RK-ARB, n=21); and C) a sham-operated group (Sham). Renal function was evaluated by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels and creatinine clearance (Ccr). Fibrosis was evaluated by hydroxyproline levels and Masson’s trichrome staining. Expressions of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) were investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Results There was no significant difference regarding body and kidney weight or pathological features evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining between the RK and RK-ARB groups. The Ccr in the RK group was significantly lower than that in the Sham group (P<0.01), but no significant difference was found between the RK-ARB and Sham groups. The fibrotic area increased significantly with time after nephrectomy in the RK group. Although a similar trend was found in the RK-ARB group, the percentage of fibrous area in the RK-ARB group was significantly lower than that in the RK group at each time point (P<0.01). AT1R mRNA levels in the RK group were regulated immediately compared with those in the RK-ARB group. Although expressions of the AT1R and TGF-? were significantly higher in the RK-ARB group than in the Sham group, no significant differences were found between the RK-ARB and Sham group. Conclusion The ARB had renoprotective effects after unilateral nephrectomy. The ARB effectively maintained Ccr. Our results also showed the possibility that fibrotic changes mediated by AT1R and TGF-? play an important role in renal protection. Moreover, this is the first report on changes of AT1R expression after using the ARB telmisartan in kidney tissues after unilateral nephrectomy. Finally, our results suggest that ARB may be useful to prevent renal failure in patients treated with nephrectomy.

Matsuo, Tomohiro; Miyata, Yasuyoshi; Sagara, Yuji; Higami, Yoshikazu; Tobu, Shohei; Matsuo, Manabu; Noguchi, Mitsuru; Shimokawa, Isao; Kanetake, Hiroshi; Sakai, Hideki



Bilateral cerebellar dysfunctions in a unilateral meso-diencephalic lesion.  

PubMed Central

The clinical syndrome of a 65-year-old patient with a slit-shaped right-sided meso-diencephalic lesion was analysed. A cerebellar syndrome with limb-kinetic ataxia, intention tremor and hypotonicity in all extremities as well as ataxic dysarthria was found. The disruption of the two cerebello-(rubro)-thalamic pathways probably explained the signs of bilateral cerebellar dysfunction. The uncrossed ascending limb of the right, and the crossed one of the left brachium conjunctivum may have been damaged by the unilateral lesion extending between caudal midbrain and dorsal thalamus. Images

von Cramon, D



Unilateral retinitis pigmentosa: clinical and electrophysiological report of four cases.  


Unilateral retinitis pigmentosa (URP) is a rare tapetoretinal dystrophy affecting only one eye. The François and Verriest criteria are necessary to make a correct diagnosis of URP: exclude all infective etiologies, check that the clinical signs of retinitis are present in the affected eye and ensure the total absence of any signs or symptoms of retinitis pigmentosa in the fellow eye. The standard electroretinogram and standard electro-oculogram are very useful for the correct diagnosis. Other pigmentary retinopathies simulating retinitis pigmentosa have to be excluded, such as previous retinal inflammatory diseases like syphilis, rubeola, other viral diseases and onchocerciasis. In this paper, 4 cases of URP are reported. PMID:9693297

Spadea, L; Magni, R; Rinaldi, G; Dragani, T; Bianco, G



Unilateral superior pellucid marginal degeneration in a case with ichthyosis.  


A 47-year-old man with ichthyosis vulgaris presented to our hospital complaining of reduced visual acuity and ocular discomfort in the left eye. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed a thinning about 2mm from the superior limbus and superficial punctate corneal lesions in the left eyes. Corneal topography was 'butterfly-like' in an area of increased elevation in the left eye. Although ichthyosis vulgaris and unilateral superior pellucid marginal degeneration are both uncommon conditions, this is first report about these two conditions in studied together. PMID:21084217

Dundar, Huseyin; Kara, Necip; Kaya, Vedat; Bozkurt, Ercument; Yazici, Ahmet Taylan; Hekimhan, Pelin Kaynak



[Scaphoid fractures in childhood].  


This article reviews current knowledge about scaphoid fractures in children and adolescents, including the development of the scaphoid, its injuries and age-specific treatment for acute and late presenting fractures. The following recommendations are based on the literature, although scientific evidence to support treatment strategies is scarce. The diagnosis of scaphoid fractures is often missed on initial X-rays. Therefore all suspected fractures should be treated with a thumb spica cast for 2 weeks, followed by clinical examination and repeat X-ray if symptoms persist. In cases of negative X-ray findings an MRI or alternatively a CT scan are indicated. None or minimally displaced paediatric scaphoid fractures should be treated in a spica cast for at least 7 weeks until union is documented. Unlike in adults, evidence has not been provided for a benefit of routine surgical therapy. Late presenting non-unions that have not yet been treated adequately warrant a trial of conservative therapy, because healing can be expected under prolonged immobilisation. Surgical treatment should be reserved for dislocated fractures, established pseudarthroses that have not united under adequate conservative treatment or for patients to whom prolonged immobilisation does not appear to be acceptable. PMID:21445650

Weber, D M




SciTech Connect

Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

Subhash Shah



Subduction of fracture zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since Wilson proposed in 1965 the existence of a new class of faults on the ocean floor, namely transform faults, the geodynamic effects and importance of fracture zone subduction is still little studied. It is known that oceanic plates are characterized by numerous fracture zones, and some of them have the potential to transport into subduction zones large volumes of water-rich serpentinite, providing a fertile water source for magma generated in subduction-related arc volcanoes. In most previous geodynamic studies, subducting plates are considered to be homogeneous, and there is no clear indication how the subduction of a fracture zone influences the melting pattern in the mantle wedge and the slab-derived fluids distribution in the subarc mantle. Here we show that subduction of serpentinized fracture zones plays a significant role in distribution of melt and fluids in the mantle wedge above the slab. Using high-resolution tree-dimensional coupled petrological-termomechanical simulations of subduction, we show that fluids, including melts and water, vary dramatically in the region where a serpentinized fracture zone enters into subduction. Our models show that substantial hydration and partial melting tend to concentrate where fracture zones are being subducted, creating favorable conditions for partially molten hydrous plumes to develop. These results are consistent with the along-arc variability in magma source compositions and processes in several regions, as the Aleutian Arc, the Cascades, the Southern Mexican Volcanic Arc, and the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone.

Constantin Manea, Vlad; Gerya, Taras; Manea, Marina; Zhu, Guizhi; Leeman, William



[Distal femoral fractures].  


Techniques of operative treatment of supra- and intercondylar fractures have changed in recent years. These changes refer to reduction techniques and implant selection. Operative approach concepts, which remained unchanged for several decades were critically evaluated and modified to a minimal invasive osteosynthesis [MIO]. This included for intraarticular fractures a trans-articular joint reconstruction and a retrograde plate osteosynthesis (TARPO). This technique result in better operative visualization and management of intraarticular comminution, saver fracture healing and better functional outcome. For extraarticular fractures a minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) via stab incisions only or retrograde intramedullary nailing is available. Beside that new strategies and techniques for the avoidance of axial malalignment, rotational deformities and leg length discrepancies are described, as well as a new plate generation (LISS: less invasive stabilization system), which behaves more like an internal fixator. The complex nature of combined fractures and soft tissue injuries of the distal femur and proximal tibia needs special attention and specific management. Distal femoral and proximal tibial fractures in young patients are usually caused by a high energy trauma. They are complicated by a high rate of systemic and local injuries to cartilage, ligaments and skin. The patients in this group with severe injuries need a detailed treatment algorithm, because the surgeon's individual skill, enthusiasm and wishful thinking frequently led to unsatisfactory results. A decision making scheme is presented specifically addressing timing and treatment modalities. PMID:9887674

Krettek, C; Schandelmaier, P; Richter, M; Tscherne, H



Influence of natural fractures on hydraulic fracture propagation  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic fracturing has become a valuable technique for the stimulation of oil, gas, and geothermal reservoirs in a variety of reservoir rocks. In many applications, only short fractures are needed for economic production. In low-permeability reservoirs, however, long penetrating fractures are generally needed, and in this case, natural fractures can be the cause of many adverse effects during a fracture treatment. Natural fractures can influence the overall geometry and effectiveness of the hydraulic fracture by: (1) arresting the vertical or lateral growth, (2) reducing total fracture length via fluid leakoff, (3) limiting proppant transport and placement, and (4) enhancing the creation of multiple or secondary fractures rather than a single planar hydraulic fracture. The result may range from negligible to catastrophic depending on the values of the ancillary treatment and reservoir parameters, such as the treating pressure, in-situ stresses, pore pressure, orientations of the natural fractures relative to principal in-situ stresses, spacing and distribution of the natural fractures, permeability, etc. Field observations from mineback experiments at DOE's Nevada Test Site and the multiwell experiment in Colorado, laboratory tests, and analyses of these data are integrated to describe the complex fracture behavior found and to provide guidelines for predicting when this complex fracturing will occur.

Teufel, L.W.; Warpinski, N.R.



Triplane fracture associated with a proximal third fibula fracture.  


The case of a Maisonneuve fracture occurring in association with a triplane fracture in an adolescent wrestler is presented. In this combination of injuries, the deltoid ligament may be ruptured, and/or the medial malleolus fractured. If the proximal fibula fracture is not discovered, and the syndesmosis rupture is not treated, the resulting chronic talocrural instability may lead to chronic ankle pain and degenerative arthritis. The orthopedist should be aware of the possibility of a Maisonneuve fracture occurring in association with a triplane fracture, and should treat both injuries appropriately. PMID:8798988

Healy, W A; Starkweather, K D; Meyer, J; Teplitz, G A



Stress fractures in ballet dancers.  


We surveyed 54 female dancers in two professional ballet companies. A total of 27 fractures were reported in 17 dancers. Metatarsal fractures were the most common (63%), followed by fractures of the tibia (22%) and spine (7%). Dancers who danced greater than 5 hours per day were significantly more likely to have a stress fracture than those dancing less than 5 hours per day. Dancers in the stress fracture group also had a significantly longer duration of amenorrhea than those in the group with no stress fractures. No significant difference was found between the dancers who had stress fractures and those who did not with regard to any of the other variables examined. These data suggest that prolonged amenorrheic intervals and heavy training schedules may predispose ballet dancers to stress fractures. Of the 17 dancers with stress fractures, only 1 had neither of these risk factors. PMID:1357994

Kadel, N J; Teitz, C C; Kronmal, R A


Mediastinal tracheostomy: unilateral resection of the anterior chest wall.  


Since the first reliable mediastinal tracheostomy described by Grillo et al. in 1966, many new techniques have been described in order to reduce the number of complications. We here report the case of a 55-year-old man who was referred for surgery with post-radiochemotherapy recurrence of a double neoplasm of the pharyngolarynx extending to the proximal trachea and the medial part of the oesophagus. Through a median sternotomy, a pharyngolaryngoesophagectomy was performed with an extended tracheal resection. The reconstruction of the upper digestive tract was performed with a gastric pull-up. The mediastinal tracheostomy was performed with a pectoralis major muscular flap through a right unilateral resection of the manubrium, the right clavicular head and the right first and second costal cartilages. Historically, the mediastinal tracheostomy was performed through a large bilateral resection of the anterior chest wall, in order to prevent the tension on the tracheocutaneous sutures. Nowadays, with the possibility of various pedicled flaps, bilateral resection no longer seems to be necessary. This unilateral resection leads to a reduction in post-operative sequelae. PMID:16354344

Lequeux, T; Chantrain, G; Thill, M P; Saussez, S



The occlusion effect in unilateral versus bilateral hearing aids.  


The benefit of bilateral hearing aids is well documented, but many hearing-aid users still wear only one aid. It is plausible that the occlusion effect is part of the reason for some hearing-aid users not wearing both hearing aids. In this study we quantified the subjective occlusion effect by asking ten experienced users of bilateral hearing aids and a reference group of ten normal-hearing individuals to rate the naturalness of their own voice while reading a text sample aloud. The subjective occlusion effect was evaluated in the unilateral versus bilateral condition for a variety of vent designs in earmolds and in a custom hearing aid. The subjective occlusion effect was significantly higher for bilateral hearing aids with all vent designs with the exception of a non-occluding eartip option. The subjective occlusion effect was reduced with the more open vent designs in both the unilateral and bilateral conditions. Assuming that the occlusion effect is a barrier to bilateral hearing aid use, these results indicate that open-hearing-aid fittings can help promote the use of two aids. PMID:17153723

Jespersen, Charlotte Thunberg; Groth, Jennifer; Kiessling, Jürgen; Brenner, Barbara; Jensen, Ole Dyrlund


Unilateral parathyroidectomy in hyperparathyroidism due to single adenoma.  

PubMed Central

As a general principle in the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism due to single adenoma, unilateral parathyroidectomy was applied to 50 patients and compared with another group of 50 conventionally explored patients. Twenty-five patients were explored only on the "adenoma" side. The other 25 patients were explored on both sides, avoiding biopsies at the first. In the conventionally explored patients, the adenoma was removed and one to three normal glands were biopsied. Oil-red-O technique was used in the intraoperative microscopical examination. The patients in whom the operation could be limited to the "adenoma" side had a statistically more favorable situation concerning early postoperative hypocalcemia, length of operation time, and need for calcium and vitamin D substitution. The principle of unilateral parathyroidectomy in conjunction with intraoperative oil-red-O staining technique is advocated in hyperparathyroidism due to single adenoma because it offers more reliable peroperative distinction between uni- and multi-glandular involvement, reduced operation time, decreased risk for complication, reduced early hypocalcemia, and more favorable technical conditions for reoperation. Images Fig. 1.

Tibblin, S; Bondeson, A G; Ljungberg, O



Unilateral parathyroidectomy in hyperparathyroidism due to single adenoma.  


As a general principle in the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism due to single adenoma, unilateral parathyroidectomy was applied to 50 patients and compared with another group of 50 conventionally explored patients. Twenty-five patients were explored only on the "adenoma" side. The other 25 patients were explored on both sides, avoiding biopsies at the first. In the conventionally explored patients, the adenoma was removed and one to three normal glands were biopsied. Oil-red-O technique was used in the intraoperative microscopical examination. The patients in whom the operation could be limited to the "adenoma" side had a statistically more favorable situation concerning early postoperative hypocalcemia, length of operation time, and need for calcium and vitamin D substitution. The principle of unilateral parathyroidectomy in conjunction with intraoperative oil-red-O staining technique is advocated in hyperparathyroidism due to single adenoma because it offers more reliable peroperative distinction between uni- and multi-glandular involvement, reduced operation time, decreased risk for complication, reduced early hypocalcemia, and more favorable technical conditions for reoperation. PMID:7059236

Tibblin, S; Bondeson, A G; Ljungberg, O



Unilateral generalized morphea is a rare variant of localized scleroderma.  


Localized scleroderma (LS) is a rare connective tissue disorder generally involving the entire dermis and usually limited to the subcutaneous tissue. However, it may progress to large indurated plaques, growth retardation, muscle atrophy, and even to flexion deformities or poorly healing ulcerations. LS has been classified as plaque, generalized, bullous, linear, and deep forms exhibiting different clinical subtypes. Recently, an unusual case of unilateral generalized morphea (UGM) in childhood extending from the middle dermis to the subcutaneous fat tissue has been reported. We here describe four young patients exhibiting a similar subtype of LS. All patients demonstrated a prominent unilateral skin involvement starting in childhood or adolescence. Histology revealed prominent accentuation of intradermal involvement. Except for positive anti-nuclear antibodies, no specific antibody pattern could be observed. In presenting these clinically homogenous cases we hereby introduce UGM as an extreme variant of the linear form of LS in childhood. As the onset of UGM usually occurs in pediatric patients, pediatricians should be cognizant of the presentation of this uncommon condition. Treatment with combined low-dose methotrexate and pulsed high-dose corticosteroid therapy might represent a promising treatment option for UGM. PMID:16720279

Appelhans, C; Breuckmann, F; Gambichler, T; Brockmeyer, N H; Altmeyer, P; Kreuter, Alexander



Partial lumbosacral transitional vertebrae: 2 cases of unilateral sacralization  

PubMed Central

Objective Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) are relatively common skeletal anomalies with a debated role in low back pain. There are few documented cases of conservative care being used to address LSTV-associated symptomatology. The current report discusses chiropractic management of 2 patients with unilateral sacralization. Clinical Features Two patients with LSTV involving unilateral sacralization of L5, a Castellvi type IIIa variant, presented with back pain to a chiropractic clinic. Each case presented with symptomatology similar to piriformis syndrome. Intervention and Outcome Manual therapy, including spinal manipulation soft tissue therapies and exercise/stretching, was used to address the presenting symptoms. Approximately 2 weeks after initial treatment, the first patient subjectively reported a 70% improvement in symptoms, with lumbar extension increased to full in active range of motion at the lumbar spine but with continued tenderness and hypertonicity at the left piriformis and gluteus medius. After 4 weeks of treatment, the second patient reported improvement in pain and perceived mobility, although prolonged standing remained an aggravating factor. Although both showed improvement, neither case resulted in complete resolution of symptoms. Conclusion The presenting cases demonstrated partial resolution of symptoms after chiropractic management. It is proposed that sacralization is a possible cause of back pain in these cases.

Muir, Jeffrey M.



Efficacy of Progesterone following a Moderate Unilateral Cortical Contusion Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in an accumulation of edema and loss of brain tissue. Progesterone (PROG) has been reported to reduce edema and cortical tissue loss in a bilateral prefrontal cortex injury. This study tests the hypothesis that PROG is neuroprotective following a unilateral parietal cortical contusion injury (CCI). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a moderate unilateral TBI using the CCI model. Rats were given 8?mg/kg PROG 15?min post-injury with four subsequent injections (6?h, and days 1, 2, and 3). Edema was determined 3 days post-injury, while cortical tissue sparing was also evaluated at 7 days post-injury. Animals were injured and given one of four treatments: (I) vehicle; (II) low dose: 8?mg/kg PROG; (III) high dose: 16?mg/kg PROG; (IV) tapered: 8?mg/kg PROG. Animals were given an initial injection within 15?min, followed by five injections (6?h, and days 1, 2, 3, and 4). Group IV received two additional injections (4?mg/kg on day 5; 2?mg/kg on day 6). PROG failed to alter both cortical edema and tissue sparing at any dose. Failure to modify two major sequelae associated with TBI brings into question the clinical usefulness of PROG as an effective treatment for all types of brain injury.

Gilmer, Lesley K.; Roberts, Kelly N.



Unilateral transnasal endoscopic approach to frontal sinuses: Draf IIc  

PubMed Central

For chronic sinusitis surgery, the Draf III approach provides a common median drainage pathway for bilateral frontal sinuses from orbit to orbit. The Draf IIb provides unilateral drainage from orbit to septum. In several cases, inclusion of the nasal and frontal sinus septum in a Draf IIb was advantageous without extension to the opposite frontal recess. The proposed nomenclature is Draf IIc. This study was designed to (1) develop a surgical option for chronic frontal sinusitis where access to one frontal recess is limited or unnecessary and (2) minimize unnecessary surgical manipulation of uninvolved areas. Revision endoscopic frontal sinus surgery was performed on two patients with persistent frontal sinus opacification. Surgery crossed midline including one frontal recess with resection of the superior nasal septum. The surgical result was assessed on endoscopy and computed tomography (CT). The postoperative course was unremarkable with relief of frontal pressure. Postoperative CT scan showed well-aerated frontal sinuses with a widely patent common drainage pathway. Postoperative nasal endoscopy revealed normal mucosa with no exposed bone or edema. The Draf IIc extends the Draf IIb across the midline, without including the opposite frontal recess. This can be accomplished most easily using an interfrontal sinus septal cell or an eccentric interfrontal sinus septum. The Draf IIc is a surgical option in cases of chronic or recalcitrant frontal sinus diseases, including unilateral or bilateral obstruction, where access to the ipsilateral frontal recess is limited or favorable anatomy allows drainage with reduced manipulation of an uninvolved side.

Al Komser, Mohammed K.



Bilateral effects of unilateral visual cortex lesions in human.  


We studied the vision of 12 patients with unilateral lesions of the visual cortex. All had a VI-type scotoma located in the contralateral visual fields, as expected, and visual acuity of 20/30 or better. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that they also had a visual deficit in their ipsilesional or 'good' visual fields. The first experiment tested the subjects' ability to respond to transient signals presented at unpredictable temporal intervals and spatial locations amongst many spatially random and identical distracter elements. The results showed that, compared with controls, the lesion group had a significantly reduced sensitivity to signal and increased response times affecting both hemifields. In a second experiment, we tested the useful field of view (UFOV) in two of the patients under conditions of differing attention demand. Both showed bilateral constriction, compatible with the results of the first experiment. One possible explanation for the bilateral effects of unilateral occipital lobe lesions is damage to interhemispheric connections along their presplenial course, affecting the synthesis of visual information from both hemifields (i.e. the interhemispheric diaschisis effects put forth by von Monakow). The trouble is task dependent and can be construed as a global reduction in visual attention capacity. It is subtle in comparison with the contralesional V1-type scotoma that Holmes measured, yet may account for unexplained complaints of reduced performance in some patients, particularly in tasks with high visual information processing demands, such as reading and automobile driving. PMID:8673504

Rizzo, M; Robin, D A



Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery for unilateral acoustic neuromas  

PubMed Central

Objective:To evaluate the clinical results achievable using current techniques of gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery to treat sporadic unilateral acoustic neuromas. Methods:A retrospective review of 234 consecutive patients treated for unilateral acoustic neuromas between 1996 and 1999, with a mean (SD) follow up of 35 (16) months. Tumour control was assessed with serial radiological imaging and by the need for surgical intervention. Hearing preservation was assessed using Gardner-Robertson grades. Details of complications including cranial neuropathies and non-specific vestibulo-cochlear symptoms are included. Results:A tumour control rate in excess of 92% was achieved, with only 3% of patients undergoing surgery after radiosurgery. Results were less good for larger tumours, but control rates of 75% were achieved for 35–45 mm diameter lesions. Of patients with discernible hearing, Gardner-Robertson grades were unchanged in 75%. Facial nerve function was adversely affected in 4.5%, but fewer than 1% of patients had persistent weakness. Trigeminal symptoms improved in 3%, but developed in 5% of patients, being persistent in less than 1.5%. Transient non-specific vestibulo-cochlear symptoms were reported by 13% of patients. Conclusions:Tumour control rates, while difficult to define, are comparable after radiosurgery with those experienced after surgery. The complications and morbidity after radiosurgery are far less frequent than those encountered after surgery. This, combined with its minimally invasive nature, may make radiosurgery increasingly the treatment of choice for small and medium sized acoustic neuromas.

Rowe, J; Radatz, M; Walton, L; Hampshire, A; Seaman, S; Kemeny, A



Laryngeal fracture after coughing.  


Nontraumatic laryngeal fractures are exceedingly rare disease entities. Only 3 prior instances have been described in the medical literature (Br Med J 1950;1:1052; Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp 2007;58:73-4; Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2012;147:801-2). We present a case of thyroid cartilage fracture and associated phlegmon formation after a vigorous coughing spell in a 47-year-old man. On presentation, the patient's symptoms included the triad of odynophagia, dysphagia, and dysphonia as well as diffuse swelling and tenderness over the thyroid cartilage. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mildly displaced anterior thyroid cartilage fracture as well as a phlegmon in the strap muscle compartment adjacent to the fracture (Figs. 1 and 2). Intravenous dexamethasone and antibiotics were initiated, and the patient was admitted to the medical intensive care unit. On fiberoptic examination with the flexible laryngoscope, the patient was found to have slightto-moderate watery edema of the right aryepiglottic fold and right greater than left arytenoid cartilages. After 48 hours, the patient's neck swelling and pain significantly improved. On hospital day 4, the patient was discharged with a course of oral antibiotics. One week later, the patient reported only mild odynophagia and persistent dysphonia. He otherwise felt well and was tolerating fluids and soft food without difficulty. A preexisting, congenital abnormality resulting in a focal weakness in the thyroid cartilage might predispose patients to nontraumatic fractures (Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2012;147:801-2). Patients in prior case reports of nontraumatic laryngeal fractures presented with similar symptoms (Table). The triad of odynophagia, dysphagia, and dysphonia after a severe coughing or sneezing episode should raise the clinician's suspicion of a thyroid cartilage fracture. PMID:23806730

Fenig, Mark; Strasberg, Stephen; Cohen, Justin C; Almadi, Rami; Gold, Menachem



Predicting fractures and fluid flow through fractures in basin modeling  

SciTech Connect

The main value of quantitative 2-D and 3-D basin models for petroleum exploration is their ability to predict expulsion and migration of hydrocarbons on a basin scale. However, existing basin models rely on matrix permeabilities in calculating fluid flow, generally ignoring the contributions of fracture permeability. Fracture permeability may in fact be much larger than matrix permeability, particularly for fine-grained rocks. Wherever significant fracturing occurs, ignoring fracture permeability may cause errors in prediction of groundwater flow rates and directions, caprock permeabilities, migration pathways for hydrocarbons, and thermal history. The authors have developed a method that estimates the formation of tectonic fractures during basin simulations. They evaluate the strain between horizontally adjacent nodes and estimate the number of fractures that will occur as a function of rock ductility, fracture orientation, throw on fracture surfaces, and fracture aperture. Their model is capable of considering stresses induced by both block faulting and by concentric folding. The authors can calculate fracture-system permeability in two different ways: (1) directly from strain using an empirical calibration, and (2) from consideration of fracture aperture, density, and orientation. Finally, they calculate total permeability as the sum of matrix permeability and porosity-weighted fracture-network permeability. They simulate diagenetic and tectonic closure of fractures using a first-order decay equation to describe the reduction of fault aperture through time. Predictions of this model have been successfully compared against those of a model based entirely on tectonic stresses.

Larson, K.W. (Univ. of Illinois, Chicago (United States)); Waples, D.W.; Fu, Han; Kodama, Kisaburo



Pharmacologic agents in fracture healing.  


Bone fractures are a known risk of athletic participation and can result in significant lost playing time. A variety of medications have been investigated in animal studies regarding their effects on fracture healing. Parathyroid hormone and the bisphosphonates may have future uses in the prevention and treatment of athletic-related stress fractures and acute fractures. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been implicated in effecting fracture healing in some animal models, but little clinical evidence supports these findings. Large randomized clinical trials are needed to further delineate the role of these and other drugs and their effects on fracture healing. PMID:16324974

Koester, Michael C; Spindler, Kurt P



Surgical treatment of talus fractures.  


Talus fractures result from high-energy mechanisms and usually occur at the neck. Functional outcome after talar neck fracture worsens with increasing Hawkins grade. The mainstay of treatment for talar neck fractures is anatomic reduction and internal fixation. Prompt reduction of dislocations should be performed. Patients should be taken to the operating room as soon as stabilized. Dual incisions and a combination of minifragment plates and screws should be used. Talar body fractures have a high rate of ankle and subtalar arthritis. Lateral process fractures are frequently missed on radiographs. Complications after talus fractures include osteonecrosis, malunion, post-traumatic arthritis, and infection. PMID:24095068

Shakked, Rachel J; Tejwani, Nirmal C



Fracture-Flow-Enhanced Solute Diffusion into Fractured Rock  

SciTech Connect

We propose a new conceptual model of fracture-flow-enhanced matrix diffusion, which correlates with fracture-flow velocity, i.e., matrix diffusion enhancement induced by rapid fluid flow within fractures. According to the boundary-layer or film theory, fracture flow enhanced matrix diffusion may dominate mass-transfer processes at fracture-matrix interfaces, because rapid flow along fractures results in large velocity and concentration gradients at and near fracture-matrix interfaces, enhancing matrix diffusion at matrix surfaces. In this paper, we present a new formulation of the conceptual model for enhanced fracture-matrix diffusion, and its implementation is discussed using existing analytical solutions and numerical models. In addition, we use the enhanced matrix diffusion concept to analyze laboratory experimental results from nonreactive and reactive tracer breakthrough tests, in an effort to validate the new conceptual model.

Wu, Yu-Shu; Ye, Ming; Sudicky, E.A.



DNAPL Dissolution in Bedrock Fractures And Fracture Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project focused on measuring and evaluating the architecture, dissolution rate, and impact on groundwater quality of residually trapped tetrachloroethene (PCE) dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) from discrete bedrock fractures and fracture networ...

C. Schaefer J. McCray K. Christensen P. Altman P. Clement



Fracturing Highly Disordered Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the role of disorder on the fracturing process of heterogeneous materials by means of a two-dimensional fuse network model. Our results in the extreme disorder limit reveal that the backbone of the fracture at collapse, namely, the subset of the largest fracture that effectively halts the global current, has a fractal dimension of 1.22±0.01. This exponent value is compatible with the universality class of several other physical models, including optimal paths under strong disorder, disordered polymers, watersheds and optimal path cracks on uncorrelated substrates, hulls of explosive percolation clusters, and strands of invasion percolation fronts. Moreover, we find that the fractal dimension of the largest fracture under extreme disorder, df=1.86±0.01, is outside the statistical error bar of standard percolation. This discrepancy is due to the appearance of trapped regions or cavities of all sizes that remain intact till the entire collapse of the fuse network, but are always accessible in the case of standard percolation. Finally, we quantify the role of disorder on the structure of the largest cluster, as well as on the backbone of the fracture, in terms of a distinctive transition from weak to strong disorder characterized by a new crossover exponent.

Moreira, A. A.; Oliveira, C. L. N.; Hansen, A.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Herrmann, H. J.; Andrade, J. S., Jr.



Circumferential Stent Fracture  

PubMed Central

Circumferential stent fracture is extremely uncommon, and in rare cases, it can cause stent thrombosis. Recognizing stent fracture can be difficult on conventional fluoroscopy because of poor stent radiopacity. We found that StentBoost image acquisition yields improved visibility of stent struts, enabling the identification of stent fracture and the precise positioning of new stents over previously stented segments. We report the case of a 50-year-old man who presented with acute myocardial infarction and subacute stent thrombosis a week after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and placement of a bare-metal stent. The new lesion was crossed with a guidewire, but multiple attempts to advance a balloon catheter were unsuccessful. Live StentBoost image acquisition revealed circumferential stent fracture into 2 separate sections, with abnormal angulation between the proximal and distal portions of the stent. With StentBoost guidance, the wire and balloon catheter were both easily manipulated to cross the lesion, and angioplasty and restenting were completed with good results. StentBoost can be a useful adjunctive tool for the cardiac interventionist during complex percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, and it was invaluable in this challenging situation. We discuss stent fracture and the benefits of using StentBoost in such situations.

Ramegowda, Raghu T.; Chikkaswamy, Srinivas B.; Bharatha, Ashalatha; Radhakrishna, Jayashree; Krishnanaik, Geetha B.; Nanjappa, Manjunath C.; Panneerselvam, Arunkumar



Factors influencing the progression of renal damage in patients with unilateral renal agenesis and remnant kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors influencing the appearance and progression of renal damage in patients with unilateral renal agenesis and remnant kidney.BackgroundAlthough some studies have shown that the risk to develop proteinuria and renal insufficiency is increased in patients with a remnant kidney (RK) or unilateral renal agenesis (URA), other patients maintain normal renal function and negative proteinuria, and the reasons to explain these




Unilateral cochlear ablation produces greater loss of inhibition in the contralateral inferior colliculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bilateral cochlear ablation leads to a profound weakening of synaptic inhibition within the inferior colliculus (IC) of gerbils (Vale & Sanes (2000) J. Neurosci., 20, 1912-1921). To examine whether unilateral deafening leads to similar functional alterations, we studied the effect of unilateral cochlear ablation on inhibitory synaptic properties both ipsilateral and contralateral to the deafened ear. Lateral lemniscal and commissure

Carmen Vale; Jose M. Juiz; David R. Moore; Dan H. Sanes



Study of unilateral postherniorraphy analgesia with local anaesthetic and monitored anaesthesia care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local anaesthetic with monitored anaesthetic care (MAC) is a very good technique for unilateral-inguinal herniorraphy. We looked at the analgesia produced by the infiltration with local anaesthetic, the intensity of pain in the immediate postsurgery period; the efficiency of oral analgesics and the satisfaction of the patients. Between January and July 1997, 63 patients underwent unilateral-inguinal herniorraphy (Shouldice type) using

J. L. Porrero Carro; C. Sánchez-Cabezudo D??az-Guerra; P. Lee Wong



Outcome in patients undergoing unilateral uterine artery embolization for symptomatic fibroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To evaluate patients undergoing uterine artery embolization for symptomatic fibroids who, for technical reasons, underwent unilateral rather than bilateral embolization.PATIENTS: Prospective data were collected on 109 patients undergoing uterine artery embolization for symptomatic fibroids. Of these, six underwent unilateral embolization. They were followed with ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3, 6 and 12 months. Patients' histories were

T Nicholson



Bilateral Input Protects the Cortex from Unilaterally-Driven Reorganization in Children Who Are Deaf  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Unilateral hearing in childhood restricts input along the bilateral auditory pathways, possibly causing permanent reorganization. In this study we asked: (i) do the auditory pathways develop abnormally in children who are bilaterally deaf and hear with a unilateral cochlear implant? and (ii) can such differences be reversed by restoring input to…

Gordon, Karen A.; Wong, Daniel D. E.; Papsin, Blake C.



Effect of unilateral orchiectomy on induction of interstitial cell tumors in balb\\/c mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interstitial cell tumors of the testes are induced in a high proportion of male mice of the BALB\\/c strain upon continuous exposure to estrogen (1, 2). We were interested in ascertaining how unilateral orchiectomy would affect the reaction. The tar- get tissue is reduced by half by unilateral orchicctomy. If this were the only factor, a smaller proportion of animals

Harry Y. Canter; Michael B. Shimkin



Numerical implementation of two nonconforming finite element methods for unilateral contact  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the finite element approximation of the unilateral contact problem between elastic bodies. We are interested in a practical problem which often occurs in finite element computations concerning two independently discretized bodies in unilateral contact. It follows that the nodes of both bodies located on the contact surface do not fit together. We present two different approaches in order

Patrick Hild



Regulation of the renal angiotensin II receptor gene in acute unilateral ureteral obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation of the renal angiotensin II receptor gene in acute unilateral ureteral obstruction. We have shown that acute (24-hr) unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) induces the genes encoding for renin, in juxtaglomerular apparatuses and in tubules, for angiotensin converting enzyme in vascular endothelial cells, and for angiotensinogen in perivascular fat. These molecular changes occur in temporal association to marked reductions in

J Luis Pimentel; Susheng Wang; Manuel Martinez-Maldonado



Education qualification levels and school careers of unilateral versus bilateral hearing aid users  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Analyse the difference in school careers and secondary school qualification levels between unilateral hearing aid users and bilateral hearing aid users. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective questionnaire study. SETTING: Postal-based questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS: Names of adults known to have been fitted with unilateral or bilateral hearing aids during childhood were retrieved. This resulted in 292 names. Participants were selected using the following

J. W. Beijen; E. A. M. Mylanus; A. F. M. Snik



A canine experimental study to assess the potential of unilateral double lobar lung transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We recently reported a technique of unilateral double lobar lung transplantation (UDLLT) in a canine model that was associated with satisfactory early pulmonary function. The purpose of the present experimental study was to assess the quality of bronchial healing, complication rates, survival rates and long-term pulmonary function of this new transplantation technique. Methods: Unilateral double lobar lung transplantation was

Keiju Aokage; Hiroshi Date; Ryujiro Sugimoto; Mikio Okazaki; Daisuke Okutani; Hidetoshi Inokawa; Motoi Aoe; Nobuyoshi Shimizu; Shikata Cho



A canine experimental study to assess the potential of unilateral double lobar lung transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We recently reported a technique of unilateral double lobar lung transplantation (UDLLT) in a canine model that was associated with satisfactory early pulmonary function. The purpose of the present experimental study was to assess the quality of bronchial healing, complication rates, survival rates and long-term pulmonary function of this new transplantation technique. Methods: Unilateral double lobar lung transplantation was

Keiju Aokage; Hiroshi Date; Ryujiro Sugimoto; Mikio Okazaki; Daisuke Okutani; Hidetoshi Inokawa; Motoi Aoe; Nobuyoshi Shimizu



Posterior interbody fusion using a diagonal cage with unilateral transpedicular screw fixation for lumbar stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few reports have described the combined use of unilateral pedicle screw fixation and interbody fusion for lumbar stenosis. We retrospectively reviewed 79 patients with lumbar stenosis. The rationale and effectiveness of unilateral pedicle screw fixation were studied from biomechanical and clinical perspectives, aiming to reduce stiffness of the implant. All patients were operated with posterior interbody fusion using a diagonal

Jian Zhao; Feng Zhang; Xiaoqing Chen; Yu Yao



Differential effects of somatostatin on exploratory behavior after unilateral injections into rat neostriatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of somatostatin (SRIF) microinjected unilaterally (left or right) at a dose of 10, 50, and 100ng into the neostriatum of male Wistar rats on exploratory behavior were studied. Unilateral injections of SRIF suppressed dose-related the exploratory activity as decreased the number of horizontal and vertical movements compared to the respective controls. The effect was more pronounced when SRIF

Roman Tashev; Stiliana Belcheva; Iren Belcheva



Is Making Divorce Easier Bad for Children? The Long-Run Implications of Unilateral Divorce  

Microsoft Academic Search

I assess the long-run implications for children of growing up in a unilateral divorce environment, which increases the ease of divorce by not requiring the explicit consent of both partners. Using 40 years of census data to exploit the variation across states and over time in changes in divorce regulation, I confirm that unilateral divorce regulations do significantly increase the

Jonathan Gruber



Unilateral Testicular Torsion: Protective Effect of Verapamil on Contralateral Testicular Histology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this experimental study, it was our aim to reduce the effects of ischemic insults to the contralateral testicle after unilateral testicular torsion. The protective effect of a calcium channel blocking agent (verapamil) on the histology and the tubular diameter of contralateral testicle was evaluated. Following a definite period of unilateral testicular torsion (i.e., 4 h), the protective effect of

Kemal Sarica; Kemal Bakir; Faruk Yagci; Okan Uysal



Unilateral ovariectomy increases egg size and reduces follicular atresia in the semelparous coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unilateral ovariectomy (ULO, removal of one ovary) is a powerful technique for studying aspects of reproductive physiology, including follicular recruitment and growth. To examine effects of ULO for the first time in a semelparous species, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were unilaterally ovariectomized during mid-vitellogenesis approximately 3 months before spawning. At termination of the study (79 days post-surgery), single ovaries of

John Adam Luckenbach; Makoto Kusakabe; Penny Swanson; Graham Young



Identifying Live Nematodes in Diffuse Unilateral Subacute Neuroretinitis by Using the Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe use of the scanning laser oph- thalmoscope (SLO) to identify live nematodes in patients with diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis. Methods: Infrared, red, and blue illumination (780, 633, and 488 nm, respectively) in an SLO were used to image and evaluate functional retinal status in patients with late- stage diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis. An ex- amination to identify

Lucio R. Moraes; Arnaldo P. Cialdini; Marcos P. Avila; Ann E. Elsner



Unilateral control and the moderating effects of fairness on the target's performance in asymmetric channel partnerships  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the use of unilateral control, the leader in a channel dyad (source) leads the activities of its partner (target) to achieve its own goals. Although there are numerous studies that have found a positive effect of a company's unilateral control on its own performance, the effects on the target's performance remain unexplored, even though this is essential to explain

Miguel Hernández-Espallardo; Narciso Arcas-Lario



Postural adaptation to unilateral hip muscle fatigue during human bipedal standing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although previous studies have investigated the effects of bilateral muscle fatigue on bipedal postural control, whether and how the central nervous system could adapt to unilateral muscle fatigue for controlling bipedal stance remains to be investigated. The purpose of the present experiment was designed to address this issue by assessing the effect of unilateral muscle fatigue induced on the hip's

Nicolas Vuillerme; Carole Sporbert; Nicolas Pinsault



Prenatal diagnosis and follow-up of 14 cases of unilateral ventriculomegaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To report prospectively the prenatal diagnosis, management and outcome of 14 cases of unilateral ventriculomegaly. Methods Fourteen fetuses were diagnosed as having one ventricle of ? 10 mm, as measured at the level of the atrium. Results In ten cases, the scan showed mild unilateral ventriculomegaly with an atrium width between 11 and 13 mm and this remained stable

M. V. Senat; J. P. Bernard; P. Schwarzler; J. Britten; Y. Ville



Long term safety and efficacy of unilateral deep brain stimulation of the thalamus for parkinsonian tremor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to investigate the long term safety and efficacy of unilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the VIM nucleus of the thalamus in Parkinson's disease.Twelve patients with Parkinson's disease underwent unilateral DBS of the thalamus for medication resistant tremor between 1994 and 1997. Patients were evaluated with the motor section of the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS)

K E Lyons; W C Koller; Steven B. Wilkinson; R Pahwa



A Magnetoencephalographic Study of Sensorimotor Activity Differences during Unilateral and Bilateral Forearm Movements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared activation of the sensorimotor area using magnetoencephalography after unilateral and bilateral movements. Thirteen healthy individuals and a patient with mild hemiplegia performed unilateral and bilateral forearm pronation movements. Among healthy participants, there were no significant differences in motor-evoked field during…

Nakagawa, Kei



Bilateral Input Protects the Cortex from Unilaterally-Driven Reorganization in Children Who Are Deaf  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unilateral hearing in childhood restricts input along the bilateral auditory pathways, possibly causing permanent reorganization. In this study we asked: (i) do the auditory pathways develop abnormally in children who are bilaterally deaf and hear with a unilateral cochlear implant? and (ii) can such differences be reversed by restoring input to…

Gordon, Karen A.; Wong, Daniel D. E.; Papsin, Blake C.



Long-term results of diaphragmatic plication in adults with unilateral diaphragm paralysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In this study we aimed to evaluate the long-term outcome of diaphragmatic plication for symptomatic unilateral diaphragm paralysis. METHODS: Thirteen patients who underwent unilateral diaphragmatic plication (2 patients had right, 11 left plication) between January 2003 and December 2006 were evaluated. One patient died postoperatively due to sepsis. The remaining 12 patients [9 males, 3 females; mean age 60

Sezai Celik; Muharrem Celik; Bulent Aydemir; Cemalettin Tunckaya; Tamer Okay; Ilgaz Dogusoy



Corticomotor excitability associated with unilateral knee dysfunction secondary to anterior cruciate ligament injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present report, we investigated changes in corticomotor excitability associated with unilateral knee dysfunction secondary to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Ten participants, each with a previous history of unilateral ACL injury (median time post-injury 22 months) and eight healthy controls underwent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to assess excitability of the lower limb motor representation. Resting motor thresholds (RMTs) and

Martin E. Héroux; François Tremblay



Motor Learning of a Bimanual Task in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) have been shown to improve their motor performance with sufficient practice. However, little is known about how they learn goal-oriented tasks. In the current study, 21 children with unilateral CP (age 4-10 years old) and 21 age-matched typically developed children (TDC) practiced a simple bimanual…

Hung, Ya-Ching; Gordon, Andrew M.



A Magnetoencephalographic Study of Sensorimotor Activity Differences during Unilateral and Bilateral Forearm Movements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study compared activation of the sensorimotor area using magnetoencephalography after unilateral and bilateral movements. Thirteen healthy individuals and a patient with mild hemiplegia performed unilateral and bilateral forearm pronation movements. Among healthy participants, there were no significant differences in motor-evoked field…

Nakagawa, Kei



Do osteoporosis-related vertebral fractures precede hip fractures?  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the relationship between a vertebral fracture and a hip fracture in Saudi Arabians with osteoporosis. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 154 Saudi Arabian patients with osteoporosis-related hip fractures were analyzed for the presence of a vertebral fracture. Radiographs were retrieved from the IPAC (Image Picture Archiving and Computing) System, an imaging retrieval system, and were reviewed independently by two of the authors, Abid Hussain Gullenpet, and Mir Sadat-Ali, and later reviewed jointly. Patients admitted with proximal hip fracture who were ? 50 years and had undergone Thoraco-lumber imaging and a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan were included in the study. Patients with a history of significant trauma to the spine and those with a malignancy or connective tissue disorder were excluded from the analysis. RESULTS: Out of 154 patients with hip fractures, 78 had a fracture of the femoral neck while 76 had an intertrochanteric hip fracture. Of the 111 patients who were finally included in the study, after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 76 patients with an average age of 67.28 ± 12 years had no fractures of the spine. Thirty-five patients with an average age of 76.9 ± 14.5 years (31.53%) had a total of 49 vertebral fractures. Patients with vertebral fractures were significantly older than those without fractures P < 0.001. Overall, 24.7% of these patients had an asymptomatic vertebral fracture. Further analysis showed that 11 males (18.96%) and 24 females (45.28%) had suffered a previous asymptomatic vertebral fracture. Interestingly, all women who participated in this study and who presented with a femoral neck fracture had experienced a prior asymptomatic vertebral fracture. CONCLUSION: We recommend that all elderly patients who go to the radiology department for a chest X-ray also have a DEXA scan and a lateral thoracic spine radiograph.

Sadat-Ali, Mir; Gullenpet, Abid Hussain; Azam, Md Quamar; Al-Omran, Ammar K



Biomechanics of Vertebral Fractures and the Vertebral Fracture Cascade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebral fractures (VFxs) are the most common osteoporotic fracture, and are a strong risk factor for future fracture. The\\u000a presence of a VFx greatly increases the risk of sustaining subsequent VFxs—a phenomenon often referred to as the “vertebral\\u000a fracture cascade.” VFxs do not occur uniformly along the spine, but occur more often at the mid-thoracic and thoracolumbar\\u000a regions than elsewhere.

Blaine A. Christiansen; Mary L. Bouxsein



Fracture Analysis and Flow Simulations in the Roselend Fractured Granite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding of flow and transport in fractured media requires a good knowledge of fractures and fracture networks, which\\u000a are privileged pathways for water and solutes. The Roselend underground laboratory (French Alps) gives the opportunity to\\u000a fully investigate flow and solute transport through such a medium. Fracture traces and water fluxes have been determined along\\u000a the Roselend tunnel.\\u000a \\u000a The major objectives

D. Patriarche; E. Pili; P. M. Adler; J.-F. Thovert


Parameters predicting postoperative unilateral disease in patients with unilateral prostate cancer in diagnostic biopsy: a rationale for selecting hemiablative focal therapy candidates  

PubMed Central

Background: Focal hemiablative therapy for prostate cancer is a new treatment alternative. Unilateral and unifocal disease are its main limitations. The aim of this study was to identify the epidemiological, clinical and pathological parameters that may predict unilateral disease in patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients at our institution between January 2005 and January 2011. Only patients with unilateral disease in prostate biopsy were part of the study. The analysis included age, preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and its density, prostate volume, biopsy first and second Gleason pattern and Gleason summary, number of biopsy cores, percentage of cancer in biopsy material and the presence of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Their role as potential predictors was evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 161 patients had unilateral disease after prostate biopsy. A significant correlation was found between prostate volume, PSA density and percentage of cancer in biopsy material and the presence of unilateral disease in the surgical specimen. These are the same factors significant in the univariate analysis. The results of the multivariate analysis demonstrated that PSA density (p = 0.015) and percentage of cancer in biopsy material (p = 0.028) are the most significant predictors. Interpretation: Our results demonstrate that PSA density and the percentage of cancer in biopsy cores are significant predictors for prostate cancer unilaterality and should be considered for the selection of hemiablative focal therapy candidates.

Sfoungaristos, Stavros; Perimenis, Petros



Look over there! Unilateral gaze increases geographical memory of the 50 United States.  


Based on their specialized processing abilities, the left and right hemispheres of the brain may not contribute equally to recall of general world knowledge. US college students recalled the verbal names and spatial locations of the 50 US states while sustaining leftward or rightward unilateral gaze, a procedure that selectively activates the contralateral hemisphere. Compared to a no-unilateral gaze control, right gaze/left hemisphere activation resulted in better recall, demonstrating left hemisphere superiority in recall of general world knowledge and offering equivocal support for the hemispheric encoding asymmetry model of memory. Unilateral gaze- regardless of direction- improved recall of spatial, but not verbal, information. Future research could investigate the conditions under which unilateral gaze increases recall. Sustained unilateral gaze can be used as a simple, inexpensive, means for testing theories of hemispheric specialization of cognitive functions. Results support an overall deficit in US geographical knowledge in undergraduate college students. PMID:22061174

Propper, Ruth E; Brunyé, Tad T; Christman, Stephen D; Januszewskia, Ashley



Fracture conductivity: the most important characteristic in fracturing. [Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vital step toward obtaining highly conductive fractures is the selection of a proper and adequate propping agent. Creole Petroleum Corp. has found, from experience in fracturing many wells in Lake Maracaibo, that the factors which affect the conductivity of the fractures and which are related to the propping agent, are as follows: (1) the load which will be imposed;

J. U. Colina; R. Leibach



Stress fractures in women.  


Stress fractures are common overuse injuries, reported more frequently in female athletes than in male athletes. The clinician should have a high index of suspicion for this injury whether an athlete presents with complaints of acute pain and disability or insidious onset of pain that is aggravated by activity and relieved by rest. Radiographs, bone scans, CT scans, and MR imaging may all be useful in confirming the diagnosis. Conservative treatment is usually successful, although one must be especially vigilant in treating a stress fracture prone to complications. Identifying risk factors for susceptibility to stress fracture development may help to avoid recurrence of the injury. More research is needed to determine cause versus association of these various risk factors in relationship to stress injury to bone. PMID:10740761

Callahan, L R



Treatment of clavicle fractures.  


Clavicle fractures are very common injuries in adults (2-5%) and children (10-15%) (1) and represent the 44-66% of all shoulder fractures (2). Despite the high frequency the choice of proper treatment is still a challenge for the orthopedic surgeon. With this review we wants to focus the attention on the basic epidemiology, anatomy, classification, evaluation and management of surgical treatments in relationship with the gravity of injuries. Both conservative and surgical management are possible, and surgeons must choose the most appropriate management modality according to the biologic age, functional demands, and type of lesion. We performed a review of the English literature thought PubMed to produce an evidence-based review of current concept and management of clavicle fracture. We finished taking a comparison with our survey in order to underline our direct experience. PMID:23905044

Paladini, P; Pellegrini, A; Merolla, G; Campi, F; Porcellini, G



Early diagnosis of vertebral fractures  

PubMed Central

Summary Vertebral fractures are a common clinical entity, caused by trauma or related to osteoporosis (benign). Their recognition is especially important in the post-menopausal female population but also important is their differentiation from pathological (malignant) fractures (1). A vertebral fracture is evidenced by vertebral body deformity or reduction in vertebral body height beyond a certain threshold value in the absence of bone discontinuity. For prognosis and treatment it is extremely important to recognize the cause of the fracture. In contrast to fractures that occur in other locations, vertebral fractures often go unrecognized in the acute phase as the pain may be transient and radiographic and evaluation of the spine may be difficult (2). Objective measurement of the vertebral deformity provides invaluable information to the interpreting physician and helps grade fracture severity. The recognition and diagnosis of vertebral fractures can be performed using additional diagnostic tools.

Guglielmi, Giuseppe; di Chio, Francesca; Vergini, Maria Rita Delle; La Porta, Michele; Nasuto, Michelangelo; Di Primio, Luigia Anna



Fracture Toughness of Structural Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On the basis of the information presented in the report, the following conclusions are stated concerning the status of the engineering approach to fracture-safe design using fracture-toughness values as performance criteria. (1) The coupling between engin...

E. A. Lange



Ankle Fractures Often Not Diagnosed  


... Videos & Podcasts » Articles » Text Size Print Bookmark Ankle Fractures Often Not Diagnosed Long-term Complications Result from Poor Recovery Mistaking an ankle fracture for an ankle sprain has serious consequences when ...


Fractures (Broken Bones): First Aid  


Fractures (broken bones): First aid Basics In-Depth Resources Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Fractures (broken bones): First aid By Mayo Clinic staff ...


Tracer Transport in Fractured Rocks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent interest in the safety of toxic waste underground disposal and nuclear waste geologic repositories has motivated many studies of tracer transport in fractured media. Fractures occur in most geologic formations and introduce a high degree of heterog...

C. F. Tsang Y. W. Tsang F. V. Hale



Bone fracture repair - series (image)  


... three main treatment options for bone fractures are: Casting Open reduction, and internal fixation- this involves a ... fractures not able to be realigned (reduced) by casting, or in cases in which the long-term ...


Fractured clavicle in the newborn  


A fractured clavicle in the newborn is a broken collar bone in a baby that was just delivered. ... A fracture of a newborn's collar bone (clavicle) can occur during a difficult vaginal delivery. It is fairly common during difficult births.


Fracture Mechanics of Inelastic Polymers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author's Generalized Theory of Fracture Mechanics has been applied to several quite different polymeric materials which have in common a nonlinear and inelastic deformation behaviour. Thus the normal Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics cannot be applied...

E. H. Andrews



Complications of Colles' fractures.  


Patients with Colles' fractures have serious complications more frequently than is generally appreciated. A study of 565 fractures revealed 177 (31 per cent) with such complications as persistent neuropathies of the median, ulnar, or radial nerves (forty-five cases), radiocarpal or radio-ulnar arthrosis (thirty-seven cases), and malposition-malunion (thirty cases). Other complications included tendon ruptures (seven), unrecognized associated injuries (twelve), Volkmann's ischemia (four cases), finger stiffness (nine cases), and shoulder-hand syndrome (twenty cases). In many patients, incomplete restoration of radial length or secondary loss of the reduction position caused the complications. PMID:6155380

Cooney, W P; Dobyns, J H; Linscheid, R L



What Is Hydraulic Fracturing?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hydraulic fracturing is a process used in nine out of 10 natural gas wells in the United States, where millions of gallons of water, sand and chemicals are pumped underground to break apart the rock and release the gas. Scientists are worried that the chemicals used in fracturing may pose a threat either underground or when waste fluids are handled and sometimes spilled on the surface. This poster presentation illustrates the under surface process of hydraulic fracking and the distribution flow to the market.



Fractured Petroleum Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

In this report the results of experiments of water injection in fractured porous media comprising a number of water-wet matrix blocks are reported for the first time. The blocks experience an advancing fracture-water level (FWL). Immersion-type experiments are performed for comparison; the dominant recovery mechanism changed from co-current to counter-current imbibition when the boundary conditions changed from advancing FWL to immersion-type. Single block experiments of co-current and counter-current imbibition was performed and co-current imbibition leads to more efficient recovery was found.

Firoozabadi, Dr. Abbas



Numerical simulation of fracture  

SciTech Connect

The Bedded Crack Model (BCM) is a constitutive model for brittle materials. It is based on effective modulus theory and makes use of a generalized Griffith criterion for crack growth. It is used in a solid dynamic computer code to simulate stress wave propagation and fracture in rock. A general description of the model is given and then the theoretical basis for it is presented. Some effects of finite cell size in numerical simulations are discussed. The use of the BCM is illustrated in simulations of explosive fracture of oil shale. There is generally good agreement between the calculations and data from field experiments.

Margolin, L.G.; Adams, T.F.



Triplane fracture of the distal tibia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective study of 21 triplane fractures of the distal tibia is presented. Nineteen cases (90.5%) had lateral triplane fractures, while the other two (9.5%) had medial triplane fractures. Two fragment fractures were encountered in 12 cases (57%); three fragment fractures in six cases (29%), and four fragment fractures in the remaining three cases (14%). Fourteen cases (67%) were managed

E. El-Karef; H. I. Sadek; D. S. Nairn; C. H. Aldam; P. W. Allen



Concrete fracture models: testing and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existing fracture models for concrete and the testing methods for fracture energy and other fracture characteristics are reviewed and some new results on the relationship between fracture testing and size effect are presented. The limitations of the cohesive crack model are discussed. The discrepancy between the fracture energy values measured by Hillerborg's work-of-fracture method and the size effect method

Zden?k P. Bažant



Fracturing subterranean formations using micellar dispersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A problem in traditional fracturing processes is the instability of the particular fracturing agent employed. Conventional fracturing agents, such as emulsions must be substantially more viscous than water for most reservoirs before fractures can be obtained using reasonable injection pressures. Oftentimes, necessary fracturing pressures tend to lower the viscosity of the fracturing agent by molecular cleavage, emulsion breakdown, etc. These

M. O. Jr



Quantitative measures of damage to subchondral bone are associated with functional outcome following treatment of displaced acetabular fractures.  


Current analysis of displaced acetabular fractures is limited in its ability to predict functional outcome. This study aimed to (1) quantify initial acetabular damage following acetabular fracture through measurement of subchondral bone density and fracture lines, and (2) evaluate associations between acetabular damage and functional outcomes following fracture. Subchondral bone intensity maps were created for 24 patients with unilateral acetabular fractures. Measures of crack length and density differences between corresponding regions in the fractured acetabuli, normalized by the unfractured side, were generated from preoperative CT images. Damage measures were compared to quality of life survey data collected for each patient at least 2 years post-injury (Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment [MFA] and Short Form-36 [SF-36], with specific focus on parameters that best describe patients' physical health). CT image quantification of initial damage to acetabular subchondral bone was associated with functional outcome post-injury. In general, damage as quantified through differences in density in the superior dome region (zones 8 and 12) and the central anterior region of the acetabulum (zone 3) were found to be the strongest significant predictors of functional outcome (adjusted R(2) ?=?0.3-0.45, p?fractures toward improving clinical prognoses. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 31:1980-1985, 2013. PMID:23940014

Lubovsky, Omri; Kreder, Michael; Wright, David A; Kiss, Alex; Gallant, Aimee; Kreder, Hans J; Whyne, Cari M



Unilateral retinal detachment as the initial sign of lung adenocarcinoma.  


Intraocular metastases, especially to the retina, are uncommon in cancer patients and generally occur in an advanced phase of the disease. In patients with lung cancer, uveal metastases, in particular to the choroid, are the most frequent, and are associated mainly with small cell carcinoma or undifferentiated carcinoma. We report a case of unilateral retinal detachment as first sign of a moderately differentiated lung adenocarcinoma in a 55-year-old non-smoker that was admitted to the hospital for the first time complaining of a sudden visual loss in the superior fields of the left eye. A CT revealed a slight retinal enlargement of the left eye and a solid mass of about 3 centimeters behind the right pulmonary hilus. Bronchoscopic biopsies were performed with diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the lung. The patient died after 2 months for rapid progression of the disease despite of combined chemotherapy treatment. PMID:17550143

Kopf, B; Ercolani, D; Zago, S; Bucchi, E; Rosti, G; Marangolo, M



Current trends in the treatment of established unilateral facial palsy.  

PubMed Central

A unilateral facial palsy can be considered established and therefore unlikely to recover, if a year has passed since the injury which initiated it. Fascial slings and muscle transfers have still a place in maintaining static position and preventing the mouth swinging to the animated side on smiling. They do not, however, produce a smile responsive to emotion. Crossed facial nerve grafting is rather unreliable and rarely produces a symmetrical smile. Since the mid 1970s vascularised muscle grafts have been employed to compensate for the degeneration of the paralysed facial musculature. The pectoralis minor is a particularly suitable muscle for transplantation to the face because of size and shape. Experience with these techniques and the results of the first 30 cases using this muscle are presented. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 p98-a

Harrison, D. H.



Congenital Unilateral Corneal Anaesthesia with Microphthalmos: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Congenital corneal anaesthesia (CCA) is an uncommon condition difficult to diagnose. We report the case of a 20-month-old boy who presented with unilateral congenital corneal anaesthesia. The child was referred with a persistent corneal epithelial defect, unresponsive to symptomatic local treatment for over 10 months. Intensive topical treatment and strict corneal protection led to quick corneal healing. Congenital corneal anaesthesia occurs either alone or in association with neurological diseases or systemic congenital abnormalities. It is important to search for corneal anaesthesia in children with chronic ulcerations of the cornea and self-inflicted injuries. Early diagnosis and treatment are important due to the risk of poor visual prognosis. Management of CCA should aim for the prevention of epithelial defects and is a life-long process.

Voyatzis, George; Mukherjee, Achyut; Rajan, Madhavan S.; Allen, Louise E.



Basal cell carcinoma of the vulva presenting as unilateral pruritus.  


Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human malignancy, which often occurs as a result of ultraviolet light on sun-exposed areas. A more rare location for the presentation of BCC is the non-sun-exposed genital area, where squamous cell cancer occurs frequently in the setting of human papilloma virus and chronic inflammatory lesions (i.e., lichen sclerosus et atrophicus). Consequently, such tumors may escape detection by the dermatologist and be mistaken by the gynecologist for an inflammatory condition. A delay in diagnosis can result in wider surgical margins and potential recurrences. We present a case of BCC of the vulva with involvement of the clitoris presenting with unilateral pruritus and treated as an allergic contact dermatitis with topical corticosteroids. The patient was treated with Mohs micrographic surgery in conjunction with topical imiquimod to spare surrounding tissue. PMID:18380212

Saini, Ritu; Sarnoff, Deborah S



Sound localisation in children with a severe unilateral hearing loss.  


The ability of 44 children with a severe unilateral sensorineural hearing loss to localise sound in the horizontal plane, has been compared with that of 40 subjects with normal hearing. It was found that the normally hearing group had no difficulty localising sounds in contrast to the majority of hearing-impaired children. None of the children with a hearing loss localised a 500-Hz pure tone as well as the normally hearing group, but 1 was able to localise a low-frequency noise stimulus and 9 a high-pass noise as accurately as those with normal hearing. Covering the pinna in 22 of the hearing-impaired children affected the ability of those who localised the high-pass noise normally more than the remainder of this group. This suggests that better use of pinna information was an important factor in their superior performance. PMID:6847534

Newton, V E



Disorders of sex development presenting as unilateral cryptorchidism.  


Abstract Disorders of sex development (DSD) present in different forms but, in most cases, with visible anomalies of the external genitalia. The diagnosis of DSD can have a vast impact on an individual; in addition to concerns about fertility and a higher risk of neoplasia, it may have severe psychosocial impact on the patient. This report presents two apparently healthy cases referred for operation because of unilateral undescended testis. In these two patients, uterine remnants were found during the operation, and underlying DSD conditions were unexpectedly diagnosed. One patient had a 45,X/46,XY mosaic karyotype, while the second patient had persistent müllerian duct syndrome, probably due to an anti-müllerian hormone receptor defect. Both conditions are extremely rare, but the findings reinforce that DSD should be considered in patients with cryptorchidism, especially if other clinical signs are present. PMID:23373508

Ostergren, Peter; Juul, Anders; Azawi, Nessn H



Unilateral presentation of postpartum cardiomyopathy misdiagnosed as pneumonia  

PubMed Central

A 34-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with severe dyspnoea 10 days following a normal-course caesarean delivery. She had been experiencing shortness of breath throughout the third trimester of pregnancy accompanied by tachycardia (110 bpm); however, her evaluation did not include ECG or chest radiography to elucidate the cause. Following delivery, chest radiography was performed demonstrating predominantly unilateral findings interpreted as pneumonia. ECG revealed T-wave inversion in leads V4–V6, which was unaddressed. Overnight she deteriorated and a chest CT angiography was performed demonstrating heart enlargement and pulmonary oedema. An echocardiogram established a diminished ejection fraction (EF) of 15–20%, suggesting the diagnosis of peripartum cardiomyopathy. She was treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, spirinolactone and furosemide, and was free of symptoms the following month with an EF of 40–45%. Though uncommon, heart failure is a potentially fatal cause of peripartum dyspnoea, often misdiagnosed, meriting further attention.

Amit, Ben Hayman; Marmor, Alon; Hussein, Amer



Unilateral anhidrosis: a rare presentation of atrial myxoma?  


A 50-year-old Chinese woman, non-smoker, presented with a 6-month history of increased sweating on the right side of her face, exertional chest tightness and breathlessness. Although the patient presented with increased sweating on the right, further history and examination revealed unilateral, left-sided anhidrosis, left partial ptosis and miosis consistent with Horner's syndrome. The patient was subsequently investigated with thoracic CT to assess for an apical lung mass (Pancoast tumour). A CT chest ruled out a mediastinal tumour, however, it revealed a large 60×41 mm soft tissue mass arising from the left atrium, protruding across the mitral valve into the left ventricle, suspicious of an intracardiac tumour. The patient was referred urgently for cardiothoracic assessment at a tertiary referral centre and successful open resection was performed. Histology confirmed an atrial myxoma. The patient developed postoperative atrial fibrillation but otherwise made a full recovery. PMID:23230264

Gould, Justin



Multifocal visual-evoked potential in unilateral compressive optic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate the effects of unilateral compressive optic neuropathy on amplitude and latency of multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEPs). Methods Static automated perimetry and mfVEP recordings were obtained from six patients with presumed meningiomas affecting one optic nerve. Monocular and interocular amplitude and latency analyses were performed and compared with normal control subjects. Results The change in the mfVEP amplitude agreed with visual field findings with regard to topography and severity of deviation from normal. The delay in recordable responses from affected eyes ranged from 7.6 to 20.7?ms (interocular analysis) and 7.9 to 13.9?ms (monocular analysis). Conclusions Compressive optic neuropathy decreases the amplitude and increases the latency of the mfVEP. The changes in latency were similar to those seen in optic neuritis but larger than those in ischaemic optic neuropathy and glaucoma.

Semela, Linda; Yang, E Bo; Hedges, Thomas R; Vuong, Laurel; Odel, Jeffery G; Hood, Donald C



Minor head trauma and isolated unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia.  


Internuclear ophthalmoplegia is a syndrome that develops due to a lesion of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. This lesion is mostly caused by multiple sclerosis (usually bilaterally), and only rarely by head injury. A case is presented of unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia as an isolated sequel of minor head trauma, which eventually resolved. A 40-year-old woman with isolated internuclear ophthalmoplegia secondary to closed head trauma with anatomical lesions of the mesencephalon in the region of medial longitudinal fasciculus is described. A minor contusion was detected by magnetic resonance imaging. Diplopia resolved in 5 months. In conclusion, internuclear ophthalmoplegia should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with recent head injuries showing adduction impairment. The connection between the clinical picture and anatomical lesions is visualized by magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:17044578

Cerovski, Branimir; Vidovi?, Tomislav; Papa, Jurica; Cerovski, Jasenka; Boji?, Lovro



Unilateral rhythmic hand tapping in rett syndrome: is this stereotypy?  


Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder, with hand stereotypies as a hallmark of the disease. Epilepsy is a frequent comorbidity and is accompanied by centrotemporal spikes on electroencephalogram, but stereotypic movements should not have epileptiform correlates. During routine video-electroencephalographic investigation in 5 Rett syndrome patients, we identified a peculiar type of unilateral, highly rhythmic hand tapping accompanied by contralateral synchronous centrotemporal spikes on electroencephalography. This phenomenon is not consistent with either reflex seizures or hand stereotypies and does not respond to antiepileptic drugs. The electroencephalographic activity probably represents evoked potentials, either somatosensory or motor, whereas the rhythmic activity raises the possibility of a subcortical pacemaker for a stereotypy variant. The phenomenon could be caused by abnormal circuitry among the hyperexcitable somatosensory cortex, motor cortex, and subcortical areas in Rett syndrome. Clinicians should be aware of the nonepileptic nature of this motor behavior and should not attempt to treat it. PMID:22914379

Nissenkorn, A; Ben-Zeev, B



Apparatus for unilateral generation of a homogeneous magnetic field  


An apparatus for unilaterally producing a substantially homogeneous magnetic field. The apparatus includes two circular electromagnet coils, a small coil and a large coil, which are coaxial with one another and which are separated by a distance equal to one-half the difference in the radius of the two coils. By appropriate selection of electrical currents, which are passed through the coil in opposite directions, a region of homogeneous magnetic field is formed. This region is centered on the common axis of the two coils, at a point on the axis which is at a distance from the small coil equal to one-half the radius of the small coil, and which is on the opposite side of the small coil from the large coil. The apparatus has particular application in the field of diagnostic medical NMR and other NMR applications.

Fukushima, Eiichi (Los Alamos, NM); Rath, Alan R. (San Diego, CA); Roeder, Stephen B. W. (La Mesa, CA)



Apparatus for unilateral generation of a homogeneous magnetic field  


An apparatus for unilaterally producing a substantially homogeneous magnetic field. The apparatus includes two circular electromagnet coils, a small coil and a large coil, which are coaxial with one another and which are separated by a distance equal to one-half the difference in the radius of the two coils. By appropriate selection of electrical currents, which are passed through the coils in opposite directions, a region of homogeneous magnetic field is formed. This region is centered on the common axis of the two coils, at a point on the axis which is at a distance from the small coil equal to one-half the radius of the small coil, and which is on the opposite side of the small coil from the large coil. The apparatus has particular application in the field of diagnostic medical NMR and other NMR applications.

Fukushima, E.; Rath, A.R.; Roeder, S.B.W.



Overexpanded viscous supersonic jet interacting with a unilateral barrier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of a two-dimensional supersonic jet with a unilateral barrier parallel to the flow symmetry plane was studied to account for effects due to gas viscosity and backgound-gas ejection from the region into which the jet expands. In the present experiments, the incident shock wave was reflected at the end of a shock tube equipped with a nozzle. The jet emerged into a pressure chamber 6 cu m in volume and the environmental pressure ratio of the flow in the quasi-stationary phase remained constant. The light source was an OGM-20 laser operating in the giant-pulse mode. Due to background-gas ejection, the gas density in the vicinity of the barrier is much less than on the unconfined side of the jet. The resulting flow is characterized by two distinct environmental pressure ratios: the flow is underexpanded near the barrier, while on the other side it is overexpanded.

Dobrynin, B. M.; Maslennikov, V. G.; Sakharov, V. A.; Serova, E. V.



Unilateral Surgery for Hyperparathyroidism: Indications, Limits, and Late Results—New Philosophy or Expensive Selection without Improvement of Surgical Results?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the “late” results after unilateral parathyroidectomy (PTX) performed for selected indications. From October 1998 throughout March 2001 we operated on 454 patients for hyperparathyroidism (HPT). A positive unifocal 99mtc-MIBI scan was required for the unilateral approach to be used. Intact parathormone (PTH) measurements were done intraoperatively. Postoperative calcium and PTH serum levels of unilaterally operated patients were checked.

Pierre-E. Mortier; Marta M. Mozzon; Olivier P. Fouquet; Damien G. Huglo; Jean-F. Cussac; Charles A. G. Proye



Managing Periprosthetic Femoral Stem Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periprosthetic fractures can be difficult to manage. The classification system developed in Vancouver is simple and useful in determining appropriate treatment. It takes into account the site of the fracture, the stability of the implant, and the surrounding bone stock, which are the important elements of the fracture and hip that determines treatment. Understanding this classification system should allow the

Aaron G. Rosenberg



Fracture paths and ultrananocrystalline diamond  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the simulated fracture of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) to illustrate how different fracture paths can result in different predictions of system properties. At zero temperature, the system is unable to explore the potential energy surface far from the fracture path being investigated. This can result in misleading predictions for the mechanical properties of UNCD. In non-zero temperature simulations, the

Jeffrey T. Paci; Lipeng Sun; Ted Belytschko; George C. Schatz



Surgical Treatment of Maisonneuve Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Closed or open reduction and internal fixation of Maisonneuve fracture with the goal to restore form and function of ankle joint. Prevention of posttraumatic osteoarthritis. Indications: Proximal fibular fractures associated with rupture of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis, the interosseous membrane, and the deltoid ligament; sometimes associated with fracture of the medial malleolus and the posterior rim of the tibia.

Christian Boldin; Wolfgang Grechenig; Johannes Mayr; Rudolf Szyszkowitz



Fractures in the Collegiate Athlete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine the demographics and incidence of fractures in collegiate athletes.Study Design: Retrospective review of prospectively collected data.Methods: Division I collegiate athletes who sustained a fracture while enrolled at the university from 1986 to 2000 were identified through training room records. Type and location of fracture, sport, gender, age, position, height, and weight were recorded and analyzed. Team information

Sharon L. Hame; Jennifer M. LaFemina; David R. McAllister; Geoffrey W. Schaadt; Frederick J. Dorey



Constitutive modeling of fracture waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fracture wave (FW) in a brittle material is a narrow transition region (border) of a continuous fracture zone, which may be associated with the damage accumulation process initiated by propagation of shock waves. In multidimensional structures the fracture wave may behave in an unusual way. The high-speed photography of penetration of a borosilicate (Pyrex) glass block [N. K. Bourne,

A. D. Resnyansky; E. I. Romensky; N. K. Bourne



Viscoelastic rocket grain fracture analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A viscoelastic fracture analysis has been developed for rocket grain fracture predictions. The fracture analysis uses a stress intensity factor technique to predict crack velocity histories under thermal and pressurization loading conditions. The theory is compared with two-dimensional pressurized tests of two typical rocket motor geometries using the viscoelastic material, Solithane 113.

E. C. Francis; C. H. Carlton; R. E. Thompson



Avulsion fractures of the scapula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractures of the scapula due to direct violence are relatively common. Wilber and Evans [18] reported 40 scapular fractures and reviewed the literature. All those injured had received direct trauma to the shoulder and they were able to divide their cases into two groups, based on anatomical location and functional results. Scapular fractures due to avulsion of the muscular attachments

G. H. Heyse-Moore; D. J. Stoker



Computer simulation of hydraulic fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a brief historical background of the development of hydraulic fracturing models for use in the petroleum and other industries. We discuss scaling laws and the propagation regimes that control the growth of hydraulic fractures from the laboratory to the field scale. We introduce the mathematical equations and boundary conditions that govern the hydraulic fracturing process, and discuss numerical

J. Adachi; E. Siebrits; A. Peirce; J. Desroches



Method of fracturing subsurface formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described in which a fracture is initiated from a well at the desired depth of the fracture. A carrying liquid having a propping agent suspended in it is held in the well above a blowout disk set in the well to prevent flow of the carrying liquid into the fracture. A plug adapted to prevent flow of

J. L. Huitt; B. B. McGlothlin



Controlling fractures during well treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This method of controlling the direction of fractures created in a formation during hydraulic fracturing treatment involves the proper placement of a propping agent into fractures, passageways, and voids already present or while being created in a formation. A liquid, containing from about 0.1 to 15 lb of a particulate propping agent, is injected into the well at sufficient pressure

Braunlich; F. H. Jr



Singleparticle fracture under impact loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle fracture is the elementary process that governs comminution. Understanding this elementary fracture process is indispensable to the development of improved size reduction techniques. The Ultrafast Load Cell (UFLC), has been used to investigate the deformation and fracture of single particles subject to impact. The theoretical background of the measurements is presented in detail. The Ultrafast Load Cell allows the

L. M Tavares; R. P King



Line versus representational bisections in unilateral spatial neglect  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To clarify the mechanisms of left unilateral spatial neglect found in the bisection of lines after cueing to the left end point and to determine whether neglect occurs for the mental representation of a line.?METHODS—A new representational bisection task was developed to eliminate the influence of the right segment of the physical line that would attract attention. Eight patients with typical left unilateral spatial neglect underwent line and representational bisection tasks on a computer display with a touch panel. In the line bisection with cueing, they bisected a line after touching the left end point. In the representational bisection, the patients were presented with a line until they touched the left end point. On the blank display, they pointed to the subjective midpoint of the erased line. The performances of the two bisection tasks were compared when the length and position of stimulus lines were varied.?RESULTS—The rightward errors in the representational bisection were greater than or equivalent to those in the line bisection with cueing. The effect of line length in which the errors became greater for the longer lines was equally found in the line bisection with cueing and the representational bisection. This was confirmed in the condition where the right end point was placed at a fixed position and the line length was varied.?CONCLUSIONS—After cueing to the left end point, rightward bisection errors of patients with neglect are not caused by overattention to the right segment of the physical line. Left neglect occurs mainly for the mental representation formed at the time of cueing or seeing the whole extent of a line.??

Ishiai, S; Koyama, Y; Seki, K; Izawa, M



Radioimmunoassay of inhibin: serum responses to unilateral and bilateral orchidectomy  

SciTech Connect

An overnight double antibody RIA using a rabbit antiserum to porcine inhibin alpha-chain (Tyr30) (1-30) NH2 (pI alpha(1-30)), radioiodinated pI alpha(1-30), and a preprecipitated second antibody complex has been developed to measure inhibin concentrations in sera and other biological fluids. The assay is accurate, precise (intraassay coefficient of variation, 4.8%), sensitive (25 pM; 2.5 fmol/tube), and specific for inhibin. The synthetic reference standard pI alpha(1-30) produced a displacement curve that paralleled intact male ovine and bovine sera, crude bovine follicular fluid, and a partially purified porcine follicular fluid reference preparation (WHO/NIH 86/690). Bilateral castration of prepubertal and postpubertal ram lambs resulted in a rapid decrease in serum inhibin concentrations and a subsequent increase in serum FSH. Inhibin levels were high in prepubertal lambs (approximately 375 pM), but these levels were not sustained near the time of puberty (approximately 180 pM). Intensive sampling by jugular venipuncture after castration indicated a 50% drop in circulating inhibin levels within 2 h of testes removal with chronic castrate levels (approximately 75 pM) achieved by 6 h postcastration. A rapid fall in circulating levels of inhibin was also observed after unilateral castration, but these values stabilized within hours to levels intermediate (i.e. approximately 200 pM) to those of intact and bilateral castrate rams. Hemicastrates exhibited a more subtle rise in serum FSH after testis removal, with FSH and inhibin levels of prepubertal hemicastrates returning to mature intact ram values by 15 weeks of age. Serum inhibin levels remained low and FSH levels high at 14 days in unilateral castrate postpubertal rams. Inhibin immunoreactivity increased abruptly in castrate ewes and rams injected iv with 5 ml bovine follicular fluid.

Schanbacher, B.



Unilateral ankle immobilization alters the kinematics and kinetics of lifting.  


BACKGROUND: Theoretical and empirical data support the notion that distal lower extremity joint dysfunction could influence the low-back injury potential of workers, but the impact of unilateral ankle immobilization on low-back loading during lifting has yet to be examined. OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of unilateral ankle immobilization on the kinematics and kinetics of lifting. METHODS: With and without their right ankle immobilized, 10 men performed laboratory-simulated occupational lifting tasks. Together with force platform data, three-dimensional kinematics of the lumbar spine, pelvis, and lower extremities were collected, and a dynamic biomechanical model was used to calculate peak compressive and shear loads imposed on the L4/L5 intervertebral joint. RESULTS: In comparison to the unaffected conditions, ankle immobilization generally resulted in less knee (0.001 $les; p ? 0.07) and greater lumbar spine (0.001 ? p ? 0.35) sagittal motion when lifting. Associated with this compensatory movement strategy were greater L4/L5 anterior/posterior reaction shear forces (0.001 ? p ? 0.25). However, there were cases when individual compensatory movement strategies differed from the "group" response (i.e., subjects increased their sagittal knee motion on the affected side about 8% of the time); this resulted in increased peak L4/L5 joint compression forces without changing the peak L4/L5 anterior-posterior shear forces. CONCLUSIONS: Ankle dysfunction can alter the way in which individuals move and load their low-backs when lifting. The different ways in which individuals compensate for personal movement constraints could alter the potential site and mechanism of occupational low-back injury. PMID:23324721

Beach, Tyson A C; Frost, David M; Clark, Jessica M; Maly, Monica R; Callaghan, Jack P



Cognitive outcome after unilateral pallidal stimulation in Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Chronic high frequency electrostimulation of the globus pallidus internus mimics pallidotomy and improves clinical symptoms in Parkinson's disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive consequences of unilateral deep brain stimulation.?METHODS—Twenty non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease (age range 38-70 years) were neuropsychologically assessed 2 months before and 3 months after unilateral pallidal stimulation. The cognitive assessment included measures of memory, spatial behaviour, and executive and psychomotor function. In addition to group analysis of cognitive change, a cognitive impairment index (CII) was calculated for each individual patient representing the percentage of cognitive measures that fell more than 1 SD below the mean of a corresponding normative sample.?RESULTS—Neurological assessment with the Hoehn and Yahr scale and the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale disclosed a significant postoperative reduction in average clinical Parkinson's disease symptomatology (p<0.001). Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (using right/left side of stimulation as a between subjects factor) showed no significant postoperative change in cognitive performance for the total patient group (main effect of operation). The side of stimulation did not show a significant differential effect on cognitive performance (main effect of lateralisation). There was no significant operation by lateralisation interaction effect. Although the patients experienced significant motor symptom relief after pallidal stimulation, they remained mildly depressed after surgery. Analysis of the individual CII changes showed a postoperative cognitive decline in 30% of the patients. These patients were significantly older and took higher preoperative doses of levodopa than patients showing no change or a postoperative cognitive improvement.?CONCLUSIONS—Left or right pallidal stimulation for the relief of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease seems relatively safe, although older patients and patients needing high preoperative doses of levodopa seem to be more vulnerable for cognitive decline after deep brain stimulation.??

Vingerhoets, G.; van der Linden, C.; Lannoo, E.; Vandewalle, V.; Caemaert, J.; Wolters, M.; Van den Abbeele, D.



[Case of unilateral organizing pneumonia induced by amiodarone pulmonary toxicity].  


A 78-year-old man with diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism and congestive heart failure was admitted to our hospital because of dyspnea on effort. He had been taking 200 mg/day amiodarone for 2 years, in order to treat a intermitted ventricular tachycardia. His chest X rays showed the appearance of diffuse consolidation in the right lung field. At first severe pulmonary infection was suspected, and he was treated with antibiotics. In spite of the treatment, the chest X-ray findings did not improved. We thought of the possibility of interstitial lung disease, and performed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) from the right middle lobe. TBLB revealed the organizing pneumonia (OP). At the same time we observed that he had temporary sinus arrest and entered a stated of shock requiring intubation, temporary pacing and intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) . The coronary angiography (CAG) revealed no abnormalities and cardiac function was normal. Within two days his sinus rhythm recovered spontaneously. After cessation of amiodarone and administering steroid therapy, pulmonary shadows resolved quickly. Since there were no laboratory signs of connective tissue or infectious disease such as a normal autoimmune serology, antibody titers against Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Clamydia species, and BAL, TBLB cultures, etc, we considered that unilateral organizing pneumonia and temporary sinus arrest could be induced by amiodarone. The amiodarone pulmonary toxicity (APT) commonly courses pleural effusion and while it may be strictly unilateral, there are often diminutive contralateral foci visible on HR-CT. Steroids should be given for months and tapered prudently, otherwise APT may recur owing to the persistence of amiodarone in lung. PMID:19514501

Miyaki, Junya; Souma, Shinya; Narumiya, Yasuyuki; Chiba, Shigehiro



Ipsilateral proximal metaphyseal and flexion supracondylar humerus fractures with an associated olecranon avulsion fracture.  


An ipsilateral proximal humerus fracture, "flexion" supracondylar humerus fracture, and olecranon fracture found together is a rare event. The supracondylar fracture should be reduced and percutaneously pinned before the ipsilateral upper extremity fractures are reduced. Displaced supracondylar fractures should be pinned with crossed smooth pins. Most pediatric proximal humerus and olecranon fractures can be treated closed. PMID:1866356

James, P; Heinrich, S D



Proximal Humeral Fractures  

PubMed Central

The purpose of our study was to biomechanically compare, under cyclic loading conditions, fracture site motion, humeral head collapse, and intra-articular hardware penetration in simulated 3-part osteoporotic proximal humeral fractures stabilized with 1 of 2 locking-plate constructs. We performed fixation on simulated 3-part proximal humeral fractures in 10 pairs of cadaveric osteoporotic humeri with a Hand Innovations S3 Proximal Humerus Plate (S3 plate) or an LCP Proximal Humerus Plate (LCP plate; 1 each for each pair). The specimens were potted, mounted on a materials testing machine, and subjected to 5000 cycles of abduction in the scapular plane, loading through the supraspinatus tendon. Interfragmentary displacement at 2 virtual points (the most medial aspect of the calcar and the most superior aspect of the osteotomy line between the greater tuberosity and humeral head) was measured using an optical tracking system. Humeral head rotation was also measured. We used a generalized linear latent and mixed model to check for an effect of cyclic loading and treatment on the parameters of interest (significance, P < .05). After cyclic loading, the S3 plate humeri showed significantly greater displacement of the greater tuberosity fragment and rotation of the humeral head and a trend (not a significant difference) toward greater displacement at the calcar. No hardware penetration was noted for either repair. Although the S3 plate repairs resulted in significantly more fracture site motion, it is unknown whether the magnitude of the motion is clinically significant.

Rose, David M.; Sutter, Edward G.; Mears, Simon C.; Gupta, Rohit R.; Belkoff, Stephen M.



Fracturing of Polygonal Objects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents an approach for the fracture of polygonal objects. The technique was developed by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) for real-time display of munitions penetrating urban structures. A weapons effects model and exterior polygon cl...

A. M. Neiderer M. A. Thomas R. Pearson



Infiltration into fractured bedrock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One potential consequence of global climate change and rapid changes in land use is an increased risk of flooding. Proper understanding of floodwater infiltration thus becomes a crucial component of our preparedness to meet the environmental challenges of projected climate change. In this paper, we present the results of a long-term infiltration experiment performed on fractured ash flow tuff. Water was released from a 3 × 4 m2 infiltration plot (divided into 12 square subplots) with a head of ˜0.04 m, over a period of ˜800 days. This experiment revealed peculiar infiltration patterns not amenable to current infiltration models, which were originally developed for infiltration into soils over a short duration. In particular, we observed that in part of the infiltration plot, the infiltration rate abruptly increased a few weeks into the infiltration tests. We suggest that these anomalies result from increases in fracture permeability during infiltration, which may be caused by swelling of clay fillings and/or erosion of infill debris. Interaction of the infiltration water with subsurface natural cavities (lithophysal cavities) could also contribute to such anomalies. This paper provides a conceptual model that partly describes the observed infiltration patterns in fractured rock and highlights some of the pitfalls associated with direct extension of soil infiltration models to fractured rock over a long period.

Salve, Rohit; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Jones, Robert



Tibial plateau stress fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty has gained popularity recently as a treatment for unicompartmental tibiofemoral non inflammatory arthritis. Tibial plateau stress fracture after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) through guide pin holes placed in the proximal tibia has not been previously reported. In each case in this report, the compressive strength of the proximal tibia was reduced by the drilling of multiple holes

Scott A Brumby; Richard Carrington; Shay Zayontz; Tim Reish; Richard D Scott



Bone Fractures and Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the role engineers and engineering play in repairing severe bone fractures. They acquire knowledge about the design and development of implant rods, pins, plates, screws and bone grafts. They learn about materials science, biocompatibility and minimally-invasive surgery.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering,


Fracture Surfaces of Paperclips  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video features a Penn State University professor, Dr. Chris Muhlstein, who explains that the fracture surface of a paper clip is a map of how it failed, to a trained eye. He invites us to view a variety of surfaces with a virtual microscope.




Nasal fractures in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of thirty children with nasal fractures was evaluated retrospectively by means of a questionnaire and hospital records. Age at the time of injury ranged from age 3 to 12 (mean = 8.6) years and mean follow-up period was 9 years. Eight patients reported some degree of nasal obstruction post reduction, but only one patient required submucous resection and

T. A. Mustoe; L. B. Kaban; J. B. Mulliken



Statistical Physics of Fracture  

SciTech Connect

Disorder and long-range interactions are two of the key components that make material failure an interesting playfield for the application of statistical mechanics. The cornerstone in this respect has been lattice models of the fracture in which a network of elastic beams, bonds, or electrical fuses with random failure thresholds are subject to an increasing external load. These models describe on a qualitative level the failure processes of real, brittle, or quasi-brittle materials. This has been particularly important in solving the classical engineering problems of material strength: the size dependence of maximum stress and its sample-to-sample statistical fluctuations. At the same time, lattice models pose many new fundamental questions in statistical physics, such as the relation between fracture and phase transitions. Experimental results point out to the existence of an intriguing crackling noise in the acoustic emission and of self-affine fractals in the crack surface morphology. Recent advances in computer power have enabled considerable progress in the understanding of such models. Among these partly still controversial issues, are the scaling and size-effects in material strength and accumulated damage, the statistics of avalanches or bursts of microfailures, and the morphology of the crack surface. Here we present an overview of the results obtained with lattice models for fracture, highlighting the relations with statistical physics theories and more conventional fracture mechanics approaches.

Alava, Mikko [Helsinki University of Technology, Helsinki, Finland; Nukala, Phani K [ORNL; Zapperi, Stefano [University of La Sapienza, Rome



Infiltration into Fractured Bedrock  

SciTech Connect

One potential consequence of global climate change and rapid changes in land use is an increased risk of flooding. Proper understanding of floodwater infiltration thus becomes a crucial component of our preparedness to meet the environmental challenges of projected climate change. In this paper, we present the results of a long-term infiltration experiment performed on fractured ash flow tuff. Water was released from a 3 x 4 m{sup 2} infiltration plot (divided into 12 square subplots) with a head of {approx}0.04 m, over a period of {approx}800 days. This experiment revealed peculiar infiltration patterns not amenable to current infiltration models, which were originally developed for infiltration into soils over a short duration. In particular, we observed that in part of the infiltration plot, the infiltration rate abruptly increased a few weeks into the infiltration tests. We suggest that these anomalies result from increases in fracture permeability during infiltration, which may be caused by swelling of clay fillings and/or erosion of infill debris. Interaction of the infiltration water with subsurface natural cavities (lithophysal cavities) could also contribute to such anomalies. This paper provides a conceptual model that partly describes the observed infiltration patterns in fractured rock and highlights some of the pitfalls associated with direct extension of soil infiltration models to fractured rock over a long period.

Salve, Rohit; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Jones, Robert



Hydraulic fracturing propping agent  

SciTech Connect

A high strength propping agent for use in hydraulic fracturing of subterranean formations comprising solid, spherical particles having an alumina content of between 40 and 60%, a density of less than 3.0 gm/cc and an ambient temperature permeability of 100,000 or more millidarcies at 10,000 psi.

Lunghofer, E. P.



Multilayer propping of fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for increasing the permeability of a formation whereby alternate layers of substantially insoluble particles (propping agent) and essentially soluble particles are emplaced in a fracture in the formation. At least one of the layers of substantially insoluble particles is treated with a stabilizing resin which can be hardened or otherwise set up to physically stabilize that

L. R. Kern; F. G. Martin



Hydraulic fracturing propping agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high strength propping agent for use in hydraulic fracturing of subterranean formations comprising solid, spherical particles having an alumina content of between 40 and 60%, a density of less than 3.0 gm\\/cc and an ambient temperature permeability of 100,000 or more millidarcies at 10,000 psi.




Coupled THM Estimate of Fracture Permeability in Fractured Welded Tuff  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is investigating Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste. A portion of the potential repository horizon lies within a fractured, densely welded ash-flow tuff that forms part of the Topopah Spring Tuff member of the Paintbrush Group Fractures form the primary conduits for fluid flow in the rock mass. Considerable analysis has been performed to characterize the thermal-hydrologic (TH) behavior of this rock unit, and recently the dual permeability model (DKM) has proved to be an effective tool for predicting TH behavior. The DKM uses fracture permeability as a primary input parameter, and it is well known that fracture permeability is strongly dependent on fracture deformation. Consequently, one major unknown in performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain system is how deformation during heating and cooling periods may change fracture permeability. We have developed a coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) model for time dependent analysis of deformation and fracture permeability in the rock mass around an emplacement drift. This model utilizes temperatures predicted by a TH code as input to a distinct element thermal mechanical code that can incorporate discrete fractures. Stresses, displacements, and changes in fracture permeability at a series of times after waste emplacement have been estimated for two different thermal loads. Permeability changes were estimated for both horizontal and vertical fractures. The cubic relationship was used to relate changes in fracture aperture to changes in fracture permeability. The analysis also incorporated the effect of shear slip along fractures by computing both stress reduction and fracture dilation as a function of shear displacement. Results show that for a 56 MTU/acre thermal load, the first order effect of thermal mechanical processes will be to rotate the maximum principal stress direction from primarily vertical to primarily horizontal, perpendicular to the emplacement drift axis. Moreover, for this case, the overall permeability will be significantly reduced for both vertical and sub-vertical fractures, while the permeability of horizontal fractures will remain relatively unchanged. The change in the predicted fracture permeability field develops soon after the end of the 50-yr. ventilation period, in association with temperature increase at that time, and persists throughhout the 1000-year simulation interval. This result, when considered by the TH, THC and performance assessment modeling communities, may have an impact on predicted repository performance. Results for a lower thermal load show relatively small changes in fracture permeability for both vertical and horizontal fractures over time. *This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

Blair, S. C.; Carlson, S. R.; Wagoner, J. L.



Sand fracturing vs frac acidizing  

SciTech Connect

Production histories of two wells were used to compare performances of fracture acidizing and sand fracturing treatments in a study that compared stimulation results of the Ratcliffe Formation in the Williston Basin. The study concluded that with a computer model and production history, fracture geometry may be calculated through curve matching. Use of this method may be helpful in the design of future stimulation jobs. Results of this study indicate greater well production rates and greater cumulative production from sand fracturing than equivalent cost fracture acidizing treatment.

Bailey, D.E.



Seismic characterization of fracture properties  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to show that there is a relationship, both empirical and theoretical, between the measured seismic response, the mechanical stiffness (also referred to as specific stiffness) of fractures and their hydraulic conductivity. Laboratory measurements of the mechanical stiffness, hydraulic conductivity and seismic properties of natural fractures are summarized. A theoretical model for the amplitude and group time delay for compressional and shear waves transmitted across a single fracture is presented. Predictions based on this model are compared with laboratory measurements. Finally, the results for a single fracture are extended to multiple parallel fractures. 13 refs., 6 figs.

Myer, L.R.; Hopkins, D.; Cook, N.G.W. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Pyrak-Nolte, L.J. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)



Analysis of visual outcomes and complications following levator resection for unilateral congenital blepharoptosis without strabismus.  


Background: It is challenging to manage congenital blepharoptosis, especially unilateral, because symmetry is difficult to achieve under general anesthesia and age at which the ptosis should be corrected is still controversial. The aim of our study is to analyze visual and surgical outcomes after levator resection for unilateral congenital blepharoptosis. Methods: Charts of patients with unilateral congenital blepharoptosis who underwent levator resection at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from 1991 through 2000 were reviewed. The resultant database was interrogated for demographic data, severity, surgical timing, visual outcomes, surgical outcomes, and complications. Results: Eighty-four children underwent levator resection for unilateral congenital blepharoptosis: 16.7% of these patients had amblyopia and 84.5% had surgical success following levator resection. Severe ptosis (p = 0.0288, p < 0.05) and surgery at less than 2 years of age (p = 0.0126, p < 0.05) were the important factors contributing to surgical failure. Age at surgery (p = 0.0058, p < 0.01) and amblyogenic ametropia (p = 0.0001, p < 0.001) were found to be significantly associated with the postoperative visual results. Conclusion: The levator resection provides satisfactory results both in function and cosmesis in patients with unilateral congenital blepharoptosis. Amblyogenic ametropia is the leading cause of amblyopia in the patients with unilateral isolated congenital blepharoptosis. However, patients with unilateral congenital blepharoptosis should have cycloplegic refraction as early as possible, and their visual status monitored until visual maturity. PMID:23989313

Wu, Shu-Ya; Ma, Lih; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Tsai, Yueh-Ju


Post-training unilateral amygdala lesions selectively impair contextual fear memories.  


The basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC) are both structures with key roles in contextual fear conditioning. During fear conditioning, it is postulated that contextual representations of the environment are formed in the hippocampus, which are then associated with foot shock in the amygdala. However, it is not known to what extent a functional connection between these two structures is required. This study investigated the effect on contextual and cued fear conditioning of disconnecting the BLA and dHPC, using asymmetrically placed, excitotoxic unilateral lesions. Post-training lesions selectively impaired contextual, but not cued, fear, while pretraining lesions resulted in a similar but nonsignificant pattern of results. This effect was unexpectedly observed in both the contralateral disconnection group and the anticipated ipsilateral control, which prompted further examination of individual unilateral lesions of BLA and dHPC. Post-training unilateral dHPC lesions had no effect on contextual fear memories while bilateral dHPC lesions and unilateral BLA lesions resulted in a near total abolition of contextual fear but not cued conditioned fear. Again, pretraining unilateral BLA lesions resulted in a strong but nonsignificant trend to the impairment of contextual fear. Furthermore, an analysis of context test-induced Fos protein expression in the BLA contralateral to the lesion site revealed no differences between post-training SHAM and unilateral BLA lesioned animals. Therefore, post-training unilateral lesions of the BLA are sufficient to severely impair contextual, but not cued, fear memories. PMID:22615481

Flavell, Charlotte R; Lee, Jonathan L C



A case of traumatic bilateral abducens and unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 47 Final Diagnosis: Traumatic bilateral abducens • unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy Symptoms: Diplopia Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Neurology Objective: Rare disease Background: Incidence of unilateral abducens palsy from head trauma has been reported to be as high as 1% to 2.7%, but bilateral abducens nerve palsy is extremely rare. Case Report: We present a case in which bilateral abducens nerve and unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy developed with a high Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) 3 hours after head trauma due to a motor vehicle crash. Conclusions: This case highlights the occurrence and management of posttraumatic bilateral sixth nerve palsy.

Selcuk, Ferda; Mut, Senem E.



Asymmetric vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in unilateral Meni?re patients  

PubMed Central

Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) were measured in 22 unilateral Menière patients with monaural and binaural stimulation with 250 and 500 Hz tone bursts. For all measurement situations significantly lower VEMP amplitudes were on average measured at the affected side compared to the unaffected side. Unilateral Menière patients have, in contrast to normal subjects, asymmetric VEMPs, indicating a permanently affected vestibular (most likely otolith) system at the side of hearing loss. The diagnostic value of VEMP amplitude asymmetry measurement in individual patients is low, because of the large overlap of the VEMP amplitude asymmetry range for unilateral Menière patients with that for normal subjects.

Wit, H. P.



Serial pathologic fractures of five long bones on four separate occasions in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism, challenges of management in a developing country: a case report.  


Multiple pathologic fractures secondary to parathyroid adenoma is rarely recognized and reported in the tropics. Inadequate evaluation causes worsened disability and increased psychological stress. We present a 27-year-old Nigerian male student with recurrent unexplained pathological fractures of the long bones. Primary Hyperparathyroidism was later diagnosed and he benefited from a unilateral parathyroidectomy. Primary hyperparathyroidism secondary to parathyroid adenoma is difficult to diagnose and needs a high index of suspicion. Surgery and good post-operative biochemical control of serum calcium produce satisfying outcomes. PMID:24106573

Olatoke, Samuel Adegboyega; Agodirin, Olayide Sulaiman; Rahman, Ganiyu Adebisi; Habeeb, Olufemi Gbenga; Jimoh, Rabiu Olusegun; Ahmed, Bola Abdulkadir; Biliaminu, Sikiru; Oyedepo, Olanrewaju Olubukola



Serial pathologic fractures of five long bones on four separate occasions in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism, challenges of management in a developing country: a case report  

PubMed Central

Multiple pathologic fractures secondary to parathyroid adenoma is rarely recognized and reported in the tropics. Inadequate evaluation causes worsened disability and increased psychological stress. We present a 27-year-old Nigerian male student with recurrent unexplained pathological fractures of the long bones. Primary Hyperparathyroidism was later diagnosed and he benefited from a unilateral parathyroidectomy. Primary hyperparathyroidism secondary to parathyroid adenoma is difficult to diagnose and needs a high index of suspicion. Surgery and good post-operative biochemical control of serum calcium produce satisfying outcomes.

Olatoke, Samuel Adegboyega; Agodirin, Olayide Sulaiman; Rahman, Ganiyu Adebisi; Habeeb, Olufemi Gbenga; Jimoh, Rabiu Olusegun; Ahmed, Bola Abdulkadir; Biliaminu, Sikiru; Oyedepo, Olanrewaju Olubukola



Esophageal perforation after fracture of the cervical spine: case report and review of the literature.  


We present a posttraumatic esophageal tear that occurred in a 55-year old patient after a truck accident. He sustained a two-level injury with a type II odontoid fracture and a unilateral fracture of the left superior articular process of C6 with an incomplete quadriplegia at C5. Both lesions were treated nonoperatively. The tear was attributed to the stretching of the esophagus over anterior degenerative spurs at the level of the lesion (C5-C6) during hyperextension. The diagnosis of the esophageal perforation was delayed for 6 days. The treatment consisted of surgical debridement, volume expansion, antibiotic therapy, hyperbaric oxygenation, assisted ventilation, and esophageal exclusion. A complete review of the literature was performed. PMID:12468980

Nérot, C; Jeanneret, B; Lardenois, T; Lépousé, C



Pelvic and acetabular fractures  

SciTech Connect

This treatise focuses primarily on the clinical aspects of diagnosis and treatments of pelvic and acetabular fractures. However, considerable attention is also paid to the radiographic diagnosis of trauma and postoperative effects. The book begins with a succinct review of pelvic and acetabular anatomy and pelvic biomechanics. It continues with a radiographic classification of pelvic injury, which will represent the major source of the book's interest for radiologists. The remainder of the book is concerned with clinical management of pelvic and acetabular trauma, including preoperative planning, surgical approaches, techniques of reduction, internal fixation, eternal fixation, post-operative care, and late problems. Even throughout this later portion of the book there are extensive illustrations, including plain radiographs, computed tomographic (CT) scans, reconstructed three-dimensional CT scans, and schematic diagrams of diverse pelvic and acetabular fractures and the elementary surgical techniques for their repair.

Mears, D.C.; Rubash, H.E.



Mandibular coronoid fractures: treatment options.  


Fractures of the coronoid process are uncommon and can easily be missed. The purpose of this study was to classify the fracture patterns and explore the treatment options. This retrospective study included 39 patients with fractures of the mandibular coronoid process. Treatment protocols were developed based on the time of fracture, degree of mouth opening, location of the coronoid fracture, types of fracture, and other concomitant fractures. All patients were followed up for 12-60 months. Sixteen patients underwent conservative management and four of these patients developed progressive trismus, which improved significantly after removal of the coronoid process. Twenty-three patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) via the modified retromandibular approach. Follow-up data showed significant improvement in maximum mouth opening and symptoms (diet and pain) compared to their preoperative status. In summary, conservative management is first recommended for fractures of the coronoid process with minimal displacement or restriction of mouth opening. For patients with significant fracture displacement and limited mouth opening, or with concomitant fractures of the zygoma, zygomatic arch, or mandibular ramus, ORIF via the modified retromandibular approach through the anterior border of the parotid gland is an alternative treatment method. PMID:23602277

Shen, L; Li, J; Li, P; Long, J; Tian, W; Tang, W



Fractures of the cervical spine  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the literature on cervical spine fractures. METHODS: The literature on the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of lower and upper cervical fractures and dislocations was reviewed. RESULTS: Fractures of the cervical spine may be present in polytraumatized patients and should be suspected in patients complaining of neck pain. These fractures are more common in men approximately 30 years of age and are most often caused by automobile accidents. The cervical spine is divided into the upper cervical spine (occiput-C2) and the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), according to anatomical differences. Fractures in the upper cervical spine include fractures of the occipital condyle and the atlas, atlanto-axial dislocations, fractures of the odontoid process, and hangman's fractures in the C2 segment. These fractures are characterized based on specific classifications. In the lower cervical spine, fractures follow the same pattern as in other segments of the spine; currently, the most widely used classification is the SLIC (Subaxial Injury Classification), which predicts the prognosis of an injury based on morphology, the integrity of the disc-ligamentous complex, and the patient's neurological status. It is important to correctly classify the fracture to ensure appropriate treatment. Nerve or spinal cord injuries, pseudarthrosis or malunion, and postoperative infection are the main complications of cervical spine fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Fractures of the cervical spine are potentially serious and devastating if not properly treated. Achieving the correct diagnosis and classification of a lesion is the first step toward identifying the most appropriate treatment, which can be either surgical or conservative.

Marcon, Raphael Martus; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaca; Teixeira, William Jacobsen; Narasaki, Douglas Kenji; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo; de Barros Filho, Tarcisio Eloy Pessoa



Management of Spine Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The initial management of spine fractures requires strict adherence to the clinical condition and the presence and severity\\u000a of neurologic dysfunction. Early and consistent attention to the possibility of a spinal column injury will facilitate safe\\u000a and effective treatment of the multiple injured patients. A comprehensive physical examination, including neurologic function,\\u000a plays a key role. Close cooperation between all members

Karl-Åke Jansson; Kevin Gill


Propellant fracturing of wells  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A propellant assembly for fracturing a formation around a well includes a propellant and a detonating cord wrapped around the propellant, the detonating cord to ignite the propellant upon detonation of the detonating cord. Alternatively, the propellant can include a substantially central axial bore, with the propellant having a plurality of axial slots extending radially outwardly from the axial bore toward the outer surface of the propellant. A detonating cord is arranged within the axial bore of the propellant.



Melt fracture revisited  

SciTech Connect

In a previous paper the author and Demay advanced a model to explain the melt fracture instability observed when molten linear polymer melts are extruded in a capillary rheometer operating under the controlled condition that the inlet flow rate was held constant. The model postulated that the melts were a slightly compressible viscous fluid and allowed for slipping of the melt at the wall. The novel feature of that model was the use of an empirical switch law which governed the amount of wall slip. The model successfully accounted for the oscillatory behavior of the exit flow rate, typically referred to as the melt fracture instability, but did not simultaneously yield the fine scale spatial oscillations in the melt typically referred to as shark skin. In this note a new model is advanced which simultaneously explains the melt fracture instability and shark skin phenomena. The model postulates that the polymer is a slightly compressible linearly viscous fluid but assumes no slip boundary conditions at the capillary wall. In simple shear the shear stress {tau}and strain rate d are assumed to be related by d = F{tau} where F ranges between F{sub 2} and F{sub 1} > F{sub 2}. A strain rate dependent yield function is introduced and this function governs whether F evolves towards F{sub 2} or F{sub 1}. This model accounts for the empirical observation that at high shears polymers align and slide more easily than at low shears and explains both the melt fracture and shark skin phenomena.

Greenberg, J. M.



Hydraulic fracturing method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of fracturing subterranean formations employs propping agent particles composed of resin-filled or fiber-reinforced cement pellets or resin-filled clinker. The cement pellets are impregnated with a resinous material, or reinforced with fibrous material, or both. The cement clinker particles also are impregnated with a resinous material. Laboratory tests show that this propping agent has less tendency to crush than

Cooke; C. E. Jr



Procedure for estimating fracture energy from fracture surface roughness  


The fracture energy of a material is determined by first measuring the length of a profile of a section through a fractured surface of the material taken on a plane perpendicular to the mean plane of that surface, then determining the fractal dimensionality of the surface. From this, the yield strength of the material, and the Young's Modulus of that material, the fracture energy is calculated.

Williford, Ralph E. (Kennewick, WA)



Modified essential work of fracture model for polymer fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The well-known essential work of fracture model, describing the linear relationship between fracture energy and un-cracked ligament length, is further extended to allow for any non-linearity in the relationship as this can potentially lead to a large error in determination of the essential work of fracture. Two different polymers, described in the literature, were chosen to show how the essential

Kai Duan; Xiaozhi Hu; Gwidon Stachowiak



Management of small unilateral renal cell carcinomas: Radical versus nephron-sparing surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives.There is controversy concerning the management of small unilateral renal cell carcinomas. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the relative efficacy of radial nephrectomy versus nephron-sparing surgery in such patients.

Brian P. Butler; Andrew C. Novick; David P. Miller; Steven A. Campbell; Mark R. Licht



Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials produced by impulsive lateral acceleration in unilateral vestibular dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo deduce the connectivity underlying ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (OVEMPs) recorded from two sites and produced by lateral transmastoid stimulation in patients with unilateral vestibular dysfunction.

Sendhil Govender; Sally M. Rosengren; Neil P. McAngus Todd; James G. Colebatch



SUNCT Headache (Short-Lasting, Unilateral, Neuralgiform with Conjunctival Injection and Tearing)  


NINDS SUNCT Headache Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is SUNCT Headache? Is there any treatment? ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is SUNCT Headache? SUNCT-Short-lasting, Unilateral, Neuralgiform headache attacks with ...


Impact of a unilateral carbon tax on carbon-intensive industries: evidence from Norway.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication identifies the impact of a unilateral Norwegian carbon tax on the profitability and the exit probability in 12 carbon intensive manufacturing sectors. The study uses Norwegian panel data for manufacturing firms and focuses both on a tax o...

R. Golombek




Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo determine alterations in regional renal blood flow following unilateral nephrectomy using an autoradiographic technique. The role of prostaglandins and the sympathetic nervous system in the mediation of these changes was assessed.




To Be or Not to Be: The Roles of the Unilateral and Embedded Reporter during Wartime.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wartime correspondents are a valid and critical part of obtaining the overall picture of war and military conflicts. This paper examined the roles of embedded and unilateral reporters during wartime to answer the following two questions: How do the media ...

H. E. Nilson



Getting a grip on memory: unilateral hand clenching alters episodic recall.  


Unilateral hand clenching increases neuronal activity in the frontal lobe of the contralateral hemisphere. Such hand clenching is also associated with increased experiencing of a given hemisphere's "mode of processing." Together, these findings suggest that unilateral hand clenching can be used to test hypotheses concerning the specializations of the cerebral hemispheres during memory encoding and retrieval. We investigated this possibility by testing effects of unilateral hand clenching on episodic memory. The hemispheric Encoding/Retrieval Asymmetry (HERA) model proposes left prefrontal regions are associated with encoding, and right prefrontal regions with retrieval, of episodic memories. It was hypothesized that right hand clenching (left hemisphere activation) pre-encoding, and left hand clenching (right hemisphere activation) pre-recall, would result in superior memory. Results supported the HERA model. Also supported was that simple unilateral hand clenching can be used as a means by which the functional specializations of the cerebral hemispheres can be investigated in intact humans. PMID:23638094

Propper, Ruth E; McGraw, Sean E; Brunyé, Tad T; Weiss, Michael



Getting a Grip on Memory: Unilateral Hand Clenching Alters Episodic Recall  

PubMed Central

Unilateral hand clenching increases neuronal activity in the frontal lobe of the contralateral hemisphere. Such hand clenching is also associated with increased experiencing of a given hemisphere’s “mode of processing.” Together, these findings suggest that unilateral hand clenching can be used to test hypotheses concerning the specializations of the cerebral hemispheres during memory encoding and retrieval. We investigated this possibility by testing effects of unilateral hand clenching on episodic memory. The hemispheric Encoding/Retrieval Asymmetry (HERA) model proposes left prefrontal regions are associated with encoding, and right prefrontal regions with retrieval, of episodic memories. It was hypothesized that right hand clenching (left hemisphere activation) pre-encoding, and left hand clenching (right hemisphere activation) pre-recall, would result in superior memory. Results supported the HERA model. Also supported was that simple unilateral hand clenching can be used as a means by which the functional specializations of the cerebral hemispheres can be investigated in intact humans.

Propper, Ruth E.; McGraw, Sean E.; Brunye, Tad T.; Weiss, Michael



Rock fracture image acquisition and analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a cooperation project between Sweden and China, this paper presents: rock fracture image acquisition and analysis. Rock fracture images are acquired by using UV light illumination and visible optical illumination. To present fracture network reasonable, we set up some models to characterize the network, based on the models, we used Best fit Ferret method to auto-determine fracture zone, then, through skeleton fractures to obtain endpoints, junctions, holes, particles, and branches. Based on the new parameters and a part of common parameters, the fracture network density, porosity, connectivity and complexities can be obtained, and the fracture network is characterized. In the following, we first present a basic consideration and basic parameters for fractures (Primary study of characteristics of rock fractures), then, set up a model for fracture network analysis (Fracture network analysis), consequently to use the model to analyze fracture network with different images (Two dimensional fracture network analysis based on slices), and finally give conclusions and suggestions.

Wang, W.; Zongpu, Jia; Chen, Liwan



Evaluation of five fracture models in Taylor impact fracture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taylor impact test presented in a previous study on a commercial high strength and super hard aluminum alloy 7A04-T6 are numerically evaluated using the finite element code ABAQUS/Explicit. In the present study, the influence of fracture criterion in numerical simulations of the deformation and fracture behavior of Taylor rod has been studied. Included in the paper are a modified version of Johnson-Cook, the Cockcroft-Latham(C-L), the constant fracture strain, the maximum shear stress and the maximum principle stress fracture models. Model constants for each criterion are calibrated from material tests. The modified version of Johnson-Cook fracture criterion with the stress triaxiality cut off idea is found to give good prediction of the Taylor impact fracture behavior. However, this study will also show that the C-L fracture criterion where only one simple material test is required for calibration is found to give reasonable predictions. Unfortunately, the other three criteria are not able to repeat the experimentally obtained fracture behavior. The study indicates that the stress triaxiality cut off idea is necessary to predict the Taylor impact fracture.

Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Xin-Ke; Wei, Gang; Guo, Zitao



Evaluation of Five Fracture Models in Taylor Impact Fracture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taylor impact test presented in a previous study on a commercial high strength and super hard aluminum alloy 7A04-T6 are numerically evaluated using the finite element code ABAQUS/Explicit. In the present study, the influence of fracture criterion in numerical simulations of the deformation and fracture behavior of Taylor rod has been studied. Included in the paper are a modified version of Johnson--Cook, the Cockcroft--Latham(C-L), the constant fracture strain, the maximum shear stress and the maximum principle stress fracture models. Model constants for each criterion are calibrated from material tests. The modified version of Johnson--Cook fracture criterion with the stress triaxiality cut off idea is found to give good prediction of the Taylor impact fracture behavior. However, this study will also show that the C-L fracture criterion where only one simple material test is required for calibration, is found to give reasonable predictions. Unfortunately, the other three criteria are not able to repeat the experimentally obtained fracture behavior. The study indicates that the stress triaxiality cut off idea is necessary to predict the Taylor impact fracture.

Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Xinke; Wei, Gang; Guo, Zitao



[Imaging fractures: more than just delineating fracture lines].  


Skeletal trauma accounts for a high percentage of cases in daily clinical practice, especially in emergency departments. It is important not to limit radiology reports to the fracture. Radiologists must be familiar with the principles of bone trauma and elaborate concise reports that describe the complete extent of each lesion.This article aims to describe some of the patterns with which fractures present on plain-film radiographs, taking into account bone displacement, types of associated fractures, associations of fractures with luxations, soft-tissue lesions, and indirect signs. Likewise, we emphasize the need to perform computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies in certain cases. PMID:23414928

Amador Gil, A; Rico Gala, S



Vertebral fractures and concomitant fractures of the sternum  

PubMed Central

From October 1996 to August 2001, 721 patients with vertebral fractures were admitted to our unit. Ten patients suffered from vertebral fractures and concomitant sternal fractures. The clinical notes and plain film radiographs of these patients were studied. The average age of the patients was 37 (20–69) years. Nine had been involved in road traffic accidents. Three patients had fractures of the cervical spine, six of the upper thoracic spine (T1–T6) and one had a lumbar spine fracture. The extra-thoracic fracture group included two patients with neurological compromise and two patients who were neurologically intact. The entire upper thoracic fracture group suffered neurological compromise, with four patients suffering complete neurological deficit. In addition, four of these patients suffered potentially life-threatening intra-thoracic injuries. The relative severity of the neurological compromise and the attendant injuries in the upper thoracic fracture group offers compelling evidence in support of the “fourth column” theory, as expressed by Berg [Berg EE (1993), The sternal-rib complex. A possible fourth column in thoracic spine fractures. Spine 18(13):1916–1919].

Quinlan, John F.; Robertson, Ian; O'Byrne, John M.



Bimanual force coordination in children with spastic unilateral cerebral palsy.  


In this study bimanual grip-force coordination was quantified using a novel "Gripper" system that records grip forces produced while holding a lower and upper unit, in combination with the lift force necessary to separate these units. Children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) (aged 5-14 years, n=12) were compared to age matched typically developing (TD) children (n=23). Compared to TD, the CP-group is much slower and takes 50% more time to generate grip and lift forces with more fixating force before lifting the upper unit. In addition the coordination between forces in both hands is reduced. The CP-group increases the lift force in the upper hand 2.5 times more than the holding force when pulling the two units apart, while this is only 1.5 times in TD. Moreover, the correlation between forces generated in both hands in the CP-group is lower. The lack of fine tuning of the forces, measured by the linearity error is increased, especially when the magnet load keeping the unit together is low. The results indicate an impaired pull-hold synergy between upper and lower hand and the lift force. Bimanual tasks evaluating bimanual grip and lift forces in children with CP and can give us new insights in the underlying force control mechanisms of the spastic hand. PMID:21592724

Smits-Engelsman, B C M; Klingels, K; Feys, H



Unilateral oculomotor nerve palsy: unusual sign of hydrocephalus.  


We report an unusual case of hydrocephalus in which unilateral oculomotor nerve paralysis was the predominant sign. Misinterpretation of such an atypical clinical sign may lead to inappropriate therapy. We outline the role of intracranial pressure monitoring as an adjunctive diagnostic tool and we suggest a presumptive mechanism to explain the correlation between enlarged ventricles and 3(rd) nerve dysfunction. A 16-year-old boy presented with a complete left oculomotor nerve palsy associated with imaging findings of dilated ventricles and Dandy-Walker variant cystic malformation. Monitoring of intracranial pressure through a ventricular catheter was undertaken. In the first phase (no cerebrospinal fluid drainage [CSF] drainage) mean intracranial pressure (ICP) values were >0 mmHg. A second phase (with progressively longer CSF draining) further defined the diagnosis. A ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was then placed and the nerve function returned to normal within few days. Third cranial nerve dysfunction as a predominant sign of hydrocephalus is very rare and may raise doubts as to the real significance of the imaging findings of enlarged ventricles. In this ground, ICP monitoring is a safe and helpful diagnostic tool that can afford a more accurate evaluation and proper treatment. The supposed mechanism of 3(rd) nerve dysfunction was bending/stretching of the nerve. PMID:19546847

Cultrera, F; D'Andrea, M; Battaglia, R; Chieregato, A



Longitudinal study of children with unilateral hearing loss  

PubMed Central

Objective Children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL) have been found to have lower language scores, and increased rate of speech therapy, grade failures, or needing Individualized Education Plans (IEPs). The objective of this study was to determine whether language skills and educational performance improved or worsened over time in a cohort of children with UHL. Study Design Prospective longitudinal cohort study Methods Forty-six children with permanent UHL, ages 6 to 12 years, were studied using standardized cognitive, achievement, and language testing at yearly intervals for three years. Using standardized test scores allowed implicit comparison to norms established by national cross-sectional samples. Secondary outcomes included behavioral issues, IEPs, receipt of speech therapy, or teacher report of problems at school. Analysis utilized repeated measures ANOVA and multilevel random regression modeling. Results Several cognitive and language mean standardized scores increased over time. Possible predictors of increase with time included higher baseline cognitive levels and receipt of interventions through an IEP. However, standardized achievement scores and indicators of school performance did not show concomitant improvements. Rates of IEPs remained > 50% throughout, and rates of speech therapy were consistently about 20%. Conclusions Children with UHL demonstrated improvement in oral language and verbal IQ scores over time, but not improvements in school performance. Parents and teachers reported persistent behavioral problems and academic weaknesses or areas of concern in about 25%. The provision of IEPs for children with UHL, and acknowledging UHL as a hearing disability, may be an effective intervention to improve language skills over time.

Lieu, Judith E. C.; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Fu, Qiang



Deficits in complex visual perception following unilateral temporal lobectomy.  


Although human temporal cortex is known to be important for short- and long-term memory, its role in visual perception is not well understood. In this study, we compared the performance of three patients with unilateral temporal lobectomies to that of normal controls on both "simple" and "complex" visual discriminations that did not involve explicit memory components. Two types of complex tasks were tested that involved discriminations secondary to texture segmentation. These were contrasted with simple discriminations using luminance-defined stimuli. Patients showed impaired thresholds only on tasks involving texture segmentation, performing as well as controls when the targets were defined by luminance rather than texture. The minimum stimulus presentation times for threshold performance were also measured for all tasks and found to be elevated in temporal lobectomy patients relative to controls. Although the magnitude of the deficits observed was substantial, loss was equivalent in ipsi- and contra-lesional regions of the visual field. Additional control experiments showed that the patients' perceptual deficits were not due, even in part, to disturbances of basic visual capacities such as acuity and contrast sensitivity. Our results indicate that temporal lobe damage disrupts complex, but not simple, visual discriminations throughout the visual field. PMID:9869712

Huxlin, K R; Merigan, W H



Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Diffuse Unilateral Subacute Neuroretinitis  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To describe the SD-OCT findings in patients with diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN) and evaluate CRT and RNFL thickness. Methods. Patients with clinical diagnosis of DUSN who were submitted to SD-OCT were included in the study. Complete ophthalmologic examination and SD-OCT were performed. Cirrus scan strategy protocols used were 200 × 200 macular cube, optic nerve head cube, and HD-5 line raster. Results. Eight patients with DUSN were included. Mean RNFL thickness was 80.25??m and 104.75??m for affected and normal eyes, respectively. Late stage had mean RNFL thickness of 74.83??m compared to 96.5??m in early stage. Mean CMT was 205.5??m for affected eyes and 255.13??m for normal fellow eyes. Conclusion. RNFL and CMT were thinner in DUSN eyes compared to normal eyes. Late-stage disease had more pronounced thinning compared to early-stage patients. This thinning in RNFL and CMT may reflect the low visual acuity in patients with DUSN.

Garcia Filho, Carlos Alexandre de A.; Soares, Ana Claudia Medeiros de A. G.; Penha, Fernando Marcondes; Garcia, Carlos Alexandre de Amorim



Functional magnetic resonance imaging in acute unilateral optic neuritis.  


Despite good clinical criteria for diagnosing optic neuritis (ON), only a few techniques can precisely assess its impact on visual brain function. The authors studied whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of visual activation reliably reflects the cerebral consequences of acute unilateral ON, and how fMRI correlates with clinical function and visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Twenty ON patients, before and after steroid treatment, were compared to 20 controls. Each eye was stimulated separately with a checkerboard pattern reversing at 1, 2, 4, and 8 Hz. VEPs were recorded the same day. Initially, affected eye responses differed significantly from those of unaffected counterparts and controls in 12 patients. Post hoc classification by fMRI criteria was correct in approximately 85%. fMRI and VEP response parameters (as well as visual acuity) correlated significantly. The higher stimulation frequencies yielded greater fMRI responses from unaffected eyes, but not from affected eyes, in controls. The fMRI responses were quantifiable in every subject, whereas in 11 ON eyes, no VEPs were obtained during the acute stage. The authors conclude that fMRI is sensitive to the cerebral response alteration during ON and might therefore contribute to evaluating the temporal evolution of the visual functional deficit during recovery or therapy. PMID:12380481

Russ, Michael O; Cleff, Ulrich; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Schalnus, Rainer; Enzensberger, Wolfgang; Kleinschmidt, Andreas



Vestibular evoked potentials in response to direct unilateral mechanical stimulation.  


Evoked potentials produced by direct unilateral mechanical stimulation of the cannulated horizontal semicircular canal were investigated parametrically in anesthetized adult cats (40 mg/kg pentobarbital). Stimuli were fluid pressure pulses in a closed hydraulic system (no net flow), which was coupled to the lateral semicircular canal near the ampulla. Hydraulic waveform output and fluid pressure was monitored in situ via a parallel hydraulic circuit during experiments. Maximum fluid displacement at the level of the horizontal canal was 0.025 microliters. The intensity, duration, and presentation rate of the stimulus were varied during experiments. Field potentials were recorded differentially using subdermal electrodes, with the active lead in the region of the mastoid referenced to a distant nasal site. A total of 256 trials was accumulated for each run using an averaging computer. Evoked responses were physiologically vulnerable and reproducible, with little variance among animals. Response amplitude increased monotonically until saturation was noted and responses followed the temporal structure of the pressure wave. Polarity reversal with differing electrode placement suggests that the generator site lies within the mastoid. Further, intense broad-band acoustic stimuli and eighth nerve sectioning did not affect the vestibular evoked potentials, but could be shown to abolish the auditory evoked potentials. Results of these experiments support the notion that vestibular evoked potentials are related to the first derivative of the pressure pulse waveforms. Future experiments will be directed toward the assessment of vestibular physiology and pharmacology with this evoked response method. PMID:2496377

Coale, F S; Walsh, E J; McGee, J; Konrad, H R



Mechanomyographic and electromyographic responses to unilateral isometric training.  


The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of unilateral, isometric training of the forearm flexors on strength and the mechanomyographic (MMG) and electromyographic (EMG) responses of the biceps brachii in the trained and untrained limb at three joint angles. Seventeen adult females (mean age +/- SD = 21 +/- 2 years) were randomly assigned to a control (CTL; N=7) or a training (TRN; N=10) group. The TRN group performed isometric training of the non-dominant forearm flexors on a Cybex II Dynamometer at a joint angle such that the Cybex lever arm was positioned 60 degrees above the horizontal plane. The training consisted of 3 to 5 sets of 8, 6-second repetitions at 80% of maximal voluntary contraction 3 times per week for 8 weeks. The results indicated a significant increase in flexed arm circumference as well as isometric strength in the trained limb at all three joint angles. There were, however, no changes in MMG or EMG amplitude in the trained or untrained limb and no cross-training effect for strength or flexed arm circumference. These findings suggested that the increased strength may have been due to factors associated with hypertrophy, independent of neural adaptations in the biceps brachii. Furthermore, hypertrophy may have had counteractive effects on the MMG signal that could be responsible for the lack of a training-induced change in the MMG amplitude. PMID:11991770

Ebersole, Kyle T; Housh, Terry J; Johnson, Glen O; Perry, Sharon R; Bull, Anthony J; Cramer, Joel T



Renal agenesis and unilateral nephrectomy: what are the risks of living with a single kidney?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term outlook for patients with unilateral renal agenesis or following unilateral nephrectomy in childhood is controversial.\\u000a Animal studies suggest that the resultant compensatory increase in glomerular filtration might lead to progressive damage\\u000a to the remaining renal tissue and may generate hypertension. Human studies addressing these concerns are limited in number\\u000a and are difficult to interpret because they are small,

Shivaram Hegde; Malcolm G. Coulthard



Bullous lung disease and bronchiectasis in unilateral absent right pulmonary artery.  


Unilateral absence of pulmonary artery is an uncommon congenital disorder. We report a case of unilateral absence of the right pulmonary artery in an adult without any other cardiovascular anomalies. We describe the clinical and radiologic presentations of this disease. Computed tomography scan and Surgery enabled us to confirm the diagnosis precisely, which was successfully treated with a right pneumonectomy for right-sided bullous lung disease and bronchiectasis. He is doing well at 2 year follow-up. PMID:22700453

Betigeri, Vithalkumar Malleshi; Betigeri, Anupama Vithalkumar; Saichandran, Bathal Vedagiri; Subbarao, Kasturi Satya Venkata Kumar



Free insulin-like growth factor-1 and unilateral complete ureteral obstruction in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To determine the effect of unilateral ureteral obstruction on renal free insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) content in the kidneys and the possible role of free IGF-1 in compensatory growth in the nonobstructed kidney in an experimental model.Methods. The content of free IGF-1 and total protein in the obstructed and nonobstructed kidneys were measured 7 days after unilateral ureteral obstruction.

T. Ahmet Serel; Alim Ko?ar; Mehmet Taho?lu



Role of nitric oxide in renal tubular apoptosis of unilateral ureteral obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Role of nitric oxide in renal tubular apoptosis of unilateral ureteral obstruction.BackgroundThe obstructed kidney in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) is characterized by renal atrophy and tissue loss, which is mediated by renal tubular apoptosis. We sought to determine whether NO is involved in renal tubular apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.MethodsRat renal tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E) were subjected to mechanical

Akira Miyajima; Jie Chen; Dix P. Poppas; E. Darracott Vaughan; Diane Felsen



Antibody to transforming growth factor-? ameliorates tubular apoptosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibody to transforming growth factor-? ameliorates tubular apoptosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction.BackgroundUnilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) is characterized by progressive renal atrophy, renal interstitial fibrosis, an increase in renal transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), and renal tubular apoptosis. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of a monoclonal antibody to TGF-? (1D11) in UUO.MethodsMechanical stretch was applied to tubular epithelial

Akira Miyajima; Jie Chen; Cathy Lawrence; Steve Ledbetter; Robert A Soslow; Joshua Stern; Sharda Jha; Joseph Pigato; Matthew L Lemer; Dix P Poppas; E Darracott Vaughan; Diane Felsen



Esthetic Management of Unilateral Cross Bite with Dento-vestibular Enhancement Prosthetic Appliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unilateral crossbite is a commonly encountered condition in clinical practice. The most frequently employed treatment protocol\\u000a to manage unilateral crossbite is orthodontic correction or orthognathic surgery or combination of both. When the clinical\\u000a situation less favours both these modalities of management, a transitional prosthetic appliance—-dentovestibular enhancement\\u000a prosthetic appliance— can be effectively used to manage this condition.

M. Dhanraj; Padma Ariga; S. Anand; Ashish R. Jain



Genetic analysis of novel intra-species unilateral incompatibility in Brassica rapa (syn. campestris ) L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants have evolved many systems to prevent inappropriate fertilization. Among them, incompatibility is a well-organized system in which pollen germination or pollen-tube growth is inhibited in pistils. Self-incompatibility (SI), rejecting self-pollen, promotes outbreeding in flowering plants. On the other hand, inter-species incompatibility, preventing gene flow among species to restrict outbreeding, usually occurs unilaterally, and is known as unilateral incompatibility (UI).

Yoshinobu Takada; Takayuki Nakanowatari; Jun Sato; Katsunori Hatakeyama; Tomohiro Kakizaki; Akiko Ito; Go Suzuki; Hiroshi Shiba; Seiji Takayama; Akira Isogai; Masao Watanabe



Factors Affecting Symmetrization of the Contralateral Breast: A 7Year Unilateral Postmastectomy Breast Reconstruction Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a number of studies compare different techniques of breast reconstruction, information documenting the factors that\\u000a affect breast symmetry after unilateral mastectomy and reconstruction seems to be scarce. A statistical analysis of 606 patients\\u000a undergoing unilateral mastectomy and breast reconstruction performed during a 7 year period was undertaken in an endeavor\\u000a to identify these factors. Patients were classified according to time

Maria Stella Leone; Virginia Priano; Simonetta Franchelli; Valeria Puggioni; Domenico Franco Merlo; Matilde Mannucci; Pier Luigi Santi


Cross education of muscular strength during unilateral resistance training and detraining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.   The purpose of the present study was to examine the changes in maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) in the contralateral\\u000a untrained limb during unilateral resistance training and detraining, and to examine the factors inducing these changes by\\u000a means of electrophysiological techniques. Nine healthy males trained their plantar flexor muscles unilaterally 4 days·week–1 for 6 weeks using 3 sets of 10–12 repetitions

Norihiro Shima; Koji Ishida; Keisho Katayama; Yoshifumi Morotome; Yasutake Sato; Miharu Miyamura



Unilateral versus bilateral thyroarytenoid Botulinum toxin injections in adductor spasmodic dysphonia: a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  In this preliminary prospective study, we compared unilateral and bilateral thyroarytenoid muscle injections of Botulinum\\u000a toxin (Dysport) in 31 patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia, who had undergone more than 5 consecutive Dysport injections\\u000a (either unilateral or bilateral) and had completed 5 concomitant self-rated efficacy and complication scores questionnaires\\u000a related to the previous injections. We also developed a Neurophysiological Scoring (NPS)

Tahwinder Upile; Behrad Elmiyeh; Waseem Jerjes; Vyas Prasad; Panagiotis Kafas; Jesuloba Abiola; Bryan Youl; Ruth Epstein; Colin Hopper; Holger Sudhoff; John Rubin



Sequential hydraulic fracturing of a subsurface formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method for propagating a vertical hydraulic fracture in an earth formation surrounding a borehole wherein the original in-situ stresses favor a horizontal fracture. It comprises: pumping a first fracturing fluid into the formation at a first depth within the borehole so that a first fracturing pressure is applied to the formation by the first fracturing fluid

T. C. Jr. Vogt; M. W. Hale; J. R. Sellers



Improving osteoporosis management in patients with fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A history of fracture is an independent risk factor for future fractures, but patients who have sustained a fracture are rarely evaluated for osteoporosis (OP). The objective of this study was to determine if a simple intervention in a general orthopedic clinic would lead to more fracture patients receiving evaluation and treatment for OP. Patients with a history of fracture

S. L. Johnson; V. I. Petkov; M. I. Williams; P. S. Via; Robert A. Adler



Fractography: Determining the sites of fracture initiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractography is the analysis of fracture surfaces. Here, it refers to quantitative fracture surface analysis (FSA) in the context of applying the principles of fracture mechanics to the topography observed on the fracture surface of brittle materials. The application of FSA i