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Sample records for unilateral zmc fractures

  1. Unilateral Pedicle Fracture Accompanying Spondylolytic Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeun Sung; Ju, Chang Il; Kim, Yun Sung

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral pedicle stress fracture accompanying spondylolytic spondylolisthesis is rare even in the elderly. Most are associated with major trauma, previous spine surgery, or stress-related activity. Here, the authors describe an unique case of unilateral pedicle fracture associated with spondylolytic spondylolisthesis at the L5 level, which was successfully treated by posterior lumbar interbody fusion with screw fixation at the L5-S1 level. As far as the authors' knowledge, no such case has been previously reported in the literature. The pathophysiological mechanism of this uncommon entity is discussed and a review of relevant literature is included. PMID:26180621

  2. Unilateral lateral mass compression fractures of the axis.

    PubMed

    Abel, M S; Teague, J H

    1979-06-01

    Lateral mass compression fractures of the axis involve compression of the pedicle and displacement of the overlying facet, with or without an accompanying fracture of the odontoid. These unilateral fractures are not rare. Correlation is made between clinical cases and cadaver material with analysis of microradiographs. Criteria for recognition of the resultant healed fracture deformity include: (1) Tilting of the odontoid; (2) Loss of the odontoid shoulder on the affected side; (3) Increased downward slope of the affected facet; (4) Lateral compression, possibly with buckling; (5) Asymmetrical apophyseal joints between axis and atlas; and (6) Tilting downward of occiput on affected side, often with evidence of rotation between the occiput and the axis. Not all criteria need be present. Clinical sequelae often include persistent neck pain, limited rotation of the head, and occipital headaches radiating anteriorly. PMID:505050

  3. Three-dimensional assessment of unilateral subcondylar fracture using computed tomography after open reduction

    PubMed Central

    Devireddy, Sathya Kumar; Kumar, R. V. Kishore; Gali, Rajasekhar; Kanubaddy, Sridhar Reddy; Rao, Dasari Mallikarjuna; Siddhartha, Mannava

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to assess the accuracy of three-dimensional anatomical reductions achieved by open method of treatment in cases of displaced unilateral mandibular subcondylar fractures using preoperative (pre op) and postoperative (post op) computed tomography (CT) scans. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, 10 patients with unilateral sub condylar fractures confirmed by an orthopantomogram were included. A pre op and post op CT after 1 week of surgical procedure was taken in axial, coronal and sagittal plane along with three-dimensional reconstruction. Standard anatomical parameters, which undergo changes due to fractures of the mandibular condyle were measured in pre and post op CT scans in three planes and statistically analysed for the accuracy of the reduction comparing the following variables: (a) Pre op fractured and nonfractured side (b) post op fractured and nonfractured side (c) pre op fractured and post op fractured side. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Three-dimensional anatomical reduction was possible in 9 out of 10 cases (90%). The statistical analysis of each parameter in three variables revealed (P < 0.05) that there was a gross change in the dimensions of the parameters obtained in pre op fractured and nonfractured side. When these parameters were assessed in post op CT for the three variables there was no statistical difference between the post op fractured side and non fractured side. The same parameters were analysed for the three variables in pre op fractured and post op fractured side and found significant statistical difference suggesting a considerable change in the dimensions of the fractured side post operatively. Conclusion: The statistical and clinical results in our study emphasised that it is possible to fix the condyle in three-dimensional anatomical positions with open method of treatment and avoid post op degenerative joint changes. CT is the ideal imaging tool and should be used on a regular basis for cases of condylar fractures. PMID:25190915

  4. Occipital Condyle Fracture With Isolated Unilateral Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jin Won; Lim, Oh Kyung; Park, Ki Deok

    2014-01-01

    Occipital condyle fractures (OCFs) with selective involvement of the hypoglossal canal are rare. OCFs usually occur after major trauma and combine multiple fractures. We describe a 38-year-old man who presented with neck pain and a tongue deviation to the right side after a traffic accident. Severe limitations were detected during active and passive range of neck motion in all directions. A physical examination revealed a normal gag reflex and normal mobility of the palate, larynx, and shoulder girdle. He had normal taste and general sensation in his tongue. However, he presented with a tongue deviation to the right side on protrusion. A videofluoroscopic swallowing study revealed piecemeal deglutition due to decreased tongue mobility but no aspiration of food. Plain X-ray film findings were negative, but a computed tomography study with coronal reconstruction demonstrated a right OCF involving the hypoglossal canal. An electrodiagnostic study revealed evidence of right hypoglossal nerve palsy. We report a rare case of isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy caused by an OCF. PMID:25379499

  5. [Surgical versus non-surgical treatment of unilateral dislocated fractures of the lower mandibular condyle].

    PubMed

    Worsaae, N; Thorn, J J

    1995-06-12

    To compare open versus closed reduction of unilaterally dislocated low subcondylar fractures in adults, 101 consecutive patients were treated either by closed reduction with a median of four weeks of maxillomandibular fixation or by a median of six weeks of maxillomandibular fixation after surgical repositioning and transosseous wiring of the dislocated condylar fragment. No selection of patients was done for either treatment. Fifty-two patients were observed for a median of two years after treatment. Complications such as malocclusion, mandibular asymmetry, impaired masticatory function, and pain located to the affected joint or masticatory muscles were significantly more frequent in patients treated with closed reduction (39%) compared with those treated surgically (4%)(p = 0.005). Neither the degree of dislocation of the proximal fragment, concomitant mandibular fractures, nor the absence of posterior occlusal support seemed to influence the results. PMID:7792975

  6. Surgical versus nonsurgical treatment of unilateral dislocated low subcondylar fractures: a clinical study of 52 cases.

    PubMed

    Worsaae, N; Thorn, J J

    1994-04-01

    To compare open versus closed reduction of unilaterally dislocated low subcondylar fractures in adults, 101 consecutive dentulous patients were treated either by closed reduction with a median of 4 weeks of maxillomandibular fixation, or with a median of 6 weeks of maxillomandibular fixation after surgical repositioning and transosseous wiring of the dislocated condylar fragment. No selection of patients was done for either treatment. Fifty-two patients were seen at a median of 2 years postoperatively. Complications such as malocclusion, mandibular asymmetry, impaired masticatory function, and pain located to the affected joint or masticatory muscles were seen significantly more frequent in patients treated with closed reduction compared with those treated surgically (P = .005). Neither the degree of dislocation of the proximal fragment, concomitant mandibular fractures, nor the absence of posterior occlusal support seemed to influence the results. PMID:8133366

  7. Unilateral atlanto-axial fractures in near side impact collisions: An under recognized entity in cervical trauma

    PubMed Central

    Lozen, Andrew M.; Pace, Jonathan; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Cusick, Joseph F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Nearside impact collisions presenting with lateral mass fractures of atlanto-axial vertebrae contralateral to the impact site represents a rare fracture pattern that does not correlate with previously described injury mechanism. We describe our clinical experience with such fractures and propose a novel description of biomechanical forces involved in this unique injury pattern. The findings serve to alert clinicians to potentially serious consequences of associated unrecognized and untreated vertebral artery injury. Material and Methods: In addition to describing our clinical experience with three of these fractures, a review of Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database was conducted to further characterize such fractures. A descriptive analysis of three recent lateral mass fractures of the atlanto-axial segment is coupled with a review of the CIREN database. A total of 4047 collisions were screened for unilateral fractures of atlas or axis. Information was screened for side of impact and data regarding impact velocity, occupant injuries and use of restraints. Results: Following screening of unilateral fractures of atlas and axis for direct side impacts, 41 fractures were identified. Cross referencing these cases for occurrence contralateral to side of impact identified four such fractures. Including our recent clinical experience, seven injuries were identified: Five C1 and two C2 fractures. Velocity ranged from 14 to 43 km/h. Two associated vertebral artery injuries were identified. Conclusions: Complexity of the atlanto-axial complex is responsible for a sequence of events that define load application in side impacts. This study demonstrates the vulnerability of vertebral artery to injury under unique translational forces and supports the use or routine screening for vascular injury. Diminished sensitivity of plain radiography in identifying these injuries suggests that computerized tomography should be used in all patients wherein a similar pattern of injury is suspected. PMID:25013345

  8. Unilateral versus bilateral percutaneous kyphoplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: A systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hui; Huang, Peng; Zhang, Xuesong; Zheng, Guoquan; Wang, Yan

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare the efficacy and safety of unilateral versus bilateral PKP for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs). Six databases (Cochrane, PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, SinoMed, and CNKI) were searched without language restrictions. Twelve randomized controlled trials involving a total of 1,030 patients were identified. The results indicate that unilateral PKP had a better degree of pain relief (visual analog scale) than bilateral PKP (p?=?0.04; 95%CI?=?-0.36 to -0.00) with short-term follow-up (within 4 weeks) after operation. The radiological outcome assessment with short-term follow-up after operation indicates bilateral PKP had a better degree of anterior vertebral height restoration (p?=?0.03; 95%CI?=?-2.58 to -0.14). Operation time and cement dosage were less for unilateral PKP (p?fractures between two approaches (p?=?0.06 and p?=?0.97, respectively). Life quality assessment (SF-36) indicates unilateral PKP had a better result of bodily pain relief (p?unilateral PKP is advantageous. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:1713-1723, 2015. PMID:26123667

  9. Conservative Approach to Unilateral Condylar Fracture in a Growing Patient: A 2.5-Year Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Tuna, Elif Bahar; Dündar, Aysun; Çankaya, Abdülkadir Burak; Gençay, Koray

    2012-01-01

    Condylar fractures in children are especially important because of the risk of a mandibular growth-center being affected in the condylar head, which can lead to growth retardation and facial asymmetry. The purpose of this article is to follow up the two and half year clinical and radiological evaluation of the conservative treatment of a 10 year-old patient, who had a unilateral green-stick type fracture. The patient presented with painful facial swelling localized over the left condylar region, limited mouth-opening and mandibular deviation to the left. Panoramic radiography and computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis of incomplete fracture on the left condyle with one side of the bone fractured and the other bent. Closed reduction was chosen to allow for initial fibrous union of the fracture segments and remodeling with a normal functional stimulus. A non-rigid mandibular splint was applied in order to remove the direct pressure on the fracture side of the mandible. Clinical and radiologic examination after 30 months revealed uneventful healing with reduction of the condylar head and remodeling of the condylar process following conservative treatment. PMID:22276078

  10. A sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry bioanalytical assay for a novel anticancer candidate - ZMC1.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hongxia; Yu, Xin; Eng, Oliver S; Buckley, Brian; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony; Bertino, Joseph R; Carpizo, Darren R; Gounder, Murugesan K

    2015-11-01

    ZMC1 {azetidinecarbothioic acid, [1-(2-pyridinyl) ethylidene] hydrazide} is a lead compound being developed as one of the first mutant p53 targeted anti-cancer drugs. Establishing a precise quantitative method is an integral component of this development. The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive LC/MS/MS assay suitable for assessing purity, stability and preclinical pharmacokinetic studies of ZMC1. Acetonitrile protein precipitation extraction was chosen for plasma sample preparation with satisfactory recovery (84.2-92.8%) for ZMC1. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Xterra C18 column (50 × 4.6?mm, 3.5 µm) using a gradient elution with mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. ZMC1 and internal standard 2-amino-6-bromobenzothiazole were identified using selected-ion monitoring mode at m/z 235.2/178.2 and m/z 231.0/150.0 at retention times of 5.2 and 6.3?min, respectively. The method was validated with a linearity range of 3.9-500.0?ng/mL in human plasma and showed acceptable reproducibility with intra- and interday precisions <5.9 and 10.5%, and accuracy within ±5.4% of nominal values. This analytical method together with basic stability data in plasma and plasma binding experiments provides a reliable protocol for the study of ZMC1 pharmacokinetics. This will greatly facilitate the pre-clinical development of this novel anti-cancer drug. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25944179

  11. Unusual Unilateral Fracture of the Condylar and Coronoid Processes of the Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Baykul, Timuçin; Ayd?n, M As?m; Aksoy, Müge Ç?na; F?nd?k, Yavuz

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of condylar fracture is very high and most are not caused by direct trauma. On the other hand, fracture of the coronoid process is reported less often than fracture of other parts of the mandible. We report a case of right subcondylar and coronoid fractures without any evidence of direct trauma to the zygomatic area or an indirect trauma to the mandibular corpus or sypmheseal region. The possible cause was identified as acute reflex contraction of the temporalis muscles leading to coronoid and condylar stress fractures. PMID:25379353

  12. Unusual unilateral fracture of the condylar and coronoid processes of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Baykul, Timuçin; Ayd?n, M As?m; Aksoy, Müge Ç?na; F?nd?k, Yavuz

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of condylar fracture is very high and most are not caused by direct trauma. On the other hand, fracture of the coronoid process is reported less often than fracture of other parts of the mandible. We report a case of right subcondylar and coronoid fractures without any evidence of direct trauma to the zygomatic area or an indirect trauma to the mandibular corpus or sypmheseal region. The possible cause was identified as acute reflex contraction of the temporalis muscles leading to coronoid and condylar stress fractures. PMID:25379353

  13. Comparison of outcome of unilateral locking plate and dual plating in the treatment of bicondylar tibial plateau fractures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tibial plateau fracture (TPF) includes different fracture patterns with varied degrees of articular depression and displacement. Many kinds of fixators, including newly designed plate with locking screws, were applied to treat these complicated fractures. We intended to follow up the surgical outcomes of (1) unilateral locking plate, (2) classic dual plates, or (3) hybrid dual plates for TPF. Materials and methods We retrospectively reviewed 76 patients with TPF, Schatzker types V and VI, who we operated from June 2006 to May 2009 in our institute. Excluding patients who expired due to other medical conditions and without complete follow-up, 45 patients were sorted out in this series. The scheme of surgical intervention was designed by visiting staff, and 15 patients, as group I, were treated with unilateral locking plate. The other 19 patients, as group II, were treated with classic dual plates. The residual 11 patients, as group III, were treated with hybrid dual plates (one lateral approach locking compression plate (LCP)?+?medial anti-gliding plate). All patients were under periodic F/U at about 6 weeks interval for at least 18 months postoperatively. Results In group I, 13 cases achieved solid bony union without obvious traumatic OA change, limitation of ROM, or malalignment. In groups II and III, 15 and 10 patients reached the same goal, respectively. By analysis of the recorded parameters with statistical software (SPSS 12.0), there were five parameters with significant difference, including Schatzker classification, operation time, staged treatment or not, hospitalization period, and hardware impingement. Conclusions There was no significant statistical difference of union rate between these three groups in our series. Based on our clinical follow-up, several key points were emphasized: (1) Soft tissue problems should be kept in mind, and usage of locking plate can reduce the discomfort of hardware impingement effectively. (2) The single lateral approach technique for TPF with locking plate results in less operation time and shorter hospitalization period. (3) If the medial buttress cannot be established by reduction of the lateral fracture, then open reduction of the medial side is necessary and buttresses the medial fragment by dual plates. PMID:25038620

  14. Management of tripod fractures (zygomaticomaxillary complex) 1 point and 2 point fixations: A 5-year review

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, K.; Ebenezer, Vijay; Dakir, Abu; Kumar, Saravana; Prakash, D.

    2015-01-01

    The zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) plays a key role in the structure, function, and esthetic appearance of the facial skeleton. They can account for approximately 40% of mid-face fractures. They are the second most common facial bone fracture after nasal bone injuries. The fracture complex results from a direct blow to the malar eminence and results in three distinct fracture components that disrupt the anchoring of the zygoma. In addition, the fracture components may result in impingement of the temporalis muscle, trismus (difficulty with mastication) and may compromise the infraorbital foramen/nerve resulting in hypesthesia within its sensory distribution. A 4-year retrospective review of all patients treated with ZMC fractures at oral and maxillofacial surgery department, sree balaji dental college and hospital was performed. Computed tomography scans were reviewed. Demographics, treatment protocols, outcomes, complications, reoperations, and length of follow-up were identified. A total of 245 patients was identified by the Current Procedural Terminology codes for ZMC fractures. Closed or open reduction methods were performed with the goal of treatment being preservation of normal facial structure, sensory function, globe position, and mastication functionality. Unacceptably poor surgical outcomes are uncommon. Significant facial asymmetry requiring surgical revision occurs in 3-4% of patients. Postoperative infection rates are extremely low, and these infections nearly always resolve with oral antibiotics. In general, the long-term prognosis after repair of ZMC fractures is very good. PMID:26015723

  15. Monte Carlo Modeling of Diffuse Scattering from Single Crystals: The Program ZMC

    SciTech Connect

    Goossens, D.J.; Heerdegen, A.P.; Chan, E.J.; Welberry, T.R.

    2012-04-30

    Diffuse scattering probes the local ordering in a crystal, whereas Bragg peaks are descriptive of the average long-range ordering. The population of local configurations can be explored by modeling the three-dimensional distribution of diffuse scattering. Local configurations are not constrained by the average crystallographic symmetry, so one way of modeling diffuse scattering is by modeling a disordered (short-range-ordered) structure and then calculating its diffuse scattering. The structure must contain enough unit cells to give a statistically valid model of the populations of local configurations, and so requirements for a program to model this ordering are very different from programs that model average crystal structures (used to fit the Bragg diffraction). ZMC is a program that has been developed to model diffuse scattering, particularly from molecular crystals. The strategies used to tackle the problem and the way in which they are implemented will be discussed.

  16. Synthetic metallochaperone ZMC1 rescues mutant p53 conformation by transporting zinc into cells as an ionophore.

    PubMed

    Blanden, Adam R; Yu, Xin; Wolfe, Aaron J; Gilleran, John A; Augeri, David J; O'Dell, Ryan S; Olson, Eric C; Kimball, S David; Emge, Thomas J; Movileanu, Liviu; Carpizo, Darren R; Loh, Stewart N

    2015-05-01

    p53 is a Zn(2+)-dependent tumor suppressor inactivated in >50% of human cancers. The most common mutation, R175H, inactivates p53 by reducing its affinity for the essential zinc ion, leaving the mutant protein unable to bind the metal in the low [Zn(2+)]free environment of the cell. The exploratory cancer drug zinc metallochaperone-1 (ZMC1) was previously demonstrated to reactivate this and other Zn(2+)-binding mutants by binding Zn(2+) and buffering it to a level such that Zn(2+) can repopulate the defective binding site, but how it accomplishes this in the context of living cells and organisms is unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that ZMC1 increases intracellular [Zn(2+)]free by functioning as a Zn(2+) ionophore, binding Zn(2+) in the extracellular environment, diffusing across the plasma membrane, and releasing it intracellularly. It raises intracellular [Zn(2+)]free in cancer (TOV112D) and noncancer human embryonic kidney cell line 293 to 15.8 and 18.1 nM, respectively, with half-times of 2-3 minutes. These [Zn(2+)]free levels are predicted to result in ?90% saturation of p53-R175H, thus accounting for its observed reactivation. This mechanism is supported by the X-ray crystal structure of the [Zn(ZMC1)2] complex, which demonstrates structural and chemical features consistent with those of known metal ionophores. These findings provide a physical mechanism linking zinc metallochaperone-1 in both in vitro and in vivo activities and define the remaining critical parameter necessary for developing synthetic metallochaperones for clinical use. PMID:25710967

  17. Unilateral perseveration.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Lealani Mae Y; Goodman, Ira J; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2013-12-01

    The brain's action-intentional ("when") programming system helps to control when to and when not to initiate an action, when to persist at an action, and when to terminate an action. Motor perseveration is a failure to terminate an action. This disengagement disorder most often results from dysfunction of the executive frontal-subcortical networks that control the action-intentional programming system. Reports of unilateral perseveration are unusual. Here we describe a patient with a form of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) who exhibited continuous right-hand motor perseveration. This 68-year-old right-handed man had impaired walking and vertical gaze, consistent with PSP. He often repeated words, and on many motor tasks he showed continuous perseveration of his right but not his left hand. Unilateral motor perseveration may be a sign of PSP, the corticobasal syndrome, or a subtype of these disorders. Future studies of patients with both disorders should use tasks that assess for asymmetric hand perseveration. The mechanism of the unilateral perseveration must also be determined. Bilateral perseveration is found most often in patients with unilateral right frontal-subcortical (basal ganglia) or insula dysfunction. Because patients with PSP or corticobasal syndrome have callosal degeneration, their unilateral perseveration might result from a callosal disconnection of the right frontal lobe from the left hemisphere's premotor and motor as well as speech areas. PMID:24366105

  18. Unilateral medial dislocation of the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Avrahami, E; Rabin, A; Mejdan, M

    1997-08-01

    We present our experience of the rare condition of unilateral medial dislocation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in 11 patients with head trauma who had received a direct lateral blow on the chin. The diagnosis was made by direct coronal CT of the TMJ performed from 6 h to 7 days following the injury. In 6 patients, subcondylar fracture of the ipsilateral mandibular ramus was also demonstrated. A second CT performed 11-16 months following the first one demonstrated pseudoarthrosis of the fractured ramus in these 6 patients. The second CT was identical to the first in the remaining 5 patients with pure dislocation of the condyle. All patients suffered from severe disability of the TMJ. The maximal vertical distance between the upper and lower incisors in patients with uncomplicated dislocation ranged between 8 and 12 mm. In cases with complicated medial condylar dislocation with fracture and pseudoarthrosis of the mandibular ramus, this distance ranged between 16 and 25 mm, probably because of additional movement in the area of the pseudoarthrosis. The maximal vertical distance between the incisors was compared with a control group of 20 normal adults who had values from 40 to 52 mm. Medial unilateral dislocation of the TMJ can appear in two forms: uncomplicated or complicated, with pseudoarthrosis of the ipsilateral mandibular ramus. PMID:9272501

  19. Acute Unilateral Vestibulopathy.

    PubMed

    Strupp, Michael; Magnusson, Mans

    2015-08-01

    Normal vestibular end organs generate an equal resting-firing frequency of the axons, which is the same on both sides under static conditions. An acute unilateral vestibulopathy leads to a vestibular tone imbalance. Acute unilateral vestibulopathy is defined by the patient history and the clinical examination and, in unclear cases, laboratory examinations. Key signs and symptoms are an acute onset of spinning vertigo, postural imbalance and nausea as well as a horizontal rotatory nystagmus beating towards the non-affected side, a pathological head-impulse test and no evidence for central vestibular or ocular motor dysfunction. The so-called big five allow a differentiation between a peripheral and central lesion by the bedside examination. The differential diagnosis of peripheral labyrinthine and vestibular nerve disorders mimicking acute unilateral vestibulopathy includes central vestibular disorders, in particular "vestibular pseudoneuritis" and other peripheral vestibular disorders, such as beginning Menière's disease. The management of acute unilateral vestibulopathy involves (1) symptomatic treatment with antivertiginous drugs, (2) causal treatment with corticosteroids, and (3) physical therapy. PMID:26231279

  20. Nose fracture

    MedlinePLUS

    Fracture of the nose; Broken nose; Nasal fracture; Nasal bone fracture; Nasal septal fracture ... A fractured nose is the most common fracture of the face. It ... with other fractures of the face. Sometimes a blunt injury can ...

  1. [Renal unilateral oncocytis: case report].

    PubMed

    Gryn, A; Roumiguié, M; Mazerolles, C; Bellec, L; Lagarde, S; Chauveau, D; Soulié, M; Beauval, J B

    2014-02-01

    The renal oncocytoma tumors are rare (5% of renal tumors). These benign tumors are incidentally diagnosed most often in an asymptomatic form. Sometimes it is multiple bilateral tumors affecting the renal parenchyma and forming a renal oncocytosis. We report the case of a unilateral right renal oncocytosis, very rare situation, characterized by a right renal parenchymal nodules with oncocytoma and a normal left kidney. PMID:24485085

  2. Hemifacial Erythema in Right Unilateral Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Charles H; Pham, Tony V; Aloysi, Amy S; Majeske, Matthew F; Bryson, Ethan O

    2015-09-01

    We present a case of transient right hemifacial rash after right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy. This phenomenon may have similarities with the cranial dysautonomia, Harlequin syndrome. PMID:25634567

  3. UNILATERAL TECHNOLOGY SUPPRESSION: APPROPRIATE ANTITRUST AND

    E-print Network

    Shamos, Michael I.

    UNILATERAL TECHNOLOGY SUPPRESSION: APPROPRIATE ANTITRUST AND PATENT LAW REMEDIES Yee Wah Chin* This article reviews some of the antitrust and patent law remedies for improper unilateral suppression. The extent of any remedy under the antitrust or the patent laws for these types of activities is beyond

  4. Acute unilateral facial nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Yeong, Siew Swan; Tassone, Peter

    2011-05-01

    Mrs PS, 78 years of age, presented with acute left-sided otalgia, ear swelling and subsequent unilateral facial paralysis (Figure 1). She denied any otorrhoea or hearing loss. Past medical history relevant to the presenting complaint included: * Bell palsy diagnosed 20 years ago with no residual effect * biopsy confirmed benign parotid lump (diagnosed 3 years previously). Histopathology revealed a pleomorphic adenoma. Mrs PS declined surgical intervention at the time * chicken pox as a child * normal fasting blood glucose 1 month previously and no known immune compromise. Examination revealed yellow crusts and small vesicles on the external acoustic meatus (Figure 2). A 10 mm well defined firm and nontender nodule was palpable at the ramus of the mandible. PMID:21597548

  5. Delayed Unilateral Adrenal Hemorrhage Complicating Pneumococcal Septic Shock.

    PubMed

    Wharton, Jeff; Cohen, David

    2015-10-01

    An 80-year-old male presented to the hospital after being found unresponsive at home. He was found to have pneumococcal pneumonia complicated by septic shock. He was treated in the medical ICU briefly with vasopressors and received intravenous antibiotics. He achieved a full recovery and was discharged after 10 days. He returned within 24 hours with vague abdominal and chest pain. His complaints of pain were difficult to localize--radiating from back to chest and abdomen. He received an extensive work-up to exclude acute coronary syndrome, pulmonary embolism, pancreatitis, cholecystitis, and rib fracture. He was ultimately found to have a symptomatic unilateral adrenal hemorrhage, likely secondary to the acute stress of septic shock. PMID:26638422

  6. Ankle Fractures

    MedlinePLUS

    .org Ankle Fractures (Broken Ankle) Page ( 1 ) A broken ankle is also known as an ankle “fracture.” This means that one or more of the bones that make up the ankle joint are broken. A fractured ankle can range ...

  7. CT evaluation of otorrhagia associated with condylar fractures.

    PubMed

    Avrahami, E; Frishman, E; Katz, R

    1994-12-01

    To assess a simplified CT evaluation of otorrhagia due to condylar fracture, 16 patients with post-traumatic otorrhagia underwent axial CT of the petrous bones and coronal CT of the temporo-mandibular joints (TMJs). Bilateral high condylar fractures were demonstrated in seven patients. Unilateral subcondylar fracture dislocations with contralateral high condylar fractures were demonstrated in the other nine patients. The otorrhagia was always ipsilateral to a high condylar fracture. Otorrhagia due to condylar fractures occurred when the fracture was bilateral and ipsilateral to a high condylar fracture. The diagnostic procedure of choice is coronal CT of the TMJs which should be carried out if axial CT of the petrous bones showed them to be intact. PMID:7828396

  8. Modification of unilateral otolith responses following spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew H; Schönfeld, Uwe

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to resolve the issue of spaceflight-induced, adaptive modification of the otolith system by measuring unilateral otolith responses in a pre- versus post-flight design. The study represents the first comprehensive approach to examining unilateral otolith function following space flight. Ten astronauts participated in unilateral otolith function tests three times preflight and up to four times after Shuttle flights from landing day through the subsequent 10 days. During unilateral centrifugation, utricular function was examined by the perceptual changes reflected by the subjective visual vertical (SVV) and the otolith-mediated ocular counter-roll, designated as utriculo-ocular response (UOR). Unilateral saccular reflexes were recorded by measurement of collic vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP). The findings demonstrate a general increase in interlabyrinth asymmetry of otolith responses on landing day relative to preflight baseline, with subsequent reversal in asymmetry within 2-3 days. Recovery to baseline levels was achieved within 10 days. This fluctuation in asymmetry was consistent for the utricle tests (SVV and UOR) while apparently stronger for SVV. A similar asymmetry was observed during cVEMP testing. In addition, the results provide initial evidence of a dominant labyrinth. The findings require reconsideration of the otolith asymmetry hypothesis; in general, on landing day, the response from one labyrinth was equivalent to preflight values, while the other showed considerable discrepancy. The finding that one otolith response can return to one-g level within hours after re-entry while the other takes considerably longer demonstrates the importance of considering the otolith response as a result of both peripheral and associated central neural processing. PMID:26358122

  9. Mandibular fracture patterns consistent with posterior maxillary fractures involving the posterior maxillary sinus, pterygoid plate or both: CT characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sukegawa, S; Kanno, T; Fujita, G; Yamamoto, N; Furuki, Y; Michizawa, M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of posterior maxillary fractures involving the posterior maxillary sinus wall, pterygoid plate or both, unrelated to major midface fractures in patients with mandibular fractures, and to characterize associated fractures. Methods: A CT study was performed in patients with mandibular fractures to identify posterior maxillary fractures. Patients aged under 16 years, those with mandibular fractures involving only dentoalveolar components and those with concurrent major midfacial fractures were excluded. Results: 13 (6.7%) of 194 patients with mandibular fractures also had posterior maxillary fractures (case group). The injury pattern correlated with the external force directed to the lateral side of the mandible (p?fractures (p?=?0.002) and the fracture regions in the symphysis/parasymphysis (p?=?0.001) and the angle/ramus (p?=?0.001). No significant difference between the case and non-case groups was seen for age, sex or cause of trauma. Non-displaced fractures in the ipsilateral posterior mandible occurred with significant frequency (p?=?0.001) when the posterior maxillary fractures involved only the sinus. Conclusions: Mandibular fractures accompanied by posterior maxillary fractures are not rare. The finding of a unilateral posterior maxillary fracture on CT may aid the efficient radiological examination of the mandible based on possible patterns of associated fractures, as follows: in the ipsilateral posterior region as a direct fracture when the impact is a medially directed force, and in the symphysis/parasymphysis or contralateral condylar neck as an indirect fracture. PMID:24336313

  10. Facial fractures.

    PubMed Central

    Carr, M. M.; Freiberg, A.; Martin, R. D.

    1994-01-01

    Emergency room physicians frequently see facial fractures that can have serious consequences for patients if mismanaged. This article reviews the signs, symptoms, imaging techniques, and general modes of treatment of common facial fractures. It focuses on fractures of the mandible, zygomaticomaxillary region, orbital floor, and nose. Images p520-a p522-a PMID:8199509

  11. Paramedian unilateral Le Fort I osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Tauro, David P.; Uppada, Uday Kiran

    2015-01-01

    A novel maxillary osteotomy is designed which is a technical modification of the standard Le Fort I osteotomy, termed the paramedian unilateral Le Fort I osteotomy. This technique has been used to correct an anterior open bite in a given patient based on the current clinical scenario as described, secondary to post ankylosis surgery. Its use may be extrapolated to various clinical situations to correct occlusal discrepancies including distraction osteogenesis. PMID:26389040

  12. Accommodative Performance of Children With Unilateral Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Manh, Vivian; Chen, Angela M.; Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; Cotter, Susan A.; Candy, T. Rowan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare the accommodative performance of the amblyopic eye of children with unilateral amblyopia to that of their nonamblyopic eye, and also to that of children without amblyopia, during both monocular and binocular viewing. Methods. Modified Nott retinoscopy was used to measure accommodative performance of 38 subjects with unilateral amblyopia and 25 subjects with typical vision from 3 to 13 years of age during monocular and binocular viewing at target distances of 50, 33, and 25 cm. The relationship between accommodative demand and interocular difference (IOD) in accommodative error was assessed in each group. Results. The mean IOD in monocular accommodative error for amblyopic subjects across all three viewing distances was 0.49 diopters (D) (95% confidence interval [CI], ±1.12 D) in the 180° meridian and 0.54 D (95% CI, ±1.27 D) in the 90° meridian, with the amblyopic eye exhibiting greater accommodative errors on average. Interocular difference in monocular accommodative error increased significantly with increasing accommodative demand; 5%, 47%, and 58% of amblyopic subjects had monocular errors in the amblyopic eye that fell outside the upper 95% confidence limit for the better eye of control subjects at viewing distances of 50, 33, and 25 cm, respectively. Conclusions. When viewing monocularly, children with unilateral amblyopia had greater mean accommodative errors in their amblyopic eyes than in their nonamblyopic eyes, and when compared with control subjects. This could lead to unintended retinal image defocus during patching therapy for amblyopia. PMID:25626970

  13. Condylar fractures of the mandible. I. Classification and relation to age, occlusion, and concomitant injuries of teeth and teeth-supporting structures, and fractures of the mandibular body.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, L

    1977-02-01

    In 123 individuals, 138 fractures of the mandibular condyle were classified with respect to fracture level, dislocation at the fracture level, and condylar head relation to the articular fossa. The age of the patient and the location of the most distal occlusal contact were recorded as well as teeth injuries and concomitant fractures of the mandibular body. The position of the most distal occlusal contact did not influence the dislocation of the condylar fragment. Teeth injuries such as fractures and luxation were found to be associated with condylar head or neck fractures, whereas the concomitant fractures of the mandibular body were mostly seen with the subcondylar fractures. Teeth injuries as well as concomitant fractures of the mandibular body were found more frequently in patients with bilateral than unilateral condylar fractures. Fractures of teeth in the molar and bicuspid regions were most frequent on the condylar fracture side, while the concomitant fractures of the mandibular body were located to the contralateral side. Medial angulation of the condylar fragment with lateral override at the fracture level was the typical fracture in adults, and angulation without override the characteristic fracture in growing individuals. Medical override occurred both in children and in adults and seemed to be the result of more severe trauma to the chin. PMID:402318

  14. Current Concepts in the Mandibular Condyle Fracture Management Part I: Overview of Condylar Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jung-Dug; Chung, Ho-Yun; Cho, Byung-Chae

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of condylar fractures is high, but the management of fractures of the mandibular condyle continues to be controversial. Historically, maxillomandibular fixation, external fixation, and surgical splints with internal fixation systems were the techniques commonly used in the treatment of the fractured mandible. Condylar fractures can be extracapsular or intracapsular, undisplaced, deviated, displaced, or dislocated. Treatment depends on the age of the patient, the co-existence of other mandibular or maxillary fractures, whether the condylar fracture is unilateral or bilateral, the level and displacement of the fracture, the state of dentition and dental occlusion, and the surgeonnds on the age of the patient, the co-existence of othefrom which it is difficult to recover aesthetically and functionally;an appropriate treatment is required to reconstruct the shape and achieve the function ofthe uninjured status. To do this, accurate diagnosis, appropriate reduction and rigid fixation, and complication prevention are required. In particular, as mandibular condyle fracture may cause long-term complications such as malocclusion, particularly open bite, reduced posterior facial height, and facial asymmetry in addition to chronic pain and mobility limitation, great caution should be taken. Accordingly, the authors review a general overview of condyle fracture. PMID:22872830

  15. Hip fracture - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Inter-trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Subtrochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Femoral neck fracture repair - discharge; Trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Hip pinning surgery - ...

  16. [Unilateral surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion using a transpalatal distractor].

    PubMed

    Roelofs, J; Breuning, K H; van't Spijker, A; Borstlap, W A; Bergé, S J; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    2010-02-01

    A 46-year-old woman was referred for orthodontic surgery consultation because ofa retrognathic maxilla, unilateral cross bite and functional, aesthetic and speech problems. The maxilla was widened unilaterally by unilateral surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion with a bone-borne transpalatal distractor. During post-operative orthodontic treatment, a temporary anchorage device was administered. With the help of composite veneers, crowns and a removable partial denture, a functionally and aesthetically satisfying result was achieved. PMID:20225701

  17. Management of Children with Unilateral Hearing Loss.

    PubMed

    Lieu, Judith E C

    2015-12-01

    Children with impaired hearing in one ear (unilateral hearing loss [UHL]) and normal hearing in the other ear experience challenges in understanding speech in noisy backgrounds and localizing the source of sounds in 3-dimensional space. They are at a high risk for speech and language delay and need educational help in school. However, definitive evidence of benefit from amplification is currently lacking to recommend placement of hearing aids or cochlear implants in all young children with UHL. Management of UHL in children should be guided by the child's development, performance in school, and personal/family values and preferences. PMID:26443488

  18. Spontaneous unilateral dizygotic twin tubal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tam, Teresa; Khazaei, Ali

    2009-02-01

    Spontaneous dizygotic unilateral twin tubal pregnancy is an extremely rare occurrence with a high risk for pregnancy-related mortality, and a diagnostic challenge for obstetricians. We present a case of a 27-year-old woman with spontaneous twin tubal pregnancy. Transvaginal color Doppler sonography revealed 2 separate gestational sacs within the right adnexa, each containing an embryo. Cytogenetic examination of the trophoblastic tissues confirmed the diagnosis of dizygotic twin ectopic pregnancy. Clinical signs and symptoms together with imaging studies help in the diagnosis of this rare variant of ectopic pregnancies. PMID:18465811

  19. Neurological asymmetries immediately after unilateral ECT.

    PubMed Central

    Kriss, A; Blumhardt, L D; Halliday, A M; Pratt, R T

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-nine right handed patients were examined neurologically before and immediately after each of 62 unilateral ECTs to the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres. Most convulsions were followed by signs of transitory neurological dysfunction referable to the treated hemisphere. These signs included deep tendon reflex asymmetry, hemiparesis, tactile and visual inattention, and homonymous hemianopia. After treatment to the right hemisphere some patients had left visuospatial neglect, while all patients who had dominant hemisphere ECT were transiently dysphasic. All neurological abnormalities tested resolved within 20 minutes of treatment. PMID:731257

  20. [Idiopathic and unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy].

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Viviana; Jaureguiberry, Anabel; Moretta, Gabriela; Lazzarini, Gustavo; Ceruzzi, Roberto; Reich, Edgardo

    2015-01-01

    The isolated unilateral palsy of the hypoglossal nerve is an unusual sign in daily medical practice. We present the case of a 74 year old man, without relevant medical history, who started with headache and difficulty to swallow. On the physical examination, he had isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy without evidence of tongue atrophy or fasciculation. The patient had a good spontaneous evolution. Idiopathic isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy requires an exhaustive evaluation with neuroimages and complementary exams. It usually presents partial or total spontaneous remission. PMID:26117609

  1. Key Exchange with Unilateral Authentication: Composable Security Definition and Modular Protocol Design

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Key Exchange with Unilateral Authentication: Composable Security Definition and Modular Protocol Coretti ETH Zurich corettis@inf.ethz.ch Abstract Key exchange with unilateral authentication (short: unilateral key exchange) is an important primitive in practical security protocols; a prime example

  2. Clinical verification of a unilateral otolith test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzig, J.; Hofstetter-Degen, K.; Maurer, J.; von Baumgarten, R. J.

    In a previous study 13 we reported promising results for a new test to differentiate in vivo unilateral otolith functions. That study pointed to a need for further validation on known pathological cases. In this presentation we will detail the results gathered on a group of clinically verified vestibular defectives (verum) and a normal (control) group. The subjects in the verum group were former patients of the ENT clinic of the university hospital. These subjects had usually suffered from neurinoma of the VIIth cranial nerve or inner ear infections. All had required surgical intervention including removal of the vestibular system. The patients were contacted usually two or more years postoperatively. A group of students from the pre- and clinical phase of medical training served as control. Both groups were subjected to standardized clinical tests. These tests served to reconfirm the intra- or postoperative diagnosis of unilateral vestibular loss in the verum group. In the control group they had to establish the normalcy of the responses of the vestibular system. Both groups then underwent testing on our exccentric rotary chair in the manner described before 13. Preliminary results of the trials indicate that this test may indeed for the first time offer a chance to look at isolated otolith apparati in vivo.

  3. Unilateral MRI using a rastered projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Christina L.; Hornak, Joseph P.

    2007-09-01

    Unilateral magnetic resonance techniques, where magnet and radio frequency (RF) coil are placed on one side of the sample, can provide valuable information about a sample which otherwise cannot be accommodated in conventional high spectral resolution magnetic resonance systems. A unilateral magnetic resonance imaging approach utilizing the stray field from a disc magnet and a butterfly geometry RF coil is described. The coil excites spins in a volume centered around an arc through the sample. Translating the RF coil relative to the magnet and recording the signal at each translational location creates a projection of the signal in a tomographic slice through the sample. Rotating the RF coil relative to the sample and repeating the translation creates projections through the sample at different angles. Backprojecting this information yields an image. A proof of concept device operating on this principle at 12.4 MHz was constructed and characterized. Projections through three phantoms are presented with a 1.2-4 cm field of view, thickness of 102 ?m, and at a distance of 3 mm from the RF coil and 14 mm from the magnet. The edge spread function (ESF) was measured resulting in a 4 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) line spread function (LSF) estimation using a Gaussian model. An example of one reconstructed image is presented.

  4. [Spontaneous unilateral adrenal hematomas. 10 cases].

    PubMed

    Hoeffel, C; Legmann, P; Luton, J P; Chapuis, Y; Bonnin, A

    1994-06-11

    Spontaneous unilateral adrenal haematoma is a very rare condition. We report 10 such cases in which the pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis and for which computed tomography (CT) (n = 10) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (n = 5) were performed. The diagnosis of this condition was difficult because there was no specific clinical setting nor any specific functional disorder. CT most often revealed a large mass (> 4 cm) of one of the adrenal glands, most often displaying soft-tissue attenuation and thus not specific. However, MRI suggested the diagnosis, showing foci of hypersignal on T1-weighted images and heterogeneous masses on T2-weighted images, predominantly displaying hypersignal and not enhancing, after Gd-DTPA dynamic perfusion study. Pathologic examination of the surgical specimen confirmed either idiopathic haematoma (n = 5) or haematoma possibly associated with a small benign tumour (n = 5). The diagnosis of adrenal haematoma must be considered when an unilateral isolated large adrenal mass is discovered in an asymptomatic patient. MRI with Gd-DTPA dynamic perfusion study has to be performed and one may suggest waiting and repeat imaging (so as to follow decrease in size or signal changes) in order to avoid surgery. PMID:7971805

  5. Fractures of the articular processes of the cervical spine

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, J.H.; Goldstein, S.J.

    1982-08-01

    Fractures of the articular processes occurred in 16 (20.8%) of 77 patients with cervical spine fractures as demonstrated by multidirectional tomography. Plain films demonstrated the fractures in only two patients. Acute cervical radiculopathy occurred in five of the patients with articular process fractures (superior process, two cases; inferior process, three cases). Persistent neck pain occurred in one other patient without radiculopathy. Three patients suffered spinal cord damage at the time of injury, which was not the result of the articular process fracture itself. In the other seven cases, no definite sequelae occurred. However, disruption of the facet joint may predispose to early degenerative joint disease and chronic pain; unilateral or bilateral facet dislocation was present in five patients. In patients with cervical trauma who develop cervical radiculopathy, tomography should be performed to evaluate the articular processes.

  6. Reproducibility of Tactile Assessments for Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auld, Megan Louise; Ware, Robert S.; Boyd, Roslyn Nancy; Moseley, G. Lorimer; Johnston, Leanne Marie

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review identified tactile assessments used in children with cerebral palsy (CP), but their reproducibility is unknown. Sixteen children with unilateral CP and 31 typically developing children (TDC) were assessed 2-4 weeks apart. Test-retest percent agreements within one point for children with unilateral CP (and TDC) were…

  7. EQUILIBRIUM PATHS OF MECHANICAL SYSTEMS WITH UNILATERAL CONSTRAINTS

    E-print Network

    Pellegrino, Sergio

    EQUILIBRIUM PATHS OF MECHANICAL SYSTEMS WITH UNILATERAL CONSTRAINTS PART II: DEPLOYABLE REFLECTOR M, by imple- menting the theory for tracing the equilibrium path of a mechanical system with unilateral had not been previously explained, is the existence of a corner limit point on the equilibrium path

  8. Functional outcomes following surgical treatment of bilateral mandibular condylar fractures.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-T; Feng, C-H; Tsay, P-K; Lai, J-P; Chen, Y-R

    2011-01-01

    Debate continues regarding unilateral or bilateral treatment for mandibular condylar fractures. This retrospective study evaluates the functional outcomes of bilateral condylar process fractures after surgical intervention. From May 1994 to December 2004, 51 adult patients with bilateral mandibular condylar process fractures were studied. There were 33 cases of bilateral condylar fractures (type I); 12 cases of condylar-subcondylar fractures (type II); and six cases of bilateral subcondylar fractures (type III). All patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation. Four patients had chin deviation, six had malocclusion, three had poor chewing function and eight had limited mouth opening. Type I patients had a significantly higher incidence of limited mouth opening (P=0.039) and associated maxillary fractures (n=12) and psychiatric disease (n=6) which yielded significantly poor functional outcomes. Complications included transient facial paresis (n=4), fracture and loosening of postoperative plates (n=3) and surgical wound infections (n=2). Open reduction with rigid fixation for bilateral condylar fractures provided satisfactory functional outcomes in this study. Concomitant maxillary fractures and underlying psychiatric problems are poor outcome factors. Aggressive rehabilitation in the first 9 months is important for early functional recovery. PMID:20961735

  9. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: a treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sabrina; da Silva Fabris, André Luis; Ferreira, Gabriel Ramalho; Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Francisconi, Giovanna Barbosa; Souza, Francisley Avila; Garcia, Idelmo Rangel

    2014-05-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a pathologic condition that causes overdevelopment of the condylar head and neck as well as the mandible. Slowly progressive unilateral enlargement of the head and the neck of the condyle causes crossbite malocclusion, facial asymmetry, and shifting of the midpoint of the chin to the unaffected side. The etiology and the pathogenesis of CH remain uncertain. The diagnosis is made by clinical and radiologic examinations and bone scintigraph. A difference in uptake of 10% or more between condyles is regarded as indicative of CH, and the affected condyles had a relative uptake of 55% or more. When the diagnosis of active CH is established, the treatment consists of removal of the growth center by a partial condylectomy. The authors present the case of a 46-year-old male patient with right active type II CH or hemimandibular hyperplasia who underwent a high condylectomy. PMID:24820728

  10. Distraction osteogenesis of a unilateral hypoplastic mandible.

    PubMed

    Liaqat, Sahrish; Baig, Amir Mushtaq; Bukhari, Syed Gulzar Ali; Ahmed, Waseem

    2011-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a surgical process in which two bony segments are gradually separated so new soft tissue and bone will form between them by applying tension through a fixation device. There are three phases to this process: latency phase, distraction phase, and consolidation phase. The technique was originally applied to long bones but in recent years the method has been adapted for use in maxillofacial surgery. Distraction osteogenesis is a new variation of more traditional; orthognathic surgical procedures which can be applied for the correction of dento-facial deformities and syndromes of the jaws, treating upper airway obstruction in paediatric patients with mandibualr retrognathia, due to tongue collapse and physical obstruction in the hypopharangeal region. It is an effective and powerful reconstructive surgical technique, which can be performed safely without the need of bone graft or blood transfusion. We present treatment of a child with severe facial asymmetry after unilateral TMJ ankylosis corrected bydistraction osteogenesis. PMID:24800374

  11. Unilateral versus Bilateral Instrumentation in Spinal Surgery: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Molinari, Robert W.; Saleh, Ahmed; Molinari, Robert; Hermsmeyer, Jeff; Dettori, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design?Systematic review. Clinical Questions?(1) What is the comparative efficacy of unilateral instrumentation compared with bilateral instrumentation in spine surgery? (2) What is the safety of unilateral instrumentation compared with bilateral instrumentation in spine surgery? Methods?Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched up to September 30, 2014, to identify studies reporting the comparative efficacy and safety of unilateral versus bilateral instrumentation in spine surgery. Studies including recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 as adjunct therapy and those with follow-up of less than 2 years were excluded. Results?Ten randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria: five compared unilateral with bilateral instrumentation using open transforaminal or posterior lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF/PLIF), one used open posterolateral fusion, and four used minimally invasive TLIF/PLIF. There were no significant differences between unilateral and bilateral screw instrumentation with respect to nonunion, low back or leg pain scores, Oswestry Disability Index, reoperation, or complications. Conclusions?The existing literature does not identify significant differences in clinical outcomes, union rates, and complications when unilateral instrumentation is used for degenerative pathologic conditions in the lumbar spine. The majority of published reports involve single-level lumbar unilateral instrumentation. PMID:26131385

  12. A Complex Facial Trauma Case with Multiple Mandibular Fractures and Dentoalveolar Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Guven, Yeliz; Zorlu, Sevgi; Cankaya, Abdulkadir Burak; Aktoren, Oya; Gencay, Koray

    2015-01-01

    The principles of management of mandibular fractures differ in children when compared to adults and depend on the specific age-related status of the growing mandible and the developing dentition. This paper presents a case report with a complex facial trauma affecting the mandibular body and condyle region and dentoalveolar complex. Clinical examination revealed soft tissue injuries, limited mouth opening, lateral deviation of the mandible, an avulsed incisor, a subluxated incisor, and a fractured crown. CBCT examination revealed a nondisplaced fracture and an oblique greenstick fracture of the mandibular body and unilateral fracture of the condyle. Closed reduction technique was chosen to manage fractures of the mandible. Favorable healing outcomes on multiple fractures of the mandible throughout the 6-year follow-up period proved the success of the conservative treatment. This case report is important since it presents a variety of pathological sequelae to trauma within one case. PMID:26339511

  13. Nonprogressive Unilateral Intracranial Arteriopathy in Children with Arterial Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Yeon, Je Young

    2015-01-01

    The nonprogressive unilateral intracranial arteriopathy known as transient (focal) cerebral arteriopathy is not a well-recognized arteriopathy among practitioners of Korea and Japan, although it cannot be easily differentiated from early moyamoya disease. This review summarizes the nomenclature, pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation, clinico-radiological features, and management of nonprogressive (reversible or stable) unilateral arteriopathy based on the relevant literature and our own experiences. Nonprogressive unilateral arteriopathy should be strongly suspected in children presenting with basal ganglia infarction and arterial beading. The early identification of patients likely to have nonprogressive or progressive arteriopathy would ensure proper management and guide further research for secondary stroke prevention. PMID:26180606

  14. [Wrong side iliofascial block in a patient with hip fracture].

    PubMed

    Petrova, E; Brasseur, F; Benhamou, D

    2010-11-01

    We report the case of a patient who received a wrong side iliofascial block immediately before being operated for a femoral neck fracture. This error did not lead to any adverse consequence but this case confirms that wrong side or wrong site error can also occur in anaesthetic practice, especially in emergency procedures, and is not only confined to surgical practice. Anaesthesiologists should be careful when performing unilateral procedures and implement similar strategies than those used by surgeons. PMID:21035998

  15. Fracture types (1) (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fracture which goes at an angle to the axis Comminuted - a fracture of many relatively small fragments Spiral - a fracture which runs around the axis of the bone Compound - a fracture (also called ...

  16. Grip Force Coordination during Bimanual Tasks in Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islam, Mominul; Gordon, Andrew M.; Skold, Annika; Forssberg, Hans; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate coordination of fingertip forces during an asymmetrical bimanual task in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Twelve participants (six males, six females; mean age 14y 4mo, SD 3.3y; range 9-20y;) with unilateral CP (eight right-sided, four left-sided) and 15 age-matched typically…

  17. Isolated, unilateral, reversible palsy of the hypoglossal nerve.

    PubMed

    Giuffrida, S; Lo Bartolo, M L; Nicoletti, A; Reggio, E; Lo Fermo, S; Restivo, D A; Domina, E; Reggio, A

    2000-05-01

    We report three patients with isolated unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy who experienced an excellent outcome. In two patients no cause was found. Our study seems to confirm that the occurrence of benign and idiopathic isolated unilateral palsy of the hypoglossal nerve is more frequent than previously reported. We would like to stress that neuroimaging studies remain mandatory in order to exclude other common causes, such as tumour and spontaneous or traumatic vascular lesions, in which a specific treatment is necessary. PMID:10886321

  18. Prolonged adrenal insufficiency after unilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Arora, Arpita; Aggarwal, Anshita; Bhardwaj, Minakshi

    2015-01-01

    The contralateral healthy adrenal in patients undergoing unilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing's is known to be suppressed temporarily and forms the basis of peri and postoperative steroids. We present four cases of Cushing's who had prolonged adrenal insufficiency with continued requirement for steroids for periods ranging 1-4 years after unilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing's. We further review literature regarding the recovery of the hypothalamo pituitary adrenal axis postsurgery in patients with Cushing's syndrome. PMID:25932404

  19. Neurobrucellosis developing unilateral oculomotor nerve paralysis.

    PubMed

    I??kay, Sedat; Y?lmaz, Kutluhan; Ölmez, Akgün

    2012-11-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic infectious disease that is common around the world. Its clinical course demonstrates great diversity as it can affect all organs and systems. However, the central nervous system is rarely affected in the pediatric population. Neurobrucellosis is most frequently observed with meningitis and has numerous complications, including meningocephalitis, myelitis, cranial nerve paralyses, radiculopathy, and neuropathy. Neurobrucellosis affects the second, third, sixth, seventh, and eighth cranial nerves. Involvement of the oculomotor nerves is a very rare complication in neurobrucellosis although several adult cases have been reported. In this article, we present the case of a 9-year-old girl who developed unilateral nerve paralysis as a secondary complication of neurobrucellosis and recovered without sequel after treatment. This case is notable because it is a very rare, the first within the pediatric population. Our article emphasizes that neurobrucellosis should be considered among the distinguishing diagnoses in every case that is admitted for nerve paralysis in regions where Brucella infection is endemic. PMID:22244219

  20. Trigeminal neuralgia: unilateral episodic facial pain.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewska, Joanna M

    2015-06-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia is a rare cause of episodic unilateral facial pain and often in the initial presentation dental causes need to be eliminated, as it frequently presents in the lower trigeminal divisions. The pain description is characteristic of electric shock-like pain that is light-touch provoked, paroxysmal, and occurring daily; the condition can go into remission for weeks or months, however. The first-line drug is either carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine and has to be started in low doses. Over 70% of patients will initially obtain immediate relief. If efficacy or tolerability becomes a problem, then referral to a secondary care specialist should be made. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans can determine if there is a symptomatic cause and whether surgery is indicated. Surgical options provide longest pain relief periods. Patients need to be given information about all treatment options so they can make a decision about treatment. This report is adapted from paineurope 2014; Issue 4, © Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd., and is presented with permission. paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, Ltd., and is distributed free of charge to health care professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be viewed via the Web site: www.paineurope.com , at which health professionals can find links to the original articles and request copies of the quarterly publication and access additional pain education and pain management resources. PMID:26095494

  1. Influence of unilateral weight on bilateral cyclograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicer Costa, Juan José; Dusza, Jacek J.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents the results of gait parameters as a function of unilateral weight. The object of the research was a woman walking on a stationary surface and carrying in his hand weights from 0 to 15 kg. Her movement was recorded by 6 cameras recording the location of 34 markers placed at appropriate points in the body. 3D reconstruction was performed for each of the reflecting markers. Tested signals were changes in the value the joint angles of ankle, knee and hip. On the basis of about 6 cycles of movement of each load, a model for the average gait cycle was developed. The result of the experiments are graphs of changes the joint angles as a function of time, bilateral cyclograms, synchronized bilateral cyclograms and regression lines. The conclusion of the study is to determine how one-sided load affects gait asymmetry. Simple and easy to interpret method of presentation of results were also shown. Studies were conducted using VICON system.

  2. Fracture Management

    MedlinePLUS

    Fracture Management 804 W. Diamond Ave., Ste. 210 Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (800) 981-2663 (301) 947-0083 Fax: (301) 947-0456 Internet: www.oif.org ... osteogenesis imperfecta contact: Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation 804 W. Diamond Avenue, Suite 210, Gaithersburg, MD 20878 Tel: 800- ...

  3. Condylar fractures.

    PubMed

    Sawhney, Raja; Brown, Ryan; Ducic, Yadranko

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the basic indications for different treatments of condylar and subcondylar fractures. It also reviews the steps of different surgical approaches to access the surgical area and explains the pros and cons of each procedure. PMID:24138737

  4. Pediatric depressed skull fractures: analysis of 530 cases.

    PubMed

    Er?ahin, Y; Mutluer, S; Mirzai, H; Palali, I

    1996-06-01

    Depressed skull fractures (DSFs) account for 7-10% of children admitted to hospital with a head injury and 15-25% of children with skull fractures. We reviewed the records of 530 patients operated on for DSF from January 1, 1973, to December 31, 1993. This group was made up of 357 boys (67%) and 173 girls (33%) whose ages ranged from 1 day to 16 years (mean age 6.1 years). Fall was the most common cause of injury. Of the 530 patients with DSF, 66% had compound fractures. The incidence of compound fractures increased with age. Compound fractures caused more brain lacerations (29%) than simple fractures (15.5%) did. We also classified DSFs radiologically as true, flat, or ping-pong ball fractures. Associated intracranial lesions were found to be a bad prognostic factor. There were 13 deaths (2.5%) in this series. Satisfactory results were achieved in over 95% of the patients. Compound fractures are associated with a worse outcome and a higher incidence of intracranial lesions and cortical laceration. Unilateral pupillary dilatation and an admission GCS score of 8 or less are ominous signs in regard to mortality. We also found that the deeper the depressed bone, the higher the risk of both dural tear and cortical laceration and the worse the prognosis. A conservative approach should be followed in cases of simple DSF without associated intracranial hematoma and in cases in which the bone depression is not deeper than 1 cm. PMID:8816297

  5. Anaesthesia of the inferior alveolar and lingual nerves following subcondylar fractures of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Politis, Constantinus; Sun, Yi; De Peuter, Bruno; Vandersteen, Marjan

    2013-10-01

    A retrospective chart review of 387 patients with condylar and subcondylar fractures revealed 2 cases of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) and lingual nerve (LN) anaesthesia following the subcondylar fracture. Only 5 cases have been reported previously. The mechanism of action remains unknown but a review of the literature and an analysis of 120 dry human skulls supported the hypothesis that compression of the mandibular nerve at a high level, close to the foramen ovale, could cause anaesthesia. This complication is rare, because it requires compression at a particular angle. The antero-median angulation of the condyle must be close to the foramen ovale, and the fracture must be a unilaterally displaced fracture. The presence of an enlarged lateral pterygoid plate appeared to enhance the risk of compression. The IAN and LN anaesthesia could be resolved after open reduction of the fracture and IAN and LN anaesthesia constitute a strict indication for an early open fracture reduction. PMID:23453271

  6. Preventing Falls and Related Fractures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Basics Falls and Fractures Preventing Falls and Related Fractures Publication available in: PDF (79 KB) Related Resources Falls and Fractures Caídas y fracturas (Falls and Fractures) Osteoporosis and ...

  7. Facial Fractures

    PubMed Central

    White, Lawrence M.; Marotta, Thomas R.; McLennan, Michael K.; Kassel, Edward E.

    1992-01-01

    Appropriate clinical radiographic investigation, together with an understanding of the normal radiographic anatomy of the facial skeleton, allows for precise delineation of facial fracutres and associated soft tissue injuries encountered in clinical practice. A combination of multiple plain radiographic views and coronal and axial computed tomographic images allow for optimal delineation of fracture patterns. This information is beneficial in the clinical and surgical management patients with facial injuries

  8. Faster imaging with a portable unilateral NMR device.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Asaf; Bergman, Elad; Sarda, Yifat; Nevo, Uri

    2013-06-01

    Unilateral NMR devices are important tools in various applications such as non-destructive testing and well logging, but are not applied routinely for imaging, primarily because B0 inhomogeneity in these scanners leads to a relatively low signal and requires use of the slow single point imaging scan scheme. Enabling high quality, fast imaging could make this affordable and portable technology practical for various imaging applications as well as for new applications that are not yet feasible with MRI technology. The goal of this work was to improve imaging times in a portable unilateral NMR scanner. Both Compressed Sensing and Fast Spin Echo were modified and applied to fit the unique characteristics of a unilateral device. Two printed phantoms, allowing high resolution images, were scanned with both methods and compared to a standard scan and to a low pass scan to evaluate performance. Both methods were found to be feasible with a unilateral device, proving ways to accelerate single point imaging in such scanners. This outcome encourages us to explore how to further accelerate imaging times in unilateral NMR devices so that this technology might become clinically applicable in the future. PMID:23597948

  9. Faster imaging with a portable unilateral NMR device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberman, Asaf; Bergman, Elad; Sarda, Yifat; Nevo, Uri

    2013-06-01

    Unilateral NMR devices are important tools in various applications such as non-destructive testing and well logging, but are not applied routinely for imaging, primarily because B0 inhomogeneity in these scanners leads to a relatively low signal and requires use of the slow single point imaging scan scheme. Enabling high quality, fast imaging could make this affordable and portable technology practical for various imaging applications as well as for new applications that are not yet feasible with MRI technology. The goal of this work was to improve imaging times in a portable unilateral NMR scanner. Both Compressed Sensing and Fast Spin Echo were modified and applied to fit the unique characteristics of a unilateral device. Two printed phantoms, allowing high resolution images, were scanned with both methods and compared to a standard scan and to a low pass scan to evaluate performance. Both methods were found to be feasible with a unilateral device, proving ways to accelerate single point imaging in such scanners. This outcome encourages us to explore how to further accelerate imaging times in unilateral NMR devices so that this technology might become clinically applicable in the future.

  10. The Unilateral Below Elbow Test: a function test for children with unilateral congenital below elbow deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Anita M; Molitor, Fred; Wagner, Lisa V; Tomhave, Wendy; James, Michelle A

    2006-07-01

    The Unilateral Below Elbow Test (UBET) was developed to evaluate function in bimanual activities for both the prosthesis wearer and non-wearer. Nine tasks were chosen for each of four age-specific categories defined by development stages of hand function (2-4y, 5-7y, 8-10y, and 11-21y). Two scales, Completion of Task and Method of Use, were designed to rate performance. To measure reliability, four occupational therapists scored samples of videotaped UBET performances. For Completion of Task, an interval scale, agreement in scoring was measured with interclass correlation coefficients (ICC; n=9; five females, four males). For Method of Use, a nominal scale, chance-adjusted association was calculated with Cohen's kappa coefficients (interobserver n=198; 111 females, 87 males; intraobserver n=93; 56 females, 37 males). For Completion of Task, the average ICC was 0.87 for the prosthesis-on condition, and 0.85 for the prosthesis-off condition. ICCs exceeded 0.80 for eight out of nine tasks for the two older age groups, but for only five out of nine tasks in the younger age groups. Higher inter- and intraobserver kappa coefficients for Method of Use resulted when scoring children with their prostheses on versus off. The oldest age group had lower kappa values than the other three groups. The UBET is recommended for the functional evaluation of Completion of Task in children with unilateral congenital below elbow deficiency with and without their prostheses. Method of Use scoring can evaluate individuals for directed therapy interventions or prosthetic training. PMID:16780626

  11. Minimally invasive unilateral arytenoid lateralization in dogs: A cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Shipov, A; Israeli, I; Weiser, M; Kelmer, E; Klainbart, S; Milgram, J

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a minimally invasive thyroarytenoid lateralization technique (MITAL). Eleven unilateral MITAL procedures were performed on 11 canine cadavers. Two hypodermic needles were passed through the skin into the lumen of the larynx, penetrating the thyroid and arytenoid cartilages. Suture material was passed through the needles to lateralize the arytenoid cartilage. A rigid endoscope was used to visualize needle insertion and suture material placement. A key-hole approach to the larynx was performed and the suture material was knotted on the lateral aspect of the thyroid cartilage. The change in the rima glottidis area was recorded as were the duration of the procedure and complications encountered. The landmarks for needle insertion were easily palpated, and a significant increase in the area of the rima glottidis was documented after performing unilateral MITAL. In conclusion, unilateral MITAL is a quick, minimally invasive procedure which increases the area of the rima glottidis in cadaveric dogs. PMID:26412529

  12. Unilateral Breast Reconstruction Using Bilateral Inferior Gluteal Artery Perforator Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Muto, Mayu; Ogawa, Marina; Shibuya, Mai; Yasumura, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Shinji; Ishikawa, Takashi; Maegawa, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    Background: For reconstructing moderate-to-high projection breasts in nulliparous patients with insufficient abdominal tissue or prior abdominal surgeries, a unilateral inferior gluteal artery perforator (IGAP) flap is an alternative procedure. In patients with slim hips, however, unilateral gluteal tissue is insufficient and inferior gluteal crease displacement may develop postoperatively. Donor-site asymmetry is also a major disadvantage. In these circumstances, bilateral IGAP flaps provide sufficient tissue without significant gluteal deformity. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 20 patients who underwent unilateral breast reconstruction using bilateral IGAP flaps by a single surgeon between November 2007 and December 2012. A quantitative outcome assessment was performed and compared with that of 22 unilateral IGAP flap patients operated on by the same surgeon. Results: Twenty patients underwent reconstruction with 40 IGAP flaps. Of the 40 flaps, 39 survived and 1 developed total necrosis due to repeated venous thrombosis. In 15 of 20 patients, the size of reconstructed breast was comparable to that of the contralateral breast. Final inset flap weight was 462.3 g for bilateral flaps and 244.3 g for unilateral flaps. Total operating time was 671.1 minutes (bilateral flaps) and 486.8 minutes (unilateral flaps). Conclusions: Use of bilateral IGAP flaps for breast reconstruction helps to avoid asymmetry of the inferior buttock volume and shape. Bilateral flaps provide sufficient tissue volume and allow for reconstruction of a breast comparable to the unaffected side. In patients with moderate-to-high projection breast whose abdominal tissue cannot be used for reconstruction, IGAP flaps may be a suitable alternative. PMID:25878925

  13. Radial head fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePLUS

    Elbow fracture - radial head - aftercare ... the radius bone, just below your elbow. A fracture is a break in your bone. The most common cause of a radial head fracture is falling with an outstretched arm.

  14. Cold shivering activity after unilateral destruction of the vestibular apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuzmina, G. I.

    1980-01-01

    The bioelectric activity of muscles (flexors and extensors of the forelimbs and hindlimbs) during cold shivering after unilateral destruction of the vestibular apparatus. It was found, that unilateral delabyrinthing produces bilateral facilitation of cold shivering in the flexor extremities more pronounced on the ipsilateral side. In the extensor muscles there was an absence of bioelectric activity both before and after delabyrinthing. Enhancement of cold shivering in the flexor extremities following intervention was evidently conditioned by removal of the inhibiting effect of the vestibulary apparatus on the function of special centers.

  15. Unilateral Crystalline Vitreoretinopathy: A Rare Entity Associated with Intraocular Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Harshey, Kaustubh B.; Srinivasan, Karthik; Rengappa, Ramakrishnan; Ramasamy, Kim

    2015-01-01

    A 31-year-old Indian male presented with floaters and diminution of vision in the right eye. Ocular examination showed features of old anterior uveitis with posterior subcapsular cataract and fine, refractile crystals in the vitreous cavity and on the retinal surface. A thorough workup for all known causes of crystalline retinopathy was inconclusive. Unilateral crystalline retinopathy has been sparingly reported. This is the first report of unilateral, crystalline vitreoretinopathy in the absence of any demonstrable and known cause for intraocular crystals. PMID:26688764

  16. 12 CFR 950.11 - Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption...Associates § 950.11 Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock. (a) Capital stock requirement for advances....

  17. 12 CFR 950.11 - Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption...Members § 950.11 Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock. (a) Capital stock requirement for advances....

  18. The Shoulder Gradient in Patients with Unilateral Shoulder Impingement Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Sang; Lee, Jong Ha; Yun, Dong Hwan; Yun, Jee-Sang; Shin, Yong Won; Chon, Jinmann

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between the shoulder gradient and acromiohumeral interval of both shoulders in patients with unilateral shoulder impingement syndrome. Method Using the angulometer, we measured the shoulder gradient in patients with unilateral shoulder impingement syndrome in a standing position. Using the radiography, we measured the acromiohumeral interval and the angle between a vertical line and a line connecting a superior angle with an inferior angle of the scapula. Results In patients with unilateral shoulder impingement syndrome, the frequency of shoulder impingement syndrome was 76.2% (16 of 21) on the side of the relatively lower shoulder. The mean acromiohumeral interval on the side of the lower shoulder was 10.03±1.28 mm, compared with 10.46±1.50 mm for the higher shoulder. The angle between a vertical line and a line connecting a superior angle with an inferior angle of the scapular of the side of the lower shoulder was -0.31±3.73 degrees, compared with 3.85±4.42 degrees for the higher shoulder. Conclusion The frequency of shoulder impingement syndrome was significantly higher on the side of the relatively lower shoulder, and there is no significant difference in the acromiohumeral interval between the side of the lower shoulder and that of the higher shoulder. In patients with unilateral shoulder impingement syndrome, the scapular on the side of lower shoulder was more rotated downward than on the side of the higher shoulder. PMID:22506196

  19. Bimanual Force Coordination in Children with Spastic Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits-Engelsman, B. C. M.; Klingels, K.; Feys, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this study bimanual grip-force coordination was quantified using a novel "Gripper" system that records grip forces produced while holding a lower and upper unit, in combination with the lift force necessary to separate these units. Children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) (aged 5-14 years, n = 12) were compared to age matched typically…

  20. Utilizing Unilateral and Multilateral Groups to Enhance Program Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charuhas, Mary S.

    1993-01-01

    Program administration can be enhanced through the use of unilateral groups (focus groups, task forces, advisory committees) and multilateral groups (coalitions, cooperatives, consortia, alliances, subcontractors, partnerships). Groups can help plan programs; share or train staff; share facilities, materials, and equipment; and reduce service…

  1. Unilateral maxillary molar distalization with zygoma-gear appliance.

    PubMed

    Kilkis, Dogan; Bayram, Mehmet; Celikoglu, Mevlut; Nur, Metin

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to present the orthodontic treatment of a 15-year-old boy with a unilateral maxillary molar distalization system, called the zygoma-gear appliance. It consisted of a zygomatic anchorage miniplate, an inner bow, and a Sentalloy closed coil spring (GAC International, Bohemia, NY). A distalizing force of 350 g was used during the distalization period. The unilateral Class II malocclusion was corrected in 5 months with the zygoma-gear appliance. The maxillary left first molar showed distalization of 4 mm with an inclination of 3°. The maxillary premolars moved distally with the help of the transseptal fibers. In addition, there were slight decreases in overjet (-0.5 mm) and maxillary incisor inclination (-1°), indicating no anchorage loss from the zygoma-gear appliance. Preadjusted fixed appliances (0.022 × 0.028-in, MBT system; 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) were placed in both arches to achieve leveling and alignment. After 14 months of unilateral distalization with the zygoma-gear appliance and fixed appliances, Class I molar and canine relationships were established with satisfactory interdigitation of the posterior teeth. Acceptable overjet and overbite were also achieved. This article shows that this new system, the zygoma-gear appliance, can be used for unilateral maxillary molar distalization without anchorage loss. PMID:22858341

  2. Modified titration intratympanic gentamicin injection for unilateral intractable Ménière's disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Leng, Yang-Ming; Shi, Hong; Zhou, Ren-Hong; Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Su-Lin; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2015-10-01

    This study looked into the efficacy of a modified titration protocol of intratympanic gentamicin injection (ITG) in the patients with unilateral intractable Ménière's disease (MD). Modified titration protocol of ITG at a low dose (20 mg/mL) was administered to 10 patients with definite unilateral intractable MD. After initial first two fixed ITGs on weekly basis, the patients might or might not be given any more injections, depending on the appearance of unilateral vestibular loss (UVL). ITG was terminated if the patients satisfied the criteria of UVL. All patients were followed-up for at least two years. The effects of ITG on the vertigo attack, functional level scores and postural balance were evaluated. Of the 10 cases, 8 showed the sign of UVL after receiving initial two ITGs and were not given any more intratympanic injections, and the other 2 patients were administered three ITGs. A two-year follow-up revealed that complete and substantial vertigo control was achieved in 9 cases, and limited vertigo control in 1 patient. Hearing level was lowered in 2 patients. The posture stability and functional level scores were improved. Our study showed that the modified titration protocol of ITG at a low dose could effectively control vertigo in patients with unilateral intractable MD. PMID:26489633

  3. Selective Color Constancy Deficits after Circumscribed Unilateral Brain Lesions

    E-print Network

    Selective Color Constancy Deficits after Circumscribed Unilateral Brain Lesions Lukas Ru¨ ttiger,1, Germany The color of an object, when part of a complex scene, is determined not only by its spectral reflectance but also by the colors of all other objects in the scene (von Helmholtz, 1886; Ives, 1912; Land

  4. Coupling of FM Systems to Individuals with Unilateral Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopun, Judy G.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the attenuation characteristics of 5 Frequency Modulation system sound delivery options for 25 adults and children (ages 5-13). Degree of ear canal occlusion was a major factor in degree of attenuation. For children with unilateral hearing impairments, the most acoustically appropriate option was the tube-fitting. (Author/JDD)

  5. Traumatic glaucoma with features of unilateral pigment dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, Gordon; Ellul, Antony; Gouws, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Summary We report a patient with traumatic glaucoma with features of unilateral pigment dispersion. This rare form of secondary glaucoma has only been reported twice previously, with both patients demonstrating angle recession, indicating associated damage to the trabecular meshwork. To our knowledge, this is the first such case reported in which angle recession was absent. PMID:25097455

  6. Unilateral radiation pneumonitis in sheep: Physiological changes and bronchoalveolar lavage

    SciTech Connect

    Tillman, B.F.; Loyd, J.E.; Malcolm, A.W.; Holm, B.A.; Brigham, K.L. )

    1989-03-01

    Radiation pneumonitis is a life-threatening result of therapeutic thoracic irradiation, yet its mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied the effects of unilateral lung irradiation (3,000 rad) in sheep from the immediate response to the later development of radiation pneumonitis. We defined radiation pneumonitis by its diagnostic clinical feature, radiographic infiltration of the irradiated zone with a straight margin corresponding to the radiation port. The immediate response in the few hours after irradiation was characterized by cough, labored respiration, hypoxemia (arterial PO{sub 2} decreased 19 Torr), mild pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary arterial pressure increased 20%), and lymphopenia. Hemodynamics and gas exchange returned to normal by day 2 but became abnormal again before or during radiation pneumonitis at 32 +/- 2 days. Respiratory distress, hypoxemia, and pulmonary hypertension recurred during radiation pneumonitis. Bronchoalveolar lavage during radiation pneumonitis contained increased neutrophils (19 +/- 4%, control = 7%), increased protein (0.27 +/- 0.1 g/dl, control = 0.12 +/- 0.03), and severely impaired ability to lower surface tension. Alveolar macrophages from both lungs during unilateral radiation pneumonitis exhibited impaired generation of superoxide after phorbol myristate (only a 30% increase). Normal control alveolar macrophages increased superoxide production after stimulation greater than 400%. We conclude that unilateral lung irradiation in sheep causes a mild immediate response followed by radiation pneumonitis at 1 mo. Unilateral radiation pneumonitis in this model is associated with ipsilateral neutrophilic alveolitis, increased bronchoalveolar lavage protein, and impaired surfactant function, as well as bilateral functional abnormalities of alveolar macrophages.

  7. An analytical methodology for magnetic field control in unilateral NMR.

    PubMed

    Marble, Andrew E; Mastikhin, Igor V; Colpitts, Bruce G; Balcom, Bruce J

    2005-05-01

    Traditionally, unilateral NMR systems such as the NMR-MOUSE have used the fringe field between two bar magnets joined with a yoke in a 'U' geometry. This allows NMR signals to be acquired from a sensitive volume displaced from the magnets, permitting large samples to be investigated. The drawback of this approach is that the static field (B0) generated in this configuration is inhomogeneous, and has a large, nonlinear, gradient. As a consequence, the sensitive volume of the instrument is both small and ill defined. Empirical redesign of the permanent magnet array producing the B0 field has yielded instruments with magnetic field topologies acceptable for varying applications. The drawback of current approaches is the lack of formalism in the control of B0. Rather than tailoring the magnet geometry to NMR investigations, measurements must be tailored to the available magnet geometry. In this work, we present a design procedure whereby the size, shape, field strength, homogeneity, and gradients in the sensitive spot of a unilateral NMR sensor can be controlled. Our design uses high permeability pole pieces, shaped according to the contours of an analytical expression, to control B0, allowing unilateral NMR instruments to be designed to generate a controlled static field topology. We discuss the approach in the context of previously published design techniques, and explain the advantages inherent in our strategy as compared to other optimization methods. We detail the design, simulation, and construction of a unilateral magnet array using our approach. It is shown that the fabricated array exhibits a B0 topology consistent with the design. The utility of the design is demonstrated in a sample nondestructive testing application. Our design methodology is general, and defines a class of unilateral permanent magnet arrays in which the strength and shape of B0 within the sensitive volume can be controlled. PMID:15809175

  8. Regularized formulation of the variational brittle fracture with unilateral contact: numerical experiments

    E-print Network

    Maurini, Corrado

    bInstitut Jean Le Rond d'Alembert, UPMC Univ Paris 06 and CNRS (UMR 7190), 4 place Jussieu, 75252 experiments Hanen Amora , Jean-Jacques Marigob , Corrado Maurinib, aLPMTM (CNRS-UPR 9001) and LAGA (CNRS-UMR 7539), Institut Galil´ee, Univ Paris-Nord, 99 avenue Jean-Baptiste Cl´ement, 93430 Villetaneuse, France

  9. Ankle fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePLUS

    An ankle fracture is a break in 1 or more ankle bones. These fractures may: Be partial (the bone is only partially ... Severe ankle fractures may require surgery. Fractures that may need surgery if: The ends of the bone are out of line ...

  10. Fracture channel waves

    SciTech Connect

    Nihei, K.T.; Yi, W.; Myer, L.R.; Cook, N.G.; Schoenberg, M.

    1999-03-01

    The properties of guided waves which propagate between two parallel fractures are examined. Plane wave analysis is used to obtain a dispersion equation for the velocities of fracture channel waves. Analysis of this equation demonstrates that parallel fractures form an elastic waveguide that supports two symmetric and two antisymmetric dispersive Rayleigh channel waves, each with particle motions and velocities that are sensitive to the normal and tangential stiffnesses of the fractures. These fracture channel waves degenerate to shear waves when the fracture stiffnesses are large, to Rayleigh waves and Rayleigh-Lamb plate waves when the fracture stiffnesses are low, and to fracture interface waves when the fractures are either very closely spaced or widely separated. For intermediate fracture stiffnesses typical of fractured rock masses, fracture channel waves are dispersive and exhibit moderate to strong localization of guided wave energy between the fractures. The existence of these waves is examined using laboratory acoustic measurements on a fractured marble plate. This experiment confirms the distinct particle motion of the fundamental antisymmetric fracture channel wave (A{sub 0} mode) and demonstrates the ease with which a fracture channel wave can be generated and detected. {copyright} 1999 American Geophysical Union

  11. [Proximal tibial fractures].

    PubMed

    Schneidmueller, D; Gercek, E; Lehnert, M; Walcher, F; Marzi, I

    2011-05-01

    Only 1-4% of all long bone fractures in children involve the proximal tibia. To evaluate these fractures appropriately, it is mandatory to differentiate between articular fractures and metaphyseal fractures. Articular fractures of the proximal physis are rare and include Salter Harris type III and IV injuries. The reconstruction of the articular surface is the fundamental goal of therapy. Injuries of the anterior crucial ligament which typically appear as an avulsion of the tibial spine and the avulsion fracture of the tibial tubercle apophysis can involve the articular surface. Dislocated fractures should be reduced and stabilized. Extraarticular fractures include Salter Harris type I and II fractures. Other types of metaphyseal fractures are the complete fracture, the compression fracture and the bending fracture of the proximal tibia. Care should be taken while treating bending fractures, especially a valgus deformity must be excluded. Due to unequal growth stimulation during remodelling, a progressive valgus deformity frequently develops. Small deformities in the sagittal plane can be compensated by spontaneous remodelling during further growth. Dislocated fractures should be reduced and stabilized by K-wires. The retention of bending fractures by a compression plate or external fixator for medial compression might be more beneficial. PMID:21528394

  12. Effect of Natural Fractures on Hydraulic Fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben, Y.; Wang, Y.; Shi, G.

    2012-12-01

    Hydraulic Fracturing has been used successfully in the oil and gas industry to enhance oil and gas production in the past few decades. Recent years have seen the great development of tight gas, coal bed methane and shale gas. Natural fractures are believed to play an important role in the hydraulic fracturing of such formations. Whether natural fractures can benefit the fracture propagation and enhance final production needs to be studied. Various methods have been used to study the effect of natural fractures on hydraulic fracturing. Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA) is a numerical method which belongs to the family of discrete element methods. In this paper, DDA is coupled with a fluid pipe network model to simulate the pressure response in the formation during hydraulic fracturing. The focus is to study the effect of natural fractures on hydraulic fracturing. In particular, the effect of rock joint properties, joint orientations and rock properties on fracture initiation and propagation will be analyzed. The result shows that DDA is a promising tool to study such complex behavior of rocks. Finally, the advantages of disadvantages of our current model and future research directions will be discussed.

  13. Identifying osteoporotic vertebral fracture

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis per se is not a harmful disease. It is the sequela of osteoporosis and most particularly the occurrence of osteoporotic fracture that makes osteoporosis a serious medical condition. All of the preventative measures, investigations, treatment and research into osteoporosis have one primary goal and that is to prevent the occurrence of osteoporotic fracture. Vertebral fracture is by far and away the most prevalent osteoporotic fracture. The significance and diagnosis of vertebral fracture are discussed in this article. PMID:26435923

  14. Unilateral Loss of Spontaneous Venous Pulsations in an Astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mader, Thomas H.; Gibson, C. Robert; Lee, Andrew G.; Patel, Nimesh; Hart, Steven; Pettit, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous venous pulsations seen on the optic nerve head (optic disc) are presumed to be caused by fluctuations in the pressure gradient between the intraocular and retrolaminar venous systems. The disappearance of previously documented spontaneous venous pulsations is a well-recognized clinical sign usually associated with a rise in intracranial pressure and a concomitant bilateral elevation of pressure in the subarachnoid space surrounding the optic nerves. In this correspondence we report the unilateral loss of spontaneous venous pulsations in an astronaut 5 months into a long duration space flight. We documented a normal lumbar puncture opening pressure 8 days post mission. The spontaneous venous pulsations were also documented to be absent 21 months following return to Earth.. We hypothesize that these changes may have resulted from a chronic unilateral rise in optic nerve sheath pressure caused by a microgravity-induced optic nerve sheath compartment syndrome.

  15. Unilateral Stance Strategies of Athletes With ACL Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Di Stasi, Stephanie L.; Hartigan, Erin H.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant movement strategies are characteristic of ACL-deficient athletes with recurrent knee instability (non-copers), and may instigate premature or accelerate joint degradation. Biomechanical evaluation of kinematic changes over time may elucidate noncopers’ responses to neuromuscular intervention and ACL reconstruction (ACLR). Forty noncopers were randomized into a perturbation group or a strength training only group. We evaluated the effects of perturbation training, and then gender on knee angle and tibial position during a unilateral standing task before and after ACLR. No statistically significant interactions were found. Before surgery, the strength training only group demonstrated knee angle asymmetry, but 6 months after ACLR, both groups presented with similar knee flexion between limbs. Aberrant and asymmetrical tibial position was found only in females following injury and ACLR. Neither treatment group showed distinct unilateral standing strategies following intervention; however, males and female noncopers appear to respond uniquely to physical therapy and surgery. PMID:22983931

  16. Offspring of patients treated for unilateral Wilms' tumor in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.M.; Fine, W.E.; Li, F.P.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-seven women and the wives of nine men who survived unilateral Wilms' tumor in childhood had a total of 59 live born offspring. Among the 33 infants born to women who had received orthovoltage abdominal irradiation, ten weighed less than 2500 g at birth and three died during the perinatal period. In addition, one term infant of normal weight died of complications of a breech delivery. Only one of 26 infants born to the wives of Wilms' tumor patients and unirradiated female patients weighed less than 2500 g at birth and none died. The frequency of congenital malformations and spontaneous abortions in this series was not increased, and no offspring has developed cancer. The findings suggest that the risk of Wilms' tumor is low among progeny of survivors of nonfamilial, unilateral lesions. Damage from abdominal irradiation given to girls with Wilms' tumor may predispose them to the subsequent delivery of low birthweight children.

  17. Framework Surgery for Treatment of Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Daniero, James J.; Garrett, C. Gaelyn; Francis, David O.

    2014-01-01

    Laryngeal framework surgery is the current gold standard treatment for unilateral vocal fold paralysis. It provides a permanent solution to glottic insufficiency caused by injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Various modifications to the original Isshiki type I laryngoplasty procedure have been described to improve voice and swallowing outcomes. The success of this procedure is highly dependent on the experience of the surgeon as it epitomizes the intersection of art and science in the field. The following article reviews the evidence, controversies, and complications related to laryngoplasty for unilateral vocal fold paralysis. It also provides a detailed analysis of how and when arytenoid-positioning procedures should be considered, and summarizes the literature on postoperative outcomes. PMID:24883239

  18. Congenital Unilateral Deafness Affects Cerebral Organization of Reading

    PubMed Central

    Adorni, Roberta; Manfredi, Mirella; Proverbio, Alice Mado

    2013-01-01

    It is known that early sensory deprivation modifies brain functional structure and connectivity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuro-functional organization of reading in a patient with profound congenital unilateral deafness. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we compared cortical networks supporting the processing of written words in patient RA (completely deaf in the right ear since birth) and in a group of control volunteers. We found that congenital unilateral hearing deprivation modifies neural mechanisms of word reading. Indeed, while written word processing was left-lateralized in controls, we found a strong right lateralization of the fusiform and inferior occipital gyri activation in RA. This finding goes in the same direction of recent proposals that the ventral occipito-temporal activity in word reading seem to lateralize to the same hemisphere as the one involved in spoken language processing. PMID:24961430

  19. Binocular function in unilateral aphakia. Correlation with aniseikonia and stereoacuity.

    PubMed

    Katsumi, O; Miyanaga, Y; Hirose, T; Okuno, H; Asaoka, I

    1988-08-01

    Aniseikonia and stereoacuity were measured in patients with unilateral aphakia, most of whom were postoperative senile cataract cases. The New Aniseikonia test was used to evaluate aniseikonia and the Titmus Stereotest to measure stereoacuity. Ninety cases were studied, 57 (63.3%) of which had intraocular lens (IOL) implants; 27 (30%) had extended-wear soft contact lenses; and six (6.7%) had spectacle lenses. In the IOL group, aniseikonia averaged 2.8%, and 39 patients (68.4%) had good stereoacuity. In the contact lens group, aniseikonia averaged 4.6%, and 11 (40.7%) had good stereoacuity. In the spectacle lens group, aniseikonia averaged 17.8%; none of the patients had good stereoacuity. The authors concluded that in cases with unilateral aphakia, correction with an IOL implant is superior to the other alternatives in achieving good binocular function. PMID:3231446

  20. Acute Contralateral Radiculopathy after Unilateral Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Young-Baeg; Park, Yong-Sook; Nam, Taek-Kyun; Lee, Young-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cases of contralateral radiculopathy after a transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with a single cage (unilateral TLIF) had been reported, but the phenomenon has not been explained satisfactorily. The purpose of this study was to determine its incidence, causes, and risk factors. Methods We did retrospective study with 546 patients who underwent a unilateral TLIF, and used CT and MRI to study the causes of contralateral radicular symptoms that appeared within a week postoperatively. Clinical and radiological results were compared by dividing the patients into the symptomatic group and asymptomatic group. Results Contralateral symptoms occurred in 32 (5.9%) of the patients underwent unilateral TLIF. The most common cause of contralateral symptoms was a contralateral foraminal stenosis in 22 (68.8%), screw malposition in 4 (12.5%), newly developed herniated nucleus pulposus in 3 (9.3%), hematoma in 1 (3.1%), and unknown origin in 2 patients (6.3%). 16 (50.0%) of the 32 patients received revision surgery. There was no difference in visual analogue scale and Oswestry disability index between the two groups at discharge. Both preoperative and postoperative contralateral foraminal areas were significantly smaller, and postoperative segmental angle was significantly greater in the symptomatic group comparing to those of the asymptomatic group (p<0.05). Conclusion The incidence rate is not likely to be small (5.9%). If unilateral TLIF is performed for cases when preoperative contralateral foraminal stenosis already exists or when a large restoration of segmental lordosis is required, the probability of developing contralateral radiculopathy is increased and caution from the surgeon is needed. PMID:26587189

  1. Locking compression plate osteosynthesis of complicated mandibular fractures in six horses.

    PubMed

    Kuemmerle, J M; Kummer, M; Auer, J A; Nitzl, D; Fürst, A E

    2009-01-01

    Complicated mandibular fractures were recognised in one foal, one pony and four horses. The foal was two months old while the adult animals ranged in age from 12 to 24 years. Three horses had a unilateral horizontal ramus fracture. Two fractures were open and one was closed. Comminution was present in one of these patients while the other two horses had marked displacement of the fragments. Two suffered from comminuted fractures of the horizontal and vertical ramus of the mandible. One of these patients had open and infected fractures. One foal had a bilateral horizontal ramus fracture with marked periosteal 'new bone' formation and malalignement which required corrective osteotomy. Each horse underwent locking compression plate (LCP) osteosynthesis consisting of open fracture reduction and application of one to three 4.5/5.0 mm LCP at the ventral, lateral or caudal aspect of the mandible under fluoroscopic control. Two 3.5 mm LCP were used in the foal. Plate fixation was supported by application of a cerclage wire construct between the incisor and premolar teeth in most patients. Complete fracture healing, with an excellent functional and cosmetic outcome, was achieved in all of the patients. Complications encountered included seroma formation, screw and wire breakage, as well as implant and apical tooth root infections. The LCP was removed after fracture healing had occurred in four patients. PMID:19151871

  2. [Subcondylar mandibular fracture].

    PubMed

    Marsot-Dupuch, K; Pierard, E

    1992-01-01

    Mandibular fractures are frequent lesions which are classified into 6 groups according to the site of the fracture. Condylar fractures are primarily due to a direct blow to the symphysis menti. Medical imaging must be able to identify the type of fracture, its intra- or extra-articular site and the associated displacement of the condyle, the fundamental element in deciding treatment. The action of the masticatory muscles on one of the bone fragments may be responsible for an unstable fracture, leading to disturbances of consolidation (pseudarthrosis). Anterior bilateral fractures can be life-threatening due to ptosis of the tongue. PMID:1642427

  3. Choroidal Thickness in Eyes with Unilateral Ocular Ischemic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Yoon; Joe, Soo Geun; Lee, Joo Yong; Kim, June-Gone; Yang, Sung Jae

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To analyze the subfoveal choroid thickness and choroidal volume in unilateral ocular ischemic syndrome (OIS). Methods. A retrospective review was conducted for all patients with unilateral OIS from October 2010 through June 2014. The subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFChT) and choroidal volume of both eyes were compared. Results. 19 unilateral OIS patients were included in this study. The mean SFChT of OIS eyes was significantly lower than that of fellow eyes (OIS eyes: 208.89 ± 82.62??m and fellow eyes: 265.31 ± 82.77??m, P < 0.001). The choroidal volume of OIS eyes was significantly smaller than that of fellow eyes (OIS eyes: 0.16 ± 0.05?mm3 and fellow eyes: 0.21 ± 0.05?mm3, P < 0.001). Conclusion. The choroidal thickness and volume of OIS eyes were smaller than those of unaffected fellow eyes. Decreased choroidal circulation caused by carotid artery stenosis might affect the discordance of choroidal thickness and choroidal volume. PMID:26504596

  4. Reliability of the Melbourne assessment of unilateral upper limb function.

    PubMed

    Randall, M; Carlin, J B; Chondros, P; Reddihough, D

    2001-11-01

    This study examines the reliability of the Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function: a quantitative test of quality of movement in children with neurological impairment. The assessment was administered to 20 children aged from 5 to 16 years (mean age 9 years 10 months, SD 2 years 10 months) who had various types and degrees of cerebral palsy (CP). The performances of the 20 children during assessment were videotaped for subsequent scoring by 15 occupational therapists. Scores were analyzed for internal consistency of test items, inter- and intrarater reliability of scorings of the same videotapes, and test-retest reliability using repeat videotaping. Results revealed very high internal consistency of test items (alpha=0.96), moderate to high agreement both within and between raters for all test items (intraclass correlations of at least 0.7) apart from item 16 (hand to mouth and down), and high interrater reliability (0.95) and intrarater reliability (0.97) for total test scores. Test-retest results revealed moderate to high intrarater reliability for item totals (mean of 0.83 and 0.79) for each rater and high reliability for test totals (0.98 and 0.97). These findings indicate that the Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function is a reliable tool for measuring the quality of unilateral upper-limb movement in children with CP. PMID:11730151

  5. Geomechanics of hydraulic fracturing microseismicity

    E-print Network

    Ze'ev, Reches

    Geomechanics of hydraulic fracturing microseismicity: Part 1. Shear, hybrid, and tensile events of hydraulic- fracturing-induced microseismicity. Microseismic events are commonly used to discern stimulation patterns and hydraulic fracture evolution; however, techniques beyond fracture mapping are required

  6. Rib fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePLUS

    A rib fracture is a crack or break in one or more of your rib bones. Your ribs are the ... A rib fracture can be very painful because your ribs move when you breathe, cough, and move your upper body. ...

  7. Growth Plate Fractures

    MedlinePLUS

    .org Growth Plate Fractures Page ( 1 ) The bones of children and adults share many of the same risks for injury. But because they ... to a unique injury called a growth plate fracture. Growth plates are areas of cartilage located near ...

  8. Pediatric Thighbone (Femur) Fracture

    MedlinePLUS

    .org Thighbone (Femur) Fractures In Children Page ( 1 ) The thighbone (femur) is the largest and strongest bone in the body. It can break ... Cause Statistics The most common cause of thighbone fractures in infants under 1 year old is child ...

  9. Forearm Fractures in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    .org Forearm Fractures in Children The forearm is the part of the arm between the wrist and the elbow. It is ... two bones: the radius and the ulna. Forearm fractures are common in childhood, accounting for more than ...

  10. Femur fracture repair - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    You had a fracture (break) in the femur, also called the thigh bone, in your leg. You may have needed surgery to repair ... surgeon will make a cut to open your fracture. Your surgeon will then use special metal devices ...

  11. Sprains, Strains and Fractures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sprains, Strains & Fractures What is a Foot or Ankle Sprain or Fracture? The feet and ankles work together to provide support and mobility to the body. A foot or ankle sprain is a soft tissue injury. Most often, ...

  12. High velocity impact fracture

    E-print Network

    Teng, Xiaoqing

    2005-01-01

    An in-depth understanding of dynamic ductile fracture is one of the most important steps to improve the survivability of critical structures such as the lost Twin Towers. In the present thesis, the macroscopic fracture ...

  13. Hydraulic Fracturing Sand

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Fine-grained silica sand is mixed with chemicals and water before being pumped into rock formations to prevent the newly created artificial fractures from closing after hydraulic fracturing is completed....

  14. Infant skull fracture (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Skull fractures may occur with head injuries. Although the skull is both tough and resilient and provides excellent ... or blow can result in fracture of the skull and may be accompanied by injury to the ...

  15. Nasal fracture (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    A nasal fracture is a break in the bone over the ridge of the nose. It usually results from a blunt ... and is one of the most common facial fracture. Symptoms of a broken nose include pain, blood ...

  16. [Fractures of the talus].

    PubMed

    Thordarson, D B

    2011-10-01

    Fractures of the neck of the talus are a relatively uncommon fracture of the foot but they have potentially serious complications. This article details the Hawkins classification, operative treatment and indications, and complications of fractures of the neck of the talus. It also discusses the treatment of fractures of the body of the talus and talar head. An English full text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental. PMID:21979888

  17. Hydraulic fracture design optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tae-Soo; Advani, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    This research and development investigation, sponsored by US DOE and the oil and gas industry, extends previously developed hydraulic fracture geometry models and applied energy related characteristic time concepts towards the optimal design and control of hydraulic fracture geometries. The primary objective of this program is to develop rational criteria, by examining the associated energy rate components during the hydraulic fracture evolution, for the formulation of stimulation treatment design along with real-time fracture configuration interpretation and control.

  18. Hydraulic fracture design optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tae-Soo; Advani, S.H.

    1992-06-01

    This research and development investigation, sponsored by US DOE and the oil and gas industry, extends previously developed hydraulic fracture geometry models and applied energy related characteristic time concepts towards the optimal design and control of hydraulic fracture geometries. The primary objective of this program is to develop rational criteria, by examining the associated energy rate components during the hydraulic fracture evolution, for the formulation of stimulation treatment design along with real-time fracture configuration interpretation and control.

  19. Fracture Education in Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidey, D.; And Others

    Fracture mechanics is a multidisciplinary topic which is being introduced to undergraduate engineering students in such courses as materials engineering. At a recent Conference on Fracture held at the University of Waterloo, a session was devoted to fracture education. Some of the ideas presented at that session are included and discussed here.…

  20. Observations of Fractures Induced by Hydraulic Fracturing in Anisotropic Granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Youqing; Nagaya, Yuya; Ishida, Tsuyoshi

    2015-07-01

    To investigate how the viscosity of the fracturing fluid affects fracture propagation, hydraulic fracturing experiments using three fluids with different viscosities (supercritical CO2, water, and viscous oil) under the true tri-axial condition were conducted on anisotropic granite specimens, and then the induced fractures were microscopically observed via a fluorescent method. Fractures induced by hydraulic fracturing are considerably tortuous from a microscopic view. A higher viscosity creates a smoother fracture pattern. The tortuosity, which is defined as the total fracture length along a pathway divided by the direct length of the two ends of a fracture, ranges from 1.05 to 1.13, demonstrating that the viscosity of fracturing fluid influences the fracture propagation pattern due to the different pathways of fracture propagation. In addition, hydraulic fracturing can induce many derivative pathways around the main fracture. Hydraulic fracturing with a lower viscosity fluid forms a more complex fracture network in rocks; the fracture induced by supercritical CO2 has the most branches along the main fracture. From these observations, fracture propagation by hydraulic fracturing sometimes develops by the shear fracture mode. This shear fracturing is often observed for a low-viscosity supercritical CO2 injection, which agrees with our results from AE monitoring and waveform analysis.

  1. Unilateral nasal allergic reactions increase bilateral sinus eosinophil infiltration

    PubMed Central

    deTineo, Marcella; Naclerio, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that unilateral nasal challenge with antigen causes an increase in the number of eosinophils in the ipsilateral maxillary sinus. Here we aimed to determine whether there was an eosinophil response in the contralateral maxillary sinus after unilateral nasal challenge with antigen. Twenty subjects with a history of seasonal allergic rhinitis and a positive nasal challenge to ragweed or grass allergens were studied outside of their allergy season. Catheters were placed in both maxillary sinuses and the subjects were challenged with antigen via the left nostril. The subjects recorded nasal symptoms before and after each allergen challenge and hourly for 8 h afterward. We performed nasal lavages of the nose and sinuses at the same time as symptoms were recorded. The lavages were analyzed for the number of eosinophils and levels of albumin. Subjects showed a symptomatic response to challenge accompanied by an influx of eosinophils into the nose and increased vascular permeability. The number of eosinophils increased in both maxillary sinuses. The total change from diluent in eosinophils during the late phase response was higher in the ipsilateral maxillary sinus (median = 8,505; range = 0–100,360) compared with the contralateral sinus (median = 1,596; range = ?13,527–93,373; P = 0.03). We conclude that eosinophils increase in both maxillary sinuses after unilateral nasal challenge. We speculate that a central neurologic reflex initiated in the nose by the nasal challenge contributes to the bilateral eosinophil response in the maxillary sinuses. We further speculate that, since there are more eosinophils in the ipsilateral compared with the contralateral maxillary sinus, there is also an axonal reflex into the ipsilateral maxillary sinus that contributed to the eosinophil response. PMID:23970539

  2. Autologous bone plugs in unilateral total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Protzman, Nicole M; Buck, Nicholas J; Weiss, Carl B

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare blood loss, declines in hemoglobin (HgB) and hematocrit (HcT) levels, and required homologous transfusions for patients who either had the femoral intramedullary defect left open or filled with an autologous bone plug during total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We hereby present our results of autologous bone plugs in unilateral TKA. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on 55 patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis (OA) who had undergone unilateral TKA. Twenty six patients had the femoral defect filled with an autologous bone plug and 29 did not. Lateral releases and patella replacements were not performed. Drained blood was reinfused when appropriate. Results: Mean blood loss and mean blood reinfused were similar for the plugged (loss: 960.8 ± 417.3 ml; reinfused: 466.7 ± 435.9 mL) and unplugged groups (loss: 1065.9 ± 633.5 ml, P = 0.38; reinfused: 528.4 ± 464.8 ml, P = 0.61). Preoperative HgB (14.3 ± 1.4 g/dL, P = 0.93) and HcT levels (42.2 ± 4.6%, P = 0.85) were similar across plug conditions. HgB and HcT levels declined similarly for the plugged (2.7 ± 1.2 g/dl and 7.9 ± 4.0%) and unplugged groups (3.0 ± 0.9 g/dl, P = 0.16 and 9.0 ± 2.6%, P = 0.16), respectively. Of patients, one in the plugged group and none in the unplugged group required homologous transfusions (P = 0.5). Conclusion: The autologous bone plug does not appear to reduce the need for homologous blood transfusions following unilateral TKA. PMID:23682181

  3. Unilateral Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Tonsil Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chronowski, Gregory M.; Garden, Adam S.; Morrison, William H.; Frank, Steven J.; Schwartz, David L.; Shah, Shalin J.; Beadle, Beth M.; Gunn, G. Brandon; Kupferman, Michael E.; Ang, Kian K.; Rosenthal, David I.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To assess, through a retrospective review, clinical outcomes of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil treated at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center with unilateral radiotherapy techniques that irradiate the involved tonsil region and ipsilateral neck only. Methods and Materials: Of 901 patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil treated with radiotherapy at our institution, we identified 102 that were treated using unilateral radiotherapy techniques. All patients had their primary site of disease restricted to the tonsillar fossa or anterior pillar, with <1 cm involvement of the soft palate. Patients had TX (n = 17 patients), T1 (n = 52), or T2 (n = 33) disease, with Nx (n = 3), N0 (n = 33), N1 (n = 23), N2a (n = 21), or N2b (n = 22) neck disease. Results: Sixty-one patients (60%) underwent diagnostic tonsillectomy before radiotherapy. Twenty-seven patients (26%) underwent excision of a cervical lymph node or neck dissection before radiotherapy. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 38 months. Locoregional control at the primary site and ipsilateral neck was 100%. Two patients experienced contralateral nodal recurrence (2%). The 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 95% and 96%, respectively. The 5-year freedom from contralateral nodal recurrence rate was 96%. Nine patients required feeding tubes during therapy. Of the 2 patients with contralateral recurrence, 1 experienced an isolated neck recurrence and was salvaged with contralateral neck dissection only and remains alive and free of disease. The other patient presented with a contralateral base of tongue tumor and involved cervical lymph node, which may have represented a second primary tumor, and died of disease. Conclusions: Unilateral radiotherapy for patients with TX-T2, N0-N2b primary tonsil carcinoma results in high rates of disease control, with low rates of contralateral nodal failure and a low incidence of acute toxicity requiring gastrostomy.

  4. MRI and unilateral NMR study of reindeer skin tanning processes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lizheng; Del Federico, Eleonora; Ilott, Andrew J; Klokkernes, Torunn; Kehlet, Cindie; Jerschow, Alexej

    2015-04-01

    The study of arctic or subarctic indigenous skin clothing material, known for its design and ability to keep the body warm, provides information about the tanning materials and techniques. The study also provides clues about the culture that created it, since tanning processes are often specific to certain indigenous groups. Untreated skin samples and samples treated with willow (Salix sp) bark extract and cod liver oil are compared in this study using both MRI and unilateral NMR techniques. The two types of samples show different proton spatial distributions and different relaxation times, which may also provide information about the tanning technique and aging behavior. PMID:25719858

  5. Unilateral onycholysis in a patient taking erlotinib (Tarceva)

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Robert; El-Modir, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signalling pathways has become routine practice in the treatment of lung cancer. Erlotinib is an oral EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, licensed for maintenance monotherapy treatment in patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer after first-line chemotherapy. The authors present the case of a 51-year-old patient who had an excellent response to erlotinib, but developed unilateral onycholysis as an unusual side effect. The authors discuss erlotinib-induced skin and nail changes and have provided a brief literature review on the available evidence for their management. PMID:22688477

  6. Altered Contralateral Auditory Cortical Morphology in Unilateral Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Wenliang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Li, Jing; Zhao, Xueyan; Mella, Grace; Lei, Ping; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Haha; Cheng, Huamao; Shi, Hong; Xu, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the cerebral gray matter volume alterations in unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients within the acute period by the voxel-based morphometry method, and to determine if hearing impairment is associated with regional gray matter alterations in unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients. Study Design: Prospective case study. Setting: Tertiary class A teaching hospital. Patients: Thirty-nine patients with left-side unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss and 47 patients with right-side unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Intervention: Diagnostic. Main Outcome Measure: To compare the regional gray matter of unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients and healthy control participants. Results: Compared with control groups, patients with left side unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss had significant gray matter reductions in the right middle temporal gyrus and right superior temporal gyrus, whereas patients with right side unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss showed gray matter decreases in the left superior temporal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus. A significant negative correlation with the duration of the sudden sensorineural hearing loss (R?=??0.427, p?=?0.012 for left-side unilateral SSNHL and R?=??0.412, p?=?0.013 for right-side unilateral SSNHL) was also found in these brain areas. There was no region with increased gray matter found in both groups of unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients. Conclusions: This study confirms that detectable decreased contralateral auditory cortical morphological changes have occurred in unilateral SSNHL patients within the acute period by voxel-based morphometry methods. The gray matter volumes of these brain areas also perform a negative correlation with the duration of the disease, which suggests a gradual brain structural impairment after the progression of the disease. PMID:26595717

  7. Acute Unilateral Vestibular Failure Does Not Cause Spatial Hemineglect

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Julian; Habs, Maximilian; Brandt, Thomas; Dieterich, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Visuo-spatial neglect and vestibular disorders have common clinical findings and involve the same cortical areas. We questioned (1) whether visuo-spatial hemineglect is not only a disorder of spatial attention but may also reflect a disorder of higher cortical vestibular function and (2) whether a vestibular tone imbalance due to an acute peripheral dysfunction can also cause symptoms of neglect or extinction. Therefore, patients with an acute unilateral peripheral vestibular failure (VF) were tested for symptoms of hemineglect. Methods Twenty-eight patients with acute VF were assessed for signs of vestibular deficits and spatial neglect using clinical measures and various common standardized paper-pencil tests. Neglect severity was evaluated further with the Center of Cancellation method. Pathological neglect test scores were correlated with the degree of vestibular dysfunction determined by the subjective visual vertical and caloric testing. Results Three patients showed isolated pathological scores in one or the other neglect test, either ipsilesionally or contralesionally to the VF. None of the patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of spatial hemineglect or extinction. Conclusions A vestibular tone imbalance due to unilateral failure of the vestibular endorgan does not cause spatial hemineglect, but evidence indicates it causes mild attentional deficits in both visual hemifields. PMID:26247469

  8. Apparatus for unilateral generation of a homogeneous magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Fukushima, E.; Rath, A.R.; Roeder, S.B.

    1988-01-26

    This patent describes an apparatus for generating within a selected volume a magnetic field having a uniform strength to a selected tolerance, comprising: a first electromagnet coil having a first number of turns N/sub 1/ at a first radius R/sub 1/ with a center of the first coil spaced axially a first distance from the selected volume; a second electromagnet coil axially concentric with and parallel to the first coil and having a second number of turns N/sub 2/ at a second radius R/sub 2/ greater than R/sub 1/ and spaced unilateral of the volume with the first coil a second distance greater than the first distance from the selected volume. The first radius and first distance and the second radius and second distance is functionally related to enable the first and second electromagnet coils to produce first and second electromagnet coils to produce first and second magnetic fields, respectively, having substantially linear gradients within the selected volume. N/sub 1/ and N/sub 2/ are effective when energized with predetermined first and second currents, respectively, to produce equal and opposite gradients of the respective first and second magnetic fields in the unilateral volume and a net magnetic field having a strength within the selected volume effective for nuclear magnetic resonance determinations.

  9. Unilateral Agenesis of the Lung: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Urvinderpal; Jhim, Daksh; Kumar, Sunil; Mittal, Vidhu; Singh, Navdeep; Gour, Hitesh; Ramaraj, Muralidharan

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 15 Final Diagnosis: Unilateral agenesis of the lung Symptoms: Sore throat with dry cough Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Cect of the chest and bronchoscopy Specialty: Pulmonology Objective: Congenital defects/diseases Background: Agenesis of the lung, a rare congenital anomaly, arises or develops when there is disruption of evolution of the primitive lung bud, leading to complete absence of the lung, bronchi, and the main pulmonary artery. With right-sided agenesis, a variety of cardiac and other congenital malformations are more commonly seen, leading to a poor prognosis. Case Report: A young female, aged 15 years, presented with complaints of sore throat and cough. Her x-ray of the chest showed a homogeneous opacity in the middle and lower zones on the right side with marked shift of the mediastinum to the right side. Upon investigation, she was diagnosed with agenesis of the right lung with scoliosis, without any other congenital anomaly. Conclusions: Especially in adults, it requires a high level of good clinical judgement to identify and diagnose this congenital aberration, as they are often wrongly diagnosed as more common diseases associated with unilateral opaque hemithorax on x-ray. Hence, when confronted with an opaque hemithorax with shift of the mediastinum to the affected side in a young person, “agenesis of the lung” should be an important differential diagnosis while investigating the case. PMID:25659613

  10. IdentityBased Key Agreement with Unilateral Identity Privacy Using Pairings

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Identity­Based Key Agreement with Unilateral Identity Privacy Using Pairings Zhaohui Cheng 1 TW20 0EX, UK qiang.tang@rhul.ac.uk Abstract. In most of the existing identity­based key agreement­based two­party key agreement scheme with unilateral identity privacy using pairing, and formally analyze

  11. Identity-Based Key Agreement with Unilateral Identity Privacy Using Pairings

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Identity-Based Key Agreement with Unilateral Identity Privacy Using Pairings Zhaohui Cheng1 , Liqun TW20 0EX, UK qiang.tang@rhul.ac.uk Abstract. In most of the existing identity-based key agreement identity-based two-party key agreement scheme with unilateral identity privacy using pairing, and formally

  12. Longitudinal Development of Hand Function in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmefur, Marie; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Bergstrom, Jakob; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe how the usefulness of the hemiplegic hand develops in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) aged between 18 months and 8 years. Method: A prospective longitudinal study of 43 children (22 males, 21 females) with unilateral CP was conducted. Inclusion age was 18 months to 5 years 4 months (mean 2y…

  13. Motor Learning of a Bimanual Task in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Ya-Ching; Gordon, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    Children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) have been shown to improve their motor performance with sufficient practice. However, little is known about how they learn goal-oriented tasks. In the current study, 21 children with unilateral CP (age 4-10 years old) and 21 age-matched typically developed children (TDC) practiced a simple bimanual…

  14. A Magnetoencephalographic Study of Sensorimotor Activity Differences during Unilateral and Bilateral Forearm Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakagawa, Kei

    2010-01-01

    This study compared activation of the sensorimotor area using magnetoencephalography after unilateral and bilateral movements. Thirteen healthy individuals and a patient with mild hemiplegia performed unilateral and bilateral forearm pronation movements. Among healthy participants, there were no significant differences in motor-evoked field during…

  15. Bilateral Input Protects the Cortex from Unilaterally-Driven Reorganization in Children Who Are Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Karen A.; Wong, Daniel D. E.; Papsin, Blake C.

    2013-01-01

    Unilateral hearing in childhood restricts input along the bilateral auditory pathways, possibly causing permanent reorganization. In this study we asked: (i) do the auditory pathways develop abnormally in children who are bilaterally deaf and hear with a unilateral cochlear implant? and (ii) can such differences be reversed by restoring input to…

  16. Biomechanical comparison of unilateral semi-rigid and dynamic stabilization on ovine vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Karakoyun, Dursun O; Özkaya, Mustafa; Okutan, Volkan C; Dalg?ç, Ali; Belen, Deniz; Demir, Teyfik

    2015-11-01

    Using the unilateral pedicle screw fixation was thought to decrease the stiffness of the fixed segments. Various prospective, randomized studies were performed to determine whether unilateral pedicle screw fixation provides the necessities of bilateral fixation in one- or two-segment lumbar spinal fusion. In this study, four different unilateral pedicle screw fixation systems were evaluated to determine which one best approximated an intact spine with respect to biomechanics and kinematics. The four groups included an intact group, a unilateral facetectomy group with no fixation, a unilateral semi-rigid pedicle screw fixation group with a poly-ether-ether-ketone rod, and a unilateral dynamic pedicle screw fixation group. The bone mineral densities of all specimens were measured and specimens were matched with groups randomly. Flexion, lateral bending, and axial rotation tests were performed to compare the groups. For the flexion, lateral bending, and axial rotation tests, the best biomechanical outcomes were in the control group. The unilateral facetectomy group had the poorest performance and was not stable enough, compared with the control group. The dynamic and semi-rigid groups showed performance closer to that of the control group. The biomechanical responses of these two groups were also in good agreement, showing no significant statistical differences. Based on these test results, it is concluded that the unilateral dynamic and semi-rigid pedicle screw fixations can be used to provide stability to the vertebrae. PMID:26503839

  17. 12 CFR 950.11 - Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock. 950.11 Section 950.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL... Housing Associates § 950.11 Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock. (a)...

  18. Song Recognition by Young Children with Cochlear Implants: Comparison between Unilateral, Bilateral, and Bimodal Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartov, Tamar; Most, Tova

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine song identification by preschoolers with normal hearing (NH) versus preschoolers with cochlear implants (CIs). Method: Participants included 45 children ages 3;8-7;3 (years;months): 12 with NH and 33 with CIs, including 10 with unilateral CI, 14 with bilateral CIs, and 9 bimodal users (CI-HA) with unilateral CI and…

  19. Fracture characterization from attenuation of Stoneley waves across a fracture

    E-print Network

    Bakku, Sudhish Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Fractures contribute significantly to the permeability of a formation. It is important to understand the fracture distribution and fluid transmissivity. Though traditional well logs can image fractures intersecting the ...

  20. Pterygoid Plate Fractures: Not Limited to Le Fort Fractures.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ravi K; Alsheik, Nila H; Afifi, Ahmed M; Gentry, Lindell R

    2015-09-01

    Pterygoid plate fractures are often described in the setting of Le Fort fractures. The goal of this study was to define other craniofacial fracture patterns causing injury to the pterygoid plates. A retrospective review of computed tomography (CT) scans obtained on craniofacial trauma patients over a 5-year period revealed 209 patients with pterygoid plate fractures. Pterygoid plate fractures in 78 patients (37.3%) were unrelated to Le Fort fractures. Common causes included sphenotemporal buttress fractures in 26 patients (33.3%), temporal bone fractures in 18 patients (23.1%), zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures in 17 patients (21.8%), and displaced mandible fractures in 14 patients (17.9%). These findings indicate that approximately one third of pterygoid plate fractures do not result from Le Fort pattern injuries and that the craniofacial surgeon should have a broad differential for causes of pterygoid plate fractures when reviewing trauma imaging. PMID:26147022

  1. Simulation of Hydraulic Fractures and their Interactions with Natural Fractures 

    E-print Network

    Sesetty, Varahanaresh

    2012-10-19

    Modeling the stimulated reservoir volume during hydraulic fracturing is important to geothermal and petroleum reservoir stimulation. The interaction between a hydraulic fracture and pre-existing natural fractures exerts significant control...

  2. Unilateral cross bite treated by corticotomy-assisted expansion: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background True unilateral posterior crossbite in adults is a challenging malocclusion to treat. Conventional expansion methods are expected to have some shortcomings. The aim of this paper is to introduce a new technique for treating unilateral posterior crossbite in adults, namely, corticotomy-assisted expansion (CAE) applied on two adult patients: one with a true unilateral crossbite and the other with an asymmetrical bilateral crossbite, both treated via modified corticotomy techniques and fixed orthodontic appliances. Methods Two cases with asymmetric maxillary constriction were treated using CAE. Results In both cases, effective asymmetrical expansion was achieved using CAE, and functional occlusion was established as well. Conclusions Unilateral CAE presents an effective and reliable technique to treat true unilateral crossbite. PMID:20482859

  3. Assessment of Fracture Repair.

    PubMed

    Cook, Gillian E; Bates, Brent D; Tornetta, Paul; McKee, Michael D; Morshed, Saam; Slobogean, Gerard P; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2015-12-01

    Assessment of fracture union is a critical concept in clinical orthopaedics; however, there is no established "gold standard" for fracture healing. This review provides an overview of the problems related to the assessment of fracture healing, examines currently available tools to determine union, discusses the role of functional outcomes in the assessment of fracture healing, and finally evaluates healing outcome measures as they pertain to fracture trials. Because there is no universally accepted method to determine fracture healing, orthopaedic surgeons must rely on a range of tools that can include: radiographic assessment, mechanical assessment, serologic markers, and clinical evaluation (including functional outcomes). When used in conjunction, these tools can help to improve the sensitivity and specificity of determining fracture union. This is furthermore relevant when conducting fracture healing trials, for which there is little consensus between surgeons or the Food and Drug Administration as to optimal study endpoints. Such studies should therefore include a composite outcome measure consisting of radiographic and functional assessments to increase the quality and consistency of fracture healing trials. PMID:26584269

  4. Capitellar and Trochlear Fractures.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Michael J; Athwal, George S; King, Graham J W; Faber, Kenneth J

    2015-11-01

    Fractures of the capitellum and trochlea account for a small proportion of elbow trauma. Clinicians need to be vigilant in their assessment as they are commonly associated with other injuries about the elbow. To optimize outcomes, the goals of management include a stable, anatomic reduction and early range of motion. Closed reduction of noncomminuted fractures may be successful but requires close follow-up. Open reduction and internal fixation is the preferred management of displaced capitellum-trochlear fractures. Elbow stiffness is the most commonly reported complication in operatively treated fractures. Arthroscopic-assisted reduction and internal fixation and arthroplasty are evolving management options. PMID:26498550

  5. Anti-DKK1 antibody promotes bone fracture healing through activation of ?-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hongting; Wang, Baoli; Li, Jia; Xie, Wanqing; Mao, Qiang; Li, Shan; Dong, Fuqiang; Sun, Yan; Ke, Hua-Zhu; Babij, Philip; Tong, Peijian; Chen, Di

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated if Wnt/?-catenin signaling in mesenchymal progenitor cells plays a role in bone fracture repair and if DKK1-Ab promotes fracture healing through activation of ?-catenin signaling. Unilateral open transverse tibial fractures were created in CD1 mice and in ?-cateninPrx1ER conditional knockout (KO) and Cre-negative control mice (C57BL/6 background). Bone fracture callus tissues were collected and analyzed by radiography, micro-CT (?CT), histology, biomechanical testing and gene expression analysis. The results demonstrated that treatment with DKK1-Ab promoted bone callus formation and increased mechanical strength during the fracture healing processinCD1 mice. DKK1-Ab enhanced fracture repair by activation of endochondral ossification. The normal rate of bone repair was delayed when the ?-catenin gene was conditionally deleted in mesenchymal progenitor cells during the early stages of fracture healing. DKK1-Ab appeared to act through ?-catenin signaling to enhance bone repair since the beneficial effect of DKK1-Ab was abrogated in ?-cateninPrx1ER conditional KO mice. Further understanding of the signaling mechanism of DKK1-Ab in bone formation and bone regeneration may facilitate the clinical translation of this anabolic agent into therapeutic intervention. PMID:25263522

  6. Biomechanical evaluation of four different posterior screw and rod fixation techniques for the treatment of the odontoid fractures

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Liu, Wen-Fei; Jiang, Hong-Kun; Li, Yun-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Problems that screw cannot be inserted may occur in screw-rod fixation techniques such as Harms technique. We compared the biomechanical stability imparted to the C-2 vertebrae by four designed posterior screw and rod fixation techniques for the management of odontoid fractures. A three-dimensional finite element model of the odontoid fracture was established by subtracting several unit structures from the normal model from a healthy male volunteer. 4 different fixation techniques, shown as follows: ? C-1 lateral mass and C-2 pedicle screw fixation (Harms technique); ? C-1 lateral mass and unilateral C-2 pedicle screw fixation combined with ipsilateral laminar screw fixation; ? Unilateral C-1lateral mass combined with ipsilateral C-1 posterior arch, and C-2 pedicle screw fixation; and ? Unilateral C1 lateral mass screw connected with bilateral C2 pedicle screw fixation was performed on the odontoid fracture model. The model was validated for axial rotation, flexion, extension, lateral bending, and tension for 1.5 Nm. Changes in motion in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation were calculated. The finite element model of the odontoid fracture was established in this paper. All of the four screw-rod techniques significantly decreased motion in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, as compared with the destabilized odontoid fracture complex (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in stability among the four screw techniques. We concluded that the first three fixation techniques are recommended to be used as surgical intervention for odontoid fracture, while the last can be used as supplementary for the former three methods. PMID:26309508

  7. Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain More than 40 million people in the ... bones that puts them at risk for spine fractures (broken bones). Thinning of the bones can occur ...

  8. Geomechanics of hydraulic fracturing microseismicity

    E-print Network

    Ze'ev, Reches

    Geomechanics of hydraulic fracturing microseismicity: Part 2. Stress state determination Seth Busetti and Ze'ev Reches ABSTRACT We investigate the hydraulic fracturing process by analysis, stress shadowing adjacent to large parent hydraulic fractures, and crack tip stress perturbations. Data

  9. Perioperative Outcomes Following Unilateral Versus Bilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Linda I; Edelstein, Adam I; Thompson, Rachel M; Alvi, Hasham M; Kwasny, Mary J; Manning, David W

    2015-11-01

    Simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty (SB-TKA) is potentially a cost saving manner of caring for patients with bilateral symptomatic knee arthritis. We performed a retrospective analysis using the 2010-2012 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) to evaluate the risk of perioperative complication following SB-TKA. Demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and 30-day complication rates were studied using a propensity score-matched analysis comparing patients undergoing unilateral TKA and SB-TKA. A total of 4489 patients met the inclusion criteria, of which 973 were SB-TKA. SB-TKA was associated with increased overall complications (P = 0.023), medical complications (P = 0.002) and reoperation (OR 2.12, P = 0.020). Further, total length of hospital stay (4.0 vs 3.4 days, P < 0.001) was significantly longer following bilateral surgery. PMID:26072300

  10. Isolated Unilateral Ptosis due to Paramedian Midbrain Infarction.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Eriko; Nakamura, Haruko; Endo, Masanao; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Tatsuya

    2015-05-01

    A 59-year-old man who had hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and left eye glaucoma developed sudden vertigo and left ptosis; he did not notice diplopia. He visited our hospital on day 3 after onset and neurologic examination showed left ptosis. His left visual acuity was counting fingers, and the light reflex was sluggish owing to glaucoma. Pupil sizes were equal, and eye movements and the lower lid were unremarkable. Magnetic resonance images revealed an acute infarction of the left paramedian midbrain. We considered that selective damage to the oculomotor fascicles innervating the left levator palpebrae superioris caused ipsilateral ptosis. As the fascicles for this ocular muscle run in the small area adjacent to those for the medial rectus, inferior rectus and superior rectus muscles, this is an extremely rare case of midbrain infarction presenting with isolated unilateral ptosis. PMID:25817621

  11. Double localization of a unilateral sporadic vestibular schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Barbara, M; Ronchetti, F; Manni, V; Monini, S

    2008-01-01

    Summary Vestibular schwannoma may present as a sporadic or genetically-based multi-localized benign neoplasm of the internal auditory canal and/or cerebello-pontine angle region. Multiple localization is generally regarded as genetic in origin and often affects the stato-acoustic bundle on both sides. A case of double vestibular schwannoma localized on the same stato-acoustic bundle is presented. After removal, slight histological differences were found between the two separate masses. From these findings, the possibility of a unilateral multiple localization of a vestibular schwannoma is considered plausible within the range of clinical presentation, with negative genetic features. Whether these individual masses might have an autonomous origin or a different growth pattern remains to be fully elucidated. PMID:18533554

  12. Unilateral adnexal agenesis and dermoid cyst: fertility implications.

    PubMed

    Fruzzetti, Franca; Bucci, Fiorella; Perini, Daria; Gadducci, Angiolo

    2015-06-01

    We report the loss of potential fertility in a 23-year-old nulliparous woman who attended the outpatient gynaecological endocrinology clinic for amenorrhea and hot flushes started after a laparoscopic surgery for dermoid cyst. During surgery an unilateral ovarian and fallopian tube agenesis were found. The hormonal evaluation was performed. The results evidenced high plasma levels of LH and FSH. Their values were 56.6 and 121.3?mUI/ml, respectively. The concentrations of plasma E2 were < 20?pg/ml and of AMH were <0.08?ng/ml. Genetic analysis showed normal karyotype (46, XX). We think that if an embryological defect is suspected, an appropriate counselling about fertility preservation along with the assessment of hormonal levels before ovarian surgery should be recommended to all women in the reproductive age in order to offer future reproductive chances. PMID:25893269

  13. Idiopathic unilateral adrenal hemorrhage in an elderly patient.

    PubMed

    Imachi, Hitomi; Murao, Koji; Yoshimoto, Takuo; Sugimoto, Mikio; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Kushida, Yoshio; Haba, Reiji; Tahara, Ritsuya; Ishida, Toshihiko

    2010-04-01

    We report the case of an 85-year-old woman who has been undergoing treatment for hypertension but has not received anticoagulation therapy. The patient was admitted to our hospital for the evaluation of a right adrenal tumor (size, 10 × 9 cm²). Preoperative contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings were indicative of adrenal hemorrhage (AH). Laboratory data revealed mild anemia but no adrenal dysfunction. The final pathological diagnosis was simply idiopathic adrenal hematoma. There is no case report of exactly idiopathic AH over 80 years old. We report an unusual case of idiopathic unilateral adrenal hematoma in an elderly patient. It is important to distinguish this benign lesion from a neoplasm and to consider idiopathic AH in an adrenal tumor during differential diagnosis in elderly patients who have not received anticoagulation therapy or suffered from trauma. PMID:20960259

  14. Adaptations to unilateral lower limb suspension in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Gary A.; Duvoisin, Marc R.; Adams, Gregory R.; Meyer, Ronald A.; Belew, Anne H.; Buchanan, Paul

    1992-01-01

    The effect of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS) on neuromuscular function in humans is analyzed. All ambulatory activity on crutches was performed by eight subjects for 6 weeks who wear a shoe with a 10 cm sole on the right foot to unweight the left lower limb. Results show that average muscle cross sectional area (CSA) of the left knee extensor (KE) decreased 16 percent whereas the KE of the nonsuspended right limb showed no changes. Maximal integrated electromyography of vastus lateralis and overall mean power frequency of gastrocnemius medialis and soleus for submaximal isometric actions were both decreased post-ULLS. It is concluded that six weeks of ULLS induces adaptations in the neuromuscular system of humans which are comparable to those induced by bed rest and spaceflight.

  15. Unusual unilateral presentation of pachydermodactyly: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Hasan; Tas, Nevsun Pihtili; Akgol, Gurkan; Gulkesen, Arif; Kamanli, Ayhan

    2012-06-01

    Pachydermodactyly is a rare digital fibromatosis characterized by asymptomatic fusiform soft-tissue swellings of the proximal interphalangeal joints of the hands. It usually affects healthy adolescent males with a negative family history. As a rule, clinical presentation of the disease is bilateral and symmetrical enlargement of the joints. So it can be misdiagnosed with inflammatory rheumatic diseases, especially with juvenile chronic arthritis. A prompt clinical diagnosis of the disease would prevent inappropriate treatment with immunosuppressive agents or steroids and unnecessary expensive diagnostic procedures such as biopsy or magnetic resonance imaging. Once diagnosed, patients should be advised in order to avoid repetitive traumas of the hands, rubbing and cracking of the fingers, obsessive-compulsive use of computer and video games. The joint outcome is always benign. Here, we report a case of pachydermodactyly differs from the typical clinical picture of pachydermodactyly in the unilateral distribution of the lesions. PMID:21442169

  16. Apparatus for unilateral generation of a homogeneous magnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Fukushima, Eiichi (Los Alamos, NM); Rath, Alan R. (San Diego, CA); Roeder, Stephen B. W. (La Mesa, CA)

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for unilaterally producing a substantially homogeneous magnetic field. The apparatus includes two circular electromagnet coils, a small coil and a large coil, which are coaxial with one another and which are separated by a distance equal to one-half the difference in the radius of the two coils. By appropriate selection of electrical currents, which are passed through the coil in opposite directions, a region of homogeneous magnetic field is formed. This region is centered on the common axis of the two coils, at a point on the axis which is at a distance from the small coil equal to one-half the radius of the small coil, and which is on the opposite side of the small coil from the large coil. The apparatus has particular application in the field of diagnostic medical NMR and other NMR applications.

  17. Non Functional Unilateral Adrenal Myelolipoma, A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Athanikar, Vidisha S.; Dinesh, U S; Nanjappa, Bhuvnesh; Patil, Preetam B.

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal myelolipoma is characterized by presence within the adrenal gland of mature adipose tissue and active bone marrow elements. Owing to their non functional nature most cases are incidental, either at autopsy or through computer tomography scan. Occasionally the lesions attain a large size to become clinically apparent. We present a case of a 58-year-old female with mass per abdomen. Preoperative computer tomography scan of abdomen, hormonal and urine analysis showed features of non functional adrenal myelolipoma. Gross specimen consists of unilateral ovoid mass, external surface having capsule with adherent fat and areas of congestion. Microscopic examination showed well encapsulated tumour tissue composed of mature adipose tissue with major blood forming elements like myeloid, erythroid and megakaryocytic series. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination of right sided adrenalectomy specimen. PMID:26266130

  18. Overexpanded viscous supersonic jet interacting with a unilateral barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrynin, B. M.; Maslennikov, V. G.; Sakharov, V. A.; Serova, E. V.

    1986-07-01

    The interaction of a two-dimensional supersonic jet with a unilateral barrier parallel to the flow symmetry plane was studied to account for effects due to gas viscosity and backgound-gas ejection from the region into which the jet expands. In the present experiments, the incident shock wave was reflected at the end of a shock tube equipped with a nozzle. The jet emerged into a pressure chamber 6 cu m in volume and the environmental pressure ratio of the flow in the quasi-stationary phase remained constant. The light source was an OGM-20 laser operating in the giant-pulse mode. Due to background-gas ejection, the gas density in the vicinity of the barrier is much less than on the unconfined side of the jet. The resulting flow is characterized by two distinct environmental pressure ratios: the flow is underexpanded near the barrier, while on the other side it is overexpanded.

  19. Apparatus for unilateral generation of a homogeneous magnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Fukushima, E.; Rath, A.R.; Roeder, S.B.W.

    1984-05-01

    An apparatus for unilaterally producing a substantially homogeneous magnetic field. The apparatus includes two circular electromagnet coils, a small coil and a large coil, which are coaxial with one another and which are separated by a distance equal to one-half the difference in the radius of the two coils. By appropriate selection of electrical currents, which are passed through the coils in opposite directions, a region of homogeneous magnetic field is formed. This region is centered on the common axis of the two coils, at a point on the axis which is at a distance from the small coil equal to one-half the radius of the small coil, and which is on the opposite side of the small coil from the large coil. The apparatus has particular application in the field of diagnostic medical NMR and other NMR applications.

  20. Prediction and Secondary Prevention of Recurrent Fractures in a Risk Population

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-17

    Osteoporotic Fractures; Hip Fractures; Radius Fractures; Ankle Fractures; Spinal Fractures; Shoulder Fractures; Fractures, Compression; Fractures, Spontaneous; Osteoporosis; Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal; Absorpiometry, Photon

  1. Emotional Perception of Music in Children with Unilateral Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Shirvani, Sareh; Jafari, Zahra; Sheibanizadeh, Abdolreza; Motasaddi Zarandy, Masoud; Jalaie, Shohre

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cochlear implantation (CI) improves language skills among children with hearing loss. However, children with CIs still fall short of fulfilling some other needs, including musical perception. This is often attributed to the biological, technological, and acoustic limitations of CIs. Emotions play a key role in the understanding and enjoyment of music. The present study aimed to investigate the emotional perception of music in children with bilaterally severe-to-profound hearing loss and unilateral CIs. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five children with congenital severe-to-profound hearing loss and unilateral CIs and 30 children with normal hearing participated in the study. The children’s emotional perceptions of music, as defined by Peretz (1998), were measured. Children were instructed to indicate happy or sad feelings fostered in them by the music by pointing to pictures of faces showing these emotions. Results: Children with CI obtained significantly lower scores than children with normal hearing, for both happy and sad items of music as well as in overall test scores (P<0.001). Furthermore, both in CI group (P=0.49) and the control one (P<0.001), the happy items were more often recognized correctly than the sad items. Conclusion: Hearing-impaired children with CIs had poorer emotional perception of music than their normal peers. Due to the importance of music in the development of language, cognitive and social interaction skills, aural rehabilitation programs for children with CIs should focus particularly on music. Furthermore, it is essential to enhance the quality of musical perception by improving the quality of implant prostheses. PMID:25320700

  2. Radioimmunoassay of inhibin: serum responses to unilateral and bilateral orchidectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Schanbacher, B.

    1988-11-01

    An overnight double antibody RIA using a rabbit antiserum to porcine inhibin alpha-chain (Tyr30) (1-30) NH2 (pI alpha(1-30)), radioiodinated pI alpha(1-30), and a preprecipitated second antibody complex has been developed to measure inhibin concentrations in sera and other biological fluids. The assay is accurate, precise (intraassay coefficient of variation, 4.8%), sensitive (25 pM; 2.5 fmol/tube), and specific for inhibin. The synthetic reference standard pI alpha(1-30) produced a displacement curve that paralleled intact male ovine and bovine sera, crude bovine follicular fluid, and a partially purified porcine follicular fluid reference preparation (WHO/NIH 86/690). Bilateral castration of prepubertal and postpubertal ram lambs resulted in a rapid decrease in serum inhibin concentrations and a subsequent increase in serum FSH. Inhibin levels were high in prepubertal lambs (approximately 375 pM), but these levels were not sustained near the time of puberty (approximately 180 pM). Intensive sampling by jugular venipuncture after castration indicated a 50% drop in circulating inhibin levels within 2 h of testes removal with chronic castrate levels (approximately 75 pM) achieved by 6 h postcastration. A rapid fall in circulating levels of inhibin was also observed after unilateral castration, but these values stabilized within hours to levels intermediate (i.e. approximately 200 pM) to those of intact and bilateral castrate rams. Hemicastrates exhibited a more subtle rise in serum FSH after testis removal, with FSH and inhibin levels of prepubertal hemicastrates returning to mature intact ram values by 15 weeks of age. Serum inhibin levels remained low and FSH levels high at 14 days in unilateral castrate postpubertal rams. Inhibin immunoreactivity increased abruptly in castrate ewes and rams injected iv with 5 ml bovine follicular fluid.

  3. Limited Unilateral Decompression and Pedicle Screw Fixation with Fusion for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis with Unilateral Radiculopathy: A Retrospective Analysis of 25 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Miao, Hai-xiong; Wang, Yong; Chen, An-fu; Zhang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Objective Lumbar spinal stenosis is conventionally treated with surgical decompression. However, bilateral decompression and laminectomy is more invasive and may not be necessary for lumbar stenosis patients with unilateral radiculopathy. We aimed to report the outcomes of unilateral laminectomy and bilateral pedicle screw fixation with fusion for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis and unilateral radiculopathy. Methods Patients with lumbar spinal stenosis with unilateral lower extremity radiculopathy who received limited unilateral decompression and bilateral pedicle screw fixation were included and evaluated using visual analog scale (VAS) pain and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores preoperatively and at follow-up visits. Ligamentum flavum thickness of the involved segments was measured on axial magnetic resonance images. Results Twenty-five patients were included. The mean preoperative VAS score was 6.6±1.6 and 4.6±3.1 for leg and back pain, respectively. Ligamentum flavum thickness was comparable between the symptomatic and asymptomatic side (p=0.554). The mean follow-up duration was 29.2 months. The pain in the symptomatic side lower extremity (VAS score, 1.32±1.2) and the back (VAS score, 1.75±1.73) significantly improved (p=0.000 vs. baseline for both). The ODI improved significantly postoperatively (6.60±6.5; p=0.000 vs. baseline). Significant improvement in VAS pain and ODI scores were observed in patients receiving single or multi-segment decompression fusion with fixation (p<0.01). Conclusion Limited laminectomy and unilateral spinal decompression followed by bilateral pedicle screw fixation with fusion achieves satisfactory outcomes in patients with spinal stenosis and unilateral radiculopathy. This procedure is less damaging to structures that are important for maintaining posterior stability of the spine. PMID:26279816

  4. Magnetic resonance evidence of joint effusion of the temporomandibular joint after fractures of the mandibular condyle: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tetsu; Ohtani, Maki; Sano, Tsukasa; Ohnuki, Takayoshi; Kondoh, Toshirou; Fukuda, Masayuki

    2004-04-01

    To investigate the clinical significance of magnetic resonance (MR) evidence of joint effusion of the temporomandibular joint after mandibular condylar fractures, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 18 joints in 15 patients with either unilateral or bilateral mandibular condylar fractures using a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner (Signa, General Electric, Milwaukee, WI). MR evidence of joint effusion was evaluated and compared with the types and the positions of the fractures. MR evidence of joint effusion was observed in 11 of 18 TMJs, which was 61% of the condylar fractures. It appeared more frequently after fractures with dislocation than those without dislocation (p < 0.05). In addition, MR evidence of effusion appeared more frequently in TMJs after high condylar fractures (head to upper neck) than low condylar fractures (lower neck to subcondylar) (p < 0.05). These findings indicate that MR evidence of joint effusion may serve as a marker for the detection of severe intra-articular damage to the TMJ after mandibular condyle fractures. PMID:15134412

  5. Mechanical Coal-Face Fracturer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Radial points on proposed drill bit take advantage of natural fracture planes of coal. Radial fracture points retracted during drilling and impacted by piston to fracture coal once drilling halts. Group of bits attached to array of pneumatic drivers to fracture large areas of coal face.

  6. Clinical experience in treatment of diffuse unilateral subretinal neuroretinitis

    PubMed Central

    Relhan, Nidhi; Pathengay, Avinash; Raval, Vishal; Nayak, Sameera; Choudhury, Himadri; Flynn, Harry W

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the clinical features, management, and outcomes of patients with diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN). Methods A noncomparative, consecutive analysis of case series from two tertiary care campuses of LV Prasad Eye Institute, India, between January 2011 and April 2014 was performed. Medical records of the patients presenting with DUSN (early or late stage) were reviewed. Results The current study included 13 patients. The majority (10/13, 76.92%) of the patients were aged 20 years or less. All patients had unilateral eye involvement. Visual acuity at presentation was 20/200 or worse in 9/13 (69.23%) patients. A delay in diagnosis occurred in 6/13 patients, and initial diagnosis in these patients included retinitis pigmentosa (4 patients) and posterior uveitis (2 patients). Clinical features included early presentation (prominent vitritis, localized retinitis, and vasculitis) in 7/13 (53.85%) patients and late presentation (attenuation of vessels, retinal pigment epithelium atrophic changes, and optic atrophy) in 6/13 (46.15%) patients. Worm could not be identified in any of the cases. All the patients received laser photocoagulation of retina and oral albendazole treatment for a period of 30 days. With treatment, visual acuity improved in seven patients (six early stage, one late stage) and remained unchanged in six patients. Mean follow-up period was 8.69 months (range, 1–21 months). The mean central foveal thickness in the affected eye, done by optical coherence tomography, during the late stage of the disease was 188.20±40 µm (range, 111–242 µm), which was significantly thinner than the fellow eye, 238.70±36.90 µm (range, 186–319 µm), P=0.008. Conclusion DUSN is a serious vision threatening disease, which may progress to profound vision loss in the later stage of the disease. Visualization of subretinal worm is usually not possible. Treatment with high-dose albendazole therapy and laser photocoagulation may alter the blood–retinal barrier and may be useful in achieving visual recovery. PMID:26491239

  7. Binocular fixation disparities in reading in people with unilateral strabismus: A case study. 

    E-print Network

    Inioutina, Marina

    2010-06-30

    Recent studies of binocular coordination during reading have discovered that the eyes do not always fixate on the same location. This current study explored the patterns of eye movement of participants with unilateral ...

  8. Acting alone: U.S. unilateral uses of force, military revolutions, and hegemonic stability theory 

    E-print Network

    Podliska, Bradley Florian

    2009-06-02

    The premise of this dissertation is straight-forward – the U.S., as hegemon, acts unilaterally given the power disparity between it and the rest of the world. In solving the puzzle of why presidents make the “wrong” ...

  9. Criteria for impulsive rock fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.; Lipkin, J.

    1980-04-01

    Explosive or percussive breakage of rock relies on impulsive rock fracture and both the fracture stress and fracture energy under such conditions are observed to be significantly greater than measured quasi-statically. The implication of rate dependence has been verified in recent tensile fracture studies and in the present reprot this data has been compiled, significant trends noted, and comparisons made with earlier impulsive fracture criteria.

  10. Vertebral Compression Fractures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... OI: Information on Vertebral Compression Fractures 804 W. Diamond Ave., Ste. 210 Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (800) 981- ... osteogenesis imperfecta contact : Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation 804 W. Diamond Avenue, Suite 210, Gaithersburg, MD 20878 Tel: 800- ...

  11. Three-Magnet Arrays for Unilateral Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Naranjo, Juan Carlos

    Unilateral Magnetic Resonance (UMR) has become, in different research areas, a powerful tool to interrogate samples of arbitrary size. The three-magnet array developed by the MRI Centre of the University of New Brunswick has features that make it a simple and robust approach for UMR. This thesis introduces a group of solutions to broaden the range of application of this design. Practical applications for non-destructive testing and reservoir core plug characterization are presented. We have shown that it is also possible to monitor the curing process of an epoxy/polyamidoamine system by employing a three-magnet array. A new version of the three-magnet array which features extended constant magnetic field gradients is also introduced. Constant gradients of more than 3 cm extent can be achieved in a very simple, compact and safe design. The application of the three-magnet array in combination with a solenoid as the RF probe for analysis of long core plugs has been presented. Core plugs of different diameter can be analyzed by simply changing the diameter of the RF probe employed for the measurement. Results of an initial survey of selective excitation in UMR are presented. The low SNR and inhomogeneities in the selective spot reduce the effectiveness of selective excitation for UMR.

  12. Primate translational vestibuloocular reflexes. IV. Changes after unilateral labyrinthectomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelaki, D. E.; Newlands, S. D.; Dickman, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of unilateral labyrinthectomy on the properties of the translational vestibuloocular reflexes (trVORs) were investigated in rhesus monkeys trained to fixate near targets. Translational motion stimuli consisted of either steady-state lateral and fore-aft sinusoidal oscillations or short-lasting transient displacements. During small-amplitude, steady-state sinusoidal lateral oscillations, a small decrease in the horizontal trVOR sensitivity and its dependence on viewing distance was observed during the first week after labyrinthectomy. These deficits gradually recovered over time. In addition, the vertical response component increased, causing a tilt of the eye velocity vector toward the lesioned side. During large, transient lateral displacements, the deficits were larger and longer lasting. Responses after labyrinthectomy were asymmetric, with eye velocity during movements toward the side of the lesion being more compromised. The most profound effect of the lesions was observed during fore-aft motion. Whereas responses were kinematically appropriate for fixation away from the side of the lesion (e.g., to the left after right labyrinthectomy), horizontal responses were anticompensatory during fixation at targets located ipsilateral to the side of the lesion (e.g., for targets to the right after right labyrinthectomy). This deficit showed little recovery during the 3-mo post-labyrinthectomy testing period. These results suggest that inputs from both labyrinths are important for the proper function of the trVORs, although the details of how bilateral signals are processed and integrated remain unknown.

  13. Consideration of vocal fold position in unilateral vocal fold paralyses.

    PubMed

    Olthoff, Arno; Steinle, Julia; Asendorf, Thomas; Kruse, Eberhard

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the evaluation of unilateral vocal fold paralyses (uVFP) by means of an area measurement of the glottic plane, which describes the position of the paralysed vocal fold. The area measurements were related to electromyographic findings and clinical outcome (recovery, voice quality). In 56 patients (33 women and 23 men), uVFP were confirmed by endolaryngeal electromyography (EMG) of the paralysed vocal fold and cricothyroid muscles (CT). The EMG response was classified on a 4-point scale (from 0 to 3). Vocal fold position was divided into 'paramedian' and 'intermediate' and additionally quantified by measurement of the glottic area. An 'area quotient' (AQ) was calculated and related to the EMG findings and clinical outcome. Voice qualities were objectified regarding their additive noise (breathiness) and irregularity (roughness) using the 'Göttingen Hoarseness Diagram'. The majority of uVFP was due to iatrogenic lesions. The AQ of classically graduated 'paramedian' and 'intermediate' vocal fold positions was significantly different but did not correlate with objective voice quality values. There were no significant correlations regarding EMG findings, duration or recovery from paralyses. Laryngeal EMG remains the gold standard for verifying uVFP. But EMG did not correlate significantly with AQ or functional outcome of uVFP. The measurement of an AQ is suitable for obtaining continuous data describing the position of paralysed vocal folds beyond the terms 'paramedian' or 'intermediate' and provides the basis for clinical evaluations of diagnostic tools and therapeutic interventions. PMID:25519473

  14. Hearing and music in unilateral spatial neglect neuro-rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Guilbert, Alma; Sylvain Clément; Moroni, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is an attention deficit in the contralesional side of space which occurs after a cerebral stroke, mainly located in the right hemisphere. USN patients are disabled in all daily activities. USN is an important negative prognostic factor of functional recovery and of socio-professional reinsertion. Thus, patient rehabilitation is a major challenge. As this deficit has been described in many sensory modalities (including hearing), many sensory and poly-sensory rehabilitation methods have been proposed to USN patients. They are mainly based on visual, tactile modalities and on motor abilities. However, these methods appear to be quite task-specific and difficult to transfer to functional activities. Very few studies have focused on the hearing modality and even fewer studies have been conducted in music as a way of improving spatial attention. Therefore, more research on such retraining needs is neccessary in order to make reliable conclusions on its efficiency in long-term rehabilitation. Nevertheless, some evidence suggests that music could be a promising tool to enhance spatial attention and to rehabilitate USN patients. In fact, music is a material closely linked to space, involving common anatomical and functional networks. The present paper aims firstly at briefly reviewing the different procedures of sensory retraining proposed in USN, including auditory retraining, and their limits. Secondly, it aims to present the recent scientific evidence that makes music a good candidate for USN patients’ neuro-rehabilitation. PMID:25566165

  15. Changes in contralateral protein metabolism following unilateral sciatic nerve section

    SciTech Connect

    Menendez, J.A.; Cubas, S.C.

    1990-03-01

    Changes in nerve biochemistry, anatomy, and function following injuries to the contralateral nerve have been repeatedly reported, though their significance is unknown. The most likely mechanisms for their development are either substances carried by axoplasmic flow or electrically transmitted signals. This study analyzes which mechanism underlies the development of a contralateral change in protein metabolism. The incorporation of labelled amino acids (AA) into proteins of both sciatic nerves was assessed by liquid scintillation after an unilateral section. AA were offered locally for 30 min to the distal stump of the sectioned nerves and at homologous levels of the intact contralateral nerves. At various times, from 1 to 24 h, both sciatic nerves were removed and the proteins extracted with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). An increase in incorporation was found in both nerves 14-24 h after section. No difference existed between sectioned and intact nerves, which is consistent with the contralateral effect. Lidocaine, but not colchicine, when applied previously to the nerves midway between the sectioning site and the spinal cord, inhibited the contralateral increase in AA incorporation. It is concluded that electrical signals, crossing through the spinal cord, are responsible for the development of the contralateral effect. Both the nature of the proteins and the significance of the contralateral effect are matters for speculation.

  16. Rehabilitation and neuroplasticity in children with unilateral cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Reid, Lee B; Rose, Stephen E; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2015-07-01

    Cerebral palsy is a childhood-onset, lifelong neurological disorder that primarily impairs motor function. Unilateral cerebral palsy (UCP), which impairs use of one hand and perturbs bimanual co-ordination, is the most common form of the condition. The main contemporary upper limb rehabilitation strategies for UCP are constraint-induced movement therapy and bimanual intensive therapy. In this Review, we outline the factors that are crucial to the success of motor rehabilitation in children with UCP, including the dose of training, the relevance of training to daily life, the suitability of training to the age and goals of the child, and the ability of the child to maintain close attention to the tasks. Emerging evidence suggests that the first 2 years of life are a critical period during which interventions for UCP could be more effective than in later life. Abnormal brain organization in UCP, and the effects of development on rehabilitation, must also be understood to develop new effective interventions. Therefore, we also consider neuroimaging methods that can provide insight into the neurobiology of UCP and how the condition responds to existing therapies. We discuss how these methods could shape future rehabilitative strategies based on the neurobiology of UCP and the therapy-induced changes seen in the brain. PMID:26077839

  17. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  18. Treatment of Thoracolumbar Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung-Guk; Shin, Dong-Eun

    2015-01-01

    The most common fractures of the spine are associated with the thoracolumbar junction. The goals of treatment of thoracolumbar fracture are leading to early mobilization and rehabilitation by restoring mechanical stability of fracture and inducing neurologic recovery, thereby enabling patients to return to the workplace. However, it is still debatable about the treatment methods. Neurologic injury should be identified by thorough physical examination for motor and sensory nerve system in order to determine the appropriate treatment. The mechanical stability of fracture also should be evaluated by plain radiographs and computed tomography. In some cases, magnetic resonance imaging is required to evaluate soft tissue injury involving neurologic structure or posterior ligament complex. Based on these physical examinations and imaging studies, fracture stability is evaluated and it is determined whether to use the conservative or operative treatment. The development of instruments have led to more interests on the operative treatment which saves mobile segments without fusion and on instrumentation through minimal invasive approach in recent years. It is still controversial for the use of these treatments because there have not been verified evidences yet. However, the morbidity of patients can be decreased and good clinical and radiologic outcomes can be achieved if the recent operative treatments are used carefully considering the fracture pattern and the injury severity. PMID:25705347

  19. In-vivo corneal biomechanical analysis of unilateral keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Ayar, Orhan; Ozmen, Mehmet Cuneyt; Muftuoglu, Orkun; Akdemir, Mehmet Orcun; Koc, Mustafa; Ozulken, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate and compare corneal biomechanical findings measured by ocular response analyzer, topographic and pachymetric findings in patients with unilateral keratoconus patients and healthy controls. METHODS This is an observational, case-control study. Patients with keratoconus in one eye and forme fruste keratoconus in the fellow eye were compared with sex and age matched with controls healthy subjects. All subjects were evaluated with rotating scheimpflug imaging system. The receiver-operating-characteristic curves were analyzed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the parameters. RESULTS Twenty-seven patients with keratoconus in one eye and forme fruste keratoconus in the fellow eye were compared with 40 eyes of 40 normal subjects. Corneal hysteresis (CH) was 8.0±1.7 mm Hg in keratoconus group, 8.3±1.6 mm Hg in forme fruste keratoconus group, and 9.8±1.6 mm Hg in control groups (P=0.54 between keratoconus and forme fruste keratoconus groups, P<0.01 between control group and other groups). Corneal resistance factor (CRF) was 7.1±2.2 mm Hg in keratoconus group, 7.8±1.2 mm Hg in forme fruste keratoconus group and 9.9±1.5 mm Hg in control group (P<0.001 between control group and other groups). Using receiver-operating-characteristic analysis, the area under curve values of the parameters to distinguish forme fruste keratoconus from control subjects were: CH (0.768), CRF (0.866). Best cut-off points were 9.3 mm Hg and 8.8 mm Hg for CH and CRF respectively. CONCLUSION Ocular response analyzer parameters (CH and CRF) are found to be significantly lower in forme fruste keratoconus patients compared to normal control subjects. PMID:26682162

  20. Aggravated Cardiac Remodeling post Aortocaval Fistula in Unilateral Nephrectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ye; Zou, Wusong; Zhang, Mingjing; Zhu, Pengfei; Hu, Shao

    2015-01-01

    Background Aortocaval fistula (AV) in rat is a unique model of volume-overload congestive heart failure and cardiac hypertrophy. Living donor kidney transplantation is regarded as beneficial to allograft recipients and not particularly detrimental to the donors. Impact of AV on animals with mild renal dysfunction is not fully understood. In this study, we explored the effects of AV in unilateral nephrectomized (UNX) rats. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into Sham (n = 10), UNX (right kidney remove, n = 10), AV (AV established between the levels of renal arteries and iliac bifurcation, n = 18) and UNX+AV (AV at one week after UNX, n = 22), respectively. Renal outcome was measured by glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, fractional excretion of sodium, albuminuria, plasma creatinine, and cystatin C. Focal glomerulosclerosis (FGS) incidence was evaluated by renal histology. Cardiac function was measured by echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements. Results UNX alone induced compensatory left kidney enlargement, increased plasma creatinine and cystatin C levels, and slightly reduced glomerular filtration rate and increased FGS. AV induced significant cardiac enlargement and hypertrophy and reduced cardiac function and increased FGS, these changes were aggravated in UNX+AV rats. Conclusions Although UNX only induces minor renal dysfunction, additional chronic volume overload placement during the adaptation phase of the remaining kidney is associated with aggravated cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in UNX rats, suggesting special medical care is required for UNX or congenital monokidney subjects in case of chronic volume overload as in the case of pregnancy and hyperthyroidism to prevent further adverse cardiorenal events in these individuals. PMID:26252578

  1. Characteristics of the perception for unilateral facial nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Mun, Sue Jean; Park, Kyung Tae; Kim, Yoonjoong; Park, Joo Hyun; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-11-01

    Patients with facial nerve palsy (FNP) are actually evaluated by other people rather than doctors or the patients themselves. This study was performed to investigate the characteristics of the perception of unilateral FNP in Korean people. A questionnaire using photographs of four patients with four different grades (House-Brackmann) of FNP was given to two hundred people with no FNP. Subjects of each gender, ranging from 20 to 69 years of age, participated. The questionnaire, showing facial expressions of resting, smiling, whistling, eye closing, and frowning, consisted of questions concerning the identification and the involved side of FNP, the unnatural areas of the face, and the unnaturalness of the facial expressions. The overall identification rate of FNP was 75.0 %. The identification rate increased according to the increase in the grade of the patient's FNP (p < .001). The overall detection rate of the involved side was 54.5 %, and that rate decreased with increasing subject age (p < .001). The area of the most unnatural facial expression was reported to be the mouth, followed by the eyes and cheeks. The most unnatural facial expression was also reported to be smiling, followed by eye closing and whistling. There was no difference in the identification rate of FNP according to education level. However, the overall detection rate of the involved side was higher in the high-education group (p < .001). The detection rate for the involved side of FNP was lower than the rate of identification of FNP and was significantly low in the middle-aged/elderly and low-education level groups. PMID:25421644

  2. The Unilateral, Self-Deregulation of AT&T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloff, Joel H.

    1990-01-01

    The provision of telecommunications products and services in the United States has been dominated by AT&T and the Bell System for more than one hundred years. From the early days of telephones, it was clear that some framework of logic was required to provide "universal" telephone services to the vast majority of American citizens. The concept was known as "natural monopoly", and for the most part, has served us well. We are all aware of statements concerning absolute power corrupting absolutely, and AT&T has not been immune to this law of human nature. Several times during the past century, action has been required by the Federal Government to regulate and constrain AT&T and the Bell System from anti-competitive and predatory actions. These have been called consent decrees, Computer Inquiry II, Computer Inquiry III, and the Modified Final Judgment. The regulations and constraints imposed upon AT&T, with good reason, are now becoming eroded. The perception of a more highly competitive marketplace capable of accommodating an unrestrained AT&T, the impact of uncoordinated national and regional government policies, and unilateral actions by AT&T themselves are bringing us to the edge of an abyss. There are substantial reasons to believe that AT&T will use its considerable might to eliminate its competitors, once free to do so. Must we be doomed to repeat history with still another antitrust case against AT&T some years from now? Logic demands that we learn from the past, and that telecommunications policies be based upon that knowledge.

  3. Glucocorticoids improve acute dizziness symptoms following acute unilateral vestibulopathy.

    PubMed

    Batuecas-Caletrío, Angel; Yañez-Gonzalez, Raquel; Sanchez-Blanco, Carmen; Pérez, Pedro Blanco; González-Sanchez, Enrique; Sanchez, Luis Alberto Guardado; Kaski, Diego

    2015-11-01

    Acute unilateral vestibulopathy (AUV) is characterized by acute vertigo, nausea, and imbalance without neurological deficits or auditory symptomatology. Here, we explore the effect of glucocorticoid treatment on the degree of canal paresis in patients with AUV, and critically, establish its relationship with dizziness symptom recovery. We recruited consecutive patients who were retrospectively assigned to one of the two groups according to whether they received glucocorticoid treatment (n = 32) or not (n = 44). All patients underwent pure-tone audiometry, bithermal caloric testing, MRI brain imaging, and were asked to complete a dizziness handicap inventory on admission to hospital and just prior to hospital discharge. In the treatment group, the canal paresis at discharge was significantly lower than in the control group (mean ± SD % 38.04 ± 21.57 versus 82.79 ± 21.51, p < 0.001). We also observed a significant reduction in the intensity of nystagmus in patients receiving glucocorticoid treatment compared to the non-treatment group (p = 0.03). DHI test score was significantly lower at discharge in the treatment group (mean ± SD % 23.15 ± 12.40 versus 64.07 ± 12.87, p < 0.001), as was the length of hospital stay (2.18 ± 1.5 days versus 3.6 ± 1.7 days, p = 0.002). Glucocorticoid treatment leads to acute symptomatic improvement, with a reduced hospital stay and reduction in the intensity of acute nystagmus. Our findings suggest that glucocorticoids may accelerate vestibular compensation via a restoration of peripheral vestibular function, and therefore has important clinical implications for the treatment of AUV. PMID:26459091

  4. Unilateral Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease: A Clinical Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Arminda; Cardoso, Ana; Almeida, Mariana; Campos, Joana; Campos, António; Castro Sousa, João Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report a case of a 20-year-old female with decreased visual acuity (VA) in the left eye (LE). Methods This is a retrospective and descriptive case report based on data from clinical records, patient observation and analysis of diagnostic tests. Results A 20-year-old female presented with decreased VA in the LE for 3 days. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/20 in the right eye (RE) and 20/40 in the LE. Pupillary function, intraocular pressure, results of external segment examinations and slit-lamp biomicroscopy were normal, bilaterally. RE fundoscopy was normal, and in the LE it revealed papillitis and posterior pole exudative retinal detachment. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) confirmed the macular serous retinal detachment and showed thickening of the posterior choroid also revealed by orbital ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fluorescein angiography showed angiographic features typical of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease: disseminated spotted choroidal hyperfluorescence and choroidal multifocal hypofluorescence, multifocal profuse leakage in the retina with pooling, serous retinal detachment and optic disc hyperfluorescence. Serological testing for the diagnosis of infectious pathologies was negative, and the review of systems was normal. The patient received systemic steroids and cyclosporine. LE BCVA improved up to 20/20 at 18 months after the diagnosis, with complete reabsorption of subretinal fluid and normal retinal and choroidal thickness by OCT. Conclusion Despite the unilateral involvement, the clinical and angiographic features were typical of VKH disease, and ophthalmologists should be aware to recognize this rare clinical variant of the disease. PMID:26600790

  5. Particulate fracture during deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorca, J.; Martin, A.; Ruiz, J.; Elices, M.

    1993-07-01

    The mechanisms of deformation and failure in a 2618 Al alloy reinforced with 15 vol pct SiC particilates were studied and compared with those of the unreinforced alloy, processed by spray forming as well. Tensile and fracture toughness tests were carried out on naturally aged and peak-aged specimens. The broken specimens were sliced through the middle, and the geometric features of fractured and intact particulates were measured. The experimental observations led to the conclusion that failure took place by the progressive fracture of the particulates until a critical volume fraction was reached. An influence of the particulate size and aspect ratio on the probability of fracture was found, the large and elongated particulates being more prone to fail, and the fracture stress in the particulates seemed to obey the Weibull statistics. The dif- ferences in ductility found between the naturally aged and peak-aged composites were explained in terms of the number of broken particulates as a function of the applied strain. Numerical simulations of the deformation process indicated that the stresses acting on the particulates are higher in the peak-aged material, precipitating the specimen failure. Moreover, the compressive residual stresses induced on the SiC during water quenching delayed the onset of particulate breakage in the naturally aged material.

  6. Fracture healing redefined.

    PubMed

    Braun, B J; Rollmann, M; Veith, N; Pohlemann, T

    2015-12-01

    It is well established that local mechanical conditions and interfragmentary movement are important factors for successful bone healing and may vary dramatically with patient fracture-load and activity. Up until now however it was technically impossible to use these key influence parameters in the aftercare treatment process of human lower extremity fractures. We propose a theory that with state of the art sensor technology these biomechanical influences can not only be monitored in vivo, but also used for individualized therapy protocols. Local measurement systems for fracture healing are available but remain research tools, due to various technical issues. To investigate the biomechanical influences on healing right away surrogate sensor tools are needed. Various gait characteristics have been proposed as surrogate measures. Currently available sensor tools could be modified with the appropriate support structure to allow such measurements continuously over the course of a fracture healing. Interdisciplinary work between clinicians, software engineers with computer and biomechanical simulations is needed. Through such a sensor system human boundary conditions for fracture healing could not only be defined for the first time, but also used for a unique, extendible aftercare system. With this tool critical healing situations would be detected much earlier and could be prevented with easy activity modifications, reducing patient and socioeconomic burden of disease. The hypothesis, necessary tools and support structures are presented. PMID:26364044

  7. Pelvic Insufficiency Fractures

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic insufficiency fractures may occur in the absence of trauma or as a result of low-energy trauma in osteoporotic bone. With a growing geriatric population, the incidence of pelvic insufficiency fracture has increased over the last 3 decades and will continue to do so. These fractures can cause considerable pain, loss of independence, and economic burden to both the patient and the health care system. While many of these injuries are identified and treated based on plain radiographs, some remain difficult to diagnose. The role of advanced imaging in these cases is discussed. In addition to treating the fracture, medical comorbidities contributing to osteoporosis should be identified and corrected. Specific attention has been given to 25-OH serum vitamin D screening and repletion. Treatment generally consists of providing pain control and assisting patients with mobilization while allowing weight bearing as tolerated. In those unable to do so, invasive techniques such as sacroplasty as well as internal fixation may be beneficial. The role of operative fixation in insufficiency fractures is also discussed. PMID:26246940

  8. Frontal bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Marinheiro, Bruno Henrique; de Medeiros, Eduardo Henrique Pantosso; Sverzut, Cássio Edvard; Trivellato, Alexandre Elias

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the epidemiology, treatment, and complications of frontal bone fractures associated, or not, with other facial fractures. This evaluation also sought to minimize the influence of the surgeon's skills and the preference for any rigid internal fixation system. The files from 3758 patients who attended the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of the School of Dentistry of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, from March 2004 to November 2011 and presented with facial trauma were scanned, and 52 files were chosen for the review. Eleven (21.15%) of these patients had pure fractures of the frontal bone, and trauma incidence was more prevalent in men (92.3%), whites (61.53%), and adults (50%). Despite the use of helmets at the moment of the trauma, motorcycle crashes were the most common etiological factor (32.69%). Fracture of the anterior wall of the frontal sinus with displacement was the main injury observed (54.9%), and the most common treatment was internal fixation with a plate and screws (45.09%). Postoperative complications were observed in 35.29% of the cases. The therapy applied was effective in handling this type of fracture, and the success rate was comparable to that reported in other published studies. PMID:25377971

  9. Pediatric calcaneal fractures

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Hobie; Ann Kramer, Patricia; Benirschke, Stephen K.

    2009-01-01

    Although operative treatment of displaced, intra-articular fractures of the calcaneus in adults is generally accepted as standard practice, operative treatment for the same fractures in the skeletally immature remains controversial, potentially because the outcome for fracture types (intra- vs. extra-articular) and severity (displaced vs. nondisplaced) have been confounded in studies of children. We review herein the results of 21 displaced, intra-articular fractures in 18 skeletally immature patients, who were treated with open reduction and internal fixation using a standard surgical approach and protocol developed for adults. The average pre-operative Böhler's angle on the injured side was ?5° (range: ?35 – +35) compared to 31° (range: +22 – +47) on the uninjured side, indicating substantial displacement. There were no post-operative infections or wound healing problems, and all but one patient was followed to union (average follow-up: 1.5 years; range: 0.30–4.3 years). Maintenance of reduction was confirmed on follow-up radiographs with an average Böhler's angle of 31° (range: +22 – +49). We demonstrate that results for operative fixation of displaced, intra-articular calcaneal fractures in the skeletally immature are comparable to those in adults when the treatment protocol is the same. PMID:21808673

  10. Acid Fracture and Fracture Conductivity Study of Field Rock Samples 

    E-print Network

    Underwood, Jarrod

    2013-11-15

    Acid fracturing is a well stimulation strategy designed to increase the productivity of a producing well. The parameters of acid fracturing and the effects of acid interaction on specific rock samples can be studied experimentally. Acid injection...

  11. Discrete fracture modeling for fractured reservoirs using Voronoi grid blocks 

    E-print Network

    Gross, Matthew Edward

    2007-09-17

    Fractured reservoirs are commonly simulated using the Dual Porosity model, but for many major fields, the model does not match field results. For these cases, it is necessary to perform a more complex simulation including either individual fractures...

  12. Fracture-Flow-Enhanced Solute Diffusion into Fractured Rock

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Ye, Ming; Sudicky, E.A.

    2007-12-15

    We propose a new conceptual model of fracture-flow-enhanced matrix diffusion, which correlates with fracture-flow velocity, i.e., matrix diffusion enhancement induced by rapid fluid flow within fractures. According to the boundary-layer or film theory, fracture flow enhanced matrix diffusion may dominate mass-transfer processes at fracture-matrix interfaces, because rapid flow along fractures results in large velocity and concentration gradients at and near fracture-matrix interfaces, enhancing matrix diffusion at matrix surfaces. In this paper, we present a new formulation of the conceptual model for enhanced fracture-matrix diffusion, and its implementation is discussed using existing analytical solutions and numerical models. In addition, we use the enhanced matrix diffusion concept to analyze laboratory experimental results from nonreactive and reactive tracer breakthrough tests, in an effort to validate the new conceptual model.

  13. Predictive Factors Affecting Long-Term Outcome of Unilateral Lateral Rectus Recession

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Mi-Jin; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Background There are few long-term outcome reports of unilateral lateral rectus (LR) recession for exotropia including a large number of subjects. Previous reports on unilateral LR recession commonly show extremely low rates of initial overcorrection and large exodrifts after surgery suggesting that the surgical dose may be increased. However, little is known of the long-term outcome of a large unilateral LR recession for exotropia. Objectives To determine long-term outcomes and predictive factors of recurrence after a large unilateral LR recession in patients with exotropia. Data Extraction Retrospective analysis was performed on 92 patients aged 3 to 17 years who underwent 10 mm unilateral LR recession for exotropia of ? 25 prism diopters (?) with prism and alternate cover testing and were followed up for more than 2 years after surgery. Final success rates within 10? of exophoria/tropia and 5? of esophoria/tropia at distance in the primary position, improvement in stereopsis and the predictive factors for recurrence were evaluated. Results At 24 months after surgery, 54% of patients had ocular alignment meeting the defined criteria of success, 45% had recurrence and 1% had overcorrection. After a mean follow-up of 39 months, 36% showed success, 63% showed recurrence and 1% resulted in overcorrection. The average time of recurrence was 23.4±14.7 months (range, 1–60 months) and the rate of recurrence per person-year was 23% after unilateral LR recession. Predictive factors of recurrence were a larger preoperative near angle of deviation (>16?) and larger initial postoperative exodeviation (>5?) at distance. Conclusions Long-term outcome of unilateral LR recession for exotropia showed low success rates with high recurrence, thus should be reserved for patients with a small preoperative near angle of exodeviation. PMID:26418819

  14. Reservoir fracture characterizations from seismic scattered waves

    E-print Network

    Fang, Xinding

    2012-01-01

    The measurements of fracture parameters, such as fracture orientation, fracture density and fracture compliance, in a reservoir is very important for field development and exploration. Traditional seismic methods for ...

  15. Fracture Conductivity of the Eagle Ford Shale 

    E-print Network

    Guzek, James J

    2014-07-25

    conductivity is influenced by several variables including fracture surface roughness, fracture closure stress, proppant size, and proppant concentration. The proppant concentration within a fracture can significantly affect the magnitude of fracture...

  16. Fractures of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine

    MedlinePLUS

    .org Fractures of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Page ( 1 ) Spinal fractures can vary widely in severity. While some fractures are very serious injuries that require emergency treatment, other fractures can ...

  17. Fragility fractures of the pelvis: should they be fixed?

    PubMed

    Rommens, P M; Dietz, S-O; Ossendorf, C; Pairon, P; Wagner, D; Hofmann, A

    2015-01-01

    Due to the aging population, there is an increasing number of fragility fractures of the pelvis (FFP). They are the result of low energy trauma. The bone breaks but the ligaments remain intact. Immobilizing pain at the pubic region or at the sacrum is the main symptom. Conventional radiographs reveal pubic rami fractures, but lesions of the dorsal pelvis are hardly visible and easily overlooked. CT of the pelvis with multiplanar reconstructions show the real extension of the lesion. Most patients have a history of osteoporosis or other fragility fractures. The new classification distinguishes between four categories of different and increasing instability. FFP Type I are anterior lesions only, FFP Type II are non-displaced posterior lesions, FFP Type III are displaced unilateral posterior lesions and FFP Type IV are displaced bilateral posterior lesions. Subgroups discriminate between the localization of the dorsal instability. FFP Type I lesions are treated non-operatively. FFP Type II lesions are fixed in a percutaneous procedure when a trial of conservative treatment was not successful. FFP Type III lesions are treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). FFP Type IV lesions are treated with bilateral ORIF or with a bridging osteosynthesis. Iliosacral screw osteosynthesis is widely used, but has an elevated risk of screw loosening due to diminished bine mineral density. Transsacral bar osteosynthesis enable interfragmentary compression and does not have this danger of loosening. Bridging plate osteosynthesis is used as an additional fixation to iliosacral screw osteosynthesis. Lumbopelvic fixation is restricted to highly unstable lumbopelvic dissociations. More studies are needed to find the optimal treatment for each type of instability. Key words: pelvis, fragility fracture, diagnosis, classification, treatment. PMID:26317181

  18. Semiautomatic fracture zone tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, Paul; Matthews, Kara J.; Müller, R. Dietmar; Mazzoni, Aline; Whittaker, Joanne M.; Myhill, Robert; Chandler, Michael T.

    2015-07-01

    Oceanic fracture zone traces are widely used in studies of seafloor morphology and plate kinematics. Satellite altimetry missions have resulted in high-resolution gravity maps in which all major fracture zones and other tectonic fabric can be identified, and numerous scientists have digitized such lineaments. We have initiated a community effort to maintain low-cost infrastructure that allows seafloor fabric lineaments to be stored, accessed, and updated. A key improvement over past efforts is our processing software (released as a GMT5 supplement) that allows for semiautomatic corrections to previously digitized fracture zone traces given improved gridded data sets. Here we report on our seafloor fabric processing tools, which complement our database of seafloor fabric lineations, magnetic anomaly identifications, and plate kinematic models.

  19. Fracking, fracture, and permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcotte, D. L.; Norris, J.; Rundle, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    Injections of large volumes of water into tight shale reservoirs allows the extraction of oil and gas not previously accessible. This large volume 'super' fracking induces damage that allows the oil and/or gas to flow to an extraction well. The purpose of this paper is to provide a model for understanding super fracking. We assume that water is injected from a small spherical cavity into a homogeneous elastic medium. The high pressure of the injected water generates hoop stresses that reactivate natural fractures in the tight shales. These fractures migrate outward as water is added creating a spherical shell of damaged rock. The porosity associated with these fractures is equal to the water volume injected. We obtain an analytic expression for this volume. We apply our model to a typical tight shale reservoir and show that the predicted water volumes are in good agreement with the volumes used in super fracking.

  20. Fracture mechanics expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, E.; Elfer, N.; Casadaban, C.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to fracture mechanics, an analytical method used extensively in the National Space Transportation System to conservatively predict the remaining service life of an article when a flaw or a material defect is detected. These analyses are performed on hardware containing material defects that have been detected by various nondestructive inspection techniques. An expert system being developed to streamline the process so that hardware dispositions may be obtained in a timely and consistent manner is discussed. The expert system reduces the potential for errors due to the manual transcription between the various software programs involved in completing a fracture mechanics analysis. NEXPERT Object, the expert system development shell selected for this purpose, allows the various software programs used in fracture mechanics analyses to be accessed and manipulated from the same platform.

  1. Talar neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Berlet, G C; Lee, T H; Massa, E G

    2001-01-01

    Clinical management of talar neck fractures is complex and fraught with complications. As Gaius Julius Caesar stated: "The die is cast"; often the outcome of a talar neck fracture is determined at the time of injury. The authors believe, however, that better results can be achieved by following some simple guidelines. The authors advocate prompt and precise anatomic surgical reduction, preferring the medial approach with secondary anterolateral approach. Preservation of blood supply can be achieved by a thorough understanding of vascular pathways and efforts to stay within appropriate surgical intervals. The authors advocate bone grafting of medial neck comminution (if present) to prevent varus malalignment and rigid internal fixation to allow for joint mobilization postoperatively. These guidelines may seem simple, but when dealing with the complexity of talar neck fractures, the foot and ankle surgeon needs to focus and rely on easily grasped concepts to reduce poor outcomes. PMID:11465133

  2. Mandibular fractures in children--a study of clinical aspects, treatment needs, and complications.

    PubMed

    Amaratunga, N A

    1988-08-01

    Thirty-seven children younger than 11-years-old with mandibular fractures were studied regarding age, sex, type of fracture, incidence, etiology, methods of treatment, and complications. This injury was found to represent 4.5% of all facial injuries. The male-to-female ratio was 2.4:1.0. Unilateral fractures were more common than bilateral. The condyle was involved in 36.7% of cases, and 9.2% of the fractures were subcondylar. Maxillomandibular fixation for 2 weeks was the method of treatment used in 35.1% of patients. Another 32.4% who had a combination of body and condyle fractures were treated with a prefabricated acrylic splint fixed only on the lower arch so that the mandible was free to move. Ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint was seen in only one patient. Other complications that were also rare include the following: infection was observed in two cases; malunion and nonunion were not seen. One child had retarded facial growth due to damage of the condylar growth center. Functional mobility and maximal mouth opening was not reduced significantly. PMID:3165116

  3. Scaphoid Fracture of the Wrist

    MedlinePLUS

    .org Scaphoid Fracture of the Wrist Page ( 1 ) The scaphoid is one of the small bones in the wrist. It is ... that the scaphoid is injured. Cause A scaphoid fracture is usually caused by a fall on an ...

  4. Distal Radius Fracture (Broken Wrist)

    MedlinePLUS

    .org Distal Radius Fracture (Broken Wrist) Page ( 1 ) The radius is the larger of the two bones of the forearm. The end toward the wrist is called the distal end. A fracture of the distal radius occurs when the area ...

  5. Femur Shaft Fractures (Broken Thighbone)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... so strong, it usually takes a lot of force to break it. Car crashes, for example, are ... Fractures Femur fractures vary greatly, depending on the force that causes the break. The pieces of bone ...

  6. Ankle Fractures Often Not Diagnosed

    MedlinePLUS

    ... News, Videos & Podcasts » Articles » Text Size Print Bookmark Ankle Fractures Often Not Diagnosed Long-term Complications Result from Poor Recovery Mistaking an ankle fracture for an ankle sprain has serious consequences ...

  7. Fracture prediction in metal sheets

    E-print Network

    Lee, Young-Woong

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important failure modes of thin-walled structures is fracture. Fracture is predominantly tensile in nature and, in most part, is operated by the physical mechanisms of void nucleation, growth, and linkage. ...

  8. Fluid Flow Modeling in Fractures

    E-print Network

    Sarkar, Sudipta

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we study fluid flow in fractures using numerical simulation and address the challenging issue of hydraulic property characterization in fractures. The methodology is based on Computational Fluid Dynamics, ...

  9. Progressive Fracture of Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Minnetyan, Levon

    2008-01-01

    A new approach is described for evaluating fracture in composite structures. This approach is independent of classical fracture mechanics parameters like fracture toughness. It relies on computational simulation and is programmed in a stand-alone integrated computer code. It is multiscale, multifunctional because it includes composite mechanics for the composite behavior and finite element analysis for predicting the structural response. It contains seven modules; layered composite mechanics (micro, macro, laminate), finite element, updating scheme, local fracture, global fracture, stress based failure modes, and fracture progression. The computer code is called CODSTRAN (Composite Durability Structural ANalysis). It is used in the present paper to evaluate the global fracture of four composite shell problems and one composite built-up structure. Results show that the composite shells and the built-up composite structure global fracture are enhanced when internal pressure is combined with shear loads.

  10. Fracture After Total Hip Replacement

    MedlinePLUS

    ... er Total Hip Replacement cont. • Dislocation • Limb length inequality • Poor fracture healing • Repeat fracture • Lack of in- ... Surgeons (AAOS). To learn more about your orthopaedic health, please visit orthoinfo.org. Page ( 5 ) AAOS does ...

  11. Bone fracture repair - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The three main treatment options for bone fractures are: Casting Open reduction, and internal fixation- this involves a surgery to repair the fracture-frequently, metal rods, screws or plates are used to repair the ...

  12. Fractured Petroleum Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Firoozabadi, Dr. Abbas

    2000-01-18

    In this report the results of experiments of water injection in fractured porous media comprising a number of water-wet matrix blocks are reported for the first time. The blocks experience an advancing fracture-water level (FWL). Immersion-type experiments are performed for comparison; the dominant recovery mechanism changed from co-current to counter-current imbibition when the boundary conditions changed from advancing FWL to immersion-type. Single block experiments of co-current and counter-current imbibition was performed and co-current imbibition leads to more efficient recovery was found.

  13. Unilateral Outer Bow Expanded Cervical Headgear Force System: 3D Analysis Using Finite Element Method

    PubMed Central

    Mortezai, Omid; Esmaily, Masomeh; Darvishpour, Hojat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Headgears are among the effective orthodontic appliances to achieve treatment goals. Unilateral molar distal movement is sometimes needed during an orthodontic treatment, which can be achieved by an asymmetric headgear. Different unilateral headgears have been introduced. The main goal of this study was to analyze the force system of unilateral expanded outer bow asymmetric headgears by the finite element method (FEM). Materials and Methods: Six 3D finite element models of a mesiodistal slice of the maxilla containing upper first molars, their periodontal ligaments (PDLs), cancellous bone, cortical bone, and a cervical headgear with expanded outer bow attached to maxillary first molars were designed in SolidWorks 2010 and meshed in ANSYS Workbench ver. 12.1. The models were the same except for the degree of outer bow expansion. The outer bow ends were loaded with 2 N force. The distal driving force and the net moment were evaluated. Results: A decrease in the distalizing force in the normal side molar from 1.69 N to 1.37 N was shown by increasing the degree of unilateral expansion. At the same time, the force increased from 2.19 N to 2.49 N in the expanded side molar. A net moment increasing from 2.26 N.mm to 4.64 N.mm was also shown. Conclusion: Unilateral outer bow expansion can produce different distalizing forces in molars, which increase by increasing the expansion.

  14. Unilateral superior rectus recession for the treatment of dissociated vertical deviation.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, T; Scott, W

    1991-01-01

    The management of dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) is an unsettled issue. Several authors have advocated bilateral superior rectus recession for all patients with DVD unless a dense amblyopia is present in the nonfixating eye. Our experience suggested that DVD was being successfully treated with unilateral bilateral superior rectus recession. We reviewed the charts of 57 patients who underwent graded unilateral superior rectus recession and 10 patients who had bilateral superior rectus recession for the treatment of DVD. DVD, a manifest deviation, was considered as distinct from occlusion hyperphoria, a latent deviation present only under cover. Of the patients who underwent unilateral superior rectus recession, only six developed a significant (14 prism diopters or more) DVD in the unoperated eye. The presence of any DVD in the unoperated eye appeared to be predictive of an unacceptable postoperative deviation (15 times greater chance, P less than .001). Patients with an occlusion hyperphoria in the unoperated eye showed no increased propensity to develop a significant DVD following surgery. The results of bilateral surgery were disappointing. Eight of ten patients had residual DVD in one or both eyes of 10 delta or greater. Our results suggest that unilateral surgery is an effective treatment of DVD in patients with a manifest deviation in only one eye. Although neither unilateral nor bilateral surgery was entirely satisfactory for the treatment of bilateral DVD, we recommend bilateral superior rectus recession for these patients. PMID:1919970

  15. Midterm outcome after unilateral approach for bilateral decompression of lumbar spinal stenosis: 5-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Ramazan Alper; Türkmenoglu, Osman Nuri; Tuncer, Cengiz; Çolak, ?brahim; Ayd?n, Yunus

    2007-01-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the results and effectiveness of bilateral decompression via a unilateral approach in the treatment of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. We have conducted a prospective study to compare the midterm outcome of unilateral laminotomy with unilateral laminectomy. One hundred patients with 269 levels of lumbar stenosis without instability were randomized to two treatment groups: unilateral laminectomy (Group 1), and laminotomy (Group 2). Clinical outcomes were assessed with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and Short Form–36 Health Survey (SF-36). Spinal canal size was measured pre- and postoperatively. The spinal canal was increased to 4–6.1-fold (mean 5.1 ± SD 0.8-fold) the preoperative size in Group 1, and 3.3–5.9-fold (mean 4.7 ± SD 1.1-fold) the preoperative size in Group 2. The mean follow-up time was 5.4 years (range 4–7 years). The ODI scores decreased significantly in both early and late follow-up evaluations and the SF-36 scores demonstrated significant improvement in late follow-up results in our series. Analysis of clinical outcome showed no statistical differences between two groups. For degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis unilateral approaches allowed sufficient and safe decompression of the neural structures and adequate preservation of vertebral stability, resulted in a highly significant reduction of symptoms and disability, and improved health-related quality of life. PMID:17712577

  16. Unilateral Scleral Fixation of Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lenses in Pediatric Complicated Traumatic Cataracts

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Dong Won; Cho, Sung Won

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual outcomes and complications of unilateral scleral fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (SF-PCIOLs) in pediatric complicated traumatic cataracts without capsular support. Methods This study involved five eyes of five children who underwent unilateral SF-PCIOL. All patients had a unilateral complicated traumatic cataract associated with anterior or posterior segment injury. Visual acuity (VA), IOL position, and postoperative complications were assessed during follow-up. Results The mean age of patients at the time of SF-PCIOL was 90 months (range, 66-115). The mean duration of follow-up time after surgery was 22 months (range, 5-55). In all patients, the best-corrected VA was either improved or was stable at last follow-up following SF-PCIOL implantation. There were no serious complications. Conclusions Unilateral scleral fixation of PCIOL can be a safe and effective procedure for pediatric, unilateral, complicated traumatic cataracts without capsular support in selected cases. PMID:19794939

  17. Osteoporotic Hip and Spine Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Hip and spine fractures represent just a portion of the burden of osteoporosis; however, these fractures require treatment and often represent a major change in lifestyle for the patient and their family. The orthopedic surgeon plays a crucial role, not only in the treatment of these injuries but also providing guidance in prevention of future osteoporotic fractures. This review provides a brief epidemiology of the fractures, details the surgical techniques, and outlines the current treatment guidelines for orthopedic surgeons. PMID:26246944

  18. Managing the Pediatric Facial Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Patrick; Kaufman, Yoav; Hollier, Larry H.

    2009-01-01

    Facial fracture management is often complex and demanding, particularly within the pediatric population. Although facial fractures in this group are uncommon relative to their incidence in adult counterparts, a thorough understanding of issues relevant to pediatric facial fracture management is critical to optimal long-term success. Here, we discuss several issues germane to pediatric facial fractures and review significant factors in their evaluation, diagnosis, and management. PMID:22110800

  19. Fracture Mechanics and Failure Analysis

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    and brittle failure mechanisms 12 Cyclic fatigue failure mechanism 13 Stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen fracture, fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen embrittlement, fracture criteria in design, fracture assisted crack growth. Assignment2 Linear Elastic Analysis Airy stress function, crack tip stresses, finite

  20. Statistical Physics of Fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Alava, Mikko; Nukala, Phani K; Zapperi, Stefano

    2006-05-01

    Disorder and long-range interactions are two of the key components that make material failure an interesting playfield for the application of statistical mechanics. The cornerstone in this respect has been lattice models of the fracture in which a network of elastic beams, bonds, or electrical fuses with random failure thresholds are subject to an increasing external load. These models describe on a qualitative level the failure processes of real, brittle, or quasi-brittle materials. This has been particularly important in solving the classical engineering problems of material strength: the size dependence of maximum stress and its sample-to-sample statistical fluctuations. At the same time, lattice models pose many new fundamental questions in statistical physics, such as the relation between fracture and phase transitions. Experimental results point out to the existence of an intriguing crackling noise in the acoustic emission and of self-affine fractals in the crack surface morphology. Recent advances in computer power have enabled considerable progress in the understanding of such models. Among these partly still controversial issues, are the scaling and size-effects in material strength and accumulated damage, the statistics of avalanches or bursts of microfailures, and the morphology of the crack surface. Here we present an overview of the results obtained with lattice models for fracture, highlighting the relations with statistical physics theories and more conventional fracture mechanics approaches.

  1. Hip fracture surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the bone to die. Injury to nerves or blood vessels. Parts of the hip bone may not join together at all or in the correct position. Blood clots in the legs or lungs. Mental confusion ( dementia ). Older adults who fracture a hip may already ...

  2. Hand fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePLUS

    ... activities about 6 to 8 weeks after the fracture. Your health care provider or therapist will tell you when. ... swollen, or has an open sore Hard to open and close after your ... if your cast is falling apart or putting pressure on your skin.

  3. Infiltration into Fractured Bedrock

    SciTech Connect

    Salve, Rohit; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Jones, Robert

    2007-09-01

    One potential consequence of global climate change and rapid changes in land use is an increased risk of flooding. Proper understanding of floodwater infiltration thus becomes a crucial component of our preparedness to meet the environmental challenges of projected climate change. In this paper, we present the results of a long-term infiltration experiment performed on fractured ash flow tuff. Water was released from a 3 x 4 m{sup 2} infiltration plot (divided into 12 square subplots) with a head of {approx}0.04 m, over a period of {approx}800 days. This experiment revealed peculiar infiltration patterns not amenable to current infiltration models, which were originally developed for infiltration into soils over a short duration. In particular, we observed that in part of the infiltration plot, the infiltration rate abruptly increased a few weeks into the infiltration tests. We suggest that these anomalies result from increases in fracture permeability during infiltration, which may be caused by swelling of clay fillings and/or erosion of infill debris. Interaction of the infiltration water with subsurface natural cavities (lithophysal cavities) could also contribute to such anomalies. This paper provides a conceptual model that partly describes the observed infiltration patterns in fractured rock and highlights some of the pitfalls associated with direct extension of soil infiltration models to fractured rock over a long period.

  4. Outcome of humeral shaft fractures treated by functional cast brace

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Jitendra Nath; Biswas, Prahas; Roy, Avik; Hazra, Sunit; Mahato, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    Background: Functional brace application for isolated humeral shaft fracture persistently yields good results. Nonunion though uncommon involves usually the proximal third shaft fractures. Instead of polyethylene bivalve functional brace four plaster sleeves wrapped and molded with little more proximal extension expected to prevent nonunion of proximal third fractures. Periodic compressibility of the cast is likely to yield a better result. This can be applied on the 1st day of the presentation as an outpatient basis. Comprehensive objective scoring system befitting for fracture humeral shaft is a need. Materials and Methods: Sixty six (male = 40, female = 26) unilateral humeral shaft fractures of mean age 34.4 years (range 11–75 years) involving 38 left and 28 right hands were included in this study during April 2008 to December 2012. Fractures involved proximal (n = 18), mid (n = 35) and distal (n = 13) of humerus. Transverse, oblique, comminuted and spiral orientations in 18, 35 and 13 patients respectively. One had segmental fracture and three had a pathological fracture with cystic bone lesion. Mechanisms of injuries as identified in this study were road traffic accidents 57.6% (n = 38), fall 37.9% (n = 25). 12.1% (n = 8) had radial nerve palsy 7.6% (n = 5) had Type I open fracture. Four plaster strips of 12 layers and 5–7.5 cm broad depending on the girth of arm were prepared. Arm was then wrapped with single layer compressed cotton. Lateral and medial strips were applied and then after molding anterior and posterior strips were applied in such a way that permits full elbow range of motion and partial abduction of the shoulder. Care was taken to prevent adherence of one strip with other except in the proximal end. Limb was then put in loose collar and cuff sling intermittently allowing active motion of the elbow ROM and pendular movement of the shoulder. Weekly tightening of the cast by fresh layers of bandage over the existing cast brace continued. Results: The results were assessed using 100 point scoring system where union allotted 30 points and 60 points allotted for angulations (10), elbow motion (10), shoulder abduction (10), shortening (5), rotation (5), absence of infection (10), absence of nerve palsy during treatment (10). Remaining 10 points were allotted for five items with two points each. They were the absence of skin sore, absence of vascular problem, absence of reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), recovery of paralyzed nerve during injury and recovery of paralyzed nerve during treatment. Results were considered excellent with 90 and above, good with 80–89, fair with 70–79 and poor below 70 point. Results at 6 months were excellent in 43.94% (n = 29), good in 42.42% (n = 28), fair in 9.1% (n = 6), poor in 4.55% (n = 3). Union took place in 98.48% (n = 65) with an average of 10.3 weeks (range 6–16 weeks). 87.5% (n = 7) paralyzed radial nerve recovered. All wounds healed. Four patients had transient skin problem. One patient with mid shaft fracture had nonunion due to the muscle interposition. Conclusion: Modified functional cast brace is one of the options in treatment for humeral shaft fractures as it can be applied on the 1st day of the presentation in most of the situations. Simple objective scoring system was useful particularly in uneducated patients. PMID:26229161

  5. Proprioceptive facilitation of muscle tension during unilateral and bilateral knee extension.

    PubMed

    Roy, M A; Sylvestre, M; Katch, F I; Katch, V L; Lagassé, P P

    1990-08-01

    The effects of double neuromuscular facilitation (DNF) in unilateral movements and of quadruple neuromuscular facilitation (QNF) in bilateral movements were studied in 42 physically active college-age male subjects. Results showed a 10.4% significant increase of maximal knee extension torque output when unilateral extension was preceded by a knee flexion on an isokinetic exerciser and a 16.7% increase of maximal torque in the bilateral condition of simultaneous alternating flexion-extension when compared to the simultaneous extension movement. Consequently, the increased peak torque observed in the unilateral and bilateral experimental conditions in which knee extension was preceded by a knee flexion appears to be the result of a combination of neuromuscular influences and stored elastic energy. PMID:2228358

  6. Treatment of unilateral posterior crossbite with facial asymmetry in a female patient with transverse discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Jung, Seok-Ki; Kim, Tae-Woo

    2015-07-01

    A unilateral posterior crossbite with facial asymmetry is difficult to correct with orthodontic treatment alone. This case report describes the orthodontic treatment and additional plasty without orthognathic surgery for a 19-year-old woman with a transverse discrepancy. The posterior crossbite was resolved by expansion of the narrow maxillary arch and space closure in the mandibular arch. This accelerated the correction of the functional shift of the mandible. After resolution of the unilateral posterior crossbite, the problems of the anteroposterior molar relationship were treated using orthodontic mini-implants. Mandibular angle reduction plasty was performed for the asymmetric mandibular border to improve the facial appearance. After treatment, the patient had a more symmetrical facial appearance, normal overjet and overbite, and midline coincidence. The treatment results remained stable 1 year after treatment. This case report demonstrates that a minimally invasive treatment can successfully correct a unilateral posterior crossbite with a transverse discrepancy. PMID:26124038

  7. Cardiogenic unilateral pulmonary edema: an unreported complication of a digestive endoscopic procedure.

    PubMed

    Baldessari, Enrique M; Mendez-Villarroel, Andres; Mauriño, Eduardo; Nachman, Fabio D; Veltri, Ignacio A

    2009-01-01

    Unilateral pulmonary edema is an uncommon clinical situation that may be difficult to distinguish from other conditions that cause lung infiltrates. Most cases occur in the right lung, and there are no reports about cardiogenic unilateral pulmonary edema as a complication of an endoscopic procedure of gastrointestinal tract. The authors describe a case of a 79-year-old woman with acute cardiac heart failure that developed soon after a diagnostic upper and lower digestive endoscopy. Continuous positive airway pressure, intravenous nitroglycerin, and furosemide treatment resulted in rapid improvement of symptoms and the progressive resolution of left-sided infiltrates on chest radiography. This case is of particular importance because of the rarity of cardiogenic unilateral edema in the left lung. This clinical finding was associated with the prolonged rest on the left side during the gastrointestinal endoscopic procedure. PMID:19751430

  8. Surgical Management of Patellar Fractures.

    PubMed

    Kakazu, Rafael; Archdeacon, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    The patella plays a crucial role in the extensor mechanism to increase the mechanical advantage of the quadriceps. Fractures can be classified based on displacement, comminution, and fracture pattern, which often guide treatment. Modern treatment options include internal fixation using tension bands with Kirschner wires or cannulated screws, lag screw fixation, partial patellectomy, and rarely total patellectomy. Nondisplaced, closed patellar fractures or fractures with less than 2-mm articular steps can be successfully treated conservatively. Open fractures, articular step of 2 mm or greater, and loss of knee extension are indications for surgical intervention. PMID:26614923

  9. Management of mandibular angle fracture.

    PubMed

    Braasch, Daniel Cameron; Abubaker, A Omar

    2013-11-01

    Fractures through the angle of the mandible are one of the most common facial fractures. The management of such fractures has been controversial, however. This controversy is related to the anatomic relations and complex biomechanical aspects of the mandibular angle. The debate has become even more heated since the evolution of rigid fixation and the ability to provide adequate stability of the fractured segments. This article provides an overview of the special anatomic and biomechanical features of the mandibular angle and their impact on the management of these fractures. PMID:24183373

  10. Unilateral vs bilateral symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: associations between pain intensity and function

    PubMed Central

    Stratford, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to determine if associations between pain distribution (unilateral vs bilateral) and measures of function (self-report vs performance-based) were influenced by knee pain intensity of the painful knee(s) in persons with moderate to severe symptomatic knee OA. Methods. Data from persons in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) dataset (n = 852) with symptomatic knee OA were studied. Key dependent variables were the WOMAC physical function, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) quality of life, the repeated chair stand test and the 20-m walk test. In addition to covariates, the independent variables were the presence of unilateral or bilateral OA involvement (either Kellgren and Lawrence grade 3 or 4 or a grade <3) and pain category (mild, moderate or severe). Results. WOMAC physical function scores consistently showed the strongest association with pain intensity for persons with unilateral vs bilateral knee pain. For example, in persons with unilateral severe knee pain, WOMAC scores averaged 19.9 (s.d. = 12.0) points while persons with bilateral knee pain with at least one knee rated as severe had WOMAC scores ranging from 25.3 to 28.9, depending on pain severity of the contralateral knee. These differences were statistically significant (P < 0.001) as was the test for trend (P = 0.001). Self-report measures generally showed larger effect sizes than performance-based measures. Conclusion. Knee pain intensity influences self-report and performance-based tests differently depending on whether knee pain is unilateral or bilateral. WOMAC scores are most strongly associated with pain intensity in persons with unilateral vs bilateral pain while walking tests are least influenced by pain intensity. PMID:24026250

  11. Etiology and clinical characteristics of symptomatic unilateral maxillary sinusitis: A review of 174 cases.

    PubMed

    Troeltzsch, Matthias; Pache, Christoph; Troeltzsch, Markus; Kaeppler, Gabriele; Ehrenfeld, Michael; Otto, Sven; Probst, Florian

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the causative pathology associated with symptomatic unilateral maxillary sinusitis requiring surgical treatment. A retrospective review of all patients that have been treated surgically for unilateral symptomatic maxillary sinusitis between 2006 and 2013 at a single institution was performed. Demographic, anamnesis, clinical, radiological, microbiological and histological data were gathered and analyzed. The patients were allocated into groups depending on the underlying cause of the disease. Descriptive and inferential statistics were computed (level of significance: p ? 0.05). The study sample was composed of 174 patients (72 female; 102 male) with a mean age of 52.7 years (SD 16.9). Most cases (130; 75%) were triggered by odontogenic pathology following dentoalveolar surgical interventions (83/130 patients; 64%). Other etiological factors for odontogenic unilateral sinusitis were periapical (23/130 cases; 18%) and periodontal pathology (13/130 cases; 10%). Rhinogenic factors for sinusitis were detected in 13 patients (7.5%) and dental implant-associated unilateral maxillary sinusitis was diagnosed in nine patients (5.2%). Four patients (2.3%) had undergone previous sinus augmentation surgery. A leading cause for the sinus infection could not be identified in 18 patients (10%) who all had a history of midfacial surgery. Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (8) and squamous cell carcinoma (2) were incidental findings. There were no differences in the clinical appearance of the disease with respect to its etiology. Odontogenic causes for maxillary sinusitis must be considered especially in unilateral cases. Maxillary dental implants may induce symptomatic unilateral maxillary sinusitis. PMID:26319958

  12. Unilateral, Linear Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome (Bean's syndrome): An Unfamiliar Presentation: First Case from India

    PubMed Central

    Sancheti, Karan; Podder, Indrashis; Das, Anupam; Choudhury, Sourav; Chandra, Somodyuti; Gharami, Ramesh Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) also called Bean's syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by multiple cutaneous venous malformations in association with visceral lesions, most commonly affecting the gastrointestinal tract. We report here, a 21-year-old woman patient, who presented with unilateral, blaschkoid distribution of cutaneous venous malformations along with blue rubber bleb nevus and recurrent episodes of hematochezia due to vascular lesions in the sigmoid colon; likely to be a case of BRBNS. The unusual unilateral, blaschkoid distribution of BRBNS prompted this present report. PMID:26677281

  13. Unilateral Heliotrope Rash in Juvenile Dermatomyositis: An Unusual Presentation of an Underlying Serious Disease

    PubMed Central

    Al-Janobi, Ghada; Alkhalidi, Hisham; Omair, Mohammed A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Heliotrope rash is one of the characteristic skin manifestations of juvenile dermatomyositis. It is a reddish-purple rash on the upper eyelids that is usually bilateral. Case Presentation. We report a boy who presented with unilateral heliotrope rash, Gottron's papules, and muscle weakness. Muscle biopsy was consistent with inflammatory myositis. Patient was started on prednisolone and methotrexate with an excellent response in both the skin and muscles. Conclusion. Unilateral heliotrope rash can occur in patients with juvenile dermatomyositis. Being a paraneoplastic condition caution should be taken not to miss any underlying malignancy. PMID:25587479

  14. Hemiarthroplasty for proximal humerus fractures.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Lauchlan; Dines, Joshua S; Lorich, Dean G; Dines, David M

    2013-03-01

    Proximal humerus fractures are common injuries that are increasing in incidence with the aging of the population. While nonoperative treatment of some fracture patterns results in clinical success, other, more displaced and comminuted fractures may require surgery to ensure a successful outcome. It is important to evaluate both patient and fracture characteristics in deciding upon the appropriate type of treatment. Every effort should be made to perform a humeral sparing procedure in younger patients. In the elderly, especially with more complex four-part fractures and fracture dislocations, hemiarthroplasty and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty are indicated to decrease complication rates and improve functional outcomes. In hemiarthroplasties, it is critical to achieve proper implant height and positioning of the tuberosities. For those patients or fractures in which the tuberosities are unlikely to heal or cannot be adequately reconstructed, reverse total shoulder arthroplasty should be considered. PMID:23355218

  15. Complications in Pediatric Facial Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Mimi T.; Losee, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of pediatric facial fractures, little has been published on the complications of these fractures. The existing literature is highly variable regarding both the definition and the reporting of adverse events. Although the incidence of pediatric facial fractures is relative low, they are strongly associated with other serious injuries. Both the fractures and their treatment may have long-term consequence on growth and development of the immature face. This article is a selective review of the literature on facial fracture complications with special emphasis on the complications unique to pediatric patients. We also present our classification system to evaluate adverse outcomes associated with pediatric facial fractures. Prospective, long-term studies are needed to fully understand and appreciate the complexity of treating children with facial fractures and determining the true incidence, subsequent growth, and nature of their complications. PMID:22110803

  16. Vascular calcification and fracture risk

    PubMed Central

    Szulc, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases are public health problems. Fragility fractures are associated with high risk of cardiovascular event and patients with cardiovascular diseases have higher risk of fracture. Severe abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) is associated with higher cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Severe AAC is associated with higher risk of fracture. In cross-sectional studies severe AAC was associated with greater prevalence, higher number and greater severity of vertebral fractures after adjustment for confounders including bone mineral density (BMD). Prospective studies confirm the association between baseline AAC severity and prospectively assessed fracture risk in both sexes. Data on the link between AAC and BMD are discordant. Age, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and low grade systemic inflammation are possible risk factors of severe AAC and fracture risk. However, in clinical studies, the link between AAC and fracture was significant after adjustment for these factors. Data on the association between calcification in other vascular beds and BMD are limited and discordant. PMID:26604939

  17. Linear elastic fracture mechanics primer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Christopher D.

    1992-01-01

    This primer is intended to remove the blackbox perception of fracture mechanics computer software by structural engineers. The fundamental concepts of linear elastic fracture mechanics are presented with emphasis on the practical application of fracture mechanics to real problems. Numerous rules of thumb are provided. Recommended texts for additional reading, and a discussion of the significance of fracture mechanics in structural design are given. Griffith's criterion for crack extension, Irwin's elastic stress field near the crack tip, and the influence of small-scale plasticity are discussed. Common stress intensities factor solutions and methods for determining them are included. Fracture toughness and subcritical crack growth are discussed. The application of fracture mechanics to damage tolerance and fracture control is discussed. Several example problems and a practice set of problems are given.

  18. Visual Field Function in School-Aged Children with Spastic Unilateral Cerebral Palsy Related to Different Patterns of Brain Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Lena; Rydberg, Agneta; Eliasson, Ann-Christin; Kits, Annika; Flodmark, Olof

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To relate visual field function to brain morphology in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Visual field function was assessed using the confrontation technique and Goldmann perimetry in 29 children (15 males, 14 females; age range 7-17y, median age 11y) with unilateral CP classified at Gross Motor Function Classification…

  19. Hand Function in Relation to Brain Lesions and Corticomotor-Projection Pattern in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmstrom, Linda; Vollmer, Brigitte; Tedroff, Kristina; Islam, Mominul; Persson, Jonas Ke; Kits, Annika; Forssberg, Hans; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate relationships between hand function, brain lesions, and corticomotor projections in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Method: The study included 17 children (nine males, eight females; mean age 11.4 [SD 2.4] range 7-16y), with unilateral CP at Gross Motor Function Classification System level I and Manual Ability…

  20. Fracture mechanics validity limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Dennis M.; Ernst, Hugo A.

    1994-01-01

    Fracture behavior is characteristics of a dramatic loss of strength compared to elastic deformation behavior. Fracture parameters have been developed and exhibit a range within which each is valid for predicting growth. Each is limited by the assumptions made in its development: all are defined within a specific context. For example, the stress intensity parameters, K, and the crack driving force, G, are derived using an assumption of linear elasticity. To use K or G, the zone of plasticity must be small as compared to the physical dimensions of the object being loaded. This insures an elastic response, and in this context, K and G will work well. Rice's J-integral has been used beyond the limits imposed on K and G. J requires an assumption of nonlinear elasticity, which is not characteristic of real material behavior, but is thought to be a reasonable approximation if unloading is kept to a minimum. As well, the constraint cannot change dramatically (typically, the crack extension is limited to ten-percent of the initial remaining ligament length). Rice, et al investigated the properties required of J-type parameters, J(sub x), and showed that the time rate, dJ(sub x)/dt, must not be a function of the crack extension rate, da/dt. Ernst devised the modified-J parameter, J(sub M), that meets this criterion. J(sub M) correlates fracture data to much higher crack growth than does J. Ultimately, a limit of the validity of J(sub M) is anticipated, and this has been estimated to be at a crack extension of about 40-percent of the initial remaining ligament length. None of the various parameters can be expected to describe fracture in an environment of gross plasticity, in which case the process is better described by deformation parameters, e.g., stress and strain. In the current study, various schemes to identify the onset of the plasticity-dominated behavior, i.e., the end of fracture mechanics validity, are presented. Each validity limit parameter is developed in detail, and then data is presented and the various schemes for establishing a limit of the validity are compared. The selected limiting parameter is applied to a set of fracture data showing the improvement of correlation gained.

  1. Diagnosing vertebral fractures: missed opportunities.

    PubMed

    Borges, João Lindolfo Cunha; Maia, Julianne Lira; Silva, Renata Faria; Lewiecki, Edward Michael

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are the single most common type of osteoporotic fracture. Postmenopausal women are at increased risk for osteoporotic vertebral fractures compared with women of childbearing age. Vertebral fractures are associated with an increase in morbidity, mortality, and high risk of a subsequent vertebral fracture, regardless of bone mineral density. Despite the common occurrence and serious consequences of vertebral fractures, they are often unrecognized or misdiagnosed by radiologists. Moreover, vertebral fractures may be described by variable terminology that can confuse rather than enlighten referring physicians. We conducted a survey of spine X-ray reports from a group of postmenopausal women screened for participation in a study of osteoporosis at Centro de Pesquisa Clínica do Brasil. A descriptive analysis evaluated the variability of reports in 7 patients. Four independent general radiologists issued reports assessing vertebral fractures through a blinded analysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate for consistency in these reports. The analysis found marked variability in the diagnosis of vertebral fractures and the terminology used to describe them. In community medical practices, such variability could lead to differences in the management of patients with osteoporosis, with the potential for undertreatment or overtreatment depending on clinical circumstances. Accurate and unambiguous reporting of vertebral fractures is likely to be associated with improved clinical outcomes. PMID:25772659

  2. Relative Dating Via Fractures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    This VIS image of the eastern part of the Tharsis region illustrates how fractures can be used in relative dating of a surface. The fractured materials on the right side of the image are embayed by younger volcanic flows originating to the west of the image. Note how the younger flows cover the ends of the fractures, and are not at all fractured themselves.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 43.2, Longitude 269.4 East (90.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  3. Anteromedial coronoid facet fractures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Chang, Shi-Min; Yu, Guang-Rong

    2013-04-01

    The anteromedial coronoid facet and the medial lip of trochlea represent one of the most important stabilizing columns of the elbow to prevent posterior dislocation of the elbow. But on average, 58 % of the anteromedial facet extends from the proximal ulnar without sufficient support by the proximal ulnar metaphysic. Some important soft tissue structures insert on the coronoid process. The fracture of anteromedial coronoid facet was recognized recently in clinic as a distinct type of the coronoid fracture. The special injury mechanism is varus posteromedial rotational injury force. This mechanism results in fracture of the anteromedial facet of the coronoid process most often associated with injury of the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) and either subluxation or complete dislocation of the elbow. But the anterior band of the medial collateral ligament is likely to be intact in the complex pattern injury. Standard radiographic evaluation of the fracture includes AP and lateral views of the elbow. Computed tomography, particularly 3D reconstruction, is particularly useful to diagnose the injury. But the LCL injury is easy to be missed, resulting in an earlier traumatic arthrosis. So, it is very important to increase recognition to the pattern injury. If the single distinct converse triangular fragment be found from the film, the surgeon should take care highly, and varus stress x-ray should be necessary to evaluate the LCL injury. Early experience suggests that the injuries should benefit from operative treatment. All injured structures should be repaired to restore the stability of the elbow. Intraoperative testing of the elbow stability is very important. PMID:23412296

  4. Melt fracture revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, J. M.

    2003-07-16

    In a previous paper the author and Demay advanced a model to explain the melt fracture instability observed when molten linear polymer melts are extruded in a capillary rheometer operating under the controlled condition that the inlet flow rate was held constant. The model postulated that the melts were a slightly compressible viscous fluid and allowed for slipping of the melt at the wall. The novel feature of that model was the use of an empirical switch law which governed the amount of wall slip. The model successfully accounted for the oscillatory behavior of the exit flow rate, typically referred to as the melt fracture instability, but did not simultaneously yield the fine scale spatial oscillations in the melt typically referred to as shark skin. In this note a new model is advanced which simultaneously explains the melt fracture instability and shark skin phenomena. The model postulates that the polymer is a slightly compressible linearly viscous fluid but assumes no slip boundary conditions at the capillary wall. In simple shear the shear stress {tau}and strain rate d are assumed to be related by d = F{tau} where F ranges between F{sub 2} and F{sub 1} > F{sub 2}. A strain rate dependent yield function is introduced and this function governs whether F evolves towards F{sub 2} or F{sub 1}. This model accounts for the empirical observation that at high shears polymers align and slide more easily than at low shears and explains both the melt fracture and shark skin phenomena.

  5. Phase Field Fracture Mechanics.

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Brett Anthony

    2015-11-01

    For this assignment, a newer technique of fracture mechanics using a phase field approach, will be examined and compared with experimental data for a bend test and a tension test. The software being used is Sierra Solid Mechanics, an implicit/explicit finite element code developed at Sandia National Labs in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The bend test experimental data was also obtained at Sandia Labs while the tension test data was found in a report online from Purdue University.

  6. Fractured Craters on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Two highly fractured craters are visible in this high resolution image of Jupiter's moon, Ganymede. NASA's Galileo spacecraft imaged this region as it passed Ganymede during its second orbit through the Jovian system. North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the southeast. The two craters in the center of the image lie in the ancient dark terrain of Marius Regio, at 40 degrees latitude and 201 degrees longitude, at the border of a region of bright grooved terrain known as Byblus Sulcus (the eastern portion of which is visible on the left of this image). Pervasive fracturing has occurred in this area that has completely disrupted these craters and destroyed their southern and western walls. Such intense fracturing has occurred over much of Ganymede's surface and has commonly destroyed older features. The image covers an area approximately 26 kilometers (16 miles) by 18 kilometers (11 miles) across at a resolution of 86 meters (287 feet) per picture element. The image was taken on September 6, 1996 by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  7. Procedure for estimating fracture energy from fracture surface roughness

    DOEpatents

    Williford, Ralph E. (Kennewick, WA)

    1989-01-01

    The fracture energy of a material is determined by first measuring the length of a profile of a section through a fractured surface of the material taken on a plane perpendicular to the mean plane of that surface, then determining the fractal dimensionality of the surface. From this, the yield strength of the material, and the Young's Modulus of that material, the fracture energy is calculated.

  8. Unilateral Molariform Macrodont Mandibular Second Premolar: An Unusual Case Report in A Nonsyndromic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Masamatti, Vinay Kumar; Tiwari, Samarth; Malik, Sidharath

    2014-01-01

    Macrodontia is a rare dental anomaly that refers to teeth appears larger than normal. It can be generalized or isolated macrodontia. Isolated macrodontia involving premolar is very rare. This case report presents an unusual unilateral molarifrom macrodontia of mandibular second premolar. PMID:25177648

  9. Early voice rehabilitation with injection laryngoplasty in patients with unilateral vocal cord palsy after thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jeon Yeob; Lee, Giljoon; Ahn, Jungmin; Son, Young-Ik

    2015-12-01

    Injection laryngoplasty is a safe and efficient procedure for the management of hoarseness resulting from unilateral vocal cord paralysis (VCP). However, proper timing and material of injection after the occurrence of VCP are still under discussion. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of early injection laryngoplasty with long-lasting soft tissue filler in patients with post-thyroidectomy unilateral VCP. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 59 consecutive patients who developed unilateral VCP after thyroidectomy and received ArteSense™ injection laryngoplasty. Objective and subjective voice outcomes were compared between early (within 3 months) and late (after 3 months) injection groups. The mean duration from thyroidectomy to injection laryngoplasty was 39.7 and 334.2 days in the early and late injection groups, respectively. All of the tested objective and subjective voice parameters were significantly improved in both the early and late groups. However, the amount of voice improvement was significantly larger in the early injection group, especially jitter % (P = 0.02) and shimmer % (P = 0.03) improvement. Four patients showed spontaneous recovery from VCP after early injection laryngoplasty; nevertheless, their voice outcomes were excellent and there was no significant discomfort or complication. Early voice rehabilitation with injection laryngoplasty is a safe and efficient treatment in the patients with post-thyroidectomy unilateral VCP. PMID:26179870

  10. The Course and Outcome of Unilateral Intracranial Arteriopathy in 79 Children with Ischaemic Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, K. P. J.; Bulder, M. M. M.; Chabrier, S.; Kirkham, F. J.; Uiterwaal, C. S. P.; Tardieu, M.; Sebire, G.

    2009-01-01

    Arteriopathies are the commonest cause of arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS) in children. Repeated vascular imaging in children with AIS demonstrated the existence of a "transient cerebral arteriopathy" (TCA), characterized by lenticulostriate infarction due to non-progressive unilateral arterial disease affecting the supraclinoid internal carotid…

  11. Quantification of effectiveness of bilateral and unilateral neuromodulation in the rat bladder rhythmic contraction model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Using the isovolumetric bladder rhythmic contraction (BRC) model in anesthetized rats, we have quantified the responsiveness to unilateral and bilateral stimulation of the L6 spinal nerve (SN) and characterized the relationship between stimulus intensity and inhibition of the bladder micturition reflex. Methods A wire electrode was placed under either one or both of the L6 SN roots. A cannula was placed into the bladder via the urethra and the urethra was ligated. Saline infusion induced BRC. Results At motor threshold (Tmot) intensity, SN stimulation of both roots (10 Hz) for 10 min reduced bladder contraction frequency from 0.63?±?0.04 to 0.17?±?0.09 contractions per min (26?±?14% of baseline control; n?=?10, p?unilateral stimulation (n?=?15) or sequential stimulation of both SNs (e.g. 5 min per side alternatively for a total of 10 min or 20 min) was less efficacious. The greater sensitivity to bilateral stimulation is not dependent upon precise bilateral timing of the stimulation pulses. Bilateral stimulation also produced both acute and prolonged- inhibition on bladder contractions in a stimulation intensity dependent fashion. Conclusions Using the bladder rhythmic contraction model, bilateral stimulation was more effective than unilateral stimulation of the SN. Clinical testing should be conducted to further compare efficacies of unilateral and bilateral stimulation. Bilateral stimulation may allow the use of lower stimulation intensities to achieve higher efficacy for neurostimulation therapies on urinary tract control. PMID:23866931

  12. "No-Show": Therapist Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Client Unilateral Termination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jesse; Imel, Zac; Adelson, Jill; Rodolfa, Emil

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the authors examined the source of racial/ethnic minority (REM) disparities in unilateral termination (i.e., the client ending therapy without informing the therapist)--a form of dropout that is associated with poor alliance and outcome. First, the authors tested whether some therapists were more likely to have clients who…

  13. Dynamics of planar rocking-blocks with Coulomb friction and unilateral constraints: Comparisons

    E-print Network

    Dynamics of planar rocking-blocks with Coulomb friction and unilateral constraints: Comparisons Abstract This paper concerns the dynamics of planar rocking blocks, which are mechanical systems subject impact model allows one to correctly predict the block motions. Especially the free-rocking experiments

  14. Verbal Competence in Narrative Retelling in 5-Year-Olds with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintö, Kristina; Salameh, Eva-Kristina; Lohmander, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding expressive language performance in children born with cleft palate is sparse. The relationship between articulation/phonology and expressive language skills also needs to be further explored. Aims: To investigate verbal competence in narrative retelling in 5-year-old children born with unilateral cleft lip and palate…

  15. Forced unilateral nostril breathing (FUNB) effects on the autonomic nervous system: an unsupported claim.

    PubMed

    Larson, G; Zaichkowsky, L D; Mostofsky, D I

    1993-10-01

    Previous claims that forced unilateral nostril breathing (FUNB) has several specific measurable effects on the autonomic nervous system were examined. Using the technique suggested by Backon, 4 subjects were tested, using an ABABA design. The results did not demonstrate any significant changes in heart rate, pulse amplitude, temperature, skin conductance response, or respiration force as a result of FUNB. PMID:8289706

  16. 36 CFR 223.235 - Unilateral delay, suspension, or modification of contracts, permits, or other instruments...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unilateral delay, suspension, or modification of contracts, permits, or other instruments authorizing the sale of special forest products. 223.235 Section 223.235 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  17. 36 CFR 223.235 - Unilateral delay, suspension, or modification of contracts, permits, or other instruments...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unilateral delay, suspension, or modification of contracts, permits, or other instruments authorizing the sale of special forest products. 223.235 Section 223.235 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  18. 36 CFR 223.235 - Unilateral delay, suspension, or modification of contracts, permits, or other instruments...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unilateral delay, suspension, or modification of contracts, permits, or other instruments authorizing the sale of special forest products. 223.235 Section 223.235 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  19. 36 CFR 223.235 - Unilateral delay, suspension, or modification of contracts, permits, or other instruments...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unilateral delay, suspension, or modification of contracts, permits, or other instruments authorizing the sale of special forest products. 223.235 Section 223.235 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  20. 36 CFR 223.235 - Unilateral delay, suspension, or modification of contracts, permits, or other instruments...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unilateral delay, suspension, or modification of contracts, permits, or other instruments authorizing the sale of special forest products. 223.235 Section 223.235 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  1. Partial unilateral lesions of the mushroom bodies affect olfactory learning in honeybees Apis mellifera L.

    E-print Network

    Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

    Partial unilateral lesions of the mushroom bodies affect olfactory learning in honeybees Apis Toulouse cedex 04, France Keywords: brain lesion, cognition, honeybee, hydroxyurea, mushroom bodies, olfactory learning Abstract The mushroom bodies (MBs) are central structures in the insect brain that have

  2. Gaze Behaviour during Interception in Children with Spastic Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kampen, P. M.; Ledebt, A.; Smorenburg, A. R. P.; Vermeulen, R. J.; Kelder, M. E.; van der Kamp, J.; Savelsbergh, G. J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Anticipatory gaze behaviour during interceptive movements was investigated in children with Spastic Unilateral Cerebral Palsy (SUCP), and related to the side of the intracerebral lesion. Five children with lesions of the right hemisphere (RHL) and five children with lesions of the left hemisphere (LHL) had to walk towards and intercept a ball that…

  3. Action Planning in Typically and Atypically Developing Children (Unilateral Cerebral Palsy)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craje, Celine; Aarts, Pauline; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria; Steenbergen, Bert

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the development of action planning in children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP, aged 3-6 years, n = 24) and an age matched control group. To investigate action planning, participants performed a sequential movement task. They had to grasp an object (a wooden play sword) and place the sword in a hole in a…

  4. Unilateral hypoplastic kidney and ureter associated with diverse mesonephric remnant hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Guang-Qian; Jerome, Jean-Gilles; Wu, Guan

    2015-01-01

    Mesonephric remnants have been rarely reported in the genitourinary system and sometimes impose a diagnostic challenge both clinically and pathologically. We reported a case of mesonephric remnant hyperplasia with mixed acinar/tubular and epididymis/vas deferens-like morphologies occurring in the renal parenchyma of a unilateral hypoplastic kidney, which has not been previously described. PMID:26309900

  5. Numerical analysis of a one-dimensional elastodynamic model of dry friction and unilateral contact

    E-print Network

    Renard, Yves - Pôle de Mathématiques, Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon

    , France Abstract This paper deals with a numerical analysis of a one-dimensional dynamic purely elastic (i fundamental properties of the dynamic behavior of elastic structure under dry friction and unilateral contact #12;2. The one-dimensional elastic model with dry friction The model we deal with in this paper

  6. Reversible improvement in severe freezing of gait from Parkinson's disease with unilateral interleaved subthalamic brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Brosius, Stephanie N; Gonzalez, Christopher L; Shuresh, Joshita; Walker, Harrison C

    2015-12-01

    Freezing of gait causes considerable morbidity in patients with Parkinson's disease and is often refractory to conventional treatments. In this double-blind, randomized evaluation, unilateral interleaved deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus/substantia nigra pars reticulata region significantly improved freezing of gait in a patient with advanced Parkinson's disease. PMID:26482492

  7. Unilateral posterior cervical spinal cord infarction due to spontaneous vertebral artery dissection

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Sébastien; Abdallah, Chifaou; Chanson, Anne; Foscolo, Sylvain; Baillot, Pierre-Alexandre; Ducrocq, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Context Ischemia of the cervical spinal cord is a rare complication of spontaneous vertebral artery dissection (VAD) and usually involves the ventral portion. We describe a less evocative clinical presentation and images of unilateral posterior spinal cord infarction due to spontaneous VAD in order to facilitate early diagnosis. Findings A previously fit 30-year-old man presented with persistent headaches and proximal motor deficit of the right arm. He was diagnosed with spontaneous dissection of both vertebral arteries, with occlusion of the right one, and the right carotid artery. Neurological examination also revealed a right C2–C3 tactile sensory loss, with unilateral proprioceptive deficit below. Brain images revealed small bilateral cerebellar infarcts which could not be responsible for the clinical symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal cord showed a right posterior cervical spinal cord infarction. The patient achieved nearly complete recovery after several weeks of anticoagulation and rehabilitation. Conclusion and clinical relevance Infarction of the caudal portion of the cervical spinal cord, especially unilateral, caused by spontaneous VAD, has rarely been described and is certainly under-diagnosed due to less suggestive symptoms, like unilateral and mainly sensory deficit. Nevertheless, early diagnosis of this condition is important to guide patient management and rehabilitation. PMID:24090478

  8. Consciousness and Cognition, 10, 574-587, 2001. Low-level phenomenal vision despite unilateral

    E-print Network

    Consciousness and Cognition, 10, 574-587, 2001. Low-level phenomenal vision despite unilateral Running head: Phenomenal vision without V1 Key Words: Conscious vision, perceptual matching, visual cortex, qualia, access, GY #12;Abstract GY, an extensively studied human hemianope, is aware of salient visual

  9. Unilateral superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis in a user of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Jaais, F; Habib, Z A

    1994-12-01

    A patient on oral contraceptives over several years developed unilateral proptosis, haemorrhagic retinopathy and increase in intraocular pressure. An orbital vein venogram confirmed the diagnosis of right superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis. There was complete resolution of thrombosis and eye signs and symptoms with discontinuation of the oral contraceptive. PMID:7674980

  10. Single-Sided Deafness Leads to Unilateral Aural Preference within an Early Sensitive Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kral, Andrej; Hubka, Peter; Heid, Silvia; Tillein, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Unilateral deafness has a high incidence in children. In addition to children who are born without hearing in one ear, children with bilateral deafness are frequently equipped only with one cochlear implant, leaving the other ear deaf. The present study investigates the effects of such single-sided deafness during development in the congenitally…

  11. Reliability of a Unilateral Horizontal Leg Power Test to Assess Stretch Load Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Rhianna Parker; Cronin, John

    2006-01-01

    Drop jumping has previously been used to measure fast stretch shorten cycle (SSC) ability and stretch load tolerance. To the knowledge of these authors a test does not exist to achieve this in the horizontal direction. The purpose of this study therefore was to estimate the reliability of a new unilateral horizontal leg power test to assess these…

  12. Analysis of a unilateral contact problem taking into account adhesion and friction

    E-print Network

    Rossi, Riccarda

    Analysis of a unilateral contact problem taking into account adhesion and friction Elena Bonetti) adhesion and of the friction are taken into account. We describe the adhesion phenomenon in terms conditions and the friction by a nonlocal Coulomb law. All the constraints on the internal variables as well

  13. Unilateral Lymphangiomatous Polyp of the Palatine Tonsil in a Very Young Child: A Clinicopathologic Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Edward; Pransky, Seth M.; Malicki, Denise M.; Hong, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Childhood lymphangiomatous polyp of the palatine tonsil is a very unusual lesion found in the head and neck. Tonsillectomy has been reported to be the curative procedure of choice for this lesion. We report a case of a very young child with unilateral lymphangiomatous polyp of the palatine tonsil. PMID:22606515

  14. Polymerase chain reaction in unilateral cases of presumed viral anterior uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Shoughy, Samir S; Alkatan, Hind M; Al-Abdullah, Abdulelah A; El-Khani, Albarah; de Groot-Mijnes, Jolanda DF; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Anterior uveitis is the most common form of intraocular inflammation. The main aim of this study was to determine the viral etiology in patients with unilateral cases of anterior uveitis. Patients and methods A total of 12 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of idiopathic unilateral anterior uveitis were included prospectively. Aqueous specimens were obtained from each patient by anterior chamber paracentesis and subjected to the detection of viral DNA/RNA genome by polymerase chain reaction assay for herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein–Barr virus, and rubella virus. Results There were six male and six female patients. The mean age was 43 years, with an age range of 11–82 years. All 12 cases presented with unilateral anterior uveitis. In four (33%) patients, polymerase chain reaction was positive for viral genome. Two patients were positive for herpes simplex virus type 1, one patient was positive for cytomegalovirus and one for Epstein–Barr virus. Conclusion Recent molecular diagnostic assays would help in the identification of the causative agent in patients with unilateral anterior uveitis. PMID:26715836

  15. Look over There! Unilateral Gaze Increases Geographical Memory of the 50 United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Propper, Ruth E.; Brunye, Tad T.; Christman, Stephen D.; Januszewskia, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Based on their specialized processing abilities, the left and right hemispheres of the brain may not contribute equally to recall of general world knowledge. US college students recalled the verbal names and spatial locations of the 50 US states while sustaining leftward or rightward unilateral gaze, a procedure that selectively activates the…

  16. Comparison of the Electromyographic Activation Level and Unilateral Selectivity of Erector Spinae during Different Selected Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Lan-Yuen; Wang, Yu-Lin; Huang, Yu-Han; Yang, Chich-Haung; Hou, Yi-You; Harn, Hans I-Chen; You, Yu-Lin

    2012-01-01

    For patients with scoliosis, core stabilization exercises may be beneficial in improving muscle strength and trunk dynamic control. However, few studies have examined whether the erector spinae (ES) activation status during unilateral spinal extensor strengthening meets the guideline for patients with spinal scoliosis. To determine ES activation…

  17. Perceptual Asymmetry for Chimeric Stimuli in Children with Early Unilateral Brain Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bava, Sunita; Ballantyne, Angela O.; May, Susanne J.; Trauner, Doris A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study used a chimeric stimuli task to assess the magnitude of the left-hemispace bias in children with congenital unilateral brain damage (n=46) as compared to typically developing matched controls (n=46). As would be expected, controls exhibited a significant left-hemispace bias. In the presence of left hemisphere (LH) damage, the…

  18. Role of disengagement failure and attentional gradient in unilateral spatial neglect a

    E-print Network

    Deouell, Leon Y.

    Role of disengagement failure and attentional gradient in unilateral spatial neglect of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel Abstract Purpose: To assess the importance of `disengagement failure-hemisphere-damaged stroke patients per- formed the standardized Behavioural-Inattention-Test battery for visual neglect

  19. 12 CFR 950.11 - Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital stock requirements; unilateral redemption of excess stock. 950.11 Section 950.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS ADVANCES Advances to Members § 950.11 Capital...

  20. Mortality after hip fracture with vertebral compression fracture is poor.

    PubMed

    Imai, Norio; Endo, Naoto; Hoshino, Tadashi; Suda, Ken; Miyasaka, Dai; Ito, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasing elderly population, the prevalence of osteoporotic hip fractures in Japanese patients continues to rise. It is well established that patients with either hip fracture or both symptomatic and asymptomatic morphometric vertebral compression fracture (VCF) have a poor health prognosis compared with the general population. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate vertebral fracture rates among patients with hip fracture and their influence on mortality. We examined 182 cases of osteoporotic hip fracture in patients admitted to our institution between January 2009 and May 2011. The average age at the time of fracture was 85 years. Radiographs of the lumbar spine were obtained from all of the participants and the lateral spinal radiographs were examined for evidence of VCF. The patients were classified into two groups, those with VCF and those without. A VCF was identified in approximately 78 % of the patients. The mortality rate 1 year after the hip fracture was approximately 22 % and it was significantly higher in patients with VCF. Through multivariate statistics we found that VCF, post-operative complication, loss of ambulation after operation and medication for osteoporosis were statistically significant. In other words, VCF, post-operative complication and loss of ambulation were considered to be poor prognostic factors and medication for osteoporosis was likely to improve the prognosis. We concluded that the risk of mortality after hip fracture is significantly greater in patients who also have VCF compared to patients without VCF, and that medication for osteoporosis is likely to improve prognosis. PMID:25501699

  1. Prediction of Composite Laminate Fracture: Micromechanics and Progressive Fracture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotsis, P. K.; Chamis, C. C.; Minnetyan, L.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes an investigation to predict first-ply failure and final fracture in selected composite laminates subjected to inplane loads. The laminates were composed of glass fiber and graphite fibers in epoxy matrices. Failure envelopes based on first-ply failure and laminate fracture were generated for combined loading of these laminates. Predictions were evaluated by micromechanics-based theory and progressive fracture. The results show that, for most cases, combined tensile loading significantly enhanced the laminate fracture stress in comparison to the uniaxial loading.

  2. Brittle Fracture Ductile to Brittle transition

    E-print Network

    Subramaniam, Anandh

    FRACTURE Brittle Fracture Ductile to Brittle transition Fracture Mechanics T.L. Anderson CRC sulphur in steel Residual stress Continuity of the structure Microcracks #12;Fracture Brittle Ductile Factors affecting fracture Strain rate State of stress Temperature #12;Behaviour described Terms Used

  3. Resistivity logging of fractured basalt

    SciTech Connect

    Stefansson, V.; Axelsson, G.; Sigurdsson, O.

    1982-01-01

    A lumped double porosity model was studied in order to estimate the effect of fractures on resistivity - porosity relations. It is found that the relationship between resistivity and porosity for fractured rock is in general not simple and depends both on the amounts of matrix porosity as well as the fracture orientation. However, when fractures dominate over matrix porosity the exponent is close to 1.0. Resistivity-porosity relations have been determined for large amounts of basaltic formations in Iceland. An exponent close to 1.0 is found in all cases investigated. This is interpreted as fractures constitute a considerable part of the porosity of the basalts. In the IRDP-hole in Eastern Iceland it is found that the ratio of fracture porosity to total porosity decreases with depth.

  4. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly different from that of gas displacement processes. The work is of experimental nature and clarifies several misconceptions in the literature. Based on experimental results, it is established that the main reason for high efficiency of solution gas drive from heavy oil reservoirs is due to low gas mobility. Chapter III presents the concept of the alteration of porous media wettability from liquid-wetting to intermediate gas-wetting. The idea is novel and has not been introduced in the petroleum literature before. There are significant implications from such as proposal. The most direct application of intermediate gas wetting is wettability alteration around the wellbore. Such an alteration can significantly improve well deliverability in gas condensate reservoirs where gas well deliverability decreases below dewpoint pressure. Part I of Chapter III studies the effect of gravity, viscous forces, interfacial tension, and wettability on the critical condensate saturation and relative permeability of gas condensate systems. A simple phenomenological network model is used for this study, The theoretical results reveal that wettability significantly affects both the critical gas saturation and gas relative permeability. Gas relative permeability may increase ten times as contact angle is altered from 0{sup o} (strongly liquid wet) to 85{sup o} (intermediate gas-wetting). The results from the theoretical study motivated the experimental investigation described in Part II. In Part II we demonstrate that the wettability of porous media can be altered from liquid-wetting to gas-wetting. This part describes our attempt to find appropriate chemicals for wettability alteration of various substrates including rock matrix. Chapter IV provides a comprehensive treatment of molecular, pressure, and thermal diffusion and convection in porous media Basic theoretical analysis is presented using irreversible thermodynamics.

  5. Plasticity in the adult human central auditory system: evidence from late-onset profound unilateral deafness.

    PubMed

    Ponton, C W; Vasama, J P; Tremblay, K; Khosla, D; Kwong, B; Don, M

    2001-04-01

    Experience-related changes in central nervous system (CNS) activity have been observed in the adult brain of many mammalian species, including humans. In humans, late-onset profound unilateral deafness creates an opportunity to study plasticity in the adult CNS consequent to monaural auditory deprivation. CNS activity was assessed by measuring long-latency auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) recorded from teens and adults with late-onset (post-childhood) profound unilateral deafness. Compared to monaurally stimulated normal-hearing subjects, the AEPs recorded from central electrode sites located over auditory cortical areas showed significant increases in inter-hemispheric waveform cross-correlation coefficients, and in inter-hemispheric AEP peak amplitude correlations. These increases provide evidence of substantial changes from the normal pattern of asymmetrical (contralateral > ipsilateral amplitude) and asynchronous (contralateral earlier than ipsilateral) central auditory system activation in the normal-hearing population to a much more symmetrical and synchronous activation in the unilaterally deaf. These cross-sectional analyses of AEP data recorded from the unilaterally deaf also suggest that the changes in cortical activity occur gradually and continue for at least 2 years after the onset of hearing loss. Analyses of peak amplitude correlations suggest that the increased inter-hemispheric symmetry may be a consequence of changes in the generators producing the N (approximately 100 ms peak latency) potential. These experience-related changes in central auditory system activity following late-onset profound unilateral deafness thus provide evidence of the presence and the time course of auditory system plasticity in the adult brain. PMID:11423213

  6. Unilateral Prostate Cancer Cannot be Accurately Predicted in Low-Risk Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Isbarn, Hendrik; Karakiewicz, Pierre I.; Vogel, Susanne

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: Hemiablative therapy (HAT) is increasing in popularity for treatment of patients with low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). The validity of this therapeutic modality, which exclusively treats PCa within a single prostate lobe, rests on accurate staging. We tested the accuracy of unilaterally unremarkable biopsy findings in cases of low-risk PCa patients who are potential candidates for HAT. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 243 men with clinical stage {<=}T2a, a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration of <10 ng/ml, a biopsy-proven Gleason sum of {<=}6, and a maximum of 2 ipsilateral positive biopsy results out of 10 or more cores. All men underwent a radical prostatectomy, and pathology stage was used as the gold standard. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were tested for significant predictors of unilateral, organ-confined PCa. These predictors consisted of PSA, %fPSA (defined as the quotient of free [uncomplexed] PSA divided by the total PSA), clinical stage (T2a vs. T1c), gland volume, and number of positive biopsy cores (2 vs. 1). Results: Despite unilateral stage at biopsy, bilateral or even non-organ-confined PCa was reported in 64% of all patients. In multivariable analyses, no variable could clearly and independently predict the presence of unilateral PCa. This was reflected in an overall accuracy of 58% (95% confidence interval, 50.6-65.8%). Conclusions: Two-thirds of patients with unilateral low-risk PCa, confirmed by clinical stage and biopsy findings, have bilateral or non-organ-confined PCa at radical prostatectomy. This alarming finding questions the safety and validity of HAT.

  7. Lesion Activity on Brain MRI in a Chinese Population with Unilateral Optic Neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chuntao; Chang, Qinglin; Tian, Guohong; Wang, Jiawei; Yin, Hongxia; Liu, Wu

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal studies have shown that brain white matter lesions are strong predictors of the conversion of unilateral optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis (MS) in Caucasian populations. Consequently brain MRI criteria have been developed to improve the prediction of the development of clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS). In Asian populations, optic neuritis may be the first sign of classical or optic-spinal MS. These signs add to the uncertainty regarding brain MRI changes with respect to the course of unilateral optic neuritis. The aim of this study was to examine the association between brain lesion activity and conversion to CDMS in Chinese patients with unilateral optic neuritis. A small prospective cohort study of 40 consecutive Chinese patients who presented with unilateral optic neuritis was conducted. Brain lesion activity was recorded as the incidence of Gd-enhanced lesions and new T2 lesions. Brain lesions on MRI that were characteristic of MS were defined according to the 2010 revisions of the McDonald criteria. The primary endpoint was the development of CDMS. We found that nineteen patients (48%) had brain lesions that were characteristic of MS on the initial scan. One of these patients (3%) had Gd-enhanced brain lesions. A significantly lower percentage of the patients (10%, p<0.001) presented with new T2 brain lesions on the second scan. During a median of 5 years of follow-up, seven patients (18%) developed CDMS. There was no significant difference in the conversion rate to CDMS between patients with and without brain lesions that were characteristic of MS (4/19 and 3/21, respectively; Fisher exact test, one-sided, p = 0.44). We conclude that brain lesions characteristic of MS are common in Chinese patients with unilateral optic neuritis; however, these patients exhibit low lesion activity. The predictive value of brain lesion activity for CDMS requires investigation in additional patients. PMID:26485719

  8. Method for fracturing subterranean formations

    SciTech Connect

    Almond, S. W.; Conway, M. W.

    1985-11-19

    The present invention relates to a thermally stable crosslinked gel fracturing fluid for use in the treatment of subterranean formations penetrated by a well bore. The fracturing fluid comprises an aqueous liquid, a gelling agent comprising a selected modified cellulose ether, a crosslinking agent and any additional additives that may be present. The fracturing fluid is thermally stable under shear at temperatures in excess of about 200/sup 0/ F.

  9. Fracture characterization and estimation of fracture porosity of naturally fractured reservoirs with no matrix porosity using stochastic fractal models 

    E-print Network

    Kim, Tae Hyung

    2009-05-15

    and natural fractures were investigated in this study using an X-Ray CT Scanner. Fractal dimension, D, and amplitude parameter, A, of fracture aperture approaches a constant value with increased sampling area, similar to the behavior of fracture roughness...

  10. Boxer's fracture: management and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, Julie; Apau, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Boxer's fractures are common hand injuries, but their management varies greatly. Two years ago, a boxer's fracture care pathway was developed for use in the Royal London Hospital emergency department to standardise management. This article describes a clinical service evaluation carried out to test the validity of the pathway. The evaluation examined the functional outcomes of patients with boxer's fractures with 50° or less palmar angulation who were discharged with no follow up. Findings show that most returned to work immediately and had good functional outcomes, which suggests that the pathway is safe for uncomplicated fractures with 50° or less palmar angulation. PMID:26159346

  11. External fixator configurations in tibia fractures: 1D optimization and 3D analysis comparison.

    PubMed

    Roseiro, Luis M; Neto, M Augusta; Amaro, Ana; Leal, Rogerio P; Samarra, Miguel C

    2014-01-01

    The use of external fixation devices in orthopedic surgery is very common in open tibial fractures. A properly applied fixator may improve the healing process while one improperly applied might delay the healing process. The several external fixator systems used in clinical today, can be categorized into uniplanar-unilateral, uniplanar-bilateral, biplanar and multiplanar. The stability on the fracture focus and, therefore, the fracture healing process, is related with the type of external fixator configuration that is selected. The aim of this study is to discuss the principles for the successful application of unilateral-uniplanar external fixation, the assembly of its components, for the case of a transverse fractures using computational models. In this context, the fixation stiffness characteristics are evaluated using a simplified 1D finite element model for the tibia and external fixator. The beams are modeled with realistic cross-sectional geometry and material properties instead of a simplified model. The VABS (the Variational Asymptotic Beam Section analysis) methodology is used to compute the cross-sectional model for the generalized Timoshenko model, which was embedded in the finite element solver FEAP. The use of Timoshenko beam theory allows accounting for several kinds of loads, including torsion moments. Optimal design is performed with respect to the assembly of fixator components using a genetic algorithm. The optimization procedure is based on the evaluation of an objective function, which is dependent on the displacement at the fracture focus. The initial and optimal results are compared by performing a 3D analysis, for which different three-dimensional finite element models are created. The geometrical model of a tibia is created on the basis of data acquired by CAT scan, made for a healthy tibia of a 22 year old male. The 3D comparison of the 1D optimal results show a clear improvement on the objective function for the several load cases and, therefore, it is shown that appropriate selection of the external fixator geometrical features can lead to an improvement on the stability of the external fixator. The results obtained show that the optimal position of the side beam and the first pin should be as close as possible to the bone interface and as close as possible to the fracture focus, respectively. Concerning the second pin, it should be placed away from the first pin in case of flexion loads, to axial and torsion loads the second pin should be placed near the first pin. PMID:24176414

  12. Unilateral surgery for hyperparathyroidism: indications, limits, and late results--new philosophy or expensive selection without improvement of surgical results?

    PubMed

    Mortier, Pierre-E; Mozzon, Marta M; Fouquet, Olivier P; Soudan, Benoit C; Huglo, Damien G; Cussac, Jean-F; Proye, Charles A G

    2004-12-01

    We assessed the "late" results after unilateral parathyroidectomy (PTX) performed for selected indications. From October 1998 throughout March 2001 we operated on 454 patients for hyperparathyroidism (HPT). A positive unifocal (99m)tc-MIBI scan was required for the unilateral approach to be used. Intact parathormone (PTH) measurements were done intraoperatively. Postoperative calcium and PTH serum levels of unilaterally operated patients were checked. Follow-up has been 16.2 months (range 6-40 months). Of the 454 patients, 336 (74.0%) were not eligible for the unilateral approach; and 125 (27.5%) of the 454 patients had renal HPT. Among the 329 patients with primary HPT, 125 (38.0%) were excluded for well established reasons, and in 77 other cases (23.5%) preoperative imaging results did not allow the unilateral approach. Altogether, 126 patients (38.3%) with primary HPT were selected for the unilateral approach. Of the 126 unilateral operations, 8 (6.3%) had to be converted to a bilateral procedure. Among the 118 patients with a unilateral approach, 3 patients have been reoperated for overlooked contralateral disease, and 13 dropped out of the study. A total of 102 postoperative calcium and PTH serum late levels are known: 90 (88.2%) patients had normal levels; 10 (9.8%) had a high PTH level, and 2 (1.9%) had high ionized calcium levels. The failure rate in selected cases was 4.2% (5/118) (three were reoperated, and two had a supranormal postoperative ionized Ca level). Even with stringent indications, the late results of unilateral surgery (95.8% cure rate) barely matched those of conventional bilateral surgery (97.6% cure rate). The economic impact of such a surgical strategy should be clarified. PMID:15517497

  13. Toe and Metatarsal Fractures (Broken Toes)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... toes) Text Size Print Bookmark Toe and Metatarsal Fractures (Broken toes) The structure of the foot is ... received in an emergency room. What Is a Fracture? A fracture is a break in the bone. ...

  14. Fracture compliance estimation using borehole tube waves

    E-print Network

    Bakku, Sudhish Kumar

    We tested two models, one for tube-wave generation and the other for tube-wave attenuation at a fracture intersecting a borehole that can be used to estimate fracture compliance, fracture aperture, and lateral extent. In ...

  15. 49 CFR 195.111 - Fracture propagation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fracture propagation. 195.111 Section 195... Design Requirements § 195.111 Fracture propagation. A carbon dioxide pipeline...be designed to mitigate the effects of fracture propagation. [Amdt....

  16. Gravity-Driven Hydraulic Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germanovich, L. N.; Garagash, D.; Murdoch, L. C.; Robinowitz, M.

    2014-12-01

    This study is motived by a new method for disposing of nuclear waste by injecting it as a dense slurry into a hydraulic fracture that grows downward to great enough depth to permanently isolate the waste. Disposing of nuclear waste using gravity-driven hydraulic fractures is mechanically similar to the upward growth of dikes filled with low density magma. A fundamental question in both applications is how the injected fluid controls the propagation dynamics and fracture geometry (depth and breadth) in three dimensions. Analog experiments in gelatin [e.g., Heimpel and Olson, 1994; Taisne and Tait, 2009] show that fracture breadth (the short horizontal dimension) remains nearly stationary when the process in the fracture "head" (where breadth is controlled) is dominated by solid toughness, whereas viscous fluid dissipation is dominant in the fracture tail. We model propagation of the resulting gravity-driven (buoyant or sinking), finger-like fracture of stationary breadth with slowly varying opening along the crack length. The elastic response to fluid loading in a horizontal cross-section is local and can be treated similar to the classical Perkins-Kern-Nordgren (PKN) model of hydraulic fracturing. The propagation condition for a finger-like crack is based on balancing the global energy release rate due to a unit crack extension with the rock fracture toughness. It allows us to relate the net fluid pressure at the tip to the fracture breadth and rock toughness. Unlike the PKN fracture, where breadth is known a priori, the final breadth of a finger-like fracture is a result of processes in the fracture head. Because the head is much more open than the tail, viscous pressure drop in the head can be neglected leading to a 3D analog of Weertman's hydrostatic pulse. This requires relaxing the local elasticity assumption of the PKN model in the fracture head. As a result, we resolve the breadth, and then match the viscosity-dominated tail with the 3-D, toughness-dominated head to obtain a complete closed-form solution. We then analyze the gravity fracture propagation in conditions of either continuous injection or finite volume release for sets of parameters representative of dense waste injection technique and low viscosity magma diking.

  17. Life-threatening oronasal hemorrhage managed by transcatheter embolization of bilateral maxillary arteries in an elderly patient with comminuted LeFort I fracture.

    PubMed

    Imai, Tomoaki; Michizawa, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Naofumi; Oba, Jiro; Sawano, Hirotaka

    2014-07-01

    Massive orofacial hemorrhage mostly occurs in younger individuals unilaterally and is associated with extensive LeFort fractures. Here we describe a 91-year-old man who sustained a life-threatening hemorrhage of the bilateral internal maxillary artery (IMA) system with a comminuted LeFort I fracture caused by a road traffic accident while he was driving. His injury severity score was high (34), but no severe brain injury was sustained. Transarterial embolization (TAE) was performed to control the intractable hemorrhage. The patient survived and has an acceptable outcome. Although rare, this case may be representative of a trend in maxillofacial injuries in the elderly resulting from worldwide motorization and steady aging of more active populations. Life-threatening hemorrhage of the bilateral IMA system occurs even in LeFort I fractures. Controlling an intractable oronasal hemorrhage with TAE would lead to survival with less severe morbidity, even for the very elderly with no severe brain injuries. PMID:24560405

  18. Principles Of Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Christopher D.

    1994-01-01

    NASA technical memorandum discusses principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics. Emphasis on practical problems; intended especially to help structural engineers understand fracture-mechanics software.

  19. Fracture detection and mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, N.E.; Iovenitti, J.L.

    1986-03-01

    Because the costs of drilling, completing, and testing a well can be extremely high, it is important to develop better tools and methods for locating high permeability zones prior to drilling, and to develop better tools and methods for identifying and characterizing major fracture zones during the drilling and well testing stages. At the recommendation of the LBL Industry Review Panel on Geothermal Reservoir Technology, we organized and convened a one-day workshop this past July to discuss various aspects of DOE's current and planned activities in fracture detection, to review the geothermal industry's near-term and long-term research needs, to determine the priority of those needs, to disseminate to industry the status of research in progress, and to discuss the possibility of future joint research between industry and DOE. In this paper we present a brief overview of the workshop from the perspective of those who participated in it and provided us with written comments to a questionnaire that was distributed.

  20. Fracture Detection and Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Norman E.; Iovenitti, Joseph L.

    1986-01-21

    Because the costs of drilling, completing, and testing a well can be extremely high, it is important to develop better tools and methods for locating high permeability zones prior to drilling, and to develop better tools and methods for identifying and characterizing major fracture zones during the drilling and well testing stages. At the recommendation of the LBL Industry Review Panel on Geothermal Reservoir Technology, we organized and convened a one-day workshop this past July to discuss various aspects of DOE's current and planned activities in fracture detection, to review the geothermal industry's near-term and long-term research needs, to determine the priority of those needs, to disseminate to industry the status of research in progress, and to discuss the possibility of future joint research between industry and DOE. In this paper we present a brief overview of the workshop from the perspective of those who participated in it and provided us with written comments to a questionnaire that was distributed.

  1. Fracture mechanisms and fracture control in composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wone-Chul

    Four basic failure modes--delamination, delamination buckling of composite sandwich panels, first-ply failure in cross-ply laminates, and compression failure--are analyzed using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) and the J-integral method. Structural failures, including those at the micromechanical level, are investigated with the aid of the models developed, and the critical strains for crack propagation for each mode are obtained. In the structural fracture analyses area, the fracture control schemes for delamination in a composite rib stiffener and delamination buckling in composite sandwich panels subjected to in-plane compression are determined. The critical fracture strains were predicted with the aid of LEFM for delamination and the J-integral method for delamination buckling. The use of toughened matrix systems has been recommended for improved damage tolerant design for delamination crack propagation. An experimental study was conducted to determine the onset of delamination buckling in composite sandwich panel containing flaws. The critical fracture loads computed using the proposed theoretical model and a numerical computational scheme closely followed the experimental measurements made on sandwich panel specimens of graphite/epoxy faceskins and aluminum honeycomb core with varying faceskin thicknesses and core sizes. Micromechanical models of fracture in composites are explored to predict transverse cracking of cross-ply laminates and compression fracture of unidirectional composites. A modified shear lag model which takes into account the important role of interlaminar shear zones between the 0 degree and 90 degree piles in cross-ply laminate is proposed and criteria for transverse cracking have been developed. For compressive failure of unidirectional composites, pre-existing defects play an important role. Using anisotropic elasticity, the stress state around a defect under a remotely applied compressive load is obtained. The experimentally observed complex compressive failure modes, such as shear crippling and pure compressive fiber failure of fibers are explained by the predicted stress distributions calculated in this work. These fracture analyses can be damage tolerant design methodology for composite structures. The proposed fracture criteria and the corresponding critical fracture strains provide the designer with quantitative guidelines for safe-life design. These have been incorporated into a fracture control plan for composite structures, which is also described. Currently, fracture control plans do not exist for composite structures; the proposed plan is a first step towards establishing fracture control and damage tolerant design methodology for this important class of materials.

  2. Fractures of the Radial Head.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, Klaus Josef; Wegmann, Kilian; Müller, Lars P; Gohlke, Frank E

    2015-11-01

    Radial head fractures are the most common fractures around the elbow. Because they are often accompanied by ligamentous injuries, we recommend considering them to be osteoligamentous injuries rather than simple fractures, even in undisplaced or minimally displaced fractures. Surgeons should always suspect and actively exclude concomitant ligament tears. The incidence of these associated injuries increases with greater severity of the radial head fracture. However, the standard Mason classification system does not adequately address this problem, and all attempts to establish a new classification system that provides concise treatment algorithms have failed. This article discusses the current treatment options and the current controversies in nonsurgical therapy, open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and radial head replacement. PMID:26498543

  3. Les fracture-luxations transolécraniennes

    PubMed Central

    Fahsi, Mohamed; Benameur, Hamza; El Andaloussi, Yassir; Bennouna, Driss; Fadili, Mustapha; Nechad, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Les fracture-luxations transolécraniennes sont une entité rare des fracture-luxations du coude. Il s'agit d'une lésion complexe qui peut compromettre le pronostic fonctionnel du coude. Dix patients étaient diagnostiqués dans notre service entre janvier 2005 et novembre 2012. Tous nos patients étaient de sexe masculin, l’âge moyen était de 29 ans. Les fractures de l'olécrane étaient complexes et comminutives dans sept cas et simples chez trois patients. Deux cas étaient associés à des fractures de la tête radiale (Mason III) et deux autres à des fractures de l'apophyse coronoïde. Les résultats étaient évalués après un recul moyen de trois ans et demi par le score de BROBERG et MORREY: trois cas étaient excellents, quatre bons, deux moyens et un mauvais. Cette lésion complexe nécessite une bonne reconstruction de la surface articulaire et une réparation des lésions associées pour permettre une rééducation précoce, seul garant d'une bonne récupération fonctionnelle.

  4. Test-Free Fracture Toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Computational simulation results can give the prediction of damage growth and progression and fracture toughness of composite structures. The experimental data from literature provide environmental effects on the fracture behavior of metallic or fiber composite structures. However, the traditional experimental methods to analyze the influence of the imposed conditions are expensive and time consuming. This research used the CODSTRAN code to model the temperature effects, scaling effects and the loading effects of fiberbraided composite specimens with and without fiber-optic sensors on the damage initiation and energy release rates. The load-displacement relationship and fracture toughness assessment approach is compared with the test results from literature and it is verified that the computational simulation, with the use of established material modeling and finite element modules, adequately tracks the changes of fracture toughness and subsequent fracture propagation for any fiberbraided composite structure due to the change of fiber orientations, presence of large diameter optical fibers, and any loading conditions.

  5. Relative Permeability of Fractured Rock

    SciTech Connect

    Mark D. Habana

    2002-06-30

    Contemporary understanding of multiphase flow through fractures is limited. Different studies using synthetic fractures and various fluids have yielded different relative permeability-saturation relations. This study aimed to extend the understanding of multiphase flow by conducting nitrogen-water relative permeability experiments on a naturally-fractured rock from The Geysers geothermal field. The steady-state approach was used. However, steady state was achieved only at the endpoint saturations. Several difficulties were encountered that are attributed to phase interference and changes in fracture aperture and surface roughness, along with fracture propagation/initiation. Absolute permeabilities were determined using nitrogen and water. The permeability values obtained change with the number of load cycles. Determining the absolute permeability of a core is especially important in a fractured rock. The rock may change as asperities are destroyed and fractures propagate or st rain harden as the net stresses vary. Pressure spikes occurred in water a solute permeability experiments. Conceptual models of an elastic fracture network can explain the pressure spike behavior. At the endpoint saturations the water relative permeabilities obtained are much less than the nitrogen gas relative permeabilities. Saturations were determined by weighing and by resistivity calculations. The resistivity-saturation relationship developed for the core gave saturation values that differ by 5% from the value determined by weighing. Further work is required to complete the relative permeability curve. The steady-state experimental approach encountered difficulties due to phase interference and fracture change. Steady state may not be reached until an impractical length of time. Thus, unsteady-state methods should be pursued. In unsteady-state experiments the challenge will be in quantifying rock fracture change in addition to fluid flow changes.

  6. Non-Steroid Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Are Better than Acetaminophen on Fever Control at Acute Stage of Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Kuang-Ting; Wu, Wen-Tien; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Niu, Chi-Chien; Liao, Kuang-Wen; Chen, Ing-Ho; Wang, Jen-Hung; Lee, Ru-Ping

    2015-01-01

    In addition to adequate surgical fixation and an aggressive rehabilitation program, pain relief is one of the most critical factors in the acute stage of fracture treatment. The most common analgesics are nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs and Acetaminophen, both of which relieve pain and reduce body temperature. In clinical experiences, they exhibit effective pain control; however, their influence on body temperature remains controversial. This study is aimed at determining the effects of analgesics at the acute stage of traumatic fracture by performing a clinical retrospective study of patients with fractures and a fracture animal model. The retrospective study revealed that, in the acetaminophen group, the mean value of postmedication body temperature (BT) was significantly higher than that of the premedication BT. The change in BT was highly related with the medication rather than other risk factors. Forty eight 12-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups: a control group, fracture group, fracture-Acetaminophen group, Acetaminophen group, fracture-Arcoxia group, and Arcoxia group. Fracture rats were prepared by breaking their unilateral tibia and fibula. Their inflammation conditions were evaluated by measuring their serum cytokine level and their physiological status was evaluated by estimating their central temperature, heart rate, and mean blood pressure. The hepatic adverse effects were assessed by measuring the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (sGOT) and alanine aminotransferase (sGPT). The central temperature in the fracture-Acetaminophen group exceeded that in the groups fed normal saline water or Arcoxia. Accumulated hepatic injury was presented as steadily ascending curves of sGOT and sGPT. Inflammation-related cytokine levels were not higher in the Acetaminophen fracture group and were significantly lower in the fracture-Arcoxia group. Fever appeared to be aggravated by acetaminophen and more related to the elevation of hepatic enzymes than to the change in the inflammation-related cytokines. We suggest that acetaminophen may aggravate fever at the acute stage of fracture. This response is highly related to the accumulated and exacerbated side effects of hepatitis that are caused by the medication and trauma. PMID:26431202

  7. A Rare Entity: Bilateral First Rib Fractures Accompanying Bilateral Scapular Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gulbahar, Gultekin; Kaplan, Tevfik; Turker, Hasan Bozkurt; Gundogdu, Ahmet Gokhan; Han, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    First rib fractures are scarce due to their well-protected anatomic locations. Bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures are very rare, although they may be together with scapular and clavicular fractures. According to our knowledge, no case of bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures has been reported, so we herein discussed the diagnosis, treatment, and complications of bone fractures due to thoracic trauma in bias of this rare entity. PMID:26175916

  8. A Case of Simultaneous Unilateral Anterior and Posterior Stafne Bone Defects

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Hisashi; Ishikawa, Shigeo; Kitabatake, Kenichirou; Yusa, Kazuyuki; Tachibana, Hirohiko; Iino, Mitsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Stafne bone defects (SBDs) are asymptomatic mandibular lingual bone depressions mainly caused by soft tissue inclusions. The most common form of SBDs is posterior; the anterior variant of SBD is relatively uncommon. Although posterior SBD is easily diagnosed by the unique location on radiography, anterior SBD is sometimes misdiagnosed and confused with other pathological entities owing to the location. We report herein a case of simultaneous unilateral anterior and posterior SBDs. In the present case, definitive diagnosis for the anterior mandibular cavity was unclear, as in reported cases. Surgical exploration was thus performed for the lesion in the anterior mandibular cavity. Pathologic examination of the removed tissue showed salivary gland with chronic inflammation. Postoperatively, no functional disturbance has been observed. Management of the posterior SBD was conservative, with radiographic follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first report of simultaneous unilateral anterior and posterior SBDs. PMID:26605094

  9. Unilateral ovarian and fallopian tube agenesis in an infertile patient with a normal uterus

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, BINGYA; YANG, CHUNBO; SAHEBALLY, ZAYD; JIN, HANGMEI

    2014-01-01

    Congenital agenesis of the unilateral adnexa is a condition that has rarely been described in the literature. The current study presents the case of a 26-year-old female who was admitted to the Department of Gynecology at the Women’s Hospital of Zhejiang University (Hangzhou, Zhejiang) for primary infertility. The patient was diagnosed with unilateral ovarian and fallopian tubal agenesis, without malformations of the uterus and urinary tract, during diagnostic laparoscopy and hysteroscopy. A literature review was conducted with the aim of determining the possible causes of these anomalies. However, the etiology of the adnexal anomaly remained unclear, although torsion or congenital defects were the most likely explanation. Therefore, the observations of the present study indicate that contralateral tubal pathologies may contribute to sterility. PMID:25120609

  10. Unilateral NMR investigation of multifunctional treatments on stones based on colloidal inorganic and organic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Di Tullio, Valeria; Cocca, Mariacristina; Avolio, Roberto; Gentile, Gennaro; Proietti, Noemi; Ragni, Pietro; Errico, Maria Emanuela; Capitani, Donatella; Avella, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Consolidation and protection are among the most important treatments usually carried out in conservation of stone artifacts and monuments. In this paper, portable unilateral NMR and conventional techniques were used for investigating new multifunctional treatments based on tetraethoxysilane, silica, and polytetrafluoroethylene nanoparticles. The study was carried out on a very complex and heterogeneous porous stone such as tuff. NMR study allowed to obtain detailed information on the penetration depth of treatments, the hydrophobic effect, and changes in the open porosity caused by treatments. Physical and chemical inhomogeneities between the impregnated layers of tuff and the layers underneath were also detected. The average pores radius and pores interconnection obtained from NMR diffusion measurements were used for the first time to compare effects of different consolidating and/or protective treatments on stone. Because unilateral NMR technique is neither destructive nor invasive, investigation of treatments can be also carried out and optimized directly on buildings and monuments of interest for Cultural Heritage. PMID:25178927

  11. Direct and indirect effects of unilateral divorce law on marital stability.

    PubMed

    Kneip, Thorsten; Bauer, Gerrit; Reinhold, Steffen

    2014-12-01

    Previous research examining the impact of unilateral divorce law (UDL) on the prevalence of divorce has provided mixed results. Studies based on cross-sectional cross-country/cross-state survey data have received criticism for disregarding unobserved heterogeneity across countries, as have studies using country-level panel data for failing to account for possible mediating mechanisms at the micro level. We seek to overcome both shortcomings by using individual-level event-history data from 11 European countries (SHARELIFE) and controlling for unobserved heterogeneity over countries and cohorts. We find that UDL in total increased the incidence of marital breakdown by about 20 %. This finding, however, neglects potential selection effects into marriage. Accordingly, the estimated effect of unilateral divorce laws becomes much larger when we control for age at marriage, which is used as indicator for match quality. Moreover, we find that UDL particularly affects marital stability in the presence of children. PMID:25354572

  12. Asymmetric loading and bone mineral density at the asymptomatic knees of subjects with unilateral hip osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Shakoor, Najia; Dua, Anisha; Thorp, Laura; Mikolaitis, Rachel A.; Wimmer, Markus A.; Foucher, Kharma C.; Fogg, Louis F.; Block, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The contralateral knee of those with unilateral endstage hip OA is known to be at greater risk for endstage knee OA compared to the ipsilateral, same side knee. Likewise, in endstage hip OA, this contralateral knee is known to have increased dynamic joint loads compared to the ipsilateral knee. Here, we study a population with unilateral hip OA, who are asymptomatic at the knees, for early asymmetries in knee loading. Methods Data from 62 subjects with unilateral hip OA were evaluated. Subjects underwent gait analyses for evaluation of dynamic knee loads as well as dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) at both knees. Differences between knees were compared. Results Peak dynamic knee loads were significantly higher at the contralateral knee compared to the ipsilateral knee (2.46±0.71 vs 2.23±0.81 %BW*ht, p=0.029). Similarly, medial compartment tibial BMD was significantly higher at the contralateral knee compared to the ipsilateral knee (0.897±0.208 vs 0.854±0.206 gm/c2, p=0.033). Interestingly, there was a direct correlation between contralteral:ipsilateral dynamic knee load and contralateral:ipsilateral medial compartment tibial BMD (Spearman’s rho= 0.287, p=0.036). Conclusions This study demonstrates that at the contralateral knees of patients with unilateral hip OA, which are at higher risk of developing progressive symptomatic OA compared to the ipsilateral knees, loading and structural asymmetries appear early in the disease course, while the knees are still asymptomatic. These early biomechanical asymmetries may have corresponding long term consequences, providing further support for the potential role of loading in OA onset and progression. PMID:22127702

  13. Choosing the optimal timing for contralateral symmetry procedures after unilateral free flap breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chang, Edward I; Selber, Jesse C; Chang, Eric I; Nosrati, Naveed; Zhang, Hong; Robb, Geoffrey L; Chang, David W

    2015-01-01

    Achieving symmetry in unilateral free flap breast reconstruction often requires a contralateral procedure; however, no large studies exist that examine the factors related to revisions performed on the contralateral breast. The present study examines the relationship between revision and complication rate, and the type and timing of the contralateral procedure. Retrospective analysis was performed of all unilateral free flap breast reconstructions from January 2000 to December 2010 at a single academic institution. Overall, 1120 patients underwent unilateral free flap breast reconstruction with 558 (49.8%) patients undergoing a contralateral procedure, 154 (27.6%) immediate and 404 (72.4%) delayed. Contralateral procedures included 106 augmentations, 168 reductions, 240 mastopexies, and 37 augmentation-mastopexies. Revision of the symmetry procedure was performed in 114 (20.8%) patients. Augmentation and mastopexy were associated with significantly higher revision rates when performed immediately. The complication rate was higher in immediate contralateral procedures than delayed [15 (9.7%) vs 16 (4.0%), P = 0.01]. The average number of procedures per patient was significantly higher in delayed contralateral procedures than immediate (2.45 vs 1.84, P < 0.0005). In summary, approximately half of patients undergoing a unilateral free flap for breast reconstruction will also undergo a contralateral balancing procedure. Immediate contralateral augmentation and mastopexy carry a higher revision rate and consideration should be given to performing them in a staged fashion. There were no differences in the rate of revisions for breast reductions, and therefore, performance of simultaneous contralateral reduction is a reasonable option. Although complication rates were higher in the immediate cohort, overall "symmetry" was achieved in significantly fewer operations. PMID:23759969

  14. Unilateral rhino–orbital–cerebral mucormycosis with contralateral endogenous fungal endophthalmitis

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Hao Chi; Liew, On Heong; Teh, Swee Sew; Hanizasurana, Hashim; Ibrahim, Mohtar; Shatriah, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Rhino–orbital–cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) is an uncommon but fatal fungal infection. We report a rare case of unilateral ROCM with ipsilateral central retinal artery occlusion and contralateral choroiditis, which later progressed to endogenous fungal endophthalmitis. The patient was successfully treated with sinuses debridement, systemic liposomal amphotericin B, and intravitreal amphotericin B. The endophthalmitis completely resolved with good vision, but the ROCM eye remained blind due to central retinal artery occlusion. PMID:25848206

  15. Two Cases of Unilateral Lichen Planus Following the Lines of Blaschko

    PubMed Central

    Yayla, Derya; O?uz, I??l Deniz; Gönül, Müzeyyen; Özhamam, Esra; Çolak, Aysel; Gül, Ülker

    2014-01-01

    A 50-year-old man and 71-year-old woman presented to our clinic with unilateral, linear, erythematous, pruritic lesions along the lines of Blaschko. On the basis of clinical and histopathological findings, the lesions were diagnosed as lichen planus with a Blaschkoian distribution, which is a rare form of lichen planus. The patients were treated with topical corticosteroids and antihistamines. PMID:25324660

  16. Two cases of unilateral lichen planus following the lines of blaschko.

    PubMed

    Yayla, Derya; Külcü Çakmak, Seray; O?uz, I??l Deniz; Gönül, Müzeyyen; Ozhamam, Esra; Colak, Aysel; Gül, Ulker

    2014-10-01

    A 50-year-old man and 71-year-old woman presented to our clinic with unilateral, linear, erythematous, pruritic lesions along the lines of Blaschko. On the basis of clinical and histopathological findings, the lesions were diagnosed as lichen planus with a Blaschkoian distribution, which is a rare form of lichen planus. The patients were treated with topical corticosteroids and antihistamines. PMID:25324660

  17. Common and uncommon adult unilateral renal masses other than renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Le, Ott; Roy, Anjali; Silverman, Paul M.; Kundra, Vikas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Many different masses can involve the kidney other than the commonly encountered renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The purpose of this article is to review the characteristic clinical and imaging findings of common and uncommon masses that predominantly present unilaterally in the adult patient, other than RCC. Awareness of such lesions and knowing the clinical scenario is important for appropriate diagnosis and management, especially in a multidisciplinary care setting. PMID:22752221

  18. Temporal Resolution of the Normal Ear in Listeners with Unilateral Hearing Impairment.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Dey, Ratul; Davessar, Jai Lal

    2015-12-01

    Unilateral hearing loss (UHL) leads to an imbalanced input to the brain and results in cortical reorganization. In listeners with unilateral impairments, while the perceptual deficits associated with the impaired ear are well documented, less is known regarding the auditory processing in the unimpaired, clinically normal ear. It is commonly accepted that perceptual consequences are unlikely to occur in the normal ear for listeners with UHL. This study investigated whether the temporal resolution in the normal-hearing (NH) ear of listeners with long-standing UHL is similar to those in listeners with NH. Temporal resolution was assayed via measuring gap detection thresholds (GDTs) in within- and between-channel paradigms. GDTs were assessed in the normal ear of adults with long-standing, severe-to-profound UHL (N?=?13) and age-matched, NH listeners (N?=?22) at two presentation levels (30 and 55 dB sensation level). Analysis indicated that within-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL were not significantly different than those for the NH subject group, but the between-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL were poorer (by greater than a factor of 2) than those for the listeners with NH. The hearing thresholds in the normal or impaired ears were not associated with the elevated between-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL. Contrary to the common assumption that auditory processing capabilities are preserved for the normal ear in listeners with UHL, the current study demonstrated that a long-standing unilateral hearing impairment may adversely affect auditory perception-temporal resolution-in the clinically normal ear. From a translational perspective, these findings imply that the temporal processing deficits in the unimpaired ear of listeners with unilateral hearing impairments may contribute to their overall auditory perceptual difficulties. PMID:26197871

  19. Bronchogenic cyst causing a unilateral ventilation-perfusion defect on lung scan

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, K.A.; Fleischman, J.K.; Smith, R.L.

    1988-06-01

    A 37-year-old woman had pleuritic chest pain, dyspnea, and normal findings on chest roentgenogram. Lung scan showed markedly diminished perfusion to the right lung with a matched ventilatory defect. Further evaluation revealed a bronchogenic cyst. After resection, the lung scan was normal. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a bronchogenic cyst causing a reversible, unilateral ventilation-perfusion defect on lung scan.

  20. Unilateral striae distensae affecting the right axilla in a 16-year-old boy: brief report.

    PubMed

    Alshaiji, Jasem M; Handler, Marc Z; Schwartzfarb, Elissa; Izakovic, Jan; Schachner, Lawrence A

    2014-01-01

    Striae distensae or stretch marks are a common skin condition that occurs frequently in association with adolescent growth spurts and pregnancy. They are characterized by linear symmetrical asymptomatic smooth bands of atrophic-appearing skin on the thighs, buttocks, and breasts in girls and on the shoulders, outer thighs, and lumbosacral areas in boys. We present a rare case of unilateral striae distensae affecting the right axilla in a 16-year-old boy. PMID:23072309

  1. Satisfaction following Unilateral Breast Reconstruction: A Comparison of Pedicled TRAM and Free Abdominal Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Schwitzer, Jonathan A.; Miller, H. Catherine; Pusic, Andrea L.; Matros, Evan; Mehrara, Babak J.; McCarthy, Colleen M.; Lennox, Peter A.; Van Laeken, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare patient satisfaction following unilateral pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) and free abdominal flap reconstruction. Methods: Patients who underwent unilateral breast reconstruction using pedicled TRAM or free abdominal flaps (muscle-sparing TRAM or deep inferior epigastric perforator flap) and completed the BREAST-Q were identified from 2 prospectively maintained databases. BREAST-Q scores were assessed and compared for Satisfaction with Breasts, Outcome, and Physical Well-being Chest/Abdomen. Results: Of the 138 patients who completed the BREAST-Q, 84 underwent pedicled TRAM flap reconstruction and 54 underwent free abdominal flap reconstruction. Overall, pedicled TRAM flap patients scored higher than free abdominal flap patients on all 4 BREAST-Q scales. This difference reached statistical significance in Satisfaction with Breasts (+7.74; P = 0.02). Similar results were found among patients who completed the BREAST-Q at <3 years postoperation. However, among patients at ?3 years postoperation, there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups, with the pedicled flap cohort scoring higher in Satisfaction with Breasts and Physical Well-being Chest and the free abdominal flap cohort scoring higher in Satisfaction with Outcome and Physical Well-being Abdomen scores. Conclusions: Patients who underwent unilateral pedicled TRAM flap reconstruction experienced greater initial breast satisfaction than patients who underwent unilateral free abdominal flap reconstruction, but satisfaction equalized between the two over time, suggesting that long-term satisfaction may be equivalent between the 2 methods of reconstruction. PMID:26495195

  2. Unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia with upbeat nystagmus from ischemic origin: evidence for the paramedian tract neurons as a vertical neural integrator?

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhang-Ning; Li, Xiao-Lin; Ma, Gao-Ting; Zhu, Mei-Jia

    2015-01-01

    Only a few cases with unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia have been reported presenting vertical nystagmus, and few of them provides convincing evidence for the paramedian tract neuron to be a vertical neural integrator. We report a patient who suffered from confined dorsal mid-upper pontine infarction showing unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia with upbeat nystagmus in primary position. This case possibly provide evidence that paramedian tract neurons may act as a vertical neural integrator in human. PMID:26550407

  3. Anticipatory postural adjustments contribute to age-related changes in compensatory steps associated with unilateral perturbations.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, Masaki; Saito, Mayumi; Ushiba, Junichi; Tomita, Yutaka; Minami, Mihoko; Masakado, Yoshihisa

    2012-07-01

    Compensatory steps are essential for preventing falls following perturbations. This study aimed to explore age-related changes in compensatory steps to unilateral perturbations, specifically in terms of whether anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) play a role in stabilizing lateral balance. Five young and five elderly male adults participated. The split-belt treadmill was used to provide bi- and unilateral perturbations, as forward or backward transitions, applied 10 times in random order. Backward steps evoked by unilateral forward perturbations were evaluated. We measured temporal characteristics, mediolateral (ML) center of mass (COM) motion, and ML step length of compensatory steps. Compensatory steps to unexpected perturbations showed delayed onset of foot-off (FO) and expanded lateral swing length in elderly compared to young subjects. Differences in COM motions and step width arose related to APAs. Elderly subjects showing APAs exhibited no significant differences in ML COM, ML COM velocity, or ML swing length compared to young subjects. However, elderly subjects without APAs showed significant changes toward instability in these parameters. The fact that APAs play a notable role, particularly in the elderly, in stability offers a new insight into preventing falls. However, APAs occurred in 29% of the steps of young and 35% of the steps of elderly subjects. If the occurrence of APAs in elderly people in response to compensatory steps was more frequent, fall risk would be reduced. Further studies, particularly into APA frequency, might contribute to improved intervention to prevent falls. PMID:22784814

  4. Taking both sides: do unilateral anterior temporal lobe lesions disrupt semantic memory?

    PubMed

    Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Cipolotti, Lisa; Manes, Facundo; Patterson, Karalyn

    2010-11-01

    The most selective disorder of central conceptual knowledge arises in semantic dementia, a degenerative condition associated with bilateral atrophy of the inferior and polar regions of the temporal lobes. Likewise, semantic impairment in both herpes simplex virus encephalitis and Alzheimer's disease is typically associated with bilateral, anterior temporal pathology. These findings suggest that conceptual representations are supported via an interconnected, bilateral, anterior temporal network and that it may take damage to both sides to produce an unequivocal deficit of central semantic memory. We tested and supported this hypothesis by investigating a case series of 20 patients with unilateral temporal damage (following vascular accident or resection for tumour or epilepsy), utilizing a test battery that is sensitive to semantic impairment in semantic dementia. Only 1/20 of the cases, with a unilateral left lesion, exhibited even a mild impairment on the receptive semantic measures. On the expressive semantic tests of naming and fluency, average performance was worse in the left- than right-unilateral cases, but even in this domain, only one left-lesion case had scores consistently more than two standard deviations below control means. These results fit with recent parallel explorations of semantic function using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as well as functional imaging in stroke aphasic and neurologically intact participants. The evidence suggests that both left and right anterior temporal lobe regions contribute to the representation of semantic memory and together may form a relatively damage-resistant, robust system for this critical aspect of higher cognition. PMID:20952378

  5. Contralateral inguinal hernial development and ipsilateral recurrence following unilateral hernial repair in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Nazir, M; Saebø, A

    1996-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of contralateral hernial development and ipsilateral recurrence following surgery for unilateral inguinal hernia in infants and children. During the period 1961-1970, 161 infants and children (143 males and 18 females; 0-12 years old) underwent surgery for unilateral inguinal hernia. The patients were followed for 20-29 years (until 1990). 16/143 males (11.2%), and 1/18 females developed a contralateral inguinal hernia; the frequency among patients less than seven years old was significantly higher than the frequency among older children (16/118 > 1/43; p < 0.05). No significant difference was observed between patients primarily operated for rightsided and leftsided hernias. Four/143 boys (2.7%) experienced testicular maldescens. Recurrence after herniotomy was seen in 9/143 males (6.3%), and in 1/18 females. The low frequency of contralateral hernial development, as the risk of surgical complications, indicate that routine contralateral inguinal exploration may not be recommended while operating upon unilateral symptomatic inguinal hernias. Our recurrence rate of 6.2% may mirror the conditions in a general surgical department, where several surgeons and residents operate upon a limited number of paediatric patients. PMID:8629384

  6. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension manifesting as a unilateral subdural hematoma with a marked midline shift.

    PubMed

    Inamasu, Joji; Moriya, Shigeta; Shibata, Junpei; Kumai, Tadashi; Hirose, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a syndrome in which hypovolemia of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) results in various symptoms. Although its prognosis is usually benign, cases with a rapid neurologic deterioration resulting in an altered mental status have been reported. One of the characteristic radiographic findings in such cases is the presence of bilateral accumulation of subdural fluid (hematoma/hygroma). When SIH-related subdural hematoma is present only unilaterally with a concomitant midline shift, making an accurate diagnosis may be challenging, and inadvertent hematoma evacuation may result in further neurologic deterioration. We report a 58-year-old woman with an altered mental status who had visited a local hospital and in whom a brain CT showed a unilateral subdural hematoma with a marked midline shift. She was referred to our department because of her neurologic deterioration after hematoma evacuation. A CT myelography revealed a massive CSF leakage in the entire thoracic epidural space. She made a full neurologic recovery following blood patch therapy. Our case is unique and educational because the suspicion for SIH as an underlying cause of subdural hematoma is warranted in nongeriatric patients not only with bilateral but also unilateral lesions. An immediate search for CSF leakage may be important in cases with failed hematoma evacuation surgery. PMID:25969682

  7. The Physiologic Impact of Unilateral Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve (RLN) Lesion on Infant Oropharyngeal and Esophageal Performance.

    PubMed

    Gould, Francois D H; Lammers, Andrew R; Ohlemacher, Jocelyn; Ballester, Ashley; Fraley, Luke; Gross, Andrew; German, Rebecca Z

    2015-12-01

    Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury in neonates, a complication of patent ductus arteriosus corrective surgery, leads to aspiration and swallowing complications. Severity of symptoms and prognosis for recovery are variable. We transected the RLN unilaterally in an infant mammalian animal model to characterize the degree and variability of dysphagia in a controlled experimental setting. We tested the hypotheses that (1) both airway protection and esophageal function would be compromised by lesion, (2) given our design, variability between multiple post-lesion trials would be minimal, and (3) variability among individuals would be minimal. Individuals' swallowing performance was assessed pre- and post-lesion using high speed VFSS. Aspiration was assessed using the Infant Mammalian Penetration-Aspiration Scale (IMPAS). Esophageal function was assessed using two measures devised for this study. Our results indicate that RLN lesion leads to increased frequency of aspiration, and increased esophageal dysfunction, with significant variation in these basic patterns at all levels. On average, aspiration worsened with time post-lesion. Within a single feeding sequence, the distribution of unsafe swallows varied. Individuals changed post-lesion either by increasing average IMPAS score, or by increasing variation in IMPAS score. Unilateral RLN transection resulted in dysphagia with both compromised airway protection and esophageal function. Despite consistent, experimentally controlled injury, significant variation in response to lesion remained. Aspiration following RLN lesion was due to more than unilateral vocal fold paralysis. We suggest that neurological variation underlies this pattern. PMID:26285799

  8. Unilateral proptosis in thyroid eye disease with subsequent contralateral involvement: retrospective follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this retrospective follow-up study is to evaluate the prevalence of patients with thyroid eye disease presenting with apparent unilateral proptosis and determine the occurrence of exophthalmos in contralateral non-proptotic eye over the time. Associated features with this event were evaluated. Methods A cohort of 655 consecutive patients affected by thyroid eye disease with a minimum follow-up of 10 years was reviewed. Exophthalmos was assessed by using both Hertel exophthalmometer and computed tomography (CT). The influence of age, gender, hormonal status and of different therapies such as corticosteroids, radiotherapy and surgical decompression on this disease progression was evaluated. Results A total of 89 patients (13.5%) (95% confidence interval [CI] 15%-10%) had clinical evidence of unilateral exophthalmos at the first visit. Among these, 13 patients (14%) (95% CI 22%-7%) developed subsequent contralateral exophthalmos. The increase of protrusion ranged from 2 to 7 mm (mean of 4.2). The time of onset varied from 6 months to 7 years (mean time: 29 months). Smoking status, young age and surgical decompression are significantly associated with development of contralateral proptosis (p< .05). Conclusions Asymmetric thyroid eye disease with the appearance of unilateral exophthalmos at the initial examination is a fairly frequent event, while subsequent contralateral proptosis occurs less commonly. However, physicians should be aware that young patients, particularly if smokers, undergoing orbital decompression in one eye may need further surgery on contralateral side over time. PMID:23721066

  9. Rehabilitation of a child with partial unilateral cryptophthalmos and multiple congenital anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Konrad, H; Merriam, J C; Jones, I S

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: This paper describes the surgical rehabilitation of a child with craniofacial anomalies, unilateral syndactyly, and partial unilateral cryptophthalmos associated with inferior colobomata of the iris and optic nerve and agenesis of the inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscles. The clinical presentation of cryptophthalmos is described. METHODS: The medical literature since the original description of cryptophthalmos in 1872 was reviewed to define patterns of inheritance and the incidence of associated anomalies. RESULTS: Including this patient, 149 case reports of cryptophthalmos were identified. In two families transmission from parent to child suggests dominant inheritance. None of the five dominant cases had any other anomalies, and all had bilateral complete cryptophthalmos. The incidence of cryptophthalmos in the remaining families is consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. This group includes patients with bilateral, unilateral, and partial cryptophthalmos. Other anomalies are common, including those of the ear and nose, limbs, genitourinary system, and mouth and palate. Mortality in the perinatal period is associated with renal agenesis, laryngeal atresia, and pulmonary hypoplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Cryptophthalmos is a rare congenital anomaly with two patterns of inheritance. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:8719680

  10. A Tutorial on Implantable Hearing Amplification Options for Adults with Unilateral Microtia and Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Joannie Ka Yin; Wong, Lena Lai Nar; Tsang, Willis Sung Shan; Tong, Michael Chi Fai

    2014-01-01

    Background. Patients with unilateral atresia and microtia encounter problems in sound localization and speech understanding in noise. Although there are four implantable hearing devices available, there is little discussion and evidence on the application of these devices on patients with unilateral atresia and microtia problems. Objective. This paper will review the details of these four implantable hearing devices for the treatment of unilateral atresia. They are percuteaneous osseointegrated bone anchored hearing aid, Vibrant Soundbridge middle ear implant, Bonebridge bone conduction system, and Carina fully implantable hearing device. Methods. Four implantable hearing devices were reviewed and compared. The clinical decision process that led to the recommendation of a device was illustrated by using a case study. Conclusions. The selection of appropriate implantable hearing devices should be based on various factors, including radiological findings and patient preferences, possible surgical complications, whether the device is Food and Drug Administration- (FDA-)/CE-approved, and the finances. To ensure the accurate evaluation of candidacy and outcomes, the evaluation methods should be adapted to suite the type of hearing device. PMID:24991564

  11. Unilateral cryptorchidism induces morphological changes of testes and hyperplasia of Sertoli cells in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Joon Ho; Yoo, Dae Young; Jo, Young Kwang; Kim, Geon A; Jung, Hyo Young; Choi, Jung Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Cryptorchidism is one of the most common genital defects in dogs. This study investigated the effects of abdominal cryptorchidism on morphology, cell proliferation, and Sertoli cell condition in a dog with spontaneous unilateral cryptorchidism. Elective orchidectomy was performed on the abdominal right testis and the scrotal left testis. Significant reductions in numbers of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids were observed in hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of the cryptorchid testis. The size of the epididymal duct was smaller than that of the control testis. Based on Ki67 immunohistochemistry, the proliferative activity of spermatogonia and spermatocytes was significantly decreased in the cryptorchid testis. However, proliferative activity was increased in the epididymal duct. Based on GATA-4 immunohistochemistry, Sertoli cells were relatively resistant to cryptorchidism, and the proliferative activity of Sertoli cells was markedly increased in the cryptorchid testis than in the control testis. These results suggest that spontaneous unilateral cryptorchidism causes morphological defects in spermatogonia and spermatocytes in the testis and changes the size of the efferent ductule of the epididymis. In addition, spontaneous unilateral cryptorchidism increases proliferative activity of Sertoli cells, which may be a predisposing factor for Sertoli cell cancer in cryptorchid testes. PMID:25628730

  12. Comparison of unilateral versus bilateral upper extremity task performance after stroke

    PubMed Central

    DeJong, Stacey L.; Lang, Catherine E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Previous studies have suggested that practicing functional tasks bilaterally instead of unilaterally may improve paretic limb performance after stroke. OBJECTIVE The purposes of this study were to determine whether the bilateral movement condition alters paretic limb performance of a functional task in people with post-stroke hemiparesis, and to identify specifically which parameters of performance may be affected. METHODS In this single-session study, we examined immediate effects of the bilateral vs. unilateral movement condition on performance of a reach-grasp-lift-release task at preferred-speed in 16 people with mild to moderate post-stroke hemiparesis and in 12 healthy controls. Performance was quantified using motion analysis variables, including durations of the reach and grasp phases, reach path straightness, maximum thumb-index finger aperture, efficiency of finger movement, peak grip force, and timing of release. RESULTS We found no evidence of immediate improvement in paretic-limb performance in the bilateral condition. In both groups, release timing occurred later when participants moved bilaterally instead of unilaterally, possibly representing a divided-attention effect. Other variables did not differ across conditions. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest little immediate impact of the bilateral condition on motor performance of a reach-grasp-lift-release task at preferred speed, in people with mild to moderate hemiparesis. PMID:22750959

  13. Measuring unilateral otolith function via the otolith-ocular response and the subjective visual vertical.

    PubMed

    Clarke, A H; Schönfeld, U; Hamann, C; Scherer, H

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, attention is directed to the unilateral response of the otolith system to static and dynamic tilt, as reflected by subjective estimation of the visual vertical (oculogravic perception). Measurements were performed with a variable radius rotary chair, which permits controlled modulation of the centripetal, or radial, acceleration. By limiting the radius, i.e. eccentric displacement of the head by 3.5 cm during constant-velocity rotation about the earth-vertical axis, adequate unilateral stimulation of the otolith organ--predominantly the utricle--is generated, without involving the semicircular canals. This paradigm has been employed to measure the unilateral utriculo-ocular response. In contrast to the otolith-ocular response (OOR), the subjective visual vertical (SVV) reflects the processing of otolithic information in the higher brain centres (thalamus, vestibular cortex). Exploitation of these two complementary approaches provides useful information for both experimental and clinical scientists. The findings also reveal that centripetal acceleratory stimulation during constant angular velocity with the subject centred on axis is sufficient to localize peripheral otolith dysfunction by means of SVV estimation. This represents a novel test of otolith function that can be easily integrated into routine clinical testing. PMID:11677750

  14. Post unilateral lesion response biases modulate memory: crossed double dissociation of hemispheric specialisations.

    PubMed

    Braun, Claude M J; Delisle, Josée; Guimond, Anik; Daigneault, Rafaël

    2009-03-01

    We propose that what appears to be hemispheric specialisation in the memory domain, as indexed by effects of unilateral brain lesions, is to a great extent explainable as response bias: left hemisphere lesions result in an omissive response bias or error pattern whereas right hemisphere lesions result in a commissive response bias or error pattern. To test this prediction a group of 40 non-confabulatory cases with a verbal and non-verbal retention deficit (hypomnesia), subsequent to a unilateral lesion, was assembled from the literature. A group of non-amnesic cases with confabulation, paramnesia, false memories or memory-laden hallucination (dysfunctional hypermnesia), due to a unilateral lesion, was also assembled from the literature (N=72). Most of the hypomnesic patients had left hemisphere lesions (73%, p<.005, two tailed) while most of the hypermnesic patients had right hemisphere lesions (78%, p<.0005, two tailed). This crossed double dissociation held good despite statistical control of the lesion's locus within the hemisphere, its size or its aetiology, presence of aphasic symptoms, psychiatric comorbidity, the patient's age, gender, or hand preference, and several other potentially confounding variables. PMID:18991140

  15. Treatment Outcome of Combined Modalities for Buccal Cancers: Unilateral or Bilateral Neck Radiation?

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.-Y.; Lee, L.-Y.; Huang, S.-F.; Kang, C.-J.; Fan, K.-H.; Wang, H.-M.; Chen, I.-H.; Liao, C.-T.

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of treatment for buccal cancers and assess the impact of unilateral vs. bilateral adjuvant neck radiation. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the course of 145 patients newly diagnosed with buccal squamous cell carcinoma without distant metastases who completed definitive treatment between January 1994 and December 2000. Of 145 patients, 112 (77%) had Stage III or IV disease. All underwent radical surgery with postoperative radiotherapy (median dose, 64 Gy), including unilateral neck treatment in most (n = 120, 82.8%). After 1997, cisplatin-based concomitant chemoradiotherapy was given for high-risk patients with more than two involved lymph nodes, extracapsular spread, and/or positive margins. Results: The 5-year disease-specific survival rate for Stages I-IV was 87%, 83%, 61%, and 60%, respectively (p = 0.01). The most significant prognostic factor was N stage, with the 5-year disease-specific survival rate for N0, N1, and N2 being 79%, 65%, and 54%, respectively (p 0.001). For patients with more than two lymph nodes or positive extracapsular spread, cisplatin-based concomitant chemoradiotherapy improved locoregional control (p = 0.02). Locoregional control did not differ between patients undergoing unilateral or bilateral neck treatments (p = 0.95). Contralateral neck failure occurred in only 2.1%. Conclusions: In patients with buccal carcinoma after radical resection, ipsilateral neck radiation is adequate. Bilateral prophylactic neck treatment does not confer an added benefit.

  16. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension Manifesting as a Unilateral Subdural Hematoma with a Marked Midline Shift

    PubMed Central

    Inamasu, Joji; Moriya, Shigeta; Shibata, Junpei; Kumai, Tadashi; Hirose, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is a syndrome in which hypovolemia of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) results in various symptoms. Although its prognosis is usually benign, cases with a rapid neurologic deterioration resulting in an altered mental status have been reported. One of the characteristic radiographic findings in such cases is the presence of bilateral accumulation of subdural fluid (hematoma/hygroma). When SIH-related subdural hematoma is present only unilaterally with a concomitant midline shift, making an accurate diagnosis may be challenging, and inadvertent hematoma evacuation may result in further neurologic deterioration. We report a 58-year-old woman with an altered mental status who had visited a local hospital and in whom a brain CT showed a unilateral subdural hematoma with a marked midline shift. She was referred to our department because of her neurologic deterioration after hematoma evacuation. A CT myelography revealed a massive CSF leakage in the entire thoracic epidural space. She made a full neurologic recovery following blood patch therapy. Our case is unique and educational because the suspicion for SIH as an underlying cause of subdural hematoma is warranted in nongeriatric patients not only with bilateral but also unilateral lesions. An immediate search for CSF leakage may be important in cases with failed hematoma evacuation surgery. PMID:25969682

  17. Ewing's sarcoma as second malignancy following a short latency in unilateral retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Tahasildar, Naveen; Goni, Vijay; Bhagwat, Kishan; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar; Panda, Bijnya Birajita

    2011-09-01

    Second malignancies, mostly in the form of bone sarcomas, are known to occur in hereditary retinoblastomas, which usually present with bilateral disease. Only 2 cases of Ewing's sarcoma have been reported in the literature following sporadic unilateral retinoblastoma. A 5-year-old boy presented to our hospital with Ewing's sarcoma of the right humerus (proven by biopsy and immunohistochemistry) following successful treatment of retinoblastoma of the left eye with enucleation and chemotherapy 2 years previously. He was treated with 2 cycles of chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy. At 15 months follow-up, the tumor had reduced in size and the child had a good functional outcome. The cumulative risk of second malignancies in retinoblastoma survivors is 32%. Ninety-eight percent of second malignancies occur in patients with bilateral retinoblastoma. Germ line mutations have been considered in sporadic tumors occurring bilaterally and multifocal unilateral sporadic tumors. Bone and soft tissue sarcomas are the most common second malignancies. Radiation therapy increases the risk of developing a second malignancy in the irradiated field. Unilateral retinoblastomas, which comprise the majority of retinoblastomas, are not immune from the development of second malignancies. Close follow-up of all retinoblastomas--even in the early period--can improve the outcome by facilitating the early detection and aggressive treatment of second malignancies. PMID:21826516

  18. Numerical study of the effect of the nasal cycle on unilateral nasal resistance.

    PubMed

    Jo, Gyehwan; Chung, Seung-Kyu; Na, Yang

    2015-12-01

    We used computational fluid dynamics to study the effects of the nasal cycle on the modification of unilateral nasal resistance using nasal cavity models from 2 different patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. A steady airflow field with an inspiratory flow rate of 250mL/s was simulated using ANSYS-FLUENT v14.5. The distribution of local unilateral nasal resistance showed different shapes of variation and magnitudes of resistance depending on the distribution of cross-sectional area in the nasal cavity models. The highest local resistance on the congested side was found near the nasal valve area in the first patient, whereas the highest value was found in the nasal vestibule for the second patient. The relative importance of nasal resistance in the turbinated air passage differed for the 2 patients. The unilateral resistance of the congested state was in the range of 0.0229-0.221Pas/mL. In the inferior meatus, greater flow rate was allowed during the congested state than during the decongested state if an extensive backflow developed. PMID:26315663

  19. Unilateral periventricular heterotopia and epilepsy in a girl with Ehlers–Danlos syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Savasta, Salvatore; Verrotti, Alberto; Spartà, Maria Valentina; Foiadelli, Thomas; Villa, Maria Pia; Parisi, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS), comprising a variety of inherited connective tissue disorders, has already been described in association with various neurological features, particularly with epilepsy and periventricular heterotopia (PH). Until now, there are reports of only bilateral periventricular heterotopia associated with Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. Methods and results Here we describe a 1-year, 4-month-old female who came under our care in the Pediatric Emergency Room because of prolonged afebrile generalized seizures, whose clinical picture allowed us to suspect a diagnosis of Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. Neuroradiological investigations showed unilateral periventricular heterotopias, and genetic analyses confirmed the hypothesized diagnosis, identifying in particular a mutation in the COL5A1 gene. After starting anticonvulsant therapy, her seizures showed a good response with seizure control and she had a favorable long-term course. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of unilateral periventricular heterotopia associated with Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. We first hypothesized a mosaicism as the cause of both, a unilateral localization of the heterotopias and a favorable long-term course with good response to anticonvulsant therapy; however, intriguingly, we could not demonstrate a mosaicism as the genetic condition in our patient and the neuroradiological findings and the favorable clinical outcome still remain unexplained. PMID:26110114

  20. Mode 2 fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzard, Robert J.; Ghosn, Louis

    1988-01-01

    Current development of high-performance rolling element bearings for aircraft engines (up to 3 million DN, where DN is the product of shaft diameter in millimeters and speed in revolutions per minute) has aroused concern about fatigue crack growth in the inner bearing race that leads to catastrophic failure of the bearing and the engine. A failure sequence was postulated by Srawley, and an analytical program was undertaken to simulate fatigue crack propagation in the inner raceway of such a bearing. A fatigue specimen was developed at NASA by which fatigue data may be obtained relative to the cracking problems. The specimen may be used to obtain either mode 2 data alone or a combination of mixed-mode (1 and 2) data as well and was calibrated in this regard. Mixed-mode fracture data for M-50 bearing steel are presented, and a method for performing reversed-loading tests is described.

  1. Numerical simulation of fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Margolin, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    A constructive model for brittle, and quasi-brittle materials is described. The Bedded Crack Model contains a microphysical description of fracture based on Griffith theory. The effect of cracks on material properties is described by effective modulus theory. Underlying the model is a statistical framework in which the evolution in time of a statistical distribution of cracks is calculated. The theory upon which the model is based is described. The model is implemented in a finite difference computer code. Our model is contrasted with the phenomenologic models usually found in computer codes. A computational simulation of the strain rate dependence of failure stress is presented and compared with laboratory data. A simulation of a gas gun experiment is presented, and the mechanism of spall described.

  2. Probabilistic fracture finite elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. K.; Belytschko, T.; Lua, Y. J.

    1991-01-01

    The Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics (PFM) is a promising method for estimating the fatigue life and inspection cycles for mechanical and structural components. The Probability Finite Element Method (PFEM), which is based on second moment analysis, has proved to be a promising, practical approach to handle problems with uncertainties. As the PFEM provides a powerful computational tool to determine first and second moment of random parameters, the second moment reliability method can be easily combined with PFEM to obtain measures of the reliability of the structural system. The method is also being applied to fatigue crack growth. Uncertainties in the material properties of advanced materials such as polycrystalline alloys, ceramics, and composites are commonly observed from experimental tests. This is mainly attributed to intrinsic microcracks, which are randomly distributed as a result of the applied load and the residual stress.

  3. [Fractures of the humerus head].

    PubMed

    Jaeger, M; Izadpanah, K; Maier, D; Reising, K; Strohm, P C; Südkamp, N P

    2012-03-01

    Fractures of the proximal humerus are commonly seen especially in the elderly population. High-energy trauma in young people can be distinguished from low-energy trauma in the elderly resulting from falls of a low height which are typically characterized by osteoporosis. A precise analysis of fractures is essential for a good understanding of the fracture and an individual therapy for which the LEGO-Codman classification provided by Hertel is recommended. Nonsurgical therapy is commonly performed and widely accepted not only for simple fractures. For osteosynthesis angular stable implants became the gold standard but are frequently associated with a high rate of complications some of which can be lowered by an improved surgical technique. Even today varus dislocated fractures are challenging, especially in combination with destruction of the medial column. In those cases where stable osteosynthesis can no longer be achieved arthroplasty is indicated. The clinical results of anatomic fracture arthroplasty are strongly related with correct ingrowth of the tuberosities. Reverse fracture arthroplasty may be considered but indications should be interpreted with caution and preferably used in patients older than 75 years. PMID:22406681

  4. Cerberus Fossae Fractures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 29 October 2003

    The fractured surface of the Cerberus region southeast of the Elysium volcanoes provides an impressive example of the powerful tectonic forces that have shaped the region. Both the smooth lava plains and the mountains that poke through the lava are subject to the extensional forces that rip open the landscape. The fractures are radial to the Elysium complex, suggesting a relationship to the volcanic processes that have built it.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 8.6, Longitude 160.6 East (199.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Stress Fractures of the Foot.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Munier; Clutton, Juliet; Ridgewell, Mark; Lyons, Kathleen; Perera, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    Stress fractures of the foot and ankle may be more common among athletes than previously reported. A low threshold for investigation is warranted and further imaging may be appropriate if initial radiographs remain inconclusive. Most of these fractures can be treated conservatively with a period of non-weight-bearing mobilization followed by gradual return to activity. Early surgery augmented by bone graft may allow athletes to return to sports earlier. Risk of delayed union, nonunion, and recurrent fracture is high. Many of the patients may also have risk factors for injury that should be modified for a successful outcome. PMID:26409595

  6. Surface stress effects on fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Cammarata, R.C.; Sieradzki, K.

    1996-12-01

    The effects of surface stress on fracture are reviewed. Calculations by Thomson et al. seem to suggest that surface stresses do not affect cleavage fracture when the crack propagates in a self similar manner even though the surface stress can lead to large stresses near the crack tip. However, surface stresses may have an important effect on dislocation emission near the crack tip. A simple analysis is offered to show how these effects may be incorporated into a modified Rice ductile-brittle fracture criterion by adding a term to the unstable stacking energy that takes into account the energy to form an incipient ledge.

  7. Fracture of synthetic diamond M. D. Droty

    E-print Network

    Ritchie, Robert

    Fracture of synthetic diamond M. D. Droty Ctystallume, 3506 Bassett Street, Santa Clara, California 1995) The fracture behavior of synthetic diamond has been investigated using indentation methods and by the tensile testing of pre-notched fracture-mechanics type samples. Specifically, the fracture toughness

  8. Amifostine Protects Vascularity and Improves Unions in a Model of Irradiated Mandibular Fracture Healing

    PubMed Central

    Sarhaddi, Deniz; Tchanque-Fossuo, Catherine N.; Poushanchi, Behdod; Donneys, Alexis; Deshpande, Sagar S.; Weiss, Daniela M.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathologic fractures after irradiation (XRT) can be a devastating problem for cancer patients as XRT has a pernicious effect on bone healing in a large part due to impairment of vascularity. Our aim is to ascertain whether Amifostine (AMF), a radio-protective drug, will preserve the vascularity of the irradiated mandible, thereby improving bony healing and unions after exposure to a human equivalent dose of radiation (HEDR) in our murine model of mandibular fracture repair. Methods Rats were randomized into: Fx (n=9), XRT/Fx (n=5) and AMF/XRT/Fx (n=7). XRT/Fx and AMF/XRT/Fx underwent HEDR directed at the left hemimandible. AMF/XRT/Fx received AMF concomitantly with HEDR. All animals underwent unilateral left-mandibular osteotomy with external fixation set to a 2.1mm fracture gap. Fracture healing was allowed for 40 days prior to perfusion with Microfil. Vascular radiomorphometrics were quantified with micro-computed tomography. Results We observed a 100% rate of bony union in the non-irradiated Fx compared to 25% in XRT/Fx. Union rate in AMF/XRT/Fx more than doubled to 57%. We also saw substantial increase in Vessel Number (123%,p<0.05) and a corresponding decrease in Vessel Separation (55.5%,p<0.05) in AMF/XRT/Fx versus XRT/Fx and no differences between Fx and AMF/XRT/Fx. Conclusions We report that AMF prophylaxis maintains vascularity at levels seen in non-irradiated Fx specimens, correlating with a significant increase in bony unions after HEDR. Our results set the stage for exploration of this targeted therapy alone, and in combination with other treatments, to mitigate the harmful effects of XRT on fracture repair and bone healing in the clinical setting. PMID:24281582

  9. Critical Fracture Stress and Fracture Strain Models for the Prediction of Lower and

    E-print Network

    Ritchie, Robert

    Critical Fracture Stress and Fracture Strain Models for the Prediction of Lower and Upper Shelf fracture stress and stress modified fracture strain models are utilized to describe the variation of lower and upper shelf fracture toughness with temperature and strain rate for two alloy steels used

  10. Unilateral Muscle Overuse Causes Bilateral Changes in Muscle Fiber Composition and Vascular Supply

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yafeng; Forsgren, Sture; Liu, Jing-Xia; Yu, Ji-Guo; Stål, Per

    2014-01-01

    Unilateral strength training can cause cross-transfer strength effects to the homologous contralateral muscles. However, the impact of the cross-over effects on the muscle tissue is unclear. To test the hypothesis that unilateral muscle overuse causes bilateral alterations in muscle fiber composition and vascular supply, we have used an experimental rabbit model with unilateral unloaded overstrain exercise via electrical muscle stimulation (E/EMS). The soleus (SOL) and gastrocnemius (GA) muscles of both exercised (E) and contralateral non-exercised (NE) legs (n?=?24) were morphologically analyzed after 1w, 3w and 6w of EMS. Non-exercised rabbits served as controls (n?=?6). After unilateral intervention the muscles of both E and NE legs showed myositis and structural and molecular tissue changes that to various degrees mirrored each other. The fiber area was bilaterally smaller than in controls after 3w of E/EMS in both SOL (E 4420 and NE 4333 µm2 vs. 5183 µm2, p<0.05) and GA (E 3572 and NE 2983 µm2 vs. 4697 µm2, p<0.02) muscles. After 6w of E/EMS, the percentage of slow MyHCI fibers was lower than in controls in the NE legs of SOL (88.1% vs. 98.1%, p<0.009), while the percentage of fast MyHCIIa fibers was higher in the NE legs of GA (25.7% vs. 15.8%, p?=?0.02). The number of capillaries around fibers in the E and NE legs was lower (SOL 13% and 15%, respectively, GA 25% and 23%, respectively, p<0.05) than in controls. The overall alterations were more marked in the fast GA muscle than in the slow SOL muscle, which on the other hand showed more histopathological muscle changes. We conclude that unilateral repetitive unloaded overuse exercise via EMS causes myositis and muscle changes in fiber type proportions, fiber area and fiber capillarization not only in the exercised leg, but also in the homologous muscles in the non-exercised leg. PMID:25545800

  11. Unilateral muscle overuse causes bilateral changes in muscle fiber composition and vascular supply.

    PubMed

    Song, Yafeng; Forsgren, Sture; Liu, Jing-Xia; Yu, Ji-Guo; Stål, Per

    2014-01-01

    Unilateral strength training can cause cross-transfer strength effects to the homologous contralateral muscles. However, the impact of the cross-over effects on the muscle tissue is unclear. To test the hypothesis that unilateral muscle overuse causes bilateral alterations in muscle fiber composition and vascular supply, we have used an experimental rabbit model with unilateral unloaded overstrain exercise via electrical muscle stimulation (E/EMS). The soleus (SOL) and gastrocnemius (GA) muscles of both exercised (E) and contralateral non-exercised (NE) legs (n?=?24) were morphologically analyzed after 1 w, 3 w and 6 w of EMS. Non-exercised rabbits served as controls (n?=?6). After unilateral intervention the muscles of both E and NE legs showed myositis and structural and molecular tissue changes that to various degrees mirrored each other. The fiber area was bilaterally smaller than in controls after 3 w of E/EMS in both SOL (E 4420 and NE 4333 µm2 vs. 5183 µm2, p<0.05) and GA (E 3572 and NE 2983 µm2 vs. 4697 µm2, p<0.02) muscles. After 6 w of E/EMS, the percentage of slow MyHCI fibers was lower than in controls in the NE legs of SOL (88.1% vs. 98.1%, p<0.009), while the percentage of fast MyHCIIa fibers was higher in the NE legs of GA (25.7% vs. 15.8%, p?=?0.02). The number of capillaries around fibers in the E and NE legs was lower (SOL 13% and 15%, respectively, GA 25% and 23%, respectively, p<0.05) than in controls. The overall alterations were more marked in the fast GA muscle than in the slow SOL muscle, which on the other hand showed more histopathological muscle changes. We conclude that unilateral repetitive unloaded overuse exercise via EMS causes myositis and muscle changes in fiber type proportions, fiber area and fiber capillarization not only in the exercised leg, but also in the homologous muscles in the non-exercised leg. PMID:25545800

  12. Investigation of Created Fracture Geometry through Hydraulic Fracture Treatment Analysis 

    E-print Network

    Ahmed, Ibraheem 1987-

    2012-11-30

    -1 INVESTIGATION OF CREATED FRACTURE GEOMETRY THROUGH HYDRAULIC FRACTURE TREATMENT ANALYSIS A Thesis by IBRAHEEM ANWER AHMED Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Christine Ehlig-Economides Committee Members, Peter Valko Yuefeng Sun Head of Department, Alfred Daniel Hill December 2012 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering Copyright 2012 Ibraheem...

  13. Simultaneous Bilateral Femoral Neck Stress Fracture in a Young Stone Mason

    PubMed Central

    Khadabadi, Nikhil A.; Patil, Kiran S.

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral stress fractures of the femoral neck are very uncommon and bilateral involvement is even rarer. They commonly occur in athletes, military recruits, older persons, or individuals with underlying metabolic disorders and very seldom in normal individuals. We present a rare case of simultaneous bilateral fracture neck of femur in a 25-year-old man who came with complaints of pain in bilateral groin for 1 month. There was no history of trauma or history suggestive of excessive activity prior to the onset of pain, but there was history of lifting heavy weights daily. On evaluation with MRI scan bilateral fracture of the femur neck was diagnosed and patient was operated on bilaterally with internal fixation done using dynamic hip screw. Patient then regained his routine activity over a period of 6 months and on follow-up at 1 year no avascular necrosis changes were seen in the femur head. We presented this case because of its unusual presentation and the diagnostic challenge it poses. PMID:26101680

  14. Gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells 

    E-print Network

    Reza, Rostami Ravari

    2004-11-15

    than the zero-fracture-face-skin optimum, in some cases considerably large, or to put it differently, for every flowing bottomhole pressure there exists an optimum fracture geometry that maximize the dimensionless productivity index. They also showed... above and below the dewpoint pressure by about three times as compared to the non-fractured wells. Hydraulic fractures are also found to extend cumulative production above the dew point pressure. As dimensionless fracture conductivity increases...

  15. Fractures of the proximal tibial epiphysis.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, S S; Peterson, H A

    1979-10-01

    Fractures of the proximal tibial epiphysis are rare. A series of twenty-eight fractures classified according to the Salter-Harris method showed that nine were Type II and eight, Type IV. Lawn-mower injuries, a previously unreported mode of injury for this fracture, caused five of the eight Type-IV fractures and were associated with the worst prognosis by far. Two Type-V fractures in the proximal tibial epiphysis, previously unreported, are described. PMID:489664

  16. Pars Stress Fracture (Lumbar Spondylolysis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... his or her sport. Studies Show: 30% of adolescents involved in sports will have an episode of low back pain Pars stress fracture, also called lumbar spondylolysis, is one of the causes of low back pain in this age group ...

  17. Fractures of the Fifth Metatarsal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fifth metatarsal fracture should see a foot and ankle surgeon as soon as possible for proper diagnosis and treatment. To arrive at a diagnosis, the surgeon will ask how the injury occurred or when the pain started. The foot ...

  18. Principles of Hand Fracture Management

    PubMed Central

    Haughton, DN; Jordan, D; Malahias, M; Hindocha, S; Khan, W

    2012-01-01

    The hand is essential in humans for physical manipulation of their surrounding environment. Allowing the ability to grasp, and differentiated from other animals by an opposing thumb, the main functions include both fine and gross motor skills as well as being a key tool for sensing and understanding the immediate surroundings of their owner. Hand fractures are the most common fractures presenting at both accident and emergency and within orthopaedic clinics. Appropriate evaluation at first presentation, as well as during their management, can significantly prevent both morbidity and disability to a patient. These decisions are dependant on a wide range of factors including age, hand dominance, occupation and co-morbidities. A fracture is best described as a soft tissue injury with an associated bony injury. Despite this being the case, this paper intends to deal mainly with the bone injury and aims to discuss both the timing, as well as the methods available, of hand fracture management. PMID:22423303

  19. Fracture of aluminum naval structures

    E-print Network

    Galanis, Konstantinos, 1970-

    2007-01-01

    Structural catastrophic failure of naval vessels due to extreme loads such as underwater or air explosion, high velocity impact (torpedoes), or hydrodynamic loads (high speed vessels) is primarily caused by fracture. ...

  20. Compression fractures of the back

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Meirhaeghe J, et al. Efficacy and safety of balloon kyphoplasty compared with non-surgical care for vertebral compression fracture (FREE): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet . 2009;373(9668):1016-24.

  1. Vertebral fractures in newborn calves.

    PubMed

    Agerholm, J S; Basse, A; Arnbjerg, J

    1993-01-01

    A prospective study on vertebral fractures in newborn calves is described. Vertebral fractures were found in 7.0% of necropsied calves of the Danish Holstein-Friesian (SDM) and Red Danish Dairy (RDM) breeds. Cases were not found in submitted calves of the Jersey breed or beef breeds. At least in beef breeds this was probably due to the low number necropsied. The rate of vertebral fractures in SDM and RDM breeds and between males and females were similar. Most cases occurred in calves born by heifers, and manual traction force had been applied in all cases. All fractures which in most cases consisted of a simple epiphysiolysis were located at the thoraco-lumbar area, and especially the posterior epiphysis of T13 was afflicted. PMID:8147290

  2. Evaluation of the relationship between fracture conductivity, fracture fluid production, and effective fracture length 

    E-print Network

    Lolon, Elyezer P.

    2006-04-12

    .......................................................................................41 4.28 Cumulative gas recovery versus production time for a multiphase case with wkf = 500 md-ft (Cr = 19.89), Lf = 800 ft, and kg = 0.01 md, and corresponding single-phase cases with different fracture lengths... is the estimated proppant conductivity achieved. In Fig. 1.1, the portion of the fracture that cleans up was assumed to have a dimensionless fracture conductivity (Cr) of 10. The data in Fig. 1.1 indicate that, for a given formation permeability, the effective...

  3. Estimating the fracture density of small-scale vertical fractures when large-scale vertical fractures are present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuwei; Dong, Ning; Fehler, Mike; Fang, Xinding; Liu, Xiwu

    2015-06-01

    Fractures in reservoirs significantly affect reservoir flow properties in subsequent years, which means that fracture characteristics such as preferred orientation, crack density or fracture compliance, what filling is in the fractures and so on are of great importance for reservoir development. When fractures are vertical, aligned and their dimensions are small relative to the seismic wavelength, the medium can be considered to be an equivalent horizontal transverse isotropic (HTI) medium. However, geophysical data acquired over naturally fractured reservoirs often reveal the presence of multiple fracture sets. We investigate a case where there are two vertical sets of fractures having differing length scales. One fracture set has length scale that is much smaller than the seismic wavelength but the other has length scale that is similar to the seismic wavelength. We use synthetic data to investigate the ability to infer the properties of the small-scale fractures in the presence of the large-scale fracture set. We invert for the Thomsen-type anisotropic coefficients of the small-scale fracture set by using the difference of the P wave amplitudes at two azimuths, which makes the inversion convex. Then we investigate the influence of the presence of the large-scale fractures on our ability to infer the properties of the small-scale fracture set. Surprisingly, we find that we can reliably infer the fracture density of the small-scale fractures even in the presence of large-scale fractures having significant compliance values. Although the inversion results for Thomsen-type anisotropic coefficients of small-scale fractures for one model are not good enough to figure out whether it is gas-filled or fluid-filled, we can find a big change of Thomsen-type anisotropic coefficient {{\\varepsilon}(V)} between the models in which small-scale fractures are filled with gas and fluid.

  4. Coupled waves at fracture intersections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, B.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.

    2014-12-01

    Fracture intersections play a crucial role in the hydraulic connectivity of flow paths in rock, yet no current techniques exist for characterizing the conditions of an intersection. We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that elastic waves propagated along fracture intersections are affected by the amount of contact among the blocks forming an intersection. Surface fractures and fracture intersections can be viewed as wedges (corners) coupled through the points of contact along the intersection. An eigenvalue secular equation was derived using displacement discontinuity theory along with the solution for a wedge wave. The velocity and motion of intersection waves are a function of the frequency, material impedance, and specific stiffness of the intersection. For an intersection, several modes are present that represent the coupling between different sets of the wedges and exhibit wave speeds between a single wedge mode and the bulk S wave. A surface fracture supports only one mode of propagation with speeds that range from the single wedge wave to that of the Rayleigh wave. Experiments were performed on intersections made from two or four aluminum samples (0.29 x 0.076 x 0.076 m) to detect intersection waves. Measurements were made under uniaxial and biaxial loading conditions to change the contact area along an intersection. At low loads both the surface fracture and intersection excite wedge waves because the stress between the wedges was not sufficiently high to couple the wedges. As the external load was increased, the wave coupled the wedges and propagated as a Rayleigh wave for the surface fracture, or as a bulk S wave for the intersection. These results indicate that the specific stiffness of the fracture intersection can be estimated based upon the velocity of the wave propagating along the intersection or surface fracture. Using this estimation the flow path(s) along or through the fracture intersection or surface fracture can be characterized and used as a tool to determine which flow path is most likely for a given sample. Acknowledgments: This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Geo-sciences Research Program under Award Number (DE-FG02-09ER16022) and by the Geo-Mathematical Imaging Group at Purdue

  5. Seismic characteristics of tensile fracture growth induced by hydraulic fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, D. W. S.; Van der Baan, M.; Boroumand, N.

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a process of injecting high-pressure slurry into a rockmass to enhance its permeability. Variants of this process are used for unconventional oil and gas development, engineered geothermal systems and block-cave mining; similar processes occur within volcanic systems. Opening of hydraulic fractures is well documented by mineback trials and tiltmeter monitoring and is a physical requirement to accommodate the volume of injected fluid. Numerous microseismic monitoring investigations acquired in the audio-frequency band are interpreted to show a prevalence of shear-dominated failure mechanisms surrounding the tensile fracture. Moreover, the radiated seismic energy in the audio-frequency band appears to be a miniscule fraction (<< 1%) of the net injected energy, i.e., the integral of the product of fluid pressure and injection rate. We use a simple penny-shaped crack model as a predictive framework to describe seismic characteristics of tensile opening during hydraulic fracturing. This model provides a useful scaling relation that links seismic moment to effective fluid pressure within the crack. Based on downhole recordings corrected for attenuation, a significant fraction of observed microseismic events are characterized by S/P amplitude ratio < 5. Despite the relatively small aperture of the monitoring arrays, which precludes both full moment-tensor analysis and definitive identification of nodal planes or axes, this ratio provides a strong indication that observed microseismic source mechanisms have a component of tensile failure. In addition, we find some instances of periodic spectral notches that can be explained by an opening/closing failure mechanism, in which fracture propagation outpaces fluid velocity within the crack. Finally, aseismic growth of tensile fractures may be indicative of a scenario in which injected energy is consumed to create new fracture surfaces. Taken together, our observations and modeling provide evidence that failure mechanisms documented by passive monitoring of hydraulic fractures may contain a significant component of tensile failure, including fracture opening and closing, although creation of extensive new fracture surfaces may be a seismically inefficient process that radiates at sub-audio frequencies.

  6. Capillary fracture of soft gels

    E-print Network

    Joshua B. Bostwick; Karen E. Daniels

    2013-10-16

    A liquid droplet resting on a soft gel substrate can deform that substrate to the point of material failure, whereby fractures develop on the gel surface that propagate outwards from the contact-line in a starburst pattern. In this paper, we characterize i) the initiation process in which the number of arms in the starburst is controlled by the ratio of surface tension contrast to the gel's elastic modulus and ii) the propagation dynamics showing that once fractures are initiated they propagate with a universal power law $L\\propto t^{3/4}$. We develop a model for crack initiation by treating the gel as a linear elastic solid and computing the deformations within the substrate from the liquid/solid wetting forces. The elastic solution shows that both the location and magnitude of the wetting forces are critical in providing a quantitative prediction for the number of fractures and, hence, an interpretation of the initiation of capillary fractures. This solution also reveals that the depth of the gel is an important factor in the fracture process, as it can help mitigate large surface tractions; this finding is confirmed with experiments. We then develop a model for crack propagation by considering the transport of an inviscid fluid into the fracture tip of an incompressible material, and find that a simple energy-conservation argument can explain the observed material-independent power law. We compare predictions for both linear elastic and neo-Hookean solids finding that the latter better explains the observed exponent.

  7. Evaluating GPR polarization effects for imaging fracture channeling and estimating fracture properties

    E-print Network

    Perll, Chris

    2013-12-31

    . To understand how the polarization of radar waves affects imaging of channelized flow in a horizontal fracture, i) a series of numerical forward models was created with varying fracture aperture, channel orientation, and varying fracture water electrical...

  8. Estimation of fracture compliance from tubewaves generated at a fracture intersecting a borehole

    E-print Network

    Bakku, Sudhish Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Understanding fracture compliance is important for characterizing fracture networks and for inferring fluid flow in the subsurface. In an attempt to estimate fracture compliance in the field, we developed a new model to ...

  9. Fracture Modeling and Flow Behavior in Shale Gas Reservoirs Using Discrete Fracture Networks 

    E-print Network

    Ogbechie, Joachim Nwabunwanne

    2012-02-14

    Fluid flow process in fractured reservoirs is controlled primarily by the connectivity of fractures. The presence of fractures in these reservoirs significantly affects the mechanism of fluid flow. They have led to problems ...

  10. The effects of short-term unilateral and bilateral lower-body resistance training on measures of strength and power.

    PubMed

    McCurdy, Kevin W; Langford, George A; Doscher, Mike W; Wiley, Larry P; Mallard, Kim G

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of short-term unilateral resistance training (UL) and bilateral resistance training (BL) with free weights on several tests of unilateral and bilateral lower-body strength and power in men and women. Thirty-eight untrained men and women (mean body mass 78.3 +/- 21.47 kg; age 20.74 +/- 2.6 years) completed the study. The groups trained 2 days per week for 8 weeks with free weights and 2 days per week for 5 of the 8 weeks with plyometric drills. The resistance-training program consisted of a progression from 3 sets of 15 repetitions at 50% of the subject's predicted 1 repetition maximum (1RM) to 6 sets of 5 repetitions at 87% 1RM. Training volume and intensity were equal for each group. The free-weight squat was used to measure unilateral and bilateral strength. Power was measured by the Magaria-Kalamen stair-climb test and the unilateral and bilateral vertical jump test. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze differences between men and women and the interaction of group and gender. Pretest scores were used as the covariate. The UL group improved more than the BL group on the unilateral vertical jump height (p = 0.001) and relative power (p = 0.013). After adjusting for pretest differences, the improved scores on all tests, except for the unilateral squat, were similar between the men and the women. No significant interactions on all tests were found for the men or women comparison between training groups. These results indicate that UL and BL are equally effective for early phase improvement of unilateral and bilateral leg strength and power in untrained men and women. PMID:15705051

  11. Fracture Reactivation in Chemically Reactive Rock Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhubl, P.; Hooker, J. N.

    2013-12-01

    Reactivation of existing fractures is a fundamental process of brittle failure that controls the nucleation of earthquake ruptures, propagation and linkage of hydraulic fractures in oil and gas production, and the evolution of fault and fracture networks and thus of fluid and heat transport in the upper crust. At depths below 2-3 km, and frequently shallower, brittle processes of fracture growth, linkage, and reactivation compete with chemical processes of fracture sealing by mineral precipitation, with precipitation rates similar to fracture opening rates. We recently found rates of fracture opening in tectonically quiescent settings of 10-20 ?m/m.y., rates similar to euhedral quartz precipitation under these conditions. The tendency of existing partially or completely cemented fractures to reactivate will vary depending on strain rate, mineral precipitation kinetics, strength contrast between host rock and fracture cement, stress conditions, degree of fracture infill, and fracture network geometry. Natural fractures in quartzite of the Cambrian Eriboll Formation, NW Scotland, exhibit a complex history of fracture formation and reactivation, with reactivation involving both repeated crack-seal opening-mode failure and shear failure of fractures that formed in opening mode. Fractures are partially to completely sealed with crack-seal or euhedral quartz cement or quartz cement fragmented by shear reactivation. Degree of cementation controls the tendency of fractures for later shear reactivation, to interact elastically with adjacent open fractures, and their intersection behavior. Using kinematic, dynamic, and diagenetic criteria, we determine the sequence of opening-mode fracture formation and later shear reactivation. We find that sheared fracture systems of similar orientation display spatially varying sense of slip We attribute these inconsistent directions of shear reactivation to 1) a heterogeneous stress field in this highly fractured rock unit and 2) variations in the degree of fracture cement infill in fractures of same orientation, allowing fractures to reactivate at times when adjacent, more cemented fractures remain dormant. The observed interaction of chemical and mechanical fracture growth and sealing processes in this chemically reactive and heavily deformed rock unit results in a complex fracture network geometry not generally observed in less chemically reactive, shallower crustal environments.

  12. Fracturing And Liquid CONvection

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-02-29

    FALCON has been developed to enable simulation of the tightly coupled fluid-rock behavior in hydrothermal and engineered geothermal system (EGS) reservoirs, targeting the dynamics of fracture stimulation, fluid flow, rock deformation, and heat transport in a single integrated code, with the ultimate goal of providing a tool that can be used to test the viability of EGS in the United States and worldwide. Reliable reservoir performance predictions of EGS systems require accurate and robust modelingmore »for the coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical processes. Conventionally, these types of problems are solved using operator-splitting methods, usually by coupling a subsurface flow and heat transport simulator with a solid mechanics simulator via input files. FALCON eliminates the need for using operator-splitting methods to simulate these systems, and the scalability of the underlying MOOSE architecture allows for simulating these tightly coupled processes at the reservoir scale, allowing for examination of the system as a whole (something the operator-splitting methodologies generally cannot do).« less

  13. Clinician approach to diagnosis of stress fractures including bisphosphonate-associated fractures.

    PubMed

    McKenna, M J; Heffernan, E; Hurson, C; McKiernan, F E

    2014-02-01

    Stress fractures are repetitive strain injuries that occur in normal bones and in abnormal bones. Stress fractures share many features in common but differences depend on the status of the underlying bone. This review article for clinicians addresses aspects about stress fractures with particular respect to fatigue fractures, Looser zones of osteomalacia, atypical Looser zones, atypical femoral fractures associated with bisphosphonate therapy and stress fractures in Paget's disease of bone. PMID:24106312

  14. Optimal scaling in ductile fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fokoua Djodom, Landry

    This work is concerned with the derivation of optimal scaling laws, in the sense of matching lower and upper bounds on the energy, for a solid undergoing ductile fracture. The specific problem considered concerns a material sample in the form of an infinite slab of finite thickness subjected to prescribed opening displacements on its two surfaces. The solid is assumed to obey deformation-theory of plasticity and, in order to further simplify the analysis, we assume isotropic rigid-plastic deformations with zero plastic spin. When hardening exponents are given values consistent with observation, the energy is found to exhibit sublinear growth. We regularize the energy through the addition of nonlocal energy terms of the strain-gradient plasticity type. This nonlocal regularization has the effect of introducing an intrinsic length scale into the energy. We also put forth a physical argument that identifies the intrinsic length and suggests a linear growth of the nonlocal energy. Under these assumptions, ductile fracture emerges as the net result of two competing effects: whereas the sublinear growth of the local energy promotes localization of deformation to failure planes, the nonlocal regularization stabilizes this process, thus resulting in an orderly progression towards failure and a well-defined specific fracture energy. The optimal scaling laws derived here show that ductile fracture results from localization of deformations to void sheets, and that it requires a well-defined energy per unit fracture area. In particular, fractal modes of fracture are ruled out under the assumptions of the analysis. The optimal scaling laws additionally show that ductile fracture is cohesive in nature, i.e., it obeys a well-defined relation between tractions and opening displacements. Finally, the scaling laws supply a link between micromechanical properties and macroscopic fracture properties. In particular, they reveal the relative roles that surface energy and microplasticity play as contributors to the specific fracture energy of the material. Next, we present an experimental assessment of the optimal scaling laws. We show that when the specific fracture energy is renormalized in a manner suggested by the optimal scaling laws, the data falls within the bounds predicted by the analysis and, moreover, they ostensibly collapse---with allowances made for experimental scatter---on a master curve dependent on the hardening exponent, but otherwise material independent.

  15. Modelling the graphite fracture mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Jacquemoud, C.; Marie, S.; Nedelec, M.

    2012-07-01

    In order to define a design criterion for graphite components, it is important to identify the physical phenomena responsible for the graphite fracture, to include them in a more effective modelling. In a first step, a large panel of experiments have been realised in order to build up an important database; results of tensile tests, 3 and 4 point bending tests on smooth and notched specimens have been analysed and have demonstrated an important geometry related effects on the behavior up to fracture. Then, first simulations with an elastic or an elastoplastic bilinear constitutive law have not made it possible to simulate the experimental fracture stress variations with the specimen geometry, the fracture mechanisms of the graphite being at the microstructural scale. That is the reason why a specific F.E. model of the graphite structure has been developed in which every graphite grain has been meshed independently, the crack initiation along the basal plane of the particles as well as the crack propagation and coalescence have been modelled too. This specific model has been used to test two different approaches for fracture initiation: a critical stress criterion and two criteria of fracture mechanic type. They are all based on crystallographic considerations as a global critical stress criterion gave unsatisfactory results. The criteria of fracture mechanic type being extremely unstable and unable to represent the graphite global behaviour up to the final collapse, the critical stress criterion has been preferred to predict the results of the large range of available experiments, on both smooth and notched specimens. In so doing, the experimental observations have been correctly simulated: the geometry related effects on the experimental fracture stress dispersion, the specimen volume effects on the macroscopic fracture stress and the crack propagation at a constant stress intensity factor. In addition, the parameters of the criterion have been related to experimental observations: the local crack initiation stress of 8 MPa corresponds to the non-linearity apparition on the global behavior observed experimentally and the the maximal critical stress defined for the particle of 30 MPa is equivalent to the fracture stress of notched specimens. This innovative combination of crack modelling and a local crystallographic critical stress criterion made it possible to understand that cleavage initiation and propagation in the graphite microstructure was driven by a mean critical stress criterion. (authors)

  16. Fracture opening/propagation behavior and their significance on pressure-time records during hydraulic fracturing

    SciTech Connect

    Takashi Kojima; Yasuhiko Nakagawa; Koji Matsuki; Toshiyuki Hashida

    1992-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing with constant fluid injection rate was numerically modeled for a pair of rectangular longitudinal fractures intersecting a wellbore in an impermeable rock mass, and numerical calculations have been performed to investigate the relations among the form of pressure-time curves, fracture opening/propagation behavior and permeability of the mechanically closed fractures. The results have shown that both permeability of the fractures and fluid injection rate significantly influence the form of the pressure-time relations on the early stage of fracture opening. Furthermore it has been shown that wellbore pressure during fracture propagation is affected by the pre-existing fracture length.

  17. Anomalous transport on regular fracture networks: Impact of conductivity heterogeneity and mixing at fracture intersections

    E-print Network

    Kang, Peter Kyungchul

    We investigate transport on regular fracture networks that are characterized by heterogeneity in hydraulic conductivity. We discuss the impact of conductivity heterogeneity and mixing within fracture intersections on ...

  18. Experimental study of step-displacement hydraulic fracturing on naturally fractured shale outcrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wan; Jin, Yan; Chen, Mian

    2015-08-01

    Low porosity and permeability make it extremely difficult to develop shale oil and gas reservoirs. The stimulated reservoir volume is believed to have potential to obtain industry production by multi-stage or simultaneous fracturing in horizontal wells. The formation mechanism of network hydraulic fractures in fractured shale reservoirs remains poorly understood. In this article, a true tri-axial hydraulic fracturing system associated acoustic emission monitor was deployed to simulate hydraulic fracturing on shale outcrops. Results showed that the properties of natural fractures (such as aperture, orientation), compared to the viscosity and displacement of the fracturing fluid, affect the propagation direction of hydraulic fractures more predominantly. Each natural fracture in a natural fracture network can independently affect the hydraulic fracture. Low displacement (below the diffusion ability of a reservoir) fracturing tends to connect pre-existing fractures, while high displacement (surpass the diffusion ability of a reservoir) tends to create new fractures. After the breakdown pressure, an increase in injection rate results in more acoustic emission energy and induces new fractures. These results suggest that step-displacement fracturing technology is a possible mechanism to obtain effective fracture networks. Such an understanding would help to avoid unproductive, or sometimes destructive, costly segments of the hydraulic fracturing treatment design.

  19. Factors influencing stereoacuity levels after surgery to correct unilateral developmental cataracts in children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo-Jung; Kim, Wan-Soo

    2013-01-01

    AIM To evaluate factors influencing stereoacuity after surgery to correct unilateral developmental pediatric cataracts. METHODS We retrospectively surveyed 110 patients who had undergone removal of unilateral acquired developmental cataracts and primary posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation between February 1992 and December 2009. In all patients, stereoacuity was assessed using the Titmus test at the last follow-up period of minimum 2 years after surgery. Patients were divided into two groups according to the extent of stereoacuity: group 1 (n=42) had stereoacuity values?100sec/arc and group 2 (n=68) values >100sec/arc. The values of ten parameters associated with stereoacuity were measured in each group: Cataract types, preoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of the affected eyes, preoperative inter-ocular difference of BCVA, age at cataract surgery, operative method, secondary cataract, postoperative strabismus, postoperative BCVA of the affected eyes, postoperative inter-ocular difference of BCVA, and anisometropia. RESULTS The extent of stereoacuity was significantly associated with both operative method and secondary cataract (P=0.000 and P=0.016, respectively). All patients in whom the posterior capsule was preserved, had poor stereoacuity >100sec/arc. Significant correlations with the extent of stereoacuity were found with postoperative strabismus (P=0.048), postoperative BCVA of the affected eyes (P=0.002), anisometropia (P=0.034). CONCLUSION : Postoperative stereoacuity was better in patients who underwent either optic capture or anterior vitrectomy after posterior continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis, and who didn't develop secondary cataracts or strabismus postoperatively. Furthermore, postoperative BCVA of the affected eyes, and anisometropia influenced the stereoacuity of the patients surgically treated for unilateral developmental pediatric cataracts. PMID:23826528

  20. Unilateral Lesion of Dopamine Neurons Induces Grooming Asymmetry in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Pelosi, Assunta; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Hervé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Grooming behaviour is the most common innate behaviour in animals. In rodents, it consists of sequences of movements organized in four phases, executed symmetrically on both sides of the animal and creating a syntactic chain of behavioural events. The grooming syntax can be altered by stress and novelty, as well as by several mutations and brain lesions. Grooming behaviour is known to be affected by alterations of the dopamine system, including dopamine receptor modulation, dopamine alteration in genetically modified animals, and after brain lesion. While a lot is known about the initiation and syntactic modifications of this refined sequence of movements, effects of unilateral lesion of dopamine neurons are unclear particularly regarding the symmetry of syntactic chains. In the present work we studied grooming in mice unilaterally lesioned in the medial forebrain bundle by 6-hydroxydopamine. We found a reduction in completion of grooming bouts, associated with reduction in number of transitions between grooming phases. The data also revealed the development of asymmetry in grooming behaviour, with reduced tendency to groom the contralateral side to the lesion. Symmetry was recovered following treatment with L-DOPA. Thus, the present work shows that unilateral lesion of dopamine neurons reduces self-grooming behaviour by affecting duration and numbers of events. It produces premature discontinuation of grooming chains but the sequence syntax remains correct. This deficient grooming could be considered as an intrinsic symptom of Parkinson’s disease in animal models and could present some similarities with abnormalities of motor movement sequencing seen in patients. Our study also suggests grooming analysis as an additional method to screen parkinsonism in animal models. PMID:26397369

  1. Pedobarographic Analysis Following Pemberton's Pericapsular Osteotomy for Unilateral Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chao; Yan, Ya-Bo; Zhao, Xiong; Wen, Xin-Xin; Shang, Lei; Huang, Lu-Yu; Lei, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Successful clinical and radiographic outcomes have been reported in patients with unilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) following Pemberton pericapsular osteotomy (PPO). However, residual gait deviations are seen in both the affected and unaffected limbs. To date it is not known whether these deviations result in abnormal plantar pressure in such patients. This study investigated this possibility by performing pedobarographic, clinical, and radiographic examinations after PPO in 20 patients (age: 102.5?±?19.0 months) with unilateral DDH who underwent PPO at 34.2?±?9.8 months of age. Plantar pressure was evaluated using the Footscan pressure plate (RsScan International, Olen, Belgium). Each foot was subdivided into 10 zones and peak pressure, force–time integral as a percentage of total FTI, and contact time as a percentage of total stance time was estimated. The minimum duration of follow-up was 24 months (mean: 68.3?±?20.3 months). The data were compared with 20 age- and weight-matched healthy controls. Despite clinical and radiographic examinations showing satisfactory results according to modified McKay and Severin criteria, significant differences in plantar pressure parameters were identified between the affected limbs, the unaffected limbs, and normal controls. No significant differences were found between patients classified as “excellent or good” and those rated as “fair” according to the modified Severin criteria. Pedobarographic results showed the existence of the residual plantar pressure deviations during walking in patients treated with PPO for unilateral DDH. Longer follow-up will be needed to more fully evaluate the effect of these deviations on gait. PMID:26061319

  2. Bilateral retinal microglial response to unilateral optic nerve transection in rats.

    PubMed

    Cen, L P; Han, M; Zhou, L; Tan, L; Liang, J J; Pang, C P; Zhang, M

    2015-12-17

    When retinal ganglion cells undergo apoptosis after optic nerve (ON) injury, microglial cells proliferate and promptly clear the degenerated debris in the ipsilateral retina. However, microglial changes in the contralateral retina have not been fully elucidated. This study characterized the long-term bilateral retinal microglial responses after unilateral ON transection. We analyzed the time course of proliferation and morphology changes of microglial cells, between 3days and 12weeks post ON transection, of undisturbed and reactive microglia in bilateral retinas of adult Fischer rats with unilateral ON transection. Microglia in retinas without ON transection were distributed homogeneously and possessed a highly ramified morphology, as judged by immunohistochemistry for ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1). After ON transection, microglia density in the ipsilateral retina increased gradually from 3days to 2weeks, and decreased from 3weeks to 12weeks, along with dramatic inverted alteration of process branch points of microglia in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). Transformation of ramified microglia into ameboid-like macrophages with few branching processes was observed in the ipsilateral retina from 1week to 3weeks. Though an increase in microglial density was weak in the contralateral retina and could only be statistically detected in the central retina, the morphological alteration over time was obvious and similar to that of the ipsilateral retina. In the inner plexiform layer (IPL), cell density and morphological changes of microglia in both the ipsilateral and contralateral retina were not prominent. These findings indicates that, though proliferation of microglial cells is weak in the contralateral retina after unilateral ON transection, conspicuous alterations in microglial morphology occur bilaterally. These suggest that using the contralateral retina as a control in studies of retinal degeneration should be considered with caution. PMID:26432953

  3. Posterior Cervical Microscopic Foraminotomy and Discectomy with Laser for Unilateral Radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hyo-Cheol; Kim, Cheol-Soo; Kim, Suk-Cheol; Kim, Tae-Ho; Jang, Jae-Won; Choi, Ki-Young; Moon, Bong Ju

    2015-01-01

    Surgical decompression for cervical radiculopathy includes anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, anterior or posterior cervical foraminotomy, and cervical arthroplasty after decompression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a CO2 laser in posterior-approach surgery for unilateral cervical radiculopathy. From January 2006 to December 2008, 12 consecutive patients with unilateral cervical radiculopathy from either foraminal stenosis or disc herniation, which was confirmed with imaging studies, underwent posterior foraminotomy and discectomy with the use of a microscope and CO2 laser. For annulotomy and discectomy, we used about 300 joules of CO2 laser energy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate the extent of disc removal or foraminal decompression. Clinical outcome was evaluated by using visual analogue scale scores for radicular pain and Odom's criteria. For evaluation of spinal stability, cervical flexion and extension radiographs were obtained. Single-level foraminotomy was performed in 10 patients and two-level foraminotomies were performed in 2 patients. Preoperative radicular symptoms were improved immediately after surgery in all patients. No surgery-related complications developed in our cases. Postoperative MRI demonstrated effective decompression of ventral lesions and widened foraminal spaces in all cases. There was no development of cervical instability during the follow-up period. Posterior foraminotomy and discectomy using a microscope and CO2 laser is an effective surgical tool for unilateral cervical radiculopathy caused by lateral or foraminal disc herniations or spondylotic stenosis. Long-term follow-up with radiographs showed no significant kyphotic changes or spinal instability.

  4. Growth Kinematics of Opening-Mode Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhubl, P.; Alzayer, Y.; Laubach, S.; Fall, A.

    2014-12-01

    Fracture aperture is a primary control on flow in fractured reservoirs of low matrix permeability including unconventional oil and gas reservoirs and most geothermal systems. Guided by principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, fracture aperture is generally assumed to be a linear function of fracture length and elastic material properties. Natural opening-mode fractures with significant preserved aperture are observed in core and outcrop indicative of fracture opening strain accommodated by permanent solution-precipitation creep. Fracture opening may thus be decoupled from length growth if the material effectively weakens after initial elastic fracture growth by either non-elastic deformation processes or changes in elastic properties. To investigate the kinematics of fracture length and aperture growth, we reconstructed the opening history of three opening-mode fractures that are bridged by crack-seal quartz cement in Travis Peak Sandstone of the SFOT-1 well, East Texas. Similar crack-seal cement bridges had been interpreted to form by repeated incremental fracture opening and subsequent precipitation of quartz cement. We imaged crack-seal cement textures for bridges sampled at varying distance from the tips using scanning electron microscope cathodoluminescence, and determined the number and thickness of crack-seal cement increments as a function of position along the fracture length and height. Observed trends in increment number and thickness are consistent with an initial stage of fast fracture propagation relative to aperture growth, followed by a stage of slow propagation and pronounced aperture growth. Consistent with fluid inclusion observations indicative of fracture opening and propagation occurring over 30-40 m.y., we interpret the second phase of pronounced aperture growth to result from fracture opening strain accommodated by solution-precipitation creep and concurrent slow, possibly subcritical, fracture propagation. Similar deformation mechanisms are envisioned to govern fracture growth over shorter timescales in reactive chemical subsurface environments including CO2 reservoirs, organic-rich shales, and geothermal systems.

  5. Unilateral Forearm Muscle 18F-FDG Uptake After Using A Smartphone.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Paul; Pinaquy, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-12-01

    F-FDG PET is a tool widely used in many indications, mainly for staging malignant neoplasm. A correct interpretation of images requires knowledge of physiological uptake. The most frequently encountered can be found in head and neck area (language, masticator muscles, and ocular muscles). Many of them can be limited through preventive care before the completion of the exam (e.g., no practicing physical activity, no chewing, no reading). Growth of telecommunication technology has spread the use of smartphones, leading to new uptake artifacts during the acquisition of PET images: a unilateral hyper metabolism of forearm muscles. PMID:26222530

  6. Unilateral compressive optic neuropathy due to skull hyperostosis secondary to nutritional vitamin A deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zayed, Mohammed G.; Hickman, Simon J.; Batty, Ruth; McCloskey, Eugene V.; Pepper, Irene M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We report a 17-year-old boy who presented with a chronic left unilateral optic neuropathy. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated compression of the left optic nerve due to skull hyperostosis. He was found to be profoundly vitamin A deficient secondary to an unusual diet consisting predominantly of potato chips and crisps. Skull hyperostosis with cranial neuropathies and other neurological abnormalities has been described in growing animals fed vitamin A deficient diets but has not been previously reported in humans. PMID:26136803

  7. Progression of a unilateral posterior lentiglobus associated with a persistent fetal vasculature stalk.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hafez, Ghada; Wilson, M Edward; Trivedi, Rupal H

    2010-02-01

    An 8-month-old boy was found to have unilateral persistent fetal vasculature (PFV) and a small visually insignificant lens opacity. No changes were noted in the appearance of the eye on examinations up to age 3 years. At the age of 4 years, a posterior lentiglobus requiring surgical intervention developed. The thinned and bulging posterior capsule ruptured at surgery. PFV, when treated conservatively, has not been reported to lead to progressive lentiglobus. This case documents the rare concurrence of PFV and lentiglobus. PMID:20227629

  8. Reversible acute renal failure after unilateral extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Giovanni; Trombetta, Carlo; Bucci, Stefano; Salamè, Leonardo; Savoldi, Silvana; Belgrano, Emanuele

    2004-02-01

    Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the treatment of choice for the majority of patients with renal or proximal ureteral stones. We describe an unusual case of anuric renal failure following ESWL, in absence of obstruction or myoglobinuria, in the presence of unilateral nephrolithiasis and two normally functioning kidneys. A mechanism for this patient's acute renal failure (ARF) is postulated. Although the frequency of ARF after ESWL is extremely rare and the mechanism responsible for ARF is not understood, the appearance of ARF, when ureteral obstruction or hematoma are absent, should be included among complications following EWSL. Attention should be paid to older patients. PMID:14520505

  9. Orthodontic treatment in Down's syndrome patient with unilateral cleft lip and alveolus.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Haruyo; Ohtawa, Yumi; Sueishi, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe orthodontic treatment in a patient with Down's syndrome accompanied by reverse occlusion due to skeletal deformity with unilateral cleft lip and alveolus. Orthodontic treatment was not initially indicated due to the potential need for surgical intervention and the presence of mental retardation. The further mental and physical growth of the patient together with the help of their guardians, however, allowed placement of a multi-bracket. Although no skeletal correction occurred as a result, reverse occlusion was corrected by labial inclination of the incisors. The patient and her guardians were satisfied with the correction of the overlap by orthodontic treatment alone. PMID:25477037

  10. 'Unilateral cone dystrophy': ERG changes implicate abnormal signaling by hyperpolarizing bipolar and/or horizontal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sieving, P A

    1994-01-01

    The two cases described here appear to represent the infrequently reported entity of "unilateral cone (cone-rod) dystrophy." Both cases give the suggestion that daylight vision can be affected by abnormalities in visual signals in the proximal retina, after they leave the cone photoreceptors themselves. The ERG waveform changes in these two cases are consistent with a deficit in signaling by the hyperpolarizing bipolar cells, and the complaint of abnormal color perception in both cases presented here raises the possibility that the OFF-pathway through hyperpolarizing bipolar cells may be important for color processing. PMID:7886877

  11. Ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy in an adult with congenital unilateral hyperlucent lung

    SciTech Connect

    Wegener, W.A.; Velchik, M.G. )

    1990-10-01

    A variety of congenital and acquired etiologies can give rise to the radiographic finding of a unilateral hyperlucent lung. An unusual case of congenital lobar emphysema diagnosed in a young adult following the initial discovery of a hyperexpanded, hyperlucent lung is reported. Although subsequent bronchoscopy and radiologic studies detailed extensive anatomic abnormalities, functional imaging also played an important role in arriving at this rare diagnosis. In particular, ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy identified the small contralateral lung as the functional lung and helped narrow the differential diagnosis to etiologies involving obstructive airway disorders.

  12. Unilateral uterine torsion secondary to an inflammatory endometrial polyp in the bitch.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Ba; Laksito, Ma; Long, F; Yates, Gd

    2011-10-01

    A 9-year-old bitch was presented because of lethargy and abdominal distension. Abdominal ultrasound revealed an enlarged, fluid-filled uterus and associated mass. Subsequent exploratory laparotomy revealed unilateral uterine torsion involving the mass. Recovery following ovariohysterectomy was uneventful and the histopathological diagnosis was of a benign endometrial inflammatory polyp. Reports of uterine torsion in the English-language literature are reviewed to identify factors associated with the incidence of uterine torsion. The aetiology of the cystic endometrial hyperplasia/pyometra complex and its possible role in the development of inflammatory polypoid lesions in the bitch is also discussed. PMID:21933164

  13. Unilateral common cavity deformity: Recurrent meningitis due to insufficient newborn hearing screening.

    PubMed

    Kivekäs, Ilkka; Vasama, Juha-Pekka; Weitz-Tuoretmaa, Annamaria; Hakomäki, Jari; Rautiainen, Markus

    2015-06-01

    Insufficient newborn hearing screening may leave the other ear with undetected hearing loss. Subsequently, the missed pathology behind the impairment may have potential risk for severe infections. We describe a case of recurrent Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis in an infant with unilateral common cavity deformity. The diagnosis of the deaf left ear was delayed due to insufficient newborn hearing screening and not until the second meningitis the pathology behind the deafness was confirmed. Subtotal petrosectomy was performed unsuccessfully and resulted in another meningitis. We highlight the importance of proper newborn hearing screening and surgical technique to treat cochlear malformations. PMID:25840946

  14. Closed fracture healing: a rat model.

    PubMed

    Otto, T E; Patka, P; Haarman, H J

    1995-01-01

    A rat model for the study of closed fracture healing is described. Standard closed tibial fractures were produced with specially designed pliers in 24 rats. All fractures were located in the middle third of the tibia and healed without complications as delayed union, infection or soft tissue problems. The average angle of the fracture line with the axis of the tibia on lateral view was 80 +/- 2 degrees (SEM). The model is considered to be suited for the study of closed fracture healing processes. Closed intramedullary fracture fixation, can also be evaluated in this model. PMID:7649215

  15. Evaluation of facial nerve following open reduction and internal fixation of subcondylar fracture through retromandibular transparotid approach.

    PubMed

    Bhutia, Ongkila; Kumar, Lalit; Jose, Anson; Roychoudhury, Ajoy; Trikha, Anjan

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate any damage to the facial nerve after a retromandibular transparotid approach for open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of a subcondylar fracture. We studied 38 patients with 44 subcondylar fractures (3 bilateral and 38 unilateral) treated by ORIF through a retromandibular transparotid approach. All patients were followed up for 6 months. Postoperative function of the facial nerve was evaluated within 24h of operation, and at 1, 3, and 12 weeks, and 6 months. Variables including type of fracture, degree of mouth opening, postoperative occlusion, lateral excursion of the mandible, and aesthetic outcome were also monitored. Nine of the 44 fractures resulted in transient facial nerve palsy (20%). Branches of the facial nerve that were involved were the buccal (n=7), marginal mandibular (n=2), and zygomatic (n=1). In the group with lateral displacement, 2/15 showed signs of weakness, whereas when the fracture was medially displaced or dislocated 7/23 showed signs of weakness. Of the 9 sites affected, 7 had resolved within 3 months, and the remaining 2 resolved within 6 months. The mean (range) time to recovery of function was 12 weeks (3-6 months). There was no case of permanent nerve palsy. The retromandibular transparotid approach to ORIF does not permanently damage the branches of the facial nerve. Temporary palsy, though common, resolves in 3-6 months. Postoperative occlusion, mouth opening, and lateral excursion of the mandible were within the reference ranges. We had no infections, or fractured plates, or hypertrophic or keloid scars. PMID:24370443

  16. Fracture and Medium Modeling, by Analizing Hidraulic Fracturing Induced Microseismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Alba, S.; Vargas Jiménez, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is an essential technology for most unconventional hydrocarbon resources and many conventional ones as well. The primary limitation on the improvement and optimization of the fracturing process is the minimal access to observe the behavior of the fracture in the subsurface. Without direct observational evidence, hypothetical mechanisms must be assumed and then tested for their validity with indirect information such as wellbore measurements, indirect production and pressure behavior. One of the most important sources of information today is the relation made between micro seismic source mechanisms and fracture behavior. Hydraulic fractures induce some level of micro seismicity when the stress conditions in the Earth are altered by changes in stress during the operations. The result is the sudden movement between rock elements and the radiation of both compressional and shear energy in a seismic range that can be detected and recorded with sensitive receivers. The objective of this work is to provide reasonable information when applying inversion methods in order to estimate the vertical and horizontal spatial heterogeneities in medium and energy radiation distribution of microseisms while fracking operations. The method consist in record microseisms at a previous lineal array of stations (triaxial accelerometers) which are located close to the source coordinates and cover the area of study. The analysis clarify some ideas about what information can be gained from the micro seismic source data and according to the obtained results, what kind of comparisons and associations might be done to evaluate the fracking performance operation. Non uniformities in medium such as faults would be revealed by interpreted scattering coefficients. Fracture properties like distance, velocity and orientation would be also determined by analyzing energy radiation.

  17. Selective perceptions of hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Sarge, Melanie A; VanDyke, Matthew S; King, Andy J; White, Shawna R

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) is a focal topic in discussions about domestic energy production, yet the American public is largely unfamiliar and undecided about the practice. This study sheds light on how individuals may come to understand hydraulic fracturing as this unconventional production technology becomes more prominent in the United States. For the study, a thorough search of HF photographs was performed, and a systematic evaluation of 40 images using an online experimental design involving N = 250 participants was conducted. Key indicators of hydraulic fracturing support and beliefs were identified. Participants showed diversity in their support for the practice, with 47 percent expressing low support, 22 percent high support, and 31 percent undecided. Support for HF was positively associated with beliefs that hydraulic fracturing is primarily an economic issue and negatively associated with beliefs that it is an environmental issue. Level of support was also investigated as a perceptual filter that facilitates biased issue perceptions and affective evaluations of economic benefit and environmental cost frames presented in visual content of hydraulic fracturing. Results suggested an interactive relationship between visual framing and level of support, pointing to a substantial barrier to common understanding about the issue that strategic communicators should consider. PMID:26399946

  18. Test-Free Fracture Toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Computational simulation results can give the prediction of damage growth and progression and fracture toughness of composite structures. The experimental data from literature provide environmental effects on the fracture behavior of metallic or fiber composite structures. However, the traditional experimental methods to analyze the influence of the imposed conditions are expensive and time consuming. This research used the CODSTRAN code to model the temperature effects, scaling effects and the loading effects of fiber/braided composite specimens with and without fiber-optic sensors on the damage initiation and energy release rates. The load-displacement relationship and fracture toughness assessment approach is compared with the test results from literature and it is verified that the computational simulation, with the use of established material modeling and finite element modules, adequately tracks the changes of fracture toughness and subsequent fracture propagation for any fiber/braided composite structure due to the change of fiber orientations, presence of large diameter optical fibers, and any loading conditions.

  19. Poroelastic effects on fracture characterization.

    PubMed

    Burbey, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Reverse water-level fluctuations have been widely observed in aquitards or aquifers separated from a pumped confined aquifer (Noordbergum effect) immediately after the initiation of pumping. This same reverse fluctuation has been observed in a fractured crystalline-rock aquifer at the Coles Hill uranium site in Virginia in which the reverse water-level response occurs within a pumped fracture and results from an instantaneous strain response to pumping that precedes the pore-pressure response in observation wells of sufficient distance from the pumped well. This response is referred to as the Mandel-Cryer effect. The unique aspect of this water level rise during a controlled 24 h pumping test was that the reverse water levels lasted for approximately 100 min and reached a magnitude of nearly 1?cm prior to a typical drawdown response. The duration and magnitude of the response reflects the poromechanical properties of the fractured host rock and hydraulic properties of the pumped fracture. An axisymmetric flow and deformation model were developed using Biot2 in an effort to simulate the observed water-level response along an assumed 0.5 to 1.0?cm aperture horizontal fracture 176?m from the pumping well and to identify the importance of the poroelastic effect. Results indicate that traditional aquifer-testing methods that ignore the poromechanical response are not significantly different than results that include the response. However, the poroelastic effect allows for more accurate and efficient parameter calibration. PMID:23387850

  20. Evaluation and Effect of Fracturing Fluids on Fracture Conductivity in Tight Gas Reservoirs Using Dynamic Fracture Conductivity Test 

    E-print Network

    Correa Castro, Juan

    2011-08-08

    of “dynamical fracture conductivity test”, were carried out. This procedure simulates the proppant/frac fluid slurries flow into the fractures in a low-permeability rock, as it occurs in the field, using different combinations of polymer and breaker...

  1. Unilateral hydronephrosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the body into a drainage bag) Antibiotics for infections People who have only one kidney, who have immune system disorders such as diabetes or HIV, or who have had a transplant will need prompt treatment. People who have long-term hydronephrosis may need ...

  2. Treatment of neglected femoral neck fracture

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anil K; Mukunth, R; Srivastava, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Intra-capsular femoral neck fractures are seen commonly in elderly people following a low energy trauma. Femoral neck fracture has a devastating effect on the blood supply of the femoral head, which is directly proportional to the severity of trauma and displacement of the fracture. Various authors have described a wide array of options for treatment of neglected/nonunion (NU) femoral neck fracture. There is lack of consensus in general, regarding the best option. This Instructional course article is an analysis of available treatment options used for neglected femoral neck fracture in the literature and attempt to suggest treatment guides for neglected femoral neck fracture. We conducted the “Pubmed” search with the keywords “NU femoral neck fracture and/or neglected femoral neck fracture, muscle-pedicle bone graft in femoral neck fracture, fibular graft in femoral neck fracture and valgus osteotomy in femoral neck fracture.” A total of 203 print articles were obtained as the search result. Thirty three articles were included in the analysis and were categorized into four subgroups based on treatment options. (a) treated by muscle-pedicle bone grafting (MPBG), (b) closed/open reduction internal fixation and fibular grafting (c) open reduction and internal fixation with valgus osteotomy, (d) miscellaneous procedures. The data was pooled from all groups for mean neglect, the type of study (prospective or retrospective), classification used, procedure performed, mean followup available, outcome, complications, and reoperation if any. The outcome of neglected femoral neck fracture depends on the duration of neglect, as the changes occurring in the fracture area and fracture fragments decides the need and type of biological stimulus required for fracture union. In stage I and stage II (Sandhu's staging) neglected femoral neck fracture osteosynthesis with open reduction and bone grafting with MPBG or Valgus Osteotomy achieves fracture union in almost 90% cases. However, in stage III with or without AVN, the results of osteosynthesis are poor and the choice of treatment is replacement arthroplasty (hemi or total). PMID:25593354

  3. Custom-made locked plating for acetabular fracture: a pilot study in 24 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Zhang, Li-Hai; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Zhang, Li-Cheng; He, Chun-Qing; Wang, Yan; Tang, Pei-Fu

    2014-07-01

    Clinical implementation of site-specific locking plates for acetabular fracture remains untested. Custom-made locking plates were manufactured using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture techniques for acetabular fractures to test this procedure. The 3-dimensional images constructed from computed tomography data of pelvises in patients with acetabular fractures were used for preoperative planning and to design the plates. Data for each plate were input into software for programming, and the generated code was transferred into a computerized numerical control digital milling machine for manufacturing. These plates were clinically implemented, and the implementation parameters, reduction quality, and Postel Merle d'Aubigné score were evaluated. Forty-nine custom-made locking plates were manufactured for 24 unilateral acetabular fractures. The manufacturing process for the plates averaged 6.9±2.2 days. Processing the plates delayed operations by 2.6±1.3 days in one-third of the cases. Plate contouring was avoided in 48 plates. The plates had anatomical shapes, excellently matching reduced bone surface. The screws locked with the obtained plates avoided intra-articular penetration and provided secure fixation that allowed early out-of-bed rehabilitation. No indications of implant failures or observations of screw back-outs were observed during follow-up. The clinical application of such plates is associated with the avoidance of plate contouring, low risk of intra-articular penetration, early out-of-bed rehabilitation, and a low rate of implant failure. Implementing such plates in clinical practice is worthy of further investigation, with a focus on selecting patient population and minimizing the time required for and cost of plate manufacturing. PMID:24992064

  4. Fracture mechanics of cellular glass

    SciTech Connect

    Zwissler, J.G.; Adams, M.A.

    1981-02-01

    The fracture mechanics of cellular glasses (for the structural substrate of mirrored glass for solr concentrator reflecting panels) are discussed. Commercial and developmental cellular glasses were tested and analyzed using standard testing techniques and models developed from linear fracture mechanics. Two models describing the fracture behavior of these materials were developed. Slow crack growth behavior in cellular glass was found to be more complex than that encountered in dense glasses or ceramics. The crack velocity was found to be strongly dependent upon water vapor transport to the tip of the moving crack. The existence of a static fatigue limit was not conclusively established, however, it is speculated that slow crack growth behavior in Region 1 may be slower, by orders of magnitude, than that found in dense glasses.

  5. Fracture mechanics of cellular glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwissler, J. G.; Adams, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    The fracture mechanics of cellular glasses (for the structural substrate of mirrored glass for solar concentrator reflecting panels) are discussed. Commercial and developmental cellular glasses were tested and analyzed using standard testing techniques and models developed from linear fracture mechanics. Two models describing the fracture behavior of these materials were developed. Slow crack growth behavior in cellular glass was found to be more complex than that encountered in dense glasses or ceramics. The crack velocity was found to be strongly dependent upon water vapor transport to the tip of the moving crack. The existence of a static fatigue limit was not conclusively established, however, it is speculated that slow crack growth behavior in Region 1 may be slower, by orders of magnitude, than that found in dense glasses. Previously announced in STAR as N82-11209

  6. Fracture mechanics of cellular glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwissler, J. G.; Adams, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    The fracture mechanics of cellular glasses (for the structural substrate of mirrored glass for solr concentrator reflecting panels) are discussed. Commercial and developmental cellular glasses were tested and analyzed using standard testing techniques and models developed from linear fracture mechanics. Two models describing the fracture behavior of these materials were developed. Slow crack growth behavior in cellular glass was found to be more complex than that encountered in dense glasses or ceramics. The crack velocity was found to be strongly dependent upon water vapor transport to the tip of the moving crack. The existence of a static fatigue limit was not conclusively established, however, it is speculated that slow crack growth behavior in Region 1 may be slower, by orders of magnitude, than that found in dense glasses.

  7. Method for directional hydraulic fracturing

    DOEpatents

    Swanson, David E. (West St. Paul, MN); Daly, Daniel W. (Crystal, MN)

    1994-01-01

    A method for directional hydraulic fracturing using borehole seals to confine pressurized fluid in planar permeable regions, comprising: placing a sealant in the hole of a structure selected from geologic or cemented formations to fill the space between a permeable planar component and the geologic or cemented formation in the vicinity of the permeable planar component; making a hydraulic connection between the permeable planar component and a pump; permitting the sealant to cure and thereby provide both mechanical and hydraulic confinement to the permeable planar component; and pumping a fluid from the pump into the permeable planar component to internally pressurize the permeable planar component to initiate a fracture in the formation, the fracture being disposed in the same orientation as the permeable planar component.

  8. Unilateral left paramedian infarction of thalamus and midbrain: a clinico-pathological study.

    PubMed Central

    Bogousslavsky, J; Miklossy, J; Deruaz, J P; Regli, F; Assal, G

    1986-01-01

    In a patient with a unilateral embolic infarct in the left posterior thalamo-subthalamic paramedian artery territory, neuropathological studies showed involvement of the intralaminar, dorsomedial, and internal part of the ventral posterior nuclei of the thalamus, of the rostral part of the mesencephalic reticular formation, and of the posterior commissure. The patient showed upgaze palsy for voluntary saccades, smooth pursuit and vestibulo-ocular movements, sustained downgaze, right-sided motor hemineglect and facio-brachial hypaesthesia, motor transcortical aphasia and anterograde amnesia. This case confirms that unilateral destruction of the posterior commissure, rostral interstitial nucleus of the MLF and interstitial nucleus of Cajal produces a non-dissociated upgaze palsy. Involvement of the nucleus of Cajal probably produced the sustained downward deviation of the eye, by causing predominance of downward vestibulo-ocular inputs. This case also shows that thalamic aphasia and anterograde amnesia may be related to a paramedian lesion of the thalamus, with special reference to involvement of the dorsomedial nucleus, in the absence of lesion of the pulvinar and mamillo-thalamic tract and of conspicuous involvement of the ventral lateral nucleus. Selective hemineglect for motor tasks may occur in infarction of the dominant thalamus, involving the intralaminar nuclei. Images PMID:3734825

  9. Heat transfer performance of an external receiver pipe under unilateral concentrated solar radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jianfeng, Lu; Jing, Ding; Jianping, Yang

    2010-11-15

    The heat transfer and absorption characteristics of an external receiver pipe under unilateral concentrated solar radiation are theoretically investigated. Since the heat loss ratio of the infrared radiation has maximum at moderate energy flux, the heat absorption efficiency will first increase and then decrease with the incident energy flux. The local absorption efficiency will increase with the flow velocity, while the wall temperature drops quickly. Because of the unilateral concentrated solar radiation and different incident angle, the heat transfer is uneven along the circumference. Near the perpendicularly incident region, the wall temperature and absorption efficiency slowly approaches to the maximum, while the absorption efficiency sharply drops near the parallelly incident region. The calculation results show that the heat transfer parameters calculated from the average incident energy flux have a good agreement with the average values of the circumference under different boundary conditions. For the whole pipe with coating of Pyromark, the absorption efficiency of the main region is above 85%, and only the absorption efficiency near the parallelly incident region is below 80%. In general, the absorption efficiency of the whole pipe increases with flow velocity rising and pipe length decreasing, and it approaches to the maximum at optimal concentrated solar flux. (author)

  10. Unilateral deafness in children affects development of multi-modal modulation and default mode networks

    PubMed Central

    Schmithorst, Vincent J.; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Monaural auditory input due to congenital or acquired unilateral hearing loss (UHL) may have neurobiological effects on the developing brain. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the effect of UHL on the development of functional brain networks used for cross-modal processing. Children ages 7–12 with moderate or greater unilateral hearing loss of sensorineural origin (UHL-SN; N = 21) and normal-hearing controls (N = 23) performed an fMRI-compatible adaptation of the Token Test involving listening to a sentence such as “touched the small green circle and the large blue square” and simultaneously viewing an arrow touching colored shapes on a video. Children with right or severe-to-profound UHL-SN displayed smaller activation in a region encompassing the right inferior temporal, middle temporal, and middle occipital gyrus (BA 19/37/39), evidencing differences due to monaural hearing in cross-modal modulation of the visual processing pathway. Children with UHL-SN displayed increased activation in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus, likely the result either of more effortful low-level processing of auditory stimuli or differences in cross-modal modulation of the auditory processing pathway. Additionally, children with UHL-SN displayed reduced deactivation of anterior and posterior regions of the default mode network. Results suggest that monaural hearing affects the development of brain networks related to cross-modal sensory processing and the regulation of the default network during processing of spoken language. PMID:24723873

  11. Children With Mild Bilateral and Unilateral Hearing Loss: Parents' Reflections on Experiences and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Grandpierre, Viviane; Durieux-Smith, Andrée; Gaboury, Isabelle; Coyle, Doug; Na, Eunjung; Sallam, Nusaiba

    2016-01-01

    Children with mild bilateral and unilateral hearing loss are now commonly identified early through newborn hearing screening initiatives. There remains considerable uncertainty about how to support parents and about which services to provide for children with mild bilateral and unilateral hearing loss. The goal of this study was to learn about parents' experiences and understand, from their perspectives, the impact of hearing loss in the mild range on the child's functioning. Parents of 20 children in Ontario, Canada, participated in the study. The median age of identification of hearing loss was 4.6 months (interquartile range: 3.6, 10.8). Parents appreciated learning early about hearing loss, but their experiences with the early process were mixed. Parents felt that professionals minimized the importance of milder hearing loss. There was substantial uncertainty about the need for hearing aids and the findings suggest that parents need specific guidance. Parents expressed concerns about the potential impact of hearing loss on their child's development, particularly at later ages. PMID:26433195

  12. Normative Temporal Values of CRP and ESR in Unilateral and Staged Bilateral TKA

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kwan Kyu; Chang, Chong Bum; Yoon, Su Won; Park, Kyoung Un

    2008-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) play helpful roles in determining the presence of infection after TKA. To provide baseline values, we documented normative temporal values of CRP and ESR in unilateral and staged bilateral TKAs for osteoarthritis. Levels of CRP and ESR were evaluated before surgery and on the first, second, fifth, seventh, fourteenth, forty-second, and ninetieth postoperative days in 320 uncomplicated primary TKAs. C-reactive protein and ESR levels were compared in three groups: unilateral (108 knees), first knee bilateral (106 knees), and second knee bilateral (106 knees) groups. All three groups exhibited similar temporal patterns. Mean CRP levels increased rapidly, reaching a peak on the second day and decreased to less than the normal reference level on the forty-second day. They returned to preoperative levels on the ninetieth day. Mean ESR levels peaked on the fifth day and returned close to the preoperative levels only on the ninetieth day. Wide variations were observed and many cases (43%) did not follow the typical patterns. C-reactive protein had greater fold changes, less frequent atypical temporal patterns, and lower correlation between preoperative and postoperative levels than ESR. Our findings should help surgeons interpret CRP and ESR to determine the presence of infection after TKA. Level of Evidence: Level I, diagnostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18196391

  13. An estimation method of MR signal parameters for improved image reconstruction in unilateral scanner.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Elad; Yeredor, Arie; Nevo, Uri

    2013-12-01

    Unilateral NMR devices are used in various applications including non-destructive testing and well logging, but are not used routinely for imaging. This is mainly due to the inhomogeneous magnetic field (B0) in these scanners. This inhomogeneity results in low sensitivity and further forces the use of the slow single point imaging scan scheme. Improving the measurement sensitivity is therefore an important factor as it can improve image quality and reduce imaging times. Short imaging times can facilitate the use of this affordable and portable technology for various imaging applications. This work presents a statistical signal-processing method, designed to fit the unique characteristics of imaging with a unilateral device. The method improves the imaging capabilities by improving the extraction of image information from the noisy data. This is done by the use of redundancy in the acquired MR signal and by the use of the noise characteristics. Both types of data were incorporated into a Weighted Least Squares estimation approach. The method performance was evaluated with a series of imaging acquisitions applied on phantoms. Images were extracted from each measurement with the proposed method and were compared to the conventional image reconstruction. All measurements showed a significant improvement in image quality based on the MSE criterion - with respect to gold standard reference images. An integration of this method with further improvements may lead to a prominent reduction in imaging times aiding the use of such scanners in imaging application. PMID:24184709

  14. Altered Regional and Circuit Resting-State Activity Associated with Unilateral Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Fu; Wang, Zhenmin; Ge, Jianqiao; Zhang, Kai; Gao, Zhixian; Gao, Jia-Hong; Yang, Yihong; Fan, Jin; Zou, Qihong; Liu, Pinan

    2014-01-01

    The deprivation of sensory input after hearing damage results in functional reorganization of the brain including cross-modal plasticity in the sensory cortex and changes in cognitive processing. However, it remains unclear whether partial deprivation from unilateral auditory loss (UHL) would similarly affect the neural circuitry of cognitive processes in addition to the functional organization of sensory cortex. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate intrinsic activity in 34 participants with UHL from acoustic neuroma in comparison with 22 matched normal controls. In sensory regions, we found decreased regional homogeneity (ReHo) in the bilateral calcarine cortices in UHL. However, there was an increase of ReHo in the right anterior insular cortex (rAI), the key node of cognitive control network (CCN) and multimodal sensory integration, as well as in the left parahippocampal cortex (lPHC), a key node in the default mode network (DMN). Moreover, seed-based resting–state functional connectivity analysis showed an enhanced relationship between rAI and several key regions of the DMN. Meanwhile, lPHC showed more negative relationship with components in the CCN and greater positive relationship in the DMN. Such reorganizations of functional connectivity within the DMN and between the DMN and CCN were confirmed by a graph theory analysis. These results suggest that unilateral sensory input damage not only alters the activity of the sensory areas but also reshapes the regional and circuit functional organization of the cognitive control network. PMID:24788317

  15. “Gunslinger’s gait”: a new cause of unilaterally reduced arm swing

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Rui; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Antonini, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To postulate a new possible cause of a unilaterally reduced arm swing in addition to the known medical conditions such as shoulder pathology, Erb’s palsy, stroke, and Parkinson’s disease. Methods Analysis of YouTube videos depicting the gait of highly ranked Russian officials. Results We found a similar walking pattern in President Vladimir Putin, Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev and three other highly ranked Russian officials, all presenting with a consistently reduced right arm swing in the absence of other overt neurological abnormalities. Conclusions We propose that this new gait pattern, which we term “gunslinger’s gait,” may result from a behavioural adaptation, possibly triggered by KGB or other forms of weapons training where trainees are taught to keep their right hand close to the chest while walking, allowing them to quickly draw a gun when faced with a foe. This should be included in the differential diagnosis of a unilaterally reduced arm swing. PMID:26666758

  16. Unilateral pyramidotomy of the corticospinal tract in rats for assessment of neuroplasticity-inducing therapies.

    PubMed

    Kathe, Claudia; Hutson, Thomas H; Chen, Qin; Shine, Harold D; McMahon, Stephen B; Moon, Lawrence D F

    2014-01-01

    The corticospinal tract (CST) can be completely severed unilaterally in the medullary pyramids of the rodent brainstem. The CST is a motor tract that has great importance for distal muscle control in humans and, to a lesser extent, in rodents. A unilateral cut of one pyramid results in loss of CST innervation of the spinal cord mainly on the contralateral side of the spinal cord leading to transient motor disability in the forelimbs and sustained loss of dexterity. Ipsilateral projections of the corticospinal tract are minor. We have refined our surgical method to increase the chances of lesion completeness. We describe postsurgical care. Deficits on the Montoya staircase pellet reaching test and the horizontal ladder test shown here are detected up to 8 weeks postinjury. Deficits on the cylinder rearing test are only detected transiently. Therefore, the cylinder test may only be suitable for detection of short term recovery. We show how, electrophysiologically and anatomically, one may assess lesions and plastic changes. We also describe how to analyse fibers from the uninjured CST sprouting across the midline into the deprived areas. It is challenging to obtain >90% complete lesions consistently due to the proximity to the basilar artery in the medulla oblongata and survival rates can be low. Alternative surgical approaches and behavioural testing are described in this protocol. The pyramidotomy model is a good tool for assessing neuroplasticity-inducing treatments, which increase sprouting of intact fibers after injury. PMID:25549050

  17. Functional organization of primate translational vestibulo-ocular reflexes and effects of unilateral labyrinthectomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelaki, D. E.; McHenry, M. Q.; Newlands, S. D.; Dickman, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    Translational vestibulo-ocular reflexes (trVORs) are characterized by distinct spatio-temporal properties and sensitivities that are proportional to the inverse of viewing distance. Anodal (inhibitory) labyrinthine stimulation (100 microA, < 2 s) during motion decreased the high-pass filtered dynamics, as well as horizontal trVOR sensitivity and its dependence on viewing distance. Cathodal (excitatory) currents had opposite effects. Translational VORs were also affected after unilateral labyrinthectomy. Animals lost their ability to modulate trVOR sensitivity as a function of viewing distance acutely after the lesion. These deficits partially recovered over time, albeit a significant reduction in trVOR sensitivity as a function of viewing distance remained in compensated animals. During fore-aft motion, the effects of unilateral labyrinthectomy were more dramatic. Both acute and compensated animals permanently lost their ability to modulate fore-aft trVOR responses as a function of target eccentricity. These results suggest that (1) the dynamics and viewing distance-dependent properties of the trVORs are very sensitive to changes in the resting firing rate of vestibular afferents and, consequently, vestibular nuclei neurons; (2) the most irregularly firing primary otolith afferents that are most sensitive to labyrinthine electrical stimulation might contribute to reflex dynamics and sensitivity; (3) inputs from both labyrinths are necessary for the generation of the translational VORs.

  18. Hearing Outcomes After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Unilateral Intracanalicular Vestibular Schwannomas: Implication of Transient Volume Expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul ; Kim, Dong Gyu; Han, Jung Ho; Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul ; Chung, Hyun-Tai; Kim, In Kyung; Song, Sang Woo; Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul ; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul ; Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Yong Hwy; Park, Chul-Kee; Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul ; Kim, Chae-Yong; Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul ; Paek, Sun Ha; Jung, Hee-Won; Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the prognostic factors for hearing outcomes after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for unilateral sporadic intracanalicular vestibular schwannomas (IC-VSs) as a clinical homogeneous group of VSs. Methods and Materials: Sixty consecutive patients with unilateral sporadic IC-VSs, defined as tumors in the internal acoustic canal, and serviceable hearing (Gardner-Roberson grade 1 or 2) were treated with SRS as an initial treatment. The mean tumor volume was 0.34 {+-} 0.03 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.03-1.00 cm{sup 3}), and the mean marginal dose was 12.2 {+-} 0.1 Gy (range, 11.5-13.0 Gy). The median follow-up duration was 62 months (range, 36-141 months). Results: The actuarial rates of serviceable hearing preservation were 70%, 63%, and 55% at 1, 2, and 5 years after SRS, respectively. In multivariate analysis, transient volume expansion of {>=}20% from initial tumor size was a statistically significant risk factor for loss of serviceable hearing and hearing deterioration (increase of pure tone average {>=}20 dB) (odds ratio = 7.638; 95% confidence interval, 2.317-25.181; P=.001 and odds ratio = 3.507; 95% confidence interval, 1.228-10.018; P=.019, respectively). The cochlear radiation dose did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: Transient volume expansion after SRS for VSs seems to be correlated with hearing deterioration when defined properly in a clinically homogeneous group of patients.

  19. Effectiveness of Flexible Ureterorenoscopy and Laser Lithotripsy for Multiple Unilateral Intrarenal Stones Smaller Than 2?cm

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Erdal; Ozkanli, Oguz; Avci, Egemen; Turan, Mirac; Ba?ar, M. Murad; Acar, Oguz; Balbay, M. Derya

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of RIRS for the treatment of multiple unilateral intrarenal stones smaller than 20?mm. Methods. Between March 2007 and April 2013, patients with multiple intrarenal stones smaller than 20?mm were treated with RIRS and evaluated retrospectively. Each patient was evaluated for stone number, stone burden (cumulative stone length), operative time, SFRs, and complications. Results. 173 intrarenal stones in 48 patients were included. Mean age, mean number of stones per patient, mean stone burden, and mean operative time were 40.2 ± 10.9 years (23–63), 3.6 ± 3.0 (2–18), 22.2 ± 8.4?mm (12–45), and 60.3 ± 22.0 minutes (30–130), respectively. The overall SFR was 91.7%. SFRs for patients with a stone burden less and greater than 20?mm were 100% (23/23) and 84% (21/25), respectively (?2 = 26.022, P < 0.001). Complications occurred in six (12.5%–6/48) patients, including urinary tract infection or high-grade fever >38.5°C in three cases, prolonged hematuria in two cases, and ureteral perforation in one case, all of whom were treated conservatively. No major complications occurred. Conclusions. RIRS is an effective treatment option in patients with multiple unilateral intrarenal stones especially when the total stone burden is less than 20?mm. PMID:25024702

  20. Adrenal insufficiency in a child following unilateral excision of a dual-hormone secreting phaeochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Sjoeholm, Annika; Li, Cassandra; Leem, Chaey; Lee, Aiden; Stack, Maria P; Hofman, Paul L

    2015-01-01

    Summary Phaeochromocytomas are a rare clinical entity, with dual hormone-secreting lesions particularly uncommon, seen in <1%. ACTH is the most common hormone co-produced, and is potentially lethal if not diagnosed. We present the case of a previously well 10-year-old boy, who presented acutely with a hypertensive crisis and was found to have a unilateral, non-syndromic phaeochromocytoma. Medical stabilization of his hypertension was challenging, and took 3 weeks to achieve, before proceeding to unilateral adrenalectomy. Post-operatively the child experienced severe fatigue and was subsequently confirmed to have adrenal insufficiency. He improved markedly with hydrocortisone replacement therapy, which is ongoing 6 months post-operatively. In retrospect this likely represents unrecognized, sub-clinical ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome secondary to an ACTH/or precursor dual-hormone secreting phaeochromocytoma. At follow-up, his hypertension had resolved, there was no biochemical evidence of recurrence of the phaeochromocytoma, and genetic analysis was indicative of a sporadic lesion. Learning points Dual hormone secreting phaeochromocytomas with ACTH/or a precursor may cause secondary adrenal insufficiency following surgical removal.The concurrent features of Cushing's syndrome can be mild and easily overlooked presenting diagnostic and management pitfalls.As concomitant syndromes of hormone excess are rare in phaeochromocytomas; the diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion.Serial/diurnal cortisol levels, ACTH measurement +/? low dose dexamethasone suppression (when clinically stable, appropriate adrenergic blockade in place, and well supervised), can all be considered as needed. PMID:26113981

  1. Bilateral breast cancer with a unilateral carcinoma within a fibroadenoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, HONGMEI; CHEN, JIAN; WU, XINHONG; JIN, LITING; QI, CHUBO

    2015-01-01

    Fibroadenomas are a type of benign tumor that occur in young women below the age of 35 years old. The tumors are the second most common type of tumor after fibrocystic disease. The chance of carcinoma arising in a fibroadenoma is extremely low. To date, <130 such cases have been reported. Previous studies have reported that fibroadenomas can evolve into a number of different types of malignancy. The present study is the first to describe a case of bilateral primary breast cancer with a unilateral invasive ductal carcinoma within a fibroadenoma. The current study presents a case of a 48-year-old female who presented with 2 stiff lumps on bilateral breasts, diagnosed as bilateral breast carcinoma, with a unilateral invasive ductal carcinoma within a fibroadenoma in the right breast. The patient underwent a bilateral mastectomy and subsequently received 4 cycles of chemotherapy (epirubicin, 60 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide, 600 mg/m2) every 21 days, followed by 4 cycles of docetaxel chemotherapy (100 mg/m2) every 21 days. The patient then received maintenance endocrine therapy (tamoxifen, 20 mg, twice daily) for 19 months. The patient was followed up every 3 months, and at the last follow-up examination in May 2015, the patient exhibited no signs of recurrence.

  2. An estimation method of MR signal parameters for improved image reconstruction in unilateral scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Elad; Yeredor, Arie; Nevo, Uri

    2013-12-01

    Unilateral NMR devices are used in various applications including non-destructive testing and well logging, but are not used routinely for imaging. This is mainly due to the inhomogeneous magnetic field (B0) in these scanners. This inhomogeneity results in low sensitivity and further forces the use of the slow single point imaging scan scheme. Improving the measurement sensitivity is therefore an important factor as it can improve image quality and reduce imaging times. Short imaging times can facilitate the use of this affordable and portable technology for various imaging applications. This work presents a statistical signal-processing method, designed to fit the unique characteristics of imaging with a unilateral device. The method improves the imaging capabilities by improving the extraction of image information from the noisy data. This is done by the use of redundancy in the acquired MR signal and by the use of the noise characteristics. Both types of data were incorporated into a Weighted Least Squares estimation approach. The method performance was evaluated with a series of imaging acquisitions applied on phantoms. Images were extracted from each measurement with the proposed method and were compared to the conventional image reconstruction. All measurements showed a significant improvement in image quality based on the MSE criterion - with respect to gold standard reference images. An integration of this method with further improvements may lead to a prominent reduction in imaging times aiding the use of such scanners in imaging application.

  3. Axis extraction method of symmetry object under unilateral illumination condition in optical measurement images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Shao-wen; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Guo, Peng-yu; Wang, Kun-peng

    2013-08-01

    Measuring the three-dimension (3D) orientation parameters of the axis symmetry objects, such as missile and rocket, plays an important role of optimization design and malfunction analysis of the targets in shooting range experimentations. If the target is clear-cut, there are already many ways to extract the axis precisely, and get the three-dimension orientation parameters by triangulation method. But in practical experimentations, we sometimes face the problem that the target is illuminated by intense sunlight, which with the background of sky will cause the imprecision of axis extraction and the increasing of measurement error. To solve the problem, this paper presents an accurate method to extract the target's axis. The method build a point set, and try to put all the target's points into it by using the priori-knowledge, such as the symmetry target's characteristic under unilateral illumination condition, then calculate the regional minimum inertia axis of the set's points and get the target's axis. Experimental results show that this method is efficient and robust to noise, which can meet the requirement of unilaterally illuminated target 3D pose interpretation in shooting range.

  4. Asymmetric Posterior Thoracolumbar Fixation following a Posterolateral Transpedicular Approach for Unilateral Vertebral Disease

    PubMed Central

    YILMAZ, Murat; KARAKASLI, Ahmet; KALEMCI, Orhan; KIZMAZOGLU, Ceren; YUKSEL, Zafer K.; ARDA, Nuri M.; YUCESOY, Kemal

    The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients who underwent asymmetrical posterior screw fixation for the treatment of unilateral posterior vertebral pathological entities. The study included 21 patients with a spinal tumor who underwent asymmetrical posterior spinal fusion surgery between April 2009 and March 2012. The American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) motor score visual analog scale (VAS) score were used as the outcome measure at admission and follow-up. Among the 21 patients, 12 were male and 9 were female, and mean age was 50.71 (range, 24–78) years. Mean follow-up was 16.04 (range, 4–47) months. Postoperatively, neurological findings did not deteriorate in any of the patients. Among the ASIA grade C and D patients, eight (38%) of them exhibited clinical stability or recovery to ASIA E, whereas none of the ASIA B patients scores changed postoperatively. Perioperative complications were noted in six patients (28%). Spinal stability and fusion were achieved in 18 (85%) patients. The surgical asymmetrical fixation technique described reduced the duration of surgery, and the patients required less dissection of paraspinal muscles than bilateral symmetrical fixation. Asymmetrical fixation provides good stabilization for unilateral thoracolumbar vertebral pathological entities, and facilitates rapid rehabilitation of such patients, who are often elderly with comorbidities. PMID:25797773

  5. Electrophysiologic effects of unilateral right and left stellate ganglion block on the human heart.

    PubMed

    Cinca, J; Evangelista, A; Montoyo, J; Barutell, C; Figueras, J; Valle, V; Rius, J; Soler-Soler, J

    1985-01-01

    To determine the electrophysiologic effects of stellate ganglion (SG) block on the human heart, the two SGs were anesthetized separately, with a 24-hour interval between the two procedures, in 13 patients with episodes of supraventricular tachycardia (six had Kent bundles). Left SG block caused: (1) a lengthening of the AH interval, measured at fixed atrial rates of 10 +/- 12 msec (p less than 0.01); (2) a marked depression of the VA conduction in six of the seven patients with measurable VA interval (in two patients it produced complete VA block); (3) a slowing of 20 to 40 msec of the cycle of an electrically induced reciprocating tachycardia; and (4) failure to modify the QT interval duration. In contrast, right SG block produced asymmetric or opposite changes and prolonged the QT interval (7.6 +/- 8.8 msec, p less than 0.05). Atrial and ventricular refractoriness was not significantly altered by SG block. Retrograde effective refractory period of the Kent bundle changed 20 to 60 msec after unilateral SG blockade. Thus, this study suggests that the human conduction system and the Kent bundles receive an appreciable sympathetic influence from the SG. Like experimental studies, we also found an asymmetric response to unilateral SG block and a dominance, in most of our patients, of the left SG. The influence on myocardial refractoriness was less apparent. PMID:3966332

  6. Unilateral hypoplastic kidney - a novel highly penetrant feature of familial juvenile hyperuricaemic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Familial juvenile hyperuricaemic nephropathy is a rare inherited nephropathy with genetic heterogeneity. Categorised by genetic defect, mutations in uromodulin (UMOD), renin (REN) and hepatocyte nuclear factor-1? (HNF-1?) genes as well as linkage to chromosome 2p22.1-21 have previously been identified. Knowledge of the genetics of this phenotype has provided important clues to developmental pathways in the kidney. Case presentation We report a novel phenotype, with the typical features of hyperuricemia and renal deterioration, but with the additional unexpected feature of unilateral renal hypoplasia. Mutation analyses of the existing known genes and genetic loci were negative indicating a new monogenic cause. Interestingly two cousins of the index case did not share the latter feature, suggesting a modifier gene effect. Conclusion Unilateral renal hypo/aplasia is usually sporadic and relatively common, with no genetic cause to date identified. This reported pedigree reveals the possibility that a new, unknown renal developmental gene may be implicated in the FJHN phenotype. PMID:24886545

  7. Bonded-cell model for particle fracture

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Duc-Hanh

    Particle degradation and fracture play an important role in natural granular flows and in many applications of granular materials. We analyze the fracture properties of two-dimensional disklike particles modeled as aggregates ...

  8. Multiscale Multifunctional Progressive Fracture of Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Minnetyan, L.

    2012-01-01

    A new approach is described for evaluating fracture in composite structures. This approach is independent of classical fracture mechanics parameters like fracture toughness. It relies on computational simulation and is programmed in a stand-alone integrated computer code. It is multiscale, multifunctional because it includes composite mechanics for the composite behavior and finite element analysis for predicting the structural response. It contains seven modules; layered composite mechanics (micro, macro, laminate), finite element, updating scheme, local fracture, global fracture, stress based failure modes, and fracture progression. The computer code is called CODSTRAN (Composite Durability Structural ANalysis). It is used in the present paper to evaluate the global fracture of four composite shell problems and one composite built-up structure. Results show that the composite shells. Global fracture is enhanced when internal pressure is combined with shear loads. The old reference denotes that nothing has been added to this comprehensive report since then.

  9. Modeling of Acid Fracturing in Carbonate Reservoirs 

    E-print Network

    Al Jawad, Murtada s

    2014-06-05

    The acid fracturing process is a thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, and geochemical (THMG)-coupled phenomena in which the behavior of these variables are interrelated. To model the flow behavior of an acid into a fracture, mass and momentum balance...

  10. Pelvic fractures at a community hospital.

    PubMed

    Davis, F E

    1986-10-01

    One hundred twenty-eight pelvic fractures were reviewed. Of the 128 patients with pelvic fractures, there were seven deaths. Pelvic fractures associated with the greatest blood loss and complications were those which occurred in crush-type injuries secondary to automobile accidents or other heavy impact injuries. Unless fractures were of a crush-type with massive fractures, the amount of blood loss correlated more closely with the history of injury than it did with the x-ray appearance of pelvic fracture. A single patient in this series had greater than 45 units blood loss and exhibited many of the basic problems encountered when dealing with patients with major pelvic fractures. The case of this patient is reviewed in detail, including component therapy for massive blood loss. The prophylactic use of caval filtration or an umbrella device might be warranted in patients with massive pelvic fractures. PMID:3767141

  11. Acoustic Character Of Hydraulic Fractures In Granite

    E-print Network

    Paillet, Frederick I.

    1983-01-01

    Hydraulic fractures in homogeneous granitic rocks were logged with conventional acoustic-transit-time, acoustic-waveform, and acoustic-televiewer logging systems. Fractured intervals ranged in depth from 45 to 570m. and ...

  12. Lisburne Formation fracture characterization and flow modeling 

    E-print Network

    Karpov, Alexandre Valerievich

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of fractured reservoirs for fluid flow and optimal well placement is often very complicated. In general, fractures enhance permeability and increase access to matrix surface, but their random aspects create difficulties for analysis...

  13. Endoscopic approach to subcondylar mandible fractures.

    PubMed

    Kellman, Robert M

    2004-08-01

    Current interest in minimally invasive surgery has extended to the repair of craniomaxillofacial fractures, including subcondylar fractures of the mandible. Recent experience indicates that rigid fixation by the endoscopic approach is technically feasible, particularly for subcondylar fractures with lateral displacement of the proximal fragment. The technique is more difficult (although not impossible) for medially displaced fractures. High condylar fractures and comminuted fractures may not be amenable to this approach unless there is enough bone present to allow placement of screws in the proximal fragment. Because evidence suggests that the outcome of open reduction of subcondylar fractures may be better than the outcome when closed management is performed, techniques that minimize the morbidity of open reduction should allow better long-term results. It is hoped that the endoscopic approach for the repair of subcondylar fractures of the mandible will provide these benefits. The technique is summarized with step-by-step explanations. PMID:15643597

  14. Dynamic fracture of heterogeneous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, M.G.; Liu, C.; Addessio, F.L.; Williams, T.O.; Bennett, J.G.; Haberman, K.S.; Asay, B.W.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to investigate the fundamental aspects of the process of dynamic fracture propagation in heterogeneous materials. The work focused on three important, but poorly understood, aspects of dynamic fracture for materials with a heterogeneous microstructure. These were: the appropriateness of using a single-parameter asymptotic analysis to describe dynamic crack-tip deformation fields, the temperature rises at the tip and on the flanks of a running crack, and the constitutive modeling of damage initiation and accumulation.

  15. Damage accumulation in quasibrittle fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzato, Claudio; Alava, Mikko J.; Zapperi, Stefano

    2014-07-01

    The strength of quasibrittle materials depends on the ensemble of defects inside the sample and on the way damage accumulates before failure. Using large-scale numerical simulations of the random fuse model, we investigate the evolution of the microcrack distribution as the applied load approaches the fracture point. We find that the distribution broadens mostly due to a tendency of cracks to coalesce in a way that increases with system size. We study how the observed behavior depends on the disorder present in the sample and relate the results with fracture size effects.

  16. Probabilistic Simulation for Nanocomposite Fracture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    2010-01-01

    A unique probabilistic theory is described to predict the uniaxial strengths and fracture properties of nanocomposites. The simulation is based on composite micromechanics with progressive substructuring down to a nanoscale slice of a nanofiber where all the governing equations are formulated. These equations have been programmed in a computer code. That computer code is used to simulate uniaxial strengths and fracture of a nanofiber laminate. The results are presented graphically and discussed with respect to their practical significance. These results show smooth distributions from low probability to high.

  17. Hydrogen fracture toughness tester completion

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Michael J.

    2015-09-30

    The Hydrogen Fracture Toughness Tester (HFTT) is a mechanical testing machine designed for conducting fracture mechanics tests on materials in high-pressure hydrogen gas. The tester is needed for evaluating the effects of hydrogen on the cracking properties of tritium reservoir materials. It consists of an Instron Model 8862 Electromechanical Test Frame; an Autoclave Engineering Pressure Vessel, an Electric Potential Drop Crack Length Measurement System, associated computer control and data acquisition systems, and a high-pressure hydrogen gas manifold and handling system.

  18. Modelling fracture in fibrous microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Beyerlein, I.

    1998-04-01

    This work describes some complementary studies directed towards micromechanical modeling and simulation of the statistical fracture process in composites with fibrous microstructures. A few studies involve combining efficient computational stress analyses and piezospectroscopic measurement techniques to quantify interface deformation around a single break in model composites. It is shown how estimated interface parameters can be used to predict activity around more complex break arrangement in much larger composites. The final studies involve incorporating these experimentally refined stress analyses into large scale simulation for statistical predictions and subsequent analytical modeling of composite fracture.

  19. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Penile Fracture.

    PubMed

    Nizamani, Waseem Mehmood; Ali, Syed Imtiaz; Vaswani, Aneel Kumar; Shahani, Bhesham Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Arare but possibly underreported urological emergency is penile fracture which results from tear in the tunica albuginea of the penis. The proposed etiology is forceful manipulation of an erect penis or secondary to blunt trauma. We would like to report a case of young patient presenting with large penile shaft hematoma and deformity. The patient did not provide obvious history of trauma or sexual intercourse. The ultrasound of penis was performed which suggested the diagnosis of penile fracture and ultrasound findings were correlated with peroperative findings. PMID:26522196

  20. Fracture ventilation by surface winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachshon, U.; Dragila, M. I.; Weisbrod, N.

    2011-12-01

    Gas exchange between the Earth subsurface and the atmosphere is an important mechanism, affecting hydrological, agricultural and environmental processes. From a hydrological aspect, water vapor transport is the most important process related to Earth-atmosphere gas exchange. In respect to agriculture, gas transport in the upper soil profile is important for soil aeration. From an environmental aspect, emission of volatile radionuclides, such as 3H, 14C and Rd from radioactive waste disposal facilities; volatile organic components from industrial sources and Rn from natural sources, all found in the upper vadose zone, can greatly affect public health when emissions occur in populated areas. Thus, it is vital to better understand gas exchange processes between the Earth's upper crust and atmosphere. Four major mechanisms are known to transfer gases between ground surface and atmosphere: (1) Diffusion; (2) Pressure gradients between ground pores and atmosphere due to changes in barometric pressure; (3) Density-driven gas flow in respond to thermal gradients in the ground; and (4) Winds above the ground surface. Herein, the wind ventilation mechanism is studied. Whereas the wind's impact on ground ventilation was explored in several studies, the physical mechanisms governing this process were hardly quantified or characterized. In this work the physical properties of fracture ventilation due to wind blowing along land surface were explored and quantified. Both field measurements and Hele-Shaw experiments under controlled conditions in the laboratory were used to study this process. It was found that winds in the range of 0.3 m/s result in fracture ventilation down to a depth of 0.2 m. As wind velocity increases, the depth of the ventilation inside the fracture increases respectively, in a linear manner. In addition, the fracture aperture also affects the depth of ventilation, which grows as fracture aperture increases. For the maximal examined aperture of 2 cm and wind velocity of 1.25 m/s, fracture ventilation was deeper than 0.45 m. This study sheds new light on fracture ventilation, showing that moderate winds may increase evaporation and gas exchange between fractured media and the atmosphere. Even though wind impact is limited to the top 0.5 m below the ground surface, it is an important process as most of the biological activities, as well as important hydrological processes occur in this region. Wind effect should be considered when modeling mass and energy balances between the Earth upper crust and atmosphere.

  1. Fracture - An Unforgiving Failure Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodin, James Ronald

    2006-01-01

    During the 2005 Conference for the Advancement for Space Safety, after a typical presentation of safety tools, a Russian in the audience simply asked, "How does that affect the hardware?" Having participated in several International System Safety Conferences, I recalled that most attention is dedicated to safety tools and little, if any, to hardware. The intent of this paper on the hazard of fracture and failure modes associated with fracture is my attempt to draw attention to the grass roots of system safety - improving hardware robustness and resilience.

  2. Pediatric Mandibular Fractures: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sunil; Vashistha, Abhishek; Chugh, Ankita; Kumar, Dinesh; Bihani, Urvashi; Trehan, Mridula; Nigam, Anant G

    2009-01-01

    The pattern of craniomaxillofacial fractures seen in children and adolescents varies with evolving skeletal anatomy and socioenvironmental factors. The general principles of treating mandibular fractures are the same in children and adults: Anatomic reduction is combined with stabilization adequate to maintain it until bone union has occurred. But recognition of some of the differences between children and their adult counterparts is important in long-term esthetic and functional facial rehabilitation as effect of injury, treatment provided has a great influence on their ensuing growth. PMID:25206104

  3. Bilateral Versus Unilateral Cochlear Implants in Children: A Study of Spoken Language Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Harris, David; Bennet, Lisa; Bant, Sharyn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Although it has been established that bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) offer additional speech perception and localization benefits to many children with severe to profound hearing loss, whether these improved perceptual abilities facilitate significantly better language development has not yet been clearly established. The aims of this study were to compare language abilities of children having unilateral and bilateral CIs to quantify the rate of any improvement in language attributable to bilateral CIs and to document other predictors of language development in children with CIs. Design: The receptive vocabulary and language development of 91 children was assessed when they were aged either 5 or 8 years old by using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (fourth edition), and either the Preschool Language Scales (fourth edition) or the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (fourth edition), respectively. Cognitive ability, parent involvement in children’s intervention or education programs, and family reading habits were also evaluated. Language outcomes were examined by using linear regression analyses. The influence of elements of parenting style, child characteristics, and family background as predictors of outcomes were examined. Results: Children using bilateral CIs achieved significantly better vocabulary outcomes and significantly higher scores on the Core and Expressive Language subscales of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (fourth edition) than did comparable children with unilateral CIs. Scores on the Preschool Language Scales (fourth edition) did not differ significantly between children with unilateral and bilateral CIs. Bilateral CI use was found to predict significantly faster rates of vocabulary and language development than unilateral CI use; the magnitude of this effect was moderated by child age at activation of the bilateral CI. In terms of parenting style, high levels of parental involvement, low amounts of screen time, and more time spent by adults reading to children facilitated significantly better vocabulary and language outcomes. In terms of child characteristics, higher cognitive ability and female sex were predictive of significantly better language outcomes. When family background factors were examined, having tertiary-educated primary caregivers and a family history of hearing loss were significantly predictive of better outcomes. Birth order was also found to have a significant negative effect on both vocabulary and language outcomes, with each older sibling predicting a 5 to 10% decrease in scores. Conclusions: Children with bilateral CIs achieved significantly better vocabulary outcomes, and 8-year-old children with bilateral CIs had significantly better language outcomes than did children with unilateral CIs. These improvements were moderated by children’s ages at both first and second CIs. The outcomes were also significantly predicted by a number of factors related to parenting, child characteristics, and family background. Fifty-one percent of the variance in vocabulary outcomes and between 59 to 69% of the variance in language outcomes was predicted by the regression models. PMID:24557003

  4. Statistical fracture modeling: crack path and fracture criteria with application to homogeneous and

    E-print Network

    Ritchie, Robert

    Statistical fracture modeling: crack path and fracture criteria with application to homogeneous; accepted 23 January 2002 Abstract Analysis has been performed on fracture initiation near a crack in a brittle material with strength described by Weibull statistics. This nonlocal fracture model allows

  5. FEM Analysis ofFEM Analysis of Deformation and Fracture ofDeformation and Fracture of

    E-print Network

    Grujicic, Mica

    FEM Analysis ofFEM Analysis of Deformation and Fracture ofDeformation and Fracture of Deformation and Fracture in Polycrystalline -TiAl + 2-Ti3Al Single Crystals #12;Use of -TiAl + 2-Ti3Al Alloys-Temperature Ductility ·Low Ambient-Temperature Fracture Toughness (KIC

  6. Surrogate-based optimization of hydraulic fracturing in pre-existing fracture networks

    E-print Network

    Lu, Zhiming

    Surrogate-based optimization of hydraulic fracturing in pre-existing fracture networks Mingjie Chen Keywords: Hydraulic fracturing Fractal dimension Surrogate model Optimization Global sensitivity a b s t r a c t Hydraulic fracturing has been used widely to stimulate production of oil, natural gas

  7. Sensitivity of the active fracture model parameter to fracture network orientation and injection scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ba?a?ao?lu, Hakan; Succi, Sauro; Manepally, Chandrika; Fedors, Randall; Wyrick, Danielle Y.

    2009-09-01

    Active fractures refer to the portions of unsaturated, connected fractures that actively conduct water. The active fracture model parameter accounts for the reduction in the number of fractures carrying water and in the fracture-matrix interface area in field-scale simulations of flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rocks. One example includes the numerical analyses of the fault test results at the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada (USA). In such applications, the active fracture model parameter is commonly used as a calibration parameter without relating it to fracture network orientations and infiltration rates. A two-dimensional, multiphase lattice-Boltzmann model was used in this study to investigate the sensitivity of the active fracture model parameter to fracture network orientation and injection scenarios for an unsaturated, variable dipping, and geometrically simple fracture network. The active fracture model parameter differed by as much as 0.11-0.44 when the effects of fracture network orientation, injection rate, and injection mode were included in the simulations. Hence, the numerical results suggest that the sensitivity of the active fracture model parameter to fracture network orientation, injection rates, and injection modes should be explored at the field-scale to strengthen the technical basis and range of applicability of the active fracture model.

  8. Unilateral Ankylosis of Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) with Contralateral Condylar Aplasia and Related Orthopedic Deformity – Syndromic or Nonsyndromic?

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Pradkhshana; Sunil, VSB; Bajpai, Manas; Chhibber, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Condylar aplasia which means “failure of development” is a rare condition and can be unilateral or bilateral. Mandibular condylar Aplasia without any association with syndrome is extremely rare. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis results from trauma, infection and inadequate surgical treatment of the condylar area. Congenital cases are very rare. We report case of congenital unilateral aplasia of left mandibular condyle with ankylosis of right condyle, with an associated orthopedic deformity in a nine-year-old male patient, which may be a part of some unreported syndrome that has not been mentioned so far in literature. As per our best knowledge, no other case including such clinical features has been reported. PMID:25738097

  9. [Treatment of hip fractures in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Hack, Juliana; Bliemel, Christopher; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Bücking, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Hip fractures are among the most common fractures in elderly people. The annual number of femoral fractures is even expected to increase because of an aging society. Due to the high number of comorbidities, there are special challenges in treating geriatric hip fracture patients, which require a multidisciplinary management. This includes surgical treatment allowing full weight bearing in the immediate postoperative period, osteoporosis treatment and falls prevention as well as an early ortho-geriatric rehabilitation program. PMID:25919823

  10. Facial nerve palsy after mandibular fracture.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, M J; Merx, P; Antonyshyn, O; Farb, R

    1995-05-01

    A 19-year-old man sustained a right parasymphyseal fracture and bilateral condylar neck fractures in a motor vehicle accident. The parasymphyseal fracture was treated by open reduction and internal fixation, and the subcondylar fractures were treated with closed reduction and maxillomandibular fixation. Three days postoperatively, a near-complete left facial nerve palsy developed. Facial nerve recovery was not full. The literature is reviewed, and possible mechanisms of this rare and devastating complication are discussed. PMID:7639495

  11. Skull base fractures and their complications.

    PubMed

    Baugnon, Kristen L; Hudgins, Patricia A

    2014-08-01

    Basilar skull fractures are a relatively frequent occurrence in significant head trauma, and their detection is important, as even linear nondisplaced fractures can be associated with critical complications. The management of skull base fractures depends on the location and extent of these associated complications. This article reviews skull base anatomy; morphology of the common fracture patterns within the anterior, central, and posterior skull base; associated complications; imaging findings; and possible pitfalls in imaging of skull base trauma. PMID:25086806

  12. Effect of Observation of Simple Hand Movement on Brain Activations in Patients with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinomais, Mickael; Lignon, Gregoire; Chinier, Eva; Richard, Isabelle; Minassian, Aram Ter; The Tich, Sylvie N'Guyen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to examine and compare brain activation in patients with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) during observation of simple hand movement performed by the paretic and nonparetic hand. Nineteen patients with clinical unilateral CP (14 male, mean age 14 years, 7-21 years) participated…

  13. Fractured shale reservoirs: Towards a realistic model

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton-Smith, T.

    1996-09-01

    Fractured shale reservoirs are fundamentally unconventional, which is to say that their behavior is qualitatively different from reservoirs characterized by intergranular pore space. Attempts to analyze fractured shale reservoirs are essentially misleading. Reliance on such models can have only negative results for fractured shale oil and gas exploration and development. A realistic model of fractured shale reservoirs begins with the history of the shale as a hydrocarbon source rock. Minimum levels of both kerogen concentration and thermal maturity are required for effective hydrocarbon generation. Hydrocarbon generation results in overpressuring of the shale. At some critical level of repressuring, the shale fractures in the ambient stress field. This primary natural fracture system is fundamental to the future behavior of the fractured shale gas reservoir. The fractures facilitate primary migration of oil and gas out of the shale and into the basin. In this process, all connate water is expelled, leaving the fractured shale oil-wet and saturated with oil and gas. What fluids are eventually produced from the fractured shale depends on the consequent structural and geochemical history. As long as the shale remains hot, oil production may be obtained. (e.g. Bakken Shale, Green River Shale). If the shale is significantly cooled, mainly gas will be produced (e.g. Antrim Shale, Ohio Shale, New Albany Shale). Where secondary natural fracture systems are developed and connect the shale to aquifers or to surface recharge, the fractured shale will also produce water (e.g. Antrim Shale, Indiana New Albany Shale).

  14. FRACTURE IN DISORDERED BRITTLE MEDIA A Dissertation

    E-print Network

    Sethna, James P.

    FRACTURE IN DISORDERED BRITTLE MEDIA A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School by Ashivni Shekhawat May 2013 #12;c 2013 Ashivni Shekhawat ALL RIGHTS RESERVED #12;FRACTURE IN DISORDERED- lem of brittle fracture in disordered media. Chapters 2 and 4 are concerned with various aspects

  15. Models for MetaVCeramic Interface Fracture

    E-print Network

    Suo, Zhigang

    ChaDter 12 Models for MetaVCeramic Interface Fracture ZHIGANG SUO C. FONG SHIH Metal shortcomingthat haslimited their wide- spread use-their tendency to fracture easily. In many systems, the low on interface fracture are reviewed in this chapter. With few exceptions, attention is limited to continuum

  16. 49 CFR 195.111 - Fracture propagation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fracture propagation. 195.111 Section 195.111... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.111 Fracture propagation. A carbon dioxide pipeline system must be designed to mitigate the effects of fracture propagation....

  17. 49 CFR 195.111 - Fracture propagation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fracture propagation. 195.111 Section 195.111... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.111 Fracture propagation. A carbon dioxide pipeline system must be designed to mitigate the effects of fracture propagation....

  18. FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF WOOD AND WOOD COMPOSITES

    E-print Network

    Nairn, John A.

    FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF WOOD AND WOOD COMPOSITES DURING CRACK PROPAGATION Noah Matsumoto Structural, USA * Corresponding author: John.Nairn@oregonstate.edu SWST member #12;Fracture Toughness of Wood and Wood Composites During Crack Propagation ABSTRACT The mode I fracture toughness as a function of crack

  19. 49 CFR 195.111 - Fracture propagation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fracture propagation. 195.111 Section 195.111... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.111 Fracture propagation. A carbon dioxide pipeline system must be designed to mitigate the effects of fracture propagation....

  20. 49 CFR 195.111 - Fracture propagation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fracture propagation. 195.111 Section 195.111... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.111 Fracture propagation. A carbon dioxide pipeline system must be designed to mitigate the effects of fracture propagation....

  1. 49 CFR 195.111 - Fracture propagation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fracture propagation. 195.111 Section 195.111... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.111 Fracture propagation. A carbon dioxide pipeline system must be designed to mitigate the effects of fracture propagation....

  2. Acoustic-emission monitoring during hydraulic fracturing

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, L. ); Cassell, B.R. ); Bol, G.M. )

    1992-06-01

    This paper reports that microseismic events or acoustic emissions associated with hydraulic fracturing are recorded with a borehole seismic tool in a deviated well during multirate injection, shut-in, and flowback. The event locations indicate that fracture orientation, length, and height are compatible with regional stress directions and estimates of the fracture size that are based on pressure decline.

  3. Identifying Best Practices in Hydraulic Fracturing Using

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Identifying Best Practices in Hydraulic Fracturing Using Virtual Intelligence Techniques SPE 72385 Results & Discussion Conclusion #12;SPE 72385 OBJECTIVE To identify Best Practices in Hydraulic Fracturing, are fractured upon completion to provide economic amounts of gas. #12;SPE 72385 BACKGROUND A dataset

  4. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: HYDRAULIC FRACTURING OF CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydraulic fracturing is a physical process that creates fractures in silty clay soil to enhance its permeability. The technology, developed by the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) and the University of Cincinnati, creates sand-filled horizontal fractures up to 1 in. i...

  5. Ceramic fracture mode-intergranular vs transgranular fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, R.W.

    1996-12-31

    Available data on intergranular fracture (IGF) vs transgranular fracture (TGF) of ceramics is summarized and significantly extended. At 22 C, where there is most data, TGF is normally dominant. IGF generally increases with decreasing grain size (G, mainly at G {le} 1-10 {mu}m), increasing grain boundary phase content and the occurrence of (1) slow crack growth, (2) mist, hackle, and crack branching, and (3) (mainly finer, substantial, grain boundary) porosity, and possibly with increasing elastic anisotropy. Possible effects of grain orientation, stress rate and character, as well as microstructural stresses from thermal expansion anisotropy (TEA) are discussed. At higher temperatures, there is a general shift to more IGF, especially with more grain boundary impurities, finer G, and probably higher elastic anisotropy. This shift often starts with IGF only at the fracture origin, and may not commence until temperatures of the order of 1500 C or more in some materials. While IGF is often attributed to weaker grain boundaries (implying lower strengths), it is also often associated with fine grain size, and thus the highest strengths at lower temperatures. IGF vs TGF reflects not just grain boundary strength (as often emphasized), but a balance of this versus the fracture toughness for grain fracture (usually via cleavage, which may also entail the multiplicity of cleavage planes). Several factors may interact to shift differing balances in different materials, e.g. some increase in IGF at larger G in TiB{sub 2} with high TEA, but more IGF increase in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, at larger G with less TEA, and no IGF increase in BeO and all TGF in B{sub 4}C having similar TEA to Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  6. Evaluation of an Image-Based Tool to Examine the Effect of Fracture Alignment and Joint Congruency on Outcomes after Wrist Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Lalone, Emily A; Grewal, Ruby; King, Graham W; MacDermid, Joy C

    2015-01-01

    Some mal-alignment of the wrist occurs in up to 71% of patients following a distal radius fracture. A multiple case study was used to provide proof of principle of an image-based technique to investigate the evolution and impact of post-traumatic joint changes at the distal radioulnar joint. Participants who had a unilateral distal radius fracture who previously participated in a prospective study were recruited from a single tertiary hand center. Long term follow-up measures of pain, disability, range of motion and radiographic alignment were obtained and compared to joint congruency measures. The inter-bone distance, a measure of joint congruency was quantified from reconstructed CT bone models of the distal radius and ulna and the clinical outcome was quantified using the patient rated wrist evaluation. In all four cases, acceptable post-reduction alignment and minimal pain/disability at 1-year suggested good clinical outcomes. However, 10 years following injury, 3 out of 4 patients had radiographic signs of degenerative changes occurring in their injured wrist (distal radioulnar joint/radio-carpal joint). Proximity maps displaying inter-bone distances showed asymmetrical congruency between wrists in these three patients. The 10-year PRWE (patient rated wrist evaluation) varied from 4 to 60, with 3 reporting minimal pain/disability and one experiencing high pain/disability. These illustrative cases demonstrate long-term joint damage post-fracture is common and occurs despite positive short-term clinical outcomes. Imaging and functional outcomes are not necessarily correlated. A novel congruency measure provides an indicator of the overall impact of joint mal-alignment that can be used to determine predictors of post-traumatic arthritis and is viable for clinical or large cohort studies. PMID:26157534

  7. Analysis of the Influence of a Natural Fracture Network on Hydraulic Fracture Propagation in Carbonate Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhiyuan; Chen, Mian; Zhang, Guangqing

    2014-03-01

    A new experimental model has been designed to simulate the influence of a natural fracture network on the propagation geometry of hydraulic fractures in naturally fractured formations using a tri-axial fracturing system. In this model, a parallel and symmetrical pre-fracture network was created by placing cement plates in a cubic mold and filling the mold with additional cement to create the final testing block. The surface of the plates will thus be weakly cemented and form pre-fractures. The dimension and direction of the pre-fractures can be controlled using the plates. The experiments showed that the horizontal differential stress and the angle between the maximum horizontal principal in situ stress and the pre-fracture are the dominating factors for the initiation and propagation of hydraulic fractures. For and or and , the direction of the initiation and propagation of the hydraulic fractures are consistent with or deviate from the normal direction of the pre-fracture. When the hydraulic fractures approach the pre-fractures, the direction of the hydraulic fracture propagation will be consistent with the normal direction of the pre-fracture. Otherwise, the hydraulic fracture will deflect and perpendicularly cross the parallel and symmetric pre-fracture network. For and , and or and , before the hydraulic fracture and the pre-fractures intersect, the direction of the hydraulic fracture propagation remains unchanged, and the pre-fractures open or dilate when the hydraulic fracture propagates to the intersection point, forming a complicated hydraulic fracture network with the propagation region of the overall hydraulic fracture network taking the shape of an ellipse. In this condition, the complexity level of the hydraulic fracture is controlled by the net pressure, the compressive normal stress acting on the pre-fractures, the shearing strength and the cohesion strength of the planes of weakness. The conclusions of this research are inconsistent with the formulation of the approach angle that has been widely accepted by previous studies. The principle of hydraulic fracture propagation is that it follows the least resistance, the most preferential propagation, and the shortest propagation path.

  8. Capillary fracture of soft gels

    E-print Network

    Bostwick, Joshua B

    2013-01-01

    A liquid droplet resting on a soft gel substrate can deform that substrate to the point of material failure, whereby fractures develop on the gel surface that propagate outwards from the contact-line in a starburst pattern. In this paper, we characterize i) the initiation process in which the number of arms in the starburst is controlled by the ratio of surface tension contrast to the gel's elastic modulus and ii) the propagation dynamics showing that once fractures are initiated they propagate with a universal power law $L\\propto t^{3/4}$. We develop a model for crack initiation by treating the gel as a linear elastic solid and computing the deformations within the substrate from the liquid/solid wetting forces. The elastic solution shows that both the location and magnitude of the wetting forces are critical in providing a quantitative prediction for the number of fractures and, hence, an interpretation of the initiation of capillary fractures. This solution also reveals that the depth of the gel is an impo...

  9. Fractured mounds in Elysium Planitia

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Fractured mounds at the southern edge of Elysium Planitia. Elysium Planitia is a wide plain that lies to the south of the volcanic region Elysium. These features are found in a region of uplift that is theorized to be a massive lava inflation feature. The structures have a good chance of being tumul...

  10. Sensitivity analysis of fracture scattering

    E-print Network

    Fang, Xinding

    We use 2D and 3D finite-difference modeling to numerically calculate the seismic response of a single finite fracture with a linear-slip boundary in a homogeneous elastic medium. We use a point explosive source and ignore ...

  11. Fracture toughness of polyimide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, J. A.; Mings, S. L.

    1989-01-01

    Two aromatic polyimides and an aromatic polyamide-imide were tested in single edge notched tension. Fracture toughnesses, normalized to 25 micron film thickness ranged from 1.65 to 5.4 MPa m sup 1/2. LARC-TPI, a thermoplastic polyimide, showed evidence of crazing ahead of a growing crack whereas the other materials formed a shear yielded zone.

  12. Mandible fractures and dental trauma.

    PubMed

    Murray, John M

    2013-05-01

    Appropriate and timely management of traumatic injury to the teeth and their supporting structures plays an important role in determining long-term outcome. This article reviews the relevant anatomy and describes the initial diagnosis and treatment approach to dentoalveolar traumatic injury and fractures of the mandible. Procedures for initial stabilization and appropriate referral are also discussed. PMID:23601489

  13. Constitutive modeling of fracture waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resnyansky, A. D.; Romensky, E. I.; Bourne, N. K.

    2003-02-01

    A fracture wave (FW) in a brittle material is a narrow transition region (border) of a continuous fracture zone, which may be associated with the damage accumulation process initiated by propagation of shock waves. In multidimensional structures the fracture wave may behave in an unusual way. The high-speed photography of penetration of a borosilicate (Pyrex) glass block [N. K. Bourne, L. Forde, and J. E. Field, Proc. SPIE 2869, 626 (1997)] shows a visible fracture zone with an apparent flat front although the projectile is a hemispherically nosed rod. A strain-rate-sensitive model is being developed and employed for analysis of the role of the complex stress state and kinetic description of the damage accumulation to describe the process of the impact. Numerical analysis is conducted with a one-dimensional wave propagation code employing the model and with the LS-DYNA2D hydrocode in which the model has been implemented. The analysis demonstrates that (i) the second (plastic) shock wave is superseded by quicker FW relaxing stress behind the elastic precursor, and (ii) the FW front flattening is apparently caused by the change in the acoustic directional properties. This change is associated with the phase-like transition due to the damage accumulation within the FW. In particular, the FW transition separates a highly anisotropic zone of material characterized acoustically by longitudinal and shear waves in front of the FW from a nearly isotropic region of the material characterized only by bulk waves behind the FW.

  14. Fracture scaling in columnar cornstarch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, Lucas; Morris, Stephen

    2006-03-01

    We have studied fracture spacing in desiccated cornstarch slurries, which exhibit columnar jointing. This fracture process creates long hexagonal pillars, and is famous for causing spectacular geologic features such as the Giant’s Causeway. The columnar pattern is formed as a planar network of cracks pass through a cooling or drying body. Even in simple 2D shrinkage fracture experiments it can be difficult to explain the spacing between cracks, however, in this case it is generally believed that the crack spacing depends on the average crack advance rate. Using computerized feedback, we controlled the desiccation rate of starch slurries. Continuous measurements of sample mass were converted into estimates of crack position and crack advance rate. After drying, direct measurements of crack spacing were made throughout the sample by cutting up the colonnade. With a constant crack advance rate, the jointing selects a particular scale after a transient coarsening. The selected scale does not uniquely depend on the final crack advance rate, but rather shows a type of memory inherited from its transient initiation. We present our investigations into this scaling, and how it depends on the fracture advance rate.

  15. Comparison of three procedures for initial fitting of compression hearing aids. II. Experienced users, fitted unilaterally.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, José I; Moore, Brian C J; Marriage, Josephine

    2004-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series comparing three procedures for the initial fitting of multichannel compression hearing aids. The first paper reported the results for a group of 10 experienced hearing aid users fitted bilaterally. This paper reports the results for a different group of 10 experienced hearing aid users fitted unilaterally. The three procedures were: (1) CAMEQ, which aims to amplify speech so as to give equal loudness per critical band over the frequency range 500-5000 Hz, and to give similar overall loudness to normal over a wide range of speech levels; (2) CAMREST, which aims to amplify speech so as to restore normal specific loudness patterns, over a wide range of speech levels; and (3) DSL [i/o], which aims to map the dynamic range of normal-hearing people into the reduced dynamic range of hearing-impaired people, with full restoration of audibility. Each subject was fitted with one Danalogic 163D digital hearing aid, using each of the three fitting procedures in turn; the order was counter-balanced across subjects. Prescribed insertion gains for 55 and 80 dB SPL input levels were verified using real-ear measurements. Immediately after fitting with a given procedure, and 1 week after fitting. the gains were adjusted, when required, by the minimum amount necessary to achieve acceptable fittings. On average, the adjustments were smallest for the CAMREST procedure, slightly larger for the CAMEQ procedure, and largest of all for DSL [i/o]. For the DSL [i/o] the gain changes were mostly negative, especially for high frequencies and the higher input level. After these gain adjustments, users wore the aids for at least 3 weeks before speech reception thresholds (SRTs) for sentences in quiet and in steady and fluctuating background noise were measured. The APHAB questionnaire was also administered. The hearing aids were then refitted with the next procedure. SRTs and APHAB scores did not differ significantly between the three procedures. We conclude that the CAMEQ and CAMREST procedures provide a more appropriate initial fitting than DSL [i/o] for unilaterally experienced hearing aid wearers. Comparison with our earlier study based on bilateral fittings suggests that the preferred gains are similar for unilateral and bilateral fittings. PMID:14974623

  16. CONSTRAINT EFFECT IN FRACTURE WHAT IS IT

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, P; Prof. Yuh J. Chao, P

    2008-10-29

    The meaning of the phrase 'constraint effect in fracture' has changed in the past two decades from 'contained plasticity' to a broader description of 'dependence of fracture toughness value on geometry of test specimen or structure'. This paper will first elucidate the fundamental mechanics reasons for the apparent 'constraint effects in fracture', followed by outlining a straightforward approach to overcoming this problem in both brittle (elastic) and ductile (elastic-plastic) fracture. It is concluded by discussing the major difference in constraint effect on fracture event in elastic and elastic-plastic materials.

  17. Geomechanical Simulation of Fluid-Driven Fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Makhnenko, R.; Nikolskiy, D.; Mogilevskaya, S.; Labuz, J.

    2012-11-30

    The project supported graduate students working on experimental and numerical modeling of rock fracture, with the following objectives: (a) perform laboratory testing of fluid-saturated rock; (b) develop predictive models for simulation of fracture; and (c) establish educational frameworks for geologic sequestration issues related to rock fracture. These objectives were achieved through (i) using a novel apparatus to produce faulting in a fluid-saturated rock; (ii) modeling fracture with a boundary element method; and (iii) developing curricula for training geoengineers in experimental mechanics, numerical modeling of fracture, and poroelasticity.

  18. Effects of fracture reactivation and diagenesis on fracture network evolution: Cambrian Eriboll Formation, NW Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooker, J. N.; Eichhubl, P.; Xu, G.; Ahn, H.; Fall, A.; Hargrove, P.; Laubach, S.; Ukar, E.

    2011-12-01

    The Cambrian Eriboll Formation quartzarenites contain abundant fractures with varying degrees of quartz cement infill. Fractures exist that are entirely sealed; are locally sealed by bridging cements but preserve pore space among bridges; are mostly open but lined with veneers of cement; or are devoid of cement. Fracture propagation in the Eriboll Formation is highly sensitive to the presence of pre-existing fractures. Fracture reactivation occurs in opening mode as individual fractures repeatedly open and are filled or bridged by syn-kinematic cements. As well, reactivation occurs in shear as opening of one fracture orientation coincides with shear displacement along pre-existing fractures of different orientations. The tendency for pre-existing fractures to slip varies in part by the extent of cement infill, yet we observe shear and opening-mode reactivation even among sealed fractures. Paleotemperature analysis of fluid inclusions within fracture cements suggests some fractures now in outcrop formed deep in the subsurface. Fractures within the Eriboll Formation may therefore affect later fracture propagation throughout geologic time. With progressive strain, fault zones develop within fracture networks by a sequence of opening-mode fracture formation, fracture reactivation and linkage, fragmentation, cataclasis, and the formation of slip surfaces. Cataclasite within fault zones is commonly more thoroughly cemented than fractures in the damage zone or outside the fault zone. This variance of cement abundance is likely the result of (1) continued exposure of freshly broken quartz surfaces within cataclasite, promoting quartz precipitation, and (2) possibly more interconnected pathways for mass transfer within the fault zone. Enhanced cementation of cataclasite results in strengthening or diagenetic strain hardening of the evolving fault zone. Further slip is accommodated by shear localization along discrete slip surfaces. With further linkage of fault segments, new, more favorably oriented slip surfaces form while earlier formed slip surfaces become inactive and cemented. This interaction between mechanical processes of fault-fracture network evolution with cementation leads to complex fault systems with heterogeneous permeability structure.

  19. Periprosthetic Fractures Following Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Ki

    2015-01-01

    Periprosthetic fractures after total knee arthroplasty may occur in any part of the femur, tibia and patella, and the most common pattern involves the supracondylar area of the distal femur. Supracondylar periprosthetic fractures frequently occur above a well-fixed prosthesis, and risk factors include anterior femoral cortical notching and use of the rotational constrained implant. Periprosthetic tibial fractures are frequently associated with loose components and malalignment or malposition of implants. Fractures of the patella are much less common and associated with rheumatoid arthritis, use of steroid, osteonecrosis and malalignment of implants. Most patients with periprosthetic fractures around the knee are the elderly with poor bone quality. There are many difficulties and increased risk of nonunion after treatment because reduction and internal fixation is interfered with by preexisting prosthesis and bone cement. Additionally, previous soft tissue injury is another disadvantageous condition for bone healing. Many authors reported good clinical outcomes after non-operative treatment of undisplaced or minimally displaced periprosthetic fractures; however, open reduction or revision arthroplasty was required in displaced fractures or fractures with unstable prosthesis. Periprosthetic fractures around the knee should be prevented by appropriate technique during total knee arthroplasty. Nevertheless, if a periprosthetic fracture occurs, an appropriate treatment method should be selected considering the stability of the prosthesis, displacement of fracture and bone quality. PMID:25750888

  20. Fracture-permeability behavior of shale

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, J. William; Lei, Zhou; Rougier, Esteban; Mori, Hiroko; Viswanathan, Hari

    2015-05-08

    The fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale, an important play for shale gas and oil, was investigated using a triaxial coreflood device and X-ray tomography in combination with finite-discrete element modeling (FDEM). Fractures generated in both compression and in a direct-shear configuration allowed permeability to be measured across the faces of cylindrical core. Shale with bedding planes perpendicular to direct-shear loading developed complex fracture networks and peak permeability of 30 mD that fell to 5 mD under hydrostatic conditions. Shale with bedding planes parallel to shear loading developed simple fractures with peak permeability as high as 900 mD. In addition to the large anisotropy in fracture permeability, the amount of deformation required to initiate fractures was greater for perpendicular layering (about 1% versus 0.4%), and in both cases activation of existing fractures are more likely sources of permeability in shale gas plays or damaged caprock in CO? sequestration because of the significant deformation required to form new fracture networks. FDEM numerical simulations were able to replicate the main features of the fracturing processes while showing the importance of fluid penetration into fractures as well as layering in determining fracture patterns.

  1. RESEARCH PROGRAM ON FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    2002-04-12

    Numerical simulation of water injection in discrete fractured media with capillary pressure is a challenge. Dual-porosity models in view of their strength and simplicity can be mainly used for sugar-cube representation of fractured media. In such a representation, the transfer function between the fracture and the matrix block can be readily calculated for water-wet media. For a mixed-wet system, the evaluation of the transfer function becomes complicated due to the effect of gravity. In this work, they use a discrete-fracture model in which the fractures are discretized as one dimensional entities to account for fracture thickness by an integral form of the flow equations. This simple step greatly improves the numerical solution. Then the discrete-fracture model is implemented using a Galerkin finite element method. The robustness and the accuracy of the approach are shown through several examples. First they consider a single fracture in a rock matrix and compare the results of the discrete-fracture model with a single-porosity model. Then, they use the discrete-fracture model in more complex configurations. Numerical simulations are carried out in water-wet media as well as in mixed-wet media to study the effect of matrix and fracture capillary pressures.

  2. Fracture-permeability behavior of shale

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Carey, J. William; Lei, Zhou; Rougier, Esteban; Mori, Hiroko; Viswanathan, Hari

    2015-05-08

    The fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale, an important play for shale gas and oil, was investigated using a triaxial coreflood device and X-ray tomography in combination with finite-discrete element modeling (FDEM). Fractures generated in both compression and in a direct-shear configuration allowed permeability to be measured across the faces of cylindrical core. Shale with bedding planes perpendicular to direct-shear loading developed complex fracture networks and peak permeability of 30 mD that fell to 5 mD under hydrostatic conditions. Shale with bedding planes parallel to shear loading developed simple fractures with peak permeability as high as 900 mD. In addition tomore »the large anisotropy in fracture permeability, the amount of deformation required to initiate fractures was greater for perpendicular layering (about 1% versus 0.4%), and in both cases activation of existing fractures are more likely sources of permeability in shale gas plays or damaged caprock in CO? sequestration because of the significant deformation required to form new fracture networks. FDEM numerical simulations were able to replicate the main features of the fracturing processes while showing the importance of fluid penetration into fractures as well as layering in determining fracture patterns.« less

  3. A rare cause of unilateral parotid gland swelling: compensatory hypertrophy due to the aplasia of the contralateral parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Günbey, Hediye Pinar; Günbey, Emre; Tayfun, Fatma; Kaytez, Selda Kargin

    2014-05-01

    In this clinical report, 3 cases, admitted to the ears, nose, throat outpatient clinic with the complaints of unilateral swelling in the parotid region and facial asymmetry, are presented. In the etiology, contralateral parotid gland aplasia with compensatory hypertrophy and sialosis was detected. With this rare condition, clinical and radiological features of this anomaly are discussed. PMID:24799112

  4. The Impact of Early Infant Jaw-Orthopaedics on Early Speech Production in Toddlers with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohmander, Anette; Lillvik, Malin; Friede, Hans

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of study was to investigate the impact of pre-surgical Infant Orthopaedics (IO) on consonant production at 18 months of age in children with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate (UCLP) and to compare the consonant production to that of age-matched children without clefts. The first ten children in a consecutive series of 20 with UCLP…

  5. A297B Unilateralfieldadvantage Hayes,Swallow,&Jiang The unilateral field advantage in repetition detection: Effects of perceptual grouping and

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Yuhong

    A297B Unilateralfieldadvantage Hayes,Swallow,&Jiang 1 The unilateral field advantage in repetition detection: Effects of perceptual grouping and task demands Matthew T. Hayes Khena M. Swallow Yuhong V. Jiang. Correspondence should be directed to Yuhong Jiang, 75 East River Road, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Email: khena.swallow

  6. Trace and contextual fear conditioning are impaired following unilateral microinjection of muscimol in the ventral hippocampus or amygdala, but

    E-print Network

    Helmstetter, Fred J.

    Trace and contextual fear conditioning are impaired following unilateral microinjection of muscimol fear conditioning Prelimbic Temporal lobe Disconnection Lidocaine Fear memory a b s t r a c t Trace fear conditioning, in which a brief empty ``trace interval'' occurs between presentation of the CS

  7. The stress response and anesthetic potency of unilateral spinal anesthesia for total Hip Replacement in geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li; Tian, Chun; Li, Min; Peng, Ming-Qing; Ma, Kun-Long; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Ding, Jia-Hui; Cai, Yi

    2014-11-01

    Recently, some scholars suggested that it is important to keep a stablehemodynamic state and prevent the stress responses in geriatric patients undergoing total hip replacement (THR). We conducted this randomized prospective study to observe anesthetic potency of unilateral spinal anesthesia and stress response to it in geriatric patients during THR. We compared the effect of unilateral spinal and bilateral spinal on inhibition of stress response through measuring Norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and cortisol (CORT). Plasma concentrations of NE, E and CORT were determined in blood samples using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays) at three time points: To (prior to anesthesia) T1 (at the time point of skin closure), T2 (twenty-four hours after the operation). Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups: group A (unilateral spinal anesthesia) and group B (conventional bilateral spinal anesthesia). 7.5tymg of hypobaric bupivacaine were injected into subarachnoid cavity at group A and 12mg hypobaric bupivacaine were given at group B. The onset time of sensory and motor block, loss of pinprick sensation, degree of motor block, regression of sensory and motor blocks and hemodynamic changes were also recorded. These data were used to evaluate anesthetic potency of spinal anesthesia. The results of this experiment show that unilateral spinal anesthesia can provide restriction of sensory and motor block, minimize the incidence of hypotension and prevent the stress responses undergoing THR. It is optimal anesthesia procedure for geriatric patients by rapid subarachnoid injection of small doses of bupivacaine. PMID:25410068

  8. The Morbidity of Reoperative Surgery for Recurrent Benign Nodular Goitre: Impact of Previous Unilateral Thyroid Lobectomy versus Subtotal Thyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Claudia; Beaulieu, Anthony; De Wailly, Pierre; Kraimps, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    Background. Subtotal thyroidectomy (STT) was previously considered the gold standard in the surgical management of multinodular goitre despite its propensity for recurrence. Our aim was to assess whether prior STT or unilateral lobectomy was associated with increased reoperative morbidity. Methods. A retrospective analysis was conducted extracting data from our endocrine surgical database for the period from January 1991 to June 2006. Two patient groups were defined: Group 1 consisted of patients with previous unilateral thyroid lobectomy; Group 2 had undergone previous STT. Specific outcomes investigated were transient and permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury and hypoparathyroidism. Results. 494 reoperative cases were performed which consisted of 259 patients with previous unilateral lobectomy (Group 1) and 235 patients with previous subtotal thyroidectomy (Group 2). A statistically significant increase relating to previous STT was demonstrated in both permanent RLN injury (0.77% versus 3.4%, RR 4.38, P = 0.038) and permanent hypoparathyroidism (1.5% versus 5.1%, RR 3.14, P = 0.041). Transient nerve injury and hypocalcaemia incidence was comparable. Conclusions. Reoperative surgery following subtotal thyroidectomy is associated with a significantly increased risk of permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and hypoparathyroidism when compared with previous unilateral thyroidectomy. Subtotal thyroidectomy should therefore no longer be recommended in the management of multinodular goitre. PMID:24563802

  9. Unilateral sectioning of the superior ovarian nerve of rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome restores ovulation in the innervated ovary

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that if polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) results from activating the noradrenergic outflow to the ovary, unilaterally sectioning the superior ovarian nerve (SON) will result in ovulation by the denervated ovary, and the restoration of progesterone (P4), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2) normal serum level. A single 2 mg dose of estradiol valerate (EV) to adult rats results in the development of a syndrome similar to the human PCOS. Ten-day old rats were injected with EV or vehicle solution (Vh) and were submitted to sham surgery, unilateral or bilateral sectioning of the SON at 24-days of age. The animals were sacrificed at 90 to 92 days of age, when they presented vaginal estrus preceded by a pro-estrus smear. In EV-treated animals, unilateral sectioning of the SON restored ovulation by the innervated ovary and unilateral or bilateral sectioning of the SON normalized testosterone and estradiol levels. These results suggest that aside from an increase in ovarian noradrenergic tone in the ovaries, in the pathogenesis of the PCOS participate other neural influences arriving to the ovaries via the SON, regulating spontaneous ovulation. Changes in P4, T and E2 serum levels induced by EV treatment seem to be controlled by neural signals arising from the abdominal wall and other signals arriving to the ovaries through the SON, and presents asymmetry. PMID:20723258

  10. Interaction between Injection Points during Hydraulic Fracturing

    E-print Network

    Hals, Kjetil M D

    2012-01-01

    We present a model of the hydraulic fracturing of heterogeneous poroelastic media. The formalism is an effective continuum model that captures the coupled dynamics of the fluid pressure and the fractured rock matrix and models both the tensile and shear failure of the rock. As an application of the formalism, we study the geomechanical stress interaction between two injection points during hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracking) and how this interaction influences the fracturing process. For injection points that are separated by less than a critical correlation length, we find that the fracturing process around each point is strongly correlated with the position of the neighboring point. The magnitude of the correlation length depends on the degree of heterogeneity of the rock and is on the order of 30-45 m for rocks with low permeabilities. In the strongly correlated regime, we predict a novel effective fracture-force that attracts the fractures toward the neighboring injection point.

  11. Insight from modelling discrete fractures using GEOCRACK

    SciTech Connect

    DuTeaux, Robert; Swenson, Daniel; Hardeman, Brian

    1996-01-24

    This work analyzes the behavior of a numerical geothermal reservoir simulation with flow only in discrete fractures. GEOCRACK is a 2-D finite element model developed at Kansas State University for the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) research at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Its numerical simulations couple the mechanics of discrete fracture behavior with the state of earth stress, fluid flow, and heat transfer. This coupled model could also be of value for modeling reinjection and other reservoir operating strategies for liquid dominated fractured reservoirs. Because fracture surfaces cool quickly by fluid convection, and heat does not conduct quickly from the interior of reservoir rock, modeling the injection of cold fluid into a fractured reservoir is better simulated by a model with discrete fractures. This work contains knowledge gained from HDR reservoir simulation and continues to develop the general concept of heat mining, reservoir optimization. and the sensitivity of simulation to the uncertainties of fracture spacing and dynamic flow dispersion.

  12. Idiopathic unilateral hypoplasia of internal jugular vein and coagulopathy: Unusual case for central venous catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Nama, Rajnish K.; Bhosale, Guruprasad P.; Shah, Veena R.

    2015-01-01

    Central venous catheterization (CVC) is routinely done procedure in ICU or during surgery for various indications. Right Internal jugular vein (IJV) is preferred vessel among different routes for CVC. Anatomic variations of neck vessels are not uncommon and may increase the complication rate especially in patients with altered coagulation profile. Anatomic landmark technique is commonly used for CVC but not without possibility of complications. Ultrasound (US) guided IJV Cannulation provides high success rate, less access time and lesser complications. Superiority of US over anatomic landmark technique has been established, but use of US in clinical practice is still limited. We report a case of idiopathic unilateral hypoplastic IJV in a patient with altered coagulation profile who required CVC, we also tried to find out the barriers for limited use of US. PMID:26712993

  13. Processing of form stimuli presented unilaterally in humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1990-01-01

    Visual forms were unilaterally presented using a video-task paradigm to ten humans, chimpanzees, and two rhesus monkeys to determine whether hemispheric advantages existed in the processing of these stimuli. Both accuracy and reaction time served as dependent measures. For the chimpanzees, a significant right hemisphere advantage was found within the first three test sessions. The humans and monkeys failed to show a hemispheric advantage as determined by accuracy scores. Analysis of reaction time data revealed a significant left hemisphere advantage for the monkeys. A visual half-field x block interaction was found for the chimpanzees, with a significant left visual field advantage in block two, whereas a right visual field advantage was found in block four. In the human subjects, a left visual field advantage was found in block three when they used their right hands to respond. The results are discussed in relation to recent reports of hemispheric advantages for nonhuman primates.

  14. A micromechanics-based non-local anisotropic model for unilateral damage in brittle materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qi-zhi; Shao, Jian-fu; Kondo, Djimedo

    2008-03-01

    The present Note is devoted to the formulation of a micromechanics-based model of non-local anisotropic damage and its application to concrete materials and structures. We first formulate a local anisotropic unilateral damage model on the basis of a suitable homogenization scheme which takes into account interactions between penny-shaped microcracks as well as their spatial distribution. The damage surface is built by using an energy release rate-based criterion. Then a non-local extension of the model is proposed by replacing the local energy release-rate for each family of microcracks by its average over a characteristic volume V of the material centered at a given point. In order to demonstrate the efficiency of the non-local model in mesh-independent simulation of failure process in structures, some applications concerning failure of concrete materials and structures are presented. To cite this article: Q.-z. Zhu et al., C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  15. The Effect of Unilateral Mean Luminance on Binocular Combination in normal and amblyopic vision

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiawei; Jia, Wuli; Huang, Chang-Bing; Hess, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    Luminance plays a modulating role in the processes of several visual tasks, which in turn provides significant information for the understanding of visual processing. Here, using a binocular phase combination paradigm, we studied the effect of unilateral changes in mean luminance on binocular combination in both normal and amblyopic vision. We found, in normal observers, attenuation of one eye's stimulus luminance with neutral density filters produces binocular phase combination similar to those of amblyopic subjects. Correspondingly, in amblyopic observers, reduction of the fellow eye's stimulus luminance produces binocular phase combination similar to those of normal subjects. These phenomena could be explained by an attenuated contribution of the filtered eye to the binocular phase percept due to reduced gain-control. The findings have major implications both for the study of binocular combination and for amblyopia treatment. PMID:23774670

  16. A constant gradient unilateral magnet for near-surface MRI profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marble, Andrew E.; Mastikhin, Igor V.; Colpitts, Bruce G.; Balcom, Bruce J.

    2006-12-01

    The design and construction of a unilateral NMR (UMR) magnet assembly for near-surface 1D profiling is presented. The arrangement consists of a single permanent magnet topped with a shaped iron pole cap. The analytically determined profile of the pole cap shapes the field over the magnet, giving a constant gradient of 31 G/cm over a 8 mm depth at a 1H frequency of 4.26 MHz in a spot ˜5 mm wide. The moderate gradient allows 1D profiling of planar samples with a frequency encoded spin-echo experiment. The curvature of the magnetic field limits the available resolution to 100's of ?m. The device is suitable for profiling planar samples in which a coarse resolution but large spatial extent is desired.

  17. Memory Profiles after Unilateral Paramedian Thalamic Stroke Infarction: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Carota, Antonio; Neufeld, Herbert; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    We performed extensive neuropsychological assessment of two male patients (matched for age and educational level) with similar (localization and size) unilateral paramedian ischemic thalamic lesions (AB on the left and SD on the right). Both patients showed severe memory impairments as well as other cognitive deficits. In comparison to SD, AB showed severe impairment of executive functions and a more severe deficit of episodic/anterograde memory, especially in the verbal modality. The findings of this single case study suggest the possibility that the profile and severity of the executive dysfunction are determinant for the memory deficits and depend on from the side of the lesion. In addition to a material-side-specific (verbal versus visual) deficit hypothesis, the differential diencephalo-prefrontal contributions in mnestic-processing, in case of paramedian thalamic stroke, might also be explained in terms of their stage-specificity (encoding versus retrieval). PMID:26587026

  18. [Unusual manifestation of zoster sine herpete as unilateral caudal cranial nerve syndrome].

    PubMed

    Terborg, C; Förster, G; Sliwka, U

    2001-12-01

    Multiple lower cranial nerve palsies are a rare complication following varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation, especially if typical herpetic eruptions are lacking. We report a case of a 45-year-old, immunocompetent male with unilateral involvement of the cranial nerves VIII, IX, X, and XI without skin lesions. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies revealed mononuclear pleocytosis with intrathecal antibody synthesis against VZV, while polymerase chain reaction (PCR) did not detect VZV or HSV (herpes simplex virus). The patient almost completely recovered after aciclovir administration. VZV reactivation without rash (zoster sine herpete) may lead to multiple cranial nerve palsies. PCR is a useful tool to detect VZV-DNA in CSF, but negative results do not exclude a reactivation. In case of multiple cranial nerve palsies of unknown etiology with mononuclear pleocytosis in CSF tumors of the skull base, meningitis tuberculosis, and meningeosis have to be excluded, and antiviral therapy should be discussed. PMID:11789442

  19. Application of Computer Techniques in Correcting Mild Zygomatic Assymetry With Unilateral Reduction Malarplasty.

    PubMed

    Zou, Chong; Niu, Feng; Liu, Jian-Feng; Yu, Bing; Chen, Ying; Wang, Meng; Gui, Lai

    2015-09-01

    Zygomatic assymetry is common in the population, which often requires surgical correction for aesthetic concerns. Previously, surgeons performed the surgery often based on their personal experience and visual evaluation. The purpose of this study was to apply computer techniques in patients with mild zygomatic asymmetry treated with unilateral reduction malarplasty to improve surgical accuracy and reduce preoperative risks. The authors used computer techniques to plan osteotomies, to produce surgical template, and to evaluate the surgical outcome. Postoperative follow-up demonstrated that zygomatic asymmetry was corrected in all the patients without complications. The proposed methodology was considered to be helpful in improving the surgical accuracy and efficiency for treatment of zygomatic asymmetry, while greatly minimizing operative risk. PMID:26359703

  20. Atypical Unilateral Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome Mimicking a Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yang-Je; Park, Mina; Lee, Seung Koo

    2015-01-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is usually a reversible clinical and radiological entity associated with typical features on brain MR or CT imaging. However, the not-so-uncommon atypical radiological presentations of the condition are also present and they may go unrecognised as they are confused with other conditions. Here, we report a very rare case of atypical, unilateral PRES in a 49-year-old uremic, post-transplant female patient who presented with seizures. Initial MRI showed high-grade occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) and lesions suggestive of subacute infarction in the ipsilateral frontotemporoparietal lobe. Patient symptoms had resolved a day after the onset without any specific treatment but early follow-up CT findings suggested hemorrhagic transformation. Follow-up MRI performed 2 years later showed complete disappearence of the lesions and persisting MCA occlusion. PMID:26356795