Sample records for unilateral zmc fractures

  1. Unilateral Pedicle Stress Fracture in a Long-Term Hemodialysis Patient with Isthmic Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Maruo, Keishi; Tachibana, Toshiya; Inoue, Shinichi; Arizumi, Fumihiro; Yoshiya, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Most unilateral pedicle stress fractures occur on the contralateral side of patients with unilateral spondylolysis. However, there are few reports of unilateral pedicle stress fractures in patients with bilateral spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. We report a unique case of unilateral pedicle stress fracture in a long-term hemodialysis patient with isthmic spondylolisthesis. A 65-year-old man who had undergone hemodialysis presented with lower back pain that had persisted for several years. The patient experienced severe right lower extremity pain with no history of trauma. Computed tomography revealed unilateral pedicle fracture with bilateral L5 spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis with progression of scoliosis. The patient underwent Gill laminectomy of L5 with pedicle screw fixation at L4-S1 and interbody fusion at L5-S1. The patient's leg pain ceased immediately, and he began walking without leg pain. In our present patient, development of scoliosis caused by destructive spondyloarthropathy may have contributed to a unilateral pedicle fracture. PMID:25737789

  2. Occipital condyle fracture with isolated unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jin Won; Lim, Oh Kyung; Park, Ki Deok; Lee, Ju Kang

    2014-10-01

    Occipital condyle fractures (OCFs) with selective involvement of the hypoglossal canal are rare. OCFs usually occur after major trauma and combine multiple fractures. We describe a 38-year-old man who presented with neck pain and a tongue deviation to the right side after a traffic accident. Severe limitations were detected during active and passive range of neck motion in all directions. A physical examination revealed a normal gag reflex and normal mobility of the palate, larynx, and shoulder girdle. He had normal taste and general sensation in his tongue. However, he presented with a tongue deviation to the right side on protrusion. A videofluoroscopic swallowing study revealed piecemeal deglutition due to decreased tongue mobility but no aspiration of food. Plain X-ray film findings were negative, but a computed tomography study with coronal reconstruction demonstrated a right OCF involving the hypoglossal canal. An electrodiagnostic study revealed evidence of right hypoglossal nerve palsy. We report a rare case of isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy caused by an OCF. PMID:25379499

  3. Occipital Condyle Fracture With Isolated Unilateral Hypoglossal Nerve Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jin Won; Lim, Oh Kyung; Park, Ki Deok

    2014-01-01

    Occipital condyle fractures (OCFs) with selective involvement of the hypoglossal canal are rare. OCFs usually occur after major trauma and combine multiple fractures. We describe a 38-year-old man who presented with neck pain and a tongue deviation to the right side after a traffic accident. Severe limitations were detected during active and passive range of neck motion in all directions. A physical examination revealed a normal gag reflex and normal mobility of the palate, larynx, and shoulder girdle. He had normal taste and general sensation in his tongue. However, he presented with a tongue deviation to the right side on protrusion. A videofluoroscopic swallowing study revealed piecemeal deglutition due to decreased tongue mobility but no aspiration of food. Plain X-ray film findings were negative, but a computed tomography study with coronal reconstruction demonstrated a right OCF involving the hypoglossal canal. An electrodiagnostic study revealed evidence of right hypoglossal nerve palsy. We report a rare case of isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy caused by an OCF. PMID:25379499

  4. Analysis of unilateral complex orbital fractures with a new treatment algorithm.

    PubMed

    Karamese, Mehtap; Akda?, Osman; Selimo?lu, Muhammed Nebil; Koplay, Tugba Gun; Bakbak, Berker; Koplay, Mustafa; Tosun, Zekeriya

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate preoperative and postoperative properties, the management of unilateral complex orbital fractures, and to offer an algorithm for orbital fractures. For this research study, 248 patients with orbital trauma were evaluated according to an offered algorithm. Diplopia, enophthalmos, dystopia, infraorbital nerve dysfunction, and ocular movement limitations were documented for clinical assessment. Orbital rim displacement and an orbital volume check with computed tomography (CT) were used for indication of surgery. The injured orbital volume was compared with the healthy orbital volume in the preoperative and postoperative periods. In total, 58 patients required operations among the 248 patients, according to the algorithm. The preoperative mean injured orbital volume measurements of the operated patients were statistically different than the healthy orbital volume measurements (30.13 cm(3) ± 2.69 cm(3) and 27.15 cm(3) ± 1.29 cm(3), respectively). In the postoperative period, there was no difference between the injured and healthy orbital volume. In conclusion, an algorithm may facilitate the approach to unilateral complex orbital fractures. Ophthalmic examination, rim displacement, and the measurement of orbital volume using computed tomography are key points of orbital fractures with regard to management. PMID:25234601

  5. Case report: ultrasound-guided continuous thoracic paravertebral block for outpatient acute pain management of multilevel unilateral rib fractures.

    PubMed

    Murata, Hiroaki; Salviz, Emine Aysu; Chen, Stephanie; Vandepitte, Catherine; Hadzic, Admir

    2013-01-01

    A 61-year-old man with multiple unilateral rib fractures (T3-T8) gained the ability to breathe deeply and to ambulate after ultrasound-guided continuous thoracic paravertebral block and was discharged home after being observed for 15 hours after the block. The ultrasound guidance was helpful in determining the site of rib fractures and the optimal level for catheter placement. This report also discusses the management of analgesia using continuous paravertebral block in an outpatient with trauma. PMID:23223111

  6. Traumatic unilateral lumbosacral jumped facet without fracture in a child – presentation of a safe treatment strategy for a rare injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oszkar Szentirmai; Joshua Seinfeld; Kathryn Beauchamp; Vikas Patel

    2008-01-01

    The vast majority of pediatric lumbosacral spondylolisthesis have developmental etiology. Of the very rare type of pediatric lumbosacral facet dislocations, there are only three reported cases of a pediatric unilateral jumped facet injury. All of these cases are associated with fracture dislocation of L5-S1. Hyperflexion with rotation is thought to provoke this uncommon type of spine injury. The authors report

  7. Evaluation of soft tissue asymmetry using cone-beam computed tomography after open reduction and internal fixation of zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hyuck; Kim, Rae Hyong; Lee, Jun; Chee, Young Deok

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In this study, we assessed soft tissue asymmetry that occurred after open reduction of unilateral zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures. We proposed a simple method to assess soft tissue asymmetry after reduction surgery by evaluating the symmetry between the affected and the unaffected sides. The factors affecting soft tissue contour after surgery were also analyzed. Materials and Methods Subjects included patients admitted to Wonkwang University Dental Hospital from 2008 to 2013. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of asymmetric patients who underwent open reduction at least 3 months prior were compared with healthy patients. Results The degree of asymmetry was measured in both the open reduction and control groups. Landmarks that showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups were zygion (1.73±0.24 mm), bucclae (1.08±0.26 mm), point of cheek (2.05±0.33 mm) and frontozygomatic point (1.30±0.31 mm). Conclusion When compared with the normal group, asymmetry can occur in the affected side, which usually shows depression of overlying soft tissue and is statistically significantly different. Evaluation of soft tissue asymmetry with CBCT images after open reduction of ZMC fracture is useful. PMID:25045636

  8. Unilateral atlanto-axial fractures in near side impact collisions: An under recognized entity in cervical trauma

    PubMed Central

    Lozen, Andrew M.; Pace, Jonathan; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Cusick, Joseph F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Nearside impact collisions presenting with lateral mass fractures of atlanto-axial vertebrae contralateral to the impact site represents a rare fracture pattern that does not correlate with previously described injury mechanism. We describe our clinical experience with such fractures and propose a novel description of biomechanical forces involved in this unique injury pattern. The findings serve to alert clinicians to potentially serious consequences of associated unrecognized and untreated vertebral artery injury. Material and Methods: In addition to describing our clinical experience with three of these fractures, a review of Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database was conducted to further characterize such fractures. A descriptive analysis of three recent lateral mass fractures of the atlanto-axial segment is coupled with a review of the CIREN database. A total of 4047 collisions were screened for unilateral fractures of atlas or axis. Information was screened for side of impact and data regarding impact velocity, occupant injuries and use of restraints. Results: Following screening of unilateral fractures of atlas and axis for direct side impacts, 41 fractures were identified. Cross referencing these cases for occurrence contralateral to side of impact identified four such fractures. Including our recent clinical experience, seven injuries were identified: Five C1 and two C2 fractures. Velocity ranged from 14 to 43 km/h. Two associated vertebral artery injuries were identified. Conclusions: Complexity of the atlanto-axial complex is responsible for a sequence of events that define load application in side impacts. This study demonstrates the vulnerability of vertebral artery to injury under unique translational forces and supports the use or routine screening for vascular injury. Diminished sensitivity of plain radiography in identifying these injuries suggests that computerized tomography should be used in all patients wherein a similar pattern of injury is suspected. PMID:25013345

  9. Conservative Approach to Unilateral Condylar Fracture in a Growing Patient: A 2.5-Year Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Tuna, Elif Bahar; Dündar, Aysun; Çankaya, Abdülkadir Burak; Gençay, Koray

    2012-01-01

    Condylar fractures in children are especially important because of the risk of a mandibular growth-center being affected in the condylar head, which can lead to growth retardation and facial asymmetry. The purpose of this article is to follow up the two and half year clinical and radiological evaluation of the conservative treatment of a 10 year-old patient, who had a unilateral green-stick type fracture. The patient presented with painful facial swelling localized over the left condylar region, limited mouth-opening and mandibular deviation to the left. Panoramic radiography and computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis of incomplete fracture on the left condyle with one side of the bone fractured and the other bent. Closed reduction was chosen to allow for initial fibrous union of the fracture segments and remodeling with a normal functional stimulus. A non-rigid mandibular splint was applied in order to remove the direct pressure on the fracture side of the mandible. Clinical and radiologic examination after 30 months revealed uneventful healing with reduction of the condylar head and remodeling of the condylar process following conservative treatment. PMID:22276078

  10. Isolated unilateral vertebral pedicle fracture caused by a back massage in an elderly patient: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiping; Chen, Wei; Su, Yanling; Yuan, Junhui; Zhang, Yingze

    2013-11-01

    The vertebral pedicle injuries are clinically common. However, the isolated vertebral pedicle fracture with intact vertebral bodies is a rare lesion. We reported a case of a 66-year-old man who experienced a pedicle fracture after a back massage. The patient sustained osteoporosis, long-existing low back pain and nerve compression symptoms without antecedent major trauma. Imaging findings demonstrated an isolated unilateral L5 vertebral pedicle fracture with intact vertebral bodies, spinal canal stenosis at the L4-5 levels, bulging annulus fibrosus at the L4-S1 levels, bilateral spondylolysis and an L5/S1 spondylolisthesis. The patient underwent L4-S1 decompressive laminectomy, L5/S1 discectomy and neurolysis, and reduction and fixation of the L5 vertebral pedicle fracture and L5/S1 spondylolisthesis using the pedicle nail system. At follow-ups, the patient showed good recovery without pain or numbness in the low back and bilateral lower extremities. This study raises the awareness of a complication of alternative medicine and the possibility of a pedicle fracture caused by a low-energy trauma. PMID:23412164

  11. Unusual Unilateral Fracture of the Condylar and Coronoid Processes of the Mandible

    PubMed Central

    Baykul, Timuçin; Ayd?n, M As?m; Aksoy, Müge Ç?na; F?nd?k, Yavuz

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of condylar fracture is very high and most are not caused by direct trauma. On the other hand, fracture of the coronoid process is reported less often than fracture of other parts of the mandible. We report a case of right subcondylar and coronoid fractures without any evidence of direct trauma to the zygomatic area or an indirect trauma to the mandibular corpus or sypmheseal region. The possible cause was identified as acute reflex contraction of the temporalis muscles leading to coronoid and condylar stress fractures. PMID:25379353

  12. On structural computations until fracture based on an anisotropic and unilateral damage theory

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    : Continuum damage mechanics; Anisotropic and unilateral damage; Structural computation; Rupture; Delay to International Journal of Damage Mechanics August 8, 2013 hal-00851003,version1-10Aug2013 Author manuscript, published in "International Journal of Damage Mechanics (2013) --" #12;Contents 1 Introduction 3 2

  13. Synthetic Metallochaperone ZMC1 Rescues Mutant p53 Conformation by Transporting Zinc into Cells as an Ionophore.

    PubMed

    Blanden, Adam R; Yu, Xin; Wolfe, Aaron J; Gilleran, John A; Augeri, David J; O'Dell, Ryan S; Olson, Eric C; Kimball, S David; Emge, Thomas J; Movileanu, Liviu; Carpizo, Darren R; Loh, Stewart N

    2015-05-01

    p53 is a Zn(2+)-dependent tumor suppressor inactivated in >50% of human cancers. The most common mutation, R175H, inactivates p53 by reducing its affinity for the essential zinc ion, leaving the mutant protein unable to bind the metal in the low [Zn(2+)]free environment of the cell. The exploratory cancer drug zinc metallochaperone-1 (ZMC1) was previously demonstrated to reactivate this and other Zn(2+)-binding mutants by binding Zn(2+) and buffering it to a level such that Zn(2+) can repopulate the defective binding site, but how it accomplishes this in the context of living cells and organisms is unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that ZMC1 increases intracellular [Zn(2+)]free by functioning as a Zn(2+) ionophore, binding Zn(2+) in the extracellular environment, diffusing across the plasma membrane, and releasing it intracellularly. It raises intracellular [Zn(2+)]free in cancer (TOV112D) and noncancer human embryonic kidney cell line 293 to 15.8 and 18.1 nM, respectively, with half-times of 2-3 minutes. These [Zn(2+)]free levels are predicted to result in ?90% saturation of p53-R175H, thus accounting for its observed reactivation. This mechanism is supported by the X-ray crystal structure of the [Zn(ZMC1)2] complex, which demonstrates structural and chemical features consistent with those of known metal ionophores. These findings provide a physical mechanism linking zinc metallochaperone-1 in both in vitro and in vivo activities and define the remaining critical parameter necessary for developing synthetic metallochaperones for clinical use. PMID:25710967

  14. Bilateral atypical insufficiency fractures of the proximal tibia and a unilateral distal femoral fracture associated with long-term intravenous bisphosphonate therapy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Atypical insufficiency fractures of the femur in patients on long-term bisphosphonate therapy have been well described in recent literature. The majority of cases are associated with minimal or no trauma and occur in the subtrochanteric or diaphyseal region. Case presentation We describe the case of a 76-year-old British Caucasian woman who presented initially to an emergency department and then to her primary care physician with a long-standing history of bilateral knee pain after minor trauma. Plain radiographs showed subtle linear areas of sclerosis bilaterally in her proximal tibiae. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of insufficiency fractures in these areas along with her left distal femur. There are very few reports of atypical insufficiency fractures involving the tibia in patients on long-term bisphosphonate therapy and this appears to be the only documented bilateral case involving the metaphyseal regions of the proximal tibia and distal femur. Conclusion In addition to existing literature describing atypical fractures in the proximal femur and femoral shaft, there is a need for increased awareness that these fractures can also occur in other weight-bearing areas of the skeleton. All clinicians involved in the care of patients taking long-term bisphosphonates need to be aware of the growing association between new onset lower limb pain and atypical insufficiency fractures. PMID:22309438

  15. Unilateral perseveration.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Lealani Mae Y; Goodman, Ira J; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2013-12-01

    The brain's action-intentional ("when") programming system helps to control when to and when not to initiate an action, when to persist at an action, and when to terminate an action. Motor perseveration is a failure to terminate an action. This disengagement disorder most often results from dysfunction of the executive frontal-subcortical networks that control the action-intentional programming system. Reports of unilateral perseveration are unusual. Here we describe a patient with a form of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) who exhibited continuous right-hand motor perseveration. This 68-year-old right-handed man had impaired walking and vertical gaze, consistent with PSP. He often repeated words, and on many motor tasks he showed continuous perseveration of his right but not his left hand. Unilateral motor perseveration may be a sign of PSP, the corticobasal syndrome, or a subtype of these disorders. Future studies of patients with both disorders should use tasks that assess for asymmetric hand perseveration. The mechanism of the unilateral perseveration must also be determined. Bilateral perseveration is found most often in patients with unilateral right frontal-subcortical (basal ganglia) or insula dysfunction. Because patients with PSP or corticobasal syndrome have callosal degeneration, their unilateral perseveration might result from a callosal disconnection of the right frontal lobe from the left hemisphere's premotor and motor as well as speech areas. PMID:24366105

  16. Transient ipsilateral mydriasis during correction of left blowout fracture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Min; Kim, Cheul-Hong; Kim, Uk-Kyu; Chung, In-Kyo

    2014-03-01

    Mydriasis, either bilateral or unilateral, seldom occurs during reconstruction of periorbital fracture. Anisocoria, a unilateral mydriasis, requires more urgent assessment than bilateral mydriasis does. Pharmacologic agents, local anesthetic infiltration, as well as direct or indirect oculomotor nerve damage are possible causes of unilateral mydriasis. Few cases have been reported about intraoperative temporary ipsilateral mydriasis during correction of blowout fracture. We have experienced an unusual case of anisocoria and report the case with literature reviews. PMID:24561370

  17. Using a titanium mesh plate to reconstruct the orbital floor after an incompletely reduced zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture.

    PubMed

    Wang, H Z; Lai, S; Chang, C H

    1995-06-01

    A 30 year-old male came to us for correcting his severe left enophthalmos five months after a facial trauma in a traffic accident. CT scan of his left orbit showed a greatly increased orbital volume, which was resulted from the incomplete reduction of left zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fracture, unrepaired medial and lateral walls, and improper restoration of the orbital floor with a silicone sheet. Also, the decreased ocular volume, due to the evisceration of the ruptured eyeball with intraocular silicone ball implantation, contributed to the patient's enophthalmos. Because the patient refused any kind of osteotomy for his incompletely reduced and malunion ZMC fracture in the procedures of orbital reconstruction, correction of his severe enophthalmos became very difficult if not impossible. Therefore, we used a piece of titanium mesh plate about 2.5 x 4 cm in size, and folded it into an L shape. The shorter part of the L-shaped plate was used to fix the whole plate by screwing it into the anterior surface of the inferior orbital rim. The longer part of the plate was used as a new orbital floor. To hold and push the intraocular implant upward and anteriorly, the longer part of the plate was adjusted to a level higher than the original floor level, and was bent upward gently in the posterior part. Postoperatively, the severe enophthalmos was markedly improved, and the patient was satisfied although an evident supratarsal sulcus was still present. After a follow-up of 18 months, no complication of migration, infection, or extrusion of the titanium mesh plate occurred. PMID:7629921

  18. Unilateral humeral lengthening in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hosny, Gamal Ahmed

    2005-11-01

    This study evaluates our early experience with unilateral humeral lengthening in children and adolescents. From 1995 till 2001, 16 cases with unilateral humeral shortening ranging from 5.5 to 15 cm were referred to our center. The cause was Erb's palsy in eight cases, epiphyseal injury in five cases and infection in three cases. The average age at operation was 13 years (range 8.5-17 years). Hybrid fixation using wires and half pins were applied to all cases to minimize the risk of operative neurovascular complications. Osteotomy was performed in the middle third of the humerus through a posterior approach. After a latent period of 5-7 days lengthening started at a rate of 0.33 mm every 8 h. At an average follow up of 3 years and 2 months (range 1 year and 4 months to 5 years and 6 months) there were 10 excellent and six good results. The average healing index was 28 days/cm. Complications included pin tract infection in all cases; radial nerve palsy in one patient whose humerus overlengthened by 2 cm but improved completely after compression; fracture of the regenerate in two cases. PMID:16200022

  19. Isolated unilateral rupture of the alar ligament.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sui-To; Ernest, Kimberly; Fan, Grace; Zovickian, John; Pang, Dachling

    2014-05-01

    Only 6 cases of isolated unilateral rupture of the alar ligament have been previously reported. The authors report a new case and review the literature, morbid anatomy, and pathogenesis of this rare injury. The patient in their case, a 9-year-old girl, fell head first from a height of 5 feet off the ground. She presented with neck pain, a leftward head tilt, and severe limitation of right rotation, extension, and right lateral flexion of the neck. Plain radiographs and CT revealed no fracture but a shift of the dens toward the right lateral mass of C-1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed signal hyperintensity within the left dens-atlas space on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences and interruption of the expected dark signal representing the left alar ligament, suggestive of its rupture. After 12 weeks of immobilization in a Guilford brace, MRI showed lessened dens deviation, and the patient attained full and painless neck motion. Including the patient in this case, the 7 patients with this injury were between 5 and 21 years old, sustained the injury in traffic accidents or falls, presented with marked neck pain, and were treated with external immobilization. All patients had good clinical outcome. The mechanism of injury is hyperflexion with rotation. Isolated unilateral alar ligament rupture is a diagnosis made by excluding associated fracture, dislocation, or disruption of other major ligamentous structures in the craniovertebral junction. CT and MRI are essential in establishing the diagnosis. External immobilization is adequate treatment. PMID:24679079

  20. Unilateral vagotomy inhibits compensatory kidney growth after unilateral nephrectomy in rats.

    PubMed

    Gerendai, I; Nemeskéri, A; Halász, B

    1986-01-01

    The effect of unilateral vagotomy on compensatory renal growth that follows unilateral nephrectomy was studied. Unilateral vagotomy inhibited the usual compensatory growth of the remaining kidney. Unilateral vagotomy did not effect kidney weight in animals with two kidneys. Data indicate that the vagus nerve is involved in the development of compensatory kidney hypertrophy. PMID:3825553

  1. Bilateral Clavicle Fracture in Two Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Kanik, Ali; Sutcuoglu, Sumer; Aydinlioglu, Halil; Erdemir, Aydin; Arun Ozer, Esra

    2011-01-01

    Background The fracture of clavicle is the most frequently observed bone fracture as birth trauma and it is usually unilateral. It is seen following shoulder dystocia deliveries or breech presentation of macrosomic newborns. Case Presentation We report two macrosomic newborns with bilateral clavicle fracture and brachial plexus palsy due to birth trauma. Chest X-rays confirmed bilateral fracture of clavicles. Both patients were recovered without any sequel. Conclusion Bilateral clavicular fracture should be considered in any neonate with bilateral absent Moro reflexes. PMID:23056849

  2. Skull fracture

    MedlinePLUS

    Basilar skull fracture; Depressed skull fracture; Linear skull fracture ... Skull fractures may occur with head injuries . The skull provides good protection for the brain. However, a severe impact ...

  3. Unilateral posterior crossbite and mastication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benito Rilo; José Luis da Silva; María Jesús Mora; Carmen Cadarso-Suárez; Urbano Santana

    2007-01-01

    ObjectiveThis study was designed to characterize masticatory-cycle morphology, and distance of the contact glide in the closing masticatory stroke, in adult subjects with uncorrected unilateral posterior crossbite (UPXB), comparing the results obtained with those obtained in a parallel group of normal subjects.

  4. Unilateral mediothoracic exanthem: a variant of unilateral laterothoracic exanthem.

    PubMed

    Chuh, Antonio A T; Chan, Henry H L

    2006-01-01

    We report the cases of a 4-year-old Chinese boy and a 33-year-old Chinese man with prodromal constitutional symptoms followed by eruption of small, painless, erythematous, papular lesions on relatively medial aspects of the anterior chest but not as far as the periflexural regions. Spontaneous remission was seen 2 and 3 weeks after rash onset in the child and the adult, respectively. We believe that the terms unilateral mediothoracic exanthem and unilateral thoracic exanthem are appropriate diagnostic labels. Such labels carry clinical significance as the patients can be reassured that although the rash may persist for weeks, final spontaneous remission with no complication is highly likely. Moreover, the risk of contagiousness is low, and we did not insist on isolation for prolonged periods. PMID:16475492

  5. Managing advanced unilateral pseudoexfoliative glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Marques, André

    2014-01-01

    The only proven therapy for glaucoma is intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction, which can be accomplished by different means. Each should be properly discussed with patients in order to best preserve visual function and quality of life. We report a case of unilateral pseudoexfoliative glaucoma, treated for years with triple topical IOP-lowering drugs. The patient presented with advanced optic neuropathy and important ocular side effects secondary to the treatment. Having discussed his options and prognosis, laser trabeculoplasty was performed while maintaining the remaining therapy considering the advanced stage of glaucoma. His IOP was effectively reduced and no progression was noted after 1-year follow-up. Although medical therapy is the mainstream in glaucoma management, its side effects should not be ignored, especially in unilateral cases. Surgery might have been a better solution, but we chose to perform laser trabeculoplasty, an effective and safer alternative, considering the unlikely but serious risk of the "wipe-out phenomenon" in this case. PMID:24850557

  6. Nose fracture

    MedlinePLUS

    Fracture of the nose; Broken nose; Nasal fracture ... A fractured nose is the most common fracture of the face. It usually occurs after an injury and often occurs with other fractures of the face. Sometimes a blunt injury can ...

  7. [Renal unilateral oncocytis: case report].

    PubMed

    Gryn, A; Roumiguié, M; Mazerolles, C; Bellec, L; Lagarde, S; Chauveau, D; Soulié, M; Beauval, J B

    2014-02-01

    The renal oncocytoma tumors are rare (5% of renal tumors). These benign tumors are incidentally diagnosed most often in an asymptomatic form. Sometimes it is multiple bilateral tumors affecting the renal parenchyma and forming a renal oncocytosis. We report the case of a unilateral right renal oncocytosis, very rare situation, characterized by a right renal parenchymal nodules with oncocytoma and a normal left kidney. PMID:24485085

  8. Biomechanical study on unilateral single-plane external fixer.

    PubMed

    Liu, G; Du, J; Xu, Z

    1995-12-01

    Six tibias removed from 30-40 years old males, who died in an accident for in less than 12 hours, were osteotomized at one-third supra-medium segment. They were fixed by an unilateral adjustable external fixer (UAEF), to be used as a model of external fixation of tibial fracture (MEFTF). The compression, tension, torsion, antero-posterior and lateral bending strength, and the strength for vertically extracting the pins from the tibia were determined in the MEFTF. Within a certain range of load, the correlation of strain to stress was basically a linear relationship. These data provide a theoretical basis of biomechanics for the improvement of UAEF and for early exercises of fracture patients, such as extend-bending of the joint, raising the limb and walking with a walking stick. PMID:8745584

  9. Rotated subcondylar process fracture in the growing animal: An experimental study in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joăo G. C. Luz; Vera C. de Araújo

    2001-01-01

    Abstract.Unilateral, rotated subcondylar fractures were surgically induced in young rats under general anaesthesia. A decrease in body weight was observed in the fractured animals, with recovery at the end of the experimental period. A tendency of deviation of the mandible to the fracture side was noticed on axial radiographs, but without significant difference between experimental and sham-operated animals. Histological data

  10. Mortality Rates of Patients with a Hip Fracture in a Southwestern District of Greece: Ten-Year Follow-Up with Reference to the Type of Fracture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Karagiannis; E. Papakitsou; K. Dretakis; A. Galanos; P. Megas; E. Lambiris; G. P. Lyritis

    2006-01-01

    Increased mortality after a hip fracture has been associated with age, sex, and comorbidity. In order to estimate the long-term\\u000a mortality with reference to hip fracture type, we followed 499 patients older than 60 years who had been treated surgically\\u000a for a unilateral hip fracture for 10 years. At admission, patients with femoral neck fractures (n = 172) were 2

  11. Prepubertal Unilateral Gynecomastia: Report of 2 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Demirbilek, Hüseyin; Bacak, Gökhan; Baran, R?za Taner; Avc?, Yahya; Baran, Ahmet; Kele?, Ay?enur; Özbek, Mehmet Nuri; Alanay, Yasemin; Hussain, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia is an extremely rare condition. At present, its etiology and management strategy are not well known. Two unrelated prepubertal boys of ages 8 and 9 who presented with complaints of unilateral enlargement of breast tissue are reported. Physical examination, biochemical, hormonal and oncologic work-up findings were normal. Both patients were treated with peripheral liposuction successfully. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations showed benign fibroglandular gynecomastia and intensive (3+) estrogen receptor expression in 100% of periductal epithelial cells. Although an extremely rare and generally benign condition, patients with prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia should have a full endocrine and oncologic work-up. PMID:25541897

  12. Unilateral Lumbosacral Dislocation: Case Report and a Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Grivas, Theodoros B; Papadakis, Stamatios A; Katsiva, Vassiliki; Koufopoulos, George; Mouzakis, Vassilios

    2012-01-01

    Lumbosacral fracture-dislocation is a rare occurrence. There are more than 73 cases reported in the English literature. We report on the imaging findings and surgical treatment in a patient suffered of unilateral traumatic L5-S1 dislocation associated with severe disruption of the posterior ligamentous complex. The patient underwent open reduction and stabilization of L4-S1 vertebrae with posterior instrumentation system. Open reduction and internal fixation was mandatory as post-traumatic ligamentous insufficiency would lead to abnormal motion. Operative treatment managed to produce a solid arthrodesis and restore stability of the lumbosacral junction. Follow-up revealed excellent results. This study reports a rare injury of the lumbosacral junction, and the literature concerning this unusual condition is extensively reviewed. PMID:23166575

  13. 36 CFR 223.236 - Unilateral termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Forest Products Award of Contracts, Permits, Or Other Authorizing...unilaterally terminate a contract, permit, or other instrument...223.235(a); (2) Material breach or continued violation of the contract, permit or other...

  14. Peripapillary atrophy in the unilateral exfoliation syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Päivi Puska; Mika Harju; Ron Liebkind

    2004-01-01

    PurposeTo compare the areas of peripapillary atrophy between fellow eyes in patients with unilateral exfoliation syndrome.MethodsTopographic measurements for peripapillary atrophy and the optic nerve head with confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph were performed on 45 nonglaucomatous patients with unilateral exfoliation syndrome. The area of peripapillary atrophy was divided into an alpha and a beta zone. The

  15. Unilateral pulmonary edema and acute rheumatic fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John S. Giuliano Jr; Priya Sekar; Catherine L. Dent; William L. Border; Russel Hirsch; Peter B. Manning; Derek S. Wheeler

    2008-01-01

    Although the diagnostic criteria for acute rheumatic fever (ARF) are well known, a high index of suspicion is necessary in\\u000a order to assure timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. We present a case of an 8-year-old child who presented with unilateral\\u000a pulmonary edema secondary to acute mitral insufficiency due to ARF. ARF should be considered in the differential diagnosis\\u000a of unilateral

  16. Unilateral Posterior Atlantoaxial Transarticular Screw Fixation in Patients with Atlantoaxial Instability : Comparison with Bilateral Method

    PubMed Central

    Hue, Yun Hee; Yi, Hyeong-Joong; Oh, Seong Hoon; Oh, Suck Jun; Ko, Yong

    2009-01-01

    Objective Bilateral C1-2 transarticular screw fixation (TAF) with interspinous wiring has been the best treatment for atlantoaxial instability (AAI). However, several factors may disturb satisfactory placement of bilateral screws. This study evaluates the usefulness of unilateral TAF when bilateral TAF is not available. Methods Between January 2003 and December 2007, TAF was performed in 54 patients with AAI. Preoperative studies including cervical x-ray, three dimensional computed tomogram, CT angiogram, and magnetic resonance image were checked. The atlanto-dental interval (ADI) was measured in preoperative period, immediate postoperatively, and postoperative 1, 3 and 6 months. Results Unilateral TAF was performed in 27 patients (50%). The causes of unilateral TAF were anomalous course of vertebral artery in 20 patients (74%), severe degenerative arthritis in 3 (11%), fracture of C1 in 2, hemangioblastoma in one, and screw malposition in one. The mean ADI in unilateral group was measured as 2.63 mm in immediate postoperatively, 2.61 mm in 1 month, 2.64 mm in 3 months and 2.61 mm in 6 months postoperatively. The mean ADI of bilateral group was also measured as following; 2.76 mm in immediate postoperative, 2.71 mm in 1 month, 2.73 mm in 3 months, 2.73 mm in 6 months postoperatively. Comparison of ADI measurement showed no significant difference in both groups, and moreover fusion rate was 100% in bilateral and 96.3% in unilateral group (p=0.317). Conclusion Even though bilateral TAF is best option for AAI in biomechanical perspectives, unilateral screw fixation also can be a useful alternative in otherwise dangerous or infeasible cases through bilateral screw placement. PMID:19352478

  17. An unusual stress fracture: Bilateral posterior longitudinal stress fracture of tibia

    PubMed Central

    Malkoc, Melih; Korkmaz, Ozgur; Ormeci, Tugrul; Oltulu, Ismail; Isyar, Mehmet; Mahirogullar?, Mahir

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Stress fractures (SF) occur when healthy bone is subjected to cyclic loading, which the normal carrying range capacity is exceeded. Usually, stress fractures occur at the metatarsal bones, calcaneus, proximal or distal tibia and tends to be unilateral. PRESENTATION OF CASE This article presents a 58-year-old male patient with bilateral posterior longitudinal tibial stress fractures. A 58 years old male suffering for persistent left calf pain and decreased walking distance for last one month and after imaging studies posterior longitudinal tibial stress fracture was detected on his left tibia. After six months the patient was admitted to our clinic with the same type of complaints in his right leg. All imaging modalities and blood counts were performed and as a result longitudinal posterior tibial stress fractures were detected on his right tibia. DISCUSSION Treatment of tibial stress fracture includes rest and modified activity, followed by a graded return to activity commensurate with bony healing. We have applied the same treatment protocol and our results were acceptable but our follow up time short for this reason our study is restricted for separate stress fractures of the posterior tibia. CONCLUSION Although the main localization of tibial stress fractures were unilateral, anterior and transverse pattern, rarely, like in our case, the unusual bilateral posterior localization and longitudinal pattern can be seen. PMID:24995664

  18. Posterior interbody fusion using a diagonal cage with unilateral transpedicular screw fixation for lumbar stenosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Xiaoqing; Yao, Yu

    2011-03-01

    Few reports have described the combined use of unilateral pedicle screw fixation and interbody fusion for lumbar stenosis. We retrospectively reviewed 79 patients with lumbar stenosis. The rationale and effectiveness of unilateral pedicle screw fixation were studied from biomechanical and clinical perspectives, aiming to reduce stiffness of the implant. All patients were operated with posterior interbody fusion using a diagonal cage in combination with unilateral transpedicular screw fixation and had reached the 3-year follow-up interval after operation. The mean operating time was 115 minutes (range=95-150 min) and the mean estimated blood loss was 150 mL (range=100-200 mL). The mean duration of hospital stay was 10 days (range=7-15 days). Clinical outcomes were assessed prior to surgery and reassessed at intervals using Denis' pain and work scales. Fusion status was determined from X-rays and CT scans. At the final follow-up, the clinical results were satisfactory and patients showed significantly improved scores (p<0.01) either on the pain or the work scale. Successful fusion was achieved in all patients. There were no new postoperative radiculopathies, or instances of malpositioned or fractured hardware. Posterior interbody fusion using a diagonal cage with unilateral transpedicular fixation is an effective treatment for decompressive surgery for lumbar stenosis. PMID:21237659

  19. A unique case of unilateral synophthalmia.

    PubMed

    Proia, Alan D

    2011-01-01

    Developmental anomalies resulting in a single eye (cyclopia) or fusion of the eyes (synophthalmia) are rare. Examples of unilateral synophthalmia-in which there are 1 normal and 2 fused eyes from 3 anlagen in 2 orbits, 1 lateral proboscis, and 3 optic nerves-are even more rare. Herein, I report a unique fetus with unilateral synophthalmia that was not associated with a lateral proboscis but instead had an extra cerebral hemisphere. I postulate that the unilateral synophthalmia, accessory cerebral hemisphere, and minor structural abnormalities in the skull base were the result of failure in separating a monozygous twin, a situation similar to that postulated as the cause of fetus in fetu. PMID:20528261

  20. Penile fracture repair: assessment of early results and complications using color Doppler ultrasound

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Gontero; PS Sidhu; GH Muir

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine early results and complications of penile fracture treated with immediate surgical repair by means of color Doppler ultrasound study. Four patients with the clinical features of penile fracture were submitted to immediate surgical exploration via a subcoronal incision with repair of the torn cavernosal albuginea (unilateral in three cases, bilateral in one

  1. Pregnancy in a unilaterally ovariohysterectomised queen.

    PubMed

    Jurka, Piotr; Kacprzak, Kamil J; Degórska, Beata

    2015-04-01

    A 4-year-old female Russian Blue cat presented with signs of right-sided abdominal distension, anorexia and a mucoid vaginal discharge. On the basis of clinical and ultrasonographical findings a tentative diagnosis of uterine torsion was made. Exploratory coeliotomy revealed a 900ş right uterine torsion along the longitudinal axis. Unilateral ovariohysterectomy was performed. Subsequently, the cat had two successful and uneventful pregnancies. To our knowledge this is the first case report of pregnancy in a unilaterally ovariohysterectomised queen. PMID:25414240

  2. Recurrent unilateral vulval elephantiasis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Muralidhar, Lakshmidevi; G, Sampath Kumar; Venkatesh, Shreedhar

    2014-06-01

    Genital elephantiasis is caused by a variety of infective and non infective causes leading to blockage of lymphatic. We are presenting a rare case of recurrent unilateral vulval elephantiasis which has recurred after initial reconstructive surgery. A 38 year old female presented with vulval swelling and on examination there was gross unilateral vulval enlargement. FNAC (Fine needle aspiration cytology) and biopsy were contributory for diagnosis. Patient was started with antibiotics and daily dressing was done till the infection was subsided and the patient was planned for reconstructive surgery. PMID:24971141

  3. Mandibular fracture patterns consistent with posterior maxillary fractures involving the posterior maxillary sinus, pterygoid plate or both: CT characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sukegawa, S; Kanno, T; Fujita, G; Yamamoto, N; Furuki, Y; Michizawa, M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of posterior maxillary fractures involving the posterior maxillary sinus wall, pterygoid plate or both, unrelated to major midface fractures in patients with mandibular fractures, and to characterize associated fractures. Methods: A CT study was performed in patients with mandibular fractures to identify posterior maxillary fractures. Patients aged under 16 years, those with mandibular fractures involving only dentoalveolar components and those with concurrent major midfacial fractures were excluded. Results: 13 (6.7%) of 194 patients with mandibular fractures also had posterior maxillary fractures (case group). The injury pattern correlated with the external force directed to the lateral side of the mandible (p?fractures (p?=?0.002) and the fracture regions in the symphysis/parasymphysis (p?=?0.001) and the angle/ramus (p?=?0.001). No significant difference between the case and non-case groups was seen for age, sex or cause of trauma. Non-displaced fractures in the ipsilateral posterior mandible occurred with significant frequency (p?=?0.001) when the posterior maxillary fractures involved only the sinus. Conclusions: Mandibular fractures accompanied by posterior maxillary fractures are not rare. The finding of a unilateral posterior maxillary fracture on CT may aid the efficient radiological examination of the mandible based on possible patterns of associated fractures, as follows: in the ipsilateral posterior region as a direct fracture when the impact is a medially directed force, and in the symphysis/parasymphysis or contralateral condylar neck as an indirect fracture. PMID:24336313

  4. UNILATERAL CONTACT OF ELASTIC BODIES (MOMENT THEORY)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. GACHECHILADZE

    2001-01-01

    Boundary contact problems of statics of the moment (couple- stress) theory of elasticity are studied in the case of a unilateral contact of two elastic anisotropic nonhomogeneous media. A problem, in which during deformation the contact zone lies within the boundaries of some domain, and a problem, in which the contact zone can extend, are given a separate treat- ment.

  5. Ankle Fractures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... when the fracture extends into the ankle joint. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. These tests provide high resolution images of both ... tissues, like ligaments. For some ankle fractures, an MRI scan may be done to evaluate the ankle ligaments. ...

  6. Sports fractures.

    PubMed Central

    DeCoster, T. A.; Stevens, M. A.; Albright, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    Fractures occur in athletes and dramatically influence performance during competitive and recreational activities. Fractures occur in athletes as the result of repetitive stress, acute sports-related trauma and trauma outside of athletics. The literature provides general guidelines for treatment as well as a variety of statistics on the epidemiology of fractures by sport and level of participation. Athletes are healthy and motivated patients, and have high expectations regarding their level of function. These qualities make them good surgical candidates. Although closed treatment methods are appropriate for most sports fractures, an aggressive approach to more complicated fractures employing current techniques may optimize their subsequent performance. PMID:7719781

  7. [Nursing care of unilateral neglect patients].

    PubMed

    Dai, Chin-Ying; Lin, Li-Chan

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of unilateral neglect among stroke patients has risen to 82% and 69%, respectively, in acute wards and rehabilitation units. Neglect may restrict the activities of patients and reduce their quality of life. Patients are often unaware of their neglect behavior and of their inability to see or feel persons or objects on their affected side. Healthcare providers should pay greater attention to the signs of neglect behavior in patients. Neglect is a silent syndrome for both patients and healthcare providers. This article reviews the definition of unilateral neglect as well as its associated characteristics, theoretical interpretations, rehabilitation, and nursing care. The authors hope that the contents of this article may help healthcare professionals assess and provide care to patients with neglect problems in order to decrease the negative impacts of neglect on patients and improve their daily functions. PMID:25631189

  8. Unilateral Punctate Keratitis Secondary to Wallenberg Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Boto, Ana; Del Hierro, Almudena; Capote, Maria; Noval, Susana; Garcia, Amanda; Santiago, Susana

    2014-01-01

    We studied three patients who developed left unilateral punctate keratitis after suffering left-sided Wallenberg Syndrome. A complex evolution occurred in two of them. In all cases, neurophysiological studies showed damage in the trigeminal sensory component at the bulbar level. Corneal involvement secondary to Wallenberg syndrome is a rare cause of unilateral superficial punctate keratitis. The loss of corneal sensitivity caused by trigeminal neuropathy leads to epithelial erosions that are frequently unobserved by the patient, resulting in a high risk of corneal-ulcer development with the possibility of superinfection. Neurophysiological studies can help to locate the anatomical level of damage at the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve, confirming the suspected etiology of stroke, and demonstrating that prior vascular involvement coincides with the location of trigeminal nerve damage. In some of these patients, oculofacial pain is a distinctive feature. PMID:24882965

  9. Current Concepts in the Mandibular Condyle Fracture Management Part I: Overview of Condylar Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jung-Dug; Chung, Ho-Yun; Cho, Byung-Chae

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of condylar fractures is high, but the management of fractures of the mandibular condyle continues to be controversial. Historically, maxillomandibular fixation, external fixation, and surgical splints with internal fixation systems were the techniques commonly used in the treatment of the fractured mandible. Condylar fractures can be extracapsular or intracapsular, undisplaced, deviated, displaced, or dislocated. Treatment depends on the age of the patient, the co-existence of other mandibular or maxillary fractures, whether the condylar fracture is unilateral or bilateral, the level and displacement of the fracture, the state of dentition and dental occlusion, and the surgeonnds on the age of the patient, the co-existence of othefrom which it is difficult to recover aesthetically and functionally;an appropriate treatment is required to reconstruct the shape and achieve the function ofthe uninjured status. To do this, accurate diagnosis, appropriate reduction and rigid fixation, and complication prevention are required. In particular, as mandibular condyle fracture may cause long-term complications such as malocclusion, particularly open bite, reduced posterior facial height, and facial asymmetry in addition to chronic pain and mobility limitation, great caution should be taken. Accordingly, the authors review a general overview of condyle fracture. PMID:22872830

  10. Hip fracture - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Inter-trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Subtrochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Femoral neck fracture repair - discharge; Trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Hip pinning surgery - ...

  11. Unilateral lung hyperlucency after mediastinal irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wencel, M.L.; Sitrin, R.G.

    1988-04-01

    A 39-yr-old woman developed progressive exertional dyspnea 13 yr after receiving mediastinal irradiation for Hodgkin's disease. Chest roentgenogram showed a hyperlucent right lung. Pulmonary blood flow was markedly reduced on the right by ventilation-perfusion scanning. Pulmonary angiography showed attenuation and diffuse atrophy of the right pulmonary artery and its branches. This case represents a late and uncommon complication of mediastinal irradiation manifesting as a unilateral hyperlucent lung.

  12. Unilateral musical hallucinations and all that jazz.

    PubMed

    Couper, J

    1994-09-01

    A 78-year-old hearing-impaired woman who presented to hospital with a stroke and a subsequent epileptic seizure later developed unilateral musical hallucinations in her better hearing (right) ear. She was found to have a left-sided temporal epileptic focus and the music ceased after a second anti-convulsant was introduced. Comments are made on unusual features of the hallucination and its probable causation. PMID:7893249

  13. Early complete bone union after condylar fracture in a child.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youn Hwan; Youn, Seungki; Kim, Jeong Tae

    2011-07-01

    A 3-year-old boy had unilateral intracapsular condylar fracture due to a fall. Short duration of immobilization using a facial band was performed for 5 days without any surgical intervention. The patient had full recovery in mouth opening with no deviation or asymmetry of the mandible. Posttraumatic 6 weeks later, the patient's computed tomogram revealed complete reduction of fracture, and bone union had occurred. In condylar fractures of children, treatment protocols with short duration of immobilization and early active exercise can obtain complete bone union, contrary to the previously described deformity or remodeling process. PMID:21778852

  14. Modulation of Intraocular Pressure by Unilateral and Forced Unilateral Nostril Breathing in Young Healthy Human Subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satagopam Mitti Mohan; Sagili Chandrasekhara Reddy; Lee Yoong Wei

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effects of unilateral right\\/left nostril breathing (URNB\\/ULNB) and forced unilateral right\\/left nostril\\u000a breathing (FURNB\\/FULNB) on intraocular pressure (IOP) and to examine the differences in the IOP during the various phases\\u000a of nasal cycle. Methods: Young healthy volunteers of either sex aged between 19-24 years, participated in the sessions using URNB\\/ULNB (n = 52) and\\u000a FURNB\\/FULNB (n

  15. An electrophysiological follow-up study on acquired unilateral nyctalopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichiro Murayama; Hidehiko Kawabata; Emiko Adachi-Usami

    1999-01-01

    Purpose To describe the clinical picture and electrophysiological findings in acquired unilateral nyctalopia.Methods A patient who had acquired unilateral visual loss with normal fundus was followed for a period of 2.5 years with basic ophthalmological examinations including standard electroretinogram and photopic on and off responses.Results A 46-year-old woman suffered from acquired unilateral nyctalopia. She complained of photopsia and blurred vision

  16. Bite force in pre-orthodontic children with unilateral crossbite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liselotte Sonnesen; Merete Bakke; Beni Solow

    2001-01-01

    SUMMARY In the present study bite force was examined in pre-orthodontic children with unilateral posterior crossbite and compared with an age- and sex-matched control group. The sample comprised 52 children aged 7-13 years, 26 pre-orthodontic children with unilateral posterior crossbite (crossbite group), and 26 children with neutral occlusion (control group). Unilateral bite force was measured at the first molar by

  17. Carpal fractures.

    PubMed

    Suh, Nina; Ek, Eugene T; Wolfe, Scott W

    2014-04-01

    Carpal fractures are exceedingly rare clinical entities and are often associated with concomitant injuries. In this review, we focus on fractures of the carpus, excluding the scaphoid, and provide an update on the current consensus as to mechanism, diagnosis, management, outcomes, and complications after such injuries. PMID:24679911

  18. Effects of unilateral decompressive craniectomy on patients with unilateral acute post-traumatic brain swelling after severe traumatic brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wusi Qiu; Chenchen Guo; Hong Shen; Keyong Chen; Liang Wen; Hongjie Huang; Min Ding; Li Sun; Qizhou Jiang; Weiming Wang

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Acute post-traumatic brain swelling (BS) is one of the pathological forms that need emergent treatment following traumatic brain injury. There is controversy about the effects of craniotomy on acute post-traumatic BS. The aim of the present clinical study was to assess the efficacy of unilateral decompressive craniectomy (DC) or unilateral routine temporoparietal craniectomy on patients with unilateral acute post-traumatic

  19. Unilateral sudden hearing loss due to otosyphilis

    PubMed Central

    de Goffau, Maaike J.; Doelman, Jan C.; van Rijswijk, Jeroen B.

    2011-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of sudden hearing loss is very extensive. However, in most patients, no underlying pathology will be found and the patient is consequently diagnosed with idiopathic sudden hearing loss. Nevertheless, it is important that one stays alert in everyday routine practice to less common but potentially treatable pathology. We report a case of a 53-year old patient with sudden unilateral hearing loss and tinnitus caused by otosyphilis. Diagnosis, therapy and the incidence of (oto)syphilis are discussed. Also, as ENT-surgeons, it is important to realise that syphilis is still with us, and that its prevalence might well increase in the near future. PMID:24765374

  20. [Unilateral hip arthrosis: expression of joint haemochromatosis].

    PubMed

    Prieto Zancudo, C; Villán Villán, Y F; Tascón Guerra, M F

    2012-10-01

    Hereditary haemochromatosis is the most common genetic disorder in the Caucasian population, with an estimated prevalence of 1/200-1/400 (homozygous) and 1/8-1/10 in carriers (heterozygous). The transmission is recessive and linked to HLA. The clinical expression of disease appears only in homozygous and will depend on the time of diagnosis and the degree of organ involvement. The clinical case presented below describes the process of differential diagnosis made in a young patient with unilateral coxarthrosis and clinical suspicion of hemochromatosis. Early diagnosis of hereditary hemochromatosis in primary care can reduce morbidity and mortality of this disease by detecting homozygous at younger ages. PMID:23021581

  1. Unilateral athelia with a subcutaneous dermoid cyst.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, K; Hata, Y; Yano, K; Susuki, T; Kikui, T; Tahara, S

    1987-11-01

    A case of unilateral athelia with a subcutaneous dermoid cyst in the area in question is reported. The histologic features of the cyst wall suggest that it is derived from a base in the nipple-areola complex. Dozens of cases of congenital absence of the breast have been reported, some of them associated with congenital anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, others with additional musculoskeletal abnormalities, and still others normal in other respects. But to our knowledge, the combination of athelia and corresponding subcutaneous dermoid cyst has not been reported. PMID:3671567

  2. Unilateral Molar Distalization: A Nonextraction Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, M. Bhanu; Sreevalli, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the recent years, nonextraction treatment approaches and noncompliance therapies have become more popular in the correction of space discrepancies. One of the conventional approaches for space gaining in the arches without patient compliance is done by using certain extra oral appliances or intraoral appliance. The greatest advantage of certain appliances like fixed functional and molar distalization appliances is that they minimize the dependence on patient cooperation. Molar distalization appliances like pendulum appliance which distalizes the molar rapidly without the need of head gear can be used in patients as a unilateral space gaining procedure due to buccal segment crowding. PMID:23320203

  3. Adult-Onset Unilateral Disabling Pansclerotic Morphea

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Adarshlata; Singhal, Kritika; Choudhary, Sanjiv; Bisati, Shazia; Arora, Mallika

    2014-01-01

    Disabling pansclerotic morphea (DPM) is a rare, severe, and mutilating form of morphea, involving the dermis, subcutaneous tissue, fat, muscle, and even bone. It is usually seen before the age of 14 years, with the patient complaining of arthralgia and stiffness at the time of onset. We report a case of unilateral adult-onset DPM with sparing of the face. Within a few months of onset, painful contracture deformities of the hand, elbow, and shoulder joints developed, impairing the patient's normal daily activities. We are reporting this case because of the unusual presentation: DPM in an adult, with history of trauma in childhood and rapid onset of complications, is rare. PMID:24891683

  4. Unilateral nevoid telangiectasia associated with ipsilateral melorheostosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihyun; Cho, Sung Bin; Cho, Suhyun; Bang, Dongsik

    2012-05-01

    Melorheostosis is a rare disorder characterized by irregular, flowing hyperostosis in long bones, commonly described on radiographs as wax flowing down a candle. In addition to bony sclerosis, cutaneous manifestations overlying the involved bones have been reported including linear scleroderma, neurofibromatosis, and vascular and lymphatic malformations. Unilateral nevoid telangiectasia (UNT) is a rare primarily cutaneous condition characterized by linearly arranged small dilated blood vessels in dermatomal or Blaschkoid patterns on the skin. Here, we present the case of a nine-year-old Korean male with UNT associated with ipsilateral melorheostosis. PMID:22577274

  5. Fractures of the articular processes of the cervical spine

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, J.H.; Goldstein, S.J.

    1982-08-01

    Fractures of the articular processes occurred in 16 (20.8%) of 77 patients with cervical spine fractures as demonstrated by multidirectional tomography. Plain films demonstrated the fractures in only two patients. Acute cervical radiculopathy occurred in five of the patients with articular process fractures (superior process, two cases; inferior process, three cases). Persistent neck pain occurred in one other patient without radiculopathy. Three patients suffered spinal cord damage at the time of injury, which was not the result of the articular process fracture itself. In the other seven cases, no definite sequelae occurred. However, disruption of the facet joint may predispose to early degenerative joint disease and chronic pain; unilateral or bilateral facet dislocation was present in five patients. In patients with cervical trauma who develop cervical radiculopathy, tomography should be performed to evaluate the articular processes.

  6. Diaphragm mechanics in dogs with unilateral emphysema.

    PubMed Central

    Hubmayr, R D; Farkas, G A; Tao, H Y; Sieck, G C; Margulies, S S

    1993-01-01

    We studied dogs with unilateral papain-induced emphysema to answer two questions: (1) Do emphysema lung-apposed hemidiaphragm (DiE) and normal lung-apposed hemidiaphragm (DiN) have equal capacities for lowering lung surface pressure? and (2) Are side-to-side differences in intrathoracic pressure the result of unequal force outputs by DiE and DiN or are they caused by differences in their mechanical efficiency as pressure generators? After the airways of the emphysematous and normal lungs were intubated with a dual lumen endotracheal tube, both phrenic nerves were maximally stimulated at rates between 1 and 50 Hz and the changes in airway occlusion pressure (delta PaoE,N) and diaphragm length (sonomicrometry) were recorded. In all animals, delta PaoN exceeded delta PaoE. Differences in pressure ranged from 1.2 +/- 0.6 cm H2O during a twitch to 6.0 +/- 2.9 cm H2O during a 50-Hz tetanus. Midcostal bundles of DiE shortened less than corresponding bundles of DiN, but both reached the same active length relative to their optimal lengths, which were measured in vitro. There was no significant difference in fiber type distribution, fiber cross-sectional area, or maximal isometric tetanic tensions among midcostal regions of DiE and DiN. We conclude that unilateral hyperinflation impairs the mechanical efficiency of the apposing hemidiaphragm as a pressure generator. PMID:8473503

  7. Bilateral Effects of Unilateral Cochlear Implantation in Congenitally Deaf Cats

    E-print Network

    Ryugo, David K.

    Bilateral Effects of Unilateral Cochlear Implantation in Congenitally Deaf Cats Jahn N. O'Neil,1-month-old con- genitally deaf cats received unilateral cochlear implants and were stimulated for a period of 10­19 weeks by using human speech processors. Implanted cats exhib- ited acoustic startle

  8. Did Unilateral Divorce Raise Divorce Rates? Evidence from Panel Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leora Friedberg

    1998-01-01

    This paper revisits the evidence on the impact of unilateral divorce laws on divorce rates in the United States. Most states switched from requiring mutual consent to allowing unilateral or no-fault divorce between 1970 and 1985, while the national divorce rate more than doubled after 1965. According to the Coase theorem, however, the legal shift should have had no effect

  9. Postural stability and unilateral posterior crossbite: Is there a relationship?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ambrosina Michelotti; Gerarda Buonocore; Mauro Farella; Gioacchino Pellegrino; Carlo Piergentili; Stefano Altobelli; Roberto Martina

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that unilateral posterior crossbite influences postural stability of the whole body. Twenty-six subjects (14 males and 12 females) affected with unilateral posterior crossbite were selected and compared with 52 controls matched for age and gender. Postural stability was assessed using a stabilometric platform. The following stabilometric measurements were assessed: weight

  10. Should lung volume reduction for emphysema be unilateral or bilateral?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. McKenna; Matthew Brenner; Richard J. Fischel; Arthur F. Gelb

    1996-01-01

    Both unilateral and bilateral lung volume reduction procedures are being advocated for treatment of severe, generalized emphysema. We analyzed the results of 166 consecutive patients who underwent unilateral (n = 87) or bilateral (n = 79) thoracoscopic stapled lung volume reductions to help define the role for these procedures. There was no statistically significant difference in the operative mortality (3.5%

  11. Fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, John L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The application of fracture mechanics to the design of ceramic structures will require the precise measurement of crack growth and fracture resistance of these materials over their entire range of anticipated service temperatures and standardized test methods for making such measurements. The development of a standard test for measuring the plane strain fracture toughness is sought. Stress intensity factor coefficients were determined for three varieties of chevron-notch specimens, and fracture toughness measurements were made on silicon nitrides, silicon carbides, and aluminum oxides to assess the performance of each specimen variety. It was determined that silicon nitride and silicon carbides have flat crack growth resistance curves, but aluminum oxide does not. Additionally, batch-to-batch differences were noticed for the aluminum oxide. Experiments are continuing to explain the rising crack growth resistance and batch-to-batch variations for the aluminum oxide.

  12. Unilateral temporomandibular joint ankylosis with contralateral aplasia

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nimisha; Pal, U. S.; Mohammad, S.; Singh, R. K.; Mehta, Gagan; Makadia, Hardik S.

    2013-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is considered as one of the complex joints of the human body. Mandibular condylysis is distinguished from condylar aplasia by its non-association with aural/facial anomalies, and also as normal development appears to proceed until the lytic event occurs. It is further distinguished from primary and secondary condylar hypoplasia by the following: Absence of condyle rather than it being small, the normal development appears to proceed until the lytic event occurs, and its non-association with aural/facial anomalies or temporomandibular ankylosis. In the present report, a patient with a unilateral missing mandibular condyle with contralateral TMJ ankylosis is presented and the treatment is outlined and discussed. PMID:24665190

  13. Unilateral lichen planus: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Manas; Agarwal, Deshant; Bhalla, Anindya; VatchalaRani, R. M.; Kumar, Malay

    2014-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a mucocutaneous disease with well-established clinical and histopathological features. It has a prevalence of approximately 1%. The etiopathogenesis is poorly understood. The annual malignant transformation is less than 0.5%. There are no effective means to either predict or to prevent such event. Clinically, OLP present as bilateral symmetrical lesion and hence lichen planus isolated to a single oral site other than the gingiva is very uncommon. On the other hand lichenoid reaction (LR) are the lesions which are similar clinically and histopathologically with OLP, but they are induced with some drug reaction and usually they do not show bilateral pattern like lichen planus. We reported a very uncommon case of unilateral lichen planus which was clinically diagnosed as LR, but in the absence of any cause-effective relationship biopsy was taken for histopathological examination Histopathologically, LR cannot be differentiated with OLP, so the final diagnosis was made on the immunohistochemical ground. PMID:25097434

  14. Maximizing fracture extension in massive hydraulic fracturing

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.B.

    1984-03-06

    During fracture treatment of a subterranean formation, multiple hydraulic fracturing cycles are performed wherein the bottomhole treating pressure of a wellbore is controlled to not exceed a maximum bottomhole treating pressure for the formation, thereby attaining maximum principle fracture extension and limiting initiation of secondary fractures transverse to the principle fracture extension.

  15. Tear Condition Following Unilateral Ptosis Surgery.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Abbas; Najmi, Hadi; Salim, Reza Erfanian; Yazdani, Shahin

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Purpose: To evaluate changes in tear film condition following unilateral ptosis surgery. Methods: This interventional case series includes patients with unilateral blepharoptosis scheduled for ptosis surgery with no prior history of eye disease and surgery over a 2-year period. Tear film evaluation before surgery were performed, which included Schirmer test with and without anesthesia, and tear break up time (TBUT). Ptosis surgery included levator resection and frontalis sling. The previously mentioned tests were repeated 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery. Subjective symptoms related to dry eye also evaluated before and after surgery. Results: A total of 83 patients including 46 (55.4%) male subjects with mean age of 26.2?±?16.2 years were enrolled in the study. The most common cause of ptosis was congenital in 77 (92.8%) patients. Surgical intervention included levator resection in 56 (67.5%) cases and frontalis sling procedure in 27 (32.5%) cases. The result of surgery was good in 47 (56.6%) patients while under- and overcorrection were observed in 32 (39.8%) and 3 (3.6%) patients, respectively. Schirmer's test with and without anesthesia and TBUT after surgery revealed a decrease in tear quantity and quality after surgery with time. Patients who had subjective complaints from dryness after surgery only had shorter TBUT among the objective signs. Conclusions: Ptosis surgery can decrease the quantity and quality of tears in operated eyes. Since some of these patients may need other types of operations in future, such as refractive or cataract surgery, evaluation of the tear condition before further surgery is prudent. PMID:25474275

  16. Expanding upon the unilateral hyperlucent hemithorax in children.

    PubMed

    Dillman, Jonathan R; Sanchez, Ramon; Ladino-Torres, Maria F; Yarram, Sai G; Strouse, Peter J; Lucaya, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Unilateral hyperlucent hemithorax is a common pediatric chest radiographic finding that may also be seen at computed tomography. It may result from congenital or acquired conditions involving the pulmonary parenchyma, airway, pulmonary vasculature, pleural space, and chest wall, as well as from technical factors such as patient rotation. Unilateral hyperlucent hemithorax has a broad differential diagnosis that includes unilateral emphysematous or bullous disease, pneumatocele, foreign body aspiration, Swyer-James syndrome, congenital lobar emphysema, endobronchial mass, unilateral pulmonary agenesis, proximal interruption of the pulmonary artery, scimitar syndrome, diaphragmatic hernia, and Poland syndrome. Although certain causes of unilateral hyperlucent hemithorax are clinically significant and potentially life threatening, others are of minimal or no clinical significance. When evaluating a patient with this finding, it is important to establish whether the apparent unilateral hyperlucent hemithorax is truly too lucent (hypoattenuating) or if the contralateral hemithorax is too opaque (hyperattenuating). It is imperative that radiologists be aware of the various causes of unilateral hyperlucent hemithorax so that they may diagnose the underlying condition and appropriately guide patient management. PMID:21571653

  17. Forearm Fractures in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the bones in the forearm. Classifications • Torus fracture. This is also called a “buckle” fracture. The ... of bone have not separated apart (displaced). • Metaphyseal fracture. The fracture is across the upper, or lower, ...

  18. Calcaneus (Heel Bone) Fractures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are many types of calcaneus fractures, including: Stable fracture. This type of fracture is nondisplaced. The broken ... bones usually stay in place during healing. Displaced fracture. When a bone breaks and is displaced, the ...

  19. Growth Plate Fractures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Harris system and is described here. Type I Fractures These fractures break through the bone at the ... and completely disrupting the growth plate. Type II Fractures These fractures break through part of the bone ...

  20. Hydraulic fracturing-1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book contains papers on hydraulic fracturing. Topics covered include: An overview of recent advances in hydraulic fracturing technology; Containment of massive hydraulic fracture; and Fracturing with a high-strength proppant.

  1. Metatarsal fracture (acute) - aftercare

    MedlinePLUS

    Broken foot-metatarsal; Jones fracture; Dancer’s fracture; Foot fracture ... long bones in your foot that connect your ankle to your toes. They ... cause a break or acute (sudden) fracture in one of the bones.

  2. Fractures de contraintes Fractures de fatigue Fractures par insuffisance osseuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Boyer; R. Bellaiche; Y. Geffroy; J. Potet; D. Lechevalier

    2005-01-01

    Stress fractures are common lesions that occur without trauma neither focal abnormality. They include fatigue fractures which are caused by the application of abnormal stress or torque to a bone that has normal resistance, and insufficiency fractures which occur when normal activity stresses a bone that is deficient in resistance. Such fractures seem to occur more frequently, this being due

  3. Comparison between Bilateral C2 Pedicle Screwing and Unilateral C2 Pedicle Screwing, Combined with Contralateral C2 Laminar Screwing, for Atlantoaxial Posterior Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Hongo, Michio; Kobayashi, Takashi; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Abe, Eiji; Shimada, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose To compare clinical and radiological outcomes between bilateral C2 pedicle screwing (C2PS) and unilateral C2PS, combined with contralateral C2 laminar screwing (LS), for posterior atlantoaxial fixation. Overview of Literature Posterior fixation with C1 lateral mass screwing (C1LMS) and C2PS (C1LMS-C2PS method) is an accepted procedure for rigid atlantoaxial stabilization. However, conventional bilateral C2PS is not always allowed in this method due to anatomical variations of C2 pedicles and/or asymmetry of the vertebral artery. Although unilateral C2PS plus contralateral LS (C2PS+LS) is an alternative in such cases, the efficacy of this procedure has not been evaluated in controlled studies (i.e., with bilateral C2PS as a control). Methods Clinical and radiological records of patients who underwent the C1LMS-C2PS method, using unilateral C2PS+LS (n=9), and those treated using conventional bilateral C2PS (n=10) were compared, with a minimum two years follow-up. Results Postoperative complications related to the unilateral C2PS+LS technique included one case of spontaneous spinous process fracture of C2. A C1 anterior arch fracture occurred after a fall in one patient, who underwent bilateral C2PS and C1 laminectomy. No significant differences were seen between the groups in reduction of neck pain after surgery or improvement of neurological status, as evaluated using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score. A delayed union occurred in one patient each of the groups, with the final fusion rate being 100% in both groups. Conclusions Clinical and radiological outcomes of unilateral C2PS+LS were comparable with those of the bilateral C2PS fixation technique for the C1LMS-C2PS method. PMID:25558320

  4. [Unilateral triangular lumbopelvic stabilization: indications and techniques].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, M F; Dudda, M; Schildhauer, T A

    2013-11-01

    Operative fixation has become treatment of choice for unstable sacral fractures. Osteosynthesis for these fractures results in loss of reduction in up to 15%. Vertical sacral fractures involving the S1 facet joint (Isler 2 and 3) may lead to multidirectional instability. Multidirectional instability of the posterior pelvic ring and lumbopelvic junction may be stabilized and forces balanced by a so-called lumbopelvic triangular fixation. Lumbopelvic triangular fixation combines vertical fixation between the lumbar vertebral pedicle and the ilium, with horizontal fixation, as an iliosacral screw or a transiliacal plate osteosynthesis. The iliac screw is directed from the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) to the anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS). Thereby, lumbopelvic fixation decreases the load to the sacrum and SI joint and transfers axial loads from the lumbar spine directly onto the ilium. Triangular lumbopelvic fixation allows early full weight bearing and therefore reduces prolonged immobilization. The placement of iliac screws may be a complex surgical procedure. Thus, the technique requires thorough surgical preparation and operative logistics. Wound-related complications may occur. Preexisting Morell-Lavalée lesions increase the risk for infection. Prominent implants cause local irritation and pain. Hardware prominence and pain are markedly reduced with screw head recession into the PSIS. PMID:24233083

  5. Unilateral Hemiparesis with Thoracic Epidural in an Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Tassone, Rosalie F.; Seefelder, Christian; Sethna, Navil F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Unilateral sensory and motor blockade is known to occur with epidural anesthesia but is rarely reported in children. The differential diagnosis should include the presence of a midline epidural septum. Case Report. We describe a case of a 16-year-old adolescent who developed repeated complete unilateral extensive epidural sensory and motor blockade with Horner's syndrome after thoracic epidural catheter placement. This unusual presentation of complete hemibody neural blockade has not been reported in the pediatric population. Maneuvers to improve contralateral uniform neural blockade were unsuccessful. An epidurogram was performed to ascertain the correct location of the catheter within the epidural space and presence of sagittal compartmentalization. Conclusion. This case report highlights a less frequently reported reason for unilateral sensory and motor blockade with epidural anesthesia in children. The presence of a midline epidural septum should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unilateral epidural blockade. PMID:22606409

  6. Pelvic fracture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Hammel; Eric Legome

    2006-01-01

    Pelvic fractures are common and often devastating injuries. Along with a high mortality, the long-term morbidity is consequential for both the individual patient and society. A thorough knowledge of the clinical approach will assist the emergency physician in providing optimal care and offer a rapid and effective treatment plan for life threatening hemorrhage. Using a case-based scenario, the initial management

  7. Numerical Investigation of Interaction Between Hydraulic Fractures and Natural Fractures

    E-print Network

    Xue, Wenxu

    2011-02-22

    Hydraulic fracturing of a naturally-fractured reservoir is a challenge for industry, as fractures can have complex growth patterns when propagating in systems of natural fractures in the reservoir. Fracture propagation near a natural fracture (NF...

  8. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Bharathi, Saravana C.; Senthilnathan, S.; Kumar, Lokesh D.; Mohan, Anand C. S.; Taranath, M.

    2014-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is (CH) an uncommon malformation of the mandible involving change in size and morphology of the condylar neck and head. CH is an anomaly that usually occurs unilaterally and equally affects in both men and women. Hyperplasia of the condyle ‘differentiated into hemimandibular hyperplasia, hemimandibular elongation and CH. Here, we are presenting a case of 17-year-old male patient with unilateral CH and its review of the literature. PMID:24818099

  9. Grip Force Coordination during Bimanual Tasks in Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islam, Mominul; Gordon, Andrew M.; Skold, Annika; Forssberg, Hans; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate coordination of fingertip forces during an asymmetrical bimanual task in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Twelve participants (six males, six females; mean age 14y 4mo, SD 3.3y; range 9-20y;) with unilateral CP (eight right-sided, four left-sided) and 15 age-matched typically…

  10. Arcuate Fractures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    In the upper left corner of this VIS image are a series of fractures. Where the fractures are exposed on the surface it is impossible to tell the plane of the fracture; however where the fractures are visible in the cliff wall it is possible to see that the fractures dip to the north. This image shows part of the caldera of Tharsis Tholus.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 1.7, Longitude 176.5 East (183.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Craniofacial morphology in unilateral hemifacial microsomia.

    PubMed

    Ongkosuwito, E M; van Neck, J W; Wattel, E; van Adrichem, L N; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    2013-12-01

    Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is a complex three-dimensional congenital condition that is characterized by mandibular hypoplasia and unilateral or bilateral microtia; although, other facial structures may be affected. Little is known about craniofacial growth and morphology in patients with HFM; therefore, we examined 75 HFM patients by means of a cephalometric analysis in a longitudinal study on serial lateral cephalograms. We hypothesized that the growth of several facial structures on both sides of HFM patients would be different compared to Dutch controls. We determined patients with HFM had more retruded mandibles and maxillae and a more vertical morphology compared to the reference population. In addition, there was a more retruded and vertical pattern on the affected side compared to the unaffected side and in patients with a severe condition compared to those with a mild condition. 'Mild' HFM patients were more similar to the Dutch reference population than the 'severe' HFM patients. Individual HFM growth curves showed very high inter-variability, further strengthening the need for individualized treatment plans that consider all three dimensions and the severity of the condition. PMID:23201060

  12. Unilateral adrenal hemorrhage after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Chronopoulos, Efstathios; Nikolaou, Vassilios S; Masgala, Aikaterini; Kaspiris, Angelos; Babis, Georgios C

    2014-05-01

    Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) is a rare but serious condition that is often diagnosed at autopsy. Unilateral adrenal hemorrhage (UAH) in adults is extremely rare and is often due to trauma or anticoagulation or is associated with systemic illness. The case of a 73-year-old man who was diagnosed with UAH several days after an elective total knee replacement is presented. The patient had an uncomplicated procedure and he was treated postoperatively with a prophylactic dose of subcutaneous low-molecular- weight heparin and compression sleeves. On postoperative day 8, he reported sustained epigastric and midback pain at the lower thoracic level. He had a temperature of 38.5°C. On clinical examination, the patient expressed only mild tenderness at the lumbar area. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scan were inconclusive. On postoperative day 13, the patient experienced no pain but remained febrile. An abdominal CT scan revealed a high-density mass on the left adrenal gland suggestive of hemorrhage. The subcutaneous heparin as well as the antimicrobial therapy was discontinued and a serum cortisol examination was done. Serum levels were within normal values in the evening and the morning. On postoperative day 16, all laboratory values returned to normal and the patient was discharged in excellent condition. Patients who have abdominal pain, hypotension, or both soon after initiation of anticoagulation or patients who experience abdominal pain, fever, nausea, or confusion postoperatively should be screened for AH. PMID:24810831

  13. Effects of Unilateral Clefts on Brain Structure

    PubMed Central

    van der Plas, Ellen; Conrad, Amy; Canady, John; Richman, Lynn; Nopoulos, Peg

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate potential abnormalities in brain structure of children and adolescents with unilateral clefts. Design Case-control study. Setting Tertiary care center. Participants Boys aged 7 to 17 years with right (n=14) and left (n=19) clefts were compared with healthy age-matched boys (n=57). Main Exposures Structural brain measures were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging. Outcome Measure It was explored whether laterality of clefts had a significant effect on brain structure. To this end, volumes of tissue types and various brain regions were evaluated. Results Total white matter was significantly lower in boys with right clefts compared with boys with left clefts and healthy boys. Gross regional analyses demonstrated that reductions in white matter were evident in both the cerebellum and the cerebrum in boys with right clefts. Furthermore, within the cerebrum, white matter volumes were particularly low in the frontal lobes and the occipital lobes. Conclusions These preliminary results suggest that right clefts may be associated with more abnormalities in brain structure. More generally, laterality of a birth defect may have a significant effect on a developing organism. PMID:20679168

  14. Influence of unilateral weight on bilateral cyclograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicer Costa, Juan José; Dusza, Jacek J.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents the results of gait parameters as a function of unilateral weight. The object of the research was a woman walking on a stationary surface and carrying in his hand weights from 0 to 15 kg. Her movement was recorded by 6 cameras recording the location of 34 markers placed at appropriate points in the body. 3D reconstruction was performed for each of the reflecting markers. Tested signals were changes in the value the joint angles of ankle, knee and hip. On the basis of about 6 cycles of movement of each load, a model for the average gait cycle was developed. The result of the experiments are graphs of changes the joint angles as a function of time, bilateral cyclograms, synchronized bilateral cyclograms and regression lines. The conclusion of the study is to determine how one-sided load affects gait asymmetry. Simple and easy to interpret method of presentation of results were also shown. Studies were conducted using VICON system.

  15. Bilateral femoral neck stress fractures in a fire academy student.

    PubMed

    Wright, Russell C; Salzman, Garrett A; Yacoubian, Stephan V; Yacoubian, Shahan V

    2010-10-01

    Unilateral femoral neck stress fractures are well documented in active patients; however, the risk of a subsequent contralateral stress fracture remains unknown in patients who continue to be active. This article describes a 24-year-old male fire academy student who sustained a left femoral neck stress fracture, followed approximately 11 months later by a right femoral neck stress fracture, both of which went on to completely displace. A review of the index radiographs of each hip from outside institutions revealed femoral neck stress fractures that went undiagnosed until they displaced. The patient was referred to our institution and underwent closed reduction and internal fixation using cannulated screws in both cases. A full endocrine evaluation was performed in the following weeks and proved unremarkable. Although it is difficult to extrapolate the results from 1 patient beyond the case studied, there is cause for concern in patients who remain active following femoral neck stress fractures. Our case highlights the significance of obtaining a complete and thorough medical history on physical examination and appropriately counseling patients regarding activity level. Until further research explores this possible relationship, physicians evaluating patients with a history of a stress fracture are encouraged to be vigilant of subsequent contralateral fractures and educate patients of this potentially avoidable injury. PMID:20954652

  16. [Fracture of macroporous hydroxyapatite prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Adetchessi, A T; Pech-Gourg, G; Metellus, P; Fuentes, S

    2012-12-01

    Different prosthesis implants are offered to perform a cranioplasty after a decompressive craniectomy when autologous bone graft cannot be used. The authors report the case of a 25-year-old man who benefited a unilateral decompressive craniectomy after a severe head trauma. Seven months later, a cranioplasty using custom macroporous hydroxyapatite prosthesis was performed. The postoperative course was marked by a generalized seizure leading to a traumatic head injury. The CT-scan showed a comminutive fracture of the prosthesis and an extradural hematoma. The patient underwent a removal of the fractured prosthesis and an evacuation of the extradural clot. The postoperative course was uneventful with a Glasgow outcome scale score at 5. A second cranioplasty using a polyether ether ketone (PEEK) implant was performed. Among cranioplasty prosthesis solutions, hydroxyapatite implants seem to have similar property to the bone. However, its weak mechanic resistance is an actual problem in patients susceptible to present generalized seizures with consecutive head impact. Hence, in patients with decompressive craniectomy who are exposed to potential brain injury, we favor the use of more resistant implant as PEEK prosthesis. PMID:22898300

  17. Preventing Falls and Related Fractures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Basics Falls and Fractures Preventing Falls and Related Fractures Publication available in: PDF (241 KB) Related Resources Falls and Fractures Caídas y fracturas (Falls and Fractures) Osteoporosis and ...

  18. Pilon fractures.

    PubMed

    Mandi, Denise M; Belin, Ron P; Banks, Justin; Barrett, Brandon

    2012-04-01

    The nature of the pilon fracture has caused evolution of treatment methods and its historically high rate of complication and poor outcome continue to direct choice of treatment. Attention to the delicate soft tissue envelope surrounding the ankle and recognition of the severity of the initial injury is crucial to ensure a satisfactory outcome and to minimize complications. Understanding the importance of staging surgical interventions will help to improve outcomes, but even optimal treatment may result in less than satisfactory results. PMID:22424487

  19. Impact of unilateral denervation on transdiaphragmatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Gill, Luther C; Mantilla, Carlos B; Sieck, Gary C

    2015-05-01

    The diaphragm muscle (DIAm) has a large reserve capacity for force generation such that in rats, the transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) generated during ventilatory behaviors is less than 50% of maximal Pdi (Pdimax) elicited by bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation. Accordingly, we hypothesized that following unilateral denervation (DNV), the ability of the contralateral DIAm to generate sufficient Pdi to accomplish ventilatory behaviors will not be compromised and normal ventilation (as determined by arterial blood gas measurements) will not be impacted, although neural drive to the DIAm increases. In contrast, we hypothesized that higher force, non-ventilatory behaviors requiring Pdi generation greater than 50% of Pdimax will be compromised following DIAm hemiparalysis, i.e., increased neural drive cannot fully compensate for lack of force generating capacity. Pdi generated during ventilatory behaviors (eupnea and hypoxia (10% O2)-hypercapnia (5% CO2)) did not change after DNV and arterial blood gases were unaffected by DNV. However, neural drive to the contralateral DIAm, assessed by the rate of rise of root mean squared (RMS) EMG at 75ms after onset of inspiratory activity (RMS75), increased after DNV (p<0.05). In contrast, Pdi generated during higher force, non-ventilatory behaviors was significantly reduced after DNV (p<0.01), while RMS75 was unchanged. These findings support our hypothesis that only non-ventilatory behaviors requiring Pdi generation greater than 50% of Pdimax are impacted after DNV. Clinically, these results indicate that an evaluation of DIAm weakness requires examination of Pdi across multiple motor behaviors, not just ventilation. PMID:25641347

  20. Postural Compensation for Unilateral Vestibular Loss

    PubMed Central

    Peterka, Robert J.; Statler, Kennyn D.; Wrisley, Diane M.; Horak, Fay B.

    2011-01-01

    Postural control of upright stance was investigated in well-compensated, unilateral vestibular loss (UVL) subjects compared to age-matched control subjects. The goal was to determine how sensory weighting for postural control in UVL subjects differed from control subjects, and how sensory weighting related to UVL subjects’ functional compensation, as assessed by standardized balance and dizziness questionnaires. Postural control mechanisms were identified using a model-based interpretation of medial–lateral center-of-mass body-sway evoked by support-surface rotational stimuli during eyes-closed stance. The surface-tilt stimuli consisted of continuous pseudorandom rotations presented at four different amplitudes. Parameters of a feedback control model were obtained that accounted for each subject’s sway response to the surface-tilt stimuli. Sensory weighting factors quantified the relative contributions to stance control of vestibular sensory information, signaling body-sway relative to earth-vertical, and proprioceptive information, signaling body-sway relative to the surface. Results showed that UVL subjects made significantly greater use of proprioceptive, and therefore less use of vestibular, orientation information on all tests. There was relatively little overlap in the distributions of sensory weights measured in UVL and control subjects, although UVL subjects varied widely in the amount they could use their remaining vestibular function. Increased reliance on proprioceptive information by UVL subjects was associated with their balance being more disturbed by the surface-tilt perturbations than control subjects, thus indicating a deficiency of balance control even in well-compensated UVL subjects. Furthermore, there was some tendency for UVL subjects who were less able to utilize remaining vestibular information to also indicate worse functional compensation on questionnaires. PMID:21922014

  1. Postural compensation for unilateral vestibular loss.

    PubMed

    Peterka, Robert J; Statler, Kennyn D; Wrisley, Diane M; Horak, Fay B

    2011-01-01

    Postural control of upright stance was investigated in well-compensated, unilateral vestibular loss (UVL) subjects compared to age-matched control subjects. The goal was to determine how sensory weighting for postural control in UVL subjects differed from control subjects, and how sensory weighting related to UVL subjects' functional compensation, as assessed by standardized balance and dizziness questionnaires. Postural control mechanisms were identified using a model-based interpretation of medial-lateral center-of-mass body-sway evoked by support-surface rotational stimuli during eyes-closed stance. The surface-tilt stimuli consisted of continuous pseudorandom rotations presented at four different amplitudes. Parameters of a feedback control model were obtained that accounted for each subject's sway response to the surface-tilt stimuli. Sensory weighting factors quantified the relative contributions to stance control of vestibular sensory information, signaling body-sway relative to earth-vertical, and proprioceptive information, signaling body-sway relative to the surface. Results showed that UVL subjects made significantly greater use of proprioceptive, and therefore less use of vestibular, orientation information on all tests. There was relatively little overlap in the distributions of sensory weights measured in UVL and control subjects, although UVL subjects varied widely in the amount they could use their remaining vestibular function. Increased reliance on proprioceptive information by UVL subjects was associated with their balance being more disturbed by the surface-tilt perturbations than control subjects, thus indicating a deficiency of balance control even in well-compensated UVL subjects. Furthermore, there was some tendency for UVL subjects who were less able to utilize remaining vestibular information to also indicate worse functional compensation on questionnaires. PMID:21922014

  2. The impacts of Unilateral Stratospheric Geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A.; Haywood, J. M.; Bellouin, N.; Stephenson, D.

    2013-12-01

    Stratospheric geoengineering proposals have been suggested on the premise that the cooling impacts of volcanic eruptions could be deliberately mimicked to offset the impacts of increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the future by counterbalance global warming. Here, we examine both the impacts of hemispherically asymmetric volcanoes in the observational record and the impact of prolonged deliberate injection of stratospheric aerosol into either the northern or southern hemisphere stratosphere or into both hemispheres equally to assess the impacts on Sahelian rainfall and agriculture (Haywood et al., 2013). While the frequency of volcanic eruptions during the past 100 years is too sparse for definitive attribution, there is a suggestion that volcanic eruptions that preferentially load the northern hemisphere are the harbinger of Sahelian drought. Simulations are then performed with the HadGEM2 couple atmospheric-ocean model to assess the impacts of these volcanic eruptions and deliberate unilateral stratospheric geoengineering. Figure 1 shows the impacts of the geoengineering simulations which show that stratospheric injection into the northern hemisphere induces a severe and prolonged Sahelian drought with undoubted detrimental consequences for the local population. Conversely injection into the southern hemisphere causes a significant greening of the Sahel with vegetation productivity enhanced by over 100%. On the face of it, this suggests potential advocacy of injection into the southern hemisphere: we will investigate potential other side-effects from such a strategy...... Haywood, J.M., A. Jones, N. Bellouin, and D.B. Stephenson, Asymmetric forcing from stratospheric aerosols impacts Sahelian drought, Nature Climate Change, Vol 3, No 7, 660-665, doi: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1857, 2013.

  3. Unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome caused by an occult palmar lipoma.

    PubMed

    Bagatur, A Erdem; Yalcinkaya, Merter

    2009-10-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome usually presents bilaterally and space-occupying lesions should be suspected in patients with unilateral symptoms, especially with a long history and when the symptomatic hand shows severe neurophysiologic impairment, while the contralateral hand is neurophysiologically intact. Approximately half of patients with unilateral symptoms have positive electrodiagnostic test results in the asymptomatic, contralateral hand. Space-occupying lesions are known to cause carpal tunnel syndrome and the incidence of space-occupying lesions in unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome is higher than that of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. It is easy to detect a mass when it is palpable, but occult lesions may be overlooked easily. Whenever a patient presents with unilateral symptoms and unilateral neurophysiologic impairment, the possibility of a space-occupying lesion compressing the median nerve should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis. This article presents 2 cases of patients with occult deep palmar lipomas compressing the median nerve and causing unilateral symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. We stress the importance of imaging studies in patients with unilateral symptoms that are usually not used in carpal tunnel syndrome. While both patients' symptomatic hands showed severe neurophysiologic impairment, the contralateral hands were totally intact, which is contradictory with a long history. The reported patients were evaluated and magnetic resonance images revealed intra-tunnel lesions. Although lipomas are the most common soft tissue tumor in the body, <5% of the benign tumors of the hand are lipomas. Since the thick palmar fascia is strong, a deep lipoma may not be recognized although nerve compression symptoms may be gross. PMID:19824610

  4. Effects of unilateral decompressive craniectomy on patients with unilateral acute post-traumatic brain swelling after severe traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Acute post-traumatic brain swelling (BS) is one of the pathological forms that need emergent treatment following traumatic brain injury. There is controversy about the effects of craniotomy on acute post-traumatic BS. The aim of the present clinical study was to assess the efficacy of unilateral decompressive craniectomy (DC) or unilateral routine temporoparietal craniectomy on patients with unilateral acute post-traumatic BS. Methods Seventy-four patients of unilateral acute post-traumatic BS with midline shifting more than 5 mm were divided randomly into two groups: unilateral DC group (n = 37) and unilateral routine temporoparietal craniectomy group (control group, n = 37). The vital signs, the intracranial pressure (ICP), the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS), the mortality rate and the complications were prospectively analysed. Results The mean ICP values of patients in the unilateral DC group at hour 24, hour 48, hour 72 and hour 96 after injury were much lower than those of the control group (15.19 +/- 2.18 mmHg, 16.53 +/- 1.53 mmHg, 15.98 +/- 2.24 mmHg and 13.518 +/- 2.33 mmHg versus 19.95 +/- 2.24 mmHg, 18.32 +/- 1.77 mmHg, 21.05 +/- 2.23 mmHg and 17.68 +/- 1.40 mmHg, respectively). The mortality rates at 1 month after treatment were 27% in the unilateral DC group and 57% in the control group (p = 0.010). Good neurological outcome (GOS Score of 4 to 5) rates 1 year after injury for the groups were 56.8% and 32.4%, respectively (p = 0.035). The incidences of delayed intracranial hematoma and subdural effusion were 21.6% and 10.8% versus 5.4% and 0, respectively (p = 0.041 and 0.040). Conclusions Our data suggest that unilateral DC has superiority in lowering ICP, reducing the mortality rate and improving neurological outcomes over unilateral routine temporoparietal craniectomy. However, it increases the incidence of delayed intracranial hematomas and subdural effusion, some of which need secondary surgical intervention. These results provide information important for further large and multicenter clinical trials on the effects of DC in patients with acute post-traumatic BS. Trial registration ISRCTN14110527 PMID:19930556

  5. Prolonged hyperkalemia following unilateral adrenalectomy for primary hyperaldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Huang, W-T; Chau, T; Wu, S-T; Lin, S-H

    2010-05-01

    Hypokalemia associated with aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) are almost corrected following successful unilateral adrenalectomy. Prolonged hyperkalemia after unilateral adrenalectomy is rarely reported and may be overlooked. We describe a 62-year-old man who presented with fatigue and dizziness 2 weeks after unilateral adrenalectomy for aldosterone-producing adenomas. Physical examination showed decreased skin turgor and postural hypotension. Laboratory studies revealed hyperkalemia (6.3 mmol/l) with a low transtubular potassium gradient of 5. A relatively low plasma aldosterone concentration and high plasma renin activity in the setting of normal plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels lead to a diagnosis of functional hypoaldosteronism. Fludrocortisone 0.2 mg/day for one week completely corrected his hyperkalemia which recurred after cessation of fludrocortisone. Long-term suppression of contralateral aldosterone synthesis by APA and/or chronic untreated hypokalemia may have accounted for the development of prolonged hyperkalemia after unilateral adrenalectomy. Serum potassium concentration following unilateral adrenalectomy must be meticulously monitored to avoid life-threatening hyperkalemia. PMID:20420801

  6. Clinical and surgical management of unilateral prepubertal gynecomastia

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Giuseppe Andrea; De Francesco, Francesco; Romano, Tiziana; Grandone, Anna; D’Andrea, Francesco; Miraglia Del Giudice, Emanuele; Perrone, Laura; Nicoletti, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Gynecomastia is the benign proliferation of the glandular tissue in the male breast. This condition is thought to be caused by the imbalance between estrogen action relative to androgen action at the breast tissue level. Bilateral gynecomastia is frequently found in the neonatal period, early in puberty, and with increasing age. Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia in the absence of endocrine abnormalities is extremely rare, with only a few cases in literature. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present an otherwise healthy boy of 12 years old with unilateral breast masses. No abnormalities were found on ultrasonography and on all endocrine parameters. Treatment consisted in a new “modified” Webster technique. DISCUSSION The results confirmed validity of this technique in terms of esthetic and functional results, and patient satisfaction. Atypical presentations of gynecomastia are often not recognized. The main pathophysiology of gynecomastia is alteration in the balance between the stimulatory effect of estrogen and the inhibitory effects of androgens on the development of the breast. If there is no causal treatment, surgical resection is the therapy of first choice. CONCLUSION The exact mechanism of unilateral gynecomastia formation in our case is unclear. The evaluation of unilateral gynecomastia can therefore be complex. In conclusion, the surgical treatment of unilateral gynecomastia requires an individual approach, based on an appropriate diagnostic algorithm. PMID:25437663

  7. The usefulness of preoperative biopsy in unilateral nasal masses.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nili; Gluck, Ofer; Bavnik, Yosef; Plakht, Ygal; Yakirevitch, Arkadi

    2014-03-01

    Unilateral nasal masses are considered suspicious for proliferative diseases. Several tools are routinely used to investigate unilateral lesions such as imaging and nasal biopsy. This study investigated the usefulness of nasal biopsy in predicting the actual nature of unilateral lesions. Preoperative nasal biopsy pathological results were compared with the final pathology obtained during an operation. Forty-six patients with unilateral nasal masses were included in the study group. In 40 patients the final pathology was similar to the preoperative nasal biopsy. In three patients the biopsy specimen was a benign polyp and the final pathology was of an inverted papilloma in two patients and hemangiopericytoma in one patient. In two patients the biopsy specimen was suspicious for an inverted papilloma and the final pathology was a benign polyp. In one patient the biopsy specimen was chordoma and the final pathology was osteosarcoma. The total agreement was 86.9%. The kappa value was 81.2%. Preoperative nasal biopsy is important and useful in evaluating unilateral nasal masses. PMID:24684868

  8. Radial head fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePLUS

    Elbow fracture - radial head - aftercare ... the radius bone, just below your elbow. A fracture is a break in your bone. The most common cause of a radial head fracture is falling with an outstretched arm.

  9. [Management of unilateral or asymmetrical lung disease (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bons, J; Dhainaut, J F; Lesgourgues, B; Schlemmer, B; Carli, A; Monsallier, J F

    1981-01-01

    To determine the indications of body position, continuous positive airway pressure and independent lung ventilation in unilateral lung disease, we turned 10 patients with overwhelming unilateral lung disease from supine to lateral position. All patients were breathing spontaneously with a mask, then associated with continuous airway pressure (10 cm H2O PEEP) in five cases. During these spontaneous ventilation methods, hemodynamic parameters did not change, but arterial blood oxygen tension increased and intra-pulmonary shunting decreased significantly. Final recovery was obtained in 7 cases. In the 3 others, mechanical ventilation was needed because spontaneous breathing methods were ineffective in improving blood gases. Lateral position and conventional ventilation with positive airway pressure were also ineffective. Only independent ventilation enhanced arterial blood oxygen tension. But only one patient survived. We conclude that spontaneous breathing methods are able to provide successful treatment in most of patients with unilateral lung disease. In other patients, only independent lung ventilation is effective. PMID:7036794

  10. Unilateral versus bilateral clubfoot: an analysis of severity and correlation.

    PubMed

    Gray, Kelly; Barnes, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Paul; Little, David; Burns, Joshua

    2014-09-01

    This study compares the severity of unilateral and bilateral clubfoot, and the correlation between right and left feet of bilateral cases. Sixty-six unilateral and 75 bilateral clubfoot patients were assessed for severity using the Pirani score at an average age of 12.9 days (SD 9 days). In bilateral cases, the severity of right and left feet was highly correlated (r=0.68). The odds of being very severe were 2.6 (95% confidence interval 1.3-5.1) times higher in bilateral cases (P=0.007). Bilateral and unilateral clubfeet present with differing severity. Right and left feet from bilateral cases are highly correlated. Researchers need to address these issues during study design and analysis. PMID:24869905

  11. Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia in the absence of endocrine abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min; Lee, Chan Jae; Hwang, Il Tae; Lee, Kwanseop

    2014-01-01

    Gynecomastia is defined as the excessive development of breast tissue in males, which can occur as unilateral or bilateral. Although the overall prevalence of gynecomastia is 40%-65%, the prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia in the absence of endocrine abnormalities is unusual, with only a few case reports in literature. Idiopathic gynecomastia in prepuberty is benign but a diagnosis of exclusion. We here report two cases of healthy prepubertal boys aged 8.8 and 9.6 years old, respectively, presented with painful palpable mass in their unilateral breast. Breast tissue with glandular proliferation was confirmed on ultrasonography. Serum levels of estradiol, testosterone, and other laboratory findings were within normal range. They seem to have the prepubertal idiopathic gynecomastia but further follow-up to see their progression is needed. PMID:25346921

  12. Unilateral Breast Reconstruction Using Bilateral Inferior Gluteal Artery Perforator Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Muto, Mayu; Ogawa, Marina; Shibuya, Mai; Yasumura, Kazunori; Kobayashi, Shinji; Ishikawa, Takashi; Maegawa, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    Background: For reconstructing moderate-to-high projection breasts in nulliparous patients with insufficient abdominal tissue or prior abdominal surgeries, a unilateral inferior gluteal artery perforator (IGAP) flap is an alternative procedure. In patients with slim hips, however, unilateral gluteal tissue is insufficient and inferior gluteal crease displacement may develop postoperatively. Donor-site asymmetry is also a major disadvantage. In these circumstances, bilateral IGAP flaps provide sufficient tissue without significant gluteal deformity. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 20 patients who underwent unilateral breast reconstruction using bilateral IGAP flaps by a single surgeon between November 2007 and December 2012. A quantitative outcome assessment was performed and compared with that of 22 unilateral IGAP flap patients operated on by the same surgeon. Results: Twenty patients underwent reconstruction with 40 IGAP flaps. Of the 40 flaps, 39 survived and 1 developed total necrosis due to repeated venous thrombosis. In 15 of 20 patients, the size of reconstructed breast was comparable to that of the contralateral breast. Final inset flap weight was 462.3 g for bilateral flaps and 244.3 g for unilateral flaps. Total operating time was 671.1 minutes (bilateral flaps) and 486.8 minutes (unilateral flaps). Conclusions: Use of bilateral IGAP flaps for breast reconstruction helps to avoid asymmetry of the inferior buttock volume and shape. Bilateral flaps provide sufficient tissue volume and allow for reconstruction of a breast comparable to the unaffected side. In patients with moderate-to-high projection breast whose abdominal tissue cannot be used for reconstruction, IGAP flaps may be a suitable alternative. PMID:25878925

  13. Hip fracture surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... neck fracture repair; Trochanteric fracture repair; Hip pinning surgery ... You may receive general anesthesia before this surgery. This means ... spinal anesthesia. With this kind of anesthesia, medicine is ...

  14. Occult Contralateral Carcinoma in Patients with Unilateral Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bon Seok Koo; Hyun Sil Lim; Young Chang Lim; Yeo-Hoon Yoon; Yong Min Kim; Yong Ho Park; Ki-Sang Rha

    2010-01-01

    Background  The optimal resection extent for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) confined within a unilateral lobe remains controversial.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  We reviewed the medical records of 132 consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for the treatment of clinically\\u000a unilateral PTMC between March 2005 and March 2009. The frequency, pattern, and predictive factors for occult contralateral\\u000a carcinoma in these patients were analyzed with

  15. Cold shivering activity after unilateral destruction of the vestibular apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuzmina, G. I.

    1980-01-01

    The bioelectric activity of muscles (flexors and extensors of the forelimbs and hindlimbs) during cold shivering after unilateral destruction of the vestibular apparatus. It was found, that unilateral delabyrinthing produces bilateral facilitation of cold shivering in the flexor extremities more pronounced on the ipsilateral side. In the extensor muscles there was an absence of bioelectric activity both before and after delabyrinthing. Enhancement of cold shivering in the flexor extremities following intervention was evidently conditioned by removal of the inhibiting effect of the vestibulary apparatus on the function of special centers.

  16. Unilateral cochlear ablation produces greater loss of inhibition in the contralateral inferior colliculus

    E-print Network

    Unilateral cochlear ablation produces greater loss of inhibition in the contralateral inferior, synaptic currents Abstract Bilateral cochlear ablation leads to a profound weakening of synaptic inhibition of unilateral cochlear ablation on inhibitory synaptic properties both ipsilateral and contralateral

  17. Medial Fracture Line Significance in Calcaneus Fracture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tahir Ogut; Egemen Ayhan; Fatih Kantarci; Mehmet C. Unlu; Muhammet Salih

    2011-01-01

    In Sanders’ classification of calcaneus fractures, the medial fracture line (subtype C) is close to the tarsal canal, which contains an artery for the talus and calcaneus. We hypothesized that because of this brittle vascular localization, patients with C line fracture patterns might describe radiologic subtalar arthritis more often and have more complaints. The purpose of the present study was

  18. Proximal fifth metatarsal fractures.

    PubMed

    Ramponi, Denise R

    2013-01-01

    The most common fracture of the foot is a fracture of the proximal fifth metatarsal. In general, there are 3 types of fractures involving the proximal fifth metatarsal area, including a proximal diaphyseal stress fracture, a Jones fracture, and an avulsion fracture of the tuberosity. Some fractures of the fifth metatarsal heal without difficulty, whereas some have the potential for nonunion or delayed healing. Each fracture has some variation in the anatomical location on the fifth metatarsal, the mechanism of injury, the radiographic findings, and the treatment plan. Avulsion fractures of the tuberosity often heal without difficulty, yet fractures distal to the area of insertion of the peroneus brevis tendon are prone to nonunion and delayed healing (). Differential diagnosis of a fifth metatarsal midfoot injury includes ankle sprains, midfoot sprains, plantar facial ruptures, peroneus tendon ruptures, and other foot fractures. PMID:24176827

  19. Bilateral neck femur fracture following a generalized seizure- a rare case report.

    PubMed

    M Shah, Harshad; Grover, Amit; Gadi, Daksh; Sudarshan, K

    2014-10-01

    Hip fractures are one of the most common injuries which present to an orthopaedic surgeon. Most of these cases are unilateral .Bilateral simultaneous femur neck fracture is a rare occurrence. We report a case of a bilateral neck femur fracture in a 30 year male following a generalized tonic clonic seizure in view of its rarity and also to increase the awareness of such rare injuries. The patient was operated within 3 hours. At 5 months, the patient had good radiological and functional outcome. During a convulsion, there is a powerful and forceful contraction of muscles which may lead to fracture or dislocation. The incidence of fractures following a convulsion is 1.1%. A delay in diagnosis can lead to complications like avascular necrosis, osteoarthritis, non union, functional disability and legal consequences. All orthopaedic surgeons and emergency physicians should be aware of such uncommon injuries to ensure early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25692154

  20. Intravenous Application of CD271-selected Mesenchymal Stem Cells during Fracture Healing

    PubMed Central

    Dreger, Tina; Watson, John Tracy; DVM, Walter Akers; Molligan, Jeremy; Achilefu, Samuel; Schon, Lew C.; Zhang, Zijun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Circulating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) participate in fracture healing and can be used to enhance fracture healing. This study investigated how CD271-selected MSCs travel in circulation and when it is the optimal time to apply MSCs intravenously during fracture healing. Methods Based on the expression of CD271, MSCs were isolated from human bone marrow and labeled with cypate, a near infrared fluorochrome. A unilateral closed fracture was created at the femur in immunodeficient mice. The cypate-labeled MSCs were injected into the tail vein of the mice at days 1 and 3 after fracture, and were tracked by near infrared imaging. The mice were euthanized at 3 weeks after fracture. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect human MSCs at the fracture sites. Migration of CD271-selected MSCs, under the influence of stem cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1), was assessed in vitro. Results Intravenously injected at day1, but not day 3, after fracture, CD271-selected MSCs accumulated at the fracture sites significantly and that lasted for at least 7 days. All fractures, with or without MSC injections, healed in 3 weeks. Human cells were localized at the fracture sites in mice by immunohistochemistry. CD271-selected MSCs migrated toward the medium contained SDF-1 in vitro. Conclusions After intravenous injection, CD271-selected MSCs were recruited to fracture sites. The stages of fracture healing influenced the homing of culture-expanded MSCs. In mice, an optimal window of intravenous injection of MSCs was around 24 hours after fracture. Clinical Relevance Intravenous application of MSCs may serve as a practical route to deliver stem cells for the treatment of fracture non-union and delayed union. Levels of evidence Level I PMID:24378433

  1. Unilateral cross bite treated by corticotomy-assisted expansion: two case reports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali H Hassan; Ali T AlGhamdi; Ahmad A Al-Fraidi; Aziza Al-Hubail; Manar K Hajrassy

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: True unilateral posterior crossbite in adults is a challenging malocclusion to treat. Conventional expansion methods are expected to have some shortcomings. The aim of this paper is to introduce a new technique for treating unilateral posterior crossbite in adults, namely, corticotomy-assisted expansion (CAE) applied on two adult patients: one with a true unilateral crossbite and the other with an

  2. Unilateral laterothoracic exanthem and primary Epstein-Barr virus infection: case report.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Ana F; Cruz, Maria J; Baudrier, Teresa; Mota, Alberto; Azevedo, Fliomena

    2009-06-01

    Unilateral laterothoracic exanthem is a self-limited disease that occurs most commonly in children. It is characterized by unilateral exanthem, often in axillary region. The etiology is unknown, but a viral agent is suspected. We report a 1-year-old white girl with unilateral laterothoracic exanthem associated with Epstein Barr virus infection, suggesting this virus has a possible etiologic role. PMID:19483526

  3. Unilateral Retinitis pigmentosa: Clinical and Electrophysiological Report of Four Cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leopoldo Spadea; Roberto Magni; Giorgio Rinaldi; Tommaso Dragani; Guido Bianco

    1998-01-01

    Unilateral retinitis pigmentosa (URP) is a rare tapetoretinal dystrophy affecting only one eye. The François and Verriest criteria are necessary to make a correct diagnosis of URP: exclude all infective etiologies, check that the clinical signs of retinitis are present in the affected eye and ensure the total absence of any signs or symptoms of retinitis pigmentosa in the fellow

  4. Selective Color Constancy Deficits after Circumscribed Unilateral Brain Lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lukas Ruttiger; Doris I. Braun; Karl R. Gegenfurtner; Dirk Petersen; Paul Schonle; Lindsay T. Sharpe

    temporal cortex. With a battery of clinical and specially de- signed color vision tests we tried to detect and differentiate between possible deficits in central color processing. Our re- sults show that color constancy can be selectively impaired after circumscribed unilateral lesions in parieto-temporal cortex of the left or right hemisphere. Five of 27 patients exhibited significant deficits in a

  5. Unilateral Forced Nostril Breathing Affects Dichotic Listening for Emotional Tones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saucier, Deborah M.; Tessem, Farzana Karim; Sheerin, Aaron H.; Elias, Lorin

    2004-01-01

    Unilateral forced nostril breathing (UFNB) through the left nostril is associated with enhanced spatial abilities, whereas UFNB through the right nostril is associated with enhanced verbal abilities. However, the effects of UFNB on standard tasks of laterality (e.g., dichotic listening) are unknown. This study employed dichotic listening for word…

  6. Primary aldosteronism due to unilateral adrenal hyperplasia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chen, L G; Lee, T I; Lin, H D; Wang, H C; Liu, W Y; Tang, K T

    1997-02-01

    Primary aldosteronism is one of the differential diagnosis of secondary hypertension. This is usually caused by an aldosterone producing adenoma or bilateral adrenal hyperplasia which comprise about 65% and 30% of the cases, respectively. However, less than 1% of primary aldosteronism is caused by unilateral adrenal hyperplasia which is a relatively rare subset of primary aldosteronism. The clinical and biochemical manifestations of the disorder are indistinguishable from aldosterone-producing tumor, and a definitive diagnosis can only be made by pathological finding. A 33-year-old male Chinese patient presented with hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and the hypersecretion of aldosterone associated with suppressed plasma renin activity which is a typical hallmark of primary aldosteronism. Image studies including both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 131I NIP-59 scan as well as postural test suggested an aldosterone-producing tumor of the right adrenal gland. Unilateral adrenectomy and pathological examination of the right adrenal gland eventually proved a case of unilateral adrenal hyperplasia. Blood pressure, plasma potassium, aldosterone and renin activity levels returned to normal two weeks after operation and had remained normal at up to one year of follow up. In addition, a saline loading test showed normal suppression of plasma aldosterone level one year after the operation, suggesting that the function of the left adrenal gland remains normal. The etiology of unilateral adrenal hyperplasia is unclear and the future recurrence of the disease is possible. Long-term follow-up is necessary to ensure the cure of this disorder. PMID:9175301

  7. Management of Young Children with Unilateral Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL) are at risk for academic, speech and language and social-emotional difficulties. To date, most of the evidence documented in the literature has been obtained from school-age children, most of whom were diagnosed with UHL after enrollment in school. Following the widespread institution of universal…

  8. Unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia as an isolated presentation of metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Kent, Shefalee S; Sundaram, Arun N; Sharma, Manas

    2015-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis in younger patients and brainstem infarction in the elderly are the most common causes of internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO). We report unilateral INO as the isolated clinical manifestation of a large, solitary, metastatic melanoma in the pons. Brain metastasis can present as INO. PMID:25232840

  9. Bimanual Force Coordination in Children with Spastic Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits-Engelsman, B. C. M.; Klingels, K.; Feys, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this study bimanual grip-force coordination was quantified using a novel "Gripper" system that records grip forces produced while holding a lower and upper unit, in combination with the lift force necessary to separate these units. Children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) (aged 5-14 years, n = 12) were compared to age matched typically…

  10. Fos expression in the cat brainstem after unilateral vestibular neurectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvie Gustave Dit Duflo; Christian Gestreau; Brahim Tighilet; Michel Lacour

    1999-01-01

    Immediate early genes are generally expressed in response to sensory stimulation or deprivation and can be used for mapping brain functional activity and studying the molecular events underlying CNS plasticity. We immunohistochemically investigated Fos protein induction in the cat brainstem after unilateral vestibular neurectomy (UVN), with special reference to the vestibular nuclei (VN) and related structures. Fos-like immunoreactivity was analyzed

  11. Human ocular torsional position before and after unilateral vestibular neurectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. S. Curthoys; M. J. Dai; G. M. Halmagyi

    1991-01-01

    The static ocular torsional position of both eyes of 23 patients was measured by means of fundus photographs one day before and one week after unilateral vestibular neurectomy for the treatment of acoustic neuroma, Méničre's disease or paroxysmal vertigo. The results showed that in all patients the vestibular neurectomy caused both eyes to tort (i.e. to roll around the visual

  12. Unilateral vestibular failure suppresses cortical visual motion processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Deutschlander; K. Hufner; Roger Kalla; Thomas Stephan; Thomas Dera; Stefan Glasauer; Martin Wiesmann; Michael Strupp; Thomas Brandt

    2008-01-01

    Patients with unilateral vestibular failure (UVF) experience oscillopsia (apparent motion of the visual scene) during rapid head movements due to increased retinal slip caused by vestibulo-ocular reflex impairment. Oscillopsia is always smaller than the net retinal slip and decreases over time in patients with acquired vestibu- lar loss; this correlates with increased thresholds for visual motion detection and increased tolerance

  13. Abnormal /sup 201/Tl limb scan due to unilateral tremor

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, M.; Schelstraete, K.; Bratzlavsky, M.

    1982-12-01

    A abnormal intra- and interextremity distribution pattern on /sup 201/Tl was observed on the limb scan of a patient with a unilateral tremor. This is ascribed to the increased blood flow in the muscles responsible for the tremor. The suggestion is made that the existence of tremor should be considered as a possible explanation for unexpected abnormalities on /sup 201/Tl limb scintigrams.

  14. A field evaluation of arm prostheses for unilateral amputees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. G. STASSEN; M. J. ZUITHOFF

    A post-clinical investigation has been carried out among 42 unilateral amputees who lost their hand due to an accident. The investigation was directed at two main topics of interest. Firstly the amputee, the problems he has to cope with, and the role the prosthesis plays in his life; and secondly the prosthesis, its use and its potential benefits and burdens.

  15. UNILATERAL CONTACT PROBLEMS WITH FRICTION FOR HEMITROPIC ELASTIC SOLIDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AVTANDIL GACHECHILADZE; ROLAND GACHECHILADZE; DAVID NATROSHVILI

    2009-01-01

    We study three-dimensional unilateral contact problems with friction for hemitropic elastic solids. We give their mathematical formu- lation in the form of spatial variational inequalities and show the equivalence to the corresponding minimization problem. Based on our variational in- equality approach, we prove existence and uniqueness theorems. We prove also that solutions continuously depend on the data of the original

  16. Unilateral transient reactive papulotranslucent acrokeratoderma in a child.

    PubMed

    Erkek, Emel

    2007-01-01

    Transient reactive papulotranslucent acrokeratoderma is a rare, acquired, reactive, and episodic disorder of the palmar skin. Herein I report on a 6-year-old child with unilateral involvement and associated with ipsilateral hyperhidrosis and pruritus. Further observations are required for unraveling the etiopathogenesis of this disorder and its accurate classification. PMID:17958817

  17. Posterior scleritis presenting as unilateral secondary angle-closure glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sunil S; Rao, Prasan; Kothari, Kulin; Bhatt, Deepak; Jain, Sanjay

    2004-09-01

    The following is a case report of a 19-year-old male who presented with unilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma. Posterior scleritis was diagnosed based on clinical features and ultrasound B-scan. The acute angle closure attack and exudative retinal detachment completely resolved with use of oral corticosteroids. PMID:15510468

  18. Unilateral nevoid acanthosis nigricans: Uncommon variant of a common disease

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anupam; Bhattacharya, Sabari; Kumar, Piyush; Gayen, Tirthankar; Roy, Kunal; Das, Nilay K.; Gharami, Ramesh C.

    2014-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a fairly common dermatosis characterized by hyperpigmented velvety plaques, having a predilection for the intertriginous areas. We herein present a case of unilateral nevoid acanthosis nigricans over the left lateral chest, in an adult male. The rarity of documentation of this entity in the world literature prompted us to report the case. PMID:25506563

  19. Idiopathic Unilateral Adrenal Hematoma: Report of a Case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshihiko Kobayashi; Shoichi Uenoyama; Katsutoshi Miura; Yasuo Takehara

    2004-01-01

    We report an unusual case of idiopathic unilateral adrenal hematoma, which was asymptomatic and unaccompanied by a hematologic disorder. The surgical specimen contained a large tumor comprised of subacute to chronic organized hematoma. The preoperative magnetic resonance imaging findings were compatible with characteristics reported previously, except for spotty strong enhancement in the peripheral part of the mass. It is important

  20. Acute adaptative changes to unilateral nephrectomy in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angel Argiles; Georges Mourad; Nicole Basset; Jacques Haiech; Charles Mion; Jean Claude Cavadore; Jacques G Demaille

    1987-01-01

    Acute adaptative changes to unilateral nephrectomy in humans. Renal function was monitored in 20, living–related kidney donors before and after uninephrectomy. Urinary protein excretion and retinoid metabolism respectively were studied in 10 and 6 of these donors. The functional adaptation was characterized by an increase in glomerular filtration rate and tubular function, which began in the first two days after

  1. Coupling of FM Systems to Individuals with Unilateral Hearing Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopun, Judy G.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the attenuation characteristics of 5 Frequency Modulation system sound delivery options for 25 adults and children (ages 5-13). Degree of ear canal occlusion was a major factor in degree of attenuation. For children with unilateral hearing impairments, the most acoustically appropriate option was the tube-fitting. (Author/JDD)

  2. Unilateral amygdala inactivation after training attenuates memory for reduced reward

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Coleman-Mesches; Juan A. Salinas; James L. McGaugh

    1996-01-01

    This experiment examined the effects of unilateral inactivation of the amygdalae on memory for reduction in reward magnitude. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with bilateral cannulae in the amygdala were trained to run a straight alley for ten 45-mg food pellets. On Day 10, half the animals were shifted to a 1 pellet food reward and half continued to receive 10 pellets.

  3. Long-term stability of unilateral posterior crossbite correction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodosia Bartzela; Irmtrud Jonas

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the stability of orthodontically corrected unilateral posterior crossbite in patients treated either by rapid maxillary expansion or with slow expansion devices in the early (mean age 7.2 years, n = 50) or late mixed dentition (mean age 9.9 years, n = 50). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The observation periods were approximately 8 years for the early treatment groups

  4. Traumatic glaucoma with features of unilateral pigment dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, Gordon; Ellul, Antony; Gouws, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Summary We report a patient with traumatic glaucoma with features of unilateral pigment dispersion. This rare form of secondary glaucoma has only been reported twice previously, with both patients demonstrating angle recession, indicating associated damage to the trabecular meshwork. To our knowledge, this is the first such case reported in which angle recession was absent. PMID:25097455

  5. [Unilateral laterothoracic exanthema. Case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Peker, S; Höger, P H; Moll, I

    2000-07-01

    Unilateral laterothoracic exanthem (ULE) developed in a 4-year-old-boy on maintenance therapy for acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL). This is the second reported case of an association between ULE and leukemia. The etiology of ULE is unknown. Endemic cases, frequently associated signs of upper respiratory infections, and the occurrence of ULE in immunocompromised hosts are suggestive of an infectious process. PMID:10969406

  6. Between Law and Politics: The Challenge of Unilateral Declarations.

    E-print Network

    Volesky, Bohumil

    1 Between Law and Politics: The Challenge of Unilateral Declarations. Eva Kassoti 1. Introduction proper is indisputable today, the question of distinguishing between international law and politics, the line between law and politics has been blurred even further due to recent trends in international law

  7. Bilateral Occipital Condyle Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Schrödel, Markus H.; Kestlmeier, Ralph; Trappe, Anna E.

    2002-01-01

    Occipital condyle fractures are a rare finding in trauma victims. Bilateral fractures are even more unusual and have typically been reported in autopsy studies. We treated two patients with bilateral occipital condyle fractures who had only minor symptoms. Anderson and Montesano's classification,1 possible cranial nerve palsies, diagnosis, and treatment of this rare fracture are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:17167657

  8. Orbital trapdoor fractures

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Laura T.; Jordan Piluek, W.; McCulley, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Orbital trapdoor fractures are commonly encountered in children. Awareness of trapdoor fractures is of particular importance. This is because early recognition and treatment are necessary to prevent permanent motility abnormities. In this article, we will provide a brief overview of orbital fractures. The clinical and radiographic features of trapdoor fractures will then be reviewed, followed by a discussion on their proper management. PMID:23961006

  9. Fractured Reservoir Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. K. Thomas; Thomas Dixon; Ray Pierson

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a threedimensional (3D), three-phase model for simulating the flow of water, oil, and gas in a naturally fractured reservoir. A dual porosity system is used to describe the fluids present in the fractures and matrix blocks. Primary flow in the reservoir occurs within the fractures with local exchange of fluids between the fracture system

  10. Ankle fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePLUS

    An ankle fracture is a break in 1 or more ankle bones. These fractures may: Be partial (the bone is only partially ... Severe ankle fractures may require surgery. Fractures that may need surgery if: The ends of the bone are out of line ...

  11. Fracture channel waves

    SciTech Connect

    Nihei, K.T.; Yi, W.; Myer, L.R.; Cook, N.G. [Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States)] [Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States); Schoenberg, M. [Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, Connecticut (United States)] [Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, Connecticut (United States)

    1999-03-01

    The properties of guided waves which propagate between two parallel fractures are examined. Plane wave analysis is used to obtain a dispersion equation for the velocities of fracture channel waves. Analysis of this equation demonstrates that parallel fractures form an elastic waveguide that supports two symmetric and two antisymmetric dispersive Rayleigh channel waves, each with particle motions and velocities that are sensitive to the normal and tangential stiffnesses of the fractures. These fracture channel waves degenerate to shear waves when the fracture stiffnesses are large, to Rayleigh waves and Rayleigh-Lamb plate waves when the fracture stiffnesses are low, and to fracture interface waves when the fractures are either very closely spaced or widely separated. For intermediate fracture stiffnesses typical of fractured rock masses, fracture channel waves are dispersive and exhibit moderate to strong localization of guided wave energy between the fractures. The existence of these waves is examined using laboratory acoustic measurements on a fractured marble plate. This experiment confirms the distinct particle motion of the fundamental antisymmetric fracture channel wave (A{sub 0} mode) and demonstrates the ease with which a fracture channel wave can be generated and detected. {copyright} 1999 American Geophysical Union

  12. Periprosthetic femur fractures.

    PubMed

    Ricci, William M

    2015-03-01

    Successful treatment of periprosthetic femur fractures, like all fractures, requires careful attention to understand the fracture pattern nuances, identifying and executing a rational treatment approach, and providing an appropriate postoperative recovery protocol. Unlike most other fractures, modification of standard techniques is often required to obtain a stable fixation construct, and there is a greater role for revision arthroplasty in the treatment of periprosthetic fractures. Optimal indications for surgical repair versus revision arthroplasty and optimal postoperative weight-bearing protocols remain uncertain. Reported outcomes for patients with periprosthetic femoral shaft fractures are generally good and are relatively consistent. Results for periprosthetic distal femur fractures, however, are less good and more inconsistent. Both periprosthetic femoral shaft and distal femur fractures are associated with relatively high mortality rates, approaching that of patients with hip fractures. This review should provide insight into the current solutions and challenges for the treatment of patients with periprosthetic femur fractures. PMID:25699540

  13. Outcomes After Unilateral Uterine Artery Embolization: A Retrospective Review

    SciTech Connect

    Bratby, M. J. [St George's Hospital, Radiology Department (United Kingdom); Hussain, F. F.; Walker, W. J. [Royal Surrey County Hospital, Radiology Department (United Kingdom)], E-mail: wj.walker@virgin.net

    2008-03-15

    Purpose. Bilateral uterine artery embolization (UAE) is considered necessary to provide effective treatment for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Occasionally, only unilateral embolization is performed, and this study evaluates these outcomes. Materials and Methods. As part of a prospective observational study of more than 1600 patients treated with UAE since 1996, there have been 48 patients in whom unilateral embolization has been performed. This study retrospectively reviews clinical response as assessed by our standard questionnaire and radiological response assessed by either magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound. Results. Two principal groups emerged: the largest, where only the dominant unilateral arterial supply was electively embolized (30 patients); and the second, where there was technical failure to catheterize the second uterine artery as a result of anatomical constraints (12 patients). Favorable clinical response with a reduction in menorrhagia at 1 year was seen in 85.7% (18/21) of those patients with a dominant arterial supply to the fibroid(s). In contrast, in those patients where there was technical failure to embolize one uterine artery, there was a high rate of clinical failure requiring further intervention in 58.3% (7/12). Comparison of the technical failure group with the dominant uterine artery group demonstrated a statistically significant (Fisher's exact test) difference in the proportion of patients with evidence of persistent fibroid vascularity (p < 0.001) and requiring repeat intervention (p < 0.01). Conclusion. We conclude that unilateral UAE can achieve a positive clinical result in the group of patients where there is a dominant unilateral artery supplying the fibroid(s), in contrast to the poor results seen following technical failure.

  14. An analytical methodology for magnetic field control in unilateral NMR.

    PubMed

    Marble, Andrew E; Mastikhin, Igor V; Colpitts, Bruce G; Balcom, Bruce J

    2005-05-01

    Traditionally, unilateral NMR systems such as the NMR-MOUSE have used the fringe field between two bar magnets joined with a yoke in a 'U' geometry. This allows NMR signals to be acquired from a sensitive volume displaced from the magnets, permitting large samples to be investigated. The drawback of this approach is that the static field (B0) generated in this configuration is inhomogeneous, and has a large, nonlinear, gradient. As a consequence, the sensitive volume of the instrument is both small and ill defined. Empirical redesign of the permanent magnet array producing the B0 field has yielded instruments with magnetic field topologies acceptable for varying applications. The drawback of current approaches is the lack of formalism in the control of B0. Rather than tailoring the magnet geometry to NMR investigations, measurements must be tailored to the available magnet geometry. In this work, we present a design procedure whereby the size, shape, field strength, homogeneity, and gradients in the sensitive spot of a unilateral NMR sensor can be controlled. Our design uses high permeability pole pieces, shaped according to the contours of an analytical expression, to control B0, allowing unilateral NMR instruments to be designed to generate a controlled static field topology. We discuss the approach in the context of previously published design techniques, and explain the advantages inherent in our strategy as compared to other optimization methods. We detail the design, simulation, and construction of a unilateral magnet array using our approach. It is shown that the fabricated array exhibits a B0 topology consistent with the design. The utility of the design is demonstrated in a sample nondestructive testing application. Our design methodology is general, and defines a class of unilateral permanent magnet arrays in which the strength and shape of B0 within the sensitive volume can be controlled. PMID:15809175

  15. Intracortical inhibition and facilitation with unilateral dominant, unilateral nondominant and bilateral movement tasks in left and right handed adults

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Sandy McCombe; Forrester, Larry; Villagra, Federico; Whitall, Jill

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate intracortical inhibition and facilitation in response to unilateral dominant, nondominant and bilateral biceps activation and short-term upper extremity training in right and left-handed adults. Methods Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to measure intracortical excitability in motor dominant and nondominant cortices of 26 nondisabled adults. Neural facilitation and inhibition were measured in each hemisphere during unilateral dominant, nondominant and bilateral arm activation and after training in each condition. Results No differences were seen between right and left- handed subjects. Intracortical facilitation and decreased inhibition were seen in each hemisphere with unilateral activation/training of contralateral muscles and bilateral muscle activation/training. Persistent intracortical inhibition was seen in each hemisphere with ipsilateral muscle activation/training. Inhibition was greater in the nondominant hemisphere during dominant hemisphere activation (dominant arm contraction). Conclusion Strongly dominant individuals show no difference in intracortical responses given handedness. Intracortical activity with unilateral and bilateral arm activation and short-term training differs based on hemispheric dominance, with the motor dominant hemisphere exerting a larger inhibitory influence over the nondominant hemisphere. Bilateral activation and training has a disinhibitory effect in both dominant and nondominant hemispheres. PMID:18336839

  16. Retrospective analysis of two hundred thirty-five pediatric mandibular fracture cases.

    PubMed

    Eskitascioglu, Teoman; Ozyazgan, Irfan; Coruh, Atilla; Gunay, Galip K; Yuksel, Esabil

    2009-11-01

    Maxillofacial fractures are encountered less commonly during childhood period due to anatomic, social, cultural, and environmental factors. Although the incidence of all maxillofacial fractures is 1% to 15% among pediatric and adolescent patients, this rate drops to less than 1% in children below 5 years age. Two hundred thirty-five cases (fracture were evaluated retrospectively. Patients records were examined in terms of age, gender, cause of fracture, fracture localization, number of fractures, fracture pattern, accompanying injuries, applied treatment methods, and complications. Mean age of cases was 9.2 years and 165 cases were male, 70 were female. Traffic accidents as the most common etiologic cause in all ages. Falls is the second most common cause which particularly affects children above age of 2 years. All cases had 333 fractures and the most common fracture localization was parasymphysis region (34%). The other most common fracture localizations were as follows: condyle (19%), corpus (13%), dentoalveolar region (12%), angulus (11%), symphysis region (9%), and ramus (2%). There was only a single fracture line in 145 cases, 40 cases had unilateral multiple and 50 cases had bilateral fracture lines. We applied symptomatic (conservative) treatment in 20 (8%) of our cases; fracture fixation with interdental wires or closed reduction methods were employed in 122 patients. Internal fixation with open reduction (OR) was performed on 51 (22%) patients. Both closed and OR techniques were carried out in 30 (13%) patients. Pediatric mandibular fractures, which are seen less frequently compared with those of adults, require a specific and different treatment. Although mostly less invasive methods are preferred, we believe that ORs should be considered when required. PMID:19806046

  17. Paratrooper's Ankle Fracture: Posterior Malleolar Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Young, Ki Won; Cho, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyung Seuk; Cho, Hun Ki; Lee, Kyung Tai

    2015-01-01

    Background We assessed the frequency and types of ankle fractures that frequently occur during parachute landings of special operation unit personnel and analyzed the causes. Methods Fifty-six members of the special force brigade of the military who had sustained ankle fractures during parachute landings between January 2005 and April 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The injury sites and fracture sites were identified and the fracture types were categorized by the Lauge-Hansen and Weber classifications. Follow-up surveys were performed with respect to the American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score, patient satisfaction, and return to preinjury activity. Results The patients were all males with a mean age of 23.6 years. There were 28 right and 28 left ankle fractures. Twenty-two patients had simple fractures and 34 patients had comminuted fractures. The average number of injury and fractures sites per person was 2.07 (116 injuries including a syndesmosis injury and a deltoid injury) and 1.75 (98 fracture sites), respectively. Twenty-three cases (41.07%) were accompanied by posterior malleolar fractures. Fifty-five patients underwent surgery; of these, 30 had plate internal fixations. Weber type A, B, and C fractures were found in 4, 38, and 14 cases, respectively. Based on the Lauge-Hansen classification, supination-external rotation injuries were found in 20 cases, supination-adduction injuries in 22 cases, pronation-external rotation injuries in 11 cases, tibiofibular fractures in 2 cases, and simple medial malleolar fractures in 2 cases. The mean follow-up period was 23.8 months, and the average follow-up American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot score was 85.42. Forty-five patients (80.36%) reported excellent or good satisfaction with the outcome. Conclusions Posterior malleolar fractures occurred in 41.07% of ankle fractures sustained in parachute landings. Because most of the ankle fractures in parachute injuries were compound fractures, most cases had to undergo surgical repairs. PMID:25729514

  18. Iliac insufficiency fractures.

    PubMed

    Davies, A M; Bradley, S A

    1991-04-01

    Twenty-five post-menopausal women with one or more insufficiency fractures of the pelvic ring are reported. In 80% of cases the fractures were multiple and a total of 79 insufficiency fractures was identified. Twelve iliac insufficiency fractures were present in 11 patients located at one of three sites: above and parallel to the acetabular roof ("supra-acetabular"), extending diagonally across the iliac ala from the greater sciatic notch ("oblique iliac"), and adjacent to the sacro-iliac joint ("superomedial iliac"). The plain radiographic appearances of these iliac fractures were typically subtle with ill defined medullary sclerosis, due to trabecular compression, the cardinal sign. Scintigraphy revealed the fractures as foci of increased activity which, in the presence of multiple pelvic insufficiency fractures, may be mistaken for metastatic disease. Computed tomography can be helpful in confirming the presence of suspected fractures, revealing further occult fractures and also excluding the likelihood of malignancy. PMID:2025768

  19. Distal tibial fractures and pilon fractures.

    PubMed

    Huebner, E J; Iblher, N; Kubosch, D-C; Suedkamp, N P; Strohm, P C

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the distal tibia are often very severe injuries that generally occur in the context of high-energy trauma and present with significant concomitant soft tissue involvement. Open fractures and extensive destruction of the articular surfaces are important challenges to the treating surgeon. In consequence the outcome for distal meta- and epiphyseal tibial fractures depends largely on the severity of the soft tissue injury and its management. Conventionally, tibial pilon fractures require surgical intervention. Conservative treatment would only be considered in some exceptional cases, for example, inoperability of the patient. Controversial discussion of optimal surgical technique and optimal timing of surgery is ongoing. There is broad consensus that soft tissue consolidation must have first priority as this is the basis for both fracture healing and good long-term outcomes. Surgical intervention can be managed as a one-stage or multi-stage procedure to achieve internal or external fracture fixation. PMID:24945386

  20. Fracture-Flow-Enhanced Solute Diffusion into Fractured Rock

    E-print Network

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Ye, Ming; Sudicky, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs, Society of Petroleumresources from fractured reservoirs (e.g. , Warren and Root,Reservoir Engineering Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 28-30, 2008 SGP-TR-185 FRACTURE-FLOW-ENHANCED SOLUTE DIFFUSION INTO FRACTURED

  1. Ulnar styloid fracture in distal radius fractures managed with volar locking plates: to fix or not?

    PubMed

    Gogna, Paritosh; Selhi, Harpal Singh; Mohindra, Mukul; Singla, Rohit; Thora, Ankit; Yamin, Mohammad

    2014-12-01

    Distal radius fracture is usually associated with ulnar styloid fracture. Whether to fix the ulnar styloid or not remains a surgical dilemma as some surgeons believe that their repair is imperative while others feel that they should be managed conservatively. This prospective study involved 47 patients with unilateral fracture of the distal radius who met the inclusion criterion and underwent open reduction and internal fixation with volar locking plates; 28 patients (12 males and females?=?16) had an associated ulnar styloid fracture (Group A) while 19 (7 males; 12 females) did not have any ulnar styloid fracture (Group B). At the time of final evaluation both the groups were compared clinically by measuring the grip strength and range of motion around the wrist and the radiologically by measuring radial angle, radial length, volar angle and ulnar variance. Subjective assessment was done using DASH score and final assessment using Demerit point system of Saito. In Group A, average time for consolidation was 9.4 weeks, 17 patients developed non-union of the ulnar styloid, average DASH scores was 4.4 and according to Demerit point system of Saito, there were 78.5 % excellent, 17.9 % good and 3.6 % fair results; there were 2 cases of loss of reduction out of which one had persistent ulnar sided wrist pain. In Group B the average time for consolidation was 10.2 weeks, average DASH score was 3.8.and Demerit point system of Saito yielded 78.9 % excellent, 15.8 % good and 5.3 % fair results. There was one case of loss of reduction and one case of carpal tunnel syndrome which was managed conservatively. Both groups attained excellent range of motion, grip strength and well maintained the post operative radiological parameters. The comparison of clinico-radiological parameters in both groups was found to be statistically insignificant. To conclude, ulnar styloid fracture or its non union does not affect the outcome of an adequately fixed distal end radius fracture. We urge caution in electing operative treatment of non-united fracture of the ulnar styloid until better scientific report for treatment of pain associated with these fracture is available. PMID:25414551

  2. Simultaneous hydraulic fracturing

    SciTech Connect

    Uhri, D.C.

    1989-05-16

    A process is described for simultaneous hydraulic fracturing of a hydrocarbonaceous fluid-bearing formation comprising: (a) determining a hydraulic pressure necessary to fracture the formation from at least two wells which penetrate the formation; (b) injecting a hydraulic fracturing fluid into both wells under the determined hydraulic pressure; and (c) applying simultaneously the determined hydraulic pressure to the hydraulic fluid contained in both wells which pressure is sufficient to fracture the formation thereby causing a fracture to be propagated from each well in a curved manner sufficient to intersect at least one natural hydrocarbonaceous fluid-bearing fracture.

  3. Unilateral Stance Strategies of Athletes With ACL Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Di Stasi, Stephanie L.; Hartigan, Erin H.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant movement strategies are characteristic of ACL-deficient athletes with recurrent knee instability (non-copers), and may instigate premature or accelerate joint degradation. Biomechanical evaluation of kinematic changes over time may elucidate noncopers’ responses to neuromuscular intervention and ACL reconstruction (ACLR). Forty noncopers were randomized into a perturbation group or a strength training only group. We evaluated the effects of perturbation training, and then gender on knee angle and tibial position during a unilateral standing task before and after ACLR. No statistically significant interactions were found. Before surgery, the strength training only group demonstrated knee angle asymmetry, but 6 months after ACLR, both groups presented with similar knee flexion between limbs. Aberrant and asymmetrical tibial position was found only in females following injury and ACLR. Neither treatment group showed distinct unilateral standing strategies following intervention; however, males and female noncopers appear to respond uniquely to physical therapy and surgery. PMID:22983931

  4. Miniaturized bronchoscopy enables unilateral investigation, application, and sampling in mice.

    PubMed

    Dames, Claudia; Akyüz, Levent; Reppe, Katrin; Tabeling, Christoph; Dietert, Kristina; Kershaw, Olivia; Gruber, Achim D; Meisel, Christian; Meisel, Andreas; Witzenrath, Martin; Engel, Odilo

    2014-12-01

    Lung diseases, including pneumonia and asthma, are among the most prevalent human disorders, and murine models have been established to investigate their pathobiology and develop novel treatment approaches. Whereas bronchoscopy is valuable for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in patients, no equivalent for small rodents has been established. Here, we introduce a miniaturized video-bronchoscopy system offering new opportunities in experimental lung research. With an outer diameter of 0.75 mm, it is possible to advance the optics into the main bronchi of mice. An irrigation channel allows bronchoalveolar lavage and unilateral application of substances to one lung. Even a unilateral infection is possible, enabling researchers to use the contralateral lung as internal control. PMID:24960575

  5. Global suppression of electrocortical activity in unilateral perinatal thalamic stroke.

    PubMed

    Kharoshankaya, Liudmila; Filan, Peter M; Bogue, Conor O; Murray, Deirdre M; Boylan, Geraldine B

    2014-07-01

    We present an unusual case of persistent generalized electroencephalography (EEG) suppression and right-sided clonic seizures in a male infant born at 40(+2) weeks' gestation, birthweight 3240g, with an isolated unilateral thalamic stroke. The EEG at 13 hours after birth showed a generalized very low amplitude background pattern, which progressed to frequent electrographic seizures over the left hemisphere. The interictal background EEG pattern remained grossly abnormal over the next 48 hours, showing very low background amplitudes (<10?V). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an isolated acute left-sided thalamic infarction. This is the first description of severe global EEG suppression caused by an isolated unilateral thalamic stroke and supports the role of the thalamus as the control centre for cortical electrical activity. PMID:24410068

  6. Contralateral flow reduction in unilateral stroke: evidence for transhemispheric diaschisis

    SciTech Connect

    Lagreze, H.L.; Levine, R.L.; Pedula, K.L.; Nickles, R.J.; Sunderland, J.S.; Rowe, B.R.

    1987-09-01

    Using clinical presentation, angiography, computed tomography, and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, 7 patients were identified who had strictly unilateral hemispheric infarction and unilateral cerebrovascular disease. In 6, cerebral blood flow measured by fluorine-18-fluoromethane inhalation and positron emission tomography was reduced in the contralateral hemisphere (p less than 0.05). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated a high correlation between contralateral flow reduction and the degree of flow impairment in the infarcted area (r = 0.941, p = 0.0014) but not with age, risk factor profile, blood pressure, PCO/sub 2/, hematocrit, or duration of stroke. We conclude that transhemispheric diaschisis best explains the contralateral flow reduction seen in supratentorial ischemic stroke.

  7. Unilateral Loss of Spontaneous Venous Pulsations in an Astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mader, Thomas H.; Gibson, C. Robert; Lee, Andrew G.; Patel, Nimesh; Hart, Steven; Pettit, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous venous pulsations seen on the optic nerve head (optic disc) are presumed to be caused by fluctuations in the pressure gradient between the intraocular and retrolaminar venous systems. The disappearance of previously documented spontaneous venous pulsations is a well-recognized clinical sign usually associated with a rise in intracranial pressure and a concomitant bilateral elevation of pressure in the subarachnoid space surrounding the optic nerves. In this correspondence we report the unilateral loss of spontaneous venous pulsations in an astronaut 5 months into a long duration space flight. We documented a normal lumbar puncture opening pressure 8 days post mission. The spontaneous venous pulsations were also documented to be absent 21 months following return to Earth.. We hypothesize that these changes may have resulted from a chronic unilateral rise in optic nerve sheath pressure caused by a microgravity-induced optic nerve sheath compartment syndrome.

  8. Secondary bilateral synchrony in unilateral pial angiomatosis: successful surgical treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Chevrie, J J; Specola, N; Aicardi, J

    1988-01-01

    Three children with circumscribed unilateral pial angiomatosis had both generalised and partial seizures associated with bilateral synchronous spike-wave complexes. Dramatic control of the seizures was obtained by surgical removal restricted to the angiomas and underlying cortex. There was recurrence of seizures in one patient from whom only one of two angiomatous areas was removed but not in the two patients whose excision was total. These cases indicate that secondary bilateral synchrony can occur with lesions of the posterior and external parts of one hemisphere. Surgical removal of a definable lesion, without intracranial recording, can help patients with intractable epilepsy due to unilateral pial angiomatosis, even in the presence of wide diffusion of clinical and electroencephalographic abnormalities. PMID:3136229

  9. Unilateral incompatibility: hypotheses, debate and its implications for plant breeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. F. Abdalla

    1972-01-01

    Unilateral incompatibility, its evolution and the hypotheses put forward to explain this phenomenon have been discussed. A new hypothesis is presented giving an easy explanation of the problems arisen and of the results obtained hitherto. The results to be expected from crosses between self-compatible and self-incompatible species and the crossability and (in)compatibility behaviour of their hybrids and segregating generations are

  10. Bilateral tremor responses to unilateral loading and fatiguing muscle contractions.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Justin J; Cresswell, Andrew G; Sabapathy, Surendran; Carroll, Timothy J

    2013-07-01

    Although physiological tremor has been extensively studied within a single limb, tremor relationships between limbs are not well understood. Early investigations proposed that tremor in each limb is driven by CNS oscillators operating in parallel. However, recent evidence suggests that tremor in both limbs arises from shared neural inputs and is more likely to be observed under perturbed conditions. In the present study, postural tremor about the elbow joint and elbow flexor EMG activity were examined on both sides of the body in response to unilateral loading and fatiguing muscle contractions. Applying loads of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 kg to a single limb increased tremor and muscle activity in the loaded limb but did not affect the unloaded limb, indicating that manipulating the inertial characteristics of a limb does not evoke bilateral tremor responses. In contrast, maximal-effort unilateral isometric contractions resulted in increased tremor and muscle activity in both the active limb and the nonactive limb without any changes in between-limb tremor or muscle coupling. When unilateral contractions were repeated intermittently, to the extent that maximum torque generation about the elbow joint declined by 50%, different tremor profiles were observed in each limb. Specifically, unilateral fatigue altered coupling between limbs and generated a bilateral response such that tremor and brachioradialis EMG decreased for the fatigued limb and increased in the contralateral nonfatigued limb. Our results demonstrate that activity in the nonactive limb may be due to a "spillover" effect rather than directly coupled neural output to both arms and that between-limb coupling for tremor and muscle activity is only altered under considerably perturbed conditions, such as fatigue-inducing contractions. PMID:23636728

  11. Beware of "curare cleft" like changes during unilateral capnothorax.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manila; Chaudhary, Kapil; Uppal, Rajeev; Jain, Sachin

    2014-06-01

    Capnography is a standard monitoring tool during general anaesthesia. Diaphragmatic movement with the weaning of muscle relaxant effect produces the characteristic "curare cleft" on capnography. Various artefacts can mimick this trace intraoperatively. Cautious interpretation and identification of these is essential to avoid any undue overdosing of the patients with muscle relaxants. We report "curare cleft" like artefact during ventilation with a single lumen tube in a patient with unilateral capnothorax undergoing minimally invasive esophagectomy. PMID:24132805

  12. Prosthesis rejection in children with a unilateral congenital arm defect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Postema; V van der Donk; J van Limbeek; R AJ Rijken; M J Poelma

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To determine the rate of rejection for prosthetic use in children and to investigate reasons for this rejection.Design: Cross-sectional study of a cohort of children.Setting: Rehabilitation centre, St Maartenskliniek, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.Subjects: Thirty-two children (0–18 years) with a unilateral congenital arm defect who visited the clinic between September 1991 and December 1996.Methods: Parents of all children and 19 children

  13. Transient electro-oculogram impairment in unilateral acute idiopathic maculopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byron L. Lam; Pedro F. Lopez; Sander R. Dubovy; Mu Liu

    2009-01-01

    Unilateral acute idiopathic maculopathy (UAIM) is a rare distinct entity characterized by acute exudative maculopathy occurring\\u000a in young persons. The purpose of this case study is to report transient electro-oculogram (EOG) impairment during the acute\\u000a stage of UAIM. A 16-year-old healthy female with UAIM in the left eye underwent serial visual field, fluorescein angiography,\\u000a indocyanine green angiography, full-field electroretinogram (ERG),

  14. Therapeutic Effect of Retinoic Acid on Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuya Kishimoto; Koji Kinoshita; Shoichi Hino; Tomohiro Yano; Yasuaki Nagare; Hideki Shimazu; Yuji Nozaki; Masafumi Sugiyama; Shinya Ikoma; Masanori Funauchi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Retinoic acids, a group of natural and synthetic vitamin A derivatives, have potent anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic properties. We investigated the therapeutic effect of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) on unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model mice. Methods: First, to evaluate the prophylactic effect, we administered 0.5 mg of ATRA for 3 days before UUO (UUO ATRA). Then, to evaluate the therapeutic

  15. Magnetic Vestibular Stimulation in Subjects with Unilateral Labyrinthine Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Bryan K.; Roberts, Dale C.; Della Santina, Charles C.; Carey, John P.; Zee, David S.

    2014-01-01

    We recently discovered that static magnetic fields from high-strength MRI machines induce nystagmus in all normal humans, and that a magneto-hydrodynamic Lorentz force, derived from ionic currents in the endolymph and pushing on the cupula, best explains this effect. Individuals with no labyrinthine function have no nystagmus. The influence of magnetic vestibular stimulation (MVS) in individuals with unilateral deficits in labyrinthine function is unknown and may provide insight into the mechanism of MVS. These individuals should experience MVS, but with a different pattern of nystagmus consistent with their unilateral deficit in labyrinthine function. We recorded eye movements in the static magnetic field of a 7 T MRI machine in nine individuals with unilateral labyrinthine hypofunction, as determined by head impulse testing and vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP). Eye movements were recorded using infrared video-oculography. Static head positions were varied in pitch with the body supine, and slow-phase eye velocity (SPV) was assessed. All subjects exhibited predominantly horizontal nystagmus after entering the magnet head-first, lying supine. The SPV direction reversed when entering feet-first. Pitching chin-to-chest caused subjects to reach a null point for horizontal SPV. Right unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH) subjects developed slow-phase-up nystagmus and left UVH subjects, slow-phase-down nystagmus. Vertical and torsional components were consistent with superior semicircular canal excitation or inhibition, respectively, of the intact ear. These findings provide compelling support for the hypothesis that MVS is a result of a Lorentz force and suggest that the function of individual structures within the labyrinth can be assessed with MVS. As a novel method of comfortable and sustained labyrinthine stimulation, MVS can provide new insights into vestibular physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:24659983

  16. Magnetic vestibular stimulation in subjects with unilateral labyrinthine disorders.

    PubMed

    Ward, Bryan K; Roberts, Dale C; Della Santina, Charles C; Carey, John P; Zee, David S

    2014-01-01

    We recently discovered that static magnetic fields from high-strength MRI machines induce nystagmus in all normal humans, and that a magneto-hydrodynamic Lorentz force, derived from ionic currents in the endolymph and pushing on the cupula, best explains this effect. Individuals with no labyrinthine function have no nystagmus. The influence of magnetic vestibular stimulation (MVS) in individuals with unilateral deficits in labyrinthine function is unknown and may provide insight into the mechanism of MVS. These individuals should experience MVS, but with a different pattern of nystagmus consistent with their unilateral deficit in labyrinthine function. We recorded eye movements in the static magnetic field of a 7 T MRI machine in nine individuals with unilateral labyrinthine hypofunction, as determined by head impulse testing and vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP). Eye movements were recorded using infrared video-oculography. Static head positions were varied in pitch with the body supine, and slow-phase eye velocity (SPV) was assessed. All subjects exhibited predominantly horizontal nystagmus after entering the magnet head-first, lying supine. The SPV direction reversed when entering feet-first. Pitching chin-to-chest caused subjects to reach a null point for horizontal SPV. Right unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH) subjects developed slow-phase-up nystagmus and left UVH subjects, slow-phase-down nystagmus. Vertical and torsional components were consistent with superior semicircular canal excitation or inhibition, respectively, of the intact ear. These findings provide compelling support for the hypothesis that MVS is a result of a Lorentz force and suggest that the function of individual structures within the labyrinth can be assessed with MVS. As a novel method of comfortable and sustained labyrinthine stimulation, MVS can provide new insights into vestibular physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:24659983

  17. Pars Stress Fracture (Lumbar Spondylolysis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Neck and Back) > Pars Stress Fracture Pars Stress Fracture Page Content Pars stress fractures occur in young athletes involved in repetitive bending ... an episode of low back pain Pars stress fracture, also called lumbar spondylolysis, is one of the ...

  18. JAMA Patient Page: Bone Fractures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Bone Fractures A bone fracture is a break in a ... below) to treat bone fractures. CAUSES OF BONE FRACTURES FOR MORE INFORMATION • American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons ...

  19. Fractures of the Fifth Metatarsal

    MedlinePLUS

    ... overlooked when they occur with an ankle sprain. Jones fracture . Jones fractures occur in a small area of the ... therefore more prone to difficulties in healing. A Jones fracture can be either a stress fracture (a ...

  20. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Effect of unilateral procedure on contralateral kidney function

    PubMed Central

    Sichani, Mehrdad Mohammadi; Behnamfar, Amir; Khorami, Mohammad Hatef; Nourimahdavi, Kia; Alizadeh, Farshid; Izadpanahi, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although long-term effects of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) on renal function and structure have been evaluated, knowledge regarding the immediate effects of surgery on renal function is limited. We conducted this study to evaluate the impact of unilateral PCNL on bilateral renal function during immediate post-operative period. Materials and Methods: From April to September 2012, 40 eligible patients were enrolled in this study and underwent unilateral PCNL. During the post-operative period, creatinine clearances (CrCl) of treated and untreated sides were estimated separately and pattern of changes in bilateral renal function following this procedure was evaluated. Results: Following the operation, CrCl of both kidneys showed a similar pattern of changes, of course more dramatic on treated side. We observed progressive decline in CrCl of both sides followed by bilateral improvement in renal function toward pre-operative values. Conclusions: During the early post-operative period following unilateral PCNL, both kidneys experienced a temporary drop in function warranting more intensive post-operative care. PMID:25538913

  1. Human Gait and Postural Control after Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    STAN, Gabriel; ORBAN, Horia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study assesses the changes in human gait in the early postoperative phase of unilateral TKA, by evaluating the variability of free moment. Materials and method: The study group consisted of 10 patients from the Orthopedic Department of the 'Elias' University Hospital in Bucharest who undergone unilateral knee arthroplasty with the same type of posterior cruciate ligament substituting prosthesis. For the evaluation of free moment an AMTI AccuGait force platform was used. Results: Regarding the free moment peaks, for the operated and non-operated limb, increased significantly (p <0.05) in the postoperative period. The stance time was higher post-surgery for both limbs. Discussion: In the early postoperative phase of unilateral TKA, free moment is higher on both the operated and the non-operated limbs, which means that the knees are subjected to higher torques. Shortly after TKA, patients tend to walk with lower speed, with small steps and reduced cadence. Stance time differences between the operated and the non-operated limbs can lead to overuse of the latter, worsening its condition. Conclusions: It is highly important to adopt a well-managed rehabilitation program in order to increase walking stability. The cost effectiveness of this procedure could be highly dependent on the rehab program. The parameters studied in this article are useful in assessing the rehabilitation protocol. PMID:25705305

  2. Ovarian Reserve After Laparoscopic Treatment of Unilateral Ovarian Endometrioma

    PubMed Central

    Georgievska, Jadranka; Sapunov, Slavejko; Cekovska, Svetlana; Vasilevska, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of laparoscopic treatment of unilateral ovarian endometrioma on ovarian reserve using ultrasonographic markers, ovarian volume and antral follicle count (AFC), and two biochemical markers, serum levels of Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and Estradiol (E2). Material and methods: This prospective study included 40 patients in their reproductive age, between 18 and 40 years old. They were treated laparoscopically for unilateral ovarian endometrioma. Markers of ovarian reserve were investigated before and three months after surgery. Transvaginal ultrasound examination was used for measurement of ovarian volume and AFC. Biochemical markers (FSH and E2 levels) were determined by chemiluminescent tests. Results: Ovarian volume was significantly reduced after surgery. There was significant increase of AFC and non-significant increase of E2 levels in treated patients after three months. Conclusions: Laparoscopic cystectomy of unilateral ovarian endometrioma decreased ovarian reserve immediately after surgery with decrease of ovarian volume. But ovarian reserve was increased after three months with increase of AFC and estradiol levels. PMID:25684843

  3. Evaluation of mandibular condyles in children with unilateral posterior crossbite.

    PubMed

    Illipronti-Filho, Edson; Fantini, Solange Mongelli; Chilvarquer, Israel

    2015-03-01

    The relationship of mandibular condyle dimensions and its association with unilateral posterior crossbite (UPXB) has been suggested in the literature. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate mandibular condyles on the left and right sides and between crossed and non-crossed sides in the sagittal and coronal planes, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Twenty CBCT images of 40 temporo mandibular joints (TMJs) in individuals in mixed dentition phase, which included 9 males (mean 7.9 years) and 11 females (mean 8.2 years), with unilateral posterior crossbite without premature contacts and functional mandibular shifts and with transverse maxillary deficiency. The criteria for sample exclusion included the presence of painful symptoms, facial trauma history, systemic diseases such as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, mouth opening limitation (< 40 mm), congenital or genetic anomalies, and skeletal asymmetries that may result in TMJ disorders. Dimensional measurements of the condyles between the right and left sides and crossed and non-crossed sides in sagittal and coronal view were made. There was no significant difference between the measurements of the crossed and non-crossed sides in both sagittal and coronal view. These findings suggest that the presence of unilateral posterior crossbite in children with UPXB did not result in changes between the mandibular condyles in the right and left sides or between the crossed and non-crossed sides in the coronal or sagittal plane. PMID:25760067

  4. High velocity impact fracture

    E-print Network

    Teng, Xiaoqing

    2005-01-01

    An in-depth understanding of dynamic ductile fracture is one of the most important steps to improve the survivability of critical structures such as the lost Twin Towers. In the present thesis, the macroscopic fracture ...

  5. Pediatric Thighbone (Femur) Fracture

    MedlinePLUS

    ... break when a child experiences a sudden forceful impact. Cause Statistics The most common cause of thighbone fractures in infants under 1 year old is child abuse, which accounts for approximately 70% of the fractures. ...

  6. Lisfranc (Midfoot) Fractures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disrupts multiple di? erent joints and includes multiple fractures. Lisfranc injuries tend to damage the cartilage of ... include ligament strains and tears, as well as fractures and dislocations of bone (far right). (Le ) This ...

  7. Infant skull fracture (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Skull fractures may occur with head injuries. Although the skull is both tough and resilient and provides excellent protection ... a severe impact or blow can result in fracture of the skull and may be accompanied by ...

  8. Nasal fracture (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    A nasal fracture is a break in the bone over the ridge of the nose. It usually results from a blunt ... and is one of the most common facial fracture. Symptoms of a broken nose include pain, blood ...

  9. Femur fracture repair - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    You had a fracture (break) in the femur, also called the thigh bone, in your leg. You may have needed surgery to repair ... surgeon will make a cut to open your fracture. Your surgeon will then use special metal devices ...

  10. Vertebral Compression Fractures

    MedlinePLUS

    Living with OI: Information on Vertebral Compression Fractures Compression fractures are a common, painful problem for children and adults who have OI. This occurs when an injury causes the spinal bone ...

  11. Hydraulic Fracturing Sand

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Fine-grained silica sand is mixed with chemicals and water before being pumped into rock formations to prevent the newly created artificial fractures from closing after hydraulic fracturing is completed....

  12. Hydraulic fracture design optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tae-Soo; Advani, S.H.

    1992-06-01

    This research and development investigation, sponsored by US DOE and the oil and gas industry, extends previously developed hydraulic fracture geometry models and applied energy related characteristic time concepts towards the optimal design and control of hydraulic fracture geometries. The primary objective of this program is to develop rational criteria, by examining the associated energy rate components during the hydraulic fracture evolution, for the formulation of stimulation treatment design along with real-time fracture configuration interpretation and control.

  13. Hydraulic fracture design optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tae-Soo; Advani, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    This research and development investigation, sponsored by US DOE and the oil and gas industry, extends previously developed hydraulic fracture geometry models and applied energy related characteristic time concepts towards the optimal design and control of hydraulic fracture geometries. The primary objective of this program is to develop rational criteria, by examining the associated energy rate components during the hydraulic fracture evolution, for the formulation of stimulation treatment design along with real-time fracture configuration interpretation and control.

  14. Orbital fractures: a review

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jeffrey M; Glavas, Ioannis P

    2011-01-01

    This review of orbital fractures has three goals: 1) to understand the clinically relevant orbital anatomy with regard to periorbital trauma and orbital fractures, 2) to explain how to assess and examine a patient after periorbital trauma, and 3) to understand the medical and surgical management of orbital fractures. The article aims to summarize the evaluation and management of commonly encountered orbital fractures from the ophthalmologic perspective and to provide an overview for all practicing ophthalmologists and ophthalmologists in training. PMID:21339801

  15. Evaluation of the relationship between fracture conductivity, fracture fluid production, and effective fracture length

    E-print Network

    Lolon, Elyezer P.

    2006-04-12

    be shorter due to fracture growth out of zone, improper proppant settling, or proppant flowback, short calculated fracture lengths can also result from incorrect analysis techniques. It is known that fracturing fluid that remains in the fracture and formation...

  16. OSTEOPOROTIC FRACTURES ghouling facts

    E-print Network

    Squire, Larry R.

    10/20/2011 1 OSTEOPOROTIC FRACTURES ghouling facts Maureen Benetti NP OSTEOPOROSIS · "Osteo" means architecture normal osteoporotic OSTEOPOROSIS · Leads to fragile bone and an increased risk of fracture #12;10/20/2011 2 OSTEOPOROSIS · Asymptomatic · Most common metabolic bone disease in the developed world · Fracture

  17. Relative Permeability Through Fractures

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    SGP-TR-170 Relative Permeability Through Fractures Gracel P. Diomampo August 2001 Financial support, California #12;#12;v Abstract The mechanism of two-phase flow through fractures is of importance in understanding many geologic processes. Currently, two-phase flow through fractures is still poorly understood

  18. Fracture Education in Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidey, D.; And Others

    Fracture mechanics is a multidisciplinary topic which is being introduced to undergraduate engineering students in such courses as materials engineering. At a recent Conference on Fracture held at the University of Waterloo, a session was devoted to fracture education. Some of the ideas presented at that session are included and discussed here.…

  19. Sprains, Strains and Fractures

    MedlinePLUS

    What is a Foot or Ankle Sprain or Fracture? The feet and ankles work together to provide support and mobility to the body. A foot or ankle sprain is a ... are the most common causes of foot and ankle sprains and fractures. Many fractures and sprains occur during sports. Football ...

  20. Assessment of fracture risk.

    PubMed

    Baim, Sanford; Leslie, William D

    2012-03-01

    Osteoporosis-related fractures (low-trauma, fragility fractures) are associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure worldwide. In the absence of a defining fracture, the diagnosis of osteoporosis is based on the World Health Organization's T-score criteria using central dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Paradoxically, the majority of those patients who will sustain a low-trauma fracture do not meet the T-score definition of osteoporosis. Conversely, younger individuals with bone density in the osteoporotic range but no other risk factors have relatively low fracture rates and yet are frequently considered candidates for osteoporosis therapies. The limited accuracy of bone density testing alone to predict fractures has led to the development of a variety of fracture assessment tools that utilize the combination of bone density and clinical risk factors to improve the prediction of low-trauma fractures. These fracture assessment tools quantitatively predict the 10-year fracture probability of hip and major osteoporosis-related fractures, and can be used to define cost-effective intervention strategies for primary and secondary fracture prevention. PMID:22274642

  1. Outpatient Treatment for Humeral Fractures in Five Calves

    PubMed Central

    YAMAGISHI, Norio; DEVKOTA, Bhuminand; TAKAHASHI, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Humeral fractures were treated in 5 calves using unilateral external fixation with epoxy putty fixator (type I). The surgeries were performed under sedation and analgesia, and it involved application of ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block. The surgical procedures were completed in 60 to 90 min, and each calf was returned to the farm on the same day. The fixation allowed each calf to remain with the dam and suckle without strict stall rest and was removed 11 to 62 days post-surgery. The clinical sign of diminished radial nerve function disappeared 40 days to 4 months post-surgery. These observations suggest that this repair technique represents a feasible outpatient treatment for humeral fractures in calves. PMID:25056675

  2. Outpatient treatment for humeral fractures in five calves.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Norio; Devkota, Bhuminand; Takahashi, Masahiro

    2014-11-01

    Humeral fractures were treated in 5 calves using unilateral external fixation with epoxy putty fixator (type I). The surgeries were performed under sedation and analgesia, and it involved application of ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block. The surgical procedures were completed in 60 to 90 min, and each calf was returned to the farm on the same day. The fixation allowed each calf to remain with the dam and suckle without strict stall rest and was removed 11 to 62 days post-surgery. The clinical sign of diminished radial nerve function disappeared 40 days to 4 months post-surgery. These observations suggest that this repair technique represents a feasible outpatient treatment for humeral fractures in calves. PMID:25056675

  3. [Unilateral latero-thoracic exanthema in childhood. Clinical characteristics and diagnostic criteria in 5 patients].

    PubMed

    Strom, K; Mempel, M; Fölster-Holst, R; Abeck, D

    1999-01-01

    Unilateral laterothoracic exanthem a (ULE) is a self-limited, probably infectious-allergic skin disease predominantly affecting small children. We describe five such cases. The typical unilaterally located or at least unilaterally dominant exanthem usually starts in the axillary region and is characterized by red, partly confluent papules and fine scales. Two of the children presented with atypical manifestations of ULE. Due to its asymptomatic course, therapy is not necessary in the majority of cases. PMID:10068930

  4. Subsurface fracture spacing

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, J.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Hill, R.E. (CER Corp., Las Vegas, NV (USA))

    1991-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to document and analyze the unique set of data on subsurface fracture characteristics, especially spacing, provided by the US Department of Energy's Slant Hole Completion Test well (SHCT-1) in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Two hundred thirty-six (236) ft (71.9 m) of slant core and 115 ft (35.1 m) of horizontal core show irregular, but remarkably close, spacings for 72 natural fractures cored in sandstone reservoirs of the Mesaverde Group. Over 4200 ft (1280 m) of vertical core (containing 275 fractures) from the vertical Multiwell Experiment wells at the same location provide valuable information on fracture orientation, termination, and height, but only data from the SHCT-1 core allow calculations of relative fracture spacing. Within the 162-ft (49-m) thick zone of overlapping core from the vertical and deviated wellbores, only one fracture is present in vertical core whereas 52 fractures occur in the equivalent SHCT-1 core. The irregular distribution of regional-type fractures in these heterogeneous reservoirs suggests that measurements of average fracture spacing'' are of questionable value as direct input parameters into reservoir engineering models. Rather, deviated core provides data on the relative degree of fracturing, and confirms that cross fractures can be rare in the subsurface. 13 refs., 11 figs.

  5. Medial fracture line significance in calcaneus fracture.

    PubMed

    Ogut, Tahir; Ayhan, Egemen; Kantarci, Fatih; Unlu, Mehmet C; Salih, Muhammet

    2011-01-01

    In Sanders' classification of calcaneus fractures, the medial fracture line (subtype C) is close to the tarsal canal, which contains an artery for the talus and calcaneus. We hypothesized that because of this brittle vascular localization, patients with C line fracture patterns might describe radiologic subtalar arthritis more often and have more complaints. The purpose of the present study was to compare the results of C line fracture patterns with other types of calcaneus fractures. A total of 25 surgically treated feet were involved. Regarding Sanders' classification, group 1 included fractures involving the C line (11 feet), and group 2 included fractures not involving the C line (14 feet). Patient age at admission, trauma date, and interval until surgery were obtained from the patients' medical records. The Bohler angles were determined from the radiographs. At the last follow-up visit, the radiologist graded subtalar arthritis using computed tomography. For clinical follow-up, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and Maryland scores were assessed. No significant differences were found in mean age, follow-up period, delay to surgery, or postoperative Bohler angle between the 2 groups. The mean preoperative Bohler angle was significantly low for group 1. Although not significantly different, the mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and Maryland scores were lower for group 1 (81.9 and 84.3) than group 2 (87.8 and 92.0), and the median subtalar arthritis grade was greater for group 1 (score 2) than for group 2 (score 1.5). The worse results with C line fracture patterns despite satisfactory reduction might result from sinus tarsi artery damage. Angiographic investigations could clarify this theory in the future. Consequently, surgeons must inform and should hesitate to operate on patients with these highly comminuted C line calcaneus fractures. PMID:21621433

  6. Finite element analysis of three commonly used external fixation devices for treating Type III pilon fractures.

    PubMed

    Ramlee, Muhammad Hanif; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul; Murali, Malliga Raman; Kamarul, Tunku

    2014-10-01

    Pilon fractures are commonly caused by high energy trauma and can result in long-term immobilization of patients. The use of an external fixator i.e. the (1) Delta, (2) Mitkovic or (3) Unilateral frame for treating type III pilon fractures is generally recommended by many experts owing to the stability provided by these constructs. This allows this type of fracture to heal quickly whilst permitting early mobilization. However, the stability of one fixator over the other has not been previously demonstrated. This study was conducted to determine the biomechanical stability of these external fixators in type III pilon fractures using finite element modelling. Three-dimensional models of the tibia, fibula, talus, calcaneus, navicular, cuboid, three cuneiforms and five metatarsal bones were reconstructed from previously obtained CT datasets. Bones were assigned with isotropic material properties, while the cartilage was assigned as hyperelastic springs with Mooney-Rivlin properties. Axial loads of 350 N and 70 N were applied at the tibia to simulate the stance and the swing phase of a gait cycle. To prevent rigid body motion, the calcaneus and metatarsals were fixed distally in all degrees of freedom. The results indicate that the model with the Delta frame produced the lowest relative micromovement (0.03 mm) compared to the Mitkovic (0.05 mm) and Unilateral (0.42 mm) fixators during the stance phase. The highest stress concentrations were found at the pin of the Unilateral external fixator (509.2 MPa) compared to the Mitkovic (286.0 MPa) and the Delta (266.7 MPa) frames. In conclusion, the Delta external fixator was found to be the most stable external fixator for treating type III pilon fractures. PMID:25127377

  7. The Frenchman's fibular fracture (Maisonneuve fracture).

    PubMed

    del Castillo, J; Geiderman, J M

    1979-10-01

    Two patients with injuries to the ankle sustained by rotational trauma complained only of pain in the ankle. Careful examination revealed tenderness over the proximal fibula. Subsequent radiographic studies revealed high helical fracture of the fibula, as originally described by Maisonneuve. The Maisonneuve fracture is produced by diastasis - a separation of bones resulting from rupture of ligaments around the ankle. According to classification of fibula injuries by mechanism of injury, the Maisonneuve fracture is due to external rotation of the foot relative to the tibia but it is not clear whether the foot is in pronation or supination or moves during injury. PMID:114702

  8. Modeling of Interaction of Hydraulic Fractures in Complex Fracture Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kresse, O. 2; Wu, R.; Weng, X.; Gu, H.; Cohen, C.

    2011-12-01

    A recently developed unconventional fracture model (UFM) is able to simulate complex fracture network propagation in a formation with pre-existing natural fractures. Multiple fracture branches can propagate at the same time and intersect/cross each other. Each open fracture exerts additional stresses on the surrounding rock and adjacent fractures, which is often referred to as "stress shadow" effect. The stress shadow can cause significant restriction of fracture width, leading to greater risk of proppant screenout. It can also alter the fracture propagation path and drastically affect fracture network patterns. It is hence critical to properly model the fracture interaction in a complex fracture model. A method for computing the stress shadow in a complex hydraulic fracture network is presented. The method is based on an enhanced 2D Displacement Discontinuity Method (DDM) with correction for finite fracture height. The computed stress field is compared to 3D numerical simulation in a few simple examples and shows the method provides a good approximation for the 3D fracture problem. This stress shadow calculation is incorporated in the UFM. The results for simple cases of two fractures are presented that show the fractures can either attract or expel each other depending on their initial relative positions, and compares favorably with an independent 2D non-planar hydraulic fracture model. Additional examples of both planar and complex fractures propagating from multiple perforation clusters are presented, showing that fracture interaction controls the fracture dimension and propagation pattern. In a formation with no or small stress anisotropy, fracture interaction can lead to dramatic divergence of the fractures as they tend to repel each other. However, when stress anisotropy is large, the fracture propagation direction is dominated by the stress field and fracture turning due to fracture interaction is limited. However, stress shadowing still has a strong effect on fracture width, which affects the injection rate distribution into multiple perforation clusters, and hence overall fracture network geometry and proppant placement.

  9. Unilateral Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Tonsil Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chronowski, Gregory M., E-mail: gchronowski@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Garden, Adam S.; Morrison, William H.; Frank, Steven J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Schwartz, David L. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Long Island Jewish Hospital (United States); Shah, Shalin J.; Beadle, Beth M.; Gunn, G. Brandon [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Kupferman, Michael E. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ang, Kian K.; Rosenthal, David I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To assess, through a retrospective review, clinical outcomes of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil treated at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center with unilateral radiotherapy techniques that irradiate the involved tonsil region and ipsilateral neck only. Methods and Materials: Of 901 patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil treated with radiotherapy at our institution, we identified 102 that were treated using unilateral radiotherapy techniques. All patients had their primary site of disease restricted to the tonsillar fossa or anterior pillar, with <1 cm involvement of the soft palate. Patients had TX (n = 17 patients), T1 (n = 52), or T2 (n = 33) disease, with Nx (n = 3), N0 (n = 33), N1 (n = 23), N2a (n = 21), or N2b (n = 22) neck disease. Results: Sixty-one patients (60%) underwent diagnostic tonsillectomy before radiotherapy. Twenty-seven patients (26%) underwent excision of a cervical lymph node or neck dissection before radiotherapy. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 38 months. Locoregional control at the primary site and ipsilateral neck was 100%. Two patients experienced contralateral nodal recurrence (2%). The 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 95% and 96%, respectively. The 5-year freedom from contralateral nodal recurrence rate was 96%. Nine patients required feeding tubes during therapy. Of the 2 patients with contralateral recurrence, 1 experienced an isolated neck recurrence and was salvaged with contralateral neck dissection only and remains alive and free of disease. The other patient presented with a contralateral base of tongue tumor and involved cervical lymph node, which may have represented a second primary tumor, and died of disease. Conclusions: Unilateral radiotherapy for patients with TX-T2, N0-N2b primary tonsil carcinoma results in high rates of disease control, with low rates of contralateral nodal failure and a low incidence of acute toxicity requiring gastrostomy.

  10. Skin Temperature Changes in Patients With Unilateral Lumbosacral Radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ra, Jong Yun; An, Sun; Lee, Geun-Ho; Kim, Tae Uk; Lee, Seong Jae

    2013-01-01

    Objective To clarify the relationship of skin temperature changes to clinical, radiologic, and electrophysiological findings in unilateral lumbosacral radiculopathy and to delineate the possible temperature-change mechanisms involved. Methods One hundred and one patients who had clinical symptoms and for whom there were physical findings suggestive or indicative of unilateral lumbosacral radiculopathy, along with 27 normal controls, were selected for the study, and the thermal-pattern results of digital infrared thermographic imaging (DITI) performed on the back and lower extremities were analyzed. Local temperatures were assessed by comparing the mean temperature differences (?T) in 30 regions of interest (ROIs), and abnormal thermal patterns were divided into seven regions. To aid the diagnosis of radiculopathy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electrophysiological tests were also carried out. Results The incidence of disc herniation on MRI was 86%; 43% of patients showed electrophysiological abnormalities. On DITI, 97% of the patients showed abnormal ?T in at least one of the 30 ROIs, and 79% showed hypothermia on the involved side. Seventy-eight percent of the patients also showed abnormal thermal patterns in at least one of the seven regions. Patients who had motor weakness or lateral-type disc herniation showed some correlations with abnormal DITI findings. However, neither pain severity nor other physical or electrophysiological findings were related to the DITI findings. Conclusion Skin temperature change following lumbosacral radiculopathy was related to some clinical and MRI findings, suggesting muscle atrophy. DITI, despite its limitations, might be useful as a complementary tool in the diagnosis of unilateral lumbosacral radiculopathy. PMID:23869333

  11. Unilateral rubral tremors in Wilson's disease treated with dimercaprol.

    PubMed

    Chakor, Rahul T; Bharote, Haresh; Eklare, Nishikant; Tamboli, Khansabegum

    2015-01-01

    Tremors are reported as the most frequent neurological manifestation of Wilson's disease (WD) in some series. Postural tremors, rest tremors, action tremors and wing-beating (rubral) tremors are the different types of tremors seen in WD. We report a patient of WD with unilateral rubral tremors refractory to 1-year therapy with Penicillamine and anti-tremor medications. The tremors decreased considerably after adding chelation therapy with dimercaprol. Combination of Penicillamine and dimercaprol is an effective decoppering measure in rubral tremors of WD. PMID:25745328

  12. Unilateral coronal craniosynostosis in Abraham Lincoln and his family.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Ronald S

    2010-09-01

    Premature closure of one coronal skull suture produces a characteristic arching or relative elevation of the superior orbital rim on the involved side. This sign is associated with facial asymmetry, and both signs are usually the most conspicuous features in patients with mild unilateral coronal craniosynostosis. Photographs suggest that at least 9 individuals over 5 generations of the Abraham Lincoln family had premature closure of 1 coronal suture. In 8 males, there was involvement of the left side; in 1 female, there was involvement of the right side. PMID:20856045

  13. Unilateral Absence of the Pulmonary Artery Incidentally Found in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Aypak, Cenk; Y?k?lkan, Hülya; Uysal, Zekai; Görpelio?lu, Süleyman

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery (UAPA) or pulmonary artery agenesis is a rare congenital disorder presenting with a wide spectrum of symptoms. UAPA is usually associated with cardiac anomalies and surgically treated in childhood. We report a rare case of a 50-year-old woman who was diagnosed with left pulmonary artery agenesis without any other cardiac anomalies. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of undiagnosed cases of UAPA in patients through a chest radiograph that suggests the diagnosis. Confirmation of the diagnosis and anatomic details can be discerned by CT scanning. PMID:22685472

  14. Renoprotective effects of telmisartan after unilateral renal ablation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Tomohiro; Miyata, Yasuyoshi; Sagara, Yuji; Higami, Yoshikazu; Tobu, Shohei; Matsuo, Manabu; Noguchi, Mitsuru; Shimokawa, Isao; Kanetake, Hiroshi; Sakai, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The renoprotective function of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) is well-known in various studies, including the animal model of renal failure. However, detailed temporal changes of pathological and molecular findings after unilateral nephrectomy are not fully understood. The main purpose of this study was to clarify the renoprotective effects and pathological changes induced by the ARB in rat-remnant kidney (RK) tissues after unilateral nephrectomy, but not after a 5/6 nephrectomy. Methods Telmisartan, which is structurally and functionally unique among ARB, was used in this study. Three rat groups were examined: A) no ARB administrated (RK, n=21); B) continuous subcutaneous infusion of an ARB administrated (RK-ARB, n=21); and C) a sham-operated group (Sham). Renal function was evaluated by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels and creatinine clearance (Ccr). Fibrosis was evaluated by hydroxyproline levels and Masson’s trichrome staining. Expressions of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) were investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Results There was no significant difference regarding body and kidney weight or pathological features evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining between the RK and RK-ARB groups. The Ccr in the RK group was significantly lower than that in the Sham group (P<0.01), but no significant difference was found between the RK-ARB and Sham groups. The fibrotic area increased significantly with time after nephrectomy in the RK group. Although a similar trend was found in the RK-ARB group, the percentage of fibrous area in the RK-ARB group was significantly lower than that in the RK group at each time point (P<0.01). AT1R mRNA levels in the RK group were regulated immediately compared with those in the RK-ARB group. Although expressions of the AT1R and TGF-? were significantly higher in the RK-ARB group than in the Sham group, no significant differences were found between the RK-ARB and Sham group. Conclusion The ARB had renoprotective effects after unilateral nephrectomy. The ARB effectively maintained Ccr. Our results also showed the possibility that fibrotic changes mediated by AT1R and TGF-? play an important role in renal protection. Moreover, this is the first report on changes of AT1R expression after using the ARB telmisartan in kidney tissues after unilateral nephrectomy. Finally, our results suggest that ARB may be useful to prevent renal failure in patients treated with nephrectomy. PMID:24143119

  15. Unilateral hydronephrosis and renal damage after acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Simanauskiene, Egle; Daugelaviciene, Valentina; Laurinavicius, Arvydas; Mickys, Ugnius; Simonyte, Vaida; Vaitkeviciene, Goda; Verkauskas, Gilvydas

    2012-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented with asymptomatic right hydronephrosis detected on routine yearly ultrasound examination. Previously, he had at least two normal renal ultrasonograms, 4 years after remission of acute myeloblastic leukemia, treated by AML-BFM-93 protocol. A function of the right kidney and no damage on the left was confirmed by a DMSA scan. Right retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy revealed 3 renal arteries with the lower pole artery lying on the pelviureteric junction. Histologically chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis was detected. In the pathogenesis of this severe unilateral renal damage, we suspect the exacerbation of deleterious effects of cytostatic therapy on kidneys with intermittent hydronephrosis. PMID:22548083

  16. Unilateral Hydronephrosis and Renal Damage after Acute Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Simanauskiene, Egle; Daugelaviciene, Valentina; Laurinavicius, Arvydas; Mickys, Ugnius; Simonyte, Vaida; Vaitkeviciene, Goda; Verkauskas, Gilvydas

    2012-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented with asymptomatic right hydronephrosis detected on routine yearly ultrasound examination. Previously, he had at least two normal renal ultrasonograms, 4 years after remission of acute myeloblastic leukemia, treated by AML-BFM-93 protocol. A function of the right kidney and no damage on the left was confirmed by a DMSA scan. Right retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy revealed 3 renal arteries with the lower pole artery lying on the pelviureteric junction. Histologically chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis was detected. In the pathogenesis of this severe unilateral renal damage, we suspect the exacerbation of deleterious effects of cytostatic therapy on kidneys with intermittent hydronephrosis. PMID:22548083

  17. MRI and unilateral NMR study of reindeer skin tanning processes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lizheng; Del Federico, Eleonora; Ilott, Andrew J; Klokkernes, Torunn; Kehlet, Cindie; Jerschow, Alexej

    2015-04-01

    The study of arctic or subarctic indigenous skin clothing material, known for its design and ability to keep the body warm, provides information about the tanning materials and techniques. The study also provides clues about the culture that created it, since tanning processes are often specific to certain indigenous groups. Untreated skin samples and samples treated with willow (Salix sp) bark extract and cod liver oil are compared in this study using both MRI and unilateral NMR techniques. The two types of samples show different proton spatial distributions and different relaxation times, which may also provide information about the tanning technique and aging behavior. PMID:25719858

  18. Parinaud's syndrome due to an unilateral vascular ischemic lesion.

    PubMed

    Serino, Josefina; Martins, Joăo; Páris, Liliana; Duarte, Ana; Ribeiro, Isabel

    2015-04-01

    A 59-year-old man who complained of binocular vertical diplopia after an exploratory laparotomy, complicated by cardiorespiratory arrest during anesthetic induction, was found to have Collier's sign, anisocoria, complete paralysis of upward vertical gaze associated with convergence-retraction nystagmus on attempted upgaze and skew deviation with hypertropia in the left eye without ptosis, and an absent Bielschowsky sign. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a small lesion in the left paramedian midbrain compatible with microvascular ischemic sequelae. This patient was diagnosed with Parinaud's syndrome (dorsal midbrain syndrome) associated with a vertical strabismus from an unilateral vascular ischemic paramedian midbrain lesion. PMID:25649259

  19. [Unilateral congenital ptosis with ipsilateral superior rectus muscle overaction].

    PubMed

    Ben Rayana, N; Knani, L; Touzani, F; Ben Hadj Hamida, F

    2011-09-01

    Congenital ptosis may be frequently accompanied by weakness of the ipsilateral superior rectus muscle. We report a case of ptosis with ipsilateral superior rectus muscle overaction. The 45-year-old patient presented with unilateral congenital ptosis. Ipsilateral superior rectus muscle overaction was found in the upgaze, with an inferior sclera show. This can be found in 40% of congenital ptosis. The authors give two possible causes: either an exaggerated Bell reflex or misdirection innervations of the superior rectus muscle by the superior division of the oculomotor nerve, initially innervating the upper eyelid elevator muscle. Histological or electrophysiological studies can be useful to determine the physiopathology of this association. PMID:21665327

  20. Unilateral laterothoracic exanthem in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Fort, D W; Greer, K E

    1998-01-01

    Unilateral laterothoracic exanthem (ULE) is a rare childhood condition of unknown etiology characterized by a morbilliform rash that usually begins in the axilla and spreads centrifugally. The condition is usually self-limited, does not require specific treatment, and disappears within 4 to 6 weeks. Pruritus may be relieved by oral antihistamines and topical emollients and/or bath oils. We describe ULE in a 6-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the first report of ULE in a patient with malignancy. PMID:9496806

  1. Unilateral cacosmia: a presentation of maxillary fungal infestation

    PubMed Central

    Erskine, Sally E; Schelenz, Silke; Philpott, Carl M

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of long-standing unilateral cacosmia in a healthy 67-year-old man due to maxillary fungal infestation. Treatment with septoplasty had been attempted 10?years prior but no further investigation or management undertaken and symptoms continued. Subsequent MRI scan revealed significant opacification of the left maxillary sinus. This was readily amenable to treatment by balloon sinuplasty. This yielded viscous grey mucus which grew Scedosporium apiospermum. The case highlights the need for careful investigation of olfactory symptoms, including blood tests to exclude systemic causes, endoscopy and imaging where indicated. PMID:23563684

  2. UNILATERAL PARALYSIS OF EYE MUSCLES ASSOCIATED WITH INTRACRANIAL SACCULAR ANEURYSMS

    PubMed Central

    Boldrey, Edwin; Miller, Earl R.

    1949-01-01

    Unexplained unilateral paralysis of eye muscles with or without evidence of altered function of other cranial nerves, or of the presence of intracranial bruit, is strong positive diagnostic evidence of saccular aneurysm of the intracranial internal carotid or of the circle of Willis. If pulsating exophthalmos is present the lesion probably is an arteriovenous fistula. The presence of such clinical signs strongly indicates the desirability of cerebral angiography. Once demonstrated, the lesion can usually be treated successfully by ligation of the contributing vascular connections. PMID:18123524

  3. Natural fracturing, by depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooker, John; Laubach, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    Natural opening-mode fractures commonly fall upon a spectrum whose end-members are veins, which have wide ranges of sizes and are mostly or thoroughly cemented, and joints, which have little opening displacement and little or no cement. The vein end-member is common in metamorphic rocks, whose high temperature and pressure of formation place them outside typical reservoir settings; conversely, many uncemented joints likely form near the surface and so too have limited relevance to subsurface exploration. Sampling of cores retrieved from tight-gas sandstone reservoirs suggest that it is intermediate fractures, not true joints or veins, that provide natural porosity and permeability. Such fractures have abundant pore space among fracture-bridging cements, which may hold fractures open despite varying states of stress through time. Thus the more sophisticated our understanding of the processes that form veins and joints, i.e., how natural fracturing varies by depth, the better our ability to predict intermediate fractures. Systematic differences between veins and joints, in terms of size-scaling and lateral and stratigraphic spatial arrangement, have been explained in the literature by the mechanical effects of sedimentary layering, which likely exert more control over fracture patterns at shallower depths. Thus stratabound joints commonly have narrow size ranges and regular spacing; non-stratabound veins have a wide range of sizes and spacings. However, new fieldwork and careful literature review suggest that the effects of mechanical layering are only half the story. Although atypical, veins may be highly stratabound and yet spatially clustered; non-stratabound fractures may nonetheless feature narrow size ranges. These anomalous fracture arrangements are better explained by the presence of precipitating cements during fracture opening than by mechanical layering. Cement is thought to be highly important for fracture permeability, but potential effects of synkinematic cement on fracture size and spacing have been largely overlooked. Such effects are currently poorly understood, but numerical models of fracture widening amid precipitating cements can replicate observed size-scaling patterns. Synkinematic fracture-bridging cements can also potentially account for irregular fracture spacing in stratabound fracture arrays.

  4. Orbital Wall Restoring Surgery in Pure Blowout Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Nam Kyu; Oh, Sang Ah; Gu, Ja Hea

    2014-01-01

    Background Restoring orbital volume in large blowout fractures is still a technically challenge to the orbital surgeon. In this study, we restored the orbital wall using the combination of transorbital and transnasal approach with additional supports from the paranasal sinuses, and we compared the surgical outcome to that of a conventional transorbital method. Methods A retrospective review of all patients with pure unilateral blowout fractures between March 2007 and March 2013 was conducted. 150 patients were classified into two groups according to the surgical method: conventional transorbital method (group A, 75 patients, control group), and the combination of transorbital and transnasal approach with additional supports from the paranasal sinuses (group B, 75 patients, experimental group). Each group was subdivided depending on fracture location: group I (inferior wall), group IM (inferomedial wall), and group M (medial wall). The surgical results were assessed by the Hertel scale and a comparison of preoperative and postoperative orbital volume ratio (OVR) values. Results In the volumetric analysis, the OVR decreased more by the experimental groups than each corresponding control groups (P<0.05). Upon ophthalmic examination, neither the differences among the groups in the perioperative Hertel scale nor the preoperative and postoperative Hertel scales were statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusions Our surgical results suggest that orbital volume was more effectively restored by the combination of transorbital and transnasal approach with additional supports from the paranasal sinuses than the conventional method, regardless of the type of fracture. PMID:25396181

  5. Unilateral exposure of Shaker B potassium channels to hyperosmolar solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Starkus, J G; Schlief, T; Rayner, M D; Heinemann, S H

    1995-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that ion channels will be affected differently by external (extracellular) versus internal (cytoplasmic) exposure to hyperosmolar media. We looked first for effects on inactivation kinetics in wild-type Shaker B potassium channels. Although external hyperosmolar exposure did not alter the inactivation rate, internal exposure slowed both onset and recovery from fast inactivation. Differential effects on activation kinetics were then characterized by using a noninactivating Shaker B mutant. External hyperosmolar exposure slowed the late rising phase of macroscopic current without affecting the initial delay or early rising phase kinetics. By contrast, internal exposure slowed the initial steps in channel activation with only minimal changes in the later part of the rising phase. Neither external nor internal hyperosmolar exposure affected tail current rates in these noninactivating channels. Additionally, suppression of peak macroscopic current was approximately twofold smaller during external, as compared with internal, hyperosmolar exposure. Single-channel currents, observed under identical experimental conditions, showed a differential suppression equivalent to that seen in macroscopic currents. Apparently, during unilateral hyperosmolar exposure, changes in macroscopic peak current arise primarily from changes in single-channel conductance rather than from changes in equilibrium channel gating. We conclude that unilateral hyperosmolar exposure can provide information concerning the potential structural localization of functional components within ion-channel molecules. Images FIGURE 10 PMID:8519986

  6. Unilateral vestibular failure suppresses cortical visual motion processing.

    PubMed

    Deutschländer, Angela; Hüfner, Katharina; Kalla, Roger; Stephan, Thomas; Dera, Thomas; Glasauer, Stefan; Wiesmann, Martin; Strupp, Michael; Brandt, Thomas

    2008-04-01

    Patients with unilateral vestibular failure (UVF) experience oscillopsia (apparent motion of the visual scene) during rapid head movements due to increased retinal slip caused by vestibulo-ocular reflex impairment. Oscillopsia is always smaller than the net retinal slip and decreases over time in patients with acquired vestibular loss; this correlates with increased thresholds for visual motion detection and increased tolerance to retinal slip. We investigated the underlying cortical adaptive processes using visual motion stimulation during blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI. Optokinetic nystagmus was elicited in seven patients with right-sided and seven patients with left-sided unilateral vestibular neurectomy and in seven age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Patients showed diminished activation of bilateral visual cortex areas (including the motion-sensitive area MT/V5, cuneus, middle occipital, fusiform and lingual areas) and ocular motor regions compared to their controls during visual motion stimulation. Concurrent BOLD signal decreases of temporo-parietal and insular multisensory cortical areas occurred in controls and patients. The diminished activation of visual motion processing areas plausibly reflects an adaptive mechanism that suppresses distressing oscillopsia in patients with UVF and thereby stabilizes the perceived visual surroundings. This study provides for the first time neuroimaging evidence of suppressed cortical visual motion processing in patients with vestibulopathy. PMID:18321924

  7. Unilateral peripheral neuropathic pain: The role of neurodiagnostic skin biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Buonocore, Michelangelo

    2014-01-01

    According to the current definition of neuropathic pain (“pain arising as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system”), the demonstration of a lesion or disease involving the somatosensory system is mandatory for the diagnosis of definite neuropathic pain. Although several methods are currently available for this aim, none is suitable for every type of disease (or lesion). Neurodiagnostic skin biopsy (NSB) is a relatively new technique for the diagnosis of peripheral nerve lesions. It is an objective method, completely independent from the patient’s complaining, based on immunohistochemical staining techniques that allow measurement of the density of the epidermal nerve fibers, currently considered the free nerve endings of small diameter (A-delta and C) afferent fibers. NSB has the important property of being used to investigate the skin, allowing obtaining a diagnosis of small fiber axonal neuropathy of peripheral nerves supplying every body part covered by skin. This feature appears to be very important, particularly in cases of unilateral nerve lesions, because it allows going beyond the possibilities of neurophysiological tests which are available only for a limited number of peripheral nerves. All these characteristics make NSB a precious instrument for the diagnosis of peripheral unilateral neuropathic pain. PMID:24579067

  8. Apparatus for unilateral generation of a homogeneous magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Fukushima, E.; Rath, A.R.; Roeder, S.B.

    1988-01-26

    This patent describes an apparatus for generating within a selected volume a magnetic field having a uniform strength to a selected tolerance, comprising: a first electromagnet coil having a first number of turns N/sub 1/ at a first radius R/sub 1/ with a center of the first coil spaced axially a first distance from the selected volume; a second electromagnet coil axially concentric with and parallel to the first coil and having a second number of turns N/sub 2/ at a second radius R/sub 2/ greater than R/sub 1/ and spaced unilateral of the volume with the first coil a second distance greater than the first distance from the selected volume. The first radius and first distance and the second radius and second distance is functionally related to enable the first and second electromagnet coils to produce first and second electromagnet coils to produce first and second magnetic fields, respectively, having substantially linear gradients within the selected volume. N/sub 1/ and N/sub 2/ are effective when energized with predetermined first and second currents, respectively, to produce equal and opposite gradients of the respective first and second magnetic fields in the unilateral volume and a net magnetic field having a strength within the selected volume effective for nuclear magnetic resonance determinations.

  9. Utricular sensitivity and preponderance assessed by the unilateral centrifugation test.

    PubMed

    Wuyts, Floris L; Hoppenbrouwers, Mieke; Pauwels, Griet; Van de Heyning, Paul H

    2003-01-01

    Utricular sensitivity and preponderance of the right or left utricle can be assessed by means of the unilateral centrifugation test. In this test, subjects are rotated about an earth vertical axis at a velocity of 400 degrees per second. During the ongoing rotation, the subject is gradually translated 4 cm first to the right, and then to the left, along an interaural axis, to a position at which one utricle becomes aligned with the axis of rotation, and at this point is subjected only to gravitational forces. At this eccentric position, the contralateral utricle is exposed to the combination of gravity and a centrifugal acceleration of 0.4g, corresponding to an apparent roll-tilt of 21.7 degrees. This stimulus induces ocular counterrolling (OCR), which is measured on-line using three-dimensional video-oculography (VOG). We observed that ocular counterrolling appears as a linear function of the gravito-inertial acceleration tilt of the head centre (GIA(HC)) during the lateral translation. We present a theoretical model for this linear relationship that contains two parameters: 1) the slope of the linear regression is a measure for the utricular sensitivity and 2) the intercept of the linear regression is a measure of the preponderance of the right or left utricle. The strength of the model is supported by data obtained from 28 healthy subjects and 14 patients with unilateral vestibular deafferentiation (UVD) due to acoustic neuroma surgery. PMID:15096666

  10. Behavioral consequences of unilateral inferior colliculus lesions in the rat.

    PubMed

    Burke, Aaron J; Hatano, Miyako; Kelly, Jack B

    2012-12-01

    This study was carried out to determine the behavioral sensitivity to sound of rats with unilateral lesions of inferior colliculus (IC) located ipsilateral or contralateral to the projection pathway from one ear. Absolute thresholds for the detection of a broad-band noise burst were compared for rats with a profound conductive hearing loss in one ear and a lesion placed either ipsilateral or contralateral to the normally functioning ear. The rats were trained to make withdrawal responses to avoid a shock when they detected the presence of a noise burst. Sound pressure level was systematically lowered to obtain psychophysical curves from which absolute thresholds could be determined. Complete lesions of the contralateral IC resulted in substantial elevations in absolute threshold relative to normal whereas equivalent lesions of the ipsilateral IC produced relatively little elevation. In neither case did unilateral destruction of the IC produce a total inability to respond to sound. Contralateral IC lesions that included the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) produced a significantly greater elevation in behavioral thresholds than complete lesions limited to the IC. The results indicate a predominance of the contralateral over the ipsilateral pathway to IC for maintaining normal thresholds. They also indicate that other pathways that bypass the IC are likely involved in detecting the presence of a sound. PMID:23010333

  11. Unilateral peripheral neuropathic pain: The role of neurodiagnostic skin biopsy.

    PubMed

    Buonocore, Michelangelo

    2014-02-16

    According to the current definition of neuropathic pain ("pain arising as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system"), the demonstration of a lesion or disease involving the somatosensory system is mandatory for the diagnosis of definite neuropathic pain. Although several methods are currently available for this aim, none is suitable for every type of disease (or lesion). Neurodiagnostic skin biopsy (NSB) is a relatively new technique for the diagnosis of peripheral nerve lesions. It is an objective method, completely independent from the patient's complaining, based on immunohistochemical staining techniques that allow measurement of the density of the epidermal nerve fibers, currently considered the free nerve endings of small diameter (A-delta and C) afferent fibers. NSB has the important property of being used to investigate the skin, allowing obtaining a diagnosis of small fiber axonal neuropathy of peripheral nerves supplying every body part covered by skin. This feature appears to be very important, particularly in cases of unilateral nerve lesions, because it allows going beyond the possibilities of neurophysiological tests which are available only for a limited number of peripheral nerves. All these characteristics make NSB a precious instrument for the diagnosis of peripheral unilateral neuropathic pain. PMID:24579067

  12. Unilateral Agenesis of the Lung: A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Urvinderpal; Jhim, Daksh; Kumar, Sunil; Mittal, Vidhu; Singh, Navdeep; Gour, Hitesh; Ramaraj, Muralidharan

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 15 Final Diagnosis: Unilateral agenesis of the lung Symptoms: Sore throat with dry cough Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Cect of the chest and bronchoscopy Specialty: Pulmonology Objective: Congenital defects/diseases Background: Agenesis of the lung, a rare congenital anomaly, arises or develops when there is disruption of evolution of the primitive lung bud, leading to complete absence of the lung, bronchi, and the main pulmonary artery. With right-sided agenesis, a variety of cardiac and other congenital malformations are more commonly seen, leading to a poor prognosis. Case Report: A young female, aged 15 years, presented with complaints of sore throat and cough. Her x-ray of the chest showed a homogeneous opacity in the middle and lower zones on the right side with marked shift of the mediastinum to the right side. Upon investigation, she was diagnosed with agenesis of the right lung with scoliosis, without any other congenital anomaly. Conclusions: Especially in adults, it requires a high level of good clinical judgement to identify and diagnose this congenital aberration, as they are often wrongly diagnosed as more common diseases associated with unilateral opaque hemithorax on x-ray. Hence, when confronted with an opaque hemithorax with shift of the mediastinum to the affected side in a young person, “agenesis of the lung” should be an important differential diagnosis while investigating the case. PMID:25659613

  13. Electroosmotic Phenomena in Fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Marino; D. Coelho; S. Békri; P. M. Adler

    2000-01-01

    Electroosmotic phenomena in fractures have been investigated in the linear limit for various double-layer thicknesses. The effects of the geometrical parameters were systematically studied for deterministic sinusoidal and random self-affine fractures. The numerical results show a definite influence of the surface amplitude on electroosmotic processes. For self-affine fractures, the roughness or Hurst exponent has a much larger incidence than the

  14. Fracture prevention in men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Sambrook; Willem Lems; Piet Geusens

    2009-01-01

    The lifetime risk of experiencing a fracture in 50-year-old men is lower (20%) than the risk in women (50%). Consequently, much less research has been carried out on osteoporosis and fracture risk in men. Differences in the risk and incidence of fractures between men and women are related to differences in bone-related and fall-related factors between the sexes. During the

  15. Simulation of Hydraulic Fractures and their Interactions with Natural Fractures

    E-print Network

    Sesetty, Varahanaresh

    2012-10-19

    Modeling the stimulated reservoir volume during hydraulic fracturing is important to geothermal and petroleum reservoir stimulation. The interaction between a hydraulic fracture and pre-existing natural fractures exerts significant control...

  16. Fracture characterization from attenuation of Stoneley waves across a fracture

    E-print Network

    Bakku, Sudhish Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Fractures contribute significantly to the permeability of a formation. It is important to understand the fracture distribution and fluid transmissivity. Though traditional well logs can image fractures intersecting the ...

  17. Bicycle spoke fracture.

    PubMed

    Roffman, M; Moshel, M; Mendes, D G

    1979-10-01

    Twenty-nine children were treated for bicycle spoke injury, which occurred while they were sitting behind their riding parents. Their feet were caught in between the bicycle spoke and the frame rod. Five of these children suffered supramalleolar fracture. These fractures had a similar radiographic pattern, namely a greenstick fracture of the distal end of the tibia and fibula, buckling into varus and usually also into anterior angulation. Healing of the fractures was uneventful. These injuries are preventable by rigid plastic net covers for the rear wheel of the bicycle. PMID:119600

  18. Natural fracture systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, J.C.; Warpinski, N.R.

    1992-09-01

    The objectives of this program are (1) to develop a basinal-analysis methodology for natural fracture exploration and exploitation, and (2) to determine the important characteristics of natural fracture systems for use in completion, stimulation, and production operations. Natural-fracture basinal analysis begins with studies of fractures in outcrop, core and logs in order to determine the type of fracturing and the relationship of the fractures to the lithologic environment. Of particular interest are the regional fracture systems that are pervasive in western US tight sand basins. A Methodology for applying this analysis is being developed, with the goal of providing a structure for rationally characterizing natural fracture systems basin-wide. Such basin-wide characterizations can then be expanded and supplemented locally, at sites where production may be favorable. Initial application of this analysis is to the Piceance basin where there is a wealth of data from the Multiwell Experiment (MWX), DOE cooperative wells, and other basin studies conducted by Sandia, CER Corporation, and the USGS (Lorenz and Finley, 1989, Lorenz et aI., 1989, and Spencer and Keighin, 1984). Such a basinal approach has been capable of explaining the fracture characteristics found throughout the southern part of the Piceance basin and along the Grand Hogback.

  19. Chart - Fracture Toughness Modulus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ashby, Mike

    2005-01-18

    Chart depicting fracture toughness and Young's modulus of various materials including foams, polymers, elastomers, natural materials, composites, metals, technical ceramics, and non-technical ceramics.

  20. Bilateral Input Protects the Cortex from Unilaterally-Driven Reorganization in Children Who Are Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Karen A.; Wong, Daniel D. E.; Papsin, Blake C.

    2013-01-01

    Unilateral hearing in childhood restricts input along the bilateral auditory pathways, possibly causing permanent reorganization. In this study we asked: (i) do the auditory pathways develop abnormally in children who are bilaterally deaf and hear with a unilateral cochlear implant? and (ii) can such differences be reversed by restoring input to…

  1. Determinants of Autobiographical Memory in Patients with Unilateral Temporal Lobe Epilepsy or Excisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St-Laurent, Marie; Moscovitch, Morris; Levine, Brian; McAndrews, Mary Pat

    2009-01-01

    Patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy from hippocampal origin and patients with unilateral surgical excision of an epileptic focus located in the medial temporal lobe were compared to healthy controls on a version of the Autobiographical Interview (AI) adapted to assess memory for event-specific and generic personal episodes. For both…

  2. Changes in Fos expression in the rat brain after unilateral lesions of the anterior thalamic nuclei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trisha A. Jenkins; Rebecca Dias; Eman Amin; John P. Aggleton

    2002-01-01

    Activity of the immediate early gene c-fos was compared across hemispheres in rats with unilateral anterior thalamic lesions. Fos protein was quantified after rats performed a spatial working memory test in the radial-arm maze, a task that is sensitive to bilateral lesions of the anterior thalamic nuclei. Unilateral anterior thalamic lesions produced evidence of a widespread hippocampal hypoactivity, as there

  3. Song Recognition by Young Children with Cochlear Implants: Comparison between Unilateral, Bilateral, and Bimodal Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartov, Tamar; Most, Tova

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine song identification by preschoolers with normal hearing (NH) versus preschoolers with cochlear implants (CIs). Method: Participants included 45 children ages 3;8-7;3 (years;months): 12 with NH and 33 with CIs, including 10 with unilateral CI, 14 with bilateral CIs, and 9 bimodal users (CI-HA) with unilateral CI and…

  4. Asymmetric pigment dispersion in a patient with the unilateral adie pupil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shashidhar Murthy; Nick Hawksworth

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: Pigmentary glaucoma is a bilateral disorder. When it occurs asymmetrically or unilaterally, a cause should be sought because it may help us to understand the pathophysiology of this condition better. We describe a patient with unilateral pigmentary glaucoma and the Adie pupil in the same eye and discuss the possible role of the Adie pupil in the development of

  5. Hypermetabolism in the ventrolateral thalamus in unilateral Parkinsonian resting tremor: a positron emission tomography study

    E-print Network

    Hypermetabolism in the ventrolateral thalamus in unilateral Parkinsonian resting tremor: a positron unilateral resting tremor using Żuorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography coregistered to 3-dimensional:001) was found in the anterior ventrolateral nuclear group of the thalamus located contralateral to the tremor

  6. U.S. Unilateralism and the International Protection of Religious Freedom: The Multilateral Alternative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter G. Danchin

    2002-01-01

    This article considers the tension in U.S. foreign policy between unilateral and multilateral approaches to the promotion and protection of religious freedom. In particular, it analyzes the recently enacted International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 that seeks to enforce international human rights norms through the imposition of unilateral sanctions on foreign countries that deny religious freedom and persecute religious groups.

  7. A BOUNDARY VARIATIONAL INEQUALITY APPROACH TO UNILATERAL CONTACT WITH HEMITROPIC MATERIALS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gachechiladze; R. Gachechiladze; D. Natroshvili

    2007-01-01

    We study unilateral frictionless contact problems with hemitropic ma- terials in the theory of linear elasticity. We model these problems as unilateral (Signorini type) boundary value problems, give their variational formulation as spatial variational inequalities, and transform them to boundary variational in- equalities with the help of the potential method for hemitropic materials. Using the self-adjointness of the Steklov-Poincare operator,

  8. Detrusorrhaphy for repair of unilateral vesicoureteral reflux: report of 76 patients using a modified technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Mevorach; Paul A. Merguerian; Anthony H. Balcolm

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To present our results for repair of unilateral vesicoureteral reflux in 76 children using a modified technique of detrusorrhaphy.Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed for 76 children who underwent repair of unilateral vesicoureteral reflux by a modified technique of detrusorrhaphy. Of the 76 refluxing ureters, 12 were associated with historically refluxing contralateral ureters. In addition, 72\\/76 were grades

  9. Is Making Divorce Easier Bad for Children? The Long-Run Implications of Unilateral Divorce

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Gruber

    2004-01-01

    I assess the long-run implications for children of growing up in a unilateral divorce environment, which increases the ease of divorce by not requiring the explicit consent of both partners. Using 40 years of census data to exploit the variation across states and over time in changes in divorce regulation, I confirm that unilateral divorce regulations do significantly increase the

  10. A bonded functional ramp to aid in asymmetric expansion of unilateral posterior crossbites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian R. Kenworthy; Rose D. Sheats

    2001-01-01

    Unilateral posterior crossbite is a common finding in patients seeking orthodontic treatment. When treating this condition with a rapid maxillary expander, clinicians occasionally observe no resolution of the crossbite and document an unnecessary overexpansion of the contralateral dentition. This article describes a method for treating unilateral posterior crossbite and, specifically, the lack of crossbite correction after expansion with a rapid

  11. An evaluation of mandibular asymmetry in adults with unilateral posterior crossbite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian L. O'Byrn; Cyril Sadowsky; Bernard Schneider; Ellen A. BeGole

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to determine whether mandibular symmetry in adults with untreated unilateral posterior crossbite was different from that found in adults with untreated Class I malocclusions. Thirty adults, 18 years or older, with a unilateral posterior crossbite were compared with 30 adults exhibiting Angle Class I malocclusions. Skeletal and dental symmetry were assessed with submentovertex (SMV) radiographs,

  12. ATIVIDADE ELETROMIOGRÁFICA DOS MÚSCULOS MASSETER E TEMPORAL ANTERIOR DE CRIANÇAS COM MORDIDA CRUZADA POSTERIOR UNILATERAL (MCPu)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. C. Chaves; Débora Bevilaqua Grossi

    EMG activity of Masseter and Anterior Temporalis muscles in children with unilateral posterior crossbite Background: Unilateral posterior crossbite (UPCB) may be related to the development of neuromuscular alterations of the stomatognathic system. However, no pattern has yet been determined in the literature for the electrical activity of the mastica tory muscles in children with UPCB. Objective: To compare the electromyographic

  13. Unilateral Posterior Crossbite is Not Associated with TMJ Clicking in Young Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Farella; A. Michelotti; G. Iodice; S. Milani; R. Martina

    2007-01-01

    Unilateral posterior crossbite has been considered as a risk factor for temporomandibular joint clicking, with conflicting findings. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible association between unilateral posterior crossbite and temporomandibular disk displacement with reduction, by means of a survey carried out in young adolescents recruited from three schools. The sample included 1291 participants (708 males and

  14. Mandibular asymmetry and condylar position in children with unilateral posterior crossbite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter H. Lam; Cyril Sadowsky; Frank Omerza

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine if condylar position in children with functional unilateral crossbites was different from that found in children with Class I noncrossbite malocclusions and if there was a change in condylar position after correction of the crossbite by palatal expansion. Mandibular asymmetry in children with functional unilateral posterior crossbite was also compared to

  15. Postural responses to vibration of neck muscles in patients with unilateral vestibular lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantin Popov; Hamid Lekhel; Adolfo Bronstein; Michael Gresty

    1996-01-01

    Postural responses to vibration applied unilaterally to dorsal neck muscles were recorded with a sway platform in nine patients with unilateral vestibular lesions and 19 normal subjects. In normals, the vibration induced a forward postural deviation. In patients, vibration of the neck contralateral to the lesion induced normal forward sway, whereas ipsilateral vibration resulted in sway of lower amplitude than

  16. Until Death Do You Part: The Effects of Unilateral Divorce on Spousal Homicides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas S. Dee

    2003-01-01

    This study examines how the widespread adoption of unilateral divorce influenced the prevalence of lethal spousal violence in the United States. These evaluations are based on fixed-effects specifications for spousal homicide counts from an annual panel of U.S. states from 1968 to 1978. The results indicate that unrestricted unilateral divorce laws had small and statistically insignificant effects on the amount

  17. Unilateral neck exploration for primary hyperparathyroidism: Analysis of a controversy using a mathematical model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quan-Yang Duh; Per Udén; Orlo H. Clark

    1992-01-01

    Most endocrine surgeons explore both sides of the neck and identify all parathyroid glands when operating on patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Others, however, advocate the unilateral approach, i.e., if an adenoma and a normal gland are identified, the contralateral side is not explored. We analyzed the strategy of the unilateral approach using a mathematical model to determine the variables that

  18. Longitudinal Development of Hand Function in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmefur, Marie; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Bergstrom, Jakob; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe how the usefulness of the hemiplegic hand develops in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP) aged between 18 months and 8 years. Method: A prospective longitudinal study of 43 children (22 males, 21 females) with unilateral CP was conducted. Inclusion age was 18 months to 5 years 4 months (mean 2y…

  19. Molecular genetic analysis of the NF2 gene in young patients with unilateral vestibular schwannomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Mohyuddin; W J Neary; A Wallace; C L Wu; S Purcell; H Reid; R T Ramsden; A Read; G Black; D G R Evans

    2002-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) must be suspected in patients presenting with a unilateral vestibular schwannoma at a young age who are therefore at theoretical risk of developing bilateral disease. We identified 45 patients aged 30 years or less at the onset of symptoms of a unilateral vestibular schwannoma. Molecular genetic analysis of the NF2 gene was completed on peripheral blood

  20. Preliminary speech recognition results after cochlear implantation in patients with unilateral hearing loss: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Cochlear implants known to provide support in individuals with bilateral hearing loss may also be of great benefit for individuals with unilateral hearing loss. This case report demonstrates the positive effects of cochlear implantation on speech understanding in noise conditions in patients with unilateral hearing loss and normal hearing on the contralateral side. To the best of our knowledge, the data presented here are from the first few cases to receive a cochlear implant for unilateral hearing loss. Case presentation Four Caucasian German men, two aged 48 and the others aged 51 and 57 years old, with post-lingual unilateral hearing loss and normal hearing on the contralateral side were implanted with a cochlear implant. All our patients were members of the German army. Before and after implantation, they were given a battery of speech tests in different hearing conditions to assess the effect of unilateral cochlear implantation on speech understanding in noise conditions. Test results showed that all patients benefited from unilateral cochlear implantation, particularly in terms of speech understanding in noise conditions. Conclusions Unilateral cochlear implantation might be a successful treatment method for patients with unilateral hearing loss not benefiting from alternative treatment options. The results of this case report open up the field of cochlear implantation for expanded criteria and new areas of research. PMID:21810235

  1. Anti-DKK1 antibody promotes bone fracture healing through activation of ?-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hongting; Wang, Baoli; Li, Jia; Xie, Wanqing; Mao, Qiang; Li, Shan; Dong, Fuqiang; Sun, Yan; Ke, Hua-Zhu; Babij, Philip; Tong, Peijian; Chen, Di

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated if Wnt/?-catenin signaling in mesenchymal progenitor cells plays a role in bone fracture repair and if DKK1-Ab promotes fracture healing through activation of ?-catenin signaling. Unilateral open transverse tibial fractures were created in CD1 mice and in ?-cateninPrx1ER conditional knockout (KO) and Cre-negative control mice (C57BL/6 background). Bone fracture callus tissues were collected and analyzed by radiography, micro-CT (?CT), histology, biomechanical testing and gene expression analysis. The results demonstrated that treatment with DKK1-Ab promoted bone callus formation and increased mechanical strength during the fracture healing processinCD1 mice. DKK1-Ab enhanced fracture repair by activation of endochondral ossification. The normal rate of bone repair was delayed when the ?-catenin gene was conditionally deleted in mesenchymal progenitor cells during the early stages of fracture healing. DKK1-Ab appeared to act through ?-catenin signaling to enhance bone repair since the beneficial effect of DKK1-Ab was abrogated in ?-cateninPrx1ER conditional KO mice. Further understanding of the signaling mechanism of DKK1-Ab in bone formation and bone regeneration may facilitate the clinical translation of this anabolic agent into therapeutic intervention. PMID:25263522

  2. Microdensitometric and microarchitectural alterations in irradiated mandibular fracture repair.

    PubMed

    Inyang, Alero F; Tchanque-Fossuo, Catherine N; Merati, Miesha; Radzolsky, Elizabeth R; Buchman, Steven R

    2014-11-01

    Head and neck cancer most often requires a multimodality approach to treatment that includes the use of radiotherapy. Unfortunately, radiation treatment can cause significant locoregional adverse effects with the particularly debilitating sequelae of late pathologic fracture. We aimed to define comprehensive metrics that will allow us to evaluate the efficacy of therapies aimed at assuaging the damaging effects of radiation on fracture healing.Six male rats (XRT/Fx) received a 36-Gy preoperative radiation dose delivered in 10 fractions over 10 days to their left hemimandible, whereas 6 other rats were not irradiated (Fx). After a recovery period, a unilateral osteotomy was performed with external distractor placement set to a 2.1-mm fracture gap on all the animals. Following a 28-day consolidation interval, mandibles were harvested and scanned via micro-computed tomography. Radiomorphometrics were extracted and analyzed with significance at P < 0.05.A quantifiable decrease in bone volume fraction (73.9% vs 78.6%; P < 0.05) was observed in XRT/Fx compared with Fx, without significant change in bone mineral density. Microarchitectural metrics were significantly altered in XRT/Fx compared with Fx, specifically trabecular thickness (0.37 vs 0.30 µm; P = 0.01), trabecular number (2.18 vs 2.45 N/mm; P = 0.04), and bone surface-bone volume ratio (5.50 vs 6.70; P = 0.01).We found that the irradiated and fractured bone demonstrated a significant diminution in bone quality and strength. We have established predictable and reliable radiographic measures that quantitatively demonstrate the degradative effects of radiation on fracture repair. We can now utilize these comprehensive metrics to evaluate the benefits of therapeutic interventions to remediate the damaging effects of radiation on fracture healing. PMID:25304138

  3. Unilateral cross bite treated by corticotomy-assisted expansion: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background True unilateral posterior crossbite in adults is a challenging malocclusion to treat. Conventional expansion methods are expected to have some shortcomings. The aim of this paper is to introduce a new technique for treating unilateral posterior crossbite in adults, namely, corticotomy-assisted expansion (CAE) applied on two adult patients: one with a true unilateral crossbite and the other with an asymmetrical bilateral crossbite, both treated via modified corticotomy techniques and fixed orthodontic appliances. Methods Two cases with asymmetric maxillary constriction were treated using CAE. Results In both cases, effective asymmetrical expansion was achieved using CAE, and functional occlusion was established as well. Conclusions Unilateral CAE presents an effective and reliable technique to treat true unilateral crossbite. PMID:20482859

  4. Fracture After Total Hip Replacement

    MedlinePLUS

    ... American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. • Dislocation • Limb length inequality • Poor fracture healing • Repeat fracture • Lack of in- ... Surgeons (AAOS). To learn more about your orthopaedic health, please visit orthoinfo.org. Fracture A er Total ...

  5. Scaphoid Non-Union Fracture

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Anatomy Find a Hand Surgeon Scaphoid Non-Union Fracture Email to a friend * required fields From * To * ... customize your collection. DESCRIPTION A scaphoid non-union fracture refers to a wrist fracture that is failing ...

  6. Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain More than 40 million people in the ... bones that puts them at risk for spine fractures (broken bones). Thinning of the bones can occur ...

  7. Clavicle Fracture (Broken Collarbone)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can occur during the passage through the birth canal. Symptoms Clavicle fractures can be very painful and ... it in position while it heals. Medication Pain medication, including acetaminophen, can help relieve pain as the fracture heals. Physical Therapy While you are wearing the sling, you will ...

  8. Rib fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePLUS

    A rib fracture is a crack or break in one or more of your rib bones. Your ribs are the round, ... A rib fracture can be very painful because your ribs move when you breathe, cough, and move your upper body. The ...

  9. Ununited lower limb fractures.

    PubMed Central

    Csongradi, J J; Maloney, W J

    1989-01-01

    Nonunion is a fairly common complication of fracture management, with an overall rate of about 3% for the skeleton as a whole and 9% for the tibia. High-energy injury fractures have a nonunion rate as high as 75%. Other factors that may lead to nonunion are inappropriate treatment, infection, and preexisting disease. The diagnosis of nonunion is based largely on clinical examination. Plain radiographs and tomograms, computed tomograms, and contrast imaging may be used to confirm nonhealing. Radionuclide imaging can help determine the presence of infection, an impaired blood supply, or impaired osteogenic activity at the fracture site. The treatment of ununited fractures is based on the principles of good fracture management: adequate immobilization, asepsis and soft tissue cover, osteoconduction (bone contact), osteoinduction (stimulation of bone growth), and metabolic well-being. New modalities for osteoinduction are promising adjuncts to standard treatment, the autogenous bone graft, but conclusive proof of efficacy in humans does not yet exist. Images PMID:2665320

  10. Dynamic fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, A. S.; Ramulu, M.

    1985-01-01

    Dynamic fracture and crack propagation concepts for ductile materials are reviewed. The equations for calculating dynamic stress integrity and the dynamic energy release rate in order to study dynamic crack propagation are provided. The stress intensity factor versus crack velocity relation is investigated. The uses of optical experimental techniques and finite element methods for fracture analyses are described. The fracture criteria for a rapidly propagating crack under mixed mode conditions are discussed; crack extension and fracture criteria under combined tension and shear loading are based on maximum circumferential stress or energy criteria such as strain energy density. The development and use of a Dugdale model and finite element models to represent crack and fracture dynamics are examined.

  11. Unilateral calf pain in the pediatric emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, Mary C.; Walker, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Unilateral calf swelling and pain is not a common complaint in the pediatric emergency department. We present a case of a 17-year-old male with no past medical history who presented with left leg swelling and pain while taking prednisone and isotretinoin. He was found to have an extensive occlusive thrombus throughout the deep venous system in his left leg. He was later diagnosed with May-Thurner syndrome, an anatomic variant in which the right iliac artery compresses the left iliac vein. We review the differential diagnosis, diagnostic work-up and initial ED management of deep venous thrombosis and provide a brief discussion of May-Thurner syndrome and the association of isotretinoin and vascular thrombi. PMID:21293221

  12. Isolated Unilateral Ptosis due to Paramedian Midbrain Infarction.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Eriko; Nakamura, Haruko; Endo, Masanao; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Tatsuya

    2015-05-01

    A 59-year-old man who had hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and left eye glaucoma developed sudden vertigo and left ptosis; he did not notice diplopia. He visited our hospital on day 3 after onset and neurologic examination showed left ptosis. His left visual acuity was counting fingers, and the light reflex was sluggish owing to glaucoma. Pupil sizes were equal, and eye movements and the lower lid were unremarkable. Magnetic resonance images revealed an acute infarction of the left paramedian midbrain. We considered that selective damage to the oculomotor fascicles innervating the left levator palpebrae superioris caused ipsilateral ptosis. As the fascicles for this ocular muscle run in the small area adjacent to those for the medial rectus, inferior rectus and superior rectus muscles, this is an extremely rare case of midbrain infarction presenting with isolated unilateral ptosis. PMID:25817621

  13. Unilateral piriformis syndrome in a patient with previous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Lam, A W; Thompson, J F; McCarthy, W H

    1993-02-01

    Several years after undergoing surgery for a malignant melanoma on his left lower back, a 51 year old man developed intermittently severe pain in his left posterior thigh. Plain X-rays showed no abnormality, but computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated an abnormal soft tissue mass in the left sciatic notch. Although a metastasis from the original melanoma was suspected, exploration of the suspicious area revealed only hypertrophy of the left piriformis muscle. This was due to regular gymnasium exercises designed to selectively build up the musculature of the left lower limb, which the patient had undertaken in the firm belief that it would help to prevent a recurrence of his left-sided melanoma. Complete relief of the unilateral piriformis syndrome was achieved by division of the hypertrophied piriformis muscle, thereby relieving the pressure on the left sciatic nerve as it passed through the greater sciatic foramen. PMID:8297307

  14. Congenital Unilateral Corneal Anaesthesia with Microphthalmos: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Voyatzis, George; Mukherjee, Achyut; Rajan, Madhavan S.; Allen, Louise E.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital corneal anaesthesia (CCA) is an uncommon condition difficult to diagnose. We report the case of a 20-month-old boy who presented with unilateral congenital corneal anaesthesia. The child was referred with a persistent corneal epithelial defect, unresponsive to symptomatic local treatment for over 10 months. Intensive topical treatment and strict corneal protection led to quick corneal healing. Congenital corneal anaesthesia occurs either alone or in association with neurological diseases or systemic congenital abnormalities. It is important to search for corneal anaesthesia in children with chronic ulcerations of the cornea and self-inflicted injuries. Early diagnosis and treatment are important due to the risk of poor visual prognosis. Management of CCA should aim for the prevention of epithelial defects and is a life-long process. PMID:22606500

  15. Unilateral duplication of vas deferens: a cadaveric case report

    PubMed Central

    Sirasanagandla, Srinivasa Rao; Nayak, Satheesha B.; Jetti, Raghu

    2013-01-01

    Duplication of vas deferens is a rare congenital anomaly. All previously reported cases of this rare anomaly were identified during procedures such as orchiepexy, inguinal hernia repair, vasectomy, varicocoelectomy, and radical prostatectomy. Here, we report a case of unilateral duplicated vas deferens noted in an adult cadaver during regular dissection for medical students. The right spermatic cord contained 2 separate and completely developed cord-like structures. Both cords communicated separately with the tail of the epididymis. When traced cranially, both traversed the inguinal canal as content of the spermatic cord and finally fused at the level of the deep inguinal ring. No other variations were found in the testis or epididymis, and no variations were seen in the left spermatic cord. In addition, no associated renal abnormalities were noted. PMID:23560239

  16. Apparatus for unilateral generation of a homogeneous magnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Fukushima, Eiichi (Los Alamos, NM); Rath, Alan R. (San Diego, CA); Roeder, Stephen B. W. (La Mesa, CA)

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for unilaterally producing a substantially homogeneous magnetic field. The apparatus includes two circular electromagnet coils, a small coil and a large coil, which are coaxial with one another and which are separated by a distance equal to one-half the difference in the radius of the two coils. By appropriate selection of electrical currents, which are passed through the coil in opposite directions, a region of homogeneous magnetic field is formed. This region is centered on the common axis of the two coils, at a point on the axis which is at a distance from the small coil equal to one-half the radius of the small coil, and which is on the opposite side of the small coil from the large coil. The apparatus has particular application in the field of diagnostic medical NMR and other NMR applications.

  17. Apparatus for unilateral generation of a homogeneous magnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Fukushima, E.; Rath, A.R.; Roeder, S.B.W.

    1984-05-01

    An apparatus for unilaterally producing a substantially homogeneous magnetic field. The apparatus includes two circular electromagnet coils, a small coil and a large coil, which are coaxial with one another and which are separated by a distance equal to one-half the difference in the radius of the two coils. By appropriate selection of electrical currents, which are passed through the coils in opposite directions, a region of homogeneous magnetic field is formed. This region is centered on the common axis of the two coils, at a point on the axis which is at a distance from the small coil equal to one-half the radius of the small coil, and which is on the opposite side of the small coil from the large coil. The apparatus has particular application in the field of diagnostic medical NMR and other NMR applications.

  18. Unilateral and bilateral laparoscopic ovariectomy of mares by electrocautery.

    PubMed

    Smith, L J; Mair, T S

    2008-09-01

    Twelve horses underwent standing laparoscopic ovariectomy using electrocoagulation and fine dissection as the only means of achieving haemostasis of the severed ovarian pedicle. Four mares had bilateral ovariectomy performed as a treatment for aggressive behaviour thought to be associated with the oestrous cycle. Eight mares had unilateral ovariectomy performed for removal of a granulosa thecal cell tumour (GCT). Electrocoagulation provided an effective means of haemostasis in both normal and pathological ovaries. Only one case (removal of a GCT) had mild haemorrhage following electrocoagulation, necessitating the need for the application of endoscopic clips to achieve haemostasis. Six of the horses developed minor wound complications (none of them requiring any additional treatment). Long-term follow-up information showed complete resolution of abnormal behaviour in all eight horses with GCTs, but in one of the four horses with normal ovaries the aggressive behaviour had not been completely resolved. PMID:18776175

  19. Overexpanded viscous supersonic jet interacting with a unilateral barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrynin, B. M.; Maslennikov, V. G.; Sakharov, V. A.; Serova, E. V.

    1986-07-01

    The interaction of a two-dimensional supersonic jet with a unilateral barrier parallel to the flow symmetry plane was studied to account for effects due to gas viscosity and backgound-gas ejection from the region into which the jet expands. In the present experiments, the incident shock wave was reflected at the end of a shock tube equipped with a nozzle. The jet emerged into a pressure chamber 6 cu m in volume and the environmental pressure ratio of the flow in the quasi-stationary phase remained constant. The light source was an OGM-20 laser operating in the giant-pulse mode. Due to background-gas ejection, the gas density in the vicinity of the barrier is much less than on the unconfined side of the jet. The resulting flow is characterized by two distinct environmental pressure ratios: the flow is underexpanded near the barrier, while on the other side it is overexpanded.

  20. Adaptations to unilateral lower limb suspension in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Gary A.; Duvoisin, Marc R.; Adams, Gregory R.; Meyer, Ronald A.; Belew, Anne H.; Buchanan, Paul

    1992-01-01

    The effect of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS) on neuromuscular function in humans is analyzed. All ambulatory activity on crutches was performed by eight subjects for 6 weeks who wear a shoe with a 10 cm sole on the right foot to unweight the left lower limb. Results show that average muscle cross sectional area (CSA) of the left knee extensor (KE) decreased 16 percent whereas the KE of the nonsuspended right limb showed no changes. Maximal integrated electromyography of vastus lateralis and overall mean power frequency of gastrocnemius medialis and soleus for submaximal isometric actions were both decreased post-ULLS. It is concluded that six weeks of ULLS induces adaptations in the neuromuscular system of humans which are comparable to those induced by bed rest and spaceflight.

  1. Emotional Perception of Music in Children with Unilateral Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Shirvani, Sareh; Jafari, Zahra; Sheibanizadeh, Abdolreza; Motasaddi Zarandy, Masoud; Jalaie, Shohre

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cochlear implantation (CI) improves language skills among children with hearing loss. However, children with CIs still fall short of fulfilling some other needs, including musical perception. This is often attributed to the biological, technological, and acoustic limitations of CIs. Emotions play a key role in the understanding and enjoyment of music. The present study aimed to investigate the emotional perception of music in children with bilaterally severe-to-profound hearing loss and unilateral CIs. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five children with congenital severe-to-profound hearing loss and unilateral CIs and 30 children with normal hearing participated in the study. The children’s emotional perceptions of music, as defined by Peretz (1998), were measured. Children were instructed to indicate happy or sad feelings fostered in them by the music by pointing to pictures of faces showing these emotions. Results: Children with CI obtained significantly lower scores than children with normal hearing, for both happy and sad items of music as well as in overall test scores (P<0.001). Furthermore, both in CI group (P=0.49) and the control one (P<0.001), the happy items were more often recognized correctly than the sad items. Conclusion: Hearing-impaired children with CIs had poorer emotional perception of music than their normal peers. Due to the importance of music in the development of language, cognitive and social interaction skills, aural rehabilitation programs for children with CIs should focus particularly on music. Furthermore, it is essential to enhance the quality of musical perception by improving the quality of implant prostheses. PMID:25320700

  2. Eye Socket Fracture (Fracture of the Orbit)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... including eye socket fractures, occur each year in the United States. About 85% of these injuries happen by accident, during contact sports, at work, in car crashes or while doing home repair projects. About 15% are ... more often than women do. The average age of the injured person is about ...

  3. The footballer's fracture

    PubMed Central

    Cattermole, H R; Hardy, J R W; Gregg, P J

    1996-01-01

    Objective To describe the typical tibial diaphyseal fracture (“footballer's fracture”) and to clarify the circumstances and mechanism of the injury. Methods In an attempt to obtain a detailed analysis of the types of injury suffered, and thereby highlight areas for prevention, 100 consecutive adult football players with a tibial diaphyseal fracture were studied prospectively. Details of the circumstances and mechanism of injury were collected using a questionnaire (response rate 85%). Treatments depended on the Gustilo classification, displacement, and axial stability. Long term follow up was performed until clinical healing to define the overall prognosis. Results 61% of players suffered a fracture of both the tibia and the fibula. Ninety five percent of the tibial fractures were transverse or short oblique and were caused by impact during a tackle. Radiographic evidence of bridging callus was better than a classification of the bony injury for predicting weeks to clinical healing. The delayed union and non-union incidence following this injury is low. One patient suffered symptomatic shortening. One patient suffered symptomatic angulation and two patients with non-union required bone grafting. Conclusions Tibial fracture is an expensive injury. It prevents a young population from being employed and takes up valuable NHS resources. As 85% of players were wearing shin guards, it is likely that improvements in shin guard design could reduce the rate of tibial fracture. PMID:8799606

  4. Tibial fractures in children

    PubMed Central

    Palmu, Sauli A; Auro, Sampo; Lohman, Martina; Paukku, Reijo T; Peltonen, Jari I; Nietosvaara, Yrjänä

    2014-01-01

    Background Tibial fracture is the third most common long-bone fracture in children. Traditionally, most tibial fractures in children have been treated non-operatively, but there are no long-term results. Methods 94 children (64 boys) were treated for a tibial fracture in Aurora City Hospital during the period 1980–89 but 20 could not be included in the study. 58 of the remaining 74 patients returned a written questionnaire and 45 attended a follow-up examination at mean 27 (23–32) years after the fracture. Results 89 children had been treated by manipulation under anesthesia and cast-immobilization, 4 by skeletal traction, and 1 with pin fixation. 41 fractures had been re-manipulated. The mean length of hospital stay was 5 (1–26) days. Primary complications were recorded in 5 children. The childrens’ memories of treatment were positive in two-thirds of cases. The mean subjective VAS score (range 0–10) for function appearance was 9. Leg-length discrepancy (5–10 mm) was found clinically in 10 of 45 subjects and rotational deformities exceeding 20° in 4. None of the subjects walked with a limp. None had axial malalignment exceeding 10°. Osteoarthritis of the hip and/or knee was seen in radiographs from 2 subjects. Interpretation The long-term outcome of tibial fractures in children treated non-operatively is generally good. PMID:24786903

  5. Analysis of Sidewalk Fractures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Charles Onasch

    Sidewalks provide a good analog for the study of fractures when outcrops are not available. This exercise is taught as the first lab of the semester in an undergraduate structural geology course. Students learn to make systematic observations, measure the orientation and location of fractures, manipulate and analyze data, and consider some kinematic and dynamic questions regarding the origin and significance of fractures. Their experiences are also used later in the course to reinforce key concepts of brittle deformation. Done as a group project, it emphasizes the importance of group work and encourages students to propose and defend their ideas.

  6. Sunspots and hip fractures.

    PubMed

    Caniggia, M; Scala, C

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a remarkable statistical link between sunspot cycles and prevalence of hip fractures in the elderly is shown. Hip fractures in old people are due to: 1. increased bone fragility for metabolic bone disease; 2. increased propension to fall. Though it is obvious that a correlation does not imply any causal relationship, reasonable conjectures can be allowed. The hypothesis of an 11-year cyclic variation of ultraviolet radiation as a cause of hip fractures is untenable; one may better assume that solar flares can negatively influence the nervous postural regulation leading to a greater propensity to accidental falls. PMID:1935412

  7. THE FRACTURE OF ICE Ih

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. SCHULSON

    1987-01-01

    The brittle fracture of ice is considered from a physical viewpoint. Fracture under uniaxial tension is discussed in terms of crack nucleation and crack propagation. Fracture under uniaxial compression is described in tenns of fracture toughness, end constraint, Coulombic friction, and crack interactions within a shear fault. Models are presented and are compared with experimental results.

  8. Mechanical Coal-Face Fracturer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Radial points on proposed drill bit take advantage of natural fracture planes of coal. Radial fracture points retracted during drilling and impacted by piston to fracture coal once drilling halts. Group of bits attached to array of pneumatic drivers to fracture large areas of coal face.

  9. Other non-vertebral fractures.

    PubMed

    Hagino, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Non-vertebral non-hip (NVNH) fractures account for 90% of all fractures in patients up to 80 years of age and for 59% thereafter. There is a significant relationship between reductions in peripheral bone mineral density and the risk of fractures at various NVNH sites except for the face. Fractures of the clavicle, upper arm, forearm, spine, ribs, hip, pelvis, upper leg and lower leg elevate the risk of future fractures. Among NVNH fractures in women aged 80 years or over, forearm fractures have the highest incidence, and proximal humerus fractures have the second highest incidence. There is a large variation in incidence across geographical regions, with incidence higher in Northern Europe and lower in Asia and Africa. NVNH fractures are associated with higher mortality and significantly higher health-care costs than controls with osteoporosis. Reductions in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for women with major NVNH fractures are of a similar magnitude as reductions for women with incident hip fractures; however, forearm fractures do not significantly affect HRQOL. Therapeutic options for NVNH fractures differ by fracture location. The recent development of implants for internal fixation made it a more popular choice for treating distal radius and proximal humerus fractures; however, treatment decisions should take into account patient age, activity levels, co-morbidities and injury characteristics. The recent increase in the number of patients with osteoporotic pelvic fractures is drastic, although they can generally be treated non-surgically with pain management and mobilisation. PMID:24836332

  10. Pediatric Facial Fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. J. O-Lee; Peter J. Koltai

    \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Falls, motor vehicle accidents, and sports-related activities are the leading causes of facial trauma in children.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Children below 6 years of age suffer more orbital roof and skull fractures than facial fractures due to proportionally larger\\u000a cranial volume.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Nasal and dentoalveolar fractures are the most common facial fractures in children. Nasal septal hematoma need to be detected

  11. Tibia (Shinbone) Shaft Fractures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of treatment options. Cast and functional brace. One proven nonsurgical treatment method is to immobilize the fracture ... reasonable results, having implants outside the body has proven to be somewhat unpopular with many patients and ...

  12. Metatarsal stress fractures - aftercare

    MedlinePLUS

    ... McCormack RG, Lopez CA. Commonly encountered fractures in sports medicine. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2014:chap. ...

  13. Stress fractures in athletes.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Amon T; Graves, Timothy; Theodore, George H; Gill, Thomas J

    2010-06-01

    Stress fractures that occur in the young active population typically represent an overuse injury, and may lead to prolonged periods of restriction from play if they are not treated appropriately. Several risk factors have been identified and must be addressed when treating these patients. Low-risk stress fractures can be successfully treated with activity restriction and a stepwise return to sport. Several pharmacologic and nonoperative treatment modalities have been described. However, high-risk stress fractures are more difficult to treat because they may have an increased rate of delay and nonunion, and often require surgical stabilization. When treating an athlete with a stress fracture, the objective is a safe and quick return to sport; therefore, special considerations must be made in this population, particularly when dealing with the in-season athlete. PMID:20631470

  14. Creation of multiple sequential hydraulic fractures via hydraulic fracturing combined with controlled pulse fracturing

    SciTech Connect

    Uhri, D.C.

    1988-01-12

    A method for creating multiple sequential hydraulic fractures via hydraulic fracturing combined with controlled pulse fracturing is described comprising: (a) creating more than two simultaneous multiple vertical radial fractures via a controlled pulse fracturing method; (b) applying thereafter hydraulic pressure to the formation in an amount sufficient to fracture; (c) maintaining the hydraulic pressure on the formation while pumping alternate slugs of a thin-fluid spacer and a temporary blocking agent having a proppant therein into the fracture; (d) maintaining the hydraulic pressure on the formation while pumping alternate slugs of the thin-fluid spacer and the blocking agent into the second hydraulic fracture; (e) maintaining the hydraulic pressure on the formation while pumping alternate slugs of the thin-fluid spacer and the blocking agent into the last formed hydraulic fracture; (f) maintaining the hydraulic pressure on the formation while pumping alternate slugs of the thin-fluid spacer and the blocking agent into the last formed hydraulic fracture to cause the last formed hydraulic fracture to propagate away from the previously formed hydraulic fractures in a curved trajectory which eventually becomes substantially perpendicular to the original least principal in-situ stress due to the interaction of the original in-situ stresses and stresses from previously formed hydraulic fractures with the last formed hydraulic fracture; and (g) repeating steps (e) and (f) until a desired number of curved sequential hydraulic fractures are created as extensions to the multiple vertical radial fractures obtained in step (a).

  15. Fractals and Fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackin, Thomas James

    1990-01-01

    Fractal geometry can describe the complex texture of many natural objects, the description being summarized by a key parameter: fractal dimension. In previous work, the fractal dimension of several ceramic fracture surfaces was empirically related to fracture toughness by rm K_{Ic} ~ (D-1)^ {1/2} where D is the dimension of a contour line of the fracture surface. This equation states that an increase in fractal dimension is accompanied by an increase in fracture toughness. A fractal modification of Griffith's energy balance approach is derived and results in a theoretical relationship between toughness and fractal dimension of the fracture surface:rm K_ {Ic} = sqrt{2Egamma_{s }} sqrt{(D-1)} sqrt {{bf c}^{D-2}} sqrt{a_sp{0}{2-D }}where gamma_ {rm s} is the thermodynamic surface energy, c is the flaw size, a_0 is a characteristic length parameter and D is the dimension of the fracture surface. This equation differs from the empirical K_{rm Ic} -D relationship, but does verify a toughness-fractal dimension relationship. This thesis investigates the use of fractal dimension as a descriptive parameter in brittle fracture. Several key issues are addressed including the relationship between contour and surface dimensions, a derivation of the fractal Griffith equation, an experimental investigation of dimension as a function of flaw-to-grain size ratio, and the derivation of Richardson's equation. Contour dimensions are shown to be one less than surface dimensions while no such relation holds for profile dimensions. Furthermore, the contour dimensions will remain the same at various altitudes through the fracture surface. A change in angle of the cutting plane does alter the measured dimension, but does not do so until a critical angle is reached. The critical angle will depend upon the dimension of the surface; lower dimensional surfaces having smaller critical angles than high dimensional surfaces. The fractal dimension of fracture surfaces of ZnS are found to follow the same flaw-to-grain-size behavior as the corresponding fracture toughness. Finally, the fractal Griffith equation explains the single-to-polycrystalline fracture transitions that are noted in the experimental results.

  16. Interlaminar fracture of composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, T. K.

    1984-01-01

    Fracture mechanics has been found to be a useful tool for understanding composite delamination. Analyses for calculating strain energy release rates associated with delamination growth have been developed. These analyses successfully characterized delamination onset and growth for particular sources of delamination. Low velocity impact has been found to be the most severe source of composite delamination. A variety of test methods for measuring interlaminar fracture toughness are being developed to identify new composite materials with enhanced delamination resistance.

  17. Interlaminar fracture of composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, T. K.

    1985-01-01

    Fracture mechanics has been found to be a useful tool for understanding composite delamination. Analyses for calculating strain energy release rates associated with delamination growth have been developed. These analyses successfully characterized delamination onset and growth for particular sources of delamination. Low velocity impact has been found to be the most severe source of composite delamination. A variety of test methods for measuring interlaminar fracture toughness are being developed to identify new composite materials with enhanced delamination resistance.

  18. Evolution of Fracture Permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebel, K. A.; Brown, S. R.

    2003-12-01

    Pore fluid flow and fluid composition within fractured rocks is a subject of primary importance to fields including hazardous waste isolation and remediation, oil and gas production, geothermal energy extraction, and formation of vein fillings and ore deposits. For these reasons, considerable effort has been placed on characterization and modeling of flow in fractures and fracture systems. We are investigating the complex active chemical interaction between pore fluid and fractures that causes the fluid composition and topography of these systems to change over time. Our experimental model consists of CaSO4 samples pressed with a constant force against an inert textured fracture surface. Pore fluids ranging from unsaturated to supersaturated which are at a variety of flow rates are introduced to one end of the sample in order to actively alter the topography of the CaSO4 surface. Using a laser profiler, we are able to quantitatively monitor the changing surface topography over time as it relates to the measured sample permeability and calcium saturation of the pore fluid. These methods allow us to create and analyze many features seen in natural fractures, including high-flow dissolution channels, plateaus, and caverns formed from precipitate. In addition, the laser profile of the sample surface can be used to produce a map of aperture across the sample. Using this information, we have applied numerical modeling via finite difference and lattice Boltzmann methods to calculate pore fluid flow direction and magnitude over the entire sample surface. This research is part of an integrated program using quantitative observations of fractures and veins in drill core as well as quantitative and visual observations of flow and chemical dissolution and precipitation within replicas of rough-walled fractures in order to refine our models and work toward a predictive capability.

  19. Blast-fracturing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Dysart; A. M. Spencer; A. L. Anderson

    1969-01-01

    In Dec. 1967, El Paso Natural Gas Co. in conjunction with the U.S. Government detonated a thermonuclear device underground (Project Gasbuggy) to create extensive fracturing in the Pictured Cliffs Formation. This form of explosive fracturing is a continuation of the first well stimulation technique--nitro shooting. Nitro shooting was a dangerous process in all aspects--storage, handling, and application. In recent years,

  20. Pediatric Orbital Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, Adam J.; Monson, Laura A.; Buchman, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    It is wise to recall the dictum “children are not small adults” when managing pediatric orbital fractures. In a child, the craniofacial skeleton undergoes significant changes in size, shape, and proportion as it grows into maturity. Accordingly, the craniomaxillofacial surgeon must select an appropriate treatment strategy that considers both the nature of the injury and the child's stage of growth. The following review will discuss the management of pediatric orbital fractures, with an emphasis on clinically oriented anatomy and development. PMID:24436730

  1. Osteoporosis and Skeletal Fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Gardner; Demetris Demetrakopoulos; Michael K. Shindle; Matthew H. Griffith

    2006-01-01

    Osteoporosis affects millions of individuals worldwide, rendering them susceptible to fragility fractures of the spine, hip,\\u000a and wrist and leading to significant morbidity, mortality, and economic cost. Given the substantial impact of osteoporosis\\u000a on both patients and the medical community, it is imperative that physicians improve awareness and knowledge of osteoporosis\\u000a in the setting of low-energy fractures. In this review,

  2. Detecting unilateral phrenic paralysis by acoustic respiratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Fiz, José Antonio; Jané, Raimon; Lozano, Manuel; Gómez, Rosa; Ruiz, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of phrenic nerve paralysis vary from a considerable reduction in respiratory function to an apparently normal state. Acoustic analysis of lung sound intensity (LSI) could be an indirect non-invasive measurement of respiratory muscle function, comparing activity on the two sides of the thoracic cage. Lung sounds and airflow were recorded in ten males with unilateral phrenic paralysis and ten healthy subjects (5 men/5 women), during progressive increasing airflow maneuvers. Subjects were in sitting position and two acoustic sensors were placed on their back, on the left and right sides. LSI was determined from 1.2 to 2.4 L/s between 70 and 2000 Hz. LSI was significantly greater on the normal (19.3±4.0 dB) than the affected (5.7±3.5 dB) side in all patients (p?=?0.0002), differences ranging from 9.9 to 21.3 dB (13.5±3.5 dB). In the healthy subjects, the LSI was similar on both left (15.1±6.3 dB) and right (17.4±5.7 dB) sides (p?=?0.2730), differences ranging from 0.4 to 4.6 dB (2.3±1.6 dB). There was a positive linear relationship between the LSI and the airflow, with clear differences between the slope of patients (about 5 dB/L/s) and healthy subjects (about 10 dB/L/s). Furthermore, the LSI from the affected side of patients was close to the background noise level, at low airflows. As the airflow increases, the LSI from the affected side did also increase, but never reached the levels seen in healthy subjects. Moreover, the difference in LSI between healthy and paralyzed sides was higher in patients with lower FEV1 (%). The acoustic analysis of LSI is a relevant non-invasive technique to assess respiratory function. This method could reinforce the reliability of the diagnosis of unilateral phrenic paralysis, as well as the monitoring of these patients. PMID:24718599

  3. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  4. Fracture Toughness of Nacre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nukala, Phani

    2005-03-01

    Nacre exhibits phenomenal fracture strength and toughness properties despite the brittle nature of its constituents. For example, its work of fracture is three orders of magnitude greater than that of a single crystal of its constituent mineral. This is surprising because it is a ceramic composite made up of about 95% brittle inorganic phase (aragonite mineral) and only a few percent of the soft organic material, and polymer-matrix composites with such high levels of ceramic fillers do not possess these exceptional combinations of stiffness, fracture strength and toughness. This study investigates the fracture properties of nacre using a simple discrete lattice model based on continuous damage random thresholds fuse network. The discrete lattice topology of the proposed model is based on nacre's unique brick and mortar microarchitecture, and the mechanical behavior of each of the bonds in the discrete lattice model is governed by the characteristic modular damage evolution of the organic matrix that includes the mineral bridges between the aragonite platelets. The numerical results obtained using this simple discrete lattice model are in excellent agreement with the previously obtained experimental results, such as nacre's stiffness, tensile strength, and work of fracture. The analysis indicates that nacre's superior toughness is a direct consequence of ductility (maximum shear strain) of the organic matrix in terms of repeated unfolding of protein molecules, and its high fracture strength is a result of its perfectly ordered brick and mortar architecture with significant overlap of the platelets, and shear strength of the organic matrix.

  5. The effect of unilateral and bilateral frontal lobe extirpation on the behavior of monkeys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Warden; S. E. Barrera; W. Galt

    1942-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the influence of unilateral and bilateral pre-frontal lobotomy on simple and complex visual discriminations and on instrumentation. One cebus and two rhesus monkeys were used. Results show: (1) \\

  6. Partial unilateral lesions of the mushroom bodies affect olfactory learning in honeybees Apis mellifera L.

    E-print Network

    Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

    Partial unilateral lesions of the mushroom bodies affect olfactory learning in honeybees Apis Toulouse cedex 04, France Keywords: brain lesion, cognition, honeybee, hydroxyurea, mushroom bodies been associated with olfactory learning and memory. Here we used hydroxyurea (HU) to treat honeybee

  7. Binocular fixation disparities in reading in people with unilateral strabismus: A case study. 

    E-print Network

    Inioutina, Marina

    2010-06-30

    Recent studies of binocular coordination during reading have discovered that the eyes do not always fixate on the same location. This current study explored the patterns of eye movement of participants with unilateral strabismus during reading...

  8. Management of small unilateral renal cell carcinomas: Radical versus nephron-sparing surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian P. Butler; Andrew C. Novick; David P. Miller; Steven A. Campbell; Mark R. Licht

    1995-01-01

    Objectives.There is controversy concerning the management of small unilateral renal cell carcinomas. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the relative efficacy of radial nephrectomy versus nephron-sparing surgery in such patients.

  9. Short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with conjunctival injection and tearing syndrome: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manjit S. Matharu; Anna S. Cohen; Christopher J. Boes; Peter J. Goadsby

    2003-01-01

    The clinical features of short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT)\\u000a syndrome have been reviewed in 50 patients reported in the English language literature. SUNCT syndrome is a rare condition\\u000a that predominates slightly in men. The mean age at onset is 50 years. It is characterized by strictly unilateral attacks centered\\u000a on the orbital or periorbital

  10. Recovery of functional status after right hemisphere stroke: Relationship with unilateral neglect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leora R. Cherney; Anita S. Halper; Christina M. Kwasnica; Richard L. Harvey; Ming Zhang

    2001-01-01

    Cherney LR, Halper AS, Kwasnica CM, Harvey RL, Zhang M. Recovery of functional status after right hemisphere stroke: relationship with unilateral neglect. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:322-8. Objective: To evaluate relationships between unilateral spatial neglect and both overall and cognitive-communicative functional outcomes in patients with right hemisphere stroke. Design: Assessment of overall and cognitive-communicative function was conducted on admission to

  11. [Complete unilateral dilation of the vas deferens as a cause of an inguinal mass].

    PubMed

    Gómez Herrera, J J; Zabía Galíndez, E; Carrera Terrón, R; Borruel Nacenta, S

    2013-01-01

    The complete unilateral dilation of the vas deferens is an extremely rare radiologic finding. Most cystic structures adjacent to the prostate can be grouped into cysts and diverticula. The finding of an inguinal mass makes it necessary to rule out intestinal hernias and other entities. We present the case of a patient who developed an inguinal mass secondary to unilateral dilation of the vas deferens. PMID:21733536

  12. Effects of unilateral vocal cord paralysis on objective voice measures obtained by Praat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haldun Oguz; Munir Demirci; Mustafa A. Safak; Necmi Arslan; Ahmet Islam; Selda Kargin

    2007-01-01

    Unilateral vocal cord paralysis (VCP) affects the objective properties of voice by diminished neurologic control and degenerative\\u000a changes in laryngeal tissue. The goal of this study was to compare the acoustic parameters of VCP patients with control volunteers\\u000a using the software Praat. Acoustic analysis results of 18 unilateral VCP patients were compared with age and sex matched 72\\u000a normal adult

  13. Do Audiologic Characteristics Predict Outcomes in Children with Unilateral Hearing Loss?

    PubMed Central

    Lieu, Judith E. C.; Karzon, Roanne K.; Ead, Banan; Tye-Murray, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether audiologic characteristics of unilateral hearing loss in children were associated with language, cognitive or achievement scores. Study design Case-control study Setting Pediatric otolaryngology ambulatory practice Patients Cases (n=109) were children aged 6–12 years with permanent unilateral hearing loss; controls (n=95) were siblings with normal bilateral hearing. Interventions Audiologic characteristics measured included side and severity of hearing loss, and word recognition scores in quiet and in noise. Main outcome measures Cognitive abilities were measured using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence; reading, math and writing achievement was measured with the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition-Abbreviated; and oral language skills were measured with the Oral Written and Language Scales. Results Children with unilateral hearing loss had worse verbal cognitive and oral language scores than children with normal hearing, but no differences in achievement scores. Children with profound unilateral hearing loss tended to have worse cognitive scores and had significantly lower oral language scores. Higher word recognition scores in quiet of the normal hearing ear were associated with higher cognitive, oral language, and reading achievement scores. Higher word recognition scores in noise were slightly correlated with higher oral language scores. Conclusions As expected, children with unilateral hearing loss had worse language scores than their siblings with normal hearing with trends toward worse cognitive scores. Children with profound unilateral hearing loss tended to have worse outcomes than children with normal hearing or less severe unilateral loss. However, there were no differences in outcomes between children with right or left unilateral hearing loss. PMID:24232067

  14. Renal agenesis and unilateral nephrectomy: what are the risks of living with a single kidney?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shivaram Hegde; Malcolm G. Coulthard

    2009-01-01

    The long-term outlook for patients with unilateral renal agenesis or following unilateral nephrectomy in childhood is controversial.\\u000a Animal studies suggest that the resultant compensatory increase in glomerular filtration might lead to progressive damage\\u000a to the remaining renal tissue and may generate hypertension. Human studies addressing these concerns are limited in number\\u000a and are difficult to interpret because they are small,

  15. Vesicoureteral reflux increases the risk of renal scars: a study of unilateral reflux

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joo Hoon Lee; Chang Hee Son; Moo Song Lee; Young Seo Park

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) on renal scar following acute pyelonephritis by comparing the refluxing renal units with nonrefluxing renal units in children with unilateral primary VUR. Forty-eight children with unilateral primary VUR diagnosed after the first pyelonephritis were enrolled. Mean age of patients was 1.0±1.6 years (29 boys and 19 girls).

  16. Coxsackie B3 virus: an unusual cause of unilateral mediastinal nodal enlargement.

    PubMed

    Gris, P; Perlot, I; Flemale, A; Delmez, J P; Dierckx, J P

    1988-01-01

    We report on a patient with febrile illness, right unilateral paratracheal widening, pulmonary infiltrates, pleural effusions, exanthema and diarrhea. The right paratracheal widening was due to lymph node enlargement confirmed by CT scan. Symptoms disappeared subsequently without specific treatment. On the basis of serological tests, we are able to diagnose a coxsackie B3 virus infection. No previous case report of unilateral mediastinal nodal enlargement contemporary to a coxsackie B3 virus infection was found in our review of the literature. PMID:2845536

  17. [Primary hyperaldosteronism by unilateral adrenal hyperplasia: a report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo; Hernández-Martínez, Alex Francisco; Hernández-García, Irma; Molina-Ayala, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is actually the main cause of adrenal-endocrine hypertension. This syndrome is characterized by hypertension, hypokalemia, suppressed plasma renin activity, and increased aldosterone excretion. The most common causes of this syndrome are bilateral idiopathic hyperaldosteronism and aldosterone producing adenoma (Conn's syndrome) and less frequently unilateral adrenal hyperplasia, adrenal carcinoma, or familial hyperaldosteronism. Unilateral adrenal hyperplasia (UAP) constitutes 2% of the causes of PA. We present the case of two patients with UAP. PMID:24276190

  18. Fractures - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fractures - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) ... Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases French (français) Bone Fractures Fractures osseuses - français (French) Bilingual ...

  19. Changes in the apparently normal limb in unilateral venous ulceration.

    PubMed

    Stacey, M C; Burnand, K G; Pattison, M; Thomas, M L; Layer, G T

    1987-10-01

    Forty-seven patients with unilateral venous ulceration have been investigated to determine if any abnormalities were present in the contralateral limbs which had not had lipodermatosclerosis or ulceration. Ascending phlebography in the non-ulcerated limbs showed post-thrombotic changes in 28 per cent and incompetent lower leg communicating veins in 19 per cent. This incidence was not significantly different to the limbs with healed ulceration (45 and 23 per cent respectively, chi 2 test, P = 0.10). Half volume refilling time measured by foot volumetry suggested that 79 per cent of the non-ulcerated limbs had evidence of deep vein incompetence or incompetent lower leg communicating veins, which was again similar to the incidence in the previously ulcerated limbs (85 per cent). Transcutaneous oxygen readings, expressed as a ratio of a reading at a standard site in the gaiter region of the leg over a reading from the upper arm, were significantly lower in non-ulcerated limbs (mean 0.84 +/- 0.26 s.d.) than in a cohort of age and sex matched controls (mean 1.02 +/- 0.14, Student's t test, P less than 0.001), and significantly higher than in previously ulcerated limbs (mean 0.68 +/- 0.31, P less than 0.01). Abnormalities in venous anatomy and function have been shown, in conjunction with evidence of reduced oxygen diffusion, through the gaiter skin before overt skin changes develop. PMID:3664226

  20. Three-Magnet Arrays for Unilateral Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Naranjo, Juan Carlos

    Unilateral Magnetic Resonance (UMR) has become, in different research areas, a powerful tool to interrogate samples of arbitrary size. The three-magnet array developed by the MRI Centre of the University of New Brunswick has features that make it a simple and robust approach for UMR. This thesis introduces a group of solutions to broaden the range of application of this design. Practical applications for non-destructive testing and reservoir core plug characterization are presented. We have shown that it is also possible to monitor the curing process of an epoxy/polyamidoamine system by employing a three-magnet array. A new version of the three-magnet array which features extended constant magnetic field gradients is also introduced. Constant gradients of more than 3 cm extent can be achieved in a very simple, compact and safe design. The application of the three-magnet array in combination with a solenoid as the RF probe for analysis of long core plugs has been presented. Core plugs of different diameter can be analyzed by simply changing the diameter of the RF probe employed for the measurement. Results of an initial survey of selective excitation in UMR are presented. The low SNR and inhomogeneities in the selective spot reduce the effectiveness of selective excitation for UMR.

  1. Pulmonary surfactant synthesis after unilateral lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Lamonica, Giulia; Amigoni, Maria; Vedovelli, Luca; Zambelli, Vanessa; Scanziani, Margherita; Bellani, Giacomo; Grassi, Alice; Simonato, Manuela; Carnielli, Virgilio P; Cogo, Paola E

    2014-01-15

    Aspiration pneumonitis can lead to alveolar surfactant dysfunction. We employed a murine model of unilateral aspiration to compare surfactant synthesis in the injured (I) and noninjured (NI) contralateral lung. Mice were instilled with hydrochloric acid in the right bronchus and, after 18 h, an intraperitoneal dose of deuterated water was administered as precursor of disaturated phosphatidylcholine (DSPC)-palmitate. Selected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected at scheduled time points and lungs were removed. We measured DSPC-palmitate synthesis in lung tissue and secretion in BALF by gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry, together with total proteins and myeloperoxidase activity (MPO) by spectrophotometry. BALF total proteins and MPO were significantly increased in the I lungs compared with NI and naďve control lungs. The DSPC pool size was significantly lower in the BALF of the I lungs compared with naďve controls. DSPC synthesis was accelerated in the I and NI lungs. DSPC secretion of the I lungs was similar to their respective naďve controls, and it was markedly lower compared with their respective NI contralateral lungs. DSPC synthesis and secretion were faster, especially in the NI lungs, compared with naďve control lungs, as a possible compensatory mechanism due to a cross-talk between the lungs triggered by inflammation, hyperventilation, and/or undetermined type II cell reaction to the injury. PMID:24336880

  2. Demyelination of vestibular nerve axons in unilateral Méničre's disease.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Robert F; Sismanis, Aristides; Kilpatrick, Jefferson K; Shaia, Wayne T

    2002-11-01

    We conducted a study to determine whether vestibular nerves in patients with unilateral Méničre's disease whose symptoms are refractory to medical management exhibit neuropathologic changes. We also endeavored to determine whether retrocochlear abnormalities are primary or secondary factors in the disease process. To these ends, we obtained vestibular nerve segments from five patients during retrosigmoid (posterior fossa) neurectomy, immediately fixed them, and processed them for light and electron microscopy. We found that all five segments exhibited moderate to severe demyelination with axonal sparing. Moreover, we noted that reactive astrocytes produced an extensive proliferation of fibrous processes and that the microglia assumed a phagocytic role. We conclude that the possible etiologies of demyelination include viral and/or immune-mediated factors similar to those seen in other demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Our findings suggest that some forms of Méničre's disease that are refractory to traditional medical management might be the result of retrocochlear pathology that affects the neuroglial portion of the vestibular nerve. PMID:12472033

  3. Accidental Unilateral Mydriasis from Hyoscine Patch in a Care Provider.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jia; Li Yim, James

    2014-01-24

    Abstract The hyoscine patch is effective and is frequently used in motion sickness treatment. Not uncommonly, it is used to control excessive respiratory secretions in palliative patients. Patients, healthcare workers, and caregivers who administer these may experience a benign, although worrying, mydriasis should they inadvertently rub their eye after handling the patch. A 46-year-old staff nurse working in a stroke ward presented with sudden-onset unilateral enlarged pupil. To rule out any intracranial pathology, the stroke team requested an urgent head computed tomography (CT) scan, which showed no abnormality. Upon ophthalmology review, nonreactive dilated left pupil was noted. Examination was otherwise unremarkable with no focal neurology findings. Following further history, she recalled applying a hyoscine patch to a patient in the morning. Two days later, her left pupil returned to normal size. This unique presentation of pharmacological mydriasis reinforces the importance of a detailed targeted history to avoid unnecessary investigations and anxiety, as well as the importance of informing patients, healthcare workers, and caregivers of this peculiar side-effect. PMID:24460454

  4. Primate translational vestibuloocular reflexes. IV. Changes after unilateral labyrinthectomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelaki, D. E.; Newlands, S. D.; Dickman, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of unilateral labyrinthectomy on the properties of the translational vestibuloocular reflexes (trVORs) were investigated in rhesus monkeys trained to fixate near targets. Translational motion stimuli consisted of either steady-state lateral and fore-aft sinusoidal oscillations or short-lasting transient displacements. During small-amplitude, steady-state sinusoidal lateral oscillations, a small decrease in the horizontal trVOR sensitivity and its dependence on viewing distance was observed during the first week after labyrinthectomy. These deficits gradually recovered over time. In addition, the vertical response component increased, causing a tilt of the eye velocity vector toward the lesioned side. During large, transient lateral displacements, the deficits were larger and longer lasting. Responses after labyrinthectomy were asymmetric, with eye velocity during movements toward the side of the lesion being more compromised. The most profound effect of the lesions was observed during fore-aft motion. Whereas responses were kinematically appropriate for fixation away from the side of the lesion (e.g., to the left after right labyrinthectomy), horizontal responses were anticompensatory during fixation at targets located ipsilateral to the side of the lesion (e.g., for targets to the right after right labyrinthectomy). This deficit showed little recovery during the 3-mo post-labyrinthectomy testing period. These results suggest that inputs from both labyrinths are important for the proper function of the trVORs, although the details of how bilateral signals are processed and integrated remain unknown.

  5. Unilateral cortical spreading depression induced by sound in rats.

    PubMed

    Vinogradova, Lyudmila V; Kuznetsova, Galina D; Coenen, Antonius M L

    2009-08-25

    Cortical spreading depression (SD) is thought to underlie the migraine aura but the mechanisms of triggering SD in the human cortex remain unknown. Because growing evidence points to a key role of brainstem circuits in initiating migraine attacks, the present study examined whether recurrent episodes of brainstem activation in rats could induce cortical SD. Explosive running elicited by sounds in rodents with inherited hypersensitivity to acoustic stimuli (reflex audiogenic epilepsy), is known to reflect a transient aberrant activation of the brainstem. Repeated induction of such audiogenic responses enhances the excitability of the cortex, culminating in its epileptic activation (audiogenic kindling). In Wistar rats with inherited hypersensitivity to sounds, 15 brief episodes of running were induced by sound stimulation, and slow potential shifts as well as the EEG were recorded in the cortex. Single unilateral SD began to occur in the cortex following a running episode after the 5th to 15th test (mean 9.4+/-1.2). Once appeared, SD was regularly recorded in subsequent tests. The side of the SD initiation closely correlated with the direction of running. Triggering SD was not associated with epileptic activation of the cortex in most rats. The present findings suggest that the sensory-induced brainstem excitation could be a potent trigger of SD in the hyperexcitable cortex, providing an experimental evidence of a possible causative role of the brainstem activation in initiating the migraine aura. PMID:19559681

  6. Consideration of vocal fold position in unilateral vocal fold paralyses.

    PubMed

    Olthoff, Arno; Steinle, Julia; Asendorf, Thomas; Kruse, Eberhard

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the evaluation of unilateral vocal fold paralyses (uVFP) by means of an area measurement of the glottic plane, which describes the position of the paralysed vocal fold. The area measurements were related to electromyographic findings and clinical outcome (recovery, voice quality). In 56 patients (33 women and 23 men), uVFP were confirmed by endolaryngeal electromyography (EMG) of the paralysed vocal fold and cricothyroid muscles (CT). The EMG response was classified on a 4-point scale (from 0 to 3). Vocal fold position was divided into 'paramedian' and 'intermediate' and additionally quantified by measurement of the glottic area. An 'area quotient' (AQ) was calculated and related to the EMG findings and clinical outcome. Voice qualities were objectified regarding their additive noise (breathiness) and irregularity (roughness) using the 'Göttingen Hoarseness Diagram'. The majority of uVFP was due to iatrogenic lesions. The AQ of classically graduated 'paramedian' and 'intermediate' vocal fold positions was significantly different but did not correlate with objective voice quality values. There were no significant correlations regarding EMG findings, duration or recovery from paralyses. Laryngeal EMG remains the gold standard for verifying uVFP. But EMG did not correlate significantly with AQ or functional outcome of uVFP. The measurement of an AQ is suitable for obtaining continuous data describing the position of paralysed vocal folds beyond the terms 'paramedian' or 'intermediate' and provides the basis for clinical evaluations of diagnostic tools and therapeutic interventions. PMID:25519473

  7. Fracture Modeling and Flow Behavior in Shale Gas Reservoirs Using Discrete Fracture Networks

    E-print Network

    Ogbechie, Joachim Nwabunwanne

    2012-02-14

    deviation Frac Fracture Cv Coefficient of variation CI Connectivity index HF Hydraulic fracture cum Cumulative FA Fracture aperture FD Fracture density FL Fracture length HFA Hydraulic fracture aperture HFL Hydraulic fracture length NFS Number... of hydraulic fracture stages vii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT .............................................................................................................. iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS...

  8. Laryngeal fracture after coughing.

    PubMed

    Fenig, Mark; Strasberg, Stephen; Cohen, Justin C; Almadi, Rami; Gold, Menachem

    2013-09-01

    Nontraumatic laryngeal fractures are exceedingly rare disease entities. Only 3 prior instances have been described in the medical literature (Br Med J 1950;1:1052; Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp 2007;58:73-4; Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2012;147:801-2). We present a case of thyroid cartilage fracture and associated phlegmon formation after a vigorous coughing spell in a 47-year-old man. On presentation, the patient's symptoms included the triad of odynophagia, dysphagia, and dysphonia as well as diffuse swelling and tenderness over the thyroid cartilage. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mildly displaced anterior thyroid cartilage fracture as well as a phlegmon in the strap muscle compartment adjacent to the fracture (Figs. 1 and 2). Intravenous dexamethasone and antibiotics were initiated, and the patient was admitted to the medical intensive care unit. On fiberoptic examination with the flexible laryngoscope, the patient was found to have slightto-moderate watery edema of the right aryepiglottic fold and right greater than left arytenoid cartilages. After 48 hours, the patient's neck swelling and pain significantly improved. On hospital day 4, the patient was discharged with a course of oral antibiotics. One week later, the patient reported only mild odynophagia and persistent dysphonia. He otherwise felt well and was tolerating fluids and soft food without difficulty. A preexisting, congenital abnormality resulting in a focal weakness in the thyroid cartilage might predispose patients to nontraumatic fractures (Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2012;147:801-2). Patients in prior case reports of nontraumatic laryngeal fractures presented with similar symptoms (Table). The triad of odynophagia, dysphagia, and dysphonia after a severe coughing or sneezing episode should raise the clinician's suspicion of a thyroid cartilage fracture. PMID:23806730

  9. Lecture Notes on Fracture Mechanics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Alan T. Zehnder

    This book by a member of Cornell's Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics provides an introduction to fracture mechanics, that branch of mechanics that deals with the behavior of cracked bodies subjected to stresses and strains. Materials include mechanics models for crack tip fields and energy flows, a discussion of how these results affect observed fracture behavior, a brief discussion of computational fracture methods, and fracture toughness testing and fracture criteria. A student who has worked through the notes should be able to read and understand research articles or monographs on advanced aspects of fracture and should be able to apply this knowledge to real-world problems.

  10. Thrower's fracture of the humerus.

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew; Dodson, Christopher C; Ilyas, Asif M

    2014-10-01

    Thrower's fractures are spiral fractures of the humerus caused by forceful throwing of a ball. Although these fractures have been cited in the literature, little research exists regarding the significance of stress fractures and fatigue injuries that may precede these injuries. This article presents 3 cases of middle-aged recreational baseball pitchers who sustained mid to distal third spiral humerus fractures, reviews the biomechanics of a thrower's fracture, and provides a detailed review of the literature to help better understand this condition and guide treatment. PMID:25199425

  11. Carpal fractures in athletes.

    PubMed

    Geissler, W B

    2001-01-01

    A review of the literature shows that 3% to 9% of all athletic injuries occur to the hand or wrist. Also, hand and wrist injuries are more common in pubescent and adolescent athletes than adults. Although knee and shoulder injuries are more common athletic injuries, an injury to the hand or wrist significantly can impair the athlete's ability to throw or catch a ball, or swing a bat or racquet. A college football player trains year round for just 11 or 12 hours of playing time. An athletic injury that occurs during the season can have profound consequences for the athlete's career and emotions. When defining a management plan for a particular wrist athletic injury, the time to heal the injury and the time to rehabilitate fully must be considered. The athlete must be informed fully of the length of recovery. The continued advancement of fixation methods and techniques are diminishing fracture morbidity considerably. Small-cannulated compression screws that provide rigid fixation can be inserted with decreased surgical dissection, thus preserving critical vascular supply and promoting accelerated healing and earlier rehabilitation. The arthroscope as a valuable adjunct in the management of wrist fractures was virtually unheard of years ago, but is now common. The ability to arthroscopically guide a cannulated compression screw to stabilize a scaphoid fracture without a formal open volar approach can reduce surgical morbidity significantly and allow the athlete to return to competition more quickly. Mechanisms of injury that cause osseous fractures of the wrist are fairly high energy. A high index of suspicion for associated soft tissue injuries should be kept in mind when fractures of the wrist are identified. The wrist is composed of eight carpal bones tightly interwoven with each other by intrinsic and extrinsic wrist ligaments. The management of carpal fractures depends on prompt diagnosis, stable and anatomic alignment of the involved carpal bone, protective immobilization of the injury, and thorough rehabilitation. Displaced fractures of the hook of the hamate, trapezial ridge fractures, and comminuted pisiform fractures are managed best by early excision to promote uncomplicated recovery and early return to sport. For most athletes, return to competition can be expedited safely with the use of padded gloves and custom playing splints or casts. The sports medicine physician always must put the athlete's safety first when deciding the appropriate time for return to competition. PMID:11227704

  12. Acid Fracture and Fracture Conductivity Study of Field Rock Samples

    E-print Network

    Underwood, Jarrod

    2013-11-15

    Acid fracturing is a well stimulation strategy designed to increase the productivity of a producing well. The parameters of acid fracturing and the effects of acid interaction on specific rock samples can be studied experimentally. Acid injection...

  13. Investigation of Created Fracture Geometry through Hydraulic Fracture Treatment Analysis

    E-print Network

    Ahmed, Ibraheem 1987-

    2012-11-30

    Successful development of shale gas reservoirs is highly dependent on hydraulic fracture treatments. Many questions remain in regards to the geometry of the created fractures. Production data analysis from some shale gas wells quantifies a much...

  14. Fracture Conductivity of the Eagle Ford Shale

    E-print Network

    Guzek, James J

    2014-07-25

    Hydraulic fracturing is a well completions technique that induces a network of flow channels in a reservoir. These channels are characterized by fracture conductivity, a measure of how easily a liquid or gas flows through the fracture. Fracture...

  15. Reservoir fracture characterizations from seismic scattered waves

    E-print Network

    Fang, Xinding

    2012-01-01

    The measurements of fracture parameters, such as fracture orientation, fracture density and fracture compliance, in a reservoir is very important for field development and exploration. Traditional seismic methods for ...

  16. Fracking, fracture, and permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcotte, D. L.; Norris, J.; Rundle, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    Injections of large volumes of water into tight shale reservoirs allows the extraction of oil and gas not previously accessible. This large volume 'super' fracking induces damage that allows the oil and/or gas to flow to an extraction well. The purpose of this paper is to provide a model for understanding super fracking. We assume that water is injected from a small spherical cavity into a homogeneous elastic medium. The high pressure of the injected water generates hoop stresses that reactivate natural fractures in the tight shales. These fractures migrate outward as water is added creating a spherical shell of damaged rock. The porosity associated with these fractures is equal to the water volume injected. We obtain an analytic expression for this volume. We apply our model to a typical tight shale reservoir and show that the predicted water volumes are in good agreement with the volumes used in super fracking.

  17. Talar neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Berlet, G C; Lee, T H; Massa, E G

    2001-01-01

    Clinical management of talar neck fractures is complex and fraught with complications. As Gaius Julius Caesar stated: "The die is cast"; often the outcome of a talar neck fracture is determined at the time of injury. The authors believe, however, that better results can be achieved by following some simple guidelines. The authors advocate prompt and precise anatomic surgical reduction, preferring the medial approach with secondary anterolateral approach. Preservation of blood supply can be achieved by a thorough understanding of vascular pathways and efforts to stay within appropriate surgical intervals. The authors advocate bone grafting of medial neck comminution (if present) to prevent varus malalignment and rigid internal fixation to allow for joint mobilization postoperatively. These guidelines may seem simple, but when dealing with the complexity of talar neck fractures, the foot and ankle surgeon needs to focus and rely on easily grasped concepts to reduce poor outcomes. PMID:11465133

  18. Reflex Cardiovascular Depression during Unilateral Lung Hyperinflation in the Dog

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Sharon S.; Eschenbacher, William L.; Johnson, Robert L.

    1979-01-01

    We have examined whether lung hyperinflation in the anesthetized dog reflexly depresses cardiac output, stroke volume, heart rate, and blood pressure and whether these changes persist for more than a minute. To eliminate any mechanical restriction to venous return and pulmonary blood flow during lung hyperinflation, a model was developed in which all pulmonary artery blood flow and all ventilation were directed to the right lung in dogs with widely open chest and the left lung was hyperinflated before and after left cervical vagotomy. Heart rate, stroke volume, and blood pressure decreased by 24, 20, and 27%, respectively, within 15 s of left lung inflation to 30 cm H2O. Heart rate increased to preinflation levels by 1 min, but stroke volume and blood pressure remained depressed during lung hyperinflation for at least 15 min. Upon deflation, stroke volume and blood pressure returned to control levels within 1 min. Division of the left vagosympathetic trunk at the neck interrupted all autonomic afferent and efferent nerves of the left lung, but left intact the right vagal sympathetic and parasympathetic afferent and efferent nerves of the heart. After left cervical vagotomy the transient fall in heart rate, stroke volume, and blood pressure during left lung hyperinflation was greatly reduced or eliminated. These results suggest that unilateral lung hyperinflation reflexly depresses heart rate and blood pressure, which are partially compensated with time, and reflexly depresses stroke volume, which persists uncompensated until the lung is deflated. These findings may explain the depressed cardiovascular function observed during regional lung overdistention especially when it occurs during positive pressure ventilation. PMID:457873

  19. The in utero correction of unilateral coronal craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Stelnicki, E J; Vanderwall, K; Harrison, M R; Longaker, M T; Kaban, L B; Hoffman, W Y

    1998-02-01

    We performed the first in utero correction of a unilateral right coronal craniosynostosis using 70-day gestation fetal lambs. The craniosynostosis was created in eight fetuses by excising their right coronal sutures, and then placing demineralized bone powder, transforming growth factor-beta, and bone morphogenetic protein-2 into the defect. Twenty-one days later, after suture fusion had occurred, four of the eight sheep were treated with a 4 mm x 12 mm strip craniectomy to open the entire synostosed right coronal suture. The edges of the excision were wrapped with 100-microm-thick Gore-Tex (W. L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, Ariz.) sheets to prevent bony refusion. All eight lambs then progressed to term (140 days). The skulls of four normal, unoperated, term lambs were used as controls. At 140 days, all four treated lambs had a widely patent strip craniectomy site without any evidence of bone regeneration. This in utero correction led to a marked improvement in craniofacial morphology of three of four animals when compared with the uncorrected controls with significant (p < 0.01) correction in orbital position, skull length, and shape of the frontal bone. This was in sharp contrast to the uncorrected animals, which had marked orbital elevation, compression of the anteroposterior length of the cranial vault, frontal bone flattening, and shortening of the cranial base. The fourth corrected animal also showed evidence of improvement but had some abnormal calvarial changes secondary to the development of horns, which displaced the calvaria in a downward vector. We conclude that the in utero correction of craniosynostosis is feasible and provides a significant benefit by decreasing the severity of many of the associated deformities seen with this disorder. PMID:9462759

  20. Multimodality Diagnostic Imaging in Unilateral Acute Idiopathic Maculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Cecilia S.; Payne, John F.; Bergstrom, Chris S.; Cribbs, Blaine E.; Yan, Jiong; Hubbard, G. Baker; Olsen, Timothy W.; Yeh, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical features and imaging characteristics in unilateral acute idiopathic maculopathy (UAIM). Methods This is a retrospective review of four patients diagnosed with UAIM. Clinical characteristics (age, symptoms, Snellen visual acuity (VA), and funduscopic features) and images from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fluorescein (FA), and indocyanine green (ICG) angiography were analyzed. Results The median age at presentation was 31 years (range 27–52 years). The median interval between symptom onset and presentation was four weeks (range 1–20 weeks). Associated systemic findings included a viral prodrome (50%), orchitis (50%), hand-foot-mouth disease (25%), and positive Coxsackie virus titers (50%). The median presenting VA was 20/400 (range 20/70–1/400), which improved to 20/30 (range 20/20–20/60) at final follow-up. The median follow-up time was 6 weeks (range 0–8 weeks). Early in the disease course, the central macula developed irregular, circular areas of white-grey discoloration. Following recovery, the macula had a stippled retinal pigment epithelium characterized by rarefaction and hyperplasia. FA demonstrated irregular early hyperfluorescence and late subretinal hyperfluorescence. SD-OCT showed a partially reversible disruption of the outer photoreceptor layer. FAF initially revealed stippled autofluorescence that eventually became more hypoautofluorescent. ICG showed “moth-eaten” appearing choroidal vasculature, suggestive of choroidal inflammation. Conclusions The imaging characteristics highlight the structural changes during the active and resolution phases of UAIM. The visual recovery correlates with structural changes and suggests that the pathogenesis involves inflammation of the inner choroid, retinal pigment epithelium, and outer photoreceptor complex that is partially reversible. PMID:22232475

  1. The Unilateral, Self-Deregulation of AT&T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloff, Joel H.

    1990-01-01

    The provision of telecommunications products and services in the United States has been dominated by AT&T and the Bell System for more than one hundred years. From the early days of telephones, it was clear that some framework of logic was required to provide "universal" telephone services to the vast majority of American citizens. The concept was known as "natural monopoly", and for the most part, has served us well. We are all aware of statements concerning absolute power corrupting absolutely, and AT&T has not been immune to this law of human nature. Several times during the past century, action has been required by the Federal Government to regulate and constrain AT&T and the Bell System from anti-competitive and predatory actions. These have been called consent decrees, Computer Inquiry II, Computer Inquiry III, and the Modified Final Judgment. The regulations and constraints imposed upon AT&T, with good reason, are now becoming eroded. The perception of a more highly competitive marketplace capable of accommodating an unrestrained AT&T, the impact of uncoordinated national and regional government policies, and unilateral actions by AT&T themselves are bringing us to the edge of an abyss. There are substantial reasons to believe that AT&T will use its considerable might to eliminate its competitors, once free to do so. Must we be doomed to repeat history with still another antitrust case against AT&T some years from now? Logic demands that we learn from the past, and that telecommunications policies be based upon that knowledge.

  2. Chondrocyte BMP2 signaling plays an essential role in bone fracture healing

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Meng; Jin, Hongting; Wang, Baoli; Yukata, Kiminori; Sheu, Tzong-jen; Ke, Qiao Han; Tong, Peijian; Im, Hee-Jeong; Xiao, Guozhi; Chen, Di

    2012-01-01

    The specific role of endogenous Bmp2 gene in chondrocytes and in osteoblasts in fracture healing was investigated by generation and analysis of chondrocyte- and osteoblast-specific Bmp2 conditional knockout (cKO) mice. The unilateral open transverse tibial fractures were created in these Bmp2 cKO mice. Bone fracture callus samples were collected and analyzed by X-ray, micro-CT, histology analyses, biomechanical testing and gene expression assays. The results demonstrated that the lack of Bmp2 expression in chondrocytes leads to a prolonged cartilage callus formation and a delayed osteogenesis initiation and progression into mineralization phase with lower biomechanical properties. In contrast, when the Bmp2 gene was deleted in osteoblasts, the mice showed no significant difference in the fracture healing process compared to control mice. These findings suggest that endogenous BMP2 expression in chondrocytes may play an essential role in cartilage callus maturation at an early stage of fracture healing. Our studies may provide important information for clinical application of BMP2. PMID:23107765

  3. Fracture surfaces of granular pastes.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Abdelhaye, Y O; Chaouche, M; Van Damme, H

    2013-11-01

    Granular pastes are dense dispersions of non-colloidal grains in a simple or a complex fluid. Typical examples are the coating, gluing or sealing mortars used in building applications. We study the cohesive rupture of thick mortar layers in a simple pulling test where the paste is initially confined between two flat surfaces. After hardening, the morphology of the fracture surfaces was investigated, using either the box counting method to analyze fracture profiles perpendicular to the mean fracture plane, or the slit-island method to analyze the islands obtained by cutting the fracture surfaces at different heights, parallel to the mean fracture plane. The fracture surfaces were shown to exhibit scaling properties over several decades. However, contrary to what has been observed in the brittle or ductile fracture of solid materials, the islands were shown to be mass fractals. This was related to the extensive plastic flow involved in the fracture process. PMID:24241751

  4. Fracture prediction in metal sheets

    E-print Network

    Lee, Young-Woong

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important failure modes of thin-walled structures is fracture. Fracture is predominantly tensile in nature and, in most part, is operated by the physical mechanisms of void nucleation, growth, and linkage. ...

  5. Compression fractures of the back

    MedlinePLUS

    Compression fractures of the back are broken vertebrae. Vertebrae are the bones of the spine. ... acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (Vertos II): an open-label randomised trial. Lancet . 2010 Sep 25;376(9746):1085-92. ...

  6. Fluid Flow Modeling in Fractures

    E-print Network

    Sarkar, Sudipta

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we study fluid flow in fractures using numerical simulation and address the challenging issue of hydraulic property characterization in fractures. The methodology is based on Computational Fluid Dynamics, ...

  7. Bone fracture repair - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... three main treatment options for bone fractures are: Casting Open reduction, and internal fixation- this involves a ... fractures not able to be realigned (reduced) by casting, or in cases in which the long-term ...

  8. Fractured clavicle in the newborn

    MedlinePLUS

    Fractured collar bone - newborn ... A fracture of a newborn's collar bone (clavicle) can occur during a difficult vaginal delivery. ... lump may be the only sign that the newborn had a broken collar bone.

  9. Progressive Fracture of Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Minnetyan, Levon

    2008-01-01

    A new approach is described for evaluating fracture in composite structures. This approach is independent of classical fracture mechanics parameters like fracture toughness. It relies on computational simulation and is programmed in a stand-alone integrated computer code. It is multiscale, multifunctional because it includes composite mechanics for the composite behavior and finite element analysis for predicting the structural response. It contains seven modules; layered composite mechanics (micro, macro, laminate), finite element, updating scheme, local fracture, global fracture, stress based failure modes, and fracture progression. The computer code is called CODSTRAN (Composite Durability Structural ANalysis). It is used in the present paper to evaluate the global fracture of four composite shell problems and one composite built-up structure. Results show that the composite shells and the built-up composite structure global fracture are enhanced when internal pressure is combined with shear loads.

  10. [Bilateral pelvic stress fracture].

    PubMed

    Palenzuela Paniagua, S M; Maldonado Alconada, J; Pérez Galán, R J

    2013-04-01

    A stress fracture is defined as that which occurs as a consequence of many low intensity traumas. These were originally described in the metatarsals of soldiers, and later on in athletes, and now we should consider them in general population subjected to excessive stress. Statistically, it generally occurs in women and in weight-bearing bones, such as the tibia, fibula and metatarsals. This case is of interest due to the diagnosis a double fracture in a woman without risk factors or increase in physical activity, and in an unusual location such as the pelvis. A detailed clinical history and examination are essential for the diagnosis. PMID:23540991

  11. Forced to Fracture

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

    Students learn how forces affect the human skeletal system through fractures and why certain bones are more likely to break than others depending on their design and use in the body. They learn how engineers and doctors collaborate to design effective treatments with consideration for the location, fracture severity and patient age, as well as the use of biocompatible materials. Learning the lesson content prepares students for the associated activity in which they test small animal bones to failure and then design treatment repair plans.

  12. What Is Hydraulic Fracturing?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a process used in nine out of 10 natural gas wells in the United States, where millions of gallons of water, sand and chemicals are pumped underground to break apart the rock and release the gas. Scientists are worried that the chemicals used in fracturing may pose a threat either underground or when waste fluids are handled and sometimes spilled on the surface. This poster presentation illustrates the under surface process of hydraulic fracking and the distribution flow to the market.

  13. Fractured Petroleum Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Firoozabadi, Dr. Abbas

    2000-01-18

    In this report the results of experiments of water injection in fractured porous media comprising a number of water-wet matrix blocks are reported for the first time. The blocks experience an advancing fracture-water level (FWL). Immersion-type experiments are performed for comparison; the dominant recovery mechanism changed from co-current to counter-current imbibition when the boundary conditions changed from advancing FWL to immersion-type. Single block experiments of co-current and counter-current imbibition was performed and co-current imbibition leads to more efficient recovery was found.

  14. Optimization of fracture treatment designs

    E-print Network

    Rueda, Jose Ignacio

    1992-01-01

    (Head of Department) May 1992 Optimization of Fracture Treatment Designs. (May 1992) Jose Ignacio Rueda, B. Eng. , Universidad Industrial de Santander Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Stephen A. Holditch Hydraulic fracturing is the most important... results in greater ultimate recovery. Hydraulic fracturing is a technique for simulating wells completed in low- peimeability reservoirs and is the most important stimulation method currently used in the industry. The hydraulic fracturing process...

  15. "Phoenix jaw"-bone regeneration of the necrotic mandible between pathological fractures: an unusual but evocative course of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis.

    PubMed

    Imai, Tomoaki; Michizawa, Masahiro

    2014-07-01

    Management of advanced bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw, particularly in cases of pathological fractures with extraoral fistulas, is a challenging responsibility for craniomaxillofacial specialists. Although a periosteal reaction is occasionally observed in cases with extensive sequestra, few reports have documented circumferential periosteal osseous formation resulting in bone repair. We present the case of a 78-year-old woman who was treated for breast cancer and received intravenous bisphosphonates. She had bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw with bilateral pathological fractures of the mandible. During the course of minimally invasive treatment, the necrotic segment was separated with circumferential exposure, and new bone spontaneously formed with osseous union to the unilateral fractured stump. The present case typically highlights the potential of periosteal osteogenesis to regain an acceptable state even for patients with severe "bis-phossy jaw," particularly those with pathological fractures, although we do not advocate the universality of the phenomenon presented as "phoenix jaw." PMID:24978685

  16. Unilateral Inferior Altitudinal Hemianopsia, Argyll Robertson Pupil and Dendritic Keratitis in a Young Patient with Herpes Zoster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sammartino; R. Fusco; G. de Crecchio; A. Magli

    1981-01-01

    The authors describe a young patient with herpes zoster and discuss the etiopathogenesis of the complications which included unilateral inferior altitudinal hemianopsia, Argyll Robertson pupil and dendritic keratitis.

  17. Fatigue, degradation, and fracture 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bamford, W.H. (Westinghouse Energy Systems (US)); Becht, C. IV (Becht Engineering Co., Inc. (US)); Bhandari, S. (Framatome (FR)); Gilman, J.D. (Electric Power Research Institute (US)); James, L.A. (Westinghouse Bettis Laboratory (US)); Prager, M. (Materials Properties Council (US))

    1990-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at the 1990 Pressure Vessels and Piping Conference. It is organized under the following headings: Environmental fatigue crack growth; Fatigue analysis and fracture assessment; Fatigue and fracture of piping; Fatigue and fracture of vessels; Degradation of ferritic, austenitic, and duplex stainless alloys in nuclear service.

  18. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Penile Fracture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason T. Nomura; Paul R. Sierzenski

    2010-01-01

    Background: Rupture of the corpus cavernosum, penile fracture, is an uncommon occurrence. Diagnosis is straightforward when classical historical and physical examination findings are present. However, atypical presentations can make the diagnosis difficult. Objectives: Review the literature supporting use of ultrasound for the diagnosis of penile fracture. Review of the ultrasonographic findings in patients with penile fracture. Case Report: A 32-year-old

  19. Ultrasound Focussing by Planar Fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Pyrak-Nolte; D. D. Nolte

    2005-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that a planar fracture can behave as a lens and focus ultrasound waves when the fracture has a spatially varying stiffness with axial symmetry. The fracture is modeled as a purely two-dimensional structure using the displacement-discontinuity boundary condition. A quadratic group delay as a function of distance from the acoustic axis converts an incident plane wave into

  20. Seismoacoustic signatures of fracture connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubino, J. Germán.; Müller, Tobias M.; Guarracino, Luis; Milani, Marco; Holliger, Klaus

    2014-03-01

    Wave-induced fluid flow (WIFF) between fractures and the embedding matrix as well as within connected fractures tends to produce significant seismic attenuation and velocity dispersion. While WIFF between fractures and matrix is well understood, the corresponding effects related to fracture connectivity and the characteristics of the energy dissipation due to flow within fractures are largely unexplored. In this work, we use oscillatory relaxation simulations based on the quasi-static poroelastic equations to study these phenomena. We first consider synthetic rock samples containing connected and unconnected fractures and compute the corresponding attenuation and phase velocity. We also determine the relative fluid displacement and pressure fields in order to gain insight into the physical processes involved in the two manifestations of WIFF in fractured media. To quantify the contributions of the two WIFF mechanisms to the total seismic attenuation, we compute the spatial distribution of the local energy dissipation. Finally, we perform an exhaustive sensitivity analysis to study the role played by different characteristics of fracture networks on the seismic signatures. We show that in the presence of connected fractures both P wave attenuation and phase velocity are sensitive to some key characteristics of the probed medium, notably to the lengths, permeabilities, and intersection angles of the fractures as well as to the overall degree of connectivity of the fracture network. This, in turn, indicates that a deeper understanding of these two manifestations of WIFF in fractured media may eventually allow for the extraction of some of these properties from seismic data.

  1. Viscoelastic rocket grain fracture analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. C. Francis; C. H. Carlton; R. E. Thompson

    1974-01-01

    A viscoelastic fracture analysis has been developed for rocket grain fracture predictions. The fracture analysis uses a stress intensity factor technique to predict crack velocity histories under thermal and pressurization loading conditions. The theory is compared with two-dimensional pressurized tests of two typical rocket motor geometries using the viscoelastic material, Solithane 113.

  2. Computer simulation of hydraulic fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Adachi; E. Siebrits; A. Peirce; J. Desroches

    2007-01-01

    We provide a brief historical background of the development of hydraulic fracturing models for use in the petroleum and other industries. We discuss scaling laws and the propagation regimes that control the growth of hydraulic fractures from the laboratory to the field scale. We introduce the mathematical equations and boundary conditions that govern the hydraulic fracturing process, and discuss numerical

  3. Surgical Treatment of Maisonneuve Fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Boldin; Wolfgang Grechenig; Johannes Mayr; Rudolf Szyszkowitz

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Closed or open reduction and internal fixation of Maisonneuve fracture with the goal to restore form and function of ankle joint. Prevention of posttraumatic osteoarthritis. Indications: Proximal fibular fractures associated with rupture of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis, the interosseous membrane, and the deltoid ligament; sometimes associated with fracture of the medial malleolus and the posterior rim of the tibia.

  4. FRACTURE STIMULATION IN ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    FRACTURE STIMULATION IN ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS A REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY of stimulation is induced shear on preexisting fractures, which increases their transmissibility by orders of magnitude. The processes that create fractured rock are discussed from the perspective of geology and rock

  5. Method of fracturing high temperature wells and fracturing fluid therefore

    SciTech Connect

    Nimerick, K.H.; Boney, C.L.

    1992-04-14

    This patent describes a method of fracturing a subterranean formation, it comprises: the sequential steps of providing an aqueous gelled fracturing fluid containing up to 100 pounds per gallon of a hydrated polymer selected from a group consisting of guar and guar derivatives and pumping the aqueous gelled fracturing fluid into a subterranean formation to effect fracturing thereof. This patent describes improvement in adding to the gelled aqueous solution immediately prior to the step of pumping from 20 to about 250 pounds per one thousand gallons of fracturing fluid of the selected polymer in unhydrated, particulate form.

  6. Executive functioning in children with unilateral cerebral palsy: protocol for a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bodimeade, Harriet L; Whittingham, Koa; Lloyd, Owen; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Early brain injury, as found in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP), may cause deficits in higher-order cognitive tasks known as executive functions (EF). EF has been conceptualised as comprised of four distinct yet inter-related components: (1) attentional control, (2) cognitive flexibility, (3) goal setting and (4) information processing. The aim of this study was to examine EF in children with unilateral CP and compare their performance with a typically developing reference group (TDC). The potential laterality effects of unilateral CP on EF will be explored, as will the relationship between the cognitive measures of EF, behavioural manifestations of EF, psychological functioning and clinical features of unilateral CP. Methods and analysis This cross-sectional study aims to recruit a total of 42 children with unilateral CP (21 right unilateral CP and 21 left unilateral CP) and 21 TDC aged between 8 and 16?years. Clinical severity will be described for gross motor function and manual ability. Outcomes for cognitive EF measureswill include subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—Fourth Edition, Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System, Rey Complex Figure Test and the Test of Everyday Attention for Children. Behavioural manifestations of EF will be assessed using the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Parent and Teacher versions. Psychological functioning will be examined using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Between-groups differences will be examined in a series of one-way analyses of covariance and followed up using linear comparisons. An overall composite of cognitive EF measures will be created. Bivariate correlations between the EF composite and psychological measures will be calculated. Ethics and dissemination This protocol describes a study that, to our knowledge, is the first to examine multiple components of EF using a cohort of children with unilateral CP. Exploration of potential laterality effects of EF among children with a congenital, unilateral brain injury is also novel. Possible relationships between EF and psychological functioning will also be investigated. Ethics have been obtained through the University of Queensland School of Psychology Ethics Committee and the Queensland Children's Health Services Human Research Ethics Committee. Results will be disseminated in peer reviewed publications and presentations at national and international conferences. This study is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12611000263998). PMID:23558736

  7. Descending pathways from activated locus coeruleus/subcoeruleus following unilateral hindpaw inflammation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Masako; Tsuruoka, Masayoshi; Hayashi, Bunsho; Nagasawa, Ikuko; Inoue, Tomio

    2009-03-16

    We have previously shown that the descending pathways from the locus coeruleus (LC)/subcoeruleus (SC) to the spinal cord are activated during peripheral inflammation, and that activation of this coeruleospinal system decreases development of hyperalgesia. Anatomical evidence suggests that the descending modulation system from the LC/SC should be active bilaterally during inflammation when the LC/SC either ipsilateral or contralateral to the site of inflammation is activated. In the present study, the development of hyperalgesia following the induction of unilateral hindpaw inflammation was compared between rats with either bilateral or unilateral lesions of the LC/SC and rats with a sham operation. Four hours after carrageenan injection, in the inflamed paw, paw withdrawal latencies (PWLs) to thermal stimuli of the bilateral LC/SC-lesioned rats were significantly shorter than those of the unilateral LC/SC-lesioned and the sham-operated rats, whereas the decreased PWLs of the unilateral LC/SC-lesioned rats were equivalent to those of the sham-operated rats. A difference in PWL between the bilateral and the unilateral LC/SC-lesioned rats was not observed in the contralateral non-inflamed paw. The result suggests that in the LC/SC both ipsilateral and contralateral to the inflamed paw, only neurons which project to the dorsal horn ipsilateral to the inflamed paw were activated following peripheral inflammation. PMID:18926888

  8. Unilateral and bilateral ECT: a study of memory disturbance and relief from depression

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, D.; Bodley, P.; Potts, L.; Mather, Marcia D.; Gardner, R. K.; Tobin, Jean C.

    1970-01-01

    Fifty-one endogenous and reactive female depressives were given a course of either unilateral non-dominant, unilateral dominant, or bilateral ECT. Visual and verbal memory tests and confusion ratings were administered at frequent intervals during the treatment course. Pre-and post-treatment assessments of depression were made. Comparisons of the therapeutic effect of six and of eight ECTs were studied separately. One month after the last ECT the patients were again assessed on the memory and the depression tests. The results of the memory tests indicate that unilateral non-dominant ECT produced least memory disturbance (particularly of a verbal kind) and also less immediate confusion within 40 minutes of each ECT. This observation applies more to the reactive than the endogenous group. Comparisons of the depression tests reveal that unilateral non-dominant ECT is as effective in relieving depression as bilateral ECT, though progress may be less rapid. The observation holds true only for the reactive depressives. Endogenous depressives benefit more from bilateral ECT. Caution is advised against the administration of unilateral dominant ECT, since this group does not respond to treatment as well as the other two groups. Degree of improvement as a whole does not appear to be related to the degree of confusion experienced. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:5478954

  9. Unilateral versus bilateral endoscopic biliary stenting for malignant hilar biliary strictures.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Ichiro; Mukai, Tsuyoshi; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2013-05-01

    The present review compared unilateral versus bilateral stenting in order to determine the optimal stenting strategy for malignant hilar biliary strictures based on the previous literature. The role of preoperative biliary drainage prior to liver resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma remains under discussion. However, in Japan, endoscopic placement of single nasobiliary drainage in the future remnant hepatic lobe is currently considered the most suitable method. In most unresectable cases, unilateral stenting appears to be adequate for ameliorating jaundice. It is technically easier and less expensive than bilateral stenting, with reintervention for stent dysfunction also being considerably easier. However, contrast medium injection into undrained bile ducts is associated with uncontrolled cholangitis and poor prognosis. To prevent this complication, bilateral stenting may be preferred to unilateral stenting. Additionally, previous studies have demonstrated bilateral stenting to be associated with longer stent patency as compared to unilateral stenting. We consider that further large-scale studies are required to clarify whether unilateral or bilateral stenting is a better therapeutic technique for malignant hilar biliary stricture. PMID:23617655

  10. [AO classification of fractures].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tadashi

    2003-10-01

    In the AO classification, the diagnosis of a fracture is expressed by its location (bone and segment) and morphological features, which is characterized by the hierarchical organization into triad. This classification is comprehensive and very useful in a daily clinical practice. PMID:15775205

  11. Fracturing highly disordered materials

    E-print Network

    Moreira, A A; Hansen, A; Araujo, N A M; Herrmann, H J; Andrade, J S

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the role of disorder on the fracturing process of heterogeneous materials by means of a two-dimensional fuse network model. Our results in the extreme disorder limit reveal that the backbone of the fracture at collapse, namely the subset of the largest fracture that effectively halts the global current, has a fractal dimension of $1.22 \\pm 0.01$. This exponent value is compatible with the universality class of several other physical models, including optimal paths under strong disorder, disordered polymers, watersheds and optimal path cracks on uncorrelated substrates, hulls of explosive percolation clusters, and strands of invasion percolation fronts. Moreover, we find that the fractal dimension of the largest fracture under extreme disorder, $d_f=1.86 \\pm 0.01$, is outside the statistical error bar of standard percolation. This discrepancy is due to the appearance of trapped regions or cavities of all sizes that remain intact till the entire collapse of the fuse network, but are always access...

  12. Infiltration into Fractured Bedrock

    SciTech Connect

    Salve, Rohit; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Jones, Robert

    2007-09-01

    One potential consequence of global climate change and rapid changes in land use is an increased risk of flooding. Proper understanding of floodwater infiltration thus becomes a crucial component of our preparedness to meet the environmental challenges of projected climate change. In this paper, we present the results of a long-term infiltration experiment performed on fractured ash flow tuff. Water was released from a 3 x 4 m{sup 2} infiltration plot (divided into 12 square subplots) with a head of {approx}0.04 m, over a period of {approx}800 days. This experiment revealed peculiar infiltration patterns not amenable to current infiltration models, which were originally developed for infiltration into soils over a short duration. In particular, we observed that in part of the infiltration plot, the infiltration rate abruptly increased a few weeks into the infiltration tests. We suggest that these anomalies result from increases in fracture permeability during infiltration, which may be caused by swelling of clay fillings and/or erosion of infill debris. Interaction of the infiltration water with subsurface natural cavities (lithophysal cavities) could also contribute to such anomalies. This paper provides a conceptual model that partly describes the observed infiltration patterns in fractured rock and highlights some of the pitfalls associated with direct extension of soil infiltration models to fractured rock over a long period.

  13. Interelectrode (Accufix) lead fracture.

    PubMed

    Trigano, A J; Julienne, J; Ferracci, A; Paganelli, F; Fekhar, S; Ricard, P

    1999-11-01

    An interelectrode fracture was diagnosed 7 years after the implantation of an Accufix lead. The lead body separated from the tip with the helix screwed into the atrial wall. The retention wire was intact and may have contributed to the lead rupture. PMID:10598980

  14. Bone Fractures and Engineering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering,

    Students learn about the role engineers and engineering play in repairing severe bone fractures. They acquire knowledge about the design and development of implant rods, pins, plates, screws and bone grafts. They learn about materials science, biocompatibility and minimally-invasive surgery.

  15. Fracture Surfaces of Paperclips

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-11-12

    This video features a Penn State University professor, Dr. Chris Muhlstein, who explains that the fracture surface of a paper clip is a map of how it failed, to a trained eye. He invites us to view a variety of surfaces with a virtual microscope.

  16. Cleavage and Fracture

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-06-22

    In this activity, students will learn the properties of cleavage and fracture (how minerals break when struck with a hammer), and will use these properties as a diagnostic test for identifying minerals. Working in small groups, they will break a selection of specimens with a hammer, observe the results, and record their observations. A student worksheet and discussion questions are provided.

  17. Statistical Physics of Fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Alava, Mikko [Helsinki University of Technology, Helsinki, Finland; Nukala, Phani K [ORNL; Zapperi, Stefano [University of La Sapienza, Rome

    2006-05-01

    Disorder and long-range interactions are two of the key components that make material failure an interesting playfield for the application of statistical mechanics. The cornerstone in this respect has been lattice models of the fracture in which a network of elastic beams, bonds, or electrical fuses with random failure thresholds are subject to an increasing external load. These models describe on a qualitative level the failure processes of real, brittle, or quasi-brittle materials. This has been particularly important in solving the classical engineering problems of material strength: the size dependence of maximum stress and its sample-to-sample statistical fluctuations. At the same time, lattice models pose many new fundamental questions in statistical physics, such as the relation between fracture and phase transitions. Experimental results point out to the existence of an intriguing crackling noise in the acoustic emission and of self-affine fractals in the crack surface morphology. Recent advances in computer power have enabled considerable progress in the understanding of such models. Among these partly still controversial issues, are the scaling and size-effects in material strength and accumulated damage, the statistics of avalanches or bursts of microfailures, and the morphology of the crack surface. Here we present an overview of the results obtained with lattice models for fracture, highlighting the relations with statistical physics theories and more conventional fracture mechanics approaches.

  18. Fractures in Tharsis Tholus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    In the upper left corner of this VIS image are a series of fractures. Where the fractures are exposed on the surface it is impossible to tell the plane of the fracture; however where the fractures are visible in the cliff wall it is possible to see that the fractures dip to the north. This image shows part of the caldera of Tharsis Tholus.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 13.5, Longitude 268.9 East (91.1 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. [Four major fractures in elderly].

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Yoshinori

    2014-10-01

    Fractures of proximal humerus, distal radius, proximal femur and vertebral body are common in elderly patients with osteoporosis. These so called "four major fractures in elderly" can be difficult to treat because of fragile bone. They can be treated either conservatively or surgically. Except for proximal femur fracture, conservative treatment is performed as first line therapy. To avoid complications associated with conservative treatment, surgical treatment has been developed and proves to be effective. However, the risk of surgical stress and the possibility of postoperative complication have to be estimated carefully before surgery. While fracture is treated, osteoporosis should also be treated in order to prevent another fracture. PMID:25509805

  20. Seismic characterization of fracture properties

    SciTech Connect

    Myer, L.R.; Hopkins, D.; Cook, N.G.W. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Pyrak-Nolte, L.J. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that there is a relationship, both empirical and theoretical, between the measured seismic response, the mechanical stiffness (also referred to as specific stiffness) of fractures and their hydraulic conductivity. Laboratory measurements of the mechanical stiffness, hydraulic conductivity and seismic properties of natural fractures are summarized. A theoretical model for the amplitude and group time delay for compressional and shear waves transmitted across a single fracture is presented. Predictions based on this model are compared with laboratory measurements. Finally, the results for a single fracture are extended to multiple parallel fractures. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Linear elastic fracture mechanics primer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Christopher D.

    1992-01-01

    This primer is intended to remove the blackbox perception of fracture mechanics computer software by structural engineers. The fundamental concepts of linear elastic fracture mechanics are presented with emphasis on the practical application of fracture mechanics to real problems. Numerous rules of thumb are provided. Recommended texts for additional reading, and a discussion of the significance of fracture mechanics in structural design are given. Griffith's criterion for crack extension, Irwin's elastic stress field near the crack tip, and the influence of small-scale plasticity are discussed. Common stress intensities factor solutions and methods for determining them are included. Fracture toughness and subcritical crack growth are discussed. The application of fracture mechanics to damage tolerance and fracture control is discussed. Several example problems and a practice set of problems are given.

  2. EVALUTION OF UNILATERAL ELECTRO-CONVULSIVE THERAPY (A double blind study)

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, S. B.; Mohammed, E.

    1980-01-01

    A double blind study of one hundred twenty patients ( ninety schizophrenics and thirty depressives )—who were divided equally into three groups, who received either (a) bilateral ECT or (b) unilateral application of electrodes on non-dominant hemisphere or (c) unilateral on dominant hemisphere was conducted. The three groups were compared regarding efficacy of the therapy, effects on memory, speed of recovery from each shock session and lastly changes in the electro-encephalogram. It was found that all the three techniques were more or less equal in therapeutic efficacy. There was no significant difference between them in the speed of recovery, nor in the EEG changes. Only difference was that in the field of memory, unilateral non-dominant group showed significant improvement in the ‘immediate verbal recall’ component of memory in particular. Results have been discussed in view of the current literature on the subject. PMID:22058461

  3. Ventilation-perfusion scan in the acutely ill patient with unilateral hyperlucent lung

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.B.; Caride, V.J.

    1988-01-01

    A patient with a unilateral hyperlucent lung with acute respiratory complaints is presented. A ventilation-perfusion scan was performed to rule out pulmonary embolism. The perfusion scan ( (/sup 99m/TC)MAA) showed peripheral perfusion defects in the hyperlucent lung. The ventilation study (/sup 133/Xe) demonstrated peripheral ventilatory defects on the single breath image in the hyperlucent lung, the filling in of these on the equilibrium view, and diffusely delayed washout in the affected lung. These findings were suggestive of the Swyer-James syndrome and critical in excluding the numerous other causes of unilateral hyperlucent lung, which are discussed. The importance of the ventilation-perfusion study (and particularly the ventilation scan) in the patient with unilateral hyperlucent lung and acute respiratory symptoms is stressed. In addition, a discussion of the Swyer-James syndrome is included.

  4. Unilateral spectral and temporal compression reduces binaural fusion for normal hearing listeners with cochlear implant simulations.

    PubMed

    Aronoff, Justin M; Shayman, Corey; Prasad, Akila; Suneel, Deepa; Stelmach, Julia

    2015-02-01

    Patients with single sided deafness have recently begun receiving cochlear implants in their deaf ear. These patients gain a significant benefit from having a cochlear implant. However, despite this benefit, they are considerably slower to develop binaural abilities such as summation compared to bilateral cochlear implant patients. This suggests that these patients have difficulty fusing electric and acoustic signals. Although this may reflect inherent differences between electric and acoustic stimulation, it may also reflect properties of the processor and fitting system, which result in spectral and temporal compression. To examine the possibility that unilateral spectral and temporal compression can adversely affect binaural fusion, this study tested normal hearing listeners' binaural fusion through the use of vocoded speech with unilateral spectral and temporal compression. The results indicate that unilateral spectral and temporal compression can each hinder binaural fusion and thus may adversely affect binaural abilities in patients with single sided deafness who use a cochlear implant in their deaf ear. PMID:25549574

  5. [Prenatal diagnostic of congenital unilateral hydronephrosis with megaureter--a case presentation].

    PubMed

    Socolov, R; Stratone, Carmen; Socolov, Demetra

    2006-01-01

    Unilateral mild hydronephrosis with ureteral dilatation is a condition that can be detected by careful prenatal ultrasound examination. We present such a case, in a 26 year pregnant woman with hereditary antecedents (mother with Ombredan disease). The fetal ultrasound at 34 weeks indicated a left anechogenic sinuous image, identified as dilated ureter, and connected to a grade 2 hydronephrotic kidney. Normal data regarding the other kidney and the bladder made us recommend a close follow-up, considering this case as with a good prognosis. After birth, reassessment was favourable, and at 1 year follow-up the child was in good condition, and the kidney functional. We conclude that this case is a unilateral congenital megaureter, of probably obstructive origins, with a mild hydronephrosis. A good outcome was suggested by the late diagnostic, unilateral condition, and normal fetal ultrasound description regarding morphology, biometry and amniotic fluid. PMID:17438898

  6. Unilateral RS3PE in a Patient of Seronegative Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Varshney, Ankur Nandan; Kumar, Nilesh; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Anand, Ravi; Prasad, Sashi Ranjan; Anand, Arvind; Mishra, Abhinandan; Singh, N. K.

    2013-01-01

    Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) is a rare but well-reported clinical entity. It is classically described as symmetrical involvement of both upper extremities. Asymmetrical involvement had also been reported, but unilateral presentation is very rare. We hereby report a case of unilateral RS3PE in a patient of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis which was initially misdiagnosed as cellulitis and was given high dose antibiotics without any significant improvement. Later a rheumatologic consultation leads to a prompt diagnosis, and treatment with steroids leads to dramatic reversal of symptoms. This case demonstrates the rare presentation of this rare clinical entity and highlights the necessity of awareness regarding unilateral disease to clinicians. PMID:23662237

  7. Thrombosis incidence in unilateral vs. simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty with compression device prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Levy, Yadin D; Hardwick, Mary E; Copp, Steven N; Rosen, Adam S; Colwell, Clifford W

    2013-03-01

    This study compares the incidence of venous thromboembolic event (VTE) in 55 patients (110 knees) undergoing simultaneous bilateral TKA with 287 patients (287 knees) undergoing unilateral TKA using a mobile compression device as monotherapy prophylaxis in both groups. All patients were clinically evaluated 3months after surgery with symptomatic confirmed VTE as an endpoint. Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) was documented by duplex ultrasound and pulmonary embolism (PE) was documented by spiral CT. The simultaneous bilateral TKA group had 6 VTEs (10.9%) with 2 PEs (3.6%). The unilateral TKA group had 9 VTEs (3.1%), and 0 PE. Patients undergoing simultaneous bilateral TKA yielded more than twice the rate of VTE compared with patients undergoing unilateral TKA using a mobile compression device as sole thromboprophylactic modality. PMID:23142435

  8. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have opposing effects during stress fracture repair.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiliang; Waugh, Lauren J; Hui, Siu L; Burr, David B; Warden, Stuart J

    2007-12-01

    Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were used to treat stress fracture. Bilateral stress fractures were induced in the ulnas of 48 adult rats. Animals were divided into two groups (NSAID and VEH), and treated 5 days per week with celecoxib (5 mg/kg) mixed in a vehicle solution of polyethylene glycol and saline (NSAID) or vehicle alone (VEH). One-to-three hours following drug administration, all animals were treated with unilateral active-LIPUS and contralateral inactive-LIPUS. Equal numbers of ulnas from each drug group were histologically evaluated at 2, 4, and 8 weeks following induction of stress fracture. Neither LIPUS nor NSAID influenced bone resorption, but each had significant and opposite effects on intracortical bone formation rate. These effects indicate that LIPUS may be used to facilitate stress fracture repair whereas NSAID may delay tissue level repair of stress fractures. There was no interaction between LIPUS and NSAID, indicating that the beneficial LIPUS effect was not mediated by the cyclooxygenase-2 pathway. LIPUS accelerated stress fracture healing, whereas the NSAID delayed repair. When used in combination, the beneficial LIPUS effect was not impaired by the detrimental NSAID effect. PMID:17593538

  9. Pterional approach versus unilateral frontal approach on tuberculum sellae meningioma: Single centre experiences

    PubMed Central

    Arifin, Muhammad Zafrullah; Mardjono, Ignatius; Sidabutar, Roland; Wirjomartani, Beny Atmadja; Faried, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculum Sellae Meningioma is one of the most challenging surgeries among neurosurgeons. Many approaches have been established in the effort of removing the tumor and some of them are supported by an advanced neurosurgical technology. In this study, we aim to compare the efficacy of the two most common approaches, the pterional and the unilateral frontal. Materials and Methods: This was a restrospective study that aimed to observe the efficacy of the two most common approaches used in our center, the pterional and the unilateral frontal, in resecting the tuberculum sellae meningioma, which was held in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung, from July 2007-July 2010. Twenty patients were enrolled with half of them operated by the pterional approach and the rest by unilateral frontal approach. We evaluated six parameters: tumor size, degree of tumor removal, surgery duration, post-operative cerebral edema, patients' outcome, and length of stay, which were evaluated to take measure of the efficacy of each procedure. Results: We found that the pterional approach gave more advantages than the unilateral frontal. Total tumor removal, especially in tumor size ? 3 cm was achieved in a greater number of subjects in the pterional (P<0.023). Other advantages of the pterional compared to the unilateral frontal were a shorter surgical duration (P=0.024), shorter length of stay (P=0.009) and less frequency of post-operative cerebral edema incidence (P=0.023). Conclusion: According to our facilities and conditions, it seems that the pterional approach have more advantages than the unilateral frontal approach in tuberculum sellae meningioma surgery. PMID:22639687

  10. Earth horizontal axis rotational responses in patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular deficits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furman, Joseph M. R.; Kamerer, Donald B.; Wall, Conrad, III

    1989-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) of five patients with surgically confirmed unilateral peripheral vestibular lesions is evaluated. Testing used both earth vertical axis (EVA) and earth horizontal axis (EHA) yaw rotation. Results indicated that the patients had short VOR time constants, asymmetric responses to both EVA and EHA rotation, and normal EHA modulation components. These findings suggest that unilateral peripheral vestibular loss causes a shortened VOR time constant even with the addition of dynamic otolithic stimulation and causes an asymmetry in semicircular canal-ocular reflexes and one aspect of otolith-ocular reflexes.

  11. Inferior oblique anterior transposition for the unilateral hypertropia associated with bilateral inferior rectus muscle aplasia.

    PubMed

    Almahmoudi, Faeeqah; Khan, Arif O

    2014-06-01

    Bilateral inferior rectus muscle aplasia in the absence of craniofacial abnormality is a rare but possibly under-recognized form of strabismus. Unilateral hypertropia in primary position seems to be a recurrent feature of this condition. We report a case of a 20-year-old woman with left hypertropia in primary position who was found on computed tomography to have bilateral inferior rectus muscle aplasia. A unilateral inferior oblique anterior transposition resulted in correction of the vertical deviation in primary position. PMID:24767828

  12. Walking symmetry and energy cost in persons with unilateral transtibial amputations: Matching prosthetic and intact limb inertial properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah J. Mattes; Philip E. Martin; Todd D. Royer

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the hypothesis that increasing the mass and moment of inertia of the prosthetic limb of people with unilateral, transtibial amputations to match the mass and moment of inertia of the intact limb improves walking symmetry without increasing energy cost.Design: Gait symmetry and metabolic energy cost of walking for six subjects with unilateral, transtibial amputations were evaluated under

  13. Hand Function in Relation to Brain Lesions and Corticomotor-Projection Pattern in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmstrom, Linda; Vollmer, Brigitte; Tedroff, Kristina; Islam, Mominul; Persson, Jonas Ke; Kits, Annika; Forssberg, Hans; Eliasson, Ann-Christin

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate relationships between hand function, brain lesions, and corticomotor projections in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Method: The study included 17 children (nine males, eight females; mean age 11.4 [SD 2.4] range 7-16y), with unilateral CP at Gross Motor Function Classification System level I and Manual Ability…

  14. EFFECT OF UNILATERAL, BILATERAL AND COMBINED PLYOMETRIC TRAINING ON EXPLOSIVE AND ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE OF YOUNG SOCCER PLAYERS.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Burgos, Carlos; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Andrade, David C; Martínez, Cristian; Alvarez, Cristian; Castro-Sepúlveda, Mauricio; Marques, Mário C; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of bilateral, unilateral, or combined bilateral and unilateral plyometric training (PT) on muscle power output, endurance and balance performance adaptations in young soccer players. Four groups of young soccer players (age 11.4 ± 2.2 y) were divided into: control (CG; n = 14), bilateral group (BG; n = 12), unilateral group (UG; n = 16), and bilateral + unilateral group (B+UG; n = 12). Players were measured in unilateral and bilateral countermovement jump with arms (CMJA), 5 multiple bounds test (MB5), 20 cm drop jump reactive strength index (RSI20), maximal kicking velocity (MKV), sprint and agility test time, endurance and balance performance. The PT was applied during 6 weeks, 2 sessions per week, for a total of 2160 jumps. After intervention, all PT groups showed a statistically significant (p<0.05) change in all performance measures, with no statistically significant differences between treatments. Among the 21 performance measures, the B+UG showed a significantly (p<0.05) higher performance change in 13 of them vs. the CG, while the UG and BG showed only 6 and 3, respectively. The current study showed that bilateral, unilateral and combined bilateral and unilateral PT ensured significant improvement in several muscular power and endurance performance measures in young soccer players. However, the combination of unilateral and bilateral drills seems more advantageous to induce superior performance improvements. PMID:25474338

  15. Can a unilateral loss of otolithic function be clinically detected by assessment of the subjective visual vertical?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Böhmer; Fred Mast; Thomas Jarchow

    1996-01-01

    Asymmetries in the settings of the subjective visual vertical after unilateral vestibular neurectomy during eccentric centrifugation [3] might provide a clinical test for unilateral otolithic function. This study investigates whether these asymmetries can also be revealed by a technically much easier practicable roll tilt of the subject relative to gravity instead of a roll tilt of the gravitational force on

  16. Bone-anchored hearing aids in unilateral inner ear deafness: an evaluation of audiometric and patient outcome measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myrthe K. S Hol; Arjan J Bosman; Ad F. M Snik; Emmanuel A. M Mylanus; Cor W. R. J Cremers

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the benefit of a bone-anchored hearing aid contralateral routing of sound hearing aid (BAHA CROS hearing aid) in 29 patients with unilateral inner ear deafness. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical follow-up study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Thirty patients were recruited. There were 19 patients with a history of acoustic neuroma surgery and 11 patients with unilateral inner

  17. Slow or rapid palatal expansion for early treatment of unilateral posterior crossbite? Evaluation of the reverse chewing cycles correction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria G. Piancino; Francesca Talpone; Teresa Vallelonga; Gianluigi Frongia; Cesare L. Debernardi; Pietro Bracco

    2010-01-01

    ObjectivesIt is well established that patients with a unilateral posterior crossbite, when chewing on the affected side, show an increased frequency of reverse chewing cycles. It was hypothesized that the correction of reverse cycles may be due to the characteristics of the therapy. The aim was to investigate the prevalence of reverse chewing patterns in children with unilateral posterior crossbite

  18. The use of a laser-level paralleling device for the fabrication of a unilateral auricular prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Piper, James M; Sutton, Alan J; Hansen, Nancy A

    2014-05-01

    This article describes the use of a laser-level paralleling device for the fabrication of a unilateral auricular prosthesis. Traditional methods require use of calipers to obtain orientation of contralateral auricular anatomy, which in turn can be difficult to replicate on the patient. The purpose of this clinical report is to describe a simple means to record unilateral auricular anatomy. PMID:24445026

  19. Europa's Fractured Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This image of Europa, smallest of Jupiter's four Galilean satellites, was acquired by Voyager 2 on July 9, 1979, from a (150,600 miles). Europa, the brightest range of 241,000 kilometers of the Galilean satellites, has a density slightly less than Io, suggesting it has a substantial quantity of water. Scientists previously speculated that the water must have cooled from the interior and formed a mantle of ice perhaps 100 kilometers thick. The complex patterns on its surface suggest that the icy surface was fractured, and that the cracks filled with dark material from below. Very few impact craters are visible on the surface, suggesting that active processes on the surface are still modifying Europa. The tectonic pattern seen on its surface differs drastically from the fault systems seen on Ganymede where pieces of the crust have moved relative to each other. On Europa, the crust evidently fractures but the pieces remain in roughly their original position.

  20. Fracture of composite panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdogan, F.; Bakioglu, M.

    1976-01-01

    The fracture problem in panels consisting of periodically arranged load carrying and buffer strips of different materials is considered. The main emphasis is placed on the problem of a crack terminating at and crossing the interfaces and on the stress free end problem. The problem is formulated in terms of a system of singular integral equations, and numerical solutions are obtained for certain material combinations. With the study of possible crack propagation and delamination in mind, certain stress intensity factors are defined and calculated. A main result is that when the crack touches or intersects a bimaterial interface, the stress state has no longer the standard square root singularity, and, to study further propagation of the crack, the conventional fracture models need to be modified, or new models need to be developed.

  1. Imaging of stress fractures.

    PubMed

    Sofka, Carolyn M

    2006-01-01

    The imaging evaluation of a patient who has a clinically suspected stress reaction or fracture should begin with high-resolution radiographs of the area in question. In inconclusive or indeterminate cases, additional imaging should be obtained. CT provides exquisitely fine osseous detail, in multiple planes, often demonstrating the endosteal remodeling or fracture line that is not apparent on conventional radiographs. The sensitivity of nuclear scintigraphy depicts areas of even subtle osseous turnover and stress remodeling. Ultrasonography, used increasingly in the evaluation of the musculoskeletal system, can provide a limited evaluation of the superficial osseous structures, providing an imaging alternative, especially in patients who are MRI-incompatible. MRI, however, provides the most comprehensive evaluation of stress injuries, revealing both functional and morphologic information about the bone. PMID:16324973

  2. Fractures of the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, Raphael Martus; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Teixeira, William Jacobsen; Narasaki, Douglas Kenji; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the literature on cervical spine fractures. METHODS: The literature on the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of lower and upper cervical fractures and dislocations was reviewed. RESULTS: Fractures of the cervical spine may be present in polytraumatized patients and should be suspected in patients complaining of neck pain. These fractures are more common in men approximately 30 years of age and are most often caused by automobile accidents. The cervical spine is divided into the upper cervical spine (occiput-C2) and the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), according to anatomical differences. Fractures in the upper cervical spine include fractures of the occipital condyle and the atlas, atlanto-axial dislocations, fractures of the odontoid process, and hangman's fractures in the C2 segment. These fractures are characterized based on specific classifications. In the lower cervical spine, fractures follow the same pattern as in other segments of the spine; currently, the most widely used classification is the SLIC (Subaxial Injury Classification), which predicts the prognosis of an injury based on morphology, the integrity of the disc-ligamentous complex, and the patient's neurological status. It is important to correctly classify the fracture to ensure appropriate treatment. Nerve or spinal cord injuries, pseudarthrosis or malunion, and postoperative infection are the main complications of cervical spine fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Fractures of the cervical spine are potentially serious and devastating if not properly treated. Achieving the correct diagnosis and classification of a lesion is the first step toward identifying the most appropriate treatment, which can be either surgical or conservative. PMID:24270959

  3. Fractured Craters on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Two highly fractured craters are visible in this high resolution image of Jupiter's moon, Ganymede. NASA's Galileo spacecraft imaged this region as it passed Ganymede during its second orbit through the Jovian system. North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the southeast. The two craters in the center of the image lie in the ancient dark terrain of Marius Regio, at 40 degrees latitude and 201 degrees longitude, at the border of a region of bright grooved terrain known as Byblus Sulcus (the eastern portion of which is visible on the left of this image). Pervasive fracturing has occurred in this area that has completely disrupted these craters and destroyed their southern and western walls. Such intense fracturing has occurred over much of Ganymede's surface and has commonly destroyed older features. The image covers an area approximately 26 kilometers (16 miles) by 18 kilometers (11 miles) across at a resolution of 86 meters (287 feet) per picture element. The image was taken on September 6, 1996 by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  4. Prediction of Composite Laminate Fracture: Micromechanics and Progressive Fracture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotsis, P. K.; Chamis, C. C.; Minnetyan, L.

    1998-01-01

    An investigation is described on the prediction of first-ply failure and fracture in selected composite laminates. The laminates are made from glass fibers and graphite fibers in epoxy matrices. Failure envelopes are generated for combined loading of these laminates on the basis of first-ply failure and laminate fracture. The evaluation is performed by a micromechanics-based theory and progressive fracture.

  5. Procedure for estimating fracture energy from fracture surface roughness

    DOEpatents

    Williford, Ralph E. (Kennewick, WA)

    1989-01-01

    The fracture energy of a material is determined by first measuring the length of a profile of a section through a fractured surface of the material taken on a plane perpendicular to the mean plane of that surface, then determining the fractal dimensionality of the surface. From this, the yield strength of the material, and the Young's Modulus of that material, the fracture energy is calculated.

  6. Prediction of Composite Laminate Fracture: Micromechanics and Progressive Fracture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotsis, P. K.; Chamis, C. C.; Minnetyan, L.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes an investigation to predict first-ply failure and final fracture in selected composite laminates subjected to inplane loads. The laminates were composed of glass fiber and graphite fibers in epoxy matrices. Failure envelopes based on first-ply failure and laminate fracture were generated for combined loading of these laminates. Predictions were evaluated by micromechanics-based theory and progressive fracture. The results show that, for most cases, combined tensile loading significantly enhanced the laminate fracture stress in comparison to the uniaxial loading.

  7. Seismic determination of saturation in fractured reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.L.; Wiggins, M.L.; Gupta, A.

    2002-01-01

    Detecting the saturation of a fractured reservoir using shear waves is possible when the fractures have a geometry that induces a component of movement perpendicular to the fractures. When such geometry is present, vertically traveling shear waves can be used to examine the saturation of the fractured reservoir. Tilted, corrugated, and saw-tooth fracture models are potential examples.

  8. Unusual presentation of a femoral stress fracture

    PubMed Central

    Ejnisman, Leandro; Wajnsztejn, Andre; Queiroz, Roberto Dantas; Ejnisman, Benno

    2013-01-01

    Stress fractures are common injuries in sports medicine. Among these fractures, femoral neck stress fractures frequently have a benign course, especially when it happens in the medial aspect of the neck. This case report describes a stress fracture of the medial aspect of the femoral neck that developed a complete fracture and underwent surgical fixation. PMID:23283621

  9. Brittle Fracture Ductile to Brittle transition

    E-print Network

    Subramaniam, Anandh

    FRACTURE Brittle Fracture Ductile to Brittle transition Fracture Mechanics T.L. Anderson CRC sulphur in steel Residual stress Continuity of the structure Microcracks #12;Fracture Brittle Ductile Factors affecting fracture Strain rate State of stress Temperature #12;Behaviour described Terms Used

  10. FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    1999-06-11

    The four chapters that are described in this report cover a variety of subjects that not only give insight into the understanding of multiphase flow in fractured porous media, but they provide also major contribution towards the understanding of flow processes with in-situ phase formation. In the following, a summary of all the chapters will be provided. Chapter I addresses issues related to water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. There are two parts in this chapter. Part I covers extensive set of measurements for water injection in water-wet fractured porous media. Both single matrix block and multiple matrix blocks tests are covered. There are two major findings from these experiments: (1) co-current imbibition can be more efficient than counter-current imbibition due to lower residual oil saturation and higher oil mobility, and (2) tight fractured porous media can be more efficient than a permeable porous media when subjected to water injection. These findings are directly related to the type of tests one can perform in the laboratory and to decide on the fate of water injection in fractured reservoirs. Part II of Chapter I presents modeling of water injection in water-wet fractured media by modifying the Buckley-Leverett Theory. A major element of the new model is the multiplication of the transfer flux by the fractured saturation with a power of 1/2. This simple model can account for both co-current and counter-current imbibition and computationally it is very efficient. It can be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional dual-porosity model. Part II also presents the results of water injection tests in very tight rocks of some 0.01 md permeability. Oil recovery from water imbibition tests from such at tight rock can be as high as 25 percent. Chapter II discusses solution gas-drive for cold production from heavy-oil reservoirs. The impetus for this work is the study of new gas phase formation from in-situ process which can be significantly different from that of gas displacement processes. The work is of experimental nature and clarifies several misconceptions in the literature. Based on experimental results, it is established that the main reason for high efficiency of solution gas drive from heavy oil reservoirs is due to low gas mobility. Chapter III presents the concept of the alteration of porous media wettability from liquid-wetting to intermediate gas-wetting. The idea is novel and has not been introduced in the petroleum literature before. There are significant implications from such as proposal. The most direct application of intermediate gas wetting is wettability alteration around the wellbore. Such an alteration can significantly improve well deliverability in gas condensate reservoirs where gas well deliverability decreases below dewpoint pressure. Part I of Chapter III studies the effect of gravity, viscous forces, interfacial tension, and wettability on the critical condensate saturation and relative permeability of gas condensate systems. A simple phenomenological network model is used for this study, The theoretical results reveal that wettability significantly affects both the critical gas saturation and gas relative permeability. Gas relative permeability may increase ten times as contact angle is altered from 0{sup o} (strongly liquid wet) to 85{sup o} (intermediate gas-wetting). The results from the theoretical study motivated the experimental investigation described in Part II. In Part II we demonstrate that the wettability of porous media can be altered from liquid-wetting to gas-wetting. This part describes our attempt to find appropriate chemicals for wettability alteration of various substrates including rock matrix. Chapter IV provides a comprehensive treatment of molecular, pressure, and thermal diffusion and convection in porous media Basic theoretical analysis is presented using irreversible thermodynamics.

  11. Fracture of Antarctic shelf ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Rist; P. R. Sammonds; H. Oerter; C. S. M. Doake

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the fracture of Antarctic shelf ice core using two fracture mechanics test methods: the chevron-notched short-rod specimen loaded in tension and the chevron-notched round-bar specimen loaded in three-point bending. These tests have been used to measure the fracture initiation toughness, Kinit, at which crack growth starts, on samples taken through the entire thickness of the Ronne Ice

  12. Fracture of Antarctic shelf ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Rist; P. R. Sammonds; H. Oerter; C. S. M. Doake

    2002-01-01

    [1] We have investigated the fracture of Antarctic shelf ice core using two fracture mechanics test methods: the chevron-notched short-rod specimen loaded in tension and the chevron-notched round-bar specimen loaded in three-point bending. These tests have been used to measure the fracture initiation toughness, Kinit<\\/SUB>, at which crack growth starts, on samples taken through the entire thickness of the Ronne

  13. Nonunion of fifth metatarsal fractures.

    PubMed

    Solan, Matthew; Davies, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Metatarsal fractures are those most frequently encountered in the foot. More than half of these are of the 5th metatarsal. The incidence is increasing, along with the activity levels of the general population. Fractures of the 5th metatarsal require careful evaluation and classification to ensure selection of the optimum treatment plan. Distal fractures rarely require fixation, even when displacement is wide. Cases of established nonunion or refracture require fixation. PMID:25129358

  14. Carpal fractures other than scaphoid.

    PubMed

    Urch, Ekaterina Y; Lee, Steve K

    2015-01-01

    Carpal fractures are uncommon, but if missed, can lead to morbidity and loss of function, especially in an athlete. Early diagnosis through physical examination, plain radiographs, and possibly advanced imaging is paramount. Treatment is specific to each fracture type, and return to play varies with each clinical scenario. This article organizes current knowledge of these potentially difficult fractures with a table of diagnoses and treatment guidelines. PMID:25455396

  15. Fracture analysis of optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Mecholsky, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    The fracture markings on glass optical fiber surfaces are quantitatively related to the strength and time under load. Knowledge of the fracture-initiating defects and the surrounding topography pinpoints the source of failure, aids in troubleshooting, and improves production procedures. It is shown that the techniques of fracture surface analysis help analyze in-service failures as well as improve fiber optic production control.

  16. Ocular Rotation Axes during Dynamic Bielschowsky Head-Tilt Testing in Unilateral Trochlear Nerve Palsy

    E-print Network

    Haslwanter, Thomas

    PURPOSE. To explain the positive Bielschowsky head-tilt (BHT) sign in unilateral trochlear nerve palsy (u (dynamic BHT). Three- dimensional eye movements were recorded with dual search coils. Normal data were of the covered paretic or unaffected eye during dynamic BHT are a direct consequence of the nasal deviation

  17. Comparison of the Electromyographic Activation Level and Unilateral Selectivity of Erector Spinae during Different Selected Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Lan-Yuen; Wang, Yu-Lin; Huang, Yu-Han; Yang, Chich-Haung; Hou, Yi-You; Harn, Hans I-Chen; You, Yu-Lin

    2012-01-01

    For patients with scoliosis, core stabilization exercises may be beneficial in improving muscle strength and trunk dynamic control. However, few studies have examined whether the erector spinae (ES) activation status during unilateral spinal extensor strengthening meets the guideline for patients with spinal scoliosis. To determine ES activation…

  18. Single-Sided Deafness Leads to Unilateral Aural Preference within an Early Sensitive Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kral, Andrej; Hubka, Peter; Heid, Silvia; Tillein, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Unilateral deafness has a high incidence in children. In addition to children who are born without hearing in one ear, children with bilateral deafness are frequently equipped only with one cochlear implant, leaving the other ear deaf. The present study investigates the effects of such single-sided deafness during development in the congenitally…

  19. Unilateral Molariform Macrodont Mandibular Second Premolar: An Unusual Case Report in A Nonsyndromic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Masamatti, Vinay Kumar; Tiwari, Samarth; Malik, Sidharath

    2014-01-01

    Macrodontia is a rare dental anomaly that refers to teeth appears larger than normal. It can be generalized or isolated macrodontia. Isolated macrodontia involving premolar is very rare. This case report presents an unusual unilateral molarifrom macrodontia of mandibular second premolar. PMID:25177648

  20. Q What is a unilateral hearing loss? What causes a hearing loss in only one ear?

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Q· What is a unilateral hearing loss? · What causes a hearing loss in only one ear? · Will the hearing in my child's better ear get worse? · Why would my child have trouble hearing if one ear has normal hearing? · Will my child benefit from wearing a hearing aid in the ear with the hearing loss

  1. Etiologic Features in Patients with Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui-Chen Ko; Li-Ang Lee; Hsueh-Yu Li; Tuan-Jen Fang

    Background: To develop an updated screening, treatment and follow-up strategy for acquired unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP), this Taiwan study investi- gated concurrent etiologies in patients treated in a tertiary medical center. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the voice centers of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, and Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkuo Medical Center, Taiwan. Outpatient and inpatient

  2. Acting alone: U.S. unilateral uses of force, military revolutions, and hegemonic stability theory

    E-print Network

    Podliska, Bradley Florian

    2009-06-02

    . For their friendship, tolerance in listening to countless claims of ?Reagan winning the Cold War,? and for agreeing to get ?bogged down? as I discuss the particulars of my dissertation, I would like to thank Jose Villalobos, Benjamin Freeman, Laron Williams, Justin............................................................................194 Introduction.....................................................................194 1991 Gulf War (Multilateral Case).................................196 Bay of Pigs (Unilateral Case)..........................................219...

  3. Amplification Considerations for Children With Minimal or Mild Bilateral Hearing Loss and Unilateral Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Sarah; Gravel, Judith S.; Tharpe, Anne Marie

    2008-01-01

    Children with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss and unilateral hearing loss are at higher risk for academic, speech-language, and social-emotional difficulties than their normal hearing peers. The choice to fit infants with moderate or greater degrees of bilateral hearing loss has been standard practice for most clinicians, but for those with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss or unilateral hearing loss, the fitting of hearing technology must be based on limited data. Evidence does not yet exist to support all the management decisions that an audiologist must make upon identifying an infant with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss or unilateral hearing loss. It is not yet known which children are at the greatest risk for educational problems nor is it known if the provision of early amplification in this population will help a child avoid later difficulties. Some of these considerations and current hearing technology options for children with minimal or mild bilateral hearing loss or unilateral hearing loss are reviewed in this article. PMID:18270178

  4. Linear acceleration perception in the roll plane before and after unilateral vestibular neurectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Dai; I. S. Curthoys; G. M. Halmagyi

    1989-01-01

    The ability of 33 patients to perceive the direction, relative to the body long axis, of a linear acceleration vector acting in the coronal plane, rolltilt perception, was studied at various times, before and from 1 week to 6 months after unilateral, selective vestibular neurectomy for Meniere's disease, acoustic neuroma or intractable paroxysmal vertigo. The results of these patients were

  5. The Course and Outcome of Unilateral Intracranial Arteriopathy in 79 Children with Ischaemic Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, K. P. J.; Bulder, M. M. M.; Chabrier, S.; Kirkham, F. J.; Uiterwaal, C. S. P.; Tardieu, M.; Sebire, G.

    2009-01-01

    Arteriopathies are the commonest cause of arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS) in children. Repeated vascular imaging in children with AIS demonstrated the existence of a "transient cerebral arteriopathy" (TCA), characterized by lenticulostriate infarction due to non-progressive unilateral arterial disease affecting the supraclinoid internal carotid…

  6. Neglected Time: Impaired Temporal Perception of Multisecond Intervals in Unilateral Neglect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Danckert; Susanne Ferber; Carson Pun; Carol Broderick; Christopher Striemer; Sherry Rock; Dwight Stewart

    2007-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have suggested that the right hemisphere, particularly frontal regions, is important for the perception of the passage of time. We examined the ability to estimate durations of up to 60 sec in a group of eight patients with unilateral neglect. When estimating multisecond intervals, neglect patients grossly underestimated all durations. On average, healthy controls (HC)

  7. Renal Function and Solitary Kidney Disease: Wilms Tumour Survivors versus Patients with Unilateral Renal Agenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna Stefanowicz; Ewa Aleksandrowicz; Anna Owczarzak; Anna Balcerska

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To test the hypothesis that Wilms tumour survivors (WTs) experience increased disturbance in renal function, even after prompt treatment, compared to patients with unilateral renal agenesis (URA). Methods: To assess the renal function of 30 WTs and 17 individuals with URA, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the Schwartz and Filler formulas as well as the

  8. COMPARISON OF BILATERAL VERSUS UNILATERAL VARICOCELECTOMY IN MEN WITH PALPABLE BILATERAL VARICOCELES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DOUGLAS SCHERR; MARC GOLDSTEIN

    1999-01-01

    PurposeThe left varicocele is usually larger in men with bilateral varicoceles. We hypothesized that most of the benefit of varicocelectomy would derive from repair of the larger varicocele. To test this hypothesis we prospectively compared the effect of unilateral versus bilateral microsurgical varicocelectomy in men with large (grade III) or moderate (II) left varicocele associated with small but palpable (I)

  9. Synchronous Bilateral Carcinoma of the Ureter in Association with Unilateral Incomplete Duplication of the Ureter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lia-Beng Tan; Biing-Rorn Tserng; Wei-Hwang Huang; Chia-Jiuan Tarn

    1996-01-01

    A case of bilateral synchronous ureteral tumors, in association with a unilateral incomplete duplication of ureter, is presented. This patient underwent right nephroureterectomy with removal of a cuff of bladder, partial resection of left ureter, and ileal loop interposition between renal pelvis and bladder. Follow-up showed no recurrence in the residual urinary tract 2-years postoperatively.

  10. Abnormal Growth and Clonal Proliferation of Fibroblasts in an Animal Model of Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Sommer; Robby Schaller; Reinhard Fünfstück; Adalbert Bohle; Frank D. Böhmer; Gerhard A. Müller; Günter Stein

    1999-01-01

    The time course for the development of renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) in rats between days 5 and 25 after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) was studied. In kidneys with UUO under histological examination, an interstitial fibrosis was observed after more than 10 days with progression up to day 25. On day 5, collagen peptidase activity in homogenates of UUO kidneys was

  11. Upper Limb Function and Cortical Organization in Youth with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Anna; Stinear, Cathy; Stott, Susan; Byblow, Winston D.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To explore the relationship between motor cortical and descending motor pathway reorganization, lesion type, and upper limb function in youth with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Twenty participants with unilateral CP (mean age 15?±?3?years; 11 males) completed a range of upper limb functional measures. Structural MRI, diffusion-weighted, and functional MRI were conducted to determine type and extent of brain lesion, descending white matter integrity, and whole-brain activity during affected hand use. Single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) (n?=?12) was used to examine functional integrity of the corticospinal pathway as well as primary motor cortex intracortical and interhemispheric inhibition from motor-evoked potentials and silent periods. Results: Fractional anisotropy measures within the posterior limb of the internal capsule were a predictor of upper limb function (R2?=?0.41, F?=?11.3, p?=?0.004). Participants with periventricular lesions tended to have better upper limb function [F(2, 17)?=?42.48, p?Unilateral Upper Limb Function: Mann Whitney p?=?0.02). Conclusion: Neuroimaging and TMS can provide useful information related to hand function of individuals with unilateral CP and may have potential to assist as a predictive tool and/or guide rehabilitation. PMID:25071705

  12. Bereitschaftspotential in patients with unilateral lesions of the supplementary motor area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Deecke; W Lang; H J Heller; M Hufnagl; H H Kornhuber

    1987-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt was made to examine the sensitivity of the Bereitschaftspotential (BP) preceding simple finger movement in revealing pathophysiological patterns of premovement cortical activity in patients with chronic unilateral lesions of the supplementary motor area (SMA). Usually, in healthy subjects, BP has a clear maximum in Cz with larger amplitudes than in Ccon (located over the

  13. Use of the intraosseous screw for unilateral upper molar distalization and found well balanced occlusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ibrahim Erhan Gelgor; Ali Ihya Karaman; Tamer Buyukyilmaz

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to present a temporary anchorage device with intraosseous screw for unilateral molar distalization to make a space for the impacted premolar and to found well balanced occlusion in a case. CASE PRESENTATION: A 13-year-old male who have an impacted premolar is presented with skeletal Class I and dental Class 2 relationship. The screw

  14. Impaired Voluntary Wheel Running Behavior in the Unilateral 6-Hydroxydopamine Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qi; Zhang, Wangming; Wang, Jinyan; Luo, Fei; Chang, Jingyu

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate voluntary wheel running behavior in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 2 groups : 6-OHDA group (n=17) and control group (n=8). The unilateral 6-OHDA rat model was induced by injection of 6-OHDA into unilateral medial forebrain bundle using a stereotaxic instrument. Voluntary wheel running activity was assessed per day in successfully lesioned rats (n=10) and control rats. Each behavioral test lasted an hour. The following parameters were investigated during behavioral tests : the number of running bouts, the distance moved in the wheel, average peak speed in running bouts and average duration from the running start to the peak speed. Results The number of running bouts and the distance moved in the wheel were significantly decreased in successfully lesioned rats compared with control rats. In addition, average peak speed in running bouts was decreased, and average duration from the running start to the peak speed was increased in lesioned animals, which might indicate motor deficits in these rats. These behavioral changes were still observed 42 days after lesion. Conclusion Voluntary wheel running behavior is impaired in the unilateral 6-OHDA rat model and may represent a useful tool to quantify motor deficits in this model. PMID:25733987

  15. Gender Differences in Unilateral Spatial Neglect within 24 Hours of Ischemic Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Jonathan T.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Davis, Cameron; Newhart, Melissa; Heidler-Gary, Jennifer; Hillis, Argye E.

    2008-01-01

    Hemispatial neglect is a common and disabling consequence of stroke. Previous reports examining the relationship between gender and the incidence of unilateral spatial neglect (USN) have included either a large numbers of patients with few neglect tests or small numbers of patients with multiple tests. To determine if USN was more common and/or…

  16. Look over There! Unilateral Gaze Increases Geographical Memory of the 50 United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Propper, Ruth E.; Brunye, Tad T.; Christman, Stephen D.; Januszewskia, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Based on their specialized processing abilities, the left and right hemispheres of the brain may not contribute equally to recall of general world knowledge. US college students recalled the verbal names and spatial locations of the 50 US states while sustaining leftward or rightward unilateral gaze, a procedure that selectively activates the…

  17. Sex Differences in the Effects of Unilateral Brain Damage on Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglis, James; Lawson, J. S.

    1981-05-01

    A sexual dimorphism in the functional asymmetry of the damaged human brain is reflected in a test-specific laterality effect in male but not in female patients. This sex difference explains some contradictions concerning the effects of unilateral brain damage on intelligence in studies in which the influence of sex was overlooked.

  18. Sex Differences in the Effects of Unilateral Brain Damage on Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, James; Lawson, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    A sexual dimorphism in the functional asymmetry of the damaged human brain is reflected in a test-specific laterality effect in male patients, explaining some contradictions concerning the effects of unilateral brain damage on intelligence in studies in which the influence of sex was overlooked. (Author/SK)

  19. Frames of reference in unilateral neglect and visual perception: A computational perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael C. Mozer

    2002-01-01

    Neurological patients with unilateral neglect fail to orient and respond to stimuli on one side, typically the left. A key research issue is whether neglect is exhibited with respect to the left side of the viewer or of objects. When deficits in attentional allocation depend not merely on an object's location with respect to the viewer but on the object's

  20. Biomechanical and Clinical Assessment of Hip Nerve Block in Unilateral Osteoarthrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D L Bader; S Khodadadeh; A Turner; J Edmonds-Seal; D J Fuller

    1982-01-01

    This paper combines a biomechanical analysis with a clinical assessment of eighteen patients with unilateral hip osteoarthrosis. A double blind trial was established to evaluate the potential of a regional hip nerve block in relieving pain. The characteristics of the vertical ground-reaction forces were analysed using two Kistler force plates, once before the injection and at three-monthly intervals following it.

  1. COMPARISON OF FERTILITY, LUTEAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND LUTEAL FUNCTION BETWEEN UNILATERAL AND BILATERAL DOUBLE OVULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bilateral ovulation may be a heritable trait that could improve prolificacy and fertility in ruminants, because bilateral double ovulations were reported to increase early embryonic survival compared to unilateral double ovulations. The current study tested the hypothesis that early embryonic surviv...

  2. A Study of Children with Unilateral Posterior Crossbite, Treated and Untreated, in the Deciduous Dentition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgit Thilander; Bertil Lennartsson

    2002-01-01

    Background and Aim: The generally recommended treatment in children with unilateral posterior crossbite is expansion of the maxillary dental arch. The reported treatment success rate varies between 50% and 96%. The aim of the prsent study was to analyse whether some occlusal and skeletal characteristics could be found in the deciduous dentition of children with treatment success (including self-correction) in

  3. Class III malocclusion with severe facial asymmetry, unilateral posterior crossbite, and temporomandibular disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eri Miyatake; Shouichi Miyawaki; Yasuko Morishige; Akiyoshi Nishiyama; Akira Sasaki; Teruko Takano-Yamamoto

    2003-01-01

    A 22-year-old woman had a Class III malocclusion with severe facial asymmetry, unilateral posterior crossbite, and temporomandibular disorders. A clicking sound was noted in the temporomandibular joint on the posterior crossbite side during jaw opening, and she complained of pain in the masticatory muscles on both sides. The articular disc on the crossbite side was displaced anteriorly without reduction. The

  4. Asymmetric maxillary expansion (AMEX) appliance for treatment of true unilateral posterior crossbite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Serdar Toroglu; Erhan Uzel; Mustafa Kayalioglu; ?lter Uzel

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an asymmetrical maxillary expansion (AMEX) appliance. Patients with true unilateral posterior crossbites were included in the study. The treatment group consisted of 18 patients who had a mean age of 14 ± 2.3 years. Treatment effects were evaluated on posteroanterior radiographs, dental casts, and photographs of the dental casts.

  5. Changes in the masticatory cycle following treatment of posterior unilateral crossbite in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaylord S. Throckmorton; Peter H. Buschang; Haruaki Hayasaki; Ary Santos Pinto

    2001-01-01

    In a previous study, we established that young children with unilateral posterior crossbite have a longer mandibular ramus and more superiorly and posteriorly positioned condyles on the crossbite side. In this study, we evaluated chewing cycle shape and duration in 14 of the patients before treatment, and we looked for changes in cycle shape and duration 6 months after treatment

  6. Transverse maxillary archform and mandibular asymmetry in patients with posterior unilateral crossbite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabrizia Ferro; Paola Spinella; Nicola Lama

    IntroductionPosterior unilateral crossbite (PUXB) treatment is usually maxillary-oriented. The aim of this retrospective investigation was first to study the maxillary morphology in PUXB patients and second, to evaluate the possible association between the transverse upper arch morphology (DTD) and the skeletal (a)symmetry of the corresponding mandible.

  7. Effect of unilateral posterior crossbite on the electromyographic activity of human masticatory muscles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Antonio Alarcón; Conchita Mart??n; Juan Carlos Palma

    2000-01-01

    Studies dealing with the electromyographic activity of masticatory muscles in patients with unilateral posterior crossbite are infrequent. The purpose of this study was to assess the electromyographic pattern of masticatory muscles at rest position, during swallowing, and during mastication, in 30 subjects with right posterior crossbite and to compare them to 30 normocclusive subjects. The 2 groups were matched according

  8. Three-dimensional knee joint contact forces during walking in unilateral transtibial amputees

    E-print Network

    Three-dimensional knee joint contact forces during walking in unilateral transtibial amputees Anne 2014 Keywords: Biomechanics Locomotion Below-knee Forward dynamics Joint loading a b s t r a c knee joint relative to the residual leg and non-amputees, but the cause of this greater prevalence

  9. Temporal and kinetic analysis of unilateral jumping in the vertical, horizontal, and lateral directions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    César M. P. Meylan; Kazunori Nosaka; Jonathon Green; John B. Cronin

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to: (1) assess the reliability of various kinetic and temporal variables for unilateral vertical, horizontal, and lateral countermovement jumps; (2) determine whether there are differences in vertical ground reaction force production between the three types of jumps; (3) quantify the magnitude of asymmetry between limbs for variables that were established as reliable in a

  10. "No-Show": Therapist Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Client Unilateral Termination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jesse; Imel, Zac; Adelson, Jill; Rodolfa, Emil

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the authors examined the source of racial/ethnic minority (REM) disparities in unilateral termination (i.e., the client ending therapy without informing the therapist)--a form of dropout that is associated with poor alliance and outcome. First, the authors tested whether some therapists were more likely to have clients who…

  11. Contralateral hip and knee gait biomechanics are unchanged by total hip replacement for unilateral hip osteoarthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kharma C. Foucher; Markus A. Wimmer

    Both the hip and knee contralateral to a total hip replacement (THR) have an increased risk of osteoarthritis (OA) progression, and ultimate joint replacement. It is also known that abnormal gait contributes to OA progression. For these reasons, we conducted a longitudinal analysis of contralateral hip and knee gait during the first year after unilateral THR to determine whether abnormal

  12. Action Planning in Typically and Atypically Developing Children (Unilateral Cerebral Palsy)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craje, Celine; Aarts, Pauline; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria; Steenbergen, Bert

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the development of action planning in children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (CP, aged 3-6 years, n = 24) and an age matched control group. To investigate action planning, participants performed a sequential movement task. They had to grasp an object (a wooden play sword) and place the sword in a hole in a…

  13. Frontal plane knee angle affects dynamic postural control strategy during unilateral stance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN NYLAND; STEVE SMITH; KURT BEICKMAN; THOMAS ARMSEY; DAVID N. M. CABORN

    2002-01-01

    NYLAND, J., S. SMITH, K. BEICKMAN, T. ARMSEY, and D. N. M. CABORN. Frontal plane knee angle affects dynamic postural control strategy during unilateral stance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 34, No. 7, pp. 1150 -1157, 2002. Purpose: Center of plantar pressure (COPP) location moves toward the forefoot as ankle plantar flexor muscles attempt to maintain postural control during single

  14. A linear complementarity problem formulation for periodic solutions to unilateral contact problems

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    synthesis. The method shows applicability to industrial rotor/casing contact set-ups as shown by studying a compressor blade. A good agreement to time marching simulations is found, suggesting a viable alternative -- Unilateral contact -- Non-smooth dynamics -- Periodic solutions a Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mc

  15. Verbal Competence in Narrative Retelling in 5-Year-Olds with Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintö, Kristina; Salameh, Eva-Kristina; Lohmander, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding expressive language performance in children born with cleft palate is sparse. The relationship between articulation/phonology and expressive language skills also needs to be further explored. Aims: To investigate verbal competence in narrative retelling in 5-year-old children born with unilateral cleft lip and palate…

  16. Calculation and analysis of high-speed permanent magnetic generator unilateral magnetic force

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Weili; Tang Li; Zhang Xiaocheng; Geng Jiaming

    2008-01-01

    Taking a two-pole high-speed permanent magnetic synchronous generator (PMSG) as an example, the mathematic and physical models with generator eccentric are established. This paper presented two different methods to calculate the magnetic field distribution and unilateral magnetic force (UMF) in the whole calculating region. And then analysis of influences of the eccentricity, load current and harmonics on the UMF have

  17. Analysis of a unilateral contact problem taking into account adhesion and friction

    E-print Network

    Rossi, Riccarda

    Analysis of a unilateral contact problem taking into account adhesion and friction Elena Bonetti) adhesion and of the friction are taken into account. We describe the adhesion phenomenon in terms conditions and the friction by a nonlocal Coulomb law. All the constraints on the internal variables as well

  18. Analysis of a unilateral contact problem taking into account adhesion and friction

    E-print Network

    Rossi, Riccarda

    Analysis of a unilateral contact problem taking into account adhesion and friction Elena Bonetti) adhesion and of the friction are taken into account. We describe the adhesion phenomenon in terms conditions, and friction by a nonlocal Coulomb law. All the constraints on the internal variables as well

  19. Fracture characterization and estimation of fracture porosity of naturally fractured reservoirs with no matrix porosity using stochastic fractal models

    E-print Network

    Kim, Tae Hyung

    2009-05-15

    is relatively easy to measure and estimate compared to fracture porosity. On the other hand, fracture porosity is highly heterogeneous and very difficult to measure and estimate. When matrix porosity of naturally fractured reservoirs (NFR) is negligible...

  20. Contaminant transport in fractured porous media: analytical solution for a single fracture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Tang; E. O. Frind; E. A. Sudicky

    1981-01-01

    A general analytical solution is developed for the problem of contaminant transport along a discrete fracture in a porous rock matrix. The solution takes into account advective transport in the fracture, longitudinal mechanical dispersion in the fracture, molecular diffusion in the fracture fluid along the fracture axis, molecular diffusion from the fracture into the matrix, adsorption into the face of

  1. False fracture of the penis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Darshan K; Paul, Elliot M; Meyersfield, Sanford A; Schoor, Richard A

    2003-06-01

    Penile fracture is an uncommon, but well-described, entity that requires emergent treatment. The classic, "text-book" history, a blow to the erect penis accompanied by a "snap," pain, and immediate detumescence, is not universally present. We report 2 cases of "false" penile fracture, a condition that closely mimics "true" penile fracture. Perhaps the most distinguishing symptoms are the absence of the "snap" and gradual detumescence, both of which suggest false fracture but are not specific. It is our intention to bring this condition to the attention of general urologists who may see it in clinical practice and to guide them in its management. PMID:12809921

  2. Fracture model for cemented aggregates

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zubelewicz, Aleksander; Thompson, Darla G.; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin; Ionita, Axinte; Shunk, Devin; Lewis, Matthew W.; Lawson, Joe C.; Kale, Sohan; Koric, Seid

    2013-01-01

    A mechanisms-based fracture model applicable to a broad class of cemented aggregates and, among them, plastic-bonded explosive (PBX) composites, is presented. The model is calibrated for PBX 9502 using the available experimental data under uniaxial compression and tension gathered at various strain rates and temperatures. We show that the model correctly captures inelastic stress-strain responses prior to the load peak and it predicts the post-critical macro-fracture processes, which result from the growth and coalescence of micro-cracks. In our approach, the fracture zone is embedded into elastic matrix and effectively weakens the material's strength along the plane of the dominant fracture.

  3. Stress fractures: classification and management.

    PubMed

    Kaeding, Christopher C; Najarian, Robert G

    2010-10-01

    Stress fractures occur as a result of microdamage secondary to repetitive strains. A mechanism for the development of stress fractures involves the accumulation of microdamage, which occurs with multiple subultimate failure loads applied to the bone. Stress fractures may be classified as high or low risk, depending on the grade of the injury. The most common site of injury is the lower extremity. In this article, we review the pathophysiology, etiology, diagnosis, and management of stress fractures, and present treatment guidelines for return to play. PMID:20959695

  4. BTEX biodegradation in fractured shale

    SciTech Connect

    O`Cleirigh, D.; Coryea, H. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Christopher, M.; Vaughn, C. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A petroleum hydrocarbon groundwater plume was identified at a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) facility in Oklahoma. The affected area had an average BTEX concentration of 3.8 mg/L. Previous aquifer tests indicated preferential groundwater flow paths resulting from natural fractures present in the aquifer formation (primarily shale). A pneumatic fracturing pilot study was performed to evaluate the technology`s effectiveness in creating a more isotropic aquifer. As part of the study, pre-fracture/post-fracture pump tests were performed. Pre-fracture and post-fracture graphs confirmed the study`s hypothesis that pneumatic fracturing would eliminate preferential flow paths and increase groundwater yield. Based on the successful pneumatic fracturing test, an area within the petroleum hydrocarbon plume was fractured and a pilot-scale biodegradation system was operated for four months. The remediation system provided groundwater circulation amended with nutrients and oxygen. Results of the study indicated a significant decrease in BTEX concentrations between the injection well and the observation wells. By Day 113, the benzene concentration (0.044 mg/L) at one of the observation wells was less than the desired state cleanup goal of 0.05 mg/L.

  5. Unilateral Versus Bilateral Prostatic Arterial Embolization for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Patients with Prostate Enlargement

    SciTech Connect

    Bilhim, Tiago, E-mail: tiagobilhim@hotmail.com [Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Departamento Universitario de Anatomia, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas (FCM) (Portugal)] [Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Departamento Universitario de Anatomia, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas (FCM) (Portugal); Pisco, Joao; Rio Tinto, Hugo; Fernandes, Lucia [Interventional Radiology, Saint Louis Hospital (Portugal)] [Interventional Radiology, Saint Louis Hospital (Portugal); Campos Pinheiro, Luis [Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Departamento Universitario de Urologia, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas (FCM) (Portugal)] [Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Departamento Universitario de Urologia, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas (FCM) (Portugal); Duarte, Marisa; Pereira, Jose A. [Interventional Radiology, Saint Louis Hospital (Portugal)] [Interventional Radiology, Saint Louis Hospital (Portugal); Oliveira, Antonio G. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Biostatistics Department, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas (FCM) (Portugal)] [Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Biostatistics Department, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas (FCM) (Portugal); O'Neill, Joao [Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Departamento Universitario de Anatomia, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas (FCM) (Portugal)] [Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Departamento Universitario de Anatomia, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas (FCM) (Portugal)

    2013-04-15

    This study was designed to compare baseline data and clinical outcome between patients with prostate enlargement/benign prostatic hyperplasia (PE/BPH) who underwent unilateral and bilateral prostatic arterial embolization (PAE) for the relief of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This single-center, ambispective cohort study compared 122 consecutive patients (mean age 66.7 years) with unilateral versus bilateral PAE from March 2009 to December 2011. Selective PAE was performed with 100- and 200-{mu}m nonspherical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles by a unilateral femoral approach. Bilateral PAE was performed in 103 (84.4 %) patients (group A). The remaining 19 (15.6 %) patients underwent unilateral PAE (group B). Mean follow-up time was 6.7 months in group A and 7.3 months in group B. Mean prostate volume, PSA, International prostate symptom score/quality of life (IPSS/QoL) and post-void residual volume (PVR) reduction, and peak flow rate (Qmax) improvement were 19.4 mL, 1.68 ng/mL, 11.8/2.0 points, 32.9 mL, and 3.9 mL/s in group A and 11.5 mL, 1.98 ng/mL, 8.9/1.4 points, 53.8 mL, and 4.58 mL/s in group B. Poor clinical outcome was observed in 24.3 % of patients from group A and 47.4 % from group B (p = 0.04). PAE is a safe and effective technique that can induce 48 % improvement in the IPSS score and a prostate volume reduction of 19 %, with good clinical outcome in up to 75 % of treated patients. Bilateral PAE seems to lead to better clinical results; however, up to 50 % of patients after unilateral PAE may have a good clinical outcome.

  6. Unilateral Prostate Cancer Cannot be Accurately Predicted in Low-Risk Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Isbarn, Hendrik, E-mail: hendrikisbarn@gmail.co [Martiniclinic, Prostate Cancer Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Urology, Hamburg (Germany); Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Karakiewicz, Pierre I. [Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Vogel, Susanne [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Urology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: Hemiablative therapy (HAT) is increasing in popularity for treatment of patients with low-risk prostate cancer (PCa). The validity of this therapeutic modality, which exclusively treats PCa within a single prostate lobe, rests on accurate staging. We tested the accuracy of unilaterally unremarkable biopsy findings in cases of low-risk PCa patients who are potential candidates for HAT. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 243 men with clinical stage {<=}T2a, a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration of <10 ng/ml, a biopsy-proven Gleason sum of {<=}6, and a maximum of 2 ipsilateral positive biopsy results out of 10 or more cores. All men underwent a radical prostatectomy, and pathology stage was used as the gold standard. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were tested for significant predictors of unilateral, organ-confined PCa. These predictors consisted of PSA, %fPSA (defined as the quotient of free [uncomplexed] PSA divided by the total PSA), clinical stage (T2a vs. T1c), gland volume, and number of positive biopsy cores (2 vs. 1). Results: Despite unilateral stage at biopsy, bilateral or even non-organ-confined PCa was reported in 64% of all patients. In multivariable analyses, no variable could clearly and independently predict the presence of unilateral PCa. This was reflected in an overall accuracy of 58% (95% confidence interval, 50.6-65.8%). Conclusions: Two-thirds of patients with unilateral low-risk PCa, confirmed by clinical stage and biopsy findings, have bilateral or non-organ-confined PCa at radical prostatectomy. This alarming finding questions the safety and validity of HAT.

  7. Changes in auditory perceptions and cortex resulting from hearing recovery after extended congenital unilateral hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Firszt, Jill B.; Reeder, Ruth M.; Holden, Timothy A.; Burton, Harold; Chole, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Monaural hearing induces auditory system reorganization. Imbalanced input also degrades time-intensity cues for sound localization and signal segregation for listening in noise. While there have been studies of bilateral auditory deprivation and later hearing restoration (e.g., cochlear implants), less is known about unilateral auditory deprivation and subsequent hearing improvement. We investigated effects of long-term congenital unilateral hearing loss on localization, speech understanding, and cortical organization following hearing recovery. Hearing in the congenitally affected ear of a 41 year old female improved significantly after stapedotomy and reconstruction. Pre-operative hearing threshold levels showed unilateral, mixed, moderately-severe to profound hearing loss. The contralateral ear had hearing threshold levels within normal limits. Testing was completed prior to, and 3 and 9 months after surgery. Measurements were of sound localization with intensity-roved stimuli and speech recognition in various noise conditions. We also evoked magnetic resonance signals with monaural stimulation to the unaffected ear. Activation magnitudes were determined in core, belt, and parabelt auditory cortex regions via an interrupted single event design. Hearing improvement following 40 years of congenital unilateral hearing loss resulted in substantially improved sound localization and speech recognition in noise. Auditory cortex also reorganized. Contralateral auditory cortex responses were increased after hearing recovery and the extent of activated cortex was bilateral, including a greater portion of the posterior superior temporal plane. Thus, prolonged predominant monaural stimulation did not prevent auditory system changes consequent to restored binaural hearing. Results support future research of unilateral auditory deprivation effects and plasticity, with consideration for length of deprivation, age at hearing correction and degree and type of hearing loss. PMID:24379761

  8. Unilateral versus bilateral pedicle screw instrumentation for single-level minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaolong; Zhang, Hailong; Gu, Xin; Gu, Guangfei; Zhou, Xu; He, Shisheng

    2014-09-01

    Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF) has become an increasingly popular method of lumbar arthrodesis. However, there are few published studies comparing the clinical outcomes between unilateral and bilateral instrumented MIS TLIF. Sixty-five patients with degenerative lumbar spine disease were enrolled in this study. Thirty-one patients were randomized to the unilateral group and 34 to the bilateral group. Recorded demographic data included sex, age, preoperative diagnosis, and degenerated segment. Operative time, blood loss, hospital stay length, complication rates, and fusion rates were also evaluated. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain score data were obtained. All patients were asked to follow-up at 3 and 6 months after surgery, and once every 6 months thereafter. The mean follow-up was 26.6 months (range 18-36 months). The two groups were similar in sex, age, preoperative diagnosis, and operated level. The unilateral group had significantly shorter operative time, lower blood loss, and shorter hospital time than the bilateral group. The average postoperative ODI and VAS scores improved significantly in each group. No significant differences were found between the two groups in relation to ODI and VAS. All patients showed evidence of fusion at 12 months postoperatively. The total fusion rate, screw failure, and general complication rate were not significantly different. Results showed that single-level MIS TLIF with unilateral pedicle screw fixation would be sufficient in the management of preoperatively stable patients with lumbar degenerative disease. It seems that MIS TLIF with unilateral pedicle screw instrumentation is a better choice for single-level degenerative lumbar spine disease. PMID:24814852

  9. Usefulness of Contralateral Indirect Decompression through Minimally Invasive Unilateral Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jun-Yeul

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose This study aims to investigate the clinical and radiological results of contralateral indirect decompression through minimally invasive unilateral transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF). Overview of Literature Several studies have proposed that blood loss and operation time could be reduced through a unilateral approach, although many surgeons have forecast that satisfactory foraminal decompression is difficult to achieve through a unilateral approach. Methods The study included 30 subjects who had undergone single-level MI-TLIF. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI) were analyzed for clinical assessment. Disc height, segmental lordosis, and lumbar lordosis angle were examined for radiological assessment. The degree of contralateral indirect decompression was evaluated through a comparative analysis, with a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed preoperatively and at one year postoperatively. Results Intraoperative blood loss volume was 308.75 mL in the unilateral approach group (UAP), and 575.00 mL in the bilateral approach group (BAP), showing a statistically significant difference. Operation time was 139.50 minutes in the UAP group, and 189.00 minutes in the BAP group, exhibiting a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). On the other hand, no significant difference was found in VAS, ODI, disc height, lordosis angles and the degree of nerve decompression in the vertebral foramen, using MRI, between the two groups (p>0.05). Conclusions Satisfactory results were acquired with MI-TLIF conducted through the unilateral approach of contralateral indirect decompression, in alignment with the bilateral approach. Therefore, contralateral indirect decompression is thought to be a useful procedure in reducing the operation time and volume of blood loss. PMID:25187862

  10. Sequential hydraulic fracturing of a subsurface formation

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, T.C. Jr.; Hale, M.W.; Sellers, J.R.

    1989-09-26

    This patent describes a method for propagating a vertical hydraulic fracture in an earth formation surrounding a borehole wherein the original in-situ stresses favor a horizontal fracture. It comprises: pumping a first fracturing fluid into the formation at a first depth within the borehole so that a first fracturing pressure is applied to the formation by the first fracturing fluid to propagate a horizontal fracture as favored by the original in-situ stresses of the formation. The propagation of the horizontal fracture altering the original in-situ stresses in the formation; injecting a propping material into the horizontal fracture while maintaining the first fracturing pressure in the horizontal fracture in sufficient amount to prevent relaxation of the altered in-situ stresses in the formation after the pumping of the first fracturing fluid is terminated and the first fracturing pressure is removed; terminating the pumping of the first fracturing fluid into the horizontal fracture to remove the first fracturing pressure from the formation, pumping a second fracturing into the formation at a second depth within the borehole within the field of the altered in-situ stresses,; and terminating the pumping of the second fracturing fluid to the vertical fracture to remove the second fracturing pressure from the formation.

  11. Fracture\\/matrix interaction in a fracture of finite extent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry P. Fairley

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of a wetting front invading a fracture in an unsaturated, porous matrix is of some importance for understanding infiltration and recharge processes, contaminant transport, and similar topics. Previous investigators have examined this problem, and a number of models have been published in the literature. It is, however, difficult to observe processes inside a fracture, particularly in a field

  12. Permeability damage to natural fractures caused by fracturing fluid polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Gall, B.L.; Sattler, A.R.; Maloney, D.R.; Raible, C.J.

    1988-04-01

    Formation damage studies using artificially fractured, low-permeability sandstone cores indicate that viscosified fracturing fluids can severely restrict gas flow through these types of narrow fractures. These studies were performed in support of the Department of Energy's Multiwell Experiment (MWX). Extensive geological and production evaluations at the MWX site indicate that the presence of a natural fracture system is largely responsible for unstimulated gas production. The laboratory formation damage studies were designed to examine changes in cracked core permeability to gas caused by fracturing fluid residues introduced into such narrow fractures during fluid leakoff. Polysaccharide polymers caused significant reduction (up to 95%) to gas flow through cracked cores. Polymer fracturing fluid gels used in this study included hydroxypropyl guar, hydroxyethyl cellulose, and xanthan gum. In contrast, polyacrylamide gels caused little or no reduction in gas flow through cracked cores after liquid cleanup. Other components of fracturing fluids (surfactants, breakers, etc.) caused less damage to gas flows. Other factors affecting gas flow through cracked cores were investigated, including the effects of net confining stress and non-Darcy flow parameters. Results are related to some of the problems observed during the stimulation program conducted for the MWX. 24 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Instability in dynamic fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fineberg, J.; Marder, M.

    1999-05-01

    The fracture of brittle amorphous materials is an especially challenging problem, because the way a large object shatters is intimately tied to details of cohesion at microscopic scales. This subject has been plagued by conceptual puzzles, and to make matters worse, experiments seemed to contradict the most firmly established theories. In this review, we will show that the theory and experiments fit within a coherent picture where dynamic instabilities of a crack tip play a crucial role. To accomplish this task, we first summarize the central results of linear elastic dynamic fracture mechanics, an elegant and powerful description of crack motion from the continuum perspective. We point out that this theory is unable to make predictions without additional input, information that must come either from experiment, or from other types of theories. We then proceed to discuss some of the most important experimental observations, and the methods that were used to obtain the them. Once the flux of energy to a crack tip passes a critical value, the crack becomes unstable, and it propagates in increasingly complicated ways. As a result, the crack cannot travel as quickly as theory had supposed, fracture surfaces become rough, it begins to branch and radiate sound, and the energy cost for crack motion increases considerably. All these phenomena are perfectly consistent with the continuum theory, but are not described by it. Therefore, we close the review with an account of theoretical and numerical work that attempts to explain the instabilities. Currently, the experimental understanding of crack tip instabilities in brittle amorphous materials is fairly detailed. We also have a detailed theoretical understanding of crack tip instabilities in crystals, reproducing qualitatively many features of the experiments, while numerical work is beginning to make the missing connections between experiment and theory.

  14. 49 CFR 195.111 - Fracture propagation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fracture propagation. 195.111 Section 195... Design Requirements § 195.111 Fracture propagation. A carbon dioxide pipeline...be designed to mitigate the effects of fracture propagation. [Amdt....

  15. Toe and Metatarsal Fractures (Broken Toes)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... toes) Text Size Print Bookmark Toe and Metatarsal Fractures (Broken toes) The structure of the foot is ... received in an emergency room. What Is a Fracture? A fracture is a break in the bone. ...

  16. Pseudopathologic fracture of the femoral neck

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, T.L. Jr.; Keats, T.E.; Goldner, R.; Stelling, C.B.; Logan, M.

    1981-11-01

    We have seen two cases of traumatic subcapital fractures of the femoral neck which resembled pathologic fractures on plain radiography. We have named this entity pseudopathologic fracture of the femoral neck and offer suggestions for why it occurs.

  17. 49 CFR 195.111 - Fracture propagation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fracture propagation. 195.111 Section 195... Design Requirements § 195.111 Fracture propagation. A carbon dioxide pipeline...be designed to mitigate the effects of fracture propagation. [Amdt....

  18. 49 CFR 195.111 - Fracture propagation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fracture propagation. 195.111 Section 195... Design Requirements § 195.111 Fracture propagation. A carbon dioxide pipeline...be designed to mitigate the effects of fracture propagation. [Amdt....

  19. 49 CFR 195.111 - Fracture propagation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fracture propagation. 195.111 Section 195... Design Requirements § 195.111 Fracture propagation. A carbon dioxide pipeline...be designed to mitigate the effects of fracture propagation. [Amdt....

  20. 49 CFR 195.111 - Fracture propagation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fracture propagation. 195.111 Section 195... Design Requirements § 195.111 Fracture propagation. A carbon dioxide pipeline...be designed to mitigate the effects of fracture propagation. [Amdt....

  1. Fracture compliance estimation using borehole tube waves

    E-print Network

    Bakku, Sudhish Kumar

    We tested two models, one for tube-wave generation and the other for tube-wave attenuation at a fracture intersecting a borehole that can be used to estimate fracture compliance, fracture aperture, and lateral extent. In ...

  2. [Palmarly comminuted scaphoid fractures].

    PubMed

    Löw, S; Herold, D

    2012-11-01

    Two cases of acute scaphoid fractures of the middle third with palmar comminution were treated with cancellous bone transplantation and Herbert screw fixation. Despite 6 weeks of cast immobilization, secondary loss of reduction resulted in primary grade dislocation in one patient. In the other patient scaphoid dislocation led to dorsiflexed intercalated segment instability and the need for screw removal due to secondary joint irritation. As a consequence the authors recommend the use of cortical bone grafting of the iliac crest in cases where palmar defects occur after reduction of the scaphoid. PMID:22706658

  3. Fractures and Sprains

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program explains the differences between fractures and sprains involving the arms or legs, precautions, and the treatments with their risks. It also reviews the bones of the arms and legs. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  4. Perioperative Risk Assessment in Patients Aged 75 Years or Older: Comparison between Bilateral and Unilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young-Joon; Ra, Ho Jong; Hwang, Do-Yon; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Shim, Sang-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate the risk of sequential bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) under 1 anesthesia in patients 75 years or older. Materials and Methods Patients aged 75 years or older who underwent sequential bilateral TKA (bilateral group, n=159) and unilateral TKA (unilateral group, n=159) between 2002 and 2012 were selected. All patients were evaluated for underlying medical diseases, such as cardiac, pulmonary, and renal problems, and high-risk patients were recommended to postpone the surgery. We compared the underlying diseases, major postoperative complications, and the length of hospital stay between bilateral and unilateral groups. Results The prevalence of underlying diseases of the bilateral group was 74.8% and major complications occurred in 6 patients (3.8%). The prevalence of underlying diseases of the unilateral group was 52.4% and complications were observed in 4 patients (2.4%). Although the complication rate of the bilateral group was slightly higher than that of the unilateral group, the difference was not statistically meaningful (p=0.204). The length of hospital stay was 21.9 days for the bilateral group and 24.9 days for the unilateral group. Conclusions There was no significant difference in postoperative complications between groups. The result shows that bilateral TKA can be relatively safe compared with unilateral TKA in patients 75 years or older. However, careful selection of low-risk patients is advised. PMID:25505704

  5. Thoracolumbar Spine Fractures in the Geriatric Fracture Center

    PubMed Central

    Folbert, E. C.; Kraai, M.; Smit, R. S.; Hegeman, J. H.; van der Velde, D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Thoracolumbar spine fractures are common osteoporotic fractures among elderly patients. Several studies suggest that these fractures can be treated successfully with a nonoperative management. The aim of this study is to evaluate the conservative treatment of elderly patients with a vertebral fracture. Methods: This study is a retrospective cohort study, which included all patients with an age of 65 years and older, who were diagnosed with a vertebral fracture and where therefore admitted to the Geriatric Fracture Center over a period of 2 years. Primary outcome was the level of functioning 6 weeks and 3 months after admission. Results: We included 106 patients with 143 vertebral fractures, of which 61 patients were evaluated after 3 months. In our population, 53% of the patients had a fracture involving both middle and anterior columns. The majority of the patients functioned sufficiently 6 weeks and 3 months after admission. Analysis showed that age <80 years is an independent predictor of a sufficient level of functioning after 6 weeks. Discussion: The nonoperative treatment of elderly patients with a vertebral fracture leads to a sufficient level of functioning 6 weeks and 3 months after admission. In our population, only age <80 years is an independent predictor for a sufficient level of functioning 6 weeks after admission. The level of functioning at 6 weeks predicts the level of functioning 3 months after admission. On comparison, the level of functioning after early ambulation is equal to the level of functioning after immobilization. Where immobilization may lead to complications, early ambulation was not associated with new complications or neurological damage. Based on these advantages, the treatment of elderly patients with a fracture involving both middle and anterior columns may be altered from immobilization to mobilization in the future. PMID:25360330

  6. Hydraulic fracturing of a shallow subsurface formation

    SciTech Connect

    Uhri, D.C.

    1987-12-22

    A method for propagating a vertical hydraulic fracture in an earth formation surrounding a borehole where the original in-situ stresses favor a horizontal fracture is described comprising the steps of: (a) firstly supplying fracturing fluid to the formation at a first depth within the borehole to propagate a horizontal fracture favored by the original in-situ stresses of the formation, and (b) secondly supplying fracturing fluid to the formation at a second depth within the borehole, while maintaining pressure in the horizontal fracture, to propagate a vertical fracture as favored by the in-situ stresses as altered by the propagating of the horizontal fracture.

  7. Meshless animation of fracturing solids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Pauly; Richard Keiser; Bart Adams; Philip Dutré; Markus H. Gross; Leonidas J. Guibas

    2005-01-01

    We present a new meshless animation framework for elastic and plastic materials that fracture. Central to our method is a highly dynamic surface and volume sampling method that supports arbitrary crack initiation, propagation, and termination, while avoiding many of the stability problems of traditional mesh-based techniques. We explicitly model advancing crack fronts and associated fracture surfaces embedded in the simulation

  8. Warfarin use and fracture risk.

    PubMed

    Booth, S L; Mayer, J

    2000-01-01

    Two recent studies examined the association between chronic use of warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist, and fracture rate among older women. Whereas one study reported no association, the other reported a significantly higher risk for vertebral and rib fractures among warfarin users compared with nonusers. The effect of vitamin K antagonists on age-related bone loss continues to be controversial. PMID:10697390

  9. Fracture optimization on every well

    SciTech Connect

    Ely, J.W.; Tiner, R.L. [Ely and Associates, Inc. (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Since hydraulic fracturing was introduced in 1947, significant advances have been made in the area of fracture diagnostics, particularly in the last 20 years. Common diagnostic procedures used today to quantify fracture geometry and fracture fluid efficiency are listed in a table. During the past several years, the most popular procedure was to conduct most or all of the diagnostics on one well in a field, and apply the results to subsequent wells. However, experience has shown that critical factors can change drastically, even in fields with minimal well spacing. Although some variations in relative rock stresses have been seen, rock properties typically remain fairly consistent within a designated area. However, the factor that changes drastically from well to well--even in spacing as small as 10 acres--is fracture fluid efficiency. As much as a 60% change in fluid efficiencies has been noted for offset wells. Because of these variations, a new procedure has been developed in which fracture treatments on individual wells can be optimized on the day of the fracture treatment. The paper describes this fracture optimization procedure.

  10. Life-threatening oronasal hemorrhage managed by transcatheter embolization of bilateral maxillary arteries in an elderly patient with comminuted LeFort I fracture.

    PubMed

    Imai, Tomoaki; Michizawa, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Naofumi; Oba, Jiro; Sawano, Hirotaka

    2014-07-01

    Massive orofacial hemorrhage mostly occurs in younger individuals unilaterally and is associated with extensive LeFort fractures. Here we describe a 91-year-old man who sustained a life-threatening hemorrhage of the bilateral internal maxillary artery (IMA) system with a comminuted LeFort I fracture caused by a road traffic accident while he was driving. His injury severity score was high (34), but no severe brain injury was sustained. Transarterial embolization (TAE) was performed to control the intractable hemorrhage. The patient survived and has an acceptable outcome. Although rare, this case may be representative of a trend in maxillofacial injuries in the elderly resulting from worldwide motorization and steady aging of more active populations. Life-threatening hemorrhage of the bilateral IMA system occurs even in LeFort I fractures. Controlling an intractable oronasal hemorrhage with TAE would lead to survival with less severe morbidity, even for the very elderly with no severe brain injuries. PMID:24560405

  11. Fracture Detection and Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Norman E.; Iovenitti, Joseph L.

    1986-01-21

    Because the costs of drilling, completing, and testing a well can be extremely high, it is important to develop better tools and methods for locating high permeability zones prior to drilling, and to develop better tools and methods for identifying and characterizing major fracture zones during the drilling and well testing stages. At the recommendation of the LBL Industry Review Panel on Geothermal Reservoir Technology, we organized and convened a one-day workshop this past July to discuss various aspects of DOE's current and planned activities in fracture detection, to review the geothermal industry's near-term and long-term research needs, to determine the priority of those needs, to disseminate to industry the status of research in progress, and to discuss the possibility of future joint research between industry and DOE. In this paper we present a brief overview of the workshop from the perspective of those who participated in it and provided us with written comments to a questionnaire that was distributed.

  12. Fracture detection and mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, N.E.; Iovenitti, J.L.

    1986-03-01

    Because the costs of drilling, completing, and testing a well can be extremely high, it is important to develop better tools and methods for locating high permeability zones prior to drilling, and to develop better tools and methods for identifying and characterizing major fracture zones during the drilling and well testing stages. At the recommendation of the LBL Industry Review Panel on Geothermal Reservoir Technology, we organized and convened a one-day workshop this past July to discuss various aspects of DOE's current and planned activities in fracture detection, to review the geothermal industry's near-term and long-term research needs, to determine the priority of those needs, to disseminate to industry the status of research in progress, and to discuss the possibility of future joint research between industry and DOE. In this paper we present a brief overview of the workshop from the perspective of those who participated in it and provided us with written comments to a questionnaire that was distributed.

  13. Test-Free Fracture Toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnetyan, Levon; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Computational simulation results can give the prediction of damage growth and progression and fracture toughness of composite structures. The experimental data from literature provide environmental effects on the fracture behavior of metallic or fiber composite structures. However, the traditional experimental methods to analyze the influence of the imposed conditions are expensive and time consuming. This research used the CODSTRAN code to model the temperature effects, scaling effects and the loading effects of fiberbraided composite specimens with and without fiber-optic sensors on the damage initiation and energy release rates. The load-displacement relationship and fracture toughness assessment approach is compared with the test results from literature and it is verified that the computational simulation, with the use of established material modeling and finite element modules, adequately tracks the changes of fracture toughness and subsequent fracture propagation for any fiberbraided composite structure due to the change of fiber orientations, presence of large diameter optical fibers, and any loading conditions.

  14. Fracture technology for brittle materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.

    1988-01-01

    Ceramics materials have the potential for use in high-temperature, fuel-efficient engines. However, because these materials are brittle, their fracture characteristics must be well documented prior to their application. Thus Lewis is working to understand the fracture and strength properties of brittle ceramic and ceramic matrix materials. An understanding of fracture properties aids both designers who are attempting to design high-temperature structures and materials scientists who seek to design more temperature-resistant materials. Both analytical and experimental approaches to fracture analysis are being taken. Methods for testing fracture toughness, crack growth resistance, and strength are being developed. The failure mechanisms at both room and elevated temperatures are also being investigated. Such investigations aid materials scientists in developing better high-temperature materials. Of concern is the anisotropy of ceramic materials and the experimental verification of ceramic design codes that will allow brittle material behavior to be accurately predicted at high temperature.

  15. Fracturing horizontal wells in gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Soliman, M.Y.; Hunt, J.L.; Azari, M.

    1996-09-01

    The fracturing of horizontal wells has recently gained wide acceptance as a viable completion option to maximize the return on investment. This is especially true in the case of tight gas formations. Horizontal wells have unique rock mechanics and operational aspects that affect fracture creation and propagation and control fracture orientation with respect to the horizontal well. The fracture orientation greatly affects the productivity and well testing aspects of the fractured horizontal wells. Depending on stress orientation relative to the wellbore, the fractures may be transverse or longitudinal. This paper presents a model for fractured horizontal wells operating under constant pressure conditions. This condition is most suitable for producing tight gas reservoirs. The model considers the presence of either transverse or longitudinal fractures. In this paper, we examine the factors involved in determining the optimum number of transverse fractures for both finite and infinite reservoirs. For a group of transverse fractures, the rate distribution for each fracture is presented and analyzed. The effect of uneven fracture length is briefly presented. The performance of a longitudinal fracture is examined and compared to a fractured vertical well and to a transverse- fractured horizontal well. A comparison of longitudinal versus transverse fractures from reservoir and operational points-of-view is presented. Also included is a short discussion of field examples. Because performance of a highly conductive longitudinal fracture is almost identical to that of a fractured vertical well, the existing solutions for fractured vertical wells may be applied to longitudinal fractures with a high degree of confidence. This approximation is valid for moderate to high dimensionless conductivity. In the case of transverse fractures, the outer fractures outperform the inner fractures.

  16. Fractures in childhood in Khartoum.

    PubMed

    Doumi, B A; Ahmed, M E; Hassan, R; Elnour, S H; Kashan, A

    1994-06-01

    A prospective study of fractures in 231 children received at Khartoum North Teaching Hospital(KNTH) was carried out for a period of six months. The incidence of child fracture rated as one per day, then it increased from the age of 5 years onwards in boys and between 6 and 8 years in girls. Most injuries were sustained during the day time, especially between late afternoon and sunset. 82% of injured children presented to a medical facility, while 18% were taken to native healers first. Non-road traffic accidents accounted for 84% of the fractures mainly due to sports, domestic injuries and falls; whereas road traffic accidents were 16% and occurred mainly in pedestrians. Forty three percent of the fractures needed only first aid and splintage while 42% needed closed reduction. Thirty one percent of all patients were treated as inpatients. The long bones were affected in 91% of all fractures, the commonest site being the distal end of the forearm (26%), followed by supracondylar fracture of the humerus (15.6%). In the upper limb, left-sided fractures predominated. The epiphyseal injuries were 3.5% of all fractures, mainly at the distal radial epiphysis. Boys were commonly affected between 13-15 years of age. Open fractures constituted 9.8% of the series and were mainly due to traffic accidents in town dwellers, the most vulnerable bones were those of the leg and foot. Pathological fractures accounted for 2.2% and were due to bone cysts and osteogenesis imperfecta. The problem of child safety and the preventive measures need to be more stressed. PMID:7835253

  17. Relative Permeability of Fractured Rock

    SciTech Connect

    Mark D. Habana

    2002-06-30

    Contemporary understanding of multiphase flow through fractures is limited. Different studies using synthetic fractures and various fluids have yielded different relative permeability-saturation relations. This study aimed to extend the understanding of multiphase flow by conducting nitrogen-water relative permeability experiments on a naturally-fractured rock from The Geysers geothermal field. The steady-state approach was used. However, steady state was achieved only at the endpoint saturations. Several difficulties were encountered that are attributed to phase interference and changes in fracture aperture and surface roughness, along with fracture propagation/initiation. Absolute permeabilities were determined using nitrogen and water. The permeability values obtained change with the number of load cycles. Determining the absolute permeability of a core is especially important in a fractured rock. The rock may change as asperities are destroyed and fractures propagate or st rain harden as the net stresses vary. Pressure spikes occurred in water a solute permeability experiments. Conceptual models of an elastic fracture network can explain the pressure spike behavior. At the endpoint saturations the water relative permeabilities obtained are much less than the nitrogen gas relative permeabilities. Saturations were determined by weighing and by resistivity calculations. The resistivity-saturation relationship developed for the core gave saturation values that differ by 5% from the value determined by weighing. Further work is required to complete the relative permeability curve. The steady-state experimental approach encountered difficulties due to phase interference and fracture change. Steady state may not be reached until an impractical length of time. Thus, unsteady-state methods should be pursued. In unsteady-state experiments the challenge will be in quantifying rock fracture change in addition to fluid flow changes.

  18. Severe weather warnings predict fracture epidemics.

    PubMed

    Murray, Iain R; Howie, Colin R; Biant, Leela C

    2011-07-01

    Winter epidemics of fractures have been described that greatly exceed normal seasonal variations and overwhelm resources. We investigated the relationship between severe weather warnings, the frequency of fractures, and fracture related workload. There was a significant increase in fractures with cold and inclement weather, mostly low-energy fractures treated with day-case surgery or in fracture clinics. The number of patients treated as inpatients for fractures did not increase. Hip fractures were not associated with weather. Severe weather warnings for icy roads were predictive of fracture epidemics (p<0.01) with an associated 40% (95% confidence limits 20-52%) increase in fractures. Meteorological Office issued severe weather warnings can provide a trigger to plan for an increased workload of low-energy fractures, with opportunities for anticipatory public health measures. PMID:21295303

  19. Numerical simulation of fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Margolin, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    A constructive model for brittle, and quasi-brittle materials is described. The Bedded Crack Model contains a microphysical description of fracture based on Griffith theory. The effect of cracks on material properties is described by effective modulus theory. Underlying the model is a statistical framework in which the evolution in time of a statistical distribution of cracks is calculated. The theory upon which the model is based is described. The model is implemented in a finite difference computer code. Our model is contrasted with the phenomenologic models usually found in computer codes. A computational simulation of the strain rate dependence of failure stress is presented and compared with laboratory data. A simulation of a gas gun experiment is presented, and the mechanism of spall described.

  20. Mechanisms of intergranular fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Farkas, D. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1999-08-01

    The authors present a study of the atomistic mechanisms of crack propagation along grain boundaries in metals and alloys. The failure behavior showing cleavage crack growth and/or crack-tip dislocation emission is demonstrated using atomistic simulations for an embedded-atom model. The simulations follow the quasi-equilibrium growth of a crack as the stress intensity applied increases. Dislocations emitted from crack tips normally blunt the crack and inhibit cleavage, inducing ductile behavior. When the emitted dislocations stay near the crack tip (sessile dislocations), they do blunt the crack but brittle cleavage can occur after the emission of a sufficient number of dislocations. The fracture process occurs as a combination of dislocation emission/micro-cleavage portions that are controlled by the local atomistic structure of the grain boundary. The grain boundary is shown to be a region where dislocation emission is easier, a mechanism that competes with the lower cohesive strength of the boundary region.