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Objective To determine whether ankle orthoses that provide medial and lateral support, and have been found to decrease gait variability in older persons with peripheral neuropathy, decrease (improve) frontal plane ankle proprioceptive thresholds or increase unipedalstancetime in that same population. Design Observational study in which unipedalstancetime was determined with a stopwatch, and frontal plane ankle (inversion and eversion) proprioceptive thresholds were quantified during bipedal stance with and without the ankle orthoses, in 11 older diabetic subjects with peripheral neuropathy (8 men; age 72 ± 7.1 years) using a foot cradle system which presented a series of 100 rotational stimuli. Results The subjects demonstrated no change in combined frontal plane (inversion + eversion) proprioceptive thresholds or unipedalstancetime with versus without the orthoses (1.06 ± 0.56 versus 1.13 ± 0.39 degrees, respectively; p = 0.955 and 6.1 ± 6.5 versus 6.2 ± 5.4 seconds, respectively; p = 0.922). Conclusion Ankle orthoses which provide medial-lateral support do not appear to change ankle inversion/eversion proprioceptive thresholds or unipedalstancetime in older persons with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Previously identified improvements in gait variability using orthoses in this population are therefore likely related to an orthotically-induced stiffening of the ankle rather than a change in ankle afferent function.
Son, Jaebum; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Richardson, James K.
Reliable unipedal balance is fundamental to safe ambulation. Accordingly, older persons with peripheral neuropathy (PN), who are at increased risk for falls, demonstrate impaired unipedal balance. To explore the relationship between afferent function and unipedal balance, frontal plane proprioceptive thresholds at the ankle were quantified in 22 subjects (72.5 ± 6.3 years; 11 with PN and 11 matched controls) while they were standing using a foot cradle system and a staircase series of 100 rotational stimuli. PN subjects, as compared to controls, demonstrated shorter median unipedal balance times (3.4 ± 2.7 versus 14.3 ± 8.9 seconds; p = 0.0017) and greater (less precise) combined ankle inversion/eversion proprioceptive thresholds (1.17 ± 0.36 versus 0.65 ± 0.37 degrees; p = 0.0055). Combined ankle inversion/eversion proprioceptive thresholds explained approximately half the variance in unipedal balance time (R2 = 0.5138; p = 0.0004). Given prior work demonstrating a similarly strong relationship between ankle torque generation and unipedal balance, neuropathy-associated impairments in ankle frontal plane afferent and efferent function appear to be equally responsible for the inability of older persons with PN to reliably balance on one foot. They therefore provide distinct targets for intervention.
Son, Jaebum; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Richardson, James K.
These experiments tested the hypothesis that the ability to change sensorimotor set quickly for automatic responses depends on the time interval between successive surface perturbations. Sensorimotor set refers to the influence of prior experience or context on the state of the sensorimotor system. Sensorimotor set for postural responses was influenced by first giving subjects a block of identical backward translations of the support surface, causing forward sway and automatic gastrocnemius responses. The ability to change set quickly was inferred by measuring the suppression of the stretched antagonist gastrocnemius responses to toes-up rotations causing backward sway, following the translations. Responses were examined under short (10-14 s) and long (19-24 s) inter-trial intervals in young healthy subjects. The results showed that subjects in the long-interval group changed set immediately by suppressing gastrocnemius to 51% of translation responses within the first rotation and continued to suppress them over succeeding rotations. In contrast, subjects in the short-interval group did not change set immediately, but required two or more rotations to suppress gastrocnemius responses. By the last rotation, the short-interval group suppressed gastrocnemius responses to 33%, similar to the long-interval group of 29%. Associated surface plantarflexor torque resulting from these responses showed similar results. When rotation and translation perturbations alternated, however, the short-interval group was not able to suppress gastrocnemius responses to rotations as much as the long-interval group, although they did suppress more than in the first rotation trial after a series of translations. Set for automatic responses appears to linger, from one trial to the next. Specifically, sensorimotor set is more difficult to change when surface perturbations are given in close succession, making it appear as if set has become progressively stronger. A strong set does not mean that responses become larger over consecutive trials. Rather, it is inferred by the extent of difficulty in changing a response when it is appropriate to do so. These results suggest that the ability to change sensorimotor set quickly is sensitive to whether the change is required after a long or a short series of a prior different response, which in turn depends on the time interval between successive trials. Different rate of gastrocnemius suppression to toes-up rotation of the support surface have been reported in previous studies. This may be partially explained by different inter-trial time intervals demonstrated in this study.
Chong, R. K.; Horak, F. B.; Woollacott, M. H.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)
Several studies have demonstrated that motor adaptations to a novel task environment can be transferred between limbs. Such interlimb transfer of motor commands is consistent with the notion of centrally driven strategies that can be generalized across different frames of reference. So far, studies of interlimb transfer of locomotor adaptations have yielded disparate results. Here we sought to determine whether locomotor adaptations in one (trained) leg show transfer to the other (test) leg during a unipedal walking task. We hypothesized that adaptation in the test leg to a velocity-dependent force field previously experienced by the trained leg will be faster, as revealed by faster recovery of kinematic errors and earlier onset of aftereffects. Twenty able-bodied adults walked unipedally in the Lokomat robotic gait orthosis, which applied velocity-dependent resistance to the legs. The amount of resistance was scaled to 10% of each individual's maximum voluntary contraction of the hip flexors. Electromyography and kinematics of the lower limb were recorded. All subjects were right-leg dominant and were tested for transfer of motor adaptations from the right leg to the left leg. Catch trials, consisting of unexpected removal of resistance, were presented after the first step with resistance and after a period of adaptation to test for aftereffects. We found no significant differences in the sizes of the aftereffects between the two legs, except for peak hip flexion during swing, or in the rate at which peak hip flexion adapted during steps against resistance between the two legs. Our results indicate that interlimb transfer of these types of locomotor adaptation is not a robust phenomenon. These findings add to our current understanding of motor adaptations and provide further evidence that generalization of adaptations may be dependent on the movement task. PMID:22592310
Houldin, Adina; Chua, Romeo; Carpenter, Mark G; Lam, Tania
The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences in standing balance during dominant and nondominant one-legged stance among athletes of different sports and sedentary subjects. The right-footed subjects of four groups (sedentary, n = 20; soccer, n = 20; basketball, n = 20; windsurfer n = 20) underwent 5-sec unipedal (left and right foot) stabilometric analysis with open eyes and closed eyes to measure center of pressure (COP) sway path and COP velocity (mean value, anteroposterior, and laterolateral in millimeters per second). The soccer group showed better standing balance on the left leg than the sedentary group (P < 0.05). No other significant differences were observed within and amongst groups. The soccer players have a better standing balance on the nondominant leg because of soccer activity.
In this article, we use narrative theory to analyze and discuss how one Salvadoran youth, Thomas, constructed three different yet overlapping narratives, including a digital story, on his family's movement across borders. We describe how each telling of his narratives is situated in time and space, where Thomas reveals his understandings of…
There is considerable recent interest in developing humanoid robots. An important substrate for many motor actions in both humans and biped robots is the ability to maintain a statically or dynamically stable posture. Given the success of the human design, one would expect there are lessons to be learned in formulating a postural control mechanism for robots. In this study we limit ourselves to considering the problem of maintaining upright stance. Human stance control is compared to a suggested method for robot stance control called zero moment point (ZMP) compensation. Results from experimental and modeling studies suggest there are two important subsystems that account for the low- and mid-frequency (DC to ~1 Hz) dynamic characteristics of human stance control. These subsystems are 1) a “sensory integration” mechanism whereby orientation information from multiple sensory systems encoding body kinematics (i.e. position, velocity) is flexibly combined to provide an overall estimate of body orientation while allowing adjustments (sensory re-weighting) that compensate for changing environmental conditions, and 2) an “effort control” mechanism that uses kinetic-related (i.e., force-related) sensory information to reduce the mean deviation of body orientation from upright. Functionally, ZMP compensation is directly analogous to how humans appear to use kinetic feedback to modify the main sensory integration feedback loop controlling body orientation. However, a flexible sensory integration mechanism is missing from robot control leaving the robot vulnerable to instability in conditions were humans are able to maintain stance. We suggest the addition of a simple form of sensory integration to improve robot stance control. We also investigate how the biological constraint of feedback time delay influences the human stance control design. The human system may serve as a guide for improved robot control, but should not be directly copied because the constraints on robot and human control are different.
Whenever the body is moving in a curvilinear path, inertial torques resulting from centripetal accelerations act on the body and must be counteracted to maintain stability. We tested the hypothesis that healthy subjects orient their center of mass in the position where gravitational torques offset the inertial torques due to centripetal accelerations. Ten healthy subjects stood on a platform that rotated in a circle at either a slow or fast speed, eyes open or closed, and in narrow or wide stance. Upper body, lower body, and center of mass (CoM) tilt with respect to vertical were measured and averaged across a 40 second time period of constant velocity. Body tilt was compared to the gravito-inertial acceleration (GIA) angle with respect to vertical. In all moving conditions, the upper body, lower body, and CoM tilted inward. However, this inward tilt did not reach the predicted GIA angle (CoM tilt was ~78% and 39% toward the predicted GIA angle in narrow and wide stance, respectively). Ratios of body tilt to GIA angle were minimally influenced by visual availability and magnitude of centripetal acceleration; but were largely influenced by stance width whereby narrow stance inward tilt was greater than wide stance. These results further highlight the important influence of the base of support on balance control strategies and enhance our understanding of how the balance control system compensates for inertial torques generated from centripetal accelerations. PMID:22819010
Develops and defends the concept of the critical stance as a goal in college teaching. Explains that the critical stance is an attitude or disposition towards oneself, others, and the object of inquiry that challenges and impels learners to reflect, understand, and act in the milieu of potentiality. (EV)
Subjects exposed to a rotating environment that perturbs their postural sway show adaptive changes in their voluntary spatially directed postural motion to restore accurate movement paths but do not exhibit any obvious learning during passive stance. We have found, however, that a variable known to characterize the degree of stochasticity in quiet stance can also reveal subtle learning phenomena in passive stance. We extended Chow and Collins (Phys Rev E 52(1):909-912, 1995) one-dimensional pinned-polymer model (PPM) to two dimensions (2-D) and then evaluated the model's ability to make analytical predictions for 2-D quiet stance. To test the model, we tracked center of mass and centers of foot pressures, and compared and contrasted stance sway for the anterior-posterior versus medio-lateral directions before, during, and after exposure to rotation at 10 rpm. Sway of the body during rotation generated Coriolis forces that acted perpendicular to the direction of sway. We found significant adaptive changes for three characteristic features of the mean square displacement (MSD) function: the exponent of the power law defined at short time scales, the proportionality constant of the power law, and the saturation plateau value defined at longer time scales. The exponent of the power law of MSD at a short time scale lies within the bounds predicted by the 2-D PPM. The change in MSD during exposure to rotation also had a power-law exponent in the range predicted by the theoretical model. We discuss the Coriolis force paradigm for studying postural and movement control and the applicability of the PPM model in 2-D for studying postural adaptation. PMID:24477760
Objective In people with spinal cord injury (SCI), active-resisted stance using electrical stimulation of the quadriceps delivered a therapeutic stress to the femur (?150% of body weight) and attenuated bone mineral density (BMD) decline. In standard densitometry protocols, BMD is averaged over the entire bone cross-section. An asymmetric adaptation to mechanical load may be masked by non-responding regions. The purpose of this study was to test a novel method to assess regional BMD of the femur in individuals with SCI. We hypothesize that there will be regional bone-sparing changes as a result of active-resisted stance. Design Mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal. Setting Research laboratory. Participants Twelve individuals with SCI and twelve non-SCI controls. Intervention Individuals with SCI experienced active-resisted stance or passive stance for up to 3 years. Outcome measures Peripheral quantitative computed tomography images from were partitioned so that femur anatomic quadrants could be separately analyzed. Results Over 1.5 years, the slope of BMD decline over time was slower at all quadrants for the active-resisted stance limbs. At >2 years of training, BMD was significantly higher for the active-resisted stance group than for the passive stance group (P = 0.007). BMD was preferentially spared in the posterior quadrants of the femur with active-resisted stance. Conclusions A regional measurement technique revealed asymmetric femur BMD changes between passive stance and active-resisted stance. Future studies are now underway to better understand other regional changes in BMD after SCI.
Stance-taking and stance-support are two discourse behaviours that define the expository/argumentative essay genre, the mastery of which is the key to academic success in higher education. The aim of this study is to discover the extent to which a group of high school students from a non-native English-speaking background are capable of engaging…
This article illustrates a signal processing methodology for the time series of postural sway and accompanied electromyographs from the lower limb muscles during quiet stance. It was shown that the proposed methodology was capable of identifying the underlying postural control mechanisms. A preliminary application of the methodology provided evidence that supports the intermittent control hypothesis alternative to the conventional stiffness control hypothesis during human quiet upright stance.
This study inspects how Chinese epistemic modality is responsive to the participant stance and communicative intention of the press. Results indicate predominant presence of epistemic adverbs in local news as compared with business and politics news. They are also more favored in reflective comments and quoted statements than factual descriptions. However, occurring preferences vary between epistemic subclasses. Speculative outnumbers assertive
The interaction of different orientation senses contributing to posture control is not well understood. We therefore performed experiments in which we measured the postural responses of normal subjects and vestibular loss patients during perturbation of their stance. Subjects stood on a motion platform with their eyes closed and auditory cues masked. The perturbing stimuli consisted of either platform tilts or
The present work investigated the control of upright posture on inclined surfaces (14°). Such conditions could, for example,\\u000a change the contributions of muscle spindles resulting in alterations in postural sway. Subjects stood in quiet stance over\\u000a a force platform positioned in one of three different fixed positions: horizontal (H), toes-up (ankle dorsi-flexion, D) and\\u000a toes-down (ankle plantar-flexion, P). The experiments
Time periods composing stance phase of gait can be clinically meaningful parameters to reveal differences between normal and pathological gait. This study aimed, first, to describe a novel method for detecting stance and inner-stance temporal events based on foot-worn inertial sensors; second, to extract and validate relevant metrics from those events; and third, to investigate their suitability as clinical outcome for gait evaluations. 42 subjects including healthy subjects and patients before and after surgical treatments for ankle osteoarthritis performed 50-m walking trials while wearing foot-worn inertial sensors and pressure insoles as a reference system. Several hypotheses were evaluated to detect heel-strike, toe-strike, heel-off, and toe-off based on kinematic features. Detected events were compared with the reference system on 3193 gait cycles and showed good accuracy and precision. Absolute and relative stance periods, namely loading response, foot-flat, and push-off were then estimated, validated, and compared statistically between populations. Besides significant differences observed in stance duration, the analysis revealed differing tendencies with notably a shorter foot-flat in healthy subjects. The result indicated which features in inertial sensors' signals should be preferred for detecting precisely and accurately temporal events against a reference standard. The system is suitable for clinical evaluations and provides temporal analysis of gait beyond the common swing/stance decomposition, through a quantitative estimation of inner-stance phases such as foot-flat. PMID:22877845
Background Functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) restores walking function after paralysis from spinal cord injury via electrical activation of muscles in a coordinated fashion. Combining FNS with a controllable orthosis to create a hybrid neuroprosthesis (HNP) has the potential to extend walking distance and time by mechanically locking the knee joint during stance to allow knee extensor muscle to rest with stimulation turned off. Recent efforts have focused on creating advanced HNPs which couple joint motion (e.g., hip and knee or knee and ankle) to improve joint coordination during swing phase while maintaining a stiff-leg during stance phase. Methods The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of incorporating stance controlled knee flexion during loading response and pre-swing phases on restored gait. Knee control in the HNP was achieved by a specially designed variable impedance knee mechanism (VIKM). One subject with a T7 level spinal cord injury was enrolled and served as his own control in examining two techniques to restore level over-ground walking: FNS-only (which retained a stiff knee during stance) and VIKM-HNP (which allowed controlled knee motion during stance). The stimulation pattern driving the walking motion remained the same for both techniques; the only difference was that knee extensor stimulation was constant during stance with FNS-only and modulated together with the VIKM to control knee motion during stance with VIKM-HNP. Results Stance phase knee angle was more natural during VIKM-HNP gait while knee hyperextension persisted during stiff-legged FNS-only walking. During loading response phase, vertical ground reaction force was less impulsive and instantaneous gait speed was increased with VIKM-HNP, suggesting that knee flexion assisted in weight transfer to the leading limb. Enhanced knee flexion during pre-swing phase also aided flexion during swing, especially when response to stimulation was compromised. Conclusions These results show the potential advantages of incorporating stance controlled knee flexion into a hybrid neuroprosthesis for walking. The addition of such control to FNS driven walking could also enable non-level walking tasks such as uneven terrain, slope navigation and stair descent where controlled knee flexion during weight bearing is critical.
This article reports on two studies investigating reader stance, navigation, and response in expository hypertext. Subjects in the studies included 69 and 147 adult readers prompted to adopt either an efferent or aesthetic stance when reading a 36-node expository hypertext. Reading was followed by recall and essay writing tasks. Results of the…
McEneaney, John E.; Li, Ledong; Allen, Kris; Guzniczak, Lizabeth
This study investigates the effects of argument stance on knowledge inquiry skills. Sixty-two participants were assigned to three argument stance conditions (proponent, opponent, or control) to receive scaffolded argumentation practice on two science issues in random order. After the argumentation treatment, participants were asked to write down…
Our aim is to implement a mind-reading capability in machines and artifacts. We give a formulation of mind-reading applicable\\u000a to machines, emphasizing the importance of a human stance to a machine in mind-reading. Next we demonstrate how the stance\\u000a a human takes can modify the recognition of intention in an object\\/agent, taking as examples experiments conducted by us,\\u000a i.e., a
The interaction of different orientation senses contributing to posture control is not well understood. We therefore performed experiments in which we measured the postural responses of normal subjects and vestibular loss patients during perturbation of their stance. Subjects stood on a motion platform with their eyes closed and auditory cues masked. The perturbing stimuli consisted of either platform tilts or external torque produced by force-controlled pull of the subjects' body on a stationary platform. Furthermore, we presented trials in which these two stimuli were applied when the platform was body-sway referenced (i.e., coupled 1:1 to body position, by which ankle joint proprioceptive feedback is essentially removed). We analyzed subjects' postural responses, i.e., the excursions of their center of mass (COM) and center of pressure (COP), using a systems analysis approach. We found gain and phase of the responses to vary as a function of stimulus frequency and in relation to the absence versus presence of vestibular and proprioceptive cues. In addition, gain depended on stimulus amplitude, reflecting a non-linearity in the control. The experimental results were compared to simulation results obtained from an 'inverted pendulum' model of posture control. In the model, sensor fusion mechanisms yield internal estimates of the external stimuli, i.e., of the external torque (pull), the platform tilt and gravity. These estimates are derived from three sensor systems: ankle proprioceptors, vestibular sensors and plantar pressure sensors (somatosensory graviceptors). They are fed as global set point signals into a local control loop of the ankle joints, which is based on proprioceptive negative feedback. This local loop stabilizes the body-on-foot support, while the set point signals upgrade the loop into a body-in-space control. Amplitude non-linearity was implemented in the model in the form of central threshold mechanisms. In model simulations that combined sensor fusion and thresholds, an automatic context-specific sensory re-weighting across stimulus conditions occurred. Model parameters were identified using an optimization procedure. Results suggested that in the sway-referenced condition normal subjects altered their postural strategy by strongly weighting feedback from plantar somatosensory force sensors. Taking this strategy change into account, the model's simulation results well paralleled all experimental results across all conditions tested. PMID:16307252
To characterize muscle synergy organization underlying multidirectional control of stance posture, electromyographic activity was recorded from 11 lower limb and trunk muscles of 7 healthy subjects while they were subjected to horizontal surface translations in 12 different, randomly presented directions. The latency and amplitude of muscle responses were quantified for each perturbation direction. Tuning curves for each muscle were examined to relate the amplitude of the muscle response to the direction of surface translation. The latencies of responses for the shank and thigh muscles were constant, regardless of perturbation direction. In contrast, the latencies for another thigh [tensor fascia latae (TFL)] and two trunk muscles [rectus abdominis (RAB) and erector spinae (ESP)] were either early or late, depending on the perturbation direction. These three muscles with direction-specific latencies may play different roles in postural control as prime movers or as stabilizers for different translation directions, depending on the timing of recruitment. Most muscle tuning curves were within one quadrant, having one direction of maximal activity, generally in response to diagonal surface translations. Two trunk muscles (RAB and ESP) and two lower limb muscles (semimembranosus and peroneus longus) had bipolar tuning curves, with two different directions of maximal activity, suggesting that these muscle can play different roles as part of different synergies, depending on translation direction. Muscle tuning curves tended to group into one of three regions in response to 12 different directions of perturbations. Two muscles [rectus femoris (RFM) and TFL] were maximally active in response to lateral surface translations. The remaining muscles clustered into one of two diagonal regions. The diagonal regions corresponded to the two primary directions of active horizontal force vector responses. Two muscles (RFM and adductor longus) were maximally active orthogonal to their predicted direction of maximal activity based on anatomic orientation. Some of the muscles in each of the synergic regions were not anatomic synergists, suggesting a complex central organization for recruitment of muscles. The results suggest that neither a simple reflex mechanism nor a fixed muscle synergy organization is adequate to explain the muscle activation patterns observed in this postural control task. Our results are consistent with a centrally mediated pattern of muscle latencies combined with peripheral influence on muscle magnitude. We suggest that a flexible continuum of muscle synergies that are modifiable in a task-dependent manner be used for equilibrium control in stance.
Henry, S. M.; Fung, J.; Horak, F. B.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)
In this investigation, we obtained data that support the hypothesis that afferent signals associated with hip flexion play a role in initiating the swing-to-stance transition of the hind legs in walking cats. Direct evidence came from observations in walking decerebrate cats. Assisting the flexion of the hip joint during swing advanced the onset of activity in ankle extensor muscles, and this advance was strongly correlated with a reduction in the duration of hip flexor muscle activity. The hip angle at the time of onset of the flexion to extension transition was similar during assisted and unassisted steps. Additional evidence for the hypothesis that sensory signals related to hip flexion are important in regulating the swing-to-stance transition came from four normal animals trained to walk in a variety of situations designed to alter the coordination of movements at the hip, knee, and ankle joints during the swing phase. Although there were exceptions in some tasks and preparations, the angle of the hip joint at the time of onset of extensor activity was generally less variable than that of the knee and ankle joints. We also found no clear relationships between the angle of the limb and body axes, or the length of the limb axis, and the time of onset of extensor activity. Finally, there were no indications that the stretching of ankle extensor muscles during swing was a factor in regulating the transition from swing-to-stance. PMID:16093331
McVea, D A; Donelan, J M; Tachibana, A; Pearson, K G
In this article, we investigate how mentoring relationships founded on inquiry as stance can work to emphasize the conditions that promote the development of teachers of science as inquiry. Drawing on data collected through semi-structured interviews, we have developed two narrative case studies based on the two mentoring relationships that exist…
Observational stance refers to the perspective a person takes while viewing a sexual stimulus, either as a passive observer (observer stance) or an active participant (participant stance). The objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between observational stance and sexual arousal (subjective and genital) across a range of sexual stimuli that do or do not correspond with a participant's sexual attraction (preferred or nonpreferred stimuli, respectively). Regression analyses revealed that, for men (n = 44), participant stance significantly predicted subjective and genital arousal. Women's (n = 47) observer and participant stance predicted subjective arousal but not genital arousal. Analysis of variance showed that participant stance was greatest under preferred sexual stimuli conditions for all groups of participants, while observer stance scores revealed a less consistent pattern of response. This was particularly true for opposite-sex-attracted women, whose ratings of observer stance were lowest for preferred stimuli. Observational stance does not appear to account for gender differences in specificity of sexual arousal; for men, however, participant stance uniquely predicted genital response after controlling for sexual attractions. Similarities in the relationships between men's and women's observational stance and sexual responses challenge previous claims of gender differences in how men and women view erotica. PMID:23514448
Bossio, Jennifer A; Spape, Jessica; Lykins, Amy D; Chivers, Meredith L
Introduction: Both balance and locomotor ataxia is severe in astronauts returning from spaceflight with serious implications for unassisted landings. As a part of an ongoing effort to demonstrate the functional significance of the postflight ataxia problem our laboratory has evaluated jumping, walking heel-to-toe and quite stance balance immediately following spaceflight. Methods: Six astronauts from 12-16 day flights and three from 6-month flights were asked to perform three self-initiated two-footed jumps from a 30-cm-high platform, walking for 10 steps (three trials) placing the feet heel to toe in tandem, arms folded across the chest and the eyes closed, and lastly, recover from a simulated fall by standing from a prone position on the floor and with eyes open maintain a quiet stance for 3 min with arms relaxed along the side of the body and feet comfortably positioned on a force plate. Crewmembers were tested twice before flight, on landing day (short-duration), and days 1, 6, and 30 following all flight durations. Results/Conclusions: Many of astronauts tested fell on their first postflight jump but recovered by the third jump showing a rapid learning progression. Changes in take-off strategy were clearly evident in duration of time in the air between the platform and the ground (significant reduction in time to land), and also in increased asymmetry in foot latencies on take-off postflight. During the tandem heel-to-toe walking task there was a significant decrease in percentage of correct steps on landing day (short-duration crew) and on first day following landing (long-duration) with only partial recovery the following day. Astronauts for both short and long duration flight times appeared to be unaware of foot position relative to their bodies or the floor. During quite stance most of crewmembers tested exhibited increased stochastic activity (larger short-term COP diffusion coefficients postflight in all planes and increases in mean sway speed).
Reschke, Millard F.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Wood, S. J.; Harm, D. L.
This paper reports a habituation study indicating that 12-month-old infants can take the “intentional stance” in interpreting the goal-directed spatial behavior of a rational agent. First, we examine previous empirical claims suggesting that the ability to attribute intentions to others emerges during the second half of the first year. It is argued that neither the perceptual evidence (concerning the early
György Gergely; Zoltán Nádasdy; Gergely Csibra; Szilvia Bíró
This study examined the configuration of the vertebral column of the cat during independent stance and in various flexed positions.\\u000a The range of motion in the sagittal plane is similar across most thoracic and lumbar joints, with the exception of a lesser\\u000a range at the transition region from thoracic-type to lumbar-type vertebrae. The upper thoracic column exhibits most of its
The interaction between step kinematics and stance kinetics determines sprint velocity. However, the influence that stance kinetics has on effective acceleration in field sport athletes requires clarification. About 25 men (age = 22.4 ± 3.2 years; mass = 82.8 ± 7.2 kg; height = 1.81 ± 0.07 m) completed twelve 10-m sprints, 6 sprints each for kinematic and kinetic assessment. Pearson's correlations (p ? 0.05) examined relationships between 0-5, 5-10, and 0-10 m velocity; step kinematics (mean step length [SL], step frequency, contact time [CT], flight time over each interval); and stance kinetics (relative vertical, horizontal, and resultant force and impulse; resultant force angle; ratio of horizontal to resultant force [RatF] for the first, second, and last contacts within the 10-m sprint). Relationships were found between 0-5, 5-10, and 0-10 m SL and 0-5 and 0-10 m velocity (r = 0.397-0.535). CT of 0-5 and 0-10 m correlated with 5-10 m velocity (r = -0.506 and -0.477, respectively). Last contact vertical force correlated with 5-10 m velocity (r = 0.405). Relationships were established between the second and last contact vertical and resultant force and CT over all intervals (r = -0.398 to 0.569). First and second contact vertical impulse correlated with 0-5 m SL (r = 0.434 and 0.442, respectively). Subjects produced resultant force angles and RatF suitable for horizontal force production. Faster acceleration in field sport athletes involved longer steps, with shorter CT. Greater vertical force production was linked with shorter CT, illustrating efficient force production. Greater SLs during acceleration were facilitated by higher vertical impulse and appropriate horizontal force. Speed training for field sport athletes should be tailored to encourage these technique adaptations. PMID:23222091
Lockie, Robert G; Murphy, Aron J; Schultz, Adrian B; Jeffriess, Matthew D; Callaghan, Samuel J
The symptomatic flatfoot deformity (pes planus with peri-talar subluxation) can be a debilitating condition. Cadaveric flatfoot models have been employed to study the etiology of the deformity, as well as invasive and noninvasive surgical treatment strategies, by evaluating bone positions. Prior cadaveric flatfoot simulators, however, have not leveraged industrial robotic technologies, which provide several advantages as compared with the previously developed custom fabricated devices. Utilizing a robotic device allows the researcher to experimentally evaluate the flatfoot model at many static instants in the gait cycle, compared with most studies, which model only one to a maximum of three instances. Furthermore, the cadaveric tibia can be statically positioned with more degrees of freedom and with a greater accuracy, and then a custom device typically allows. We created a six degree of freedom robotic cadaveric simulator and used it with a flatfoot model to quantify static bone positions at ten discrete instants over the stance phase of gait. In vivo tibial gait kinematics and ground reaction forces were averaged from ten flatfoot subjects. A fresh frozen cadaveric lower limb was dissected and mounted in the robotic gait simulator (RGS). Biomechanically realistic extrinsic tendon forces, tibial kinematics, and vertical ground reaction forces were applied to the limb. In vitro bone angular position of the tibia, calcaneus, talus, navicular, medial cuneiform, and first metatarsal were recorded between 0% and 90% of stance phase at discrete 10% increments using a retroreflective six-camera motion analysis system. The foot was conditioned flat through ligament attenuation and axial cyclic loading. Post-flat testing was repeated to study the pes planus deformity. Comparison was then made between the pre-flat and post-flat conditions. The RGS was able to recreate ten gait positions of the in vivo pes planus subjects in static increments. The in vitro vertical ground reaction force was within ± 1 standard deviation (SD) of the in vivo data. The in vitro sagittal, coronal, and transverse plane tibial kinematics were almost entirely within ± 1 SD of the in vivo data. The model showed changes consistent with the flexible flatfoot pathology including the collapse of the medial arch and abduction of the forefoot, despite unexpected hindfoot inversion. Unlike previous static flatfoot models that use simplified tibial degrees of freedom to characterize only the midpoint of the stance phase or at most three gait positions, our simulator represented the stance phase of gait with ten discrete positions and with six tibial degrees of freedom. This system has the potential to replicate foot function to permit both noninvasive and surgical treatment evaluations throughout the stance phase of gait, perhaps eliciting unknown advantages or disadvantages of these treatments at other points in the gait cycle. PMID:21599096
Jackson, Lyle T; Aubin, Patrick M; Cowley, Matthew S; Sangeorzan, Bruce J; Ledoux, William R
Background The most primitive ornithischian dinosaurs were small bipeds, but quadrupedality evolved three times independently in the clade. The transition to quadrupedality from bipedal ancestors is rare in the history of terrestrial vertebrate evolution, and extant analogues do not exist. Constraints imposed on quadrupedal ornithischians by their ancestral bipedal bauplan remain unexplored, and consequently, debate continues about their stance and gait. For example, it has been proposed that some ornithischians could run, while others consider that none were cursorial. Methodology/Principal Findings Drawing on biomechanical concepts of limb bone scaling and locomotor theory developed for extant taxa, we use the largest dataset of ornithischian postcranial measurements so far compiled to examine stance and gait in quadrupedal ornithischians. Differences in femoral midshaft eccentricity in hadrosaurs and ceratopsids may indicate that hadrosaurs placed their feet on the midline during locomotion, while ceratopsids placed their feet more laterally, under the hips. More robust humeri in the largest ceratopsids relative to smaller taxa may be due to positive allometry in skull size with body mass in ceratopsids, while slender humeri in the largest stegosaurs may be the result of differences in dermal armor distribution within the clade. Hadrosaurs are found to display the most cursorial morphologies of the quadrupedal ornithischian cades, indicating higher locomotor performance than in ceratopsids and thyreophorans. Conclusions/Significance Limb bone scaling indicates that a previously unrealised diversity of stances and gaits were employed by quadrupedal ornithischians despite apparent convergence in limb morphology. Grouping quadrupedal ornithischians together as a single functional group hides this disparity. Differences in limb proportions and scaling are likely due to the possession of display structures such as horns, frills and dermal armor that may have affected the center of mass of the animal, and differences in locomotor behaviour such as migration, predator escape or home range size.
Maidment, Susannah C. R.; Linton, Deborah H.; Upchurch, Paul; Barrett, Paul M.
This study examined the influence of visual information on the multi-joint coordination patterns in maintaining one-leg stance. 12 participants stood still on their left leg for two 1 min trials with and without visual information. The multi-joint coordination patterns in the frontal plane were examined using a frequency domain principal component analysis (PCAf) on 14 joint angular motion time series. The factor loading spectra of PC1 showed two distinct multi-joint postural coordination strategies that relate to the mechanical constraints on balance identified by Hof (2007) . The more prevalent strategy was the coordination of the left ankle-left knee or the left ankle only motion that is related to the "moving the center of pressure" strategy. A 2nd multi-joint coordination strategy showed larger factor loading of the trunk and upper limbs (i.e., shoulders and elbows) in addition to the left ankle implying the role of the upper limbs to generate "counter-rotational torque against the sway of the center of mass (COM)". With eyes open, the participants predominantly utilized the 1st strategy to maintain balance but switched to the 2nd strategy when visual information was not available during the stance. The role of visual information in determining the prevalence of two dominant multi-joint coordination kinematic patterns in one-leg stance reflects the redundant and emergent properties of the postural control system that channel the biomechanical constraints on balance arising from the interaction of the task, environment and the individual. PMID:24388780
Wang, Zheng; Molenaar, Peter C M; Challis, John H; Jordan, Kimberlee; Newell, Karl M
The influence of stance width on frontal plane postural dynamics and coordination in human bipedal stance was studied. We tested the hypothesis that when subjects adopt a narrow stance width, they will rely heavily on nonlinear control strategies and coordinated counter-phase upper and lower body motion to limit center-of-mass (CoM) deviations from upright; as stance increases, the use of these strategies will diminish. Freestanding frontal plane body sway was evoked through continuous pseudorandom rotations of the support surface on which subjects stood with various stimulus amplitudes. Subjects were either eyes open (EO) or closed (EC) and adopted various stance widths. Upper body, lower body, and CoM kinematics were summarized using root-mean-square and peak-to-peak measures, and dynamic behavior was characterized using frequency-response and impulse-response functions. In narrow stance, CoM frequency-response function gains were reduced with increasing stimulus amplitude and in EO compared with EC; in wide stance, gain reductions were much less pronounced. Results show that the narrow stance postural system is nonlinear across stimulus amplitude in both EO and EC conditions, whereas the wide stance postural system is more linear. The nonlinearity in narrow stance is likely caused by an amplitude-dependent sensory reweighting mechanism. Finally, lower body and upper body sway were approximately in-phase at low frequencies (<1 Hz) and out-of-phase at high frequencies (>1 Hz) across all stance widths, and results were therefore inconsistent with the hypothesis that subjects made greater use of coordinated counter-phase upper and lower body motion in narrow compared with wide stance conditions.
As part of NASA's Global Climate Change (climate.nasa.gov) website (winner of the 2011Webby Award for Best Science Site), Climate Kids (climate.nasa.gov/kids) presents positive role models for green careers and encourages kids to be good climate citizens. But before they will care, they must understand. Climate Kids helps kids understand climate science by communicating at their own science awareness and maturity level, and by giving them concrete ways to start helping Earth now. Climate Kids, as informal education, speaks to upper-elementary-school-age kids in their own language and using some of their favorite media. In addition to simple, liberally illustrated text explanations of the basic science concepts, cartoons and games reinforce the concepts in a fun way. A growing section on green careers interviews enthusiastic individuals currently practicing their professions. In explaining what they do, these individuals reinforce the climate science concepts and "how to help" suggestions elsewhere on the site. The games also reinforce the green career choices. "Green Careers" currently features a "green" general contractor, a home energy auditor, a water-wise landscaper, a recycling program educator, and a renewable energy scientist. The message of the scientist, who designs wind energy farms and "architectural wind" arrays, is reinforced by the "Power-up" game. In this game, players move a wind turbine up or down to capture the wind and move a solar array back and forth to stay out of cloud shadows. Depending on how many "windows" of the game's "city" light up using these alternative energy sources, the player earns a bronze, silver, gold, or platinum "medal." A recycling game reinforces the messages of the recycling program educator about the importance of recycling in saving energy, what can and cannot be recycled, and how long trash items remain in a landfill before decomposing. In the game, a variety of throw-away objects rains down from the top of the screen. Various recycling bins (glass, plastic, metal, and paper) are lined up on the left and right sides of the screen, with a trash bin at the bottom. As an item drops, the player must quickly decide what kind of material it is made of and whether it is recyclable, then guide it into the appropriate bin. As the rate of items entering play increases, any missed items fall into the trash and stay there for a length of time proportional to their decomposition time. If the trash bin gets full, the game is over. While enjoying the increasing challenge of the game, players learn to identify many items as recyclable that they may not have recognized as recyclable before. Another feature on Climate Kids is "Climate Tales," a slightly edgy animated cartoon series (two episodes so far) about the adventures of a blundering polar bear, a chirpy tamarin monkey, and a grumpy old fish as "accidental tourists" around the planet, observing and dealing with the environmental conditions they encounter. Fairly complex concepts (such as reasons and implications of the declining abundance of phytoplankton) are woven into the tales. Climate Kids is a fun site for kids, educational and realistic, and yet positive and hopeful-the only reasonable stance to present to this young audience.
Fisher, D. K.; Leon, N.; Jackson, R.; Greene, M. P.
Seven right-handed teaching professionals and eight intermediate tennis players were filmed using two high-speed cameras (100 Hz) as they performed open and square stance forehand drives. Three-dimensional coordinates (3D) were reconstructed using the DLT method. A three-segment rigid body model of the racket and upper extremity was used to calculate the kinetics of the wrist, elbow, and shoulder joints up to impact. The open stance created lower resultant velocities of the racket at impact (21.2 and 15.8 m/s) than the square stance (22.3 and 16.4 m/s) for professional and intermediate subjects, respectively. The largest components of the resultant joint torques were generated by the shoulder horizontal adductors, followed by elbow varus torques, and shoulder internal rotation torques. Torques were similar across stance and skill level except for significantly (p < 0.05) greater peak shoulder internal rotation torques in the square compared to the open stance, greater peak wrist flexion torques in the intermediate compared to the professionals, and greater peak wrist flexion torques in the square stance compared to the open stance. The data did not support the hypothesis that the open stance technique creates greater loading throughout the upper extremity than the square stance technique. Peak upper extremity torques were similar to peak torques reported for baseball pitching and represent loads that could contribute to strength imbalances and overuse injuries. PMID:12801214
Leg swing in human walking has historically been viewed as a passive motion with little metabolic cost. Recent estimates of leg swing costs are equivocal, covering a range from 10 to 33 per cent of the net cost of walking. There has also been a debate as to whether the periods of double-limb support during the stance phase dominate the cost of walking. Part of this uncertainty is because of our inability to measure metabolic energy consumption in individual muscles during locomotion. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the metabolic cost of walking using a modelling approach that allowed instantaneous energy consumption rates in individual muscles to be estimated over the full gait cycle. At a typical walking speed and stride rate, leg swing represented 29 per cent of the total muscular cost. During the stance phase, the double-limb and single-limb support periods accounted for 27 and 44 per cent of the total cost, respectively. Performing step-to-step transitions, which encompasses more than just the double-support periods, represented 37 per cent of the total cost of walking. Increasing stride rate at a constant speed led to greater double-limb support costs, lower swing phase costs and no change in single-limb support costs. Together, these results provide unique insight as to how metabolic energy is expended over the human gait cycle.
Background Researchers using forums and online focus groups need to ensure they are safe and need tools to make best use of the data. We explored the use of metrics that would allow better forum management and more effective analysis of participant contributions. Objective To report retrospectively calculated metrics from self-harm discussion forums and to assess whether metrics add to other methods such as discourse analysis. We asked (1) which metrics are most useful to compare and manage forums, and (2) how metrics can be used to identify the participative stances of members to help manage discussion forums. Methods We studied the use of metrics in discussion forums on self-harm. SharpTalk comprised five discussion forums, all using the same software but with different forum compositions. SharpTalk forums were similar to most moderated forums but combined support and general social chat with online focus groups discussing issues on self-harm. Routinely recorded time-stamp data were used to derive metrics of episodes, time online, pages read, and postings. We compared metrics from the forums with views from discussion threads and from moderators. We identified patterns of participants’ online behavior by plotting scattergrams and identifying outliers and clusters within different metrics. Results In comparing forums, important metrics seem to be number of participants, number of active participants, total time of all participants logged on in each 24 hours, and total number of postings by all participants in 24 hours. In examining participative stances, the important metrics were individuals’ time logged per 24 hours, number of episodes, mean length of episodes, number of postings per 24 hours, and location within the forum of those postings. Metric scattergrams identified several participative stances: (1) the “caretaker,” who was “always around,” logged on for a much greater time than most other participants, posting but mainly in response to others and rarely initiating threads, (2) the “butterfly,” who “flitted in and out,” had a large number of short episodes, (3) two “discussants,” who initiated many more discussion threads than anybody else and posted proportionately less in the support room, (4) “here for you,” who posted frequently in the support room in response to other participants’ threads, and (5) seven “people in distress,” who posted many comments in the support room in comparison with their total postings and tended to post on their own threads. Conclusions Real-time metrics may be useful: (1) by offering additional ways of comparing different discussion forums helping with their management, and (2) by identifying participative stances of individuals so allowing better moderation and support of forums, and more effective use of the data collected. For this to happen, researchers need to publish metrics for their discussion forums and software developers need to offer more real-time metrics facilities.
This article uses corpus methods to examine linguistic expressions of stance in over 4,000 argumentative essays written by incoming first-year university students in comparison with the writing of upper-level undergraduate students and published academics. The findings reveal linguistic stance markers shared across the first-year essays despite…
Rather than delineating a list of practices that are important for ensuring that mathematics prepares students for a more democratic citizenship, the author has outlined in this article three tensions in teaching that she argues are important in developing an equity stance in mathematics education. This focus on a "stance" suggests that the kinds…
The effect of age on latency and amplitude of leg muscle responses to stance perturbations was studied in 75 control subjects. They stood upright on a platform and were displaced by toe-up (upward tilt) and toe-down (downward tilt) platform rotations. Perturbations were induced during free and supported stance (holding on to a stable structure). Surface electromyograms (EMG) of the soleus
Antonio Nardone; Rossella Siliotto; Margherita Grasso; Marco Schieppati
This research study aimed to describe the experiences of Professional Development School teachers who were living an inquiry stance toward teaching. Throughout this study, "living an inquiry stance toward teaching" was used in an attempt to describe teacher inquiry as a way of being and knowing for these PDS teachers more than methods for a…
Drawing on the appraisal framework from systemic functional linguistics (SFL), this article examines patterns of stance in a corpus of 92 high- and low-graded argumentative papers written in the context of an upper-level course in economics. It interprets differential patterns of stance in students' texts in light of interview commentaries…
This study draws from a number of researchers who push for critical literacy and a critical stance to question power, inequality, and the status quo; to understand scholars' own participation in power structures; and to reframe and retheorize scholars' beliefs and understandings. In this article, the author uses the critical stance framework to…
This study examines stance in cross-cultural media discourse by comparing disaster news reports on the Sichuan earthquake of May 2008 in a Chinese, an Australian Chinese, and an Australian newspaper. The stance taken in the news reports is examined using the Attitude sub-system of Martin and White's (2005) Appraisal framework. The analysis…
Lifting technique can have a significant impact on spine loading during lifting. The sports biomechanics literature has documented changes in trunk and lower extremity kinematics and muscle coactivation patterns as a function of stance width during high force dead lift and squat exercises. The focus of the current study was to explore whether these lifting stance width effects might translate
Christopher J. Sorensen; Omid Haddad; Samuel Campbell; Gary A. Mirka
The development of implantable peroneal nerve stimulators has increased interest in sensors which can detect the different phases of walking (stance and swing). Accelerometers with a potential for implantation are studied as detectors for the swing phase of walking to replace footswitches. Theoretically, one can show that accelerometers can be used to distinguish between stance and swing phase. Using accelerometers
A. T. M. Willemsen; FEDDE BLOEMHOF; HERMAN B. K. BOOM
Studies on the relationship between dental occlusion and body balance have suggested that occlusion status contributes to the maintenance of postural balance. However, little has been reported about the effects of voluntary teeth clenching on the stabilization of postural stance in novel environments. In the present study we investigated whether teeth clenching influenced adaptation to the perturbation introduced by electrical stimulation of a unilateral lower limb. Subjects (12 adults) stood on a force plate, from which motion data were obtained in the horizontal plane with and without voluntary teeth clenching and were instructed to maintain the position throughout the experiment. We evoked a novel environment by supramaximal percutaneous electrical stimulation of the common peroneal nerve. Electromyograms (EMG) were recorded from the masseter and the peroneus longus (PL) muscles with bipolar surface cup electrodes. When the disturbed postural stance was generated by electrical stimulation, the maximum reaction force in the anterior-posterior (A/P) direction with teeth clenching (CL) was significantly smaller than that without voluntary teeth clenching (control; CO) (p<0.05) and the peak time of the ground reaction force/body mass (GRF/BM) in the A/P direction occurred earlier in the CL condition than CO (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in the peak-to-peak amplitude of GRF/BM and the peak time of GRF/BM, in the M/L direction under both CL and CO conditions. Thus, the present study showed that voluntary teeth clenching contributed to stabilization of the postural stance perturbed transiently by electrical stimulation. We concluded that voluntary teeth clenching plays an important role in rapid postural adaptation to the anterior-posterior perturbation in the upright position. PMID:19879763
This article describes how readers from a graduate program in anthropology evaluated student writing in a general education course. Readers voiced the concerns of their discipline when they focused on the stance writers assumed and how they made value judgments.
In recent years, palliative care and related organizations have increasingly adopted a stance of "studied neutrality" on the question of whether euthanasia should be legalized as a bona fide medical regimen in palliative care contexts. This stance, however, has attracted criticism from both opponents and proponents of euthanasia. Pro-euthanasia activists see the stance as an official position of indecision that is fundamentally disrespectful of a patient's right to "choose death" when life has become unbearable. Some palliative care constituents, in turn, are opposed to the stance, contending that it reflects an attitude of "going soft" on euthanasia and as weakening the political resistance that has hitherto been successful in preventing euthanasia from becoming more widely legalized. In this article, attention is given to examining critically the notion and possible unintended consequences of adopting a stance of studied neutrality on euthanasia in palliative care. It is argued that although palliative care and related organizations have an obvious stake in the outcome of the euthanasia debate, it is neither unreasonable nor inconsistent for such organizations to be unwilling to take a definitive stance on the issue. It is further contended that, given the long-standing tenets of palliative care, palliative care organizations have both a right and a responsibility to defend the integrity of the principles and practice of palliative care and to resist demands for euthanasia to be positioned either as an integral part or logical extension of palliative care. PMID:22771130
The estimation of the direction of visual attention is critical to a large number of interactive systems. This paper investigates the cross-modal relation of the position of one's feet (or standing stance) to the focus of gaze. The intuition is that while one CAN have a range of attentional foci from a particular stance, one may be MORE LIKELY to look in specific directions given an approach vector and stance. We posit that the cross-modal relationship is constrained by biomechanics and personal style. We define a stance vector that models the approach direction before stopping and the pose of a subject's feet. We present a study where the subjects' feet and approach vector are tracked. The subjects read aloud contents of note cards in 4 locations. The order of `visits' to the cards were randomized. Ten subjects read 40 lines of text each, yielding 400 stance vectors and gaze directions. We divided our data into 4 sets of 300 training and 100 test vectors and trained a neural net to estimate the gaze direction given the stance vector. Our results show that 31% our gaze orientation estimates were within 5°, 51% of our estimates were within 10°, and 60% were within 15°. Given the ability to track foot position, the procedure is minimally invasive.
The Biodex® Stability System (BSS) has high test-retest reliability when stable (high) resistance levels are used. However, reliability data for lower stability levels, associated with more pronounced learning curves, are rare in the existing literature. Thus, it is likely that BSS scores obtained from lower stability levels require greater familiarization (i.e. practice) to achieve a stable score both within and between test sessions. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine if a commonly reported 6 trial sequence (3 practice trials, 3 test trials) used with the BSS can achieve a stable within session score on the lowest stability level (i.e. level 1). The secondary purpose was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the lowest BSS resistance level over a 10-week period. Twenty sedentary university students (11 male, 9 female; age: 21.5 ± 1.9 years, height: 1.7 ± 0.1 m, weight: 66.3 ± 12.1 kg, BMI: 22.4 ± 2.3) voluntarily participated. Participants completed two test sessions separated by 10-weeks. Twelve, 20-second trials (six dual limb stance, six single limb stance on the dominant limb) on the lowest stability level were completed during both test sessions by all participants. A stable within session dual and single limb stance score was achieved with a maximum of 3 familiarization trials. Reliability ranged between poor and good across all outcomes but all outcomes had large minimal detectable change scores. At least 3 stance specific familiarization trials are needed to achieve a stable BSS score within a single test session on the lowest resistance level. However, the inconsistent reliability and high minimal detectable changes scores suggest that the lowest resistance level should not be used as an objective marker of rehabilitation progress over extended periods of time (e.g. 10-weeks). Key pointsLevel 1 BSS scores should not be used as a test setting to assess rehabilitation.Familiarization trials should not be underestimated by researchers/clinicans.Lower stability levels on the BSS may not be appropriate for use as an objective marker of progression due to poor reliability of the scores over time. PMID:24790494
Purpose The function of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) during gait has not been investigated. Our objective was to measure the kinematics of the medial collateral ligament during the stance phase of gait on a treadmill using a combined dual fluoroscopic imaging system (DFIS) and MRI technique. Methods Three-dimensional models of the knee were constructed using magnetic resonance images of 7 healthy human knees. The contours of insertion areas of the superficial MCL (sMCL) and deep MCL (dMCL) on the femur and tibia were constructed using the coronal plane MR images of each knee. Both the sMCL and the dMCL were separated into 3 portions: the anterior, mid, and posterior bundles. The relative elongation of the bundles was calculated using the bundle length at heel strike (or 0% of the stance phase) as a reference. Results The lengths of the anterior bundles were positively correlated with the knee flexion angle. The mid-bundles of the sMCL and dMCL were found to function similarly in trend with the anterior bundles during the stance phase of the gait and their lengths had weak correlations with the knee flexion angles. The elongations of the posterior bundles of sMCL and dMCL were peaked at mid-stance and terminal extension/pre-swing stance phase. The lengths of the posterior bundles were negatively correlated with the knee flexion during the stance phase. Conclusion The data of this study demonstrated that the anterior and posterior bundles of the sMCL and dMCL have a reciprocal function during the stance phase of gait. This data provide insight into the function of the MCL and a normal reference for the study of physiology and pathology of the MCL. The data may be useful in designing reconstruction techniques to better reproduce the native biomechanical behavior of the MCL. Level of evidence IV.
Liu, Fang; Gadikota, Hemanth R.; Kozanek, Michal; Hosseini, Ali; Yue, Bing; Gill, Thomas J.; Rubash, Harry E.; Li, Guoan
Although the tibia is a common site of stress fractures in runners, the loading of the tibia during running is not well understood. An integrated experimental and modeling approach was therefore used to estimate the bone contact forces acting on the distal end of the tibia during the stance phase of running, and the contributions of external and internal sources to these forces. Motion capture and force plate data were recorded for 10 male runners as they ran at 3.5-4 m/s. From these data, the joint reaction force (JRF), muscle forces, and bone contact force on the tibia were computed at the ankle using inverse dynamics and optimization methods. The distal end of the tibia was compressed and sheared posteriorly throughout most of stance, with respective peak forces of 9.00+/-1.13 and 0.57+/-0.18 body weights occurring during mid stance. Internal muscle forces were the primary source of tibial compression, whereas the JRF was the primary source of tibial shear due to the forward inclination of the leg relative to the external ground reaction force. The muscle forces and JRF both acted to compress the tibia, but induced tibial shear forces in opposing directions during stance, magnifying tibial compression and reducing tibial shear. The superposition of the peak compressive and posterior shear forces at mid stance may contribute to stress fractures in the posterior face of the tibia. The implications are that changes in running technique could potentially reduce stress fracture risk. PMID:17662295
Sasimontonkul, Siriporn; Bay, Brian K; Pavol, Michael J
The imposing mass of the trunk in relation to the whole body has an important impact on human motion. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of trunk's natural inclination--forward (FW) or backward (BW) with respect to the vertical--on body kinematics and stance limb kinetics during gait initiation.Twenty-five healthy males were divided based on their natural trunk inclination (FW or BW) during gait initiation. Instantaneous speed was calculated at the center of mass at the first heel strike. The antero-posterior impulse was calculated by integrating the antero-posterior ground reaction force in time. Ankle, knee, hip and thoraco-lumbar (L5) moments were calculated using inverse dynamics and only peaks of the joint moments were analyzed. Among all the investigated parameters, only joint moments present significant differences between the two groups. The knee extensor moment is 1.4 times higher (P<0.001) for the BW group, before the heel contact. At the hip, although the BW group displays a flexor moment 2.4 times higher (P<0.001) before the swing limb's heel-off, the FW group displays an extensor moment 3.1 times higher (P<0.01) during the swing phase. The three L5 extensor peaks after the toe-off are respectively 1.7 (P<0.001), 1.4 (P<0.001) and 1.7 (P<0.01) times higher for the FW group. The main results support the idea that the patterns described during steady-state gait are already observable during gait initiation. This study also provides reference data to further investigate stance limb kinetics in specific or pathologic populations during gait initiation. It will be of particular interest for elderly people, knowing that this population displays atypical trunk postures and present a high risk of falling during this forward stepping. PMID:23383128
The imposing mass of the trunk in relation to the whole body has an important impact on human motion. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of trunk's natural inclination - forward (FW) or backward (BW) with respect to the vertical - on body kinematics and stance limb kinetics during gait initiation. Twenty-five healthy males were divided based on their natural trunk inclination (FW or BW) during gait initiation. Instantaneous speed was calculated at the center of mass at the first heel strike. The antero-posterior impulse was calculated by integrating the antero-posterior ground reaction force in time. Ankle, knee, hip and thoraco-lumbar (L5) moments were calculated using inverse dynamics and only peaks of the joint moments were analyzed. Among all the investigated parameters, only joint moments present significant differences between the two groups. The knee extensor moment is 1.4 times higher (P<0.001) for the BW group, before the heel contact. At the hip, although the BW group displays a flexor moment 2.4 times higher (P<0.001) before the swing limb's heel-off, the FW group displays an extensor moment 3.1 times higher (P<0.01) during the swing phase. The three L5 extensor peaks after the toe-off are respectively 1.7 (P<0.001), 1.4 (P<0.001) and 1.7 (P<0.01) times higher for the FW group. The main results support the idea that the patterns described during steady-state gait are already observable during gait initiation. This study also provides reference data to further investigate stance limb kinetics in specific or pathologic populations during gait initiation. It will be of particular interest for elderly people, knowing that this population displays atypical trunk postures and present a high risk of falling during this forward stepping.
This article examines the stance options used by writers responding to a data description task in the discipline of Statistics. Based on a small learner corpus, it uses inductive qualitative content analysis to explore both the content propositions that students included in their writing, and the ways in which they expressed evaluative stance…
Stance Control knee-ankle foot orthoses (SCO) differ from their traditional locked knee counterparts by allowing free knee flexion during swing while providing stability during stance. It is widely accepted that free knee flexion during swing normalizes gait and therefore improves walking speed and reduces the energy requirements of walking. Limited research has been carried out to evaluate the benefits of SCOs when compared to locked knee-ankle foot orthoses (KAFOs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of SCOs used for patients with lower limb pathology. Energy expenditure and walking velocity were measured in 10 subjects using an orthosis incorporating a Horton Stance Control knee joint. A GAITRite walkway was used to measure temporospatial gait characteristics. A Cosmed K4b2 portable metabolic system was used to measure energy expenditure and heart rate during walking. Two conditions were tested: Walking with stance control active (stance control) and walking with the knee joint locked. Ten subjects completed the GAITRite testing; nine subjects completed the Cosmed testing. Walking velocity was significantly increased in the stance control condition (p < 0.001). There was no difference in the energy cost of walking (p = 0.515) or physiological cost index (PCI) (p = 0.093) between conditions. This study supports previous evidence that stance control knee-ankle foot orthoses increase walking velocity compared to locked knee devices. Contrary to expectation, the stance control condition did not decrease energy expenditure during walking. PMID:20470059
Davis, Priya Chantal; Bach, Timothy Michael; Pereira, Darren Mark
Does skill with a difficult task, such as tightrope walking, lead to improved balance through altered movement strategies or through altered weighting of sensory inputs? We approached this question by comparing tandem stance (TS) data between seven tightrope walkers and 12 untrained control subjects collected under different sensory conditions. All subjects performed four TS tasks with eyes open or closed, on a normal firm or foam surface (EON, ECN, EOF, ECF); tightrope walkers were also tested on a tightrope (EOR). Head, upper trunk and pelvis angular velocities were measured with gyroscopes in pitch and roll. Power spectral densities (PSDs) ratios, and transfer function gains (TFG) between these body segments were calculated. Center of mass (CoM) excursions and its virtual time to contact a virtual base of support boundary (VTVBS) were also estimated. Gain nonlinearities, in the form of decreased trunk to head and trunk to pelvis PSD ratios and TFGs, were present with increasing sensory task difficulty for both groups. PSD ratios and TFGs were less in trained subjects, though, in absolute terms, trained subjects moved their head, trunk, pelvis and CoM faster than controls, and had decreased VTVBS. Head roll amplitudes were unchanged with task or training, except above 3Hz. CoM amplitude deviations were not less for trained subjects. For the trained subjects, EOR measures were similar to those of ECF. Training standing on a tightrope induces a velocity modification of the same TS movement strategy used by untrained controls. More time is spent exploring the limits of the base of support with an increased use of fast trunk movements to control balance. Our evidence indicates an increased reliance on neck and pelvis proprioceptive inputs. The similarity of TS on foam to that on the tightrope suggests that the foam tasks are useful for effective training of tightrope walking. PMID:24090964
Recent ESP research into academic writing has shown how writers convey their stance and interact with readers across different disciplines. However, little research has been carried out into the disciplinary writing practices of the pure mathematics academic community from an ESP genre analysis perspective. This study begins to address this gap by…
This paper proposes a new protocol designed to track a large number of foot segments during the stance phase of gait with the smallest possible number of markers, with particular clinical focus on coronal plane alignment of the rear-foot, transverse and sagittal plane alignment of the metatarsal bones, and changes at the medial longitudinal arch. The shank, calcaneus, mid-foot and
A. Leardini; M. G. Benedetti; L. Berti; D. Bettinelli; R. Nativo; S. Giannini
This study examined stance phase foot kinematics, kinetics and electromyographic (EMG) activity of extrinsic muscles of 18 healthy males. Three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data were obtained via video analysis of surface markers and a force plate. Ankle joint moments are described about orthogonal axes in a segmental coordinate system. Kinematic data comprise rearfoot and forefoot motion, described about axes of a joint coordinate system, and medial longitudinal arch height. Surface EMG was obtained for tibialis anterior, soleus, gastocnemius medialis and lateralis, peroneus longus and peroneus brevis and extensor digitorum longus. It was concluded that the demands on the controlling muscles are greatest prior to foot flat and after heel rise. Tibialis anterior restrained rearfoot plantarflexion from heel contact to 10% stance, and eversion between 10% stance and footflat. Activity in peroneus longus was consistent with its role in causing eversion after heel contact, then as a stabiliser of the forefoot after heel rise. Activity in peroneus brevis suggested a role in restraining lateral rotation of the leg over the foot, late in stance. PMID:11206820
The aim of this study has been to present firmer evidence that during stance functionally related postural muscles in the legs are activated according to fixed patterns. The importance of fixed patterns of activation for stabilization, balance, and movement control has received considerable theoretical and experimental attention. With regard to postural adjustment in humans, however, evidence for fixed activation patterns
The nature of partnerships and the integration of theory and practice in professional positioning is so complex that there are undoubtedly promises, potentials, and problematics. To live within this complexity, embrace tensions and challenges, and sustain this important work, the author views living an inquiry stance toward teaching as the…
This paper explores the interaction between religious faith and academic study. It presents findings from a small-scale qualitative study of how first year theology undergraduates at Oxford experienced the relationship between academic study and their faith stance. The findings suggest varied developments in the extent to which students adapted to…
This study investigates how Turkish teachers take and give stances in the discourse on globalization and language by using linguistic resources. According to the findings obtained through the discourse analysis of the corpus that consisted of 36 h of recording of the discussion among 4 teachers with 5 to 10 years of teaching experience, the…
This paper attempts to advance the thinking in Stetsenko's paper by situating the concepts of relational ontology and transformative activist stance in the context of coteaching and cogenerative dialogue. In so doing, we hope to make Stetsenko's ideas more operational in terms of access and application by researchers, teachers, policy makers and…
Although the tibia is a common site of stress fractures in runners, the loading of the tibia during running is not well understood. An integrated experimental and modeling approach was therefore used to estimate the bone contact forces acting on the distal end of the tibia during the stance phase of running, and the contributions of external and internal sources
Siriporn Sasimontonkul; Brian K. Bay; Michael J. Pavol
In the context of an arts-integration course in an elementary education program, preservice teachers used tableaux (i.e. frozen scenes) to portray field experience moments in two ways: (1) as remembered events, and (2) as projected possibilities. Using video and photographs of the tableaux, we traced the students' enactment of activist stances and…
Using a corpus-based approach, this paper investigates the construction of stance in finite reporting clauses with "that"-clause complementation. The data are drawn from two corpora of theses in contrasting disciplines: a social science--politics--and a natural science--materials science. A network for the analysis of reporting clauses is…
This paper describes the process by which a rubric development team affiliated with the National Writing Project negotiated difficulties and dilemmas concerning an analytic scoring category initially termed Voice and later renamed Stance. Although these labels reference an aspect of student writing that many teachers value, the challenge of…
DiPardo, Anne; Storms, Barbara A.; Selland, Makenzie
This study brings the concept of inquiry as stance to bear on current understandings of how inquiry occurs within online networks for teacher induction. The author presents a case study of an online network that allowed 36 new teachers to participate in informal, spontaneous conversations. Genre research is used to examine the on-network,…
Analyses of 34 cases of direct reported thought found in ordinary Korean conversations illustrate a routine practice in the use of reported thought-reenacting a prior thought to demonstrate how the speaker's current stance originated. Often, such thoughts are not simply momentary, isolated thoughts in passing but are consequential thoughts…
In this article, the authors show how two first year teachers a continent apart--Kim in the village of Tununak on the Bering Sea in Alaska and Chris in Beaufort, South Carolina, on the Atlantic Ocean--were able to take inquiry stances on their classrooms. In particular, through analysis of e-mails written in Chris' and Kim's first years of…
The tracks ascribed to pterosaurs from the Late Jurassic limestones at Crayssac, France, must be pterosaurian because the manus prints are so far outside those of the pes, the pes print is four times longer than wide, and the manus prints appear to preserve distinct traces of a posteromedially directed wing-finger. These tracks are different in important ways from previously
Although for the 15 years preceding his election as President of the United States Ronald Reagan muted his anti-Soviet rhetoric in order to achieve political power, since his election he has returned to anti-Sovietism in an effort to redirect American foreign policy against the Soviets. At the same time, however, he employs a rhetorical strategy…
Introduction Hamstring strain injuries are common in sports that involve high speed running. It remains uncertain whether the hamstrings are susceptible to injury during late swing phase, when the hamstrings are active and lengthening, or during stance, when contact loads are present. In this study we used forward dynamic simulations to compare hamstring musculotendon stretch, loading and work done during stance and swing phases of high speed running gait cycles. Methods Whole body kinematics, EMG activities and ground reactions were collected as 12 subjects ran on an instrumented treadmill at speeds ranging from 80% to maximum (average of 7.8 m/s). Subject-specific simulations were then created using a whole body musculoskeletal model that included fifty-two Hill-type musculotendon units acting about the hip and knee. A computed muscle control algorithm was used to determine muscle excitation patterns that drove the limb to track measured hip and knee sagittal plane kinematics, with measured ground reactions applied to the limb. Results The hamstrings lengthened under load from 50% to 90% of the gait cycle (swing), and then shortened under load from late swing through stance. While peak hamstring stretch was invariant with speed, lateral hamstring (biceps femoris) loading increased significantly with speed, and was greatest during swing at the fastest speed. The biarticular hamstrings performed negative work on the system only during swing phase, with the amount of negative work increasing significantly with speed. Conclusion We concluded that the large inertial loads during high speed running appear to make the hamstrings most susceptible to injury during swing phase when compared to stance phase. This information is relevant for scientifically establishing effective muscle injury prevention and rehabilitation programs.
Chumanov, Elizabeth S.; Heiderscheit, Bryan C.; Thelen, Darryl G.
Treadmill locomotion is different with respect to overground walking and may require an adapted control mode. The relevant\\u000a neural computational effort may produce lasting effects encroaching upon the performance of a subsequent postural task. The\\u000a hypothesis of the present study was that, contrary to overground walking, treadmill walking has effects on quiet stance variables,\\u000a in the assumption that the imposed
A 3D balance control model of quiet upright stance is presented, based on an optimal control strategy, and evaluated in terms of its ability to simulate postural sway in both the anterior–posterior and medial–lateral directions. The human body was represented as a two-segment inverted pendulum. Several assumptions were made to linearise body dynamics, for example, that there was no transverse
The importance of sensory feedback for postural control in stance is evident from the balance improvements occurring when\\u000a sensory information from the vestibular, somatosensory, and visual systems is available. However, the extent to which also\\u000a audio-biofeedback (ABF) information can improve balance has not been determined. It is also unknown why additional artificial\\u000a sensory feedback is more effective for some subjects
Systems theory analyses have suggested that human upright stance can be modelled in terms of continuous multi-sensory feedback\\u000a control. So far, these analyses have considered mainly steady-state responses to periodic stimuli and relied on a simplifying\\u000a model of the body’s mechanics in the form of an inverted pendulum. Therefore, they may have ignored relevant aspects of the\\u000a postural behaviour. To
This study aimed to apply an uncontrolled manifold (UCM) approach to investigate how children utilize the variability of multiple\\u000a body segment movement to facilitate the center of mass (COM) control during quiet stance. Three groups of participants were\\u000a included in this study: younger children (YC, mean age 6.3 years), older children (OC, mean age 10.3 years), and young adults\\u000a (YA, mean age
. ?The aim of this study is to assess the contribution of cocontraction and spindle feedback to local stability during bipedal\\u000a stance. To that aim, an existing nonlinear state space model of the human musculoskeletal system is linearized in a reference\\u000a equilibrium state. The maximal real part of the eigenvalues of the linearized system matrix A and the low-frequency joint stiffness
A. J. “Knoek” van Soest; Wouter P. Haenen; Leonard A. Rozendaal
This paper describes the use of an actuated toes joint in a humanoid robot to achieve human-like bipedal walking. The robot does not shorten the stance leg, but uses the segment between the ankle joint and the toes joint to over-extend the unloading leg in the double-support phase. Experiments with the servo-based humanoid robot Toni show that this approach leads
Our studies have recently demonstrated that a proportional and derivative (PD) feedback controller, which takes advantage of the body's position and velocity information to regulate balance during quiet standing, can compensate for long neurological time delays and generate a control command that precedes body sway by 100-200 ms. Furthermore, PD gain pairs were identified that ensure a robust system behavior and at the same time generate dynamic responses as observed in quiet standing experiments with able-bodied subjects. The purpose of the present study was to experimentally verify that the PD controller identified in our previous study can: 1) regulate the active ankle torque to stabilize the body during quiet standing in spite of long neurological time delays and 2) generate system dynamics, i.e., a motor command and body sway fluctuation, that successfully mimic those of the physiologic system of quiet standing. Our real-time closed-loop feedback circuit consisted of a center of mass position sensor and a functional electrical stimulator that elicited contractions of the plantar flexors as determined by the aforementioned PD controller. The control system regulated upright stance of a subject who was partially de-afferented and de-efferented due to a neurological disorder called von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome (McCormick Grade III). While the subject was able to generate a motor command for the ankle joints, he could not regulate the resulting torque sufficiently due to a lack of sensory feedback and motor control. It is important to mention that a time delay was included in the closed-loop circuit of the PD controller to mimic the actual neurological time delay observed in able-bodied individuals. The experimental results of this case study suggest that the proposed PD controller in combination with a functional electrical stimulation system can regulate the active ankle torque during quiet stance and generate the same system dynamics as observed in healthy individuals. While these findings do not imply that the CNS actually applies a PD-like control strategy to regulate balance, they suggest that it is at least theoretically possible. PMID:17601193
Human joint impedance is the dynamic relationship between the differential change in the position of a perturbed joint and the corresponding response torque; it is a fundamental property that governs how humans interact with their environments. It is critical to characterize ankle impedance during the stance phase of walking to elucidate how ankle impedance is regulated during locomotion, as well as provide the foundation for future development of natural, biomimetic powered prostheses and their control systems. In this study, ankle impedance was estimated using a model consisting of stiffness, damping and inertia. Ankle torque was well described by the model, accounting for 98 ±1.2% of the variance. When averaged across subjects, the stiffness component of impedance was found to increase linearly from 1.5 to 6.5 Nm/rad/kg between 20% and 70% of stance phase. The damping component was found to be statistically greater than zero only for the estimate at 70% of stance phase, with a value of 0.03 Nms/rad/kg. The slope of the ankle's torque-angle curve-known as the quasi-stiffness-was not statistically different from the ankle stiffness values, and showed remarkable similarity. Finally, using the estimated impedance, the specifications for a biomimetic powered ankle prosthesis were introduced that would accurately emulate human ankle impedance during locomotion. PMID:24760937
Rouse, Elliott J; Hargrove, Levi J; Perreault, Eric J; Kuiken, Todd A
Background Non-linear approaches to assessment of postural control can provide insight that compliment linear approaches. Control entropy (CE) is a recently developed statistical tool from non-linear dynamical systems used to assess the complexity of non-stationary signals. We have previously used CE of high resolution accelerometry in running to show decreased complexity with exhaustive exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if complexity of postural control decreases following fatiguing exercise using CE. Methods Ten subjects (5 M/5 F; 25 ± 3 yr; 169.4 ± 11.7 cm; 79.0 ± 16.9 kg) consented to participation approved by Western Oregon University IRB and completed two trials separated by 2-7 days. Trials consisted of two single-legged balance tests separated by two Wingate anaerobic tests (WAnT; PreFat/PostFat), or rest period (PreRest/PostRest). Balance tests consisted of a series of five single-legged stances, separated by 30 s rest, performed while standing on the dominant leg for 15-s with the participant crossing the arms over the chest and flexing the non-dominant knee to 90 degrees. High resolution accelerometers (HRA) were fixed superficial to L3/L4 at the approximate center of mass (COM). Triaxial signals from the HRA were streamed in real time at 625 Hz. COM accelerations were recorded in g's for vertical (VT), medial/lateral (ML), and anterior/posterior (AP) axes. A newly developed statistic (R-test) was applied to group response shapes generated by Karhunen Loeve (KL) transform modes resulting from Control Entropy (CE) analysis. Results R-tests showed a significant mean vector difference (p < .05) within conditions, between axes in all cases, except PostFat, indicating the shape of the complexity response was different in these cases. R-test between conditions, within axis, differences were only present in PostFat for AP vs. PreFat (p < .05). T-tests showed a significantly higher overall CE PostFat in VT and ML compared to PreFat and PostRest (p < .0001). PostFat CE was also higher than PostRest in AP (p < .0001). Conclusions These data indicate that fatiguing exercise eliminates the differential complexity response between axes, but increases complexity in all axes compared to the non-fatigued condition. This has implications with regard to the effects of fatigue on strategies of the control system to maintain postural control.
The Biodex® Stability System (BSS) has high test-retest reliability when stable (high) resistance levels are used. However, reliability data for lower stability levels, associated with more pronounced learning curves, are rare in the existing literature. Thus, it is likely that BSS scores obtained from lower stability levels require greater familiarization (i.e. practice) to achieve a stable score both within and between test sessions. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine if a commonly reported 6 trial sequence (3 practice trials, 3 test trials) used with the BSS can achieve a stable within session score on the lowest stability level (i.e. level 1). The secondary purpose was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the lowest BSS resistance level over a 10-week period. Twenty sedentary university students (11 male, 9 female; age: 21.5 ± 1.9 years, height: 1.7 ± 0.1 m, weight: 66.3 ± 12.1 kg, BMI: 22.4 ± 2.3) voluntarily participated. Participants completed two test sessions separated by 10-weeks. Twelve, 20-second trials (six dual limb stance, six single limb stance on the dominant limb) on the lowest stability level were completed during both test sessions by all participants. A stable within session dual and single limb stance score was achieved with a maximum of 3 familiarization trials. Reliability ranged between poor and good across all outcomes but all outcomes had large minimal detectable change scores. At least 3 stance specific familiarization trials are needed to achieve a stable BSS score within a single test session on the lowest resistance level. However, the inconsistent reliability and high minimal detectable changes scores suggest that the lowest resistance level should not be used as an objective marker of rehabilitation progress over extended periods of time (e.g. 10-weeks). Key points Level 1 BSS scores should not be used as a test setting to assess rehabilitation. Familiarization trials should not be underestimated by researchers/clinicans. Lower stability levels on the BSS may not be appropriate for use as an objective marker of progression due to poor reliability of the scores over time.
We developed a theory of human stance control that predicted (1) how subjects re-weight their utilization of proprioceptive and graviceptive orientation information in experiments where eyes closed stance was perturbed by surface-tilt stimuli with different amplitudes, (2) the experimentally observed increase in body sway variability (i.e. the "remnant" body sway that could not be attributed to the stimulus) with increasing surface-tilt amplitude, (3) neural controller feedback gains that determine the amount of corrective torque generated in relation to sensory cues signaling body orientation, and (4) the magnitude and structure of spontaneous body sway. Responses to surface-tilt perturbations with different amplitudes were interpreted using a feedback control model to determine control parameters and changes in these parameters with stimulus amplitude. Different combinations of internal sensory and/or motor noise sources were added to the model to identify the properties of noise sources that were able to account for the experimental remnant sway characteristics. Various behavioral criteria were investigated to determine if optimization of these criteria could predict the identified model parameters and amplitude-dependent parameter changes. Robust findings were that remnant sway characteristics were best predicted by models that included both sensory and motor noise, the graviceptive noise magnitude was about ten times larger than the proprioceptive noise, and noise sources with signal-dependent properties provided better explanations of remnant sway. Overall results indicate that humans dynamically weight sensory system contributions to stance control and tune their corrective responses to minimize the energetic effects of sensory noise and external stimuli. PMID:21161357
Sixteen science educators joined a science teacher video club for one school year to collaboratively inquire into each other's classroom practice through the use of records of practice including classroom video clips and samples of student work. This group was focused on developing ambitious, equitable science teaching that capitalizes on students' ways of talking and thinking about important science ideas in order to co-construct, test, refine, and revise explanatory models. By analyzing both the teacher-to-teacher interactions taking place in the context of the video club and the on-going classroom teaching practice, this study fills important gaps in our understanding of teacher learning across settings of professional development and classroom practice. This study pursues answers to two groups of guiding questions: (1) How do teachers learn from each other in the context of collaborative inquiry groups, such as a science teacher video club? How do teachers draw upon classroom teaching experiences, re-interpret those experiences, and challenge each other's interpretations and choices made when teaching? (2) How are teachers' professional development experiences connected to and supported by teachers' on-going classroom practice? When the vision of science teaching developed in one context, such as a professional development setting, is different from the vision or teaching developed in another context, such as a local school, how do teachers wrestle with these differences to make choices about instructional practice? Using a sociocultural framework, this study traces the development of inquiry-as-stance as seen in teachers' stance-taking during collegial conversations while also tracing the development of teachers' repertoires of instructional practice. Analysis of discourse during teacher-to-teacher talk as well as during classroom interactions affords insights into the development of an inquiry stance and the evolution of instructional practice at the level of turn-by-turn talk contextualized in real school settings.
Background : The forefoot midsole stiffness of the shoe may affect the kinematics of the foot segments. We evaluated the effects of two different levels of forefoot midsole stiffness on the angular displacement of the forefoot and rearfoot in the three planes of motion during the stance phase of gait. Methods : Thirty-six participants walked on a 10-m walkway at their self-selected speed wearing shoes having either low or high forefoot midsole stiffness. Three-dimensional kinematic data of the foot segments were obtained during the stance phase of gait using an eight-camera motion analysis system synchronized with a force platform. The dependent variables were forefoot and rearfoot total range of motion and maximum and minimum angle values in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes of motion. Results : Reduced forefoot midsole stiffness produced significantly greater forefoot total range of motion in the sagittal plane (1.59°). The low-stiffness condition also increased the magnitude of the forefoot dorsiflexion angles (4.14°). Furthermore, the low-stiffness condition increased the magnitude of the rearfoot inversion (1.21°) and adduction (11.38°) angles and reduced the rearfoot abduction angle (12.1°). Conclusions : It is likely that reduced stiffness of the forefoot midsole stretched the plantar fascia, increasing rearfoot stability during the stance phase of gait. Increased muscular contraction may also explain increases in rearfoot stability. Therefore, the integrity of the plantar fascia and ankle muscles' force and resistance should be considered when choosing a shoe with reduced or increased forefoot midsole stiffness for walking. PMID:24725040
Resende, Renan A; Fonseca, Sérgio T; Silva, Paula L; Pertence, Antônio E; Kirkwood, Renata N
When standing quietly, human upright stance is typically approximated as a single segment inverted pendulum. In contrast, investigations which perturb upright stance with support surface translations or visual driving stimuli have shown that the body behaves like a two-segment pendulum, displaying both in-phase and anti-phase patterns between the upper and lower body. We have recently shown that these patterns co-exist during quiet stance; in-phase and anti-phase for frequencies below and above 1 Hz respectively. Here we investigated whether the characteristics of these basic patterns were influenced by the addition or removal of sensory information. Ten healthy young subjects stood upright on a rigid platform with different combinations of sensory information: eyes were open or closed with or without light touch contact (< 1 N) of the right index fingertip with a 5 cm diameter rigid force plate. The in-phase and anti-phase pattern co-exist in both the AP and ML directions of sway. The real part of trunk-leg complex coherence decreased with the addition of vision and light touch, corresponding to a transition from the in-phase to anti-phase pattern at a lower frequency. In the AP direction, the decrease was only observed at frequencies below 1 Hz where the in-phase pattern predominates. Additional sensory information had no observable effect at sway frequencies above 1 Hz, where the anti-phase pattern predominates. Both patterns are clearly the result of a double-linked inverted pendulum dynamics, but the coherence of the in-phase pattern is more susceptible to modulation by sensory information than the anti-phase pattern.
Biomechanical data characterizing the quasi-stiffness of lower-limb joints during human locomotion is limited. Understanding joint stiffness is critical for evaluating gait function and designing devices such as prostheses and orthoses intended to emulate biological properties of human legs. The knee joint moment-angle relationship is approximately linear in the flexion and extension stages of stance, exhibiting nearly constant stiffnesses, known as the quasi-stiffnesses of each stage. Using a generalized inverse dynamics analysis approach, we identify the key independent variables needed to predict knee quasi-stiffness during walking, including gait speed, knee excursion, and subject height and weight. Then, based on the identified key variables, we used experimental walking data for 136 conditions (speeds of 0.75-2.63 m/s) across 14 subjects to obtain best fit linear regressions for a set of general models, which were further simplified for the optimal gait speed. We found R(2) > 86% for the most general models of knee quasi-stiffnesses for the flexion and extension stages of stance. With only subject height and weight, we could predict knee quasi-stiffness for preferred walking speed with average error of 9% with only one outlier. These results provide a useful framework and foundation for selecting subject-specific stiffness for prosthetic and exoskeletal devices designed to emulate biological knee function during walking. PMID:23533662
Shamaei, Kamran; Sawicki, Gregory S; Dollar, Aaron M
Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) based nonlinear homogenized finite element (hFE) models of the human femur do not take bone?s microstructure into account due to the low resolution of the QCT images. Models based on high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) are able to include trabecular orientation and allow the modeling of a cortical shell. Such a model showed improvements compared to QCT-based models when studying human vertebral bodies. The goal of this study was to compare the femoral strength prediction ability of subject specific nonlinear homogenized FE (hFE) models based on HR-pQCT and QCT images. Thirty-six pairs of femurs were scanned with QCT as well as HR-pQCT, and tested in one-legged stance (STANCE) and side-ways fall (SIDE) configurations up to failure. Non-linear hFE models were generated from HR-pQCT images (smooth meshes) and compared to recently published QCT based models (voxel meshes) as well as experiments with respect to ultimate force. HR-pQCT-based hFE models improved ultimate force (R(2)=0.87 vs 0.80, p=0.02) predictions only in STANCE configuration but not in SIDE (R(2)=0.86 vs 0.84, p=0.6). Damage locations were similar for both types of models. In conclusion, it was shown for the first time on a large femur dataset that a more accurate representation of trabecular orientation and cortex only improve FE predictions in STANCE configuration, where the main trabecular orientation is aligned with the load direction. In the clinically more relevant SIDE configuration, the improvements were not significant. PMID:24508715
Children may be biased towards accepting information as true, but the fact remains that children are exposed to misinformation from many sources, and mastering the intricacies of doubt is necessary. The current article examines this issue, focusing on understanding developmental changes and consistencies in children’s ability to take a critical stance towards information. Research is reviewed on children’s ability to detect ignorance, inaccuracy, incompetence, deception, and distortion. Particular emphasis is placed on what this research indicates about how children are reasoning about when to trust and when to doubt. The remainder of the article proposes a framework to evaluate preexisting research and encourage further research, closing with a discussion of several other overarching questions that need to be considered in order to develop a model to explain developmental, individual, and situational differences in children’s ability to evaluate information.
The production of graceful skeletal movements requires coordinated activation of multiple muscles that produce torques around multiple joints. The work described herein is focused on one such movement, stance, that requires coordinated activation of extensor muscles acting around the hip, knee and ankle joints. The forces evoked in these muscles by external stimulation all have a complex dependence on muscle length and shortening velocities, and some of these muscles are bi-articular. In order to recreate sit-to-stand maneuvers in the anesthetized feline, we excited the hind limb musculature using intrafascicular multielectrode stimulation (IFMS) of the muscular branch of the sciatic nerve, the femoral nerve, and the main branch of the sciatic nerve. Stimulation was achieved with either acutely or chronically implanted Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (USEAs) via subsets of electrodes 1) that activated motor units in the extensor muscles of the hip, knee, and ankle joints, 2) that were able to evoke large extension forces, and 3) that manifested minimal coactivation of the targeted motor units. Three hind limb force-generation strategies were investigated, including sequential activation of independent motor units to increase force, and interleaved or simultaneous IFMS of three sets of six or more USEA electrodes that excited the hip, knee, and ankle extensors. All force-generation strategies evoked stance, but the interleaved IFMS strategy also reduced muscle fatigue produced by repeated sit-to-stand maneuvers compared with fatigue produced by simultaneous activation of different motor neuron pools. These results demonstrate the use of interleaved IFMS as a means to recreate coordinated, fatigue-resistant multi-joint muscle forces in the unilateral hind limb. This muscle activation paradigm could provide a promising neuroprosthetic approach for the restoration of sit-to-stand transitions in individuals who are paralyzed by spinal cord injury, stroke, or disease.
Normann, R A; Dowden, B R; Frankel, M A; Wilder, A M; Hiatt, S D; Ledbetter, N M; Warren, D A; Clark, G A
The production of graceful skeletal movements requires coordinated activation of multiple muscles that produce torques around multiple joints. The work described herein is focused on one such movement, stance, that requires coordinated activation of extensor muscles acting around the hip, knee and ankle joints. The forces evoked in these muscles by external stimulation all have a complex dependence on muscle length and shortening velocities, and some of these muscles are biarticular. In order to recreate sit-to-stand maneuvers in the anesthetized feline, we excited the hind limb musculature using intrafascicular multielectrode stimulation (IFMS) of the muscular branch of the sciatic nerve, the femoral nerve and the main branch of the sciatic nerve. Stimulation was achieved with either acutely or chronically implanted Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (USEAs) via subsets of electrodes (1) that activated motor units in the extensor muscles of the hip, knee and ankle joints, (2) that were able to evoke large extension forces and (3) that manifested minimal coactivation of the targeted motor units. Three hind limb force-generation strategies were investigated, including sequential activation of independent motor units to increase force, and interleaved or simultaneous IFMS of three sets of six or more USEA electrodes that excited the hip, knee and ankle extensors. All force-generation strategies evoked stance, but the interleaved IFMS strategy also reduced muscle fatigue produced by repeated sit-to-stand maneuvers compared with fatigue produced by simultaneous activation of different motor neuron pools. These results demonstrate the use of interleaved IFMS as a means to recreate coordinated, fatigue-resistant multi-joint muscle forces in the unilateral hind limb. This muscle activation paradigm could provide a promising neuroprosthetic approach for the restoration of sit-to-stand transitions in individuals who are paralyzed by spinal cord injury, stroke or disease.
Normann, R. A.; Dowden, B. R.; Frankel, M. A.; Wilder, A. M.; Hiatt, S. D.; Ledbetter, N. M.; Warren, D. A.; Clark, G. A.
Upright stance was perturbed using sinusoidal platform rotations to see how vestibular and somatosensory information are used to control segment and intersegmental dynamics in subjects with bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) and healthy controls (C). Subjects stood with eyes closed on a rotating platform (±1.2°) for frequencies ranging from 0.01–0.4 Hz in the presence and absence of light fingertip touch. Trunk movement relative to the platform of BVLs was higher than Cs at higher platform frequencies whereas leg movement relative to the platform was similar for both groups. With the addition of light touch, both groups showed similar trunk and leg segment movement relative to the platform. Trunk-leg coordination was in-phase for frequencies below 1 Hz and anti-phase above 1 Hz. Interestingly, BVLs showed evidence of a “legs-leading-trunk” relationship in the shift from in-phase to anti-phase around 1 Hz. Controls showed no preference for either segment to lead the coordinative shift from in- to anti-phase. The results suggest that the balance instability of BVL subjects stems from high variability of the trunk, rather than the legs. The high trunk variability may emerge from the “legs-leading” intersegmental relationship upon which BVLs rely. Because BVLs derive information about self-orientation primarily from the support surface when their eyes are closed, the legs initiate the shift to anti-phase trunk-leg coordination that is necessary for stable upright stance control. Higher trunk variability suggests that this strategy results in lower overall postural stability. Light touch substitutes for vestibular information, leading to lower trunk variability along with a trunk-leg phase shift similar to controls, without a preference for either segment to lead the shift. The results suggest that vestibulospinal control acts primarily to stabilize the trunk in space and to facilitate intersegmental dynamics.
Creath, Rob; Kiemel, Tim; Horak, Fay; Jeka, John J.
This study tackles the question to what extent the composition of protest events is determined by the stance of governments. Established contextual theories do not formulate propositions on how context affects individual protesters. The article engages in empirically testing whether the macro-context affects the internal diversity of the crowds…
This article reports a case study that examined English as a Second Language students' peer response stances from an activity theory perspective. More specifically, the study was guided by the constructs of activity and motive/object in Leont'ev's theory. Multiple sources of data were collected from two native Spanish-speaking students enrolled in…
Within the ever-developing, intersecting, and overlapping contexts of globalization, top-down policy, mandates, and standardization of public and higher education, many conceptualize and position practitioner research as a powerful stance and a tool of social, communal, and educational transformation, a set of methodological processes that…
This quasi-experimental study assesses the extent to which the Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) instructional model enhances undergraduate students’ abilities to generate quality arguments supporting their stance in the context of a Socioscientific Issue (SSI) as compared to students experiencing a traditional style of instruction. Enhancing the quality of undergraduate students’ arguments in the context of SSI can serve as an indirect
There is very little consensus regarding the mechanisms underlying postural control. Whereas some theories suggest that posture is controlled at lower levels (i.e., brain stem and spinal cord), other theories have proposed that upright stance is controlled using higher centers, including the motor cortex. In the current investigation, we used corticomuscular coherence (CMC) to investigate the relationship between cortical and shank muscle activity during conditions of unrestricted and restricted postural sway. Participants were instructed to stand as still as possible in an apparatus that allowed the center of mass to move freely ("Unlocked") or to be stabilized ("Locked") without subject awareness. EEG (Cz) and electromyography (soleus and lateral/medial gastrocnemii) were collected and used to estimate CMC over the Unlocked and Locked periods. Confirming our previous results, increases in center of pressure (COP) displacements were observed in 9 of 12 participants in the Locked compared with Unlocked condition. Across these 9 participants, CMC was low or absent in both the Unlocked and Locked conditions. The results from the current study suggest that this increase is not associated with an increase in the relationship between cortical and shank muscle activities. Rather, it may be that increases in COP displacement with locking are mediated by subcortical structures as a means of increasing sway to provide the central nervous system with a critical level of sensory information. PMID:24523526
Murnaghan, Chantelle D; Squair, Jordan W; Chua, Romeo; Inglis, J Timothy; Carpenter, Mark G
The aim of this work was to compare the effects of fatigue of the quadriceps femoris after fatiguing voluntary contractions (VOL) and fatiguing neuromuscular electrical stimulation (ES) on bipedal postural control. Nineteen active male subjects (22.2 ± 1.7 years) completed these two fatiguing exercises. Isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and postural control were recorded using an ergometer and a force platform that registered the center of foot pressure (COP). We analyzed the COP surface, the mean COP velocity and the spectral power density given by the wavelet transform. Recordings were performed before (PRE condition) and after the completion of each fatiguing task (immediately POST condition, after a 5 min recovery POST 5 condition). In POST condition, the ES exercise affected MVC more than the VOL exercise. However, bipedal postural control was similarly deteriorated for both exercises. In POST 5 condition, for both fatiguing exercises, muscle strength and postural control did not recover their initial level. These results suggest that the postural control disturbance could not be distinguished for the two fatiguing exercises in the bipedal stance. In addition, the recovery speeds of postural control and muscle strength abilities did not differ for the ES exercise and the VOL exercise. PMID:21922258
Objective the aim of this study was to assess whether reduced balance capacity in obese subjects is secondary to altered sensory information. Design cross sectional study. Subjects 44 obese (BMI = 40.6 ± 4.6 kg/m2 , age = 34.2 ± 10.8 years, body weight: 114,0 ± 16,0 Kg, body height 167,5 ± 9,8 cm) and 20 healthy controls (10 females, 10 males, BMI: 21.6 ± 2.2 kg/m2, age: 30.5 ± 5.5 years, body weight: 62,9 ± 9,3 Kg, body height 170,1 ± 5,8 cm) were enrolled. Measurements center of pressure (CoP) displacements were evaluated during quiet stance on a force platform with eyes open (EO) and closed (EC). The Romberg quotient (EC/EO) was computed and compared between groups. Results we found statistically significant differences between obese and controls in CoP displacements (p < 0.01) and no statistically significant differences in Romberg quotients (p > 0.08). Conclusion the increased CoP displacements in obese subjects do not need an hypothesis about altered sensory information. The integration of different sensory inputs appears similar in controls and obese. In the latter, the increased mass, ankle torque and muscle activity may probably account for the higher CoP displacements.
Abstract This study examined a client's therapeutic progress within one session of an 18-session child neurological assessment. The analysis focused on a parent-psychologist dialogue in one session of the assessment process. Dialogical sequence analysis (DSA; Leiman, 2004, 2012) was used as a micro-analytic method to examine the developing discourse. The analysis traced the mother's developing of a reflective stance toward herself and her problematic ways of interacting with her daughter, who was the client. During the dialogue, the mother began to recognize her own contribution in maintaining the problematic pattern. Her gradual acknowledgment of the child's perspective and her growing sense of the child's otherness were mediated by an observer position (third-person view) toward the problematic pattern, which allowed a flexible exchange between the perspectives of self and the other. The results demonstrate the parallel development of intrapersonal and interpersonal empathy shown previously to characterize the transition from stage 3 (problem statement/clarification) to stage 4 (understanding/insight) in the assimilation of problematic experiences sequence (Brinegar, Salvi, Stiles, & Greenberg, 2006). PMID:23298370
Tikkanen, Soile; Stiles, William B; Leiman, Mikael
Preclinical endurance testing of total knee replacements (TKRs) is performed using International Organization for Standardization (ISO) load and motion protocols. The standards are based on data from normal subjects and may not sufficiently mimic in vivo implant conditions. In this study, a mathematical model was used to calculate the axial force profile of 30 TKR patients with two current implant types, 22 with NexGen and eight with Miller-Galante II Cruciate-Retaining TKRs, and statistically compare the axial force specified by the ISO standard to the TKR patients. Significant differences were found between the axial forces of both groups of TKR patients and the ISO standard at local maxima and minima points in the first half of stance. The force impulse (area under the axial force curve, representing cumulative loading) was smaller for the ISO standard than the TKR patients, but only for those with NexGen implants. Waveform analysis using the coefficient of multiple correlation showed that the ISO and TKR patient axial force profiles were similar. The combined effect of ISO standard compressive load and motion differences from TKR patients could explain some of the differences between the wear scars on retrieved tibial components and those tested in total joint simulators. PMID:22558837
Lundberg, Hannah J; Ngai, Valentina; Wimmer, Markus A
Background This study investigated changes in stance movement strategies and muscle synergies when bilateral peripheral vestibular loss (BVL) subjects are provided feedback of pelvis sway angle. Methods Six BVL (all male) and 7 age-matched male healthy control (HC) subjects performed 3 stance tasks: standing feet hip width apart, eyes closed, on a firm and foam surface, and eyes open on foam. Pelvis and upper trunk movements were recorded in the roll and pitch planes. Surface EMG was recorded from pairs of antagonistic muscles at the lower leg, trunk and upper arm. Subjects were first assessed without feedback. Then, they received training with vibrotactile, auditory, and fall-warning visual feedback during stance tasks before being reassessed with feedback. Results Feedback reduced pelvis sway angle displacements to values of HCs for all tasks. Movement strategies were reduced in amplitude but not otherwise changed by feedback. These strategies were not different from those of HCs before or after use of feedback. Low frequency motion was in-phase and high frequency motion anti-phasic. Feedback reduced amplitudes of EMG, activity ratios (synergies) of antagonistic muscle pairs and slightly reduced baseline muscle activity. Conclusions This is the first study demonstrating how vestibular loss subjects achieve a reduction of sway during stance with prosthetic feedback. Unchanged movement strategies with reduced amplitudes are achieved with improved antagonistic muscle synergies. This study suggests that both body movement and muscle measures could be explored when choosing feedback variables, feedback location, and patient groups for prosthetic devices which reduce sway of those with a tendency to fall.
We studied the postural stability of 23 canoeing and kayaking young athletes and 15 healthy untrained age matched subjects during quiet and sensory conflicted stance (standing on stable and foam support with open and closed eyes). We measured with a force platform the center of pressure excursions and applied mean sway amplitude (MA), mean sway velocity (SV) and their Romberg ratios, and sway dispersion index to evaluate standing balance. During standing with eyes open, the athletes in comparison to non-athletes showed in sagittal and frontal plane greater MA and SV when the support was stable and smaller MA and SV when it was unstable. During standing with eyes closed, there were no differences between groups when the support was stable, however, the athletes sway faster and have smaller MA than controls while standing on the foam support. During standing on stable support, Romberg ratios for MA and SV revealed that unlike non-athletes the athletes' MA and SV were vision independent. However, while standing on unstable support the athletes' MA and SV became vision dependent and even greater for the medio-lateral sway. Canoeists' SV vision dependency in both planes was greater than for other groups. These results are in line with our hypothesis that young kayaking and canoeing athletes have a different from non-athletes model of sensory integration due to their specific sporting activity. One possible mechanism of this model may be a subtle re-adaptation deficit after disembarking to stable ground with diminished sensitivity of vision and vestibular apparatus. PMID:21909987
To assess the effects of changes in somesthetic plantar information on upright quiet stance, a rotary plantar massage was applied under the feet of healthy subjects for ten minutes. The controlling variable, the centre of pressure (CP) displacements, were recorded, before and after massage, through a force platform and decomposed into two elementary motions: the vertical projection of the centre of gravity (CG(v)) and the difference between the latter and the CP (CP-CG(v)) along medio-lateral ML and antero-posterior AP directions. These motions were processed through frequency analysis and modelled as fractional Brownian motion. For CP-CG(v) motions, the frequency analysis shows that massage under the plantar soles induces a decrease of the amplitudes along the ML direction suggesting reduced overall muscular activity (abductor-adductor muscles of the hip according to Winter et al.). A general trend is that the CG(v) amplitudes are also diminished after massage especially in the ML direction, indicating a better distribution of the body weight on the two supports. On the other hand, the effects tend to vanish after about 8 minutes. Conversely, when the massage was given under the toes, no particular effect on any elementary motion was observed, suggesting that the plantar mechanoreceptors under the toes necessitate stronger stimulation to respond significantly and/or that the greater sensitivity obtained was not used by the CNS. Overall, this data emphasises the fact that a recalibration of somesthetic cues may occur when enhanced afferent information is fed to the postural system. PMID:15657978
Bernard-Demanze, L; Burdet, C; Berger, L; Rougier, P
This work presents a framework for selection of subject-specific quasi-stiffness of hip orthoses and exoskeletons, and other devices that are intended to emulate the biological performance of this joint during walking. The hip joint exhibits linear moment-angular excursion behavior in both the extension and flexion stages of the resilient loading-unloading phase that consists of terminal stance and initial swing phases. Here, we establish statistical models that can closely estimate the slope of linear fits to the moment-angle graph of the hip in this phase, termed as the quasi-stiffness of the hip. Employing an inverse dynamics analysis, we identify a series of parameters that can capture the nearly linear hip quasi-stiffnesses in the resilient loading phase. We then employ regression analysis on experimental moment-angle data of 216 gait trials across 26 human adults walking over a wide range of gait speeds (0.75–2.63 m/s) to obtain a set of general-form statistical models that estimate the hip quasi-stiffnesses using body weight and height, gait speed, and hip excursion. We show that the general-form models can closely estimate the hip quasi-stiffness in the extension (R2?=?92%) and flexion portions (R2?=?89%) of the resilient loading phase of the gait. We further simplify the general-form models and present a set of stature-based models that can estimate the hip quasi-stiffness for the preferred gait speed using only body weight and height with an average error of 27% for the extension stage and 37% for the flexion stage.
Shamaei, Kamran; Sawicki, Gregory S.; Dollar, Aaron M.
This study examined the relationship between head and trunk sway and between pelvis and leg sway during quiet stance in subjects with long-standing bilateral peripheral vestibular loss (BVLs) comparing these relationships to those of age-matched healthy controls (HCs). All subjects performed three different stance tasks: standing quietly on a firm or foam support surface, with eyes closed (ECF or eyes closed on normal) and on foam with eyes open. Data were recorded with four pairs of body-worn gyroscopes to measure roll and pitch angular velocities at the head, upper trunk, pelvis and lower-leg. These velocities were spectrally analysed and integrated for angle correlation analysis in three frequency bands: below 0.7Hz (low pass, LP), above 3Hz (high pass, HP) and in between (band pass, BP). For both groups head motion was greater than trunk and pelvis motion except for BVL subjects (BVLs) under ECF conditions. BVLs had greater motion than HCs at all measurement locations for ECF conditions. Angle correlation analysis indicated that the head was almost "locked" to the trunk for BVLs over the LP and BP frequency bands. Head movements for both groups were relatively independent of the trunk in the HP band. Power spectral density ratios, and transfer functions showed a similar result - head relative to trunk movements were less up to 3Hz in all tests for BVLs. The resonant frequency of head-on-trunk motion was shifted to a higher frequency for BVLs: from 3.2 to 4.3Hz in pitch, 4.6 to 5.4Hz in roll. Both groups show greater lower-leg than pelvis motion. These data indicate that during quiet stance BVLs change the characteristics of their head on shoulder motion, reducing relative motion of the head below 3Hz and increasing head resonant frequency. Presumably these changes are accomplished with increased use of proprioceptive neck reflexes. PMID:23201255
This quasi-experimental study assesses the extent to which the Argument-Driven Inquiry (ADI) instructional model enhances undergraduate students' abilities to generate quality arguments supporting their stance in the context of a Socioscientific Issue (SSI) as compared to students experiencing a traditional style of instruction. Enhancing the quality of undergraduate students' arguments in the context of SSI can serve as an indirect measure of their scientific literacy and their ability to make sound decisions on issues that are inherently scientific but also involve social implications. Data collected in this study suggest that the undergraduate students experiencing the ADI instruction more readily provide rationales in their arguments supporting their decisions regarding two SSI-tasks as compared to a group of undergraduate students experiencing traditional instruction. This improvement in argument quality and gain in scientific literacy was achieved despite the overall lower SSI related content knowledge of the ADI students. Furthermore, the gap between the argument quality of those students with high versus low SSI related content knowledge was closed within the ADI group, while the same gap persisted post-intervention within the traditional instruction students. The role of students' epistemological sophistication was also investigated, which showed that neither instructional strategy was effective at shifting students' epistemological sophistication toward an evaluativist stance. However, the multiplists within the ADI group were able to significantly increase the sophistication of their arguments whereas the traditional students were not. There were no differences between the quality of arguments generated by the evaluativist students with either the treatment or comparison groups. Finally, the nature of the justifications used by the students revealed that the students (both comparison and treatment groups) did not invoke science-based justifications when supporting their stance, despite students' self-reports that scientific content knowledge accounted for the greatest influence on their stance, related to the SSI tasks. The results of this study suggest that the scientific habits of mind the students learned in the context of ADI investigations are transferred to the novel SSI contexts. Implications for the use of argument-based instructional models to enhance the generation of socioscientific arguments and to promote the development of scientific literacy are also discussed.
A contact finite element (FE) formulation is introduced, amenable to patient-specific analysis of cumulative cartilage mechano-stimulus attributable to habitual functional activity. CT scans of individual human ankles are segmented to delineate bony margins. Each bone surface is projected outward to create a second surface, and the intervening volume is then meshed with continuum hexahedral elements. The tibia is positioned relative to the talus into a weight-bearing apposition. The articular members are first engaged under light preload, then plantar-/dorsi-flexion kinematics and resultant loadings are input for serial FE solutions at 13 instants of the stance phase of level walking gait. Cartilage stress histories are post-processed to recover distributions of cumulative stress-time mechano-stimulus, a metric of degeneration propensity. Consistency in computed contact stress exposures presented for seven intact ankles stood in contrast to the higher magnitude and more focal exposures in an incongruously reduced tibial plafond fracture. This analytical procedure provides patient-specific estimates of degeneration propensity due to various mechanical abnormalities, and it provides a platform from which the mechanical efficacy of alternative surgical interventions can be estimated. PMID:16520960
Anderson, Donald D; Goldsworthy, Jane K; Shivanna, Kiran; Grosland, Nicole M; Pedersen, Douglas R; Thomas, Thaddeus P; Tochigi, Yuki; Marsh, J Lawrence; Brown, Thomas D
Objective. Measurements of knee joint movement in gait analysis may result in large errors caused by misplacement of reflective markers by the testers. To properly understand the measurement results, it is important to guarantee the reliability of the measurement method used for the purpose. The aim of this study was to confirm the interrater reproducibility of a measurement method with a rigid marker set (RMS). Methods. The study subjects were four healthy adults, and the testers were three physical therapists. The interrater reproducibility of the measurements was verified by using the coefficient of multiple correlations (CMCs) and the standard error of measurement (SEM). Results. The average CMCs values of 4 subjects in knee joint movement at the stance phase were greater than 0.8, and the average SEM values of 4 subjects in knee joint movement at the stance phase were also relatively good (maximum error: 2.42°). Conclusion. Based on these results, the measurement method with estimation of anatomical landmarks using the RMS can prevent misplacement during attachment of the reflective markers, as long as the testers have sufficient experience in attaching reflective markers.
Paraplegic persons can stand with hip-knee-ankle-foot orthoses (HKAFO) and crutches. However, current HKAFOs restrict body movement extensively, which may impede functional upper-body movements. A more compliant body support using a more compliant orthosis or well-controlled functional electrical stimulation system may increase freedom of movement to the user, but should not impede stability and required arm support. In the current study, we investigated the consequences of varying stiffness applied at the hip to postural stability and required crutch force during paraplegic stance. Experiments were performed on five paraplegic persons with spinal cord lesions varying from T1 to T12. Static postures and dynamic responses to perturbations were tested for varying hip stiffness and crutch placements. The minimal hip-joint stiffness for stable stance appeared to depend on lesion level. In contrast to the predictions of a previous modeling study, no statistically significant influences of hip-joint stiffness or crutch-to-foot distance on posture and applied crutch forces were found. It is hypothesized that the main reasons of this discrepancy are the active upper-body efforts the paraplegic HKAFO users are still able to exert and the remaining flexibility of the upper trunk and shoulder region, which is present despite the restrictions of the orthosis. PMID:14960123
van der Spek, Jaap H; Veltink, Peter H; Hermens, Hermie J; Koopman, Bart F J M; Boom, Herman B K
Afferent feedback alters muscle activity during locomotion and must be tightly controlled. As primary afferent depolarization-induced presynaptic inhibition (PAD-PSI) regulates afferent signaling, we investigated hind limb PAD-PSI during locomotion in an in vitro rat spinal cord-hind limb preparation. We compared the relation of PAD-PSI, measured as dorsal root potentials (DRPs), to observed ipsilateral and contralateral limb endpoint forces. Afferents activated during stance-phase force strongly and proportionately influenced DRP magnitude in the swinging limb. Responses increased with locomotor frequency. Electrical stimulation of contralateral afferents also preferentially evoked DRPs in the opposite limb during swing (flexion). Nerve lesioning in conjunction with kinematic results support a prominent contribution from toe Golgi tendon organ afferents. Thus, force-dependent afferent feedback during stance binds interlimb sensorimotor state to a proportional PAD-PSI in the swinging limb, presumably to optimize interlimb coordination. These results complement known actions of ipsilateral afferents on PAD-PSI during locomotion.
Confidence in 3D multi-segment foot models has been limited by a lack of repeatability data, particularly in older populations that may display unique functional foot characteristics. This study aimed to determine the intra and inter-observer repeatability of stance phase kinematic data from a multi-segment foot model described by Leardini et al.  in people aged 50 years or older. Twenty healthy adults participated (mean age 65.4 years SD 8.4). A repeated measures study design was used with data collected from four testing sessions on two days from two observers. Intra (within-day and between-day) and inter-observer coefficient of multiple correlations revealed moderate to excellent similarity of stance phase joint range of motion (0.621-0.975). Relative to the joint range of motion (ROM), mean differences (MD) between sessions were highest for the within-day comparison for all planar ROM at the metatarsus-midfoot articulation (sagittal plane ROM 5.2° vs. 3.9°, MD 3.1°; coronal plane ROM 3.9 vs. 3.1°, MD 2.3°; transverse plane ROM 6.8° vs. 5.16°, MD 3.5°). Consequently, data from the metatarsus-midfoot articulation in the Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli (IOR) foot model in adults aged over 50 years needs to be considered with respect to the findings of this study. PMID:23219780
Arnold, John B; Mackintosh, Shylie; Jones, Sara; Thewlis, Dominic
In this article we ask how concepts that organize work in two professional disciplines change during moments of consultation, which represent concerted efforts by participants to work differently now and in the future. Our analysis compares structures of talk, the adequacy of representations of practice, and epistemic and moral stances deployed…
Although children's active role in socialization has been long acknowledged, relevant research has typically focused on children's difficult temperament or negative behaviors that elicit coercive and adversarial processes, largely overlooking their capacity to act as positive, willing, even enthusiastic, active socialization agents. We studied the willing, receptive stance toward their mothers in a low-income sample of 186 children who were 24 to 44 months old. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a latent construct of willing stance, manifested as children's responsiveness to mothers in naturalistic interactions, responsive imitation in teaching contexts, and committed compliance with maternal prohibitions, all observed in the laboratory. Structural equation modeling analyses confirmed that ecological adversity undermined maternal responsiveness, and responsiveness, in turn, was linked to children's willing stance. A compromised willing stance predicted externalizing behavior problems, assessed 10 months later, and fully mediated the links between maternal responsiveness and those outcomes. Ecological adversity had a direct, unmediated effect on internalizing behavior problems. Considering children's active role as willing, receptive agents capable of embracing parental influence can lead to a more complete understanding of detrimental mechanisms that link ecological adversity with antisocial developmental pathways. It can also inform research on the normative socialization process, consistent with the objectives of developmental psychopathology. PMID:24229537
Investigates the construction of stance through nouns in two corpora of theses--200,000 words in politics and international relations and 300,000 words in materials science. Examines nouns that are preceded by sentence initial deicitic "This" and that serve to encapsulate earlier prepositions. (Author/VWL)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of momentum transfer from the trunk and upper extremities to the racket between open and square stances for different skill levels players in the two-handed backhand stroke. The motion capture system with twenty-one reflective markers attached on anatomic landmarks of the subject was used for two-handed backhand stroke motion data collection. Twelve subjects were divided into an advanced group and an intermediate group based on skill level. The three-dimensional linear and angular momentums of the trunk, upper arm, forearm, hand and racket were used for kinetic chain analysis. Results showed that all players with the square stance had significantly larger backward linear momentum contribution in trunk and upper arm than with the open stance (p<.05) irrespective of playing level. However, the external rotation angular momentum of the shoulder joint was significantly larger with an open stance than with a square stance (p=.047). Comparison of playing levels showed that the intermediate group performed higher linear momentum in three components of the trunk, upper arm backward linear momentum, and trunk right bending angular momentum than the advanced group significantly (p<.05). The advanced group reduces trunk linear movement to keep stability and applies trunk and linkage segment rotation to generate backhand stroke power. The advanced group also has a quick backswing for increasing acceleration and maintains longer in the follow-through phase for shock energy absorption. This information could improve training protocol design for teaching the two-handed backhand stroke and teaching players, especially beginners, how to make an effective stroke. PMID:19837630
Wang, Lin-Hwa; Lin, Hwai-Ting; Lo, Kuo-Cheng; Hsieh, Yung-Chun; Su, Fong-Chin
This paper discusses the role of knee positioning and range-of- motion on the closed-stance forehand tennis swing. The analyses of tennis swing mechanics were performed using a computer model comprised of a full-body model of a human and an inertial model of a racket. The model was driven by subject forehand swings (16 female college-level subjects) recorded with a high-speed digital motion analysis system. The study discovered that both initial knee positioning and range-of-motion were positively related to racket velocity and characteristic of more skilled players. The direct effects of knee positioning and range-of-motion on racket movement are minimal, however there are several indirect biomechanical effects on the forehand motion such as movement of the body mass center, work of the knee, hip and back joints, and the angular range-of-motion of the hips and torso. Some of these indirect effects were related to racket velocity and characteristic of more skilled players. Factors that influenced knee positioning and range-of-motion include years of playing, amount of coaching, and body style. Efforts to both increase and restrict the knee movements of the subjects resulted in substantially lower racket velocities (and other detrimental biomechanical effects) implying that there may be optimal knee positions and range-of-motion for a given subject. The most skilled subject exhibited a high degree of consistency of knee positioning and range-of-motion. This subject adjusted for varying ball height through modified initial knee positioning while maintaining fairly constant ranges-of-motion. Key pointsInitial knee positioning and range-of-motion were positively related to racket velocity and characteristic of more skilled players for the closed stance forehand motion.Knee positioning and range-of-motion had several indirect biomechanical effects on the forehand motion such as movement of the body mass center, work of the knee, hip and back joints, and the angular range-of-motion of the hips and torso.Efforts to both increase and restrict the knee movements resulted in substantially lower racket velocities implying that there may be optimal knee positions and range-of-motion for a given subject.The most skilled subject exhibited a high degree of consistency of knee positioning and range-of-motion. This subject adjusted for varying ball height through modified initial knee positioning while maintaining fairly constant ranges-of-motion. PMID:24150143
A recent development in prosthetics is the osseointegrated fixation (OF), with improvements in comfort, fatigue, hip movement, and ease of prosthetic attachment reported. However, little information is available regarding muscle function. This study reports on selected gait parameters of the residual limb during the stance phase of level overground walking, focusing on muscle activity. Five males with transfemoral amputation (TFA) with OFs were recruited. Ground reaction force (GRF), lower-limb kinematics, and surface electromyography (sEMG) from residual-limb muscles were recorded. sEMG data were also collected from a group of 10 nondisabled male subjects. Interstance variability of gait parameters was assessed by coefficient of multiple correlations. Repeatability of GRF and hip kinematics was high, whereas repeatability of the sEMG was low for four of the five individuals with TFA. Interstance variability of the sEMG for gluteus medius (GMED) was significantly greater in the group with TFA. The main difference in sEMG between the groups was the phase, with GMED and adductor magnus displaying greater differences than their counterparts in the nondisabled group. Results demonstrate that muscles in the residual limb retain aspects of their previous functional pattern. PMID:23934871
Several signal processing tools have been employed in the experimental study of the postural control system in humans. Among\\u000a them, the cross-correlation function has been used to analyze the time relationship between signals such as the electromyogram\\u000a and the horizontal projection of the center of gravity. The common finding is that the electromyogram precedes the biomechanical\\u000a signal, a result that
[Purpose] This study examined the correlation between the muscle activities and joint angle of the hip and knee according to the changes in stance width during a lifting task. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 15 healthy students. A three-dimensional motion analyzer (SMART-E, BTS, Italy) was used to measure the joint angles of hip and knee during lifting. An 8-channel electromyograph (8-EMG) (Pocket EMG, BTS, Italy) was used to measure muscle activities of the erector spinae, gluteus maximus, rectus femoris, and tibialis anterior during lifting. The collected data were analyzed using the Pearson-test and SPSS 18.0. [Result] The muscle activity of the tibialis anterior was significantly decreased by increasing the stance width (r= ?0.285). Muscle activity of the erector spinae was significantly decreased by increasing the knee angle (r= ?0.444). The muscle activity of the gluteus maximus was significantly increased by increasing the muscle activity of the tibialis anterior (r= 0.295). [Conclusion] Efficient lifting is possible when stance width and knee flexion are increased, which results in reduced muscle activity of the tibialis anterior and the erector spinae. Lifting is facilitated when the muscle activities of the gluteus maximus and tibialis anterior are correlated.
Postural responses (PR) to a balance perturbation differ between the first and subsequent perturbations. One explanation for this first trial effect is that perturbations act as startling stimuli that initiate a generalized startle response (GSR) as well as the PR. Startling stimuli, such as startling acoustic stimuli (SAS), are known to elicit GSRs, as well as a StartReact effect, in which prepared movements are initiated earlier by a startling stimulus. In this study, a StartReact effect paradigm was used to determine if balance perturbations can also act as startle stimuli. Subjects completed two blocks of simple reaction time trials involving wrist extension to a visual imperative stimulus (IS). Each block included 15 CONTROL trials that involved a warning cue and subsequent IS, followed by 10 repeated TEST trials, where either a SAS (TESTSAS) or a toes-up support-surface rotation (TESTPERT) was presented coincident with the IS. StartReact effects were observed during the first trial in both TESTSAS and TESTPERT conditions as evidenced by significantly earlier wrist movement and muscle onsets compared with CONTROL. Likewise, StartReact effects were observed in all repeated TESTSAS and TESTPERT trials. In contrast, GSRs in sternocleidomastoid and PRs were large in the first trial, but significantly attenuated over repeated presentation of the TESTPERT trials. Results suggest that balance perturbations can act as startling stimuli. Thus first trial effects are likely PRs which are superimposed with a GSR that is initially large, but habituates over time with repeated exposure to the startling influence of the balance perturbation. PMID:23945786
Campbell, A D; Squair, J W; Chua, R; Inglis, J T; Carpenter, M G
Previous reports have shown that bone loss was partially prevented by bipedal stance “exercise” following ovariectomy (ovx), and it was well documented that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) had an anabolic effect on the rat skeleton. The aim of this study was to determine whether lower doses of PGE2 could prevent ovx-induced cancellous bone loss with the combination of bipedal stance exercise.
A Mo; W Yao; C Li; X Tian; M Su; Y Ling; Q Zhang; R. B Setterberg; W. S. S Jee
Integration of multi-sensory inputs to detect tilts relative to gravity is critical for sensorimotor control of upright orientation. Displaying body orientation using electrotactile feedback to the tongue has been developed by Bach-y-Rita and colleagues as a sensory aid to maintain upright stance with impaired vestibular feedback. MacDougall et al. (2006) recently demonstrated that unpredictably varying Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) significantly increased anterior-posterior (AP) sway during rotational sway referencing with eyes closed. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of electrotactile feedback on postural control performance with pseudorandom binaural bipolar GVS. Postural equilibrium was measured with a computerized hydraulic platform in 10 healthy adults (6M, 4F, 24-65 y). Tactile feedback (TF) of pitch and roll body orientation was derived from a two-axis linear accelerometer mounted on a torso belt and displayed on a 144-point electrotactile array held against the anterior dorsal tongue (BrainPort, Wicab, Inc., Middleton, WI). Subjects were trained to use TF by voluntarily swaying to draw figures on their tongue, both with and without GVS. Subjects were required to keep the intraoral display in their mouths on all trials, including those that did not provide TF. Subjects performed 24 randomized trials (20 s duration with eyes closed) including four support surface conditions (fixed, rotational sway-referenced, translating the support surface proportional to AP sway, and combined rotational-translational sway-referencing), each repeated twice with and without GVS, and with combined GVS and TF. Postural performance was assessed using deviations from upright (peak-to-peak and RMS sway) and convergence toward stability limits (time and distance to base of support boundaries). Postural stability was impaired with GVS in all platform conditions, with larger decrements in performance during trials with rotation sway-referencing. Electrotactile feedback improved performance with GVS toward non-GVS levels, again with the greatest improvement during trials with rotation sway-referencing. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of tongue electrotactile feedback in providing sensory substitution to maintain postural stability with distorted vestibular input.
Wood, Scott J.; Tyler, Mitchell E.; Bach-y-Rita, Paul; MacDougall, Hamish G.; Moore, Steven T.; Stallings, Valerie L.; Paloski, William H.; Black, F. Owen
Characterizing the quasi-stiffness and work of lower extremity joints is critical for evaluating human locomotion and designing assistive devices such as prostheses and orthoses intended to emulate the biological behavior of human legs. This work aims to establish statistical models that allow us to predict the ankle quasi-stiffness and net mechanical work for adults walking on level ground. During the stance phase of walking, the ankle joint propels the body through three distinctive phases of nearly constant stiffness known as the quasi-stiffness of each phase. Using a generic equation for the ankle moment obtained through an inverse dynamics analysis, we identify key independent parameters needed to predict ankle quasi-stiffness and propulsive work and also the functional form of each correlation. These parameters include gait speed, ankle excursion, and subject height and weight. Based on the identified form of the correlation and key variables, we applied linear regression on experimental walking data for 216 gait trials across 26 subjects (speeds from 0.75-2.63 m/s) to obtain statistical models of varying complexity. The most general forms of the statistical models include all the key parameters and have an R(2) of 75% to 81% in the prediction of the ankle quasi-stiffnesses and propulsive work. The most specific models include only subject height and weight and could predict the ankle quasi-stiffnesses and work for optimal walking speed with average error of 13% to 30%. We discuss how these models provide a useful framework and foundation for designing subject- and gait-specific prosthetic and exoskeletal devices designed to emulate biological ankle function during level ground walking. PMID:23555839
Shamaei, Kamran; Sawicki, Gregory S; Dollar, Aaron M
When a teacher gives their time to a student, it is more significant to that student than anything else one could do for him or her. Music teachers deal with time all the time. Someone once said that "time is like money: we never have enough." This may seem true; however, time is not like money. One can make more money, but one cannot "make time."…
Background To assess balance in single-limb stance, center of pressure movements can be registered by stabilometry with force platforms. This can be used for evaluation of injuries to the lower extremities. It is important to ensure that the assessment tools we use in the clinical setting and in research have minimal measurement error. Previous studies have shown that the ability to maintain standing balance is decreased by fatiguing exercise. There is, however, a need for further studies regarding possible effects of general exercise on balance in single-limb stance. The aims of this study were: 1) to assess the test-retest reliability of balance variables measured in single-limb stance on a force platform, and 2) to study the effect of exercise on balance in single-limb stance, in healthy subjects. Methods Forty-two individuals were examined for test-retest reliability, and 24 individuals were tested before (pre-exercise) and after (post-exercise) short-duration, sub-maximal cycling. Amplitude and average speed of center of pressure movements were registered in the frontal and sagittal planes. Mean difference between test and retest with 95% confidence interval, the intraclass correlation coefficient, and the Bland and Altman graphs with limits of agreement, were used as statistical methods for assessing test-retest reliability. The paired t-test was used for comparisons between pre- and post-exercise measurements. Results No difference was found between test and retest. The intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.79 to 0.95 in all stabilometric variables except one. The limits of agreement revealed that small changes in an individual's performance cannot be detected. Higher values were found after cycling in three of the eight stabilometric variables. Conclusions The absence of systematic variation and the high ICC values, indicate that the test is reliable for distinguishing among groups of subjects. However, relatively large differences in an individual's balance performance would be required to confidently state that a change is real. The higher values found after cycling, indicate compensatory mechanisms intended to maintain balance, or a decreased ability to maintain balance. It is recommended that average speed and DEV 10; the variables showing the best reliability and effects of exercise, be used in future studies.
Ageberg, Eva; Roberts, David; Holmstrom, Eva; Friden, Thomas
This study evaluated the effects of interactive video-game based (IVGB) training on the balance of older adults. The participants of the study included 30 community-living persons over the age of 65. The participants were divided into 2 groups. Group A underwent IVGB training for 6 weeks and received no intervention in the following 6 weeks. Group B received no intervention during the first 6 weeks and then participated in training in the following 6 weeks. After IVGB intervention, both groups showed improved balance based on the results from the following tests: the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Modified Falls Efficacy Scale (MFES), Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, and the Sway Velocity (SV) test (assessing bipedal stance center pressure with eyes open and closed). Results from the Sway Area (SA) test (assessing bipedal stance center pressure with eyes open and closed) revealed a significant improvement in Group B after IVGB training. Group A retained some training effects after 6 weeks without IVGB intervention. Additionally, a moderate association emerged between the Xavix measured step system stepping tests and BBS, MFES, UnipedalStance test, and TUG test measurements. In conclusion, IVGB training improves balance after 6 weeks of implementation, and the beneficial effects partially remain after training is complete. Further investigation is required to determine if this training is superior to traditional physical therapy. PMID:23177921
In this article, I revisit the 1996 Oakland School Board (OSB) resolution on Ebonics and perform a discourse analysis of the NeW York Times coverage of the decision. Using the framework of intertextuality, I consider how reported speech allows authors to appropriate authority and construct various stances toward the OSB decision. I discuss how other framing devices work in tandem
Objectives This paper analyses Philip Morris's evolving website and the legal strategies employed in its creation and dissemination. Methods Internal tobacco documents were searched and examined and their substance verified and triangulated using media accounts, legal and public health research papers, and visits to Philip Morris's website. Various drafts of website language, as well as informal discussion of the website's creation, were located in internal Philip Morris documents. I compared website statements pertaining to Philip Morris's stance on cigarette smoking and disease with statements made in tobacco trials. Results Philip Morris created and disseminated its website's message that it agreed that smoking causes disease and is addictive in an effort to sway public opinion, while maintaining in a litigation setting its former position that it cannot be proved that smoking causes disease or is addictive. Conclusions Philip Morris has not changed its position on smoking and health or addiction in the one arena where it has the most to lose—in the courtroom, under oath.
This study addresses cerebellar involvement in classically conditioned nociceptive lower limb withdrawal reflexes in standing humans. A preceding study compared electromyographic activities in leg muscles of eight patients with cerebellar disease (CBL) and eight age-matched controls (CTRL). The present study extends and completes that investigation by recording biomechanical signals from a strain-gauge-equipped platform during paired auditory conditioning stimuli (CS) and unconditioned stimuli (US) trials and during US-alone trials. The withdrawal reflex performance-lifting the stimulated limb (decreasing the vertical force from that leg, i.e. 'unloading') and transferring body weight to the supporting limb (increasing the vertical force from that leg, i.e. 'loading')-was quantified by the corresponding forces exerted onto the platform. The force changes were not simultaneous but occurred as a sequence of multiple force peaks at different times depending on the specific limb task (loading or unloading). Motor learning, expressed by the occurrence of conditioned responses (CR), is characterized by this sequence beginning already within the CSUS window. Loading and unloading were delayed and prolonged in CBL, resulting in incomplete rebalancing during the analysis period. Trajectory loops of the center of vertical pressure-derived from vertical forces-were also incomplete in CBL within the recording period. However, exposing CBL to a CS resulted in motor improvement reflected by shortening the time of rebalancing and by optimizing the trajectory loop. In summary, associative responses in CBL are not absent although they are less frequent and of smaller amplitude than in CTRL. PMID:24445111
Kutz, D F; Kaulich, Th; Föhre, W; Gerwig, M; Timmann, D; Kolb, F P
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the involvement of the human cerebellum in the classically conditioned lower limb withdrawal reflex in standing subjects. Electromyographic activity was recorded from the main muscle groups of both legs of eight patients with cerebellar disease (CBL) and eight control subjects (CTRL). The unconditioned stimulus (US) consisted of electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve at the medial malleolus. The conditioning stimulus (CS) was an auditory signal given via headphones. Experiments started with 70 paired conditioning stimulus-unconditioned stimulus(CSUS) trials followed by 50 US-alone trials. The general reaction consisted of lifting and flexing the stimulated (stepping) leg with accompanying activation of the contralateral (supporting) leg. In CTRL, the ipsilateral (side of stimulation) flexor and contralateral extensor muscles were activated characteristically. In CBL, the magnitudes of ipsilateral flexor and contralateral extensor muscle activation were reduced comparably. In CTRL, the conditioning process increased the incidence of conditioned responses (CR), following a typical learning curve, while CBL showed a clearly lower CR incidence with a marginal increase, albeit, at a shorter latency. Conditioning processes also modified temporal parameters by shortening unconditioned response (UR) onset latencies and UR times to peak and, more importantly in CBL, also the sequence of activation of muscles, which became similar to that of CTRL. The expression of this reflex in standing subjects showed characteristic differences in the groups tested with the underlying associative processes not being restricted exclusively to the CR but also modifying parameters of the innate UR. PMID:22836373
Timmann, D; Kaulich, T; Föhre, W; Kutz, D F; Gerwig, M; Kolb, F P
Speed estimations from trackways of Titanopodus mendozensis González Riga and Calvo provide information about the locomotion of titanosaurian sauropods that lived in South America during the Late Cretaceous. Titanopodus ichnites were found at Agua del Choique, a newly discovered track site in the Loncoche Formation, Late Campanian-Early Maastrichtian of Mendoza, Argentina. This speed study follows the hypothesis of dynamic similarity proposed by Alexander. As a refinement of this method, a complementary equation is presented here based on an articulated titanosaurian specimen collected in strata that are regarded as correlative to those that have yielded Titanopodus tracks (Allen Formation, Neuquén Basin). This analysis indicates that hip height can be estimated as 4.586 times the length of the pes track in derived titanosaurs. With an estimation of the hip height and the stride measurements, the speed is calculated. The study of two wide-gauge trackways indicates that Titanopodus ichnites were produced by medium-sized titanosaurs (hip height of 211-229 cm) that walked at 4.7-4.9 km/h towards the south and southwest, following, in part, a sinuous pathway. These speeds and some taphonomic features of tracks (prominent rims, distorted elongated shapes)indicate the capacity of derived titanosaurs for walking effectively over a very wet and slippery substrate. In the ichnological record, the walking speeds of Titanopodustrackmakers are somewhat faster than those previously inferred for most sauropods. PMID:21308347
Instrumented postural control analysis plays an important role in evaluating the effects of injury on dynamic stability during balance tasks, and is often conveyed with measures based on the displacement of the center-of-pressure (COP) assessed with a force platform. However, the desired outcome of the task is frequently characterized by a loss of dynamic stability, secondary to injury. Typically, these failed trials are discarded during research investigations, with the potential loss of informative data pertaining to task success. The novelty of the present study is that COP characteristics of failed trials in injured participants are compared to successful trial data in another injured group, and a control group of participants, using the fractal dimension (FD) method. Three groups of participants attempted a task of eyes closed single limb stance (SLS): twenty-nine participants with acute ankle sprain successfully completed the task on their non-injured limb (successful injury group); twenty eight participants with acute ankle sprain failed their attempt on their injured limb (failed injury group); sixteen participants with no current injury successfully completed the task on their non-dominant limb (successful non-injured group). Between trial analyses of these groups revealed significant differences in COP trajectory FD (successful injury group: 1.58±0.06; failed injury group: 1.54±0.07; successful non-injured group: 1.64±0.06) with a large effect size (0.27). These findings demonstrate that successful eyes-closed SLS is characterized by a larger FD of the COP path when compared to failed trials, and that injury causes a decrease in COP path FD. PMID:24746034
Context: Stochastic resonance stimulation (SRS) administered at an optimal intensity could maximize the effects of treatment on balance. Objective: To determine if a customized optimal SRS intensity is better than a traditional SRS protocol (applying the same percentage sensory threshold intensity for all participants) for improving double- and single-legged balance in participants with or without functional ankle instability (FAI). Design: Case-control study with an embedded crossover design. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twelve healthy participants (6 men, 6 women; age = 22 ± 2 years, height = 170 ± 7 cm, mass = 64 ± 10 kg) and 12 participants (6 men, 6 women; age = 23 ± 3 years, height = 174 ± 8 cm, mass = 69 ± 10 kg) with FAI. Intervention(s): The SRS optimal intensity level was determined by finding the intensity from 4 experimental intensities at the percentage sensory threshold (25% [SRS25], 50% [SRS50], 75% [SRS75], 90% [SRS90]) that produced the greatest improvement in resultant center-of-pressure velocity (R-COPV) over a control condition (SRS0) during double-legged balance. We examined double- and single-legged balance tests, comparing optimal SRS (SRSopt1) and SRS0 using a battery of center-of-pressure measures in the frontal and sagittal planes. Main Outcome Measure(s): Anterior-posterior (A-P) and medial-lateral (M-L) center-of-pressure velocity (COPV) and center-of-pressure excursion (COPE), R-COPV, and 95th percentile center-of-pressure area ellipse (COPA-95). Results: Data were organized into bins that represented optimal (SRSopt1), second (SRSopt2), third (SRSopt3), and fourth (SRSopt4) improvement over SRS0. The SRSopt1 enhanced R-COPV (P ? .05) over SRS0 and other SRS conditions (SRS0 = 0.94 ± 0.32 cm/s, SRSopt1 = 0.80 ± 0.19 cm/s, SRSopt2 = 0.88 ± 0.24 cm/s, SRSopt3 = 0.94 ± 0.25 cm/s, SRSopt4 = 1.00 ± 0.28 cm/s). However, SRS did not improve R-COPV over SRS0 when data were categorized by sensory threshold. Furthermore, SRSopt1 improved double-legged balance over SRS0 from 11% to 25% in all participants for the center-of-pressure frontal- and sagittal-plane assessments (P ? .05). The SRSopt1 also improved single-legged balance over SRS0 from 10% to 17% in participants with FAI for the center-of-pressure frontal- and sagittal-plane assessments (P ? .05). The SRSopt1 did not improve single-legged balance in participants with stable ankles. Conclusions: The SRSopt1 improved double-legged balance and transfers to enhancing single-legged balance deficits associated with FAI.
Ross, Scott E.; Linens, Shelley W.; Wright, Cynthia J.; Arnold, Brent L.
Whether persons with dementia benefit from fall prevention exercise is unclear. Applying the Positive Emotion-Motivated Tai Chi protocol, preliminary findings concerning adherence and effects of a dyadic Tai Chi exercise program on persons with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are reported. Using pre/ posttest design, 22 community-dwelling AD-caregiver dyads participated in the program. Fall-risk-relevant functional mobility was measured using UnipedalStanceTime (UST) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) tests. Results showed that 19/22 (86.4%) AD patients completed the 16-week program and final assessment; 16/19 dyads (84.2%) completed the prescribed home program as reported by caregivers. UST adjusted mean improved from 4.0 to 5.1 (Week 4, p < .05) and 5.6 (Week 16, p < .05); TUG improved from 13.2 to 11.6 (Week 4, p < .05) and 11.6 (Week 16, p > .05) post intervention. Retaining dementia patients in an exercise intervention remains challenging. The dyadic Tai Chi approach appears to succeed in keeping AD-caregiver dyads exercising and safe.
Yao, Lan; Giordani, Bruno J.; Algase, Donna L.; You, Mei; Alexander, Neil B.
Short-term dynamic therapies, characterized by abbreviated lengths (10–40 sessions) and, in many cases, preset termination dates, have become more widespread in the past three decades. Short-term therapies are based on rapid psychodynamic diagnosis, a therapeutic focus, a rapidly formed therapeutic alliance, awareness of termination and separation processes, and the directive stance of the therapist. The emotional storm of adolescence, stemming from both developmental and psychopathological sources, leaves many adolescents in need of psychotherapy. Many adolescents in need of therapy resist long-term attachment and involvement in an ambiguous relationship, which they experience as a threat to their emerging sense of independence and separateness. Short-term dynamic therapy can be the treatment of choice for many adolescents because it minimizes these threats and is more responsive to their developmental needs. The article presents treatment and follow-up of a 17-year-old youth, using James Mann's time-limited psychotherapy method.
A study examined literacy professionals' interest in gender issues in literacy education. A total of 1,519 K-12 teachers; reading specialists; teacher educators in reading, language arts, and related fields; library media specialists; and school administrators who make policy decisions related to literacy education completed a survey. Results…
This paper investigates the application of some of the most frequently used writing error correction techniques to see the extent to which this application takes learners' cognitive and affective characteristics into account. After showing how unlearned application of these styles could be discouraging and/or damaging to students, the paper…
To investigate sensory reweighting as a fundamental property of sensor fusion during standing, we probed postural control with simultaneous rotations of the visual scene and surface of support. Nineteen subjects were presented with pseudo-random pitch rotations of visual scene and platform at the ankle to test for amplitude dependencies in the following conditions: low amplitude vision: high amplitude platform, low amplitude vision: low amplitude platform, and high amplitude vision: low amplitude platform. Gain and phase of frequency response functions (FRFs) to each stimulus were computed for two body sway angles and a single weighted EMG signal recorded from seven muscles. When platform stimulus amplitude was increased while visual stimulus amplitude remained constant, gain to vision increased, providing strong evidence for inter-modal reweighting between vision and somatosensation during standing. Intra-modal reweighting of vision was also observed as gains to vision decreased as visual stimulus amplitude increased. Such intra-modal and inter-modal amplitude dependent changes in gain were also observed in muscular activity. Gains of leg segment angle and muscular activity relative to the platform, on the other hand, showed only intra-modal reweighting. That is, changing platform motion amplitude altered the responses to both visual and support surface motion whereas changing visual scene motion amplitude did not significantly affect responses to support surface motion, indicating that the sensory integration scheme between somatosensation (at the support surface) and vision is asymmetric.
Students use a variety of strategies and techniques to develop an understanding of telling time. They use estimation to tell time, using seconds, hours, and minutes in order to choose reasonable time estimates for given activities. Students use pictures, words, and symbols in order to read, write, and represent time to the nearest minute. Students determine elapsed time when given a start time, counting up using minutes and hours.
The apparatus required for bundle-synchronous timing is described. Bundle-synchronous timing signals are used along accelerators and in experimental stations. The apparatus consists of a trigger modulator, a trigger detector, a delayed pulse generator, an...
In his landmark 1977 paper "The Temporal Logic of Programs", Amir Pnueli gave a fundamental recognition that the ideally nonterminating behavior of ongoing concurrent programs, such as operating systems and protocols, was a vital aspect of program reasoning. As classical approaches to program correctness were based on initial-state/final-state semantics for terminating programs, these approaches were inapplicable to programs where infinite behavior was the norm. To address this shortcoming, Pnueli suggested the use of temporal logic, a formalism for reasoning about change over time originally studied by philosophers, to meaningfully describe and reason about the infinite behavior of programs. This suggestion turned out to be remarkably fruitful. It struck a resonant chord within the formal verification community, and it has had an enormous impact on the development of the area. It matured into an extremely effective mathematical tool for specifying and verifying a vast class of synchronization and coordination problems common in concurrency. Pnueli thus caused a sea-change in the field of program verification, founding the time of reasoning about time, which has been the most successful period in formal methods yet.
Practice telling time with these fun games and activities! Match the time on the clocks with this game! Match the clocks game! Primary Games Match the Clocks Tell time with a dragon. Stop the clock! Make the right time! Time to the Hour Quiz Time Test Time to the Minute Quiz Practice telling what time it will be later. Elapsed Time Work on Elapsed Time Test your skills with the Matching Elapsed Time Game ...
Practice telling time with these fun games and activities! Match the time on the clocks with this game! Match the clocks game! Tell time with a dragon. Stop the clock! Practice telling what time it will be later. Elapsed Time ...
This paper focuses upon the emergence of the night-time economy both materially and culturally as a powerful manifestation of post-industrial society. This emergence features two key processes: firstly a shift in economic development from the industrial to the post-industrial; secondly a significant orientation of urban governance involving a move away from the traditional managerial functions of local service provision, towards an entrepreneurial stance primarily focused on the facilitation of economic growth. Central to this new economic era is the identification and promotion of liminality. The State's apparent inability to control these new leisure zones constitutes the creation of an urban frontier that is governed by commercial imperatives. PMID:11140891
Hobbs, D; Lister, S; Hadfield, P; Winlow, S; Hall, S
Cells are entities in space and time. Systems biology strives to understand their composition, structural organization as well as dynamic behavior under different conditions. Here, measures for dynamic properties such as characteristic times, time hierarchy and time-dependent response are reviewed. Using a number of examples from yeast and micro-organism systems biology, the importance of considering the timing in experimental and
This article explains the concept of 'Universal Time' (UT), sometimes referred to as 'Coordinated Universal Time' (UTC). Topics include how UTC is measured, who uses it, and a brief discussion of the historical context of this time standard.
Normally we quantize along the space dimensions but treat time classically. But from relativity we expect a high level of symmetry between time and space. What happens if we quantize time using the same rules we use to quantize space? To do this, we generalize the paths in the Feynman path integral to include paths that vary in time as
What do planet Earth, a swinging pendulum, a quartz crystal, and a Cesium atom have in common? They have all been used by humans to measure time. They represent humanity's progress through time in measuring time itself. But what is it, really, that humans set out to measure? Before time could be measured, somebody had to decide what to actually…
Virtual time is a new paradigm for organizing and synchronizing distributed systems which can be applied to such problems as distributed discrete event simulation and distributed database concurrency control. Virtual time provides a flexible abstraction of real time in much the same way that virtual memory provides an abstraction of real memory. It is implemented using the Time Warp mechanism,
This interactive Java applet allows the user to practice finding elapsed time using analog or digital clocks. Using the "See" mode the user advances a clock from the beginning time to the ending time and the applet calculates the elapsed time. Using the "Guess" mode, the user must calculate the elapsed time between the given beginning and ending times. Three difficulty levels allow the user to practice with hour, five minute, or single minute increments. An optional scoring feature allows the user to keep track of number correct, though this feature is optional.
... this website will be limited. Search Help? Thrombin Time Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... for monitoring dabigatran therapy? 1. Can the thrombin time be performed in my doctor's office? With the ...
The formulation of quantum mechanics within the framework of entropic dynamics includes several new elements. In this paper we concentrate on one of them: the implications for the theory of time. Entropic time is introduced as a book-keeping device to keep track of the accumulation of changes. One new feature is that, unlike other concepts of time appearing in the so-called fundamental laws of physics, entropic time incorporates a natural distinction between past and future.
Caticha, Ariel [Department of Physics, University at Albany-SUNY, Albany, NY 12222 (United States)
This is a lesson plan for an activity that explores time zone math. Learners will translate their local time to times in other zones around the world and work with the concept of Universal Time, specifically in reference to the reporting, description and analysis of solar flares and coronal mass ejections. This is activity 10 from Exploring Magnetism Guide 3: Magnetic Mysteries of the Aurora educator guide.
Help your child learn how to tell time on a digital and analog clock. Practice Telling Time with this fun game! Then, match the apple clock with the digital clock to show the correct Time! Finally, is it A.M. or P.M.? Practice with this fun game! ...
In this activity, students gain an understanding of relative and numerical time by placing events in sequence and assigning relative times to the events. This will familarize them with the methods used by scientists to develop the geologic time scale. This activity contains objectives, materials, procedure, and extensions.
One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in geologic time with an introduction to the subject. Separate sections discuss the relative time scale, major divisions in geologic time, index fossils used as guides for telling the age of rocks, the atomic scale, and the age of the earth.…
In this activity, learners explore reaction time and challenge themselves to improve their coordination. Do you want to move faster? Catch that ball that you never seem to see in time? Use a simple test to help you improve your reaction (or response) time.
The vast majority of literature and practices in environmental education focuses on places and spaces. Little attention has been paid to time and temporalities as elements of environments, and the ways in which how we experience time affects our experience of place. This paper is an examination of the ways in which reflection on time can be…
Relative Timing is introduced as an informal method for aggressive asynchronous design. It is demonstrated on three example circuits (C-Element, FIFO, and RAPPID Tag Unit), facilitating transformations from speed-independent circuits to burst-mode, relative timed, and pulse-mode cir- cuits. Relative timing enables improved performance, area, power and testability in all three cases. The design of RAPPID, the asynchronous instruction length decoder,
In this lesson students will experience how geological and biological events have occurred in a clear sequence of vast but measured time. Students are taken on a simulated voyage backward in time, to the beginning of our planet. They witness that beginning, the origin of life, and a number of key events leading to the present. This becomes a dramatic experience, involving body and mind, helping students to relate physically at least to the relative timing of events in geological and biological history, if not to the absolute vastness of that time.
The Earth is very old -- 4.5 billion years or more -- according to recent estimates. This vast span of time, called geologic time by earth scientists, is difficult to comprehend in the familiar time units of months and years, or even centuries. How then do scientists reckon geologic time, and why do they believe the Earth is so old? A great part of the secret of the Earth's age is locked up in its rocks, and our centuries-old search for the key led to the beginning and nourished the growth of geologic science.
"Why do engineers need to know about geologic time?" That question is answered in this resource from the University of Saskatchewan's Department of Civil and Geological Engineering. Provided here is a discussion of the concepts of geological time; relative dating methods, such as correlation; and absolute dating methods, such as radiometric methods. Diagrams and charts are included to demonstrate these complex concepts.
The time management is worthy goal of many human activities. It concerns variety problems related to goals definition, assessment of available resources, control of management policies, scheduling of decisions. This book is an attempt to illustrate the decision making process in time management for different success stories, which can be used as…
Virtual time is a broad, new paradigm for organizing and synchronizing distributed systems, subsuming such heretofore distantly related problems as distributed discrete event simulation and distributed database concurrency control. It is an abstraction of real time in much the same way that virtual memory is an abstraction of real memory, and it reorganizes the concepts of concurrency and synchronization in
This game asks you a series of questions about how much time you spend in front of a screen, not being active. It begins by pointing out that since we spend a lot of time in front of computer screens at work or school, additional time at home can really affect how healthy we are. It asks how much time you spend watching TV, playing computer games, and using the computer each day. It then adds up the total amount of screen time you spend every day, and calculates how many hours you spend a year in front of a screen. It also tells you if that's a healthy amount, and suggests ways to stay active while in front of screens.
This exercise can be used to demonstrate changes in the Earth through time, and the length of time it took for those changes to take place. A list of Important Dates in Earth History is provided that contains the dates of the events shown on a time clock. The teacher can pick events from the list of key events and calculate (or have students calculate) the time for the key events they wish to use. A page-size image of the clock can be printed and turned into an overhead transparency. To better demonstrate the changes since the beginning of the Paleozoic Era, the same exercise could be done the second day of class, using only the last 570 million years of time.
We understand time through our models of it. These are typically models of our physical chronometers, which we then project into our subjects. A few of these models of the nature of time and its effects on the behavior of organisms are reviewed. New models, such as thermodynamics and spectral decomposition, are recommended for the potential insights that they afford. In all cases, associations are essential features of timing. To make them, time must be discretized by stimuli such as hours, minutes, conditioned stimuli, trials, and contexts in general. Any one association is seldom completely dominant, but rather shares control through proximity in a multidimensional space, important dimensions of which may include physical space and time as rendered by Fourier transforms. PMID:23973706
Bleeding time is a blood test that looks at how fast small blood vessels in the skin close to stop you from bleeding. ... deep enough to cause a tiny amount of bleeding. The blood pressure cuff is immediately deflated. Blotting ...
Creative Time curates, funds, and organizes public art projects, so their website is a reference of the form dating back to 1975. You can browse by program name, date or artist's name (the most common of these being "multiple artists.") Creative Time's roster also includes familiar names such as Marina Abramovic, Doug Aitken, Laurie Anderson, David Byrne, Paul Chan, Jenny Holzer, Gary Hume, Vik Muniz, Takashi Murakami, Shirin Neshat, Steve Powers, and Cai Guo-Qiang. For example, Creative Time worked with Cai Guo-Qiang to present Light Cycle, in 2003, to celebrate the 150th anniversary of New York City's Central Park; in 2008 David Byrne's Playing the Building transformed the Battery Maritime Building in Lower Manhattan into a massive sound sculpture that visitors could play using a keyboard; and in summer 2012 Creative Time and multiple artists hosted a sandcastle competition at Far Rockaway, possibly the start of a new New York summer tradition.
Duration and location of breaks in time interval production were manipulated in various conditions of stimulus presentation (Experiments 1-4). Produced intervals shortened and then stabilized as break duration lengthened, suggesting that participants used the break as a preparatory period to restart timing as quickly as possible at the end of the…
The Wuda Time project management tool is designed to help individuals keep track of their dedication to various tasks and operations. Visitors can sign up right on the site to have instant access to this powerful tool. It's easy to use and users can prioritize certain tasks with a color-coded system or designate certain task completion times. This version is compatible with all operating systems.
The relationship between Brighton High School (BHS) and Boston College (BC) spans several decades. Professors from multiple departments at the university--not only teacher educators but professors of psychology, measurement, and arts and sciences--have walked, as regular parts of the school community, the halls of the gothic-style high school…
A sample of 661 churchgoers from a range of Christian denominations in the United Kingdom was asked about Darwinian evolution (defined as the common origin of all species, including humans). Respondents were categorised as those who accepted the idea, those who rejected it, and those who were unsure or neutral. People in each category were given a…
The present study, based on recent research in secondary education schools in Greece, aimed at recording Greek teachers' attitudes towards inclusion and determining the factors that enhance positive attitudes or negative ones. The findings of this research confirm that Greek teachers, despite obvious infrastructural and institutional hindrances,…
Koutrouba, Konstantina; Vamvakari, Malvina; Theodoropoulos, Helen
Footprints of the rhea (Rhea ameriama) are identical in several diagnostic features to tridactyl footprints of the Mesozoic Era attributed to theropod dinosaurs. Of par- ticular interest,'(i) the rhea's feet are placed very close to its body midline as it walks, so that it virtually places one foot in front of the other; (ii) its middle toe (digit III), the
We consider what it means to be a dialogic teacher as characterized by Paulo Freire and Robin Alexander, and utilizing discourse analysis, we explicate how one elementary teacher's talk reflects these characteristics. We provide context for and analysis of a seven-minute discussion selected as a cumulative achievement the focal nine-year-olds are…
Almost every first grade has at least one Peter, one youngster who delivers the important note from his mother at the end of the day instead of in the morning and yet, he is not making much progress toward learning to read and write. He has all the characteristics that mark him as being one of those children who will struggle throughout his school…
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) after IVF with subsequent selection of embryos is accepted and practised in a number of European countries. In others, it is not only controversial but also forbidden by law. Since in these countries prenatal diagnosis (PND) with subsequent termination of pregnancy is legal and widely practised, a consistency problem arises. How can the discrepancy in regulation
Religious discrimination is a global concern, as social dissonance and devastating violence result from religious intolerance. In order to develop socially competent, global citizens and create a peaceful society, religious diversity must be explored in public school classrooms; yet it remains a controversial and seldom addressed topic. Children's…
Sanders, Jennifer; Foyil, Kris; Graff, Jennifer M.
We discuss the challenges of Web-based teaching for language teachers and then describe in detail an extended episode of misunderstanding that occurred between 2 students discussing their versions of history during a classroom-based, asynchronous telecollaborative project between learners of German in the United States and learners of English in…
We consider what it means to be a dialogic teacher as characterized by Paulo Freire and Robin Alexander, and utilizing discourse analysis, we explicate how one elementary teacher's talk reflects these characteristics. We provide context for and analysis of a seven-minute discussion selected as a cumulative achievement the focal nine-year-olds are capable of after a year's exposure to dialogic teaching.
Considerable evidence shows that sensation from the feet and ankles is important for standing balance control. It remains unclear, however, to what extent specific foot and ankle sensory systems are involved. This study focused on the role of plantar cutaneous sensation in quasi-static balance control. Iontophoretic delivery of anesthesia was used to reduce the sensitivity of the forefoot soles. In
Peter F. Meyer; Lars I. E. Oddsson; Carlo J. De Luca
. A model is presented to study and quantify the contribution of all available sensory information to human standing based\\u000a on optimal estimation theory. In the model, delayed sensory information is integrated in such a way that a best estimate of\\u000a body orientation is obtained. The model approach agrees with the present theory of the goal of human balance control.
Herman van der Kooij; Ron Jacobs; Bart Koopman; Henk Grootenboer
The international marketing of school education has gathered momentum in the Asia Pacific region, where an English medium education is prized by many parents. This paper investigates the responses of a group of teachers in Australia to the needs of international students in their school. The analysis of a 1 h professional discussion between four…
Blogs, which can be written and read by anyone with a computer and an internet connection, would seem to expand the possibilities for engagement in public sphere debates. Indeed, blogs are full of the kind of vocabulary that suggests intense discussion. However, a closer look at the way this vocabulary is used in context suggests that the main concern of
Assesses the values of high school and college students relative to human genetic engineering and recommends that biology educators explore instructional strategies merging human genetic information with value clarification techniques. (LS)
There is considerable recent interest in developing humanoid robots. An important substrate for many motor actions in both humans and biped robots is the ability to maintain a statically or dynamically stable posture. Given the success of the human design, one would expect there are lessons to be learned in formulating a postural control mechanism for robots. In this study
We present a multisensory postural control model based on experiments where the balance in normal subjects and vestibular loss patients was perturbed by application of external torque produced by force-controlled pull stimuli. The stimuli were applied while subjects stood on a stationary or body-sway-referenced motion platform with eyes closed and auditory cues masked. Excursions of the center of mass (COM) and the center of pressure (COP) were analyzed using a systems analysis approach. The results were compared to an 'inverted pendulum' model of posture control. The model receives input from four sensors: ankle proprioceptors, semicircular canals, otoliths, and plantar pressure sensors (somatosensory graviceptors). Sensor fusion mechanisms are used to yield separate internal representations of foot support motion, gravity, and external torque (pull). These representations are fed as global set point signals into a local control loop based on ankle proprioceptive negative feedback. This set point control upgrades the proprioceptive body-on-foot (support) stabilization into a body-in-space control which compensates for support tilt, gravity, and contact forces. This compensation occurs even when the stimuli are combined or a voluntary lean is superimposed. Model simulations paralleled our experimental findings. PMID:12693262
This Classroom Connectors lesson plan discusses the characteristics of geologic time, including the law of superposition, fossil preservation, casts and molds, and various events through the history of the Earth. The site provides goals, objectives, an outline, time required, materials, activities, and closure ideas for the lesson. The Classroom Connectors address content with an activity approach while incorporating themes necessary to raise the activity to a higher cognition level. The major motivation is to employ instructional strategies that bring the students physically and mentally into touch with the science they are studying.
Earth has been significantly altered over its 4.6 billion year history by climate swings, volcanism, and drifting continents. These dynamic conditions, in turn, have influenced every living thing that has inhabited the planet. This interactive timeline discusses the concept of deep time, and allows users to learn about geological events, evolutionary transformations, and the extinction of species or whole families of organisms that once inhabited the planet, and to better appreciate the vast period of time over which these transformations have occurred. A background essay and discussion questions are included.
In this video a Penn State professor refers to National Park canyons carved out by water and wind as he explains “deep time” - the notion that the earth is billions of years old; another professor states how the theory of evolution is supported by evidence of an ancient Earth recorded in rocks.
Discusses the historical development of the concept of geologic time. Develops the topic by using the major discoveries of geologists, beginning with Steno and following through to the discovery and use of radiometric dating. An extensive reference list is provided. (JM)
In this activity, learners conduct an experiment to test how fast they can react. Learners try to catch a piece of paper with a ruler printed on it (or a ruler) as quickly as they can. Learners collect data and compare the reaction times of friends and family.
Reviews the studies on RT by H. E. Burtt, A. T. Poffenberger, T. Topciu, and H. Woodrow (1915-1916). It was found that the with shorter intervals, the time of the 1st reaction was lengthened through the inhibiting and distracting influence of the 2nd stimulus. The RT to the cessation of sound and light stimuli and to beginning of the stimuli
In this activity, learners explore how the pendulum has been a reliable way to keep time for centuries. Learners work in teams to build their own working clock using a pendulum out of everyday materials. Learners will need to be able to speed up and slow down the motion of the pendulum clock. They sketch their plans, consider what materials they will need, build the clock, test it, and present reflections to their group.
\\u000a This chapter starts with a general discussion on time and order. The notions of causal order, temporal order, and delivery\\u000a order and their interrelationships are elaborated. The parameters that characterize the behavior and the quality of a digital\\u000a clock are investigated. Section 3.2 proceeds along the positivist tradition by introducing an omniscient external observer\\u000a with an absolute reference clock that can
This NOVA website simulates travel to distant stars and back in a spaceship that can move at various percentages of the speed of light. You set the spaceship speed and choose your destination star, and the simulation calculates the time of travel as measured on Earth and inside the spaceship. Text describes the "twin paradox" of the theory of relativity and also the 1971 test of its prediction using airliners and atomic clocks.
Reviews five studies of reaction time published during 1917-1918. The Studies pertain to (a) effect of continuous, intermittent, continuous-intermittent auditory distraction upon sensory reactions to auditory stimuli (b) processes involved in the fore-period, main period and after-period of the controlled associative reaction with special reference to the analysis of fore-period (c) use of reaction key suspended as a pendulum and
The Black Americans for Democracy (BAD) Times started publication in 1971, growing out of the activist efforts and movement started in the late 1960s on the campus of the University of Arkansas. The BAD organization started life in 1970 in the old student union building on campus, and became well known for their activism and calls for greater integration of student life, university programs, and athletics. The newspaper can claim at least one student who became very well-known, the author E. (Everett) Lynn Harris, who was the BAD treasurer. This digital collection offers interested parties access to twenty issues of newspapers published by the group from 1971 to 1977. Visitors can make their way through the issues here, and they can search by keyword as well.
Bayesian evidence Z = ? L(x)d?(x) is defined as likelihood L integrated over prior ?, and is often computed in that form -- with nested sampling as the preferred algorithm for passing from prior to posterior in large or complicated applications. However, a user may suspect that some locations x are more useful than others, and wish to guide the computation by using a suitable weight function w(x). In conventional importance sampling, such weights are incorporated by re-writing Z as ?(L/w)(wd?), using a weighted prior w? and correspondingly de-weighted likelihood L/w. Unfortunately, w cannot be updated during a run without altering the likelihood surfaces (which nested sampling requires to be fixed). Also, the normalization ? wd? must be known if the value of Z is to be retrieved. Importance timing removes those disadvantages by preserving the likelihood unchanged. Excess prior weight w is cancelled, not through L, but by adjusting the rate of the MCMC clock which defines termination of a trial exploration. This preserves the evidence value and enables the weights to be (slowly) learned as iterations proceed.
Once convicted, the perpetrator of serious crime embarks upon a new journey: the challenge of adjusting to long-term imprisonment. Prisoners’ views of incarceration and the meaning of this experience may affect their later adjustment to life in the community. On the basis of brief narrative responses collected during an epidemiological survey of the psychological health of prisoners in France, this study examined the impact of incarceration on psychological state in a group of 59 inmates serving long sentences. Qualitative content analysis and computer-assisted linguistic analysis (using ALCESTE software) were performed on the textual data of open responses to three standard questions. Using a combination of these two approaches, seven categories of the subjective experience of prisoners in the sample were identified: the Outside World, Others, Punishment, Time, Affects and Impulses, Self-Concept, and Speech. Further qualitative analyses were then performed to compare the responses of Severely Mentally Ill (SMI) subjects and subjects with no psychiatric disorder. These analyses revealed contrasting attitudes towards incarceration. SMI subjects spoke in more hostile and persecutory terms about their experience in prison, attributing suffering to external circumstances, while subjects with no psychiatric disorder evoked similar themes, but with an introspective attitude. The themes evoked by mentally ill individuals in our sample suggest that their reactions to the prison environment arise in part from aspects of their psychiatric symptoms, and this may have relevance to future mental health policy and practices in criminal corrections.
Yang, Suzanne; Kadouri, Alane; Revah-Levy, Anne; Mulvey, Edward P.; Falissard, Bruno
Human locomotion is a rhythmic task in which patterns of muscle activity are modulated by state-dependent feedback to accommodate perturbations. Two popular theories have been proposed for the underlying embodiment of phase in the human pattern generator: a time-dependent internal representation or a time-invariant feedback representation (i.e., reflex mechanisms). In either case the neuromuscular system must update or represent the phase of locomotor patterns based on the system state, which can include measurements of hundreds of variables. However, a much simpler representation of phase has emerged in recent designs for legged robots, which control joint patterns as functions of a single monotonic mechanical variable, termed a phase variable. We propose that human joint patterns may similarly depend on a physical phase variable, specifically the heel-to-toe movement of the Center of Pressure under the foot. We found that when the ankle is unexpectedly rotated to a position it would have encountered later in the step, the Center of Pressure also shifts forward to the corresponding later position, and the remaining portion of the gait pattern ensues. This phase shift suggests that the progression of the stance ankle is controlled by a biomechanical phase variable, motivating future investigations of phase variables in human locomotor control.
Gregg, Robert D.; Rouse, Elliott J.; Hargrove, Levi J.; Sensinger, Jonathon W.
This work is concerned with the lubrication analysis of artificial knee joints, which plays an increasing significant role in clinical performance and longevity of components. Time-dependent elastohydrodynamic lubrication analysis for normal total knee replacement is carried out under the cyclic variation in both load and speed representative of normal walking. An equivalent ellipsoid-on-plane model is adopted to represent an actual artificial knee. A full numerical method is developed to simultaneously solve the Reynolds and elasticity equations using the multigrid technique. The elastic deformation is based on the constrained column model. Results show that, under the combined effect of entraining and squeeze-film actions throughout the walking cycle, the predicted central film thickness tends to decrease in the stance phase but keeps a relatively larger value at the swing phase. Furthermore, the geometry of knee joint implant is verified to play an important role under its lubrication condition, and the length of time period is a key point to influence the lubrication performance of joint components. PMID:21390940
Su, Yonglin; Yang, Peiran; Fu, Zengliang; Jin, Zhongmin; Wang, Chengtao
Timed process algebras are useful tools for the specification and verification of real-time systems. We study the expressiveness of (classes of) these algebras which deal with temporal aspects of concurrent systems by following very dierent interpretations: durational actions versus durationless actions, absolute time versus relative time, timed functional behavior versus time and functional behavior, local clocks ver- sus global clocks,
The aim of this study was to develop and validate an automated accelerometry-based system for estimating initial contact (IC) and terminal contact (TC) timing information from walking patterns of healthy control subjects and transtibial amputees that can be used in daily life with minimal interference of researchers. Subjects were instrumented with two uniaxial accelerometers just below the knee while synchronized ground reaction force (GRF) recordings were used as reference measurements. An automated multiphase algorithm was developed to estimate the time of IC and TC in the acceleration signals of five healthy subjects and two transtibial amputees walking at different walking speeds. The accuracy of the detection algorithm in ten control subjects and eight transtibial amputees indicated mean errors ranging between 0.013 and 0.034 s for the TC and IC timing, with 95 % confidence interval of the individual step errors ranging between -0.062 and 0.115 s. Correlation coefficients between the estimated stance phase duration and GRF data were 0.98 and 0.97 for controls and amputees, respectively. We concluded that IC and TC can be accurately and easily measured using this system in both healthy subjects and transtibial amputees walking at different walking speeds. The system can be used in clinical situations or gait labs as well as during daily life. PMID:15813409
Selles, Ruud W; Formanoy, Margriet A G; Bussmann, Johannes B J; Janssens, Peter J; Stam, Henk J
The network time protocol (NTP), which is designed to distribute time information in a large, diverse system, is described. It uses a symmetric architecture in which a distributed subnet of time servers operating in a self-organizing, hierarchical configuration synchronizes local clocks within the subnet and to national time standards via wire, radio, or calibrated atomic clock. The servers can also
The Record includes 6 papers covering important areas of travel time value analysis, such as travel time value theory, conceptual problems in travel time value, methods of deriving travel time values, review of empirical travel time value studies, applica...
Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) use internal reference time scales: GPS Time, GLONASS Time, Galileo System Time and BeiDou System Time. Constructed from a clock ensemble, they are designed for internal system synchronization, necessary to produce a navigation solution. They are usually steered to an external stable reference time scale, for example UTC(USNO), modulo 1 s, for GPS time. To
Have fun learning how to tell time! First, let's telling time with Dragon. Now that you can tell time with dragon, you have to choose the time!. Time can move fast. Do you think you can keep up? Use your knowledge of time to Stop the clock!. Now that you can keep up with time, can you decide What time will it be? Finally! You have learned so much about time, ...
Building physical models relative to a concept can be an important activity to help students develop and manipulate abstract ideas and mental models that often prove difficult to grasp. One such concept is time. A method for helping students understand the cyclical nature of time involves the construction of a Time Zone Calculator through a series of physical models. This article explains how to construct a Time Zone Calculator and provides suggestions for its use.
The paper describes the approach of 'stutter timing' that has been developed to improve the accuracy of measuring charge decay times in the presence of noise in compact and portable charge decay test instrumentation. The approach involves starting and stopping the timing clock as the noisy signal rises above and falls below the target threshold voltage level.
Building physical models relative to a concept can be an important activity to help students develop and manipulate abstract ideas and mental models that often prove difficult to grasp. One such concept is "time". A method for helping students understand the cyclical nature of time involves the construction of a Time Zone Calculator through a…
As a teacher's aide this author is often asked to help children who have difficulty with mathematics. Recently she was asked to help children from three different grades with their understanding of time. Although each grade had a different activity to undertake, all of the children struggled to grasp time-concepts that adults often take for…
This document describes how geologic time is approached in discussions of geologic topics. The uses of relative time and absolute time are compared, and a geologic time scale is provided to represent both concepts. References are provided.
SUMMARY Recent studies have reported the existence of hippocampal “time cells,” neurons that fire at particular moments during periods when behavior and location are relatively constant. However, an alternative explanation of apparent time coding is that hippocampal neurons “path integrate” to encode the distance an animal has traveled. Here, we examined hippocampal neuronal firing patterns as rats ran in place on a treadmill, thus “clamping” behavior and location, while we varied the treadmill speed to distinguish time elapsed from distance traveled. Hippocampal neurons were strongly influenced by time and distance, and less so by minor variations in location. Furthermore, the activity of different neurons reflected integration over time and distance to varying extents, with most neurons strongly influenced by both factors and some significantly influenced by only time or distance. Thus, hippocampal neuronal networks captured both the organization of time and distance in a situation where these dimensions dominated an ongoing experience.
Kraus, Benjamin J.; Robinson, Robert J.; White, John A.; Eichenbaum, Howard; Hasselmo, Michael E.
Thirty-two healthy young adults (15 women) were tested for their ability to maintain their comfortable step pattern following an unpredictable underfoot perturbation in the presence and absence of a concurrent vocal choice reaction time task. Custom instrumented shoes were used to randomly deliver an unexpected medial or lateral forefoot perturbation that inverted the mid-foot an average of 10 degrees or everted the midfoot an average of 9 degrees during one stance phase of a gaittrial. Medial and lateral perturbations were randomized between left and right feet in 12 of 30 gait trials. The results of the repeated measures analyses of variance show that, compared to the step parameters of unperturbed gait, the administration of the unexpected underfoot perturbation did not significantly lead to alterations in the step length or width of the first recovery step. In addition, the simultaneous administration of a vocal choice reaction time task with the underfoot perturbation did not significantly affect the kinematics of the first recovery step. We conclude that in young healthy adults an unexpected 9–10 degree underfoot perturbation, with or without a vocal reaction time task, will not affect their recovery step kinematics when walking at a comfortable gait speed.
The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of adolescent use of instant messaging. Grounded in the New Literacy Studies stance that literacy is a social practice embedded in local contexts and informed by global ideologies (Street, 1995), I argue that participation in digital literacies such as instant messaging has implications for…
ch. 1. Why do many other scientists believe time began at a big bang? -- ch. 2. Smoothness of the universe -- ch. 3. Structure in the universe -- ch. 4. Dark matter and dark energy -- ch. 5. Composition of the universe's energy -- ch. 6. Possible futures of the universe -- ch. 7. Advantages of cyclic cosmology -- ch. 8. Summary of answers to the questions: did time begin? Will time end?
Ultimately, this essay is about time or, more correctly, about the times of time. Throughout the work three of them become object of minute analysis: physical time, social/cultural times and individual times. Each entails not only distinguished and sometimes mutually contradictory features but gives also rise to distinct-and sometimes rather unconventional-conceptions of anticipation. Two of these conceptions are open to scrutiny. One, called restrict conception, can be thought of as coincident with the concept of forecast and/or prediction traditionally followed by the classical paradigm of physical/quasi-physical sciences. The other, named the widen conception, is prominently social and psychological and, to a great extent, its features are quite distinct from those the restrict conception is usually endowed with. For instance, it entails both several pasts and various futures, futures which, in turn, may retrospectively act upon such pasts, giving rise to different presents, etc. The host of manifold problems that these features beget are analysed in detail and a possible unifying model that connects private times with social/cultural times and these with physical time is proposed.
Travel time and travel time reliability are important performance measures for assessing traffic condition and extent of congestion on a roadway. Most commonly used methods to obtain travel time data either produce only estimates of travel times or too few travel time data points for meaningful analysis. This study focuses on using a new probe vehicle technique, the Bluetooth technology,
This article features energizing and surprising activities for children at group time. In the drawing activity, children are asked to give instructions on how to draw a picture using vocabulary and descriptive language. In the mailbox activity, children will be surprised to discover that they have mail at group time. Mailboxes can be used for…
Relationships among Multidimensional Aptitude Battery scores, inspection time, choice reaction time, and the odd-man procedure were investigated for 63 female and 25 male adults. No significant relationships were found for these mental speed measures and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised dimensions of extraversion, neuroticism, and…
This paper presents an introduction to the basic issues involved in real-time systems. Both real-time operating sys and real-time programming languages are explored. Concurrent programming and process synchronization and communication are also discussed. ...
S. M. Badr R. B. Byrnes D. P. Brutzman M. L. Nelson
Discusses using time effectively in chemistry instruction, planning instruction to compete for students' time, and whether the time needed for expertise will increase or decrease over the next few years. (Contains 13 references.) (ASK)
Zielinski, Theresa Julia; Brooks, David W.; Crippen, Kent J.; March, Joe L.
... Kids make big leaps in vocabulary during this time, and learn about letters, shapes, colors, weather, animals, ... possible, striving for at least one scheduled reading time each day. Choosing regular times to read (especially ...
... Media Time Family Pledge Family Life Listen Media Time Family Pledge Article Body At the beginning and ... them. Kids learn best with small lessons over time as opposed to one big lecture or sit- ...
Students explore the different ways to measure time and develop their understanding of how to tell time to the hour, half and quarter hours, and then five minute intervals. They identify time on analog and digital clocks and read a clock at the hour or half hour. They participate in timed events and keep time as record keepers. In the final lesson, students make a My Time Book.
An unresolved problem in physics is how the thermodynamic arrow of time arises from an underlying time reversible dynamics. We contribute to this issue by developing a measure of time-symmetry breaking, and by using the work fluctuation relations, we determine the time asymmetry of recent single molecule RNA unfolding experiments. We define time asymmetry as the Jensen-Shannon divergence between trajectory probability distributions of an experiment and its time-reversed conjugate. Among other interesting properties, the length of time’s arrow bounds the average dissipation and determines the difficulty of accurately estimating free energy differences in nonequilibrium experiments.
This interactive Java applet allows the user to practice calculating an ending time or a beginning time given the elapsed time using analog or digital clocks. Using the "See" mode the user advances (or rewinds) a clock from the given time using the elapsed time to find the ending (or beginning) time. Using the "Guess" mode, the user must calculate the ending (or beginning) time given the elapsed time. Three difficulty levels allow the user to practice with hour, five minute, or single minute increments. An optional scoring feature allows the user to keep track of number correct.
This page examines the issues involved in teaching students about the geologic time scale. There are suggestions for tackling troublesome issues in class as well as activities that can be used to clarify how geoscientists look at deep time. Five main concepts with which students struggle when thinking about Deep Time are addressed here: imagining or comprehending big numbers; the difference between relative and numerical age; the concept of "timescales"; the ways we know about the age of the Earth and other materials; and resolving perceived issues with religious beliefs.
Time reference in Indo-European languages is marked on the verb. With tensed verb forms, the speaker can refer to the past (wrote, has written), present (writes, is writing) or future (will write). Reference to the past through verb morphology has been shown to be particularly vulnerable in agrammatic aphasia and both agrammatic and…
Dragoy, Olga; Stowe, Laurie A.; Bos, Laura S.; Bastiaanse, Roelien
The effects of time-dependent electron density fluctuations on a synthesized time domain reflectometry response of a one-dimensional cold plasma sheath are considered. Numerical solutions of the Helmholtz wave equation, which describes the electric field of a normally incident plane wave in a specified static electron density profile, are used. A study of the effects of Doppler shifts resulting from moving density fluctuations in the electron density profile of the sheath is included. Varying electron density levels corrupt time domain and distance measurements. Reducing or modulating the electron density levels of a given electron density profile affects the time domain response of a plasma and results in motion of the turning point, and the effective motion has a significant effect on measuring electron density locations.
It is argued that Einstein's theory of relativity does not provide a new definition of time, and that it does not reject Newton's absolute time. The time dilation effect observed in the lifetime of a relativistically moving unstable particle is termed a paradox because of the equality of two times, based on kinematics and irreversible decay processes. Proposals based on
Predicting future values of a time series has many practical uses in real-time signal processing and understanding. This thesis implements an Adaptive Time Delay Neural Network (ATNN) capable of user-defined degeneration to the more common Time Delay Neur...
New software has been added to IOC core to maintain time stamps. The new software has the ability to maintain time stamps over all IOCs on a network. The purpose of this paper is to explain how EPICS will synchronize the time stamps. In addition, this paper will explain how to configure and use the new EPICS time stamp support software.
This essay invites reflection on the phenomena of time as it impacts the day-to-day life of teachers. It also explores assumptions about time and teaching in three areas: first, beliefs about the force of time and the teacher's struggle to control it; second, beliefs about the potential of time and the benefits of its passing for teachers and…
Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), created by adjusting International Atomic Time (TAI) by the appropriate number of leap seconds, is the uniform time scale that is the basis of most civil timekeeping in the world. The concept of a leap second was introduced to ensure that UTC would not differ by more than 0.9 seconds from UT1, the time determined by
We incorporate time into an interleaving model of concurrency. In timed transition systems, the qualitative fairness requirements of traditional transition system are replaced (and superseded) by quantitative lower-bound and upperbound timing constraints on transitions. The purpose of this paper is to explore the scope of applicability for the abstract model of timed transition systems. We demonstrate that the model can
\\u000a Concurrent and distributed systems are characterized not only by their functional behavior, but also by their quantitative\\u000a features. A prominent role is played by timing aspects, which express the temporal execution of system activities. There are\\u000a several different options for introducing time and time passing in system descriptions: durationless actions or durational\\u000a actions, relative time or absolute time, global clock
Alessandro Aldini; Flavio Corradini; Marco Bernardo
This online exhibit from a prominent American museum explores the character of time -- its impact on our daily lives and its ability to shape and reform human consciousness. Tempus Fugit: Time Flies is a superb exhibit from the Nelson Atkins Museum of Art that uses items from the museum to exemplify different understandings of time. The exhibit features sections on 20th Century Time, World Times, and Conservation Time. Twentieth-century time considers the changing nature of time in the technological age by examining the innovations in graphic and plastic arts inspired by an altered sense of time. The exhibit includes works by Muybridge, Edward Hopper, Salvador Dali, Kandinsky, Rothko, Roy Lichtenstein, and others. The second section, World Times, focuses on the different conceptions of time embodied in art from primitive times to the present and ranges from ancient Native American to Medieval Europe to ancestral Africa to the deeply cosmological perceptions of time in ancient Indian civilizations. Conservation Time takes visitors behind the scenes to see how conservation science can uncover the history of a work's composition and the changes wrought upon it over the course of its lifetime. The Website also offers ideas for teaching using the exhibits. In sum, this is an elegantly constructed and intelligent Website. To be sure, users will want to set aside some time for it as the graphics enforce their own meditative pace upon the viewer.
Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) use internal reference time scales: GPS Time, GLONASS Time, Galileo System Time and BeiDou System Time. Constructed from a clock ensemble, they are designed for internal system synchronization, necessary to produce a navigation solution. They are usually steered to an external stable reference time scale, for example UTC(USNO), modulo 1 s, for GPS time. To achieve safe operation of a GNSS, a system time should preferably be a uniform time scale not affected by the leap seconds of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). But this is not compatible with international recommendations that radio broadcast time signals should conform as closely as possible to UTC. This paper describes the various approaches chosen by GNSS providers and the relation between GNSS system times and UTC in terms of numbering of seconds. Different solutions for numbering seconds do not help the GNSS interoperability. This paper also explains why, on some occasions, GNSS system times play a role of alternative time scales with the consequent risk of confusion.
The shift at the beginning of the year from the summer at home to the fall at school can be both an exciting and an anxious time for young children. Often, there is a fine line between the two emotions, with one considered positive and other negative. Awareness of how to manage these feelings in a teacher's group is essential to creating the right…
The purpose of this document is to augment Synchronized Time Stamp Support authored by Jim Kowalkowski. This document provides additional documentation to clarify and explain software involved in timing operations of the accelerator.
A philosophical discussion of time irreversibility is presented. Experimental results related to atomic or subatomic structures and their significance about time irreversibility are examined. The emission of light by atoms, philosophical significance of E...
This video from the American Museum of Natural History illustrates Einstein's special theory of relativity and the relationship between time and the motion of objects, including the concept of time dilation.
"Screen time" is a term used for activities done in front of a screen, such as watching TV, working on a computer, or playing video games. Screen time is sedentary activity, meaning you are being physically ...
The study examines options for delivery of accurate time and frequency information to industrial users. The study is sponsored by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) who finds a need for accurate timing to the one microsecond level. Prospective exis...
Offered by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) as a general interest publication, this site is an online edition of a text by the same name, offering a concise overview of the concepts associated with the age of the Earth. The online edition was revised in October of 1997 to reflect current thinking on this topic. Section headers are Geologic Time, Relative Time Scale, Major Divisions of Geologic Time, Index Fossils, Radiometric Time Scale, and Age of the Earth.
More employees are choosing to work part time. Although this trend started because of working women, some men are choosing part-time positions. Part-time employees forfeit salary and promotion potential, yet most feel the trade is fair and that they are more productive during their working hours. (CH)
This site from the US Navy is the official source of time for the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Global Positioning System (GPS), and a Standard of Time for the United States. It features numerous links to other useful time and GPS-related sites.
This NASA sponsored webpage, Center for Educational Technologies, teaches students about Geologic Time. The age of Earth is so long compared to all periods of time that we humans are familiar with, it has been given a special name: Geologic time. The age
This activity generates discussion about the times of day and the passing of time. Students try to place the daily events shown in pictures in chronological order. They are encouraged to use terms such as afternoon, earlier, and the time units. The Teachers' Notes page includes suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, and printable sheets.
This invention relates to a time compressed radar display system for presenting to the operator radar return video which has been accumulated over a relatively long period of time in a very short time span, preferably at TV frame rates. A scan converter r...
One critical means of reaching the goal to improve student learning is to restructure school time for professional development. This publication examines issues in promoting professional development for all staff during regular school time. The overview describes alternative strategies for effectively finding and using time to support…
This is an activity featuring a time zone map useful when teaching an interdisciplinary social studies and math unit focusing on geography and the time zones. It underscores the role of the earth's rotation in everyday life, and the need to understand the relationships between earth rotation, day and night, and time zones around the world.
One has heard it before: time is money, especially when it comes to adding time for instruction to the school day. When budgets are tight and relief is nowhere in sight, how can schools afford to implement a reform as costly as adding instructional time? It's a daunting task, yet current federal educational priorities tied to federal funding…
Time underlies many interesting human behaviors. Thus, the question of how to represent time in connectionist models is very important. One approach is to represent time implicitly by its effects on processing rather than explicitly (as in a spatial representation). The current report develops a proposal along these lines first described by Jordan (1986) which involves the use of recurrent
Euglobulin lysis time (ELT) is a blood test that looks at how fast clots break down in the blood. ... A longer-than-normal ELT time may be due to: Diabetes Prematurity A shorter-than-normal ELT time may be due to: Blood vessel injury or surgery ...
The time calibrator of an electric signal displayed on an oscilloscope ; is described. In contrast to the conventional technique of using time-calibrated ; divisions on the face of the oscilloscope, this invention provides means for ; directly superimposing equal time spaced markers upon a signal displayed upon an ; oscilloscope. More explicitly, the present invention includes generally a ;
The dynamics of an open quantum system can be described by a quantum operation: A linear, complete positive map of operators. Here, I exhibit a compact expression for the time reversal of a quantum operation, which is closely analogous to the time reversal of a classical Markov transition matrix. Since open quantum dynamics are stochastic, and not, in general, deterministic, the time reversal is not, in general, an inversion of the dynamics. Rather, the system relaxes toward equilibrium in both the forward and reverse time directions. The probability of a quantum trajectory and the conjugate, time reversed trajectory are related by the heat exchanged with the environment.
The highlight of this section of the New York Times website (discussed in the January 26, 1996 Scout Report) is the searchable archive of over 50,000 book reviews, author interviews, and book news articles from the newspaper and the New York Times Book Review since 1980. It also contains the full text of the weekly Book Review (available on the web since January 5, 1997) as well as a feature called "Life and Times: Major authors, in their own words and ours," and selected first chapters from New York Times Book Review or New York Times bestseller list books. Note that these sites, while free, require registration.
In this activity (on pages 16-21), learners get a sense of geological time by understanding how big a million is. Part One of the activity is the "Million Appreciation Lesson," which puts a million seconds, names in a phone book, and hiked steps into more familiar units. Part Two is "Investigating All Time," where learners make a time line for the history of the Earth using the length of their own arm to represent the total 4.5 billion year long scale. They mark major time zones, such as the age of the dinosaurs, at appropriate lengths along the time line.
Museum, University O.; Nebraska Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development
Build time sense into the schedule by asking learners to predict what can happen in a certain amount of time: We have 20 minutes before outdoor time. What can you get done? Everyone makes a prediction, for instance, how many rounds of a card game theyâll play or how many origami cranes they can make. Then, stop part-way through the time period and ask if anyone wants to revise their predictions. Available as a web page or downloadable pdf. Students should have some familiarity with time.
Resolving problems with time management requires an understanding of the concept of working smarter rather than harder. Therefore, managing time effectively is a vital responsibility of department managers. When developing a plan for more effectively managing time, it is important to carefully analyze where time is currently being used/lost. Keeping a daily log can be a time consuming effort. However, the log can provide information about ways that time may be saved and how to organize personal schedules to maximize time efficiency. The next step is to develop a strategy to decrease wasted time and create a more cohesive radiology department. The following list of time management strategies provides some suggestions for developing a plan. Get focused. Set goals and priorities. Get organized. Monitor individual motivation factors. Develop memory techniques. In healthcare, success means delivering the highest quality of care by getting organized, meeting deadlines, creating efficient schedules and appropriately budgeting resources. Effective time management focuses on knowing what needs to be done when. The managerial challenge is to shift the emphasis from doing everything all at once to orchestrating the departmental activities in order to maximize the time given in a normal workday. PMID:14994835
This fun Web site is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they are introduced to space and time with six engaging and kid-friendly areas: Welcome to the Fourth Dimension, which looks at how time is needed to describe where you are in the fourth dimension; It's All Relative, an explanation of how time and space are different depending on your frame of reference; Mass Appeal, which uses the example of an elephant on a page of paper to explain how the Sun's mass causes space and time to bend; You Light Up My Life, how Arthur Eddington proved that Einstein's light-bending prediction was right; Everyday Einstein: Black Holes, an overview of these "bottomless dimples in space." and Time Travel Kit, a look at how the faster you move in space, the slower you move in time.
In past times, ocean navigators tossed a piece of wood over the side of their ships and noted how long until the ship passed the wood. They used this time measurement and the length of the ship to calculate their speed and estimate how far they had traveled. In this activity, students act the part of a GPS signal traveling to the receiver to learn how travel time is converted to distance.
In this activity, students represent events in the Earth's history by placing themselves on a 260-yard long time line which is scaled so that the distance accurately represents time before present. When the human time line is complete, the student who represents the formation of the Earth takes his or her place, and then the other students shout out what event they represent and how long ago they happened.
In quantum mechanics, time is understood as an external (‘classical’) concept. So it is assumed, as in classical physics,\\u000a to exist as a controller of all motion — either as absolute time or in the form of proper times defined by a classical spacetime\\u000a metric. In the latter case it is applicable to local quantum systems along their world lines.
Ever wonder how much time you spend on any given website? Now you can find out with TimeStats. This version of the Chrome extension allows users to collect stats on the websites they visit each day, week, or month. Users can even create graphs and charts to visually look at how much time they spend on these sites. This version is compatible with computers running Google Chrome 33 and newer.
We extend the concept of time operator for general semigroups and construct a non-self-adjoint time operator for the diffusion equation which is intertwined with the unilateral shift. We obtain the spectral resolution, the age eigenstates and a new shift representation of the solution of the diffusion equation. Based on previous work we obtain similarly a self-adjoint time operator for Relativistic
I. Antoniou; I. Prigogine; V. Sadovnichii; S. A. Shkarin
Ask any teacher what he or she needs more of, and it is a good bet that time will top the list. Anything that promises to recoup a little bit of their workday time is sure to be a best seller. One overlooked time-saver is in how they use feedback. Teachers know that feedback is important for teaching and learning. Unfortunately, most secondary…
This lesson plan will provide a concrete way for students to understand the concept of distance in space equals distance in time. This is done using information gathered from a timeline activity in Lesson 1: Earth, the Universe, and Culture. Students experiment with how distances are measured in space and create timelines to demonstrate the concept distance in space equals distance in time. This lesson is part of the "Swift: Eyes Through Time" collection that is available on the Teacher's Domain website.
The slides provide a fun way of discussing the immensity of geologic time and help to grasp the age of the earth, the time gaps between major geologic events, and the relative minuteness of humans time on earth. After the discussion with the class, students are given opportunity to develop their own analogies using "everyday" things (other than the calendar and money examples used in this activity).
What is time? What does it mean to us? These are a but a few of the arresting questions asked by the British Museum's online exhibit exploring the nature, structure, and history of time, time-keeping, and other related subjects. This particular section is part of their larger "Explore" online collection, and it draws on the British Museum's vast holdings to look into this scientific, cultural, and historical phenomenon. The site includes five sections, including Measuring and Keeping Time, Personal Time, and The Effects of Time. The Measuring and Keeping Time area is quite arresting, and it includes images of a Native American 'winter counts' cloth which served as a recorder of events that took place between 1785 and 1901. Moving on, The Effects of Time area is rather remarkable as well, as it contains material on how humans have attempted to stop or slow down the passage of time via techniques like retaining a youthful portrait of an aging ruler on coins and paper money.
This webpage of the National Park Service (NPS) and United States Geological Survey (USGS) discusses geologic time and what it represents. Beginning about 4.6 billion years ago and ending in the present day, this site exhibits (to scale) the various eras, periods, eons, and epochs of Earth's history with a downloadable geologic time scale available. Links provide maps of what the Earth looked like at various times in its history, as well as a description of how scientists developed the time scale and how they know the age of the Earth.
This outdoor exercise shows students the great expanse of time that has elapsed between the formation of Earth and the emergence of living creatures, particularly humans. The great length of the football field helps reinforce the idea of the vast amounts of time that have passed. Starting on one goal line, they will mark off distances representing the times of various events, rocks, fossils, or geologic eras. The teacher can calculate the distances needed, or students can do it themselves in the classroom. A table is provided to help convert distances in yards to time in millions of years, and links to additional information are included.
The Physics Laboratory of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) provides A Walk Through Time, a site devoted to examining the question of how humans have measured time throughout history. In one example, Egyptians created the first timepiece (shadow clock or sundial) in the approximate year of 1500 BC to measure "hours." Nowadays, the Physics Laboratory develops and operates the "standards of time and frequency and coordinates them with other world standards." Those interested in timekeeping methods and an historical perspective on the evolution of time measurement will find this site fascinating.
Experiments were performed to determine whether edge rate and flow rate impact the perception of time during an active control task and to further examine the relationship between edge rate or flow rate and time perception. One experiment also examined the extent to which time perception is driven by: (1) the temporal structure of the world, i.e., edge rate/flow rate changes, and (2) the amount of activity involved in accomplishing a task. The second factor was varied by examining time estimations made while subjects passively viewed the simulated flight and while also actively engaged in controlling lateral craft disturbances.
The instructor/author first started to think about the relationship between time and literacy when she was writing her dissertation and doing a study in a first-year composition course at a community college in Chicago. She realized that many teachers at community colleges think about the issue of time, as they realize it is something their…
The time of Zener tunneling, tauz, is calculated for a general two-level quantum-mechanical system by two methods. In the first we determine the width of the transition profile in time. In the second we apply an oscillating perturbation and examine how the final transition probability depends upon the perturbation frequency and phase. Both methods show, given that the coupling energy
This Flash applet provides targeted practice of multiplication facts. After a player selects which group(s) of multiples to practice, the applet displays products one at a time, and the player locates a cell on a blank grid that identifies a possible factor pair. Users may choose to play timed or untimed, and must complete a round with no more than 5 errors.
This paper considers the problem of estimating the offset in timing of like events at geographically separated locations as a basis for establishing common knowledge of time and, hence, system synchronism. Configurations discussed involve interrogation and reply between a user and a single donor, and one-way propagation between a user and the multiple sites of a reference system. The latter
A presettable integrating timing circuit is capable of comparing the time-volt product of an input signal with a preset signal. Means, comprising an input and an output, integrate an electrical signal at the input into an integrated signal at the output. ...
We show that a unit-cost RAM with a word length of bits can sort integers in the range in time, for arbitrary , a significant improvement over the bound of achieved by the fusion trees of Fredman and Willard. Provided that , for some fixed , the sorting can even be accomplished in linear expected time with a randomized algorithm.
Arne Andersson; Torben Hagerupt; Stefan Nilsson; Rajeev Raman
"Bucky Fuller thought big," Wired magazine recently noted, "Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both." In his newest book, Cliff Pickover outdoes even himself, probing a mystery that has baffled mystics, philosophers, and scientists throughout history--What is the nature of time?In Time: A Traveler's Guide , Pickover takes readers to the forefront of science as he illuminates the most mysterious phenomenon in the universe--time itself. Is time travel possible? Is time real? Does it flow in one direction only? Does it have a beginning and an end? What is eternity? Pickover's book offers a stimulating blend of Chopin, philosophy, Einstein, and modern physics, spiced with diverting side-trips to such topics as the history of clocks, the nature of free will, and the reason gold glitters. Numerous diagrams ensure readers will have no trouble following along.By the time we finish this book, we understand a wide variety of scientific concepts pertaining to time. And most important, we will understand that time travel is, indeed, possible.
Calibrating the absolute time accuracy of Chandra requires requires the efforts of many people. Here we present some attempts to verify this accuracy. HRC observations of the Crab indicated that the Chandra clock is within 0.2 msec of being correct. Checking ACIS requires correcting for the time delays caused by the continuous clocking readout. A method is presented to correct
This patent relates to means for ascertaining the instant of arrival of ; a shock wave in an exploslve charge and apparatus utilizing this means to ; coordinate the timing of two operations involving a short lnterval of time. A ; pair of spaced electrodes are inserted along the line of an explosive train with ; a voltage applied there-across
This engaging activity helps students construct their own understanding of Earth's history and understand the geologic time scale. While working through the activity, students learn science concepts related to geologic time and the value of cooperation and effective communication. The lesson is aligned to the following National Science Education Standards: Science as Inquiry, Earth's History, and the Nature of Science.
This website showcases teaching activities, strategies and methods for teaching about dates, rates, and time that are used in the many disciplines encompassed by geoscience education. This site was created to support a session on Geologic Rates and Time at the Geological Society of America meeting in 2005.
How long will a molecule of Water stay in a particular reservoir? What is the average time a molecule of Water will stay in an ocean? What is the average time a molecule of water will stay in a river? A lake? As groundwater? A glacier? How long will a water vapor molecule stay suspended in the atmosphere? Why is the residence ...
Chapter 14 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter offers many practical suggestions for managing time and reducing stress. The primary challenge is to unblock the route to effective time/stress management by recognizing unproductive values and attitudes (such as overreliance on the Protestant work ethic or the appearance of…
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show that nowadays individuals feel helpless to live and to determine how to spend their free time without the existence of money. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The predominant meaning of free time in the days depends upon the vaccination of society with dictated forged needs. The main target is the maintenance of high
... to be wrong and I didn't think anything was wrong. I didn't think anything was seriously wrong with myself at the time. ... BOB WELTNER: I don't remember much of anything. And it's at this point at time, they ...
Although we are all aware of our need to "manage" time, we frequently get bogged down in the many tasks of the job and find that fewer and fewer of our activities relate to the managerial functions of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling. This article presents a guide for assessing and changing time-wasting behaviors. PMID:6368769
The amount of time allocated for learning and the way that time is used is one of the few variables that can be influenced rather directly by school leaders. Fortunately, it is also a variable that has shown consistent links to student performance. Now that schools are focused directly, and in some cases exclusively, on student achievement, there…
This tutorial will help students learn and understand the concepts of geologic time and the age of the Earth. They will investigate the geologic time scale and learn about the use of index fossils and radiometric dating to determine the age of rock formations and fossils.
The most intensely discussed and controversial issue in time keeping has been the proposal before the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) to redefine Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) so as to replace leap seconds by leap hours. Should this proposal be adopted, the practice of inserting leap seconds would cease after a specific date. Should the Earth's rotation continue to de-accelerate at
Demetrios Matsakis; Pascale Defraigne; M. Hosokawa; S. Leschiutta; G. Petit; Z.-C. Zhai
A complaint received by the Department of Education alleged that Virginia Tech violated the "timely warning" requirements of the Clery Act on April 16, 2007, by not issuing specific campus-wide alerts once senior officials knew of the immediate threat to health and safety. The complaint also alleged that the University's timely warning policy, as…
The time resolution of the planar HPGe detectors was investigated with small value of the dead layer of (p, n) transition. The time resolution is 2tau/sub 0/=0.95 ns for Esub( gamma )1332 keV in coincidence with beta /sup -/-particles of /sup 60/Co. 4 ref...
V. N. Abrosimov V. A. Morozov B. P. Osipenko F. Prazhak V. I. Stegajlov
We outline our strategies for accelerating time integration for long-running simulations, such as those for global climate modeling. The strategies target the Cray XT systems at the National Center for Computational Sciences at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Our strategies include fully implicit, parallel-in-time, and curvelet methods.
White III, James B [ORNL; Drake, John B [ORNL; Worley, Patrick H [ORNL; Archibald, Richard K [ORNL; Evans, Katherine J [ORNL; Kothe, Douglas B [ORNL
The GR Schwarzschild Time uses the Schwarzschild metric to show the local time at points near a black hole in comparison to the time measured by a faraway observer. It also shows sinusoidal signals emitted from nearby points as recorded by a local (shell) observer. The default configuration is three observers near a black hole. GR Schwarzschild Time is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of General Relativity. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the gr_schwarzschild_time.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Other programs provide additional visualizations. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or General Relativity.
In this paper, we consider that our experience of time (to come) depends on the emotions we feel when we imagine future pleasant or unpleasant events. A positive emotion such as relief or joy associated with a pleasant event that will happen in the future induces impatience. Impatience, in our context, implies that the experience of time up to the forthcoming event expands. A negative emotion such as grief or frustration associated with an unpleasant event that will happen in the future triggers anxiety. This will give the experience of time contraction. Time, therefore, is not exogeneously given to the individual and emotions, which link together events or situations, are a constitutive ingredient of the experience of time. Our theory can explain experimental evidence that people tend to prefer to perform painful actions earlier than pleasurable ones, contrary to the predictions yielded by the standard exponential discounting framework.
This handy site gives times for locations worldwide. Users click on a location on the left-hand side of the screen, and the current time at that location, together with a graphic showing the area of the world, appears on the right. Users can opt to list locations by country or city, and the list is searchable. Perhaps most convenient for those making international conference calls or similarly time-fraught arrangements is the Future Event Planner function, which allows users to enter a location and a future date and time, and then a second location so that they can see, for example, what time it will be in Bangladesh when it is nine a.m. next Thursday in Denver.
Money, a resource that absorbs much daily attention, seems to be involved in much unethical behavior, which suggests that money itself may corrupt. This research examined a way to offset such potentially deleterious effects-by focusing on time, a resource that tends to receive less attention than money but is equally ubiquitous in daily life. Across four experiments, we examined whether shifting focus onto time can salvage individuals' ethicality. We found that implicitly activating the construct of time, rather than money, leads individuals to behave more ethically by cheating less. We further found that priming time reduces cheating by making people reflect on who they are. Implications for the use of time primes in discouraging dishonesty are discussed. PMID:24317421
Many human-related activities show power-law decaying interevent time distribution with exponents usually varying between 1 and 2. We study a simple task-queuing model, which produces bursty time series due to the non-trivial dynamics of the task list. The model is characterized by a priority distribution as an input parameter, which describes the choice procedure from the list. We give exact results on the asymptotic behaviour of the model and we show that the interevent time distribution is power-law decaying for any kind of input distributions that remain normalizable in the infinite list limit, with exponents tunable between 1 and 2. The model satisfies a scaling law between the exponents of interevent time distribution (?) and autocorrelation function (?): ? + ? = 2. This law is general for renewal processes with power-law decaying interevent time distribution. We conclude that slowly decaying autocorrelation function indicates long-range dependence only if the scaling law is violated.
The meaning of time asymmetry in quantum physics is discussed. On the basis of a mathematical theorem, the Stone-von Neumann theorem, the solutions of the dynamical equations, the Schrödinger equation (1) for states or the Heisenberg equation (6a) for observables are given by a unitary group. Dirac kets require the concept of a RHS (rigged Hilbert space) of Schwartz functions; for this kind of RHS a mathematical theorem also leads to time symmetric group evolution. Scattering theory suggests to distinguish mathematically between states (defined by a preparation apparatus) and observables (defined by a registration apparatus (detector)). If one requires that scattering resonances of width ? and exponentially decaying states of lifetime ?=h/? should be the same physical entities (for which there is sufficient evidence) one is led to a pair of RHS's of Hardy functions and connected with it, to a semigroup time evolution t0?t, with the puzzling result that there is a quantum mechanical beginning of time, just like the big bang time for the universe, when it was a quantum system. The decay of quasi-stable particles is used to illustrate this quantum mechanical time asymmetry. From the analysis of these processes, we show that the properties of rigged Hilbert spaces of Hardy functions are suitable for a formulation of time asymmetry in quantum mechanics.
Bohm, Arno R.; Gadella, Manuel; Kielanowski, Piotr
The purpose of this study was to examine the allocation of nursing time to various activities of registered and assistant nurses during the day shift. Twenty-three registered (RN) and eighteen assistant nurses (AN) working in medical and surgical wards of five large hospitals were studied. The findings have shown that the most frequent activities performed were; indirect care representing 35.6% of the time, direct care representing 23.8% of the time, personal activities representing 16.8% of the time, and direct nursing interventions representing 8.2% of the time. Cross-tabulation revealed that RNs provided direct care less frequently and indirect care more frequently than ANs (25.3 activities per RN and 27.5 per AN, 62.1 activities per RN and 32.6 per AN, respectively). Many indirect care activities were found to be the responsibility of the head nurse (64), secretary (465), and others (104). Less expected results were the minimal amounts of time spent on both education and research activities (1.3% and 0.0% respectively). Nurse managers have to free nurses from subsidiary work and to find mechanisms to distribute nursing valuable time more efficiently. PMID:9060782
Lemonidou, C; Plati, C; Brokalaki, H; Mantas, J; Lanara, V
Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay provides a first output signal at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits latch the high resolution data to form a first synchronizing data set. A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an internal which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD to generate a second set of synchronizing data which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data for presentation to logic circuits. The logic circuits further delay the internal output signal with the internal pulses. The final delayed output signal thereafter enables the output pulse generator to produce the desired output pulse at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse.
The development of life remains one of the most fascinating topics in modern biology. Our quest to discover unifying principles is rooted in a desire to find reason and order in processes that are at once overwhelming and chaotic. We have been vigorously engaged in dissecting development across species at molecular and genomic levels. The intricate machineries that have been uncovered so far operate together in precise manners, at not only the right places, but equally important, at the correct times. This week, Science's Special Issue on Developmental Timing describes our knowledge of some of the rules and measures of time, a core dimension in understanding how development is controlled.
Lisa D. Chong (American Association for the Advancement of Science;Associate Editor of Science's STKE and Associate Editor of Science REV); Elizabeth M. Adler (American Association for the Advancement of Science;Associate Editor of Science's STKE REV); Nancy R. Gough (American Association for the Advancement of Science;Managing Editor of Science's STKE REV)
Entropy creation rate is introduced for a system interacting with thermostats (i.e., for a system subject to internal conservative forces interacting with "external" thermostats via conservative forces) and a fluctuation theorem for it is proved. As an application, a time scale is introduced, to be interpreted as the time over which irreversibility becomes manifest in a process leading from an initial to a final stationary state of a mechanical system in a general nonequilibrium context. The time scale is evaluated in a few examples, including the classical Joule-Thompson process (gas expansion in a vacuum). PMID:16822023
In this classroom activity, middle school students gain an understanding of geologic time. The activity opens with background information for teachers about carbon and radiometric dating. In a classroom discussion, students share what they know about geologic time. Then, working in small groups responsible for different eras, students create a timeline for their assigned era by conducting library and Internet research. The activity concludes by having students review all the timelines to compare how long humans have been on the Earth to the length of time dinosaurs inhabited the planet.
As the world's news flows increasingly from Asian nations, those people looking for a credible online source that concentrates on this region will find it in Asia Times Online. The site's front page features top stories from Asia Times journalists as well as from other online dailies and reports, including the South China Morning Post, Business Times Online, and the Australian Financial Review. The site offers separate sections for China, Southeast Asia, Japan, the Koreas, India/ Pakistan, Central Asia, and Oceania as well as departments devoted to Business Briefs, Global Economy, and Media and Industrial Technology. The entire site, including archives, is searchable.
A popular survey of the evolution of ideas of space, time, and gravitation from antiquity to the present day is given. The main stages in the development of general relativity are summarized. Fundamental results of current relativity theory are reviewed, including the equivalence principle and gravitational redshift, Schwarzschild space-time, the riddle of Mercury, gravitational lenses, and the monad method. Prospects of the further development of space-time theory are discussed; attention is given to gravitational waves, black holes, and generalizations of Einstein's gravitation theory.
An animation of a red car moving to the right, hitting a wall and then moving backward to the left is shown. Also shown is one of four possible graphs depicting the car's position as a function of time.
This online calculator helps students understand the classic analogy of relating the geologic time scale to a yard stick. It will help reinforce the concept of the briefness of human history relative to the age of the Earth.
I AM writing to give an update on the figures that were published in the April 2014 issue of Nursing Management, in the article entitled 'Creating more time in the day for patient care' (page 9). PMID:24967797
We examine time scales for phase space orbits in a FRW cosmological model coupled to a scalar field. The cosmological model from the Einstein field equations are coupled to the Klein-Gordon equation for a spin zero scalar field with an interaction potential V(?). The resulting cosmological equations are nonlinear in the scale cosmic parameter and scalar field. The equations can be linearized in the neighborhood of equilibrium points and then diagonalized to yield a classification of solutions. Some of the solutions exhibit a sensitive dependence on initial conditions and an exponential deviation or orbits in phase space. Such deviations can be characterized by a predictability time beyond which all information about the initial state of the system is lost. We calculate the predictability time in terms of the scalar field potential function for this system and compare it to the cosmic spacetime big rip time scale for a scalar field source term.
This Geological Society of America (GSA) site contains a detailed geologic time scale as an educational resource. It may be downloaded to a larger size, and includes all Eras, Eons, Periods, Epochs and ages as well as magnetic polarity information.
Songbirds tend to breed at the same time their primary prey is most abundant. Climate warming appears to be disrupting this match, causing reproductive failures in some species. Scientists have detected the consequences of warming for birds primarily thro
Constible, Juanita; Sandro, Luke; Lee Jr., Richard E.
Small hospitals and other health care organizations often have a hard time hiring physis . Some are finding success by offering extended paid leaves for doctors with a passion for working in medically challenged communities at home and abroad. PMID:24649733
Purpose: The Mobility Times periodical is published quarterly by Mobility Concepts Agency (MCA) located at Fort Monroe, Virginia. MCA is a multi-Service organization sponsored by the Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) and the Air Mobility Command...
The Mobility Times periodical is published quarterly by Mobility Concepts Agency (MCA) located at Fort Monroe, Virginia. MCA is a multi-Service organization sponsored by the Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) and the Air Mobility Command (AMC). T...
This USGS site employs graphics and text to explain geological time. The different geological eons, eras, epochs and periods are defined and put into perspective. The site also provides links to many terms and concepts for further exploration.
Bunched beam transfer from one accelerator to another requires coordination and synchronization of many ramped devices. During collider operation timing issues are more complicated since one has to switch from proton injection devices to antiproton inject...
... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Time to Go Local! Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... MedlinePlus.gov health topic pages, you will find "Go Local" links that take you to information about ...
The Grand Time Game is a collection of activities that teach students about geologic time. The game elements consist of a tabletop model that demonstrates the geologic history of the Grand Canyon, a script in which students report selected events along the geologic time scale as the instructor operates the model, and a set of overhead transparencies that the instructor shows to illustrate the story. The materials also include an activity sheet for students to record important events as they progress, and a card game about fossils and geologic time, played in groups of three or four students after the script reading (the cards can also be pasted onto a calendar or timeline). Instructions for building the model are provided.
Time/loss analysis (T/LA) is a technique originally developed within the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), to evaluate response performance in dangerous goods transportation emergencies. It analyzes the effect of intervenors in an accident situ...
... test may include: Excessive bleeding Fainting or feeling light-headed Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin) Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken) Multiple punctures to locate veins
Experimental evidence suggests that emotions can both speed-up and slow-down the internal clock. Speeding up has been observed for to-be-timed emotional stimuli that have the capacity to sustain attention, whereas slowing down has been observed for to-be-timed neutral stimuli that are presented in the context of emotional distractors. These effects have been explained by mechanisms that involve changes in bodily arousal, attention, or sentience. A review of these mechanisms suggests both merits and difficulties in the explanation of the emotion-timing link. Therefore, a hybrid mechanism involving stimulus-specific sentient representations is proposed as a candidate for mediating emotional influences on time. According to this proposal, emotional events enhance sentient representations, which in turn support temporal estimates. Emotional stimuli with a larger share in ones sentience are then perceived as longer than neutral stimuli with a smaller share.
The multiple time scale decomposition of discrete time, finite state Markov chains is addressed. In previous works, the behavior of a continuous time Markov chain is approximated using a fast time scale, epsilon-independent, continuous time process, and a...
Imagining Deep Time '...the mind seemed to grow giddy by looking so far into the abyss of time.' John Playfair (1748 -1819), scientist and mathematician "Man cannot afford to conceive of nature and exclude himself." Emmit Gowin, photographer 'A person would have to take themselves out of the human context to begin to think in terms of geologic time. They would have to think like a rock.' Terry Falke, photographer The term Deep Time refers to the vastness of the geological time scale. First conceived in the 18th century, the development of this perspective on time has been pieced together like a jigsaw puzzle of information and observations drawn from the study of the earth's structure and discovered fossilized flora and fauna. Deep time may possibly be the greatest contribution made by the discipline of geology forever impacting our perception of earth and our relationship to it. How do we grasp such vast concepts as deep time which relates to the origins of the earth or cosmic time which relates to the origins of the universe - concepts that exist far beyond the realm of human experience? Further more how do we communicate this? The ability to visualize is a powerful tool of discovery and communication for the scientist and it is part and parcel of the work of visual artists. The scientific process provides evidence yet it is imagination on the part of the scientists and artists alike that is needed to interpret that information. This exhibition represents an area where both rational and intuitive thinking come together to explore this question of how we relate to the vastness of time. The answer suggested by the combination of art work assembled here suggests that we do so through a combination of visual metaphors (cycles, circles, arrows, trajectories) and visual evidence (rock formations, strata, fossils of fauna and flora) while being mediated through various technologies. One provides factual and empirical evidence while the other provides a way of grasping and relating to a vast concept on a personal level. This exhibition explores the usefulness as well as the limitations of the visualization of deep time.
We present an integrated geomagnetic polarity and stratigraphic time scale for the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous periods of the Mesozoic Era, with age estimates and uncertainty limits for stage boundaries. The time scale uses a suite of 324 radiometric dates, including high-resolution Ar-40\\/Ar-39 age estimates. This framework involves the observed ties between (1) radiometric dates, biozones, and stage boundaries, and
Felix M. Gradstein; Frits P. Agterberg; James G. Ogg; Jan Hardenbol; Paul van Veen; Jacques Thierry; Zehui Huang
This time scale allows students to select multiple time periods from a list and view them on a highlighted display. It shows the relationship between eon, era, period, sub-period, and epoch and also includes the date in mega-annum (Ma) or millions of years before present. The scale reflects the changes in the Cenozoic Era (Tertiary and Quaternary have been eliminated and the Neogene modified) in the most recent International Stratigraphic Charts.
Functional reactive programming (FRP) is a declarative programming paradigm where the basic notions are continuous, time-varying behaviors and discrete, event-based reactivity. FRP has been used successfully in many reactive programming domains such as animation, robotics, and graphical user interfaces. The success of FRP in these domains encourages us to consider its use in real-time applications, where it is crucial that
In recent years, improved astrometric and spectroscopic techniques have opened the possibility of measuring the temporal change of radial and transverse position of sources in the sky over relatively short time intervals. This has made at least conceivable to establish a novel research domain, which we dub “real-time cosmology”. We review for the first time most of the work already done in this field, analysing the theoretical framework as well as some foreseeable observational strategies and their capability to constrain models. We first focus on real-time measurements of the overall redshift drift and angular separation shift in distant sources, which allows the observer to trace the background cosmic expansion and large scale anisotropy, respectively. We then examine the possibility of employing the same kind of observations to probe peculiar and proper accelerations in clustered systems, and therefore their gravitational potential. The last two sections are devoted to the future change of the cosmic microwave background on “short” time scales, as well as to the temporal shift of the temperature anisotropy power spectrum and maps. We conclude revisiting in this context the usefulness of upcoming experiments (like CODEX and Gaia) for real-time observations.
Quercellini, Claudia; Amendola, Luca; Balbi, Amedeo; Cabella, Paolo; Quartin, Miguel
Time plays a central role in consciousness, at different levels and in different aspects of information processing. Subliminal perception experiments demonstrate that stimuli presented too briefly to enter conscious awareness are nevertheless processed to some extent. Implicit learning, implicit memory, and conditioning studies suggest that the extent to which memory traces are available for verbal report and for cognitive control is likewise dependent on the time available for processing during acquisition. Differences in the time available for processing also determine not only the extent to which one becomes conscious of action, but also provides the basis for making attributions of authorship to experienced acts. In this paper, we offer a brief overview of these different findings and suggest that they can all be understood based on the fact that consciousness takes time. From this perspective, the availability of representations to conscious awareness depends on the quality of these representations - the extent to which they are strong, stable in time, and distinctive. High-quality representations occur when processes of global competition have had sufficient time to operate so as to make the system settle into the best possible interpretation of the input. Such processes implement global constraint satisfaction and critically depend on reentrant processing, through which representations can be further enriched by high-level constraints. We discuss these ideas in light of current theories of consciousness, emphasizing the fact that consciousness should be viewed as a process rather than as a static property associated with some states and not with others. PMID:17346837
Time-distance helioseismology is a method of ambient noise imaging using the solar oscillations. The basic realization that led to time-distance helioseismology was that the temporal cross correlation of the signals at two 'surface' (or photospheric) locations should show a feature at the time lag corresponding to the subsurface travel time between the locations. The temporal cross correlation, as a function of the location separation, is the Fourier transform of the spatio-temporal power spectrum of the solar oscillations, a commonly used function in helioseismology. It is therefore likely the characteristic ridge structure of the correlation function had been seen before without appreciation of its significance. Travel times are measured from the cross correlations. The times are sensitive to a number of important subsurface solar phenomena. These include sound speed variations, flows, and magnetic fields. There has been much interesting progress in the 17 years since the first paper on this subject (Duvall et al., Nature, 1993, 362, 430-432). This progress will be reviewed in this paper.
We study out Earth for many reasons: to find water to drink or oil to run our cars or coal to heat our homes, to know where to expect earthquakes or landslides or floods, and to try to understand our natural surroundings. Earth is constantly changing--nothing on its surface is truly permanent. Rocks that are not on top of a mountain may once have been on the bottom of the sea. Thus, to understand the world we live on, we must add the dimension of time. We must study Earth's history. When we talk about recorded history, time is measured in years, centuries, and tens of centuries. When we talk about Earth history, time is measured in millions and billions of years. Time is an everyday part of our lives. We keep track of time with a marvelous invention, the calendar, which is based on the movements of the Earth in space. One spin of Earth on its axis is a day, and one trip around the sun is a year. The modern calendar is a great achievement, developed over many thousands of years as theory and technology improved. People who study Earth's history also use a type of calendar, called the geologic time scale. It looks very different from the familiar calendar. In some ways, it is more like a book, and the rocks are its pages. Some of the pages are torn or missing, and the pages are not numbered, but geology gives us the tools to help us read this book.
Offspring of parents with exceptional longevity (OPEL), who are more likely to carry longevity-associated genotypes, may age more successfully than offspring of parents with usual survival (OPUS). Maintenance of physical function is a key attribute of successful aging. While many genetic and non-genetic factors interact to determine physical phenotype in aging, examination of the contribution of exceptional parental longevity to physical function in aging is limited. The LonGenity study recruited a relatively genetically homogenous cohort of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) adults age 65 and older, who were defined as either OPEL (having at least one parent who lived to age 95 or older) or OPUS (neither parent survived to age 95). Subjective and objective measures of physical function were compared between the two groups, accounting for potential confounders. Of the 893 LonGenity subjects, 365 were OPEL and 528 were OPUS. OPEL had better objective and subjective measures of physical function than OPUS, especially on unipedalstance (p?=?0.009) and gait speed (p?=?0.002). Results support the protective role of exceptional parental longevity in preventing decline in physical function, possibly via genetic mechanisms that should be further explored. PMID:24997018
The quest for the highest resolution microwave imaging and principle of time-domain imaging has been the primary motivation for recent developments in time-domain techniques. With the present technology, fast time varying signals can now be measured and recorded both in magnitude and in-phase. It has also enhanced our ability to extract relevant details concerning the scattering object. In the past, the interface of object geometry or shape for scattered signals has received substantial attention in radar technology. Various scattering theories were proposed to develop analytical solutions to this problem. Furthermore, the random inversion, frequency swept holography, and the synthetic radar imaging, have two things in common: (1) the physical optic far-field approximation, and (2) the utilization of channels as an extra physical dimension, were also advanced. Despite the inherent vectorial nature of electromagnetic waves, these scalar treatments have brought forth some promising results in practice with notable examples in subsurface and structure sounding. The development of time-domain techniques are studied through the theoretical aspects as well as experimental verification. The use of time-domain imaging for space robotic vision applications has been suggested.
The paper discusses current methods for accurate measurements of time by conventional atomic clocks, with particular attention given to the principles of operation of atomic-beam frequency standards, atomic hydrogen masers, and atomic fountain and to the potential use of strings of trapped mercury ions as a time device more stable than conventional atomic clocks. The areas of application of the ultraprecise and ultrastable time-measuring devices that tax the capacity of modern atomic clocks include radio astronomy and tests of relativity. The paper also discusses practical applications of ultraprecise clocks, such as navigation of space vehicles and pinpointing the exact position of ships and other objects on earth using the GPS.
The dynamics of a two-state decision-making model (DMM) with a tunable control parameter K is described. On all-to-all (ATA) networks, the system undergoes a phase transition at a critical value of Kc=1. Scale-free networks were also found to undergo phase transitions, but the value of Kc increases as the scale-free exponent increases. Time to consensus is defined as a first passage time to a specified threshold of the global mean field, which represents a level of majority for the network. At criticality, the time to consensus for sparse networks with broad degree distributions (e.g., scale-free networks) approaches that of the ATA networks, although somewhat more cooperation (higher Kc) is required.
Hollingshad, Nicholas W.; Svenkeson, Adam; West, Bruce J.; Grigolini, Paolo
Environmental influence on developmental plasticity impacts a wide diversity of animal life from insects to humans. We now understand the epigenetic basis for many of these altered phenotypes. The five environmental factors of nutrition, behavior, stress, toxins and stochasticity work individually and in concert to affect the developing epigenome. During early embryogenesis, epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, are reset at specific times. Two waves of global demethylation and reestablishment of methylation frame the sensitive times for early environmental influences and will be the focus of this review. Gene transcription, translation and post-translational modification of chromatin remodeling complexes are three mechanisms affected by developmental exposure to environmental factors. To illustrate how changes in the early environment profoundly affect these mechanisms, we provide examples throughout the animal kingdom. Herein we review the history, time points and mechanisms of epigenetic gene-environment interaction.
This activity provides a brief introduction to GPS and provides a student activity to practice creating and reading time series plots with simplified GPS data. Students graph how a tectonic plate (and the GPS unit attached to it) has moved over a five year time period by moving a GPS model across a North-East coordinate graph. Students practice these skills by analyzing GPS time series from two GPS stations in Iceland. Teaching Tips Adaptations that allow this activity to be successful in an online environment Need to really transform to an online environment. I did have one participant draw the vectors on an online map of Iceland - however, only one person gets to do this, so I'd like to figure out other techniques for this. Elements of this activity that are most effective Recommendations for other faculty adapting this activity to their own course:
Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components.
The collision integral terms in Boltzmann equation are reformulated numerically leading to the substitution of the multiple integrals with a multiplicative matrix of the two colliding species velocity distribution functions which varies with the differential collision cross section. A matrix of lower rank may be constructed when one of the distribution functions is specified, in which case the matrix elements represent kinetic transition probabilities in the velocity space and the multiplication of the time rate collision matrix with the unknown velocity distribution function expresses the time rate of change of the distribution. The collision matrix may be used to describe the time evolution of systems in nonequilibrium conditions, to evaluate the rate of momentum and energy transfer between given species, or to generate validity criteria for linearized kinetic equations.
It is very interesting question whether time if a priori in mankind's thinking or whether it is a category which results from experience. Each human being has a memory so that he is able to distinguish between the past and the present, but not every language has a word expressing the common idea of time. In hunting and gathering populations such as Bushmen and Yumbri no one can state his own age. In chronobiology, the most important zeitgebers are the sun and the moon. Certain peasant peoples, such as the Santals and Mundas in India, even today use the same word to express sun, Sun-God, daylight, day, day-time, and hour. The first generalized idea of "time" seems to have arisen in the civilization of Old Mesopotamia. While the general meaning was still unknown to Sumerian, Accadian priest-astronomers presumably created the conception by generalization of the (Sumerian) foreign word itu(d) "mouth" and its mingling with the Accadian ittu(m) "sign (as an eclipse, monstrous birth, etc.), term, moment". We find the same root in the Etruscan itus "ides" from which it came as a loan-word into Latin (idus "ides"). Newton's term duratio can be found in earliest Iranian as yav- "yoke" and Vedic Indian as yugam "yoke" (i.e., a "bound" time). Some remarks are made concerning mankind's earliest chronobiological thinking where menstruation serves as a model. West African Kwa languages (predominantly Ewe), Old Indian, and early-classical chinese are evaluated. A brief survey is given of prehistoric peoples' migrations in terms of languages. The presentation concludes with an attempt to define time as an abstraction of abstractions, a fussy set (of ideas and definitions) in terms of post-classical set theory. PMID:7129063
The European Pulsar Timing Array is a collaboration that has recently been formed between the five major radio observatories in Europe: Jodrell Bank, Effelsberg, Westerbork, Nançay and Sardinia. Together we work towards detecting gravitational waves. We combine the individual strengths of all the different observatories to obtain improved results. We give a short introduction on the partners, goals and instrumentation of this collaboration. Besides gravitational wave detection, the EPTA collaboration is sharing data to optimize timing on, for example, millisecond binary pulsars. We present some recent results of combining datasets of the four telescopes now in use for the EPTA.
Janssen, G. H.; Stappers, B. W.; Kramer, M.; Purver, M.; Jessner, A.; Cognard, I.
Turnaround time (TAT) is one of the most noticeable signs of laboratory service and is often used as a key performance indicator of laboratory performance. This review summarises the literature regarding laboratory TAT, focusing on the different definitions, measures, expectations, published data, associations with clinical outcomes and approaches to improve TAT. It aims to provide a consolidated source of benchmarking data useful to the laboratory in setting TAT goals and to encourage introduction of TAT monitoring for continuous quality improvement. A 90% completion time (sample registration to result reporting) of <60 minutes for common laboratory tests is suggested as an initial goal for acceptable TAT.
Through a series of simple body movements, learners gain insight into the relationship between time and astronomical motions of Earth (rotation about its axis, and orbit around the Sun), and also about how these motions influence what we see in the sky at various times of the day and year. This activity can be used to introduce seasons on Earth and other planets. Learners will especially enjoy finding their birthdays in the orbit and using a zodiac diagram. This comprehensive lesson plan includes detailed background information, common misconceptions, extensions, teacher tips, references/resources, and FAQs.
Circuits is a new New York Times weekly offering intended to enhance the newspaper's technology coverage. It contains regular gaming and computer columns, along with an eclectic mix of articles and essays that address in a general way the interaction between humans and technology. The first three issues contained articles on where computers go to die, music and jobs on the web, computer games for girls, online auctions, home theatre, web TV, and computer ergonomics, among others. At present, Circuit archives are available. Note that the New York Times is freely available (after required registration) to users in the US.
The times required to travel to the various planets at an acceleration of one g are calculated. Surrounding gravitational fields are neglected except for a relatively short distance near take-off or landing. The orbit consists of an essentially straight line with the thrust directed toward the destination up to the halfway point, but in the opposite direction for the remainder so that the velocity is zero on arrival. A table lists the approximate times required, and also the maximum velocities acquired in light units v/c for the various planets.
List of contributors; 1. Introduction Gerhard Ernst and Andreas Hütteman; Part I. The Arrows of Time: 2. Does a low-entropy constraint prevent us from influencing the past? Mathias Frisch; 3. The part hypothesis meets gravity Craig Callender; 4. Quantum gravity and the arrow of time Claus Kiefer; Part II. Probability and Chance: 5. The natural-range conception of probability Jacob Rosenthal; 6. Probability in Boltzmannian statistical mechanics Roman Frigg; 7. Humean mechanics versus a metaphysics of powers Michael Esfeld; Part III. Reduction: 8. The crystallisation of Clausius's phenomenological thermodynamics C. Ulises Moulines; 9. Reduction and renormalization Robert W. Batterman; 10. Irreversibility in stochastic dynamics Jos Uffink; Index.
This iOS app allows learners to practice reading both a digital and analog clock. Learners can choose between either "Set the Time" or "Stop the Clock" games. In the first game players move the hour and/or minute hand to show the target time. In the second game players stop the clock on the exact minute and hour described. Two versions of the clock are available in the lite version of the app. Additional clocks and games are available with upgrade to full version ($) of the app.
Preface; 1. The dark universe A. N. Taylor; 2. Quantum spacetime and physical reality S. Majid; 3. Causality, quantum theory and cosmology R. Penrose; 4. On the fine structure of spacetime A. Connes; 5. Where physics meets metaphysics M. Heller; 6. The nature of time J. C. Polkinghorne; Index.
Majid, Shahn; Connes, With contributions by Alain; Heller, Michael; Penrose, Roger; Polkinghorne, John; Taylor, Andrew
Measurements of various parameters derived from different reaction time (RT) paradigms are found to be correlated with psychometric measurements of general mental ability. Such RT-derived measurements, when combined in a multiple regression equation, predict some 50 percent or more of the variance in intelligence. This relationship of intelligence…
More than 2000 pulsars are now known. These pulsars may be divided into a number of different classes according to their period, period derivative, binary properties, emission characteristics and so on. Some important classes have relatively few members, e.g. double-neutron-star binary systems, and so continued searches for currently unknown pulsars are important. Such searches are being undertaken at various observatories around the world. Somewhat unexpectedly, the Fermi Gamma-ray Observatory, has proved to be an efficient pulsar detector, especially for millisecond pulsars (MSPs). The great stability of pulsar periods, especially for MSPs, leads to a number of important applications of pulsar timing. The detection and study of relativistic orbit perturbations in double-neutron-star systems has proved to be a powerful tool with measurements of the original binary pulsar, PSR B1913+16, and more recently the double pulsar, PSR J0737-3039A/B, showing that Einstein's general theory of relativity accurately describes these gravitational interactions. Direct detection of gravitational waves using pulsar timing is close to being achieved with the development of pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) in Europe, North America and Australia. Combining data from these PTAs to form the International Pulsar Timing Array (IPTA) will lead to improved significance of such a detection. Ultimately, detailed study of gravitational-wave sources will be possible using future large radio telescopes such as FAST and the SKA.
To determine the average time students take to complete an associate degree, certificate, or diploma, Harrisburg Area Community College (HACC), in Pennsylvania, conducted a study of all 944 students who graduated during the 1991-92 academic year. Data for the sample were gathered related to age, sex, grade point average, academic major, attendance…
Harrisburg Area Community Coll., PA. Office of Institutional Research.
A new principal, Larry Montgomery, discovers that a decision he made the previous year may have cost a professor her job. He thinks back over the circumstances that led him to what he thought at the time was the best decision for him. He thought he had to agree with a teacher who wanted the university supervisor for her student
We consider the problem of visualizing the evolution of tags within the Flickr (flickr.com) online image sharing com- munity. Any user of the Flickr service may append a tag to any photo in the system. Over the past year, users have on average added over a million tags each week. Under- standing the evolution of these tags over time is
Micah Dubinko; Ravi Kumar; Joseph Magnani; Jasmine Novak; Prabhakar Raghavan; Andrew Tomkins
Educators have known for some time now that a one-size-fits-all approach to learning does not lead to the level of student engagement and academic success that schools strive to achieve. In their search for a more customized approach to delivering instruction, they've explored project-based learning, addressed different learning styles, and…
Purkinje cells in the brain region known as the cerebellum act by inhibiting their target neurons. A paper in this issue provides an explanation for how this inhibition might be used to control the timing of action potentials. But experts are not equally convinced about the functional relevance of this finding.
The employment of community college instructors on a part-time basis provides the opportunity for students to study under outstanding instructors whose primary employment may be in industry or in other postsecondary institutions and permits colleges to respond better to community needs with the financial resources available to them. Along with…
A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.
Candy, James V. (Danville, CA); Meyer, Alan W. (Danville, CA)
The aviation sector is in turbulent times. On top of increased security concerns, oil price rises and health scares, it now finds itself at the centre of the climate change debate. Previously highly resilient to short-term ‘shocks’, it remains unclear as to how the aviation sector will respond to persistent and significant pressure to mitigate its global carbon emissions. From
It is shown that every deterministic multitape Turing machine of time complexity t(n) can be simulated by a deterministic Turing machine of tape complexity t(n)/log t(n). Consequently for tape constructable t(n), the class of languages recognizable by mul...
We introduce a new class of two-dimensional diagrams, the projection diagrams, as a tool to visualize the global structure of space-times. We construct the diagrams for several metrics of interest, including the Kerr-Newman-(anti)de Sitter family, with or without cosmological constant, and the Emparan-Reall black rings.
Chru?ciel, Piotr T.; Ölz, Christa R.; Szybka, Sebastian J.
An algorithm for determining the minimum time trajectory (path and velocity along that path) for a robot arm with actuator constraints is presented. The method combines the control theory and the exhaustive search approaches to yield an algorithm that is faster than either approach. The method consists of first parameterizing the path in the configuration space, then, given a path,
It is shown that there are differential equations of diffusion or wave type, which exhibit time symmetry and hence can be used for description of the irreversible evolution of entropy. It is found that the solution to the "entropy equation" is monotone increasing, and the Bekenstein-Hawking and Boltzmann entropy or relativistic-plasma entropy can be its horizontal asymptotics.
Measurement is one of the core NCTM Principals and Standards for School Mathematics content standards, and rate is central to its practical application. While most middle school students know the distance-rate-time formula, they may still benefit from a closer study of the relationship through these online resources.
National Science Digital Library (NSDL) Middle School Portal Staff
Ride the Web Geological Time Machine at the University of California Museum of Paleontology. Click on an item in the list of 25 geological periods [15 of the 25 periods are available now, the remainder to be completed] and view a page describing each period, its subdivisions, and the life and fossils of that period.
This bookmark, designed for use with U.S. Geological Survey activities at the 2nd USA Science and Engineering Festival (April 26–29, 2012), is adapted from the more detailed Fact Sheet 2010–3059 "Divisions of Geologic Time." The information that it presents is widely sought by educators and students.
The effect of abrupt changes in environment on the athlete's organs, systems, and performance are discussed. Only differences in the behavior of the athletes caused by differences in time zones, and not those associated with altitude and/or climate, are c...
Discusses the accuracy of sundials and many factors which affect their ability to measure apparent local time. Provides directions for constructing a sundial, including how to make a universal dial. Includes background information regarding other types of sundials and descriptions of notable sundials. (DDR)
This series of six articles suggest ways vocational agriculture instructors can (1) delegate tasks to students and others, (2) organize daily activities in a priority manner to allow for the accomplishment of planned tasks, and (3) eliminate time wasting tasks. (LRA)
and from present to past. Your next birthday is in the future, but with the passage of time it draws nearer and nearer until it is present. 24 hours later it will be in the past, and then lapse forever deeper into history. And things get older: even if they don't wear out or lose their hair or change in
If an institutional vision aims to inspire and enliven the reality of a school, it is not enough to craft its declaration once at the time of its establishment and then never again. In a dynamic institution, envisioning is the neverending project of clarifying purposes, looking at current practice, reflecting on what is seen, and aspiring to…
Students in the United States spend much less time in school than do students in most other industrialized nations, and the school year has been essentially unchanged for more than a century. This is not to say that there is no interest in extending the school year. While there has been little solid evidence that doing so will improve learning…
This is a model for students to assemble, aimed at enhancing their knowledge of NASA spacecraft and scientific facts. The cover contains background information about the Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) mission as well as two language arts activities to reinforce space science vocabulary and concepts.
Characteristics of aluminum combustion are summarized in an overview of the subject, focusing on the burning time of individual particles. Combustion data from over ten different sources with almost 400 datum points have been cataloged and correlated. Available models have also been used to evaluate combustion trends with key environmental parameters. The fundamental concepts that control aluminum combustion are discussed,
This is a mobile for students to assemble, aimed at enhancing their knowledge of NASA spacecraft and scientific facts Each element of the mobile contains an image and one fact or scientific concept. The cover contains background information about NASA-s TIMED mission, and two language arts exercises to reinforce space science vocabulary.
This on-line book, published by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), discusses the use of fossils in determining the age of rocks. The publication covers how to place events in correct temporal order, a description of the geologic time scale, the use of fossils to indicate rock ages, the law of fossil succession, index fossils, and radioactive dating.
Recent analysis suggests that the classical dynamics of a tachyon on an unstable D-brane is described by a scalar Born Infeld type action with a runaway potential. The classical configurations in this theory at late time are in one to one correspondence with the configuration of a system of noninteracting (incoherent), nonrotating dust. We discuss some aspects of canonical quantization
It is shown here that it is possible to extract time-distance information from temporal cross-correlations of the intensity fluctuation on the solar surface. This approach opens the way for seismic studies of local solar phenomena such subsurface inhomogeneities near sunspots and should help to refine global models of the internal velocity stratification in the sun.
Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Jefferies, S. M.; Harvey, J. W.; Pomerantz, M. A.
It is proposed that superoscillations play an important role in the interferences that give rise to superluminal effects. To exemplify that, we consider a toy model that a wave packet to travel in zero time and negligible distortion, a distance arbitrarily larger than the width of the wave packet. The peak is shown to result from a superoscillatory superposition at
The conflicting views of time proposed by nineteenth century classical science on the one hand and by biological and cultural evolution on the other are examined in the light of recent discoveries concerning nonequilibrium systems. A new view emerges of the evolution of complex systems, one where determinism and chance both play important roles, and where man begins to find
Interviews with school board members and administrators produced a list of suggestions for balancing a budget in hard times. Among these are changing calendars and schedules to reduce heating and cooling costs; sharing personnel; rescheduling some extracurricular activities; and forming cooperative agreements with other districts. (MLF)
In order to help teachers envision digital products in action in classrooms, the authors look at three examples of how teachers they know enhance learning time by employing technology efficiently. The examples include: (1) a social studies teacher who begins each class period with a three-question formative assessment using the website…
In spite of tough financial times, resourceful school leaders devise ways to overcome challenges and improve education. To do this, they make strategic use of the resources they have. And they also cultivate learning communities. In this article, Elizabeth A. City describes how school leaders can make more strategic use of three essential…
Provides a lesson plan designed to introduce students in grades four-six to the concept of social realism as it is portrayed in twentieth century Latin American art. Uses Antonio Berni's "Noon Time" in implementing instructional strategies which enhance analysis, interpretation, and judgment. Suggests a creative activity for studying city…
Change is now a way of life; however, change is also a difficult and elusive process to manage effectively. Most change models are task focused and look at the practicalities of managing change as an isolated event very much in the ‘here and now’. This article, however, proposes a meta-model for managing the overall change process along a ‘time’ dimension.
Physiological and behavioral phenomena of many animals are restricted to certain times of the day. Many organisms show daily rhythms in their mating. The daily fl uctuation in mating activity of a few insects is controlled by an endogenous clock. The fruitfl y, Drosophila, is the most suitable mate- rial to characterize the genetic basis of circadian rhythms of mating
This experiment presents auditory stimuli and requires the participant to respond after hearing target stimuli under different conditions. This experiment gives students the opportunity to determine whether their reaction times are reliably different for tasks that require slightly different decisions. This page provides guidance for faculty who wish to incorporate this activity into their classroom.
Preface; 1. The dark universe A. N. Taylor; 2. Quantum spacetime and physical reality S. Majid; 3. Causality, quantum theory and cosmology R. Penrose; 4. On the fine structure of spacetime A. Connes; 5. Where physics meets metaphysics M. Heller; 6. The nature of time J. C. Polkinghorne; Index.
Majid, Shahn; Polkinghorne, With contributions by John; Penrose, Roger; Taylor, Andrew; Connes, Alain; Heller, Michael
After having talked about the geologic time scale (Precambrian: prior to 570 Ma; Paleozoic: 570-245 Ma; Mesozoic: 245-65 Ma; Cenozoic: 65 Ma - Present), I ask for two volunteers from the class to hold a rope that is 50 feet long. I say that one end is the beginning of the Earth (4.6 billion years ago), and the other is today. I then give out 16 clothes pins and ask various students to put a cloths pin on the 'time line' at various 'geologic events'. For example, I ask them to put one where the dinosaurs died out (end of the Mesozoic). They almost invariably put it much too old (65 Ma is less than 2% of Earth history!). Then I ask them to put one on their birthday (they now laugh). Then I ask them to put one where we think hominoids (humans) evolved (~3-4 Ma), and they realize that we have not been here very long geologically. Then I ask them to put one at the end of the Precambrian, where life took off in terms of the numbers of species, etc. They are amazed that this only represents less than 15% of Earth history. Throughout the activity I have a quiz going on where the students calculate percentages of Earth History for major geologic events, and compare it to their own ages. On their time scale, the dinosaurs died only about two 'months' ago! The exercise is very effective at letting them get a sense of how long geologic time is, and how 'recently' some major geologic events happened when you consider a time scale that is the age of the earth.
We propose timed (finite) automata to model the behavior of realtime systems over time. Our definition provides a simple, and yet powerful, way to annotate state-transition graphs with timing constraints using finitely many realvalued clocks . A timed automaton accepts timed words --- infinite sequences in which a real-valued time of occurrence is associated with each symbol. We study timed
The infrastructure to gather, store and access information about our environment is improving and growing rapidly. The increasing amount of information allows us to get a better understanding of the current state of our environment, historical processes and to simulate and predict the future state of the environment. Finer grained spatial and temporal data and more reliable communications make it easier to model dynamic states and ephemeral features. The exchange of information within and across geospatial domains is facilitated through the use of harmonized information models. The Observations & Measurements (O&M) developed through OGC and standardised by ISO is an example of such a cross-domain information model. It is used in many domains, including meteorology, hydrology as well as the emergency management. O&M enables harmonized representation of common metadata that belong to the act of determining the state of a feature property, whether by sensors, simulations or humans. In addition to the resulting feature property value, information such as the result quality but especially the time that the result applies to the feature property can be represented. Temporal metadata is critical to modelling past and future states of a feature. The features, and the semantics of each property, are defined in domain specific Application Schema using the General Feature Model (GFM) from ISO 19109 and usually encoded following ISO 19136. However, at the moment these standards provide only limited support for the representation and handling of time varying feature data. Features like rivers, wildfires or gas plumes have a defined state - for example geographic extent - at any given point in time. To keep track of changes, a more complex model for example using time-series coverages is required. Furthermore, the representation and management of feature property value changes via the service interfaces defined by OGC and ISO - namely: WFS and WCS - would be rather complex. Keeping track of feature property value corrections or even feature (state change) cancellations for auditing purposes is also not easy to achieve. The aviation domain has strong requirements to represent and manage the state of aeronautical features through time. Being able to efficiently encode and manage feature state changes, keeping track of all changes for auditing purposes and being able to determine the future state of an aeronautical feature as currently known to the system are vital for aeronautical applications. In order to support these requirements, the Aeronautical Information Exchange Model (AIXM) which has been developed by the aviation domain is based on the so called AIXM Temporality Model (AIXM-TM). The AIXM-TM defines various rules for modeling, representing and handling the state of aeronautical features through time. This is a promising approach that can be incorporated into the GFM so that ultimately the modeling and management of time varying feature data is supported in an interoperable and harmonized way in all geospatial domains. This presentation gives an introduction to the main concepts of the AIXM-TM. It also shows how the GFM can be extended to support time varying feature data. Finally, the relationship of O&M and time varying features is discussed.
Full-time students engaged in part-time studies have been a subject of increasing academic attention. This study extends work in this area by examining: the extent to which full-time undergraduate students undertake part-time employment, the reasons for working whilst studying full-time and the extent to which students relate their part-time…
We studied postural reactions evoked by vibrational stimulation of the anterior tibial and posterior neck muscles under three\\u000a different conditions of visual control (in a darkened room): (i) upon standing with the eyes open, EO, with perception of\\u000a a stationary 2D image of the visual environment on the screen, (ii) under conditions of perception of a 3D virtual visual\\u000a environment,
In response to the needs of a newly democratic South Africa, a new education policy required science teachers to integrate Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) with school science: Curriculum 2005 (C2005) was developed. The first phase of that curriculum was implemented in 1997 with the hope that by 2005 it would have been implemented in the entire…
This study focuses on ways that sixth graders reacted to the question of book awards and awards in general, positioning themselves as reflective inquirers as they engaged in the regular sixth-grade beginning-of-the-year curriculum--reading books that have been nominated for the state book award. The authors focus on four dispositions of critical…
Seventeen years ago Gloria Ladson-Billings (1995) published the landmark article "Toward a Theory of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy," giving a coherent theoretical statement for resource pedagogies that had been building throughout the 1970s and 1980s. I, like countless teachers and university-based researchers, have been inspired by what it means…
This article provides six case studies situated in an online community of practice relating to a module in a university Master of Arts in Education programme. During the module the online community allowed students to immerse themselves in problems brought to the community by their tutor. Students continued to participate in the online community of practice following the module, bringing
Science instructors have long known that the use of discrepant events with unexpected outcomes is a powerful method of activating thinking. A discrepant "teaching" event is similar to a discrepant science event in that it vividly portrays what is often an abstract construct or concept and has an unexpected outcome. The unexpected outcome creates…
In 1906, Pierre Marie triggered a heated controversy and an exchange of articles with Jules Dejerine over the localization of language functions in the human brain. The debate spread internationally. One of the timeliest responses, that appeared in print 1 month after Marie's paper, came from Christofredo Jakob, a Bavarian-born neuropathologist…
Tsapkini, Kyrana; Vivas, Ana B.; Triarhou, Lazaros C.
The differential contributions of static versus dynamic visual cues to postural control were studied in human subjects. Lateral body oscillations were measured with accelerometers located at head, hips and ankle levels, while subjects righted their balance under various mechanical conditions: i) on either a soft (foam rubber) support or a hard one, and ii) in either the classical or the
B. Amblard; J. Crémieux; A. R. Marchand; A. Carblanc
The Professional Standards Project (PSP) is a nationally coordinated professional learning program for languages teachers, to improve the quality of languages teaching and, thereby, improve student learning. It is based on the use of the "Professional standards for accomplished teaching of languages and cultures" (hereafter, "the Standards") as a…
Analyzed postural oscillations in six-, eight-, and 10-year-olds in four visual and two somatosensory conditions. Found that children were more stable with than without vision and more stable with a normal than with an altered support surface. Overall, there was no effect of age. The relative influence of peripheral and central vision on postural…
The notion of the devolution of power from central to regional and local levels is gaining popularity across a wide front as a point of departure ? a rudimentary strategy ? to conceptualise ways in which South African society can be transformed. The South African government has contributed to this exercise by launching a process of establishing Regional Services Councils,
Whether or not different environmentally beneficial choices have common motivational causes are discussed in the framework of partial correlation analysis with structural equation modeling. Correlations between recycling, buying organic food products, and using public transport or bicycle are analyzed based on telephone interviews with a random sample of about 1,100 Danish residents and two replication samples of about 300 from
Quasistatic multi-legged locomotion consists of a sequence of equilibrium postures where the mechanism supports itself against gravity while moving free limbs to new positions. A posture maintains equilibrium if the contacts can passively support the mechanism against gravity. This paper is concerned with computation and graphical characterization of equilibrium postures for mechanisms supported by frictional contacts in a three-dimensional gravitational
This paper attempts to unite "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros with the participant and spectator theories of James Britton and D. W. Harding in the hopes that such a union will provide new insights into each. In particular, this article explores how the speech acts of Esperanza, the novel's protagonist, are indicative of a shifting…
Using critical ethnography guided by cultural sociology, this paper examines the role of ‘co’ in teacher education; coresearching, coteaching, and cogenerating dialogue. The authors are a pre?service teacher and a college instructor, and through our multiple perspectives and positionings, we explore how collaboration served to dismantle teacher–student hierarchies and replaced them with complex relationships mediated by polysemic approaches to research.
The new South African curriculum known as Curriculum 2005 (to depict the year of its full implementation) requires that teachers integrate school science with Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS). Curriculum 2005 has generated heated debates at various levels since its inception in 1997. This study focuses on the effectiveness or otherwise of a…
Seventeen years ago Gloria Ladson-Billings (1995) published the landmark article “Toward a Theory of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy,” giving a coherent theoretical statement for resource pedagogies that had been building throughout the 1970s and 1980s. I, like countless teachers and university-based researchers, have been inspired by what it means to make teaching and learning relevant and responsive to the languages, literacies,
This article is based on a study of the changing meanings and experiences of citizenship and participation for young people in transition from primary to secondary school. One of the primary concerns of the study is to better understand how different professional practices impact upon young people's uptake of participation and adoption of civic…
This paper examines socialization of honorifics in Japanese. Drawing upon audiovisual recordings of interaction in households and a preschool, the paper details ways caregivers use honorifics with children and ways children use honorifics with caregivers and peers. The analysis shows ways caregivers use referent and addressee honorifics within…
Drawing on qualitative methodologies that integrate verbal and non-verbal texts, this study investigated novice teachers' attributions of their experiences of internship, as conveyed through a visual text. Novices were invited to design a visual text that represented their experience during internship, as part of a national call entitled…
The position of the excluded other, it seems to the author, is the position that has characterized Jews since antiquity: exiled from the nation and dispersed to other nations, Jewish participation in civic life has been defined, even in modernity, by its marginalization and precariousness. The Jew, in other words, provides a salient example of the…
Background/Context: Schools and districts are increasingly emphasizing evidence-based decision making as a means for improving teaching and learning. In response, professional development efforts have shifted toward situated, sustained activities that involve groups of teachers in reflective inquiry about student learning data, instructional…
Responses in maintaining or restoring standing balance were measured in 24 healthy young and 15 healthy elderly adults (mean ages 26 and 72) under four task conditions; two involving self-generated motions and two involving imposed disturbances. The two primary objectives of the study were to quantify the whole-body dynamics of these responses and to identify any age related differences in
Mian-Ju Gu; Albert B. Schultz; Neil T. Shepard; Neil B. Alexander
Through the experiences of Joan, we see how music teachers might re-envision instruction with attention to an inquiry-based approach for education. Within this context, students actively construct musical meanings themselves, rather than acquiring those meanings by taking part in musical activities constructed by teachers. An example of this approach is provided in the unit “Sound Escapes,” wherein teacher and students
Children may be biased toward accepting information as true, but the fact remains that children are exposed to misinformation from many sources, and mastering the intricacies of doubt is necessary. The current article examines this issue, focusing on understanding developmental changes and consistencies in children's ability to take a critical…
This article examines the nature of early adolescents' environmental involvement based on a study with 10-13-year-olds. Drawing from literal and metaphorical interviews, a visual survey and visual maps, the study points to the dimensions of environmental involvement: connectedness, engagement with the environment, questioning, belief in capacity,…
This article provides six case studies situated in an online community of practice relating to a module in a university Master of Arts in Education programme. During the module the online community allowed students to immerse themselves in problems brought to the community by their tutor. Students continued to participate in the online community…
We present the outline of a dual kinetic-kinematic postural control model. It is based on concepts of inter-sensory interaction (sensor fusion) which we consider instrumental for sensorimotor integration. Separation into kinetic and kinematic control signals begins at the level of the sensors (e.g., vestibular system--otoliths: force field meters, canals: head angular speedometers). Sensor fusion mechanisms are used to yield separate internal representations for foot support kinematics, force fields such as gravity, and contact forces such as pull or push having impact on the body. These representations are fed as global set point signals into local proprioceptive control loops of the joints. Fed into an ankle joint proprioceptive loop for body-on-support stabilization, they yield compensation of support tilt, gravity and contact forces, even when these stimuli are combined and, furthermore, voluntary lean is superimposed. Model simulations parallel our experimental findings so far obtained. PMID:12171105
Mergner, Thomas; Maurer, Christoph; Peterka, Robert J
\\u000a We present the outline of a dual kinetic-kinematic postural control model. It is based on concepts of inter-sensory interaction\\u000a (sensor fusion) which we consider instrumental for sensorimotor integration. Separation into kinetic and kinematic control\\u000a signals begins at the level of the sensors (e.g., vestibular system - otoliths: force field meters, canals: head angular speedometers).\\u000a Sensor fusion mechanisms are used to
Thomas Mergnerl; Christoph Maurer; Robert J. Peterka
Attempts to classify sex offenders for the purpose of investigating sexual assaults or formulating treatment strategies often use evidence left at crime scenes, victims’ statements, and case studies to organize sex offenders’ personality characteristics into categories. Typologies of offenders may vary in the degree to which they are empirical or incorporate offender language. In the treatment of sex offenders, some
This paper suggests that the upcoming transfer of Hong Kong from Great Britain to the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1997, offers a unique opportunity to observe how changing configurations in the political environment influence mass media. The article investigates how the Hong Kong press, which spans the entire left-center-right ideological…
To signal the onset of salient sensory features or execute well-timed motor sequences, neuronal circuits must transform streams of incoming spike trains into precisely timed firing. To address the efficiency and fidelity with which neurons can perform such computations, we developed a theory to characterize the capacity of feedforward networks to generate desired spike sequences. We find the maximum number of desired output spikes a neuron can implement to be 0.1-0.3 per synapse. We further present a biologically plausible learning rule that allows feedforward and recurrent networks to learn multiple mappings between inputs and desired spike sequences. We apply this framework to reconstruct synaptic weights from spiking activity and study the precision with which the temporal structure of ongoing behavior can be inferred from the spiking of premotor neurons. This work provides a powerful approach for characterizing the computational and learning capacities of single neurons and neuronal circuits. PMID:24768299
Landsat satellites capture images of Earth from space-and have since 1972! These images provide a long-term record of natural and human-induced changes on the global landscape. Comparing images from multiple years reveals slow and subtle changes as well as rapid and devastating ones. Landsat images are available over the Internet at no charge. Using the free software MultiSpec, students can track changes to the landscape over time-just like remote sensing scientists do! The objective of the Tracking Change Over Time lesson plan is to get students excited about studying the changing Earth. Intended for students in grades 5-8, the lesson plan is flexible and may be used as a student self-guided tutorial or as a teacher-led class lesson. Enhance students' learning of geography, map reading, earth science, and problem solving by seeing landscape changes from space.
"You have to live on this 24 hours of daily time. Out of it you have to spin wealth, pleasure, money, content, respect, and the evolution of your immortal soul. Its right use, its most effective use, is a matter of the highest urgency...all depends on that."--Arnold Bennett The items presented here are not meant to contain all the answers to your time management challenges. However, these thoughts should spark your thinking process. Take these ideas, turn them over in your mind, play with them, develop your own thoughts on the subject, and force yourself to become more effective, more efficient, and more systematic. Acquiring this discipline now will ensure the most efficient path to your life's dreams. PMID:10143168
This Science NetLinks lesson is the second of a two-part series that encourages students to think about their own learning and the strategies that best help them learn new skills and ideas. In this lesson, students build upon what they have already learned by participating in another online reaction-time activity--this one testing their visual and auditory abilities, both separately and together.
In this interactive activity adapted from A Science Odyssey, students will look at how technology in the home has changed over time. Specifically, they will examine a timeline from 1900 to 2010 and think about technological innovations and how they changed our daily lives. The material is intended for students in grades 3-8.The lesson is accompanied by a background essay, standards alignment and discussion questions. Users are encouraged to sign up for a free account.
Feynman mentioned to us that he understood a topic in physics if he could explain it to a college freshman, a high school student, or a dinner guest. Here we will discuss two topics that took us a while to get to that level. One is the relationship between gravity and time. The other is the minus sign that appears in the Lagrangian. (Why would one…
Claudio Monteverdi appears as the key personality of the music in Galileo's time. His revolution in format and function of the musical language-from an essentially edonistic creation of purely sonorous images to a musical language consciously "expressive" of the content of the words on which it is based-is similar in character to the influential innovations in scientific thinking operated by Galileo.
WhaleTimes will take young users on an adventure to the ocean. This resource provides a wealth of information and pictures on popular sea life, such as whales, seals, sea lions, sharks, penguins, and walruses. It helps the user to find out how animals survive in the sea, what they eat, where they live and much more. There are several computer activities for young kids, and a list of books that focus on sea life and are appropriate for young audiences.
We give a detailed analysis of the Gibbs-type entropy notion and its dynamical behavior in case of time-dependent continuous probability distributions of varied origins: related to classical and quantum systems. The purpose-dependent usage of conditional Kullback-Leibler and Gibbs (Shannon) entropies is explained in case of non-equilibrium Smoluchowski processes. A very different temporal behavior of Gibbs and Kullback entropies is confronted.
Mean segmental transit time of radiopaque markers through the right colon, left colon and rectosigmoid areas of adults and\\u000a children has been calculated from their distribution on consecutive plain films of the abdomen. Overall mean transit does\\u000a not differ significantly in the large bowel between adults and children. However, there are regional differences within the\\u000a colon in relation to age.
Pierre Arhan; Ghislain Devroede; Bertrand Jehannin; Michel Lanza; Claude Faverdin; Catherine Dornic; Bernard Persoz; Léon Tétreault; Bernard Perey; Denys Pellerin
This is a model for students to assemble, aimed at enhancing their knowledge of NASA spacecraft and scientific facts. The cover of this four-color tri-fold contains background information about the Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) mission as well as two language arts activities to reinforce space science vocabulary and concepts. This product is available in hardcopy and electronic formats.
This fun Web site is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they are introduced to Einstein's scientific and humanitarian pursuits with two engaging, kid-friendly sections: Einstein in Time, a fascinating look at the major events in his life presented in a timeline and Everyday Einstein: Humanitarian, a quick overview of how he used his fame to draw attention to the things he believed in.
This interactive Flash book of poems by Greg Tang and pictures by Harry Briggs helps children master their times tables through a deeper, more intuitive understanding of multiplication instead of memorization. Students use partial products to multiply larger numbers, first breaking them into smaller, more manageable parts. After reading the poem and examples, learners can test themselves by applying the strategies to a series of 3-5 challenges.
Learners build and investigate pendulums of different lengths. They discover that the longer the string of the pendulum, the longer the time it takes to swing. Learners also discover that changing the mass on the end of the pendulum and changing the angle of release of the pendulum do not affect how long it takes to swing. Resource contains suggestions for assessment, extensions, and scaling for different levels of learners.
In the context of a model of space-time foam, made by N wormholes we discuss the possibility of having a foam formed by different configurations. An equivalence between Schwarzschild and Schwarzschild-Anti-de Sitter wormholes in terms of Casimir energy is shown. An argument to discriminate which configuration could represent a foamy vacuum coming from Schwarzschild black hole transition frequencies is used.
This fun, nighttime hands-on astronomy activity lets learners explore how long it takes for light from different objects in the universe to reach Earth. The activity shows participants the difference among three distance categories: within our Solar System, within the Milky Way, and within the rest of the universe. The PDF contains step-by-step instructions, photos, presentation tips, ready-to-print "Passport through Time" activity handout, and links to background information.
This algebra lesson helps students make the connection between functions and their graphs. The model of the level of water in a bathtub is used. Students will watch the graph and a chart of the depth of the water at different time increments. They are then asked to identify the events that caused each change in the graph. A student worksheet is available for download here in a Word Document.
Over the past few years there has been a considerable development of DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time PCR has now superseded conventional PCR techniques in many areas, e.g., the quantification of nucleic acids and genotyping. This new approach is based on the detection and quantification of a fluorescent signal proportional to the amount of amplicons generated by PCR. Real-time detection is achieved by coupling a thermocycler with a fluorimeter. This chapter discusses the general principles of quantitative real-time PCR, the different steps involved in implementing the technique, and some examples of applications in medicine. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provides a way of obtaining a large number of copies of a double-stranded DNA fragment of known sequence. This DNA amplification technique, developed in 1985 by K. Mullis (Cetus Corporation), saw a spectacular development over the space of a few years, revolutionising the methods used up to then in molecular biology. Indeed, PCR has many applications, such as the detection of small amounts of DNA, cloning, and quantitative analysis (assaying), each of which will be discussed further below.
This talk briefly reviews three types of time-asymmetry in physics, which I classify as universal, macroscopic and microscopic. Most of the talk is focused on the latter, namely the violation of T-reversal invariance in particle physics theories. In sum tests of microscopic T-invariance, or observations of its violation, are limited by the fact that, while we can measure many processes, only in very few cases can we construct a matched pair of process and inverse process and observe it with sufficient sensitivity to make a test. In both the cases discussed here we can achieve an observable T violation making use of flavor tagging, and in the second case also using the quantum properties of an antisymmetric coherent state of two B mesons to construct a CP-tag. Both these tagging properties depend only on very general properties of the flavor and/or CP quantum numbers and so provide model independent tests for T-invariance violations. The microscopic laws of physics are very close to T-symmetric. There are small effects that give CP- and T-violating processes in three-generation-probing weak decays. Where a T-violating observable can be constructed we see the relationships between T-violation and CP-violation expected in a CPT conserving theory. These microscopic effects are unrelated to the 'arrow of time' that is defined by increasing entropy, or in the time direction defined by the expansion of our Universe.
The most intensely discussed and controversial issue in time keeping has been the proposal before the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) to redefine Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) so as to replace leap seconds by leap hours. Should this proposal be adopted, the practice of inserting leap seconds would cease after a specific date. Should the Earth's rotation continue to de-accelerate at its historical rate, the next discontinuity in UTC would be an hour inserted several centuries from now. Advocates of this proposal cite the need to synchronize satellite and other systems, such as GPS, Galileo, and GLONASS, which did not exist and were not envisioned when the current system was adopted. They note that leap second insertions can be and have been incorrectly implemented or accounted for. Such errors have to date had localized impact, but they could cause serious mishaps involving loss of life. For example, some GPS receivers have been known to fail simply because there was no leap second after a long enough interval, other GPS receivers failed because the leap second information was broadcast more than three months in advance, and some commercial software used for internet time-transfer Network Time Protocol (NTP) could either discard all data received after a leap second or interpret it as a frequency change. The ambiguity associated with the extra second could also disrupt financial accounting and certain forms of encryption. Those opposed to the proposal question the need for a change, and also point out the costs of adjusting to the proposed change and its inconvenience to amateur astronomers and others who rely upon astronomical calculations published in advance. Reports have been circulated that the cost of checking and correcting software to accommodate the new definition of UTC would be many millions of dollars for some systems. In October 2005 American Astronomical Society asked the ITU for a year's time to study the issue. This commission has supported the efforts of the IAU' s Committee on the Leap Second to make an informed recommendation, and anticipates considerable discussion at the IAU's 26th General Assembly in 2006.
Five experiments were conducted to determine the effects of hippocampal damage on timing and the memory for temporal events. In Experiments 1-3, rats were trained to discriminate between auditory signals that differed in both duration (2 or 8 s) and rate (2 or 16 cycles/s). Half of the rats were trained to discriminate duration, and half were trained to discriminate rate. After rats acquired the relevant discrimination, signals with intermediate durations and rates were presented to obtain psychophysical functions that related signal duration and/or rate to response choice. Rats then received either lesions of the fimbria-fornix or control operations. Postoperatively, the accuracy of duration and rate discriminations as measured by the difference limen (DL) was unaffected by the lesion, but the point of subjective equality (PSE) was shifted to a shorter duration and a slower rate by the lesion in Experiment 1. Both rats with lesions and rats with control operations showed cross-modal transfer of duration and rate from the auditory signals used in training to visual signals used in testing in Experiment 2. A 5-s delay was imposed between the end of a signal and the opportunity to respond in Experiment 3. The delay served as a retention interval for the rats trained in the rate discrimination, and the rats with fimbria-fornix lesions were selectively impaired by the addition of the delay as measured by an increase in the DL. The delay did not serve as a retention interval for rats trained in the duration discrimination because they were able to continue timing through the delay. A peak procedure was employed in Experiment 4. The maximum response rate of control rats was approximately at the time of scheduled reinforcement (20 s), but the maximum response rate of rats with fimbria-fornix lesions was reliably earlier than the time of scheduled reinforcement. When a 5-s gap was imposed in the signal, control rats summed the signal durations before and after the gap, whereas rats with fimbria-fornix lesions showed no retention of the signal duration prior to the gap. Experiment 5 continued the testing of the rats used in Experiments 1-4 and showed that rats with lesions had an impairment in a test of spatial working memory in an eight-arm radial maze. Taken together, these results demonstrate that a fimbria-fornix lesion interferes with temporal and spatial working memory, reduces the remembered time of reinforcement stored in reference memory, and has no effect on the animal's sensitivity to stimulus duration. PMID:24128355
Posits the idea of effective time usage, which includes not only the efficient use of time but also the positive use of different kinds of time. Provides a table for studying effective time usage. (FL)
In this paper we present a timed extension of the AltaRica formalism. Following previous works, we first extend the semantics of AltaRica with time and define timed componentsand timed nodes. Moreover we lift the priority features of AltaRica to the timed case. We obtain a timed version of AltaRica, called Timed AltaRica. Finally we give a translation of a Timed
We propose timed automata to model the behavior of real-time systems over time. Our definition provides a simple, and yet powerful, way to annotate state-transition graphs with timing constraints using finitely many real-valued clocks. A timed automaton accepts timed words — strings in which a real-valued time of occurrence is associated with each symbol. We study timed automata from the
The Los Alamos National Laboratory Monte Carlo N-Particle radiation transport code, MCNP, is widely used around the world for many radiation protection and shielding applications. As a well-known standard it is also an excellent vehicle for assessing the relative performance of scientific computing platforms. Every three-to-four years a new version of MCNP is released internationally by the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. For each of the past few releases, we have also done a timing study to assess the progress of scientific computing platforms and software. These quadrennial timing studies are valuable to the radiation protection and shielding community because (a) they are performed by a recognized scientific team, not a computer vendor, (b) they use an internationally recognized code for radiation protection and shielding calculations, (c) they are eminently reproducible since the code and the test problems are internationally distributed. Further, if one has a computer platform, operating system, or compiler not presented in our results, its performance is directly comparable to the ones we report because it can use the same code, data, and test problems as we used. Our results, using a single processor per platform, indicate that hardware advances during the past three years have improved performance by less than a factor of two and software improvements have had a marginal effect on performance. The most significant impacts on performance have resulted from developments in multiprocessing and multitasking. The other most significant advance in the last three years has been the accelerated improvements in personal computers. In the last timing study, the tested personal computer was approximately a factor of four slower that the fastest machine tested, a DEC Alphastation 500. In the present study, the fastest PC tested was less than a factor of two slower than the fastest platform, which is a Compaq (previously DEC) Alpha XP1000.
This invention uses a dipole magnet to bend the path of a charged particle beam. As the deflected particles exit the magnet, they are spatially dispersed in the bend-plane of the magnet according to their respective momenta and pass to a plurality of chambers having Faraday probes positioned therein. Both the current and energy distribution of the particles is then determined by the non-intersecting Faraday probes located along the chambers. The Faraday probes are magnetically isolated from each other by thin metal walls of the chambers, effectively providing real time current-versus-energy particle measurements.
Smith, Jr., Tommy E. (Fremont, CA); Struve, Kenneth W. (Albuquerque, NM); Colella, Nicholas J. (Livermore, CA)
The THEMIS mission represents the culmination of many years of planning directed towards understanding the processes that drive and trigger geomagnetic substorms. Following Akasofu's discovery of the substorm cycle, it became increasingly clear that timing questions provide the key to discriminating between proposed 'inside-out' and 'outside-in' models for substorms, triggered respectively by current disruption and magnetic reconnection. THEMIS observations provide a wealth of information that is currently being investigated to resolve this question. While observations in the magnetotail generally point towards reconnection. those on the ground point towards current disruption. This talk reviews the relevant observations and recent efforts at reconciliation.
The New York Times has redesigned the business section on its web site; it features the latest business news and updates from the stock market. A Business Briefcase section has now been added; this section features the latest business books, business travel, the mutual funds quarterly report, company capsules from Hoover's Inc., and the latest loan and deposit rates from BanxQuote. The Your Money section caters to the personal investor; it provides investors with articles on investing, tools for managing their portfolio and a forum for discussing the stock market. Users in the United States may access the site free of charge after registering.
Go backward and forward in time with this interactive visualization that illustrates how the Earth's climate has changed in recent history. Topics covered are Sea Ice: ice cap extent 1979 - 2007, Sea Level: effect on coastal regions for each meter of sea level rise, Carbon Emissions: amount of annual fossil fuel emissions produced by the top 12 nations or regions from 1980-2004, and Average Global Temperature: a color-coded map showing the progression of changing global surface temperatures from 1885 to 2007.
Considerable recent work has shown that the hippocampus is critical for remembering the order of events in distinct experiences, a defining feature of episodic memory. Correspondingly, hippocampal neuronal activity can 'replay' sequential events in memories and hippocampal neuronal ensembles represent a gradually changing temporal context signal. Most strikingly, single hippocampal neurons - called time cells - encode moments in temporally structured experiences much as the well-known place cells encode locations in spatially structured experiences. These observations bridge largely disconnected literatures on the role of the hippocampus in episodic memory and spatial mapping, and suggest that the fundamental function of the hippocampus is to establish spatio-temporal frameworks for organizing memories. PMID:23318095
This online article is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. The article, which offers a simple demonstration of Einstein's Time Dilation Equation, is part of the Frontiers in Physical Science seminar. It uses the example of a light beam bouncing between two mirrors in a rocket to illustrate the theory, and includes a step-by-step look at the math involved in calculating the quantitative solution.
Medical practice and research in colonial India historically had been an imperial preserve, dominated by the elite members of the Indian Medical Service. This was contested from the 1900s on by the emerging Indian nationalism. This essay studies debates about the establishment of a medical research institution and how actors imposed the political identities of nationalism on British colonial practices of medical science. At the same time, Indian nationalism was also drawing from other emerging ideas around health and social welfare. The Indian nationalists and doctors sought to build the identities of the new nation and its medicine around their own ideas of its geography, people, and welfare.
At the age of 78, in a moment of whimsy, Benjamin Franklin wrote An Economical Project, a discourse on the thrift of natural versus artificial lighting. Over two centuries later, nations around the world use a variation of his concept to conserve energy and more fully enjoy the benefits of daylight. This website explains many aspects of Daylight Saving Time (DST), including when it begins and ends in the U.S and other countries, the rationale and original idea and its early adoption.
16 February 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of the south polar residual cap where the effects of sublimation are apparent. Over extended periods of time, sublimation 'eats' away at the smoother appearing material (largely composed of frozen carbon dioxide), darkening the scarps and creating the irregularly shaped depressions that are present throughout much of the scene. Location near: 87.1oS, 69.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer
In this activity, students will use pre-marked paper strips to simulate tree-ring core samples to help them understand that data for past climate changes can be gathered from sources beyond long-term weather observations. Students will be able to recognize the direct impact of climate on annual tree growth patterns. The student guide has an overall description of the activity, a list of materials, the procedure, and observations and questions. The instructor guide contains detailed background material, learning goals, alignment to national standards, grade level/time, details on materials and preparation, procedure, assessment ideas, and modifications for alternative learners.
Kids today are growing up with televisions, movies, videos, and DVDs, so it's logical to assume that this type of media could be motivating and used to great effect in the classroom. But at what point should film and other visual media be used? Are there times in the inquiry process when showing a film or incorporating other visual media is more effective? One teacher tackles these questions by assessing video use among her upper-elementary students in a small rural Northeastern Missouri school district.
We construct a qubit algebra from field creation and annihilation operators acting on a global vacuum state. Particles to be used as qubits are created from the vacuum by a near-deterministic single-particle source. Our formulation makes the space-time dependence of the qubits explicit, preparing the way for quantum computation within a field framework. The method can be generalized to deal with interacting qubits whose wave packets are not perfectly matched to each other. We give an example of how to calculate the Heisenberg evolution of a simple two-qubit circuit, taking expectation values in the field vacuum state.
Pienaar, J. L.; Myers, C. R.; Ralph, T. C. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072, Queensland (Australia)
A simplified model for the SAR imaging problem is presented. The model is based on the geometry of the SAR system. Using this model an expression for the entire phase history of the received SAR signal is formulated. From the phase history, it is shown that the range and the azimuth coordinates for a point target image can be obtained by processing the phase information during the intrapulse and interpulse periods respectively. An architecture for a VLSI implementation for the SAR signal processor is presented which generates images in real time. The architecture uses a small number of chips, a new correlation processor, and an efficient azimuth correlation process.
Considerable recent work has shown that the hippocampus is critical for remembering the order of events in distinct experiences, a defining feature of episodic memory. Correspondingly, hippocampal neuronal activity can ‘replay’ sequential events in memories and hippocampal neuronal ensembles represent a gradually changing temporal context signal. Most strikingly, single hippocampal neurons – called time cells – encode moments in temporally structured experiences much as the well-known place cells encode locations in spatially structured experiences. These observations bridge largely disconnected literatures on the role of the hippocampus in episodic memory and spatial mapping, and suggest that the fundamental function of the hippocampus is to establish spatio-temporal frameworks for organizing memories.
We measured the timing of the sonoluminescence flash by scattering laser light from the bubble. We performed this measurement on 17.8 kHz, 13.28 kHz and 7920 Hz systems and found that the flash typically occurs 100 nanoseconds before the minimum radius, contrary to previous claims that the flash always occurs within a nanosecond of the minimum radius. These results are important because they imply that previous hot models of sonoluminescence are wrong. We propose a new model: that the flash results from the discharge of an excited cold condensate, formed during the adiabatic expansion of the bubble.
In this activity, learners investigate the history and development of agricultural biotechnology. This experience begins with a Bio-Fest, in which learners use their senses to make observations about root beer, assorted cheeses, bread and yogurt. Learners are encouraged to think about the process of making food and how it has changed over time. This leads to a discussion about biotechnology. Learners complete the lesson by researching and completing a timeline. This activity is featured on pp.7-8 (part of a lesson that begins on p.6) of the "Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow: Agricultural Biology" unit of study for grades 6-8.
The Native American Times makes good on its promise to deliver "today's independent Indian news." The site has a clean design that includes ten sections covering topics like business, culture, education, sports, and powwows. The News area offers a nice digest of what's going on in several areas of interest to Native Americans, with topical headlines that include "Cherokee Art Market Announces Winners" and "Yakama Maintain Wild Horse Race Tradition." The site also includes a great jobs area for folks who might be looking for Native American-focused work in public policy, community development, technology, and other fields.
Multiple lines of evidence indicate that visual attention's temporal properties differ between the left and right visual fields (LVF and RVF). Notably, recent electroencephalograph recordings indicate that event-related potentials peak earlier for LVF than for RVF targets on bilateral-stream rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) identification tasks. Might this hastened neural response render LVF targets perceptually available sooner than RVF targets? If so, how might the visual system reconcile these timing differences to estimate simultaneity across the LVF and RVF? We approached these questions by presenting bilateral-stream RSVP displays that contained opposite-hemifield targets and requiring participants to judge both the targets' temporal order and simultaneity. The temporal order judgments (TOJs) revealed that participants perceived LVF targets ?134 ms sooner than RVF targets. This LVF hastening approximates a full cycle of visual attention's canonical ?10 Hz (?100 ms) temporal resolution. In contrast, performance on the simultaneity task did not exhibit the LVF hastening observed on the TOJ task, despite identical retinal stimulation across the two tasks. This finding rules out a stimulus-driven "bottom-up" explanation for the task-specific behavior. Moreover, error patterns across the two tasks revealed that, within the decision stage of simultaneity judgments, participants remapped LVF targets, but not RVF targets, to a later time in the RSVP sequence. Such hemifield-specific remapping would effectively compensate for the cross-hemifield asymmetries in neural response latencies that could otherwise impair simultaneity estimates. PMID:23818678
Matthews, Nestor; Welch, Leslie; Festa, Elena; Clement, Andrew
The Earth Through Time successfully fills a gap in the world of introductory level geology textbooks, a gulf created by the nature of typical undergraduate students. The introductory course taught at many institutions is physical geology wherein potential geology majors and students who simply want to fulfill part of a natural science requirement form a cosmopolitan class. Students who are convinced that geology is the major for them go on to historical geology in the second semester often using the Dott and Batten text, Evolution of the Earth, a text that is rigorous and designed strictly with the geology major in mind. Based on my experience, however, a sizable number of students who have no intention of majoring in geology desire to take a second course in the field out of pure interest and as a means of satisfying the second part of a typical 2-semester science requirement. The Earth Through Time provides a viable alternative to Dott and Batten's book, one certainly as broad in its overall coverage but with discrete topics—such as local stratigraphic nomenclature and detailed discussions of geology outside of North America—being de-emphasized.
The Transportation Technology Department of Sandia National Laboratories develops analytical and computational tools for the US Department of Energy to assess the radiological consequences and risks from the transportation of radioactive materials by all modes. When large quantities of materials are to be transported movements may occur over an extended period of time in what is collectively referred as a ``shipping campaign``. Since the routes over which the shipments occur often remain the same, cumulative exposure to individuals inhabiting the population zones adjacent to the transport links must be estimated. However, individuals do not remain in the same residences throughout their lifetimes and, in fact, move quite often. To appropriately allocate exposures among populations over extended periods of time, perhaps years, requires a model that accounts for three population categories; (1) the original populations residing in the areas adjacent to the transport links, (2) individuals moving out and (3) individuals moving into residences in the designated areas. The model described here accounts for these conditions and will be incorporated as a user option in the RADTRAN computer code for transportation consequence and risk analysis (Reference 1). RADTRAN is a computer code for estimating the consequences and risks associated with the transport of radioactive materials.
In system-level design of real-time embedded systems, being able to capture the interactions among the tasks with respect to timing constraints and determine the overall system timing performance is a major challenge. Most previous works in the area are either based on a fixed execution time model or are only concerned with the probabilistic timing behavior of each individual task.
Our Universe consistes of particles, space and time. Ever since Descartes we have known that true emptiness cannot exist; ever since Einstein we have known that space and time are part of the stuff of our world. Efforts to determine the structure of particles go in parallel with the search for the structure of spacetime. Einstein gave us a geometrical answer regarding the structure of spacetime: a distance recipe (Lorentz-Minkowski) suffices. The theory boils down to a patching together of local Lorentz frames into a global whole, which gives it the form of a gauge field theory based on local Lorentz symmetry. On large scales, the Einstein Equation seems to work well. The structure of particles is described by a gauge field. too. On small scales the ‘Standard Model’ seems to work very well. However, we know from Newtonian gravity that the presence of particles must be related to the structure of spacetime. Einstein made a conjecture for the form of this connection using the Newtonian limit of small speeds and weak fields. The right hand side of his equation for the bulk theory of matter (the energy-momentum tensor), is equated to the Einstein tensor from non-Euclidian geometry. But that connection is wrong. The structure of spacetime cannot be equated to the density of particles if we include the Standard Model in the matter tensor. In field theory a potential is not something that can be freely changed by adding an arbitrary scalar term; due to the local (as opposed to global) character of the fields, a potential becomes an entity in itself. Einstein's conjecture runs into profound trouble because the reality of potentials implies that the zero point energy of the vacuum must be included in the Einstein equation. The net result is the appearance of a term equivalent to a cosmological constant A of stupendous size, some 10118 times the critical cosmic density. The crisis due to the zero point fluctuations in the energy-momentum tensor is a clash of titans: Einstein's geometrical ideas on spacetime structure vs the behaviour of particles and the vacuum discribed by Dirac and followers. Someone, or everyone, is wrong. In my opinion the straightforward quantization of spacetime will always be impossible because the usual particle symmetries (U(1), SU(2), SU(3) and relatives) connect fermions and bosons, whereas relativistic analogies of these symmetries (the Lorentz symmetry) says something about spacetime and not about particles.
The Sun varies in time over at least twenty orders of magnitude. In this highly selective look at a vast subject, the focus is on solar variations related to the magnetic field structure of the heliosphere since these changes affect the propagation of cosmic rays in the heliosphere. The root of the changes is the magnetic field pattern near the solar surface. Some key aspects of the behavior of this pattern are reviewed. Recent solar activity has been unlike any experienced in living memory and several of the observed oddities are noted. Included here is a first attempt to directly compare three decades of magnetic field measurements in coronal holes with the heliospheric magnetic field at 1 AU. Results support the idea that nearly all the open magnetic flux from the Sun originates in coronal holes (including those close to active regions).
A method and apparatus relating to the real time automatic detection and classification of characteristic type surface imperfections occurring on the surfaces of material of interest such as moving hot metal slabs produced by a continuous steel caster. A data camera transversely scans continuous lines of such a surface to sense light intensities of scanned pixels and generates corresponding voltage values. The voltage values are converted to corresponding digital va