Sample records for unique genetic markers

  1. MICROSATELLITE MARKERS EVALUATE GENETIC DIVERSITY IN BLUEBERRY AND GENERATE UNIQUE FINGERPRINTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty EST-SSR and 8 genomic microsatellite loci were used to determine genetic diversity in 69 Vaccinium corymbosum L. accessions consisting of 13 wild accessions and 56 cultivars (one half-high, 18 southern highbush and 37 northern highbush). Historical and modern (patented) cultivars were represe...

  2. Biochemical genetic markers in sugarcane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Glaszmann; A. Fautret; J. L. Noyer; P. Feldmann; C. Lanaud

    1989-01-01

    Isozyme variation was used to identify biochemical markers of potential utility in sugarcane genetics and breeding. Electrophoretic polymorphism was surveyed for nine enzymes among 39 wild and noble sugarcane clones, belonging to the species most closely related to modern varieties. Up to 114 distinct bands showing presence versus absence type of variation were revealed and used for qualitative characterization of

  3. UNIQUE MITOCHONDRIAL GENETICS OF CUCUMIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cucumis mitochondrial (mt) genome is unique for its enormous size and paternal transmission. Recombination among inverted and direct repeats in the cucumber mt DNA produce paternally transmitted mosaic (MSC) phenotypes with altered mt gene expression. We used MSC to reveal phenotypic variation...

  4. DNA marker technologies and their applications in aquaculture genetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. J. Liu; J. F. Cordes

    2004-01-01

    The development of DNA-based genetic markers has had a revolutionary impact on animal genetics. With DNA markers, it is theoretically possible to observe and exploit genetic variation in the entire genome. Popular genetic markers in the aquaculture community include allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, microsatellite, SNP, and EST markers. The application of DNA markers has allowed rapid progress in

  5. Update on genetic markers for pork quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the robustness of reported marker associations with pork quality traits, assay systems were developed for as many polymorphisms from the literature as possible. These assays were genotyped across pigs (n = 1,291) with pork quality data available from four populations. Genetic marker-phe...

  6. Applying antibiotic selection markers for nematode genetics.

    PubMed

    Cornes, Eric; Quéré, Cécile A L; Giordano-Santini, Rosina; Dupuy, Denis

    2014-08-01

    Antibiotic selection markers have been recently developed in the multicellular model organism Caenorhabditis elegans and other related nematode species, opening great opportunities in the field of nematode transgenesis. Here we describe how these antibiotic selection systems can be easily combined with many well-established genetic approaches to study gene function, improving time- and cost-effectiveness of the nematode genetic toolbox. PMID:24821108

  7. Genetic markers to predict polygenic disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Galton

    1999-01-01

    Many genetic markers that relate to common multifactorial disease in adults have been identified during the past 15 years.\\u000a Their use as adjuncts for the diagnosis, prognosis, prediction of disease or targeting therapy for these disorders has commenced;\\u000a good examples being the Factor V Leiden mutation for venous-thromboembolism, lipoprotein lipase mutations for hypertriglyceridemia\\u000a and the apolipoprotein E4 variant for Alzheimer’s

  8. Genetic and biological markers in drug abuse and alcoholism

    SciTech Connect

    Braude, M.C.; Chao, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Polymorphic Gene Marker Studies; Pharmacogenetic Approaches to the Prediction of Drug Response; Genetic Markers of Drug Abuse in Mouse Models; Genetics as a Tool for Identifying Biological Markers of Drug Abuse; and Studies of an Animal Model of Alcoholism.

  9. Genetic Screening: A Unique Game of Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurvink, Karen; Bowser, Jessica

    2004-01-01

    A creative learning game that helps students reinforce basic genetic information and facilitate the identification and understanding of the more subtle issues is presented. The basic framework of the game was conceived by a business major taking non-biology major course 'heredity and society-intertwining legacy.

  10. Molecular Genetic Markers: Discovery, Applications, Data Storage and Visualisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Duran; Nikki Appleby; David Edwards; Jacqueline Batley

    2009-01-01

    Molecular genetic markers represent one of the most powerful tools for the analysis of genomes and enable the association of heritable traits with underlying genomic variation. Molecular marker technology has developed rapidly over the last decade and two forms of sequence based marker, Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs), also known as microsatellites, and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) now predominate applications in

  11. RESISTANCE GENE HOMOLOGUES IN THEOBROMA CACAO AS USEFUL GENETIC MARKERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance gene homologues (RGH) sequences have been developed into useful genetic markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS) of disease resistant Theobroma cacao. a plasmid library of amplified fragments was created from seven different cultivars of cacao. Over 600 cloned recombinant amplicons w...

  12. Fingerprinting and Genetic Stability of Rubus Using Molecular Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA markers were used to identify raspberries and blackberries and to evaluate genetic stability of four cryopreserved Rubus accessions following 12 years of storage in liquid nitrogen. In the first study, 12 genomic Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers and one Expressed Sequence Tag- (EST)-SSR wer...

  13. DNA marker technology: a revolution in animal genetics.

    PubMed

    Dodgson, J B; Cheng, H H; Okimoto, R

    1997-08-01

    The development of DNA-based markers has had a revolutionary impact on gene mapping and, more generally, on all of animal and plant genetics. With DNA-based markers, it is theoretically possible to exploit the entire diversity in DNA sequence that exists in any cross. For this reason, high resolution genetic maps are being developed at an unprecedented speed. The most commonly used DNA-based markers include those based on a cloned and (usually) sequenced DNA fragment and other, more random, assays for genetic polymorphism that can be grouped under the heading of fingerprint markers. The advantages and disadvantages of the various marker types are discussed, along with their application to the reference chicken genetic linkage maps and to the search for quantitative trait loci (QTL). The prospects for the use of DNA-based markers in marker-assisted selection are considered, along with likely future trends in poultry gene mapping. Further development of both physical and linkage genome maps of the chicken will allow animal scientists to more efficiently detect and characterize QTL and will provide them access to the wealth of genetic information that is being generated about the human genome and the genomes of model species, such as the mouse and Drosophila. PMID:9251136

  14. Toward Diagnostic and Phenotype Markers for Genetically Transmitted Speech Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Lewis, Barbara A.; Tomblin, J. Bruce; McSweeny, Jane L.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Scheer, Alison R.

    2005-01-01

    Converging evidence supports the hypothesis that the most common subtype of childhood speech sound disorder (SSD) of currently unknown origin is genetically transmitted. We report the first findings toward a set of diagnostic markers to differentiate this proposed etiological subtype (provisionally termed "speech delay-genetic") from other…

  15. Genetic Markers and Quantitative Genetic Variation in Medicago truncutula (Leguminosae): A Comparative Analysis of Population Structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabelle Bonnin; Jean-Marie Prosperi; Isabelle Olivierit

    Two populations of the selfing annual Medicago truncatula Gaertn. (Leguminoseae), each subdivided into three subpopulations, were studied for both metric traits (quantitative characters) and genetic markers (random amplified polymorphic DNA and one morphological, single-locus marker). Hierarchical analyses of variance components show that (1) populations are more differentiated for quantitative characters than for marker loci, (2) the contribution of both within

  16. Characterization of AFLP markers in damselflies: prevalence of codominant markers and implications for population genetic applications.

    PubMed

    Wong, A; Forbes, M R; Smith, M L

    2001-08-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis is becoming increasingly popular as a method for generating molecular markers for population genetic applications. For practical considerations, it is generally assumed in population studies that AFLPs segregate as dominant markers, i.e., that present and absent are the only possible states of a given locus. We tested the assumption of dominance in natural populations of the damselfly Nehalennia irene (Hagen) (Odonata: Coenagrionidae). Electro-blotted AFLP products from 21 samples were probed with individual markers. Eleven markers were analyzed, of which two were monomorphic and nine were polymorphic. Only two of the polymorphic markers behaved in a strictly dominant manner. The remaining seven polymorphic markers displayed various degrees of codominance, with 2-10 visible alleles in the sample. Of the three markers displaying the highest degree of variability, two contained microsatellite repeat tracts. Our results suggest that the assumption of dominance is unfounded. As a result, AFLP analysis may be unsuitable for estimating several important population genetic parameters, including genetic diversity. PMID:11550904

  17. Novel microsatellite markers suitable for genetic studies in the white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie Foulongne-Oriol; Cathy Spataro; Jean-Michel Savoie

    2009-01-01

    Co-dominant microsatellite molecular markers were obtained from the Agaricus bisporus cultivated mushroom. Their potential for both the molecular characterisation of commercial strains and the monitoring of\\u000a the intraspecific genetic variation was demonstrated. The analysis of 673 unique sequences issued from public database and\\u000a 59 from an enriched A. bisporus genomic library resulted in the development of a total of 33

  18. Genetic diversity, structure and marker-trait associations in a collection of Italian tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum L.) landraces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Mazzucato; Roberto Papa; Elena Bitocchi; Pietro Mosconi; Laura Nanni; Valeria Negri; Maurizio Enea Picarella; Francesca Siligato; Gian Piero Soressi; Barbara Tiranti; Fabio Veronesi

    2008-01-01

    The study of phenotypic and genetic diversity in landrace collections is important for germplasm conservation. In addition,\\u000a the characterisation of very diversified materials with molecular markers offers a unique opportunity to define significant\\u000a marker-trait associations of biological and agronomic interest. Here, 50 tomato landraces (mainly collected in central Italy),\\u000a nine vintage and modern cultivars, and two wild outgroups were grown

  19. SSR Marker Analysis of Genetic Relationships within Hydrangea Macrophylla

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity studies using 39 SSR markers were carried out with 114 taxa of H. macrophylla. The SSR loci were highly variable among the taxa, producing a mean of 8.26 alleles per locus. Overall allelic richness was relatively high at 5.12 alleles per locus. Subspecies serrata contained nearly t...

  20. Association of genetic markers in cattle receiving differing implant protocols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential interaction of growth-promoting implants and genetic markers previously reported to be associated with growth, carcass traits, and tenderness was evaluated. Two implant protocols were applied to subsets of steers (n=383) and heifers (n=65) that were also genotyped for 47 SNP reported ...

  1. SSR Marker Analysis of Genetic Relationships within Hydrangea paniculata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity studies using 26 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers were conducted with 36 taxa of Hydrangea paniculata Sieb. The SSR loci were highly variable among the taxa, producing a mean of 5.8 alleles per locus. Three cultivars (Boskoop, Compact Grandiflora and Webb) were either identic...

  2. A polymorphic DNA marker genetically linked to Huntington's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James F. Gusella; Nancy S. Wexler; P. Michael Conneally; Susan L. Naylor; Mary Anne Anderson; Rudolph E. Tanzi; Paul C. Watkins; Kathleen Ottina; Margaret R. Wallace; Alan Y. Sakaguchi; Anne B. Young; Ira Shoulson; Ernesto Bonilla; Joseph B. Martin

    1983-01-01

    Family studies show that the Huntington's disease gene is linked to a polymorphic DNA marker that maps to human chromosome 4. The chromosomal localization of the Huntington's disease gene is the first step in using recombinant DNA technology to identify the primary genetic defect in this disorder.

  3. Estimation of genetic diversity using SSR markers in sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower is a major oilseed crop in central Asia, but little is known of the molecular diversity among collections of sunflower from Pakistan region. This paper described inherent genetic relationships among sunflower collections using Simple Sequence Repeat molecular markers. Results should help...

  4. Prostate cancer risk-associated genetic markers and their potential clinical utility

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianfeng; Sun, Jielin; Zheng, S Lilly

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers among men in Western developed countries and its incidence has increased considerably in many other parts of the world, including China. The etiology of PCa is largely unknown but is thought to be multifactorial, where inherited genetics plays an important role. In this article, we first briefly review results from studies of familial aggregation and genetic susceptibility to PCa. We then recap key findings of rare and high-penetrance PCa susceptibility genes from linkage studies in PCa families. We devote a significant portion of this article to summarizing discoveries of common and low-penetrance PCa risk-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genetic association studies in PCa cases and controls, especially those from genome-wide association studies (GWASs). A strong focus of this article is to review the literature on the potential clinical utility of these implicated genetic markers. Most of these published studies described PCa risk estimation using a genetic score derived from multiple risk-associated SNPs and its utility in determining the need for prostate biopsy. Finally, we comment on the newly proposed concept of genetic score; the notion is to treat it as a marker for genetic predisposition, similar to family history, rather than a diagnostic marker to discriminate PCa patients from non-cancer patients. Available evidence to date suggests that genetic score is an objective and better measurement of inherited risk of PCa than family history. Another unique feature of this article is the inclusion of genetic association studies of PCa in Chinese and Japanese populations. PMID:23564047

  5. Uniparental genetic markers in South Amerindians

    PubMed Central

    Bisso-Machado, Rafael; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Salzano, Francisco Mauro

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive review of uniparental systems in South Amerindians was undertaken. Variability in the Y-chromosome haplogroups were assessed in 68 populations and 1,814 individuals whereas that of Y-STR markers was assessed in 29 populations and 590 subjects. Variability in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup was examined in 108 populations and 6,697 persons, and sequencing studies used either the complete mtDNA genome or the highly variable segments 1 and 2. The diversity of the markers made it difficult to establish a general picture of Y-chromosome variability in the populations studied. However, haplogroup Q1a3a* was almost always the most prevalent whereas Q1a3* occurred equally in all regions, which suggested its prevalence among the early colonizers. The STR allele frequencies were used to derive a possible ancient Native American Q-clade chromosome haplotype and five of six STR loci showed significant geographic variation. Geographic and linguistic factors moderately influenced the mtDNA distributions (6% and 7%, respectively) and mtDNA haplogroups A and D correlated positively and negatively, respectively, with latitude. The data analyzed here provide rich material for understanding the biological history of South Amerindians and can serve as a basis for comparative studies involving other types of data, such as cultural data. PMID:22888284

  6. Genetic markers cannot determine Jewish descent

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Humans differentiate, classify, and discriminate: social interaction is a basic property of human Darwinian evolution. Presumably inherent differential physical as well as behavioral properties have always been criteria for identifying friend or foe. Yet, biological determinism is a relatively modern term, and scientific racism is, oddly enough, largely a consequence or a product of the Age of Enlightenment and the establishment of the notion of human equality. In recent decades ever-increasing efforts and ingenuity were invested in identifying Biblical Israelite genotypic common denominators by analysing an assortment of phenotypes, like facial patterns, blood types, diseases, DNA-sequences, and more. It becomes overwhelmingly clear that although Jews maintained detectable vertical genetic continuity along generations of socio-religious-cultural relationship, also intensive horizontal genetic relations were maintained both between Jewish communities and with the gentile surrounding. Thus, in spite of considerable consanguinity, there is no Jewish genotype to identify. PMID:25653666

  7. Selectable genetic markers for nematode transgenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosina Giordano-Santini; Denis Dupuy

    2011-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been used to study genetics and development since the mid-1970s. Over the years, the arsenal of techniques employed in\\u000a this field has grown steadily in parallel with the number of researchers using this model. Since the introduction of C. elegans transgenesis, nearly 20 years ago, this system has been extensively used in areas such as rescue

  8. Genetic Marker Identified for Aggressive Bladder Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers led by Ludmila Prokunina-Olsson, Ph.D., in DCEG's Laboratory of Translational Genomics, have identified the first genetic variant associated with risk of aggressive bladder cancer. The variant, rs7257330, is in the promoter region of the CCNE1 gene, which encodes for cyclin E protein, a cell cycle regulator. This result comes from a fine-mapping analysis of data from two bladder cancer genome-wide association studies and functional studies.

  9. Bulgarian Jews in Israel: Genetic Blood Markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Nevo; Hartwig Cleve; Shulamit Bar-Shani; Alma Joel; Meir Liron

    1989-01-01

    Two hundred and sixteen unrelated Bulgarian Jews were typed for the following genetic systems: ABO, MNS, Rh, Kell and Duffy of the blood groups; ADA, AK1, ACP1, ESD, GLO, PGD, PGM1 and PGM2 of the red-cell enzymes, and for the serum proteins HP, GC and PI. A comparison of observed gene frequencies with those of two other Sephardi Jewish groups,

  10. Inferring Species Trees Directly from Biallelic Genetic Markers: Bypassing Gene Trees in a Full Coalescent Analysis

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    Inferring Species Trees Directly from Biallelic Genetic Markers: Bypassing Gene Trees in a Full framework for estimating species trees and species demograph- ics from genetic markers. However, practical trees possible for each genetic marker. Here we describe a polynomial-time algorithm that computes

  11. Drosophila hematopoiesis: markers and methods for molecular genetic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Cory J.; Liu, Ting; Banerjee, Utpal

    2014-01-01

    Analyses of the Drosophila hematopoietic system are becoming more and more prevalent as developmental and functional parallels with vertebrate blood cells become more evident. Investigative work on the fly blood system has, out of necessity, led to the identification of new molecular markers for blood cell types and lineages and to the refinement of useful molecular genetic tools and analytical methods. This review briefly describes the Drosophila hematopoietic system at different developmental stages, summarizes the major useful cell markers and tools for each stage, and provides basic protocols for practical analysis of circulating blood cells and of the lymph gland, the larval hematopoietic organ. PMID:24613936

  12. Genetic analysis of Indian mulberry varieties through molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, K; Awasthi, A K; Srivastava, P P; Saratchandra, B

    2004-01-01

    India is one of the countries where sericulture is being practiced traditionally. Due to the higher economic return and the greater employment potential, attempts are being made to increase the productivity by developing high yielding mulberry varieties. At the present, Mysore local, Bomaypiasbari, Kanva-2, Bilidevalaya, Kajli, S1, BC(2)59, C776, RFS-175, S-36 and Victory-1 are being cultivated extensively in different parts of India for rearing the silkworm Bombyx mori L. Using 17 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 11 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers the genetic relationships among these varieties were analyzed. The RAPD and ISSR primers revealed more than 75% polymorphism among the varieties. The genetic similarity estimated from RAPD markers varied from 0.645, between Kajli and Victory-1 to 0.887, between Kanva-2 and Bilidevalaya. Similarly, the genetic similarity estimated from the ISSR markers ranged from 0.600, between Kajli and Victory-1, to 0.873 between Kanva-2 and BC(2)59. The dendrogram constructed from these markers grouped the varieties into three major groups comprising the low yielding, medium yielding and high yielding. The low genetic similarity between the group of varieties originating from the eastern regions with that of the southern region encourages formation of extensive breeding programs between these groups as to transfer the high yield potential of the southern varieties to the low yielding but highly adaptive eastern varieties. PMID:15383066

  13. Medical genetics: A marker for Stevens-Johnson syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Hung Chung; Shuen-Iu Hung; Hong-Shang Hong; Mo-Song Hsih; Li-Cheng Yang; Hsin-Chun Ho; Jer-Yuarn Wu; Yuan-Tsong Chen

    2004-01-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome and the related disease toxic epidermal necrolysis are life-threatening reactions of the skin to particular types of medication. Here we show that there is a strong association in Han Chinese between a genetic marker, the human leukocyte antigen HLA-B*1502, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome induced by carbamazepine, a drug commonly prescribed for the treatment of seizures. It should be possible

  14. Informativeness of Genetic Markers for Inference of Ancestry*

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Noah A.; Li, Lei M.; Ward, Ryk; Pritchard, Jonathan K.

    2003-01-01

    Inference of individual ancestry is useful in various applications, such as admixture mapping and structured-association mapping. Using information-theoretic principles, we introduce a general measure, the informativeness for assignment (In), applicable to any number of potential source populations, for determining the amount of information that multiallelic markers provide about individual ancestry. In a worldwide human microsatellite data set, we identify markers of highest informativeness for inference of regional ancestry and for inference of population ancestry within regions; these markers, which are listed in online-only tables in our article, can be useful both in testing for and in controlling the influence of ancestry on case-control genetic association studies. Markers that are informative in one collection of source populations are generally informative in others. Informativeness of random dinucleotides, the most informative class of microsatellites, is five to eight times that of random single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), but 2%–12% of SNPs have higher informativeness than the median for dinucleotides. Our results can aid in decisions about the type, quantity, and specific choice of markers for use in studies of ancestry. PMID:14631557

  15. INSL5 may be a unique marker of colorectal endocrine cells and neuroendocrine tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Mashima, Hirosato, E-mail: hmashima1-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan)] [Department of Gastroenterology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Ohno, Hideki [Division of Advanced Medical Science, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan)] [Division of Advanced Medical Science, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Yamada, Yumi; Sakai, Toshitaka; Ohnishi, Hirohide [Department of Gastroenterology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan)] [Department of Gastroenterology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ? INSL5 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells along the colorectum. ? INSL5 is expressed increasingly from proximal colon to rectum. ? INSL5 co-localizes rarely with chromogranin A. ? All rectal neuroendocrine tumors examined expressed INSL5. -- Abstract: Insulin-like peptide 5 (INSL5) is a member of the insulin superfamily, and is a potent agonist for RXFP4. We have shown that INSL5 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells (EECs) along the colorectum with a gradient increase toward the rectum. RXFP4 is ubiquitously expressed along the digestive tract. INSL5-positive EECs have little immunoreactivity to chromogranin A (CgA) and might be a unique marker of colorectal EECs. CgA-positive EECs were distributed normally along the colorectum in INSL5 null mice, suggesting that INSL5 is not required for the development of CgA-positive EECs. Exogenous INSL5 did not affect the proliferation of human colon cancer cell lines, and chemically-induced colitis in INSL5 null mice did not show any significant changes in inflammation or mucosal healing compared to wild-type mice. In contrast, all of the rectal neuroendocrine tumors examined co-expressed INSL5 and RXFP4. INSL5 may be a unique marker of colorectal EECs, and INSL5–RXFP4 signaling might play a role in an autocrine/paracrine fashion in the colorectal epithelium and rectal neuroendocrine tumors.

  16. Genetic markers for western corn rootworm resistance to Bt toxin.

    PubMed

    Flagel, Lex E; Swarup, Shilpa; Chen, Mao; Bauer, Christopher; Wanjugi, Humphrey; Carroll, Matthew; Hill, Patrick; Tuscan, Meghan; Bansal, Raman; Flannagan, Ronald; Clark, Thomas L; Michel, Andrew P; Head, Graham P; Goldman, Barry S

    2015-03-01

    Western corn rootworm (WCR) is a major maize (Zea mays L.) pest leading to annual economic losses of more than 1 billion dollars in the United States. Transgenic maize expressing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used for the management of WCR. However, cultivation of Bt-expressing maize places intense selection pressure on pest populations to evolve resistance. Instances of resistance to Bt toxins have been reported in WCR. Developing genetic markers for resistance will help in characterizing the extent of existing issues, predicting where future field failures may occur, improving insect resistance management strategies, and in designing and sustainably implementing forthcoming WCR control products. Here, we discover and validate genetic markers in WCR that are associated with resistance to the Cry3Bb1 Bt toxin. A field-derived WCR population known to be resistant to the Cry3Bb1 Bt toxin was used to generate a genetic map and to identify a genomic region associated with Cry3Bb1 resistance. Our results indicate that resistance is inherited in a nearly recessive manner and associated with a single autosomal linkage group. Markers tightly linked with resistance were validated using WCR populations collected from Cry3Bb1 maize fields showing significant WCR damage from across the US Corn Belt. Two markers were found to be correlated with both diet (R2 = 0.14) and plant (R2 = 0.23) bioassays for resistance. These results will assist in assessing resistance risk for different WCR populations, and can be used to improve insect resistance management strategies. PMID:25566794

  17. Genetic Markers for Western Corn Rootworm Resistance to Bt Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Flagel, Lex E.; Swarup, Shilpa; Chen, Mao; Bauer, Christopher; Wanjugi, Humphrey; Carroll, Matthew; Hill, Patrick; Tuscan, Meghan; Bansal, Raman; Flannagan, Ronald; Clark, Thomas L.; Michel, Andrew P.; Head, Graham P.; Goldman, Barry S.

    2015-01-01

    Western corn rootworm (WCR) is a major maize (Zea mays L.) pest leading to annual economic losses of more than 1 billion dollars in the United States. Transgenic maize expressing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used for the management of WCR. However, cultivation of Bt-expressing maize places intense selection pressure on pest populations to evolve resistance. Instances of resistance to Bt toxins have been reported in WCR. Developing genetic markers for resistance will help in characterizing the extent of existing issues, predicting where future field failures may occur, improving insect resistance management strategies, and in designing and sustainably implementing forthcoming WCR control products. Here, we discover and validate genetic markers in WCR that are associated with resistance to the Cry3Bb1 Bt toxin. A field-derived WCR population known to be resistant to the Cry3Bb1 Bt toxin was used to generate a genetic map and to identify a genomic region associated with Cry3Bb1 resistance. Our results indicate that resistance is inherited in a nearly recessive manner and associated with a single autosomal linkage group. Markers tightly linked with resistance were validated using WCR populations collected from Cry3Bb1 maize fields showing significant WCR damage from across the US Corn Belt. Two markers were found to be correlated with both diet (R2 = 0.14) and plant (R2 = 0.23) bioassays for resistance. These results will assist in assessing resistance risk for different WCR populations, and can be used to improve insect resistance management strategies. PMID:25566794

  18. Characterization of genetic resistance to helminths in goats using microsatellite genetic markers 

    E-print Network

    Kogi, Joseph Kan'gethe

    1994-01-01

    resistance 13 Genetic markers and selection for Haemonchus contortus resistance . . 13 The major histocompatibility complex . . . 15 Blood polymorphisms Restriction fragment length polymorphisms . . . 15 16 Variable number of tandem repeats 16... of alleles, allele frequency, heterozygosity (HET) and polymorphism information content (PIC) for microsatellites markers scored 6. The estimated gene order, recombination rates and Kosambi (cM) for the 37 loci linked with lod-scores & 2. 0 42 7. Number...

  19. American Journal of Medical Genetics (Neuropsychiatric Genetics) 48:71-73 (1993) Associations of Disease With Genetic Markers

    E-print Network

    Kidd, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    that can generate hypotheses worth testing in such cases as HLA antigens and diseases with auto- immune problems for genetic studies of any com- plex disorder: optimal research design and weeding out of false go, all over again. What ismeant by "association"when genetic markers and complex disorders

  20. Contrasting patterns of genetic diversity at three different genetic markers in a marine mammal metapopulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. B ICKHAM

    2009-01-01

    Many studies use genetic markers to explore population structure and variability within species.However,onlyaminorityusemorethanonetypeofmarkerand,despiteincreasing evidenceofalinkbetweenheterozygosityandindividualfitness,fewaskwhetherdiversity correlates with population trajectory. To address these issues, we analysed data from the Steller's sea lion, Eumetiopias jubatus, where three stocks are distributed over a vast geographical range and where both genetic samples and detailed demographic data have beencollectedfrommanydiversebreedingcolonies.Topreviouslypublishedmitochondrial DNA(mtDNA) andmicrosatellitedatasets,wehave addednew dataforamplified fragment length polymorphism

  1. Cell characterization by use of multiple genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Hukku, B; Halton, D M; Mally, M; Peterson, W D

    1984-01-01

    The extensive use of cell cultures for diverse research purposes is one of the truly great international growth industries. With the proliferation of cells comes a responsibility for monitoring them for inter- and intraspecies characteristics. We use multiple genetic markers for cell identification, i.e. species specific antigens, isozymic phenotypes, chromosomal complement, and HL-A haplotypes. The methodologies employed are briefly described, and various examples cited to show how these markers can be utilized for cell line monitoring. Data are summarized from 275 cultures sent to our laboratory for analysis during the past eighteen months. The data show that, overall, 35% of the cultures received were contaminated. The majority of cell cultures submitted were human cell lines. We found that 36% of these cultures were cross contaminated; 25% by cells of another species and 11% by another human cell line. This high incidence of inter- and intraspecies contamination underscores the importance of frequent monitoring of cell cultures. PMID:6328905

  2. Birth Characteristics and Childhood Leukemia Risk: Correlations With Genetic Markers.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Amy E; Kamdar, Kala Y; Lupo, Philip J; Okcu, Mehmet F; Scheurer, Michael E; Dorak, Mehmet T

    2015-07-01

    Birth characteristics such as birth order, birth weight, birth defects, and Down syndrome showed some of the first risk associations with childhood leukemia. Examinations of correlations between birth characteristics and leukemia risk markers have been limited to birth weight-related genetic polymorphisms. We integrated information on nongenetic and genetic markers by evaluating the relationship of birth characteristics, genetic markers for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) susceptibility, and ALL risk together. The multiethnic study consisted of cases with childhood ALL (n=161) and healthy controls (n=261). Birth characteristic data were collected through questionnaires, and genotyping was achieved by TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. We observed risk associations for birth weight over 4000 g (odds ratios [OR]=1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-3.19), birth length (OR=1.18 per inch; 95% CI, 1.01-1.38), and with gestational age (OR=1.10 per week; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21). Only the HFE tag single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9366637 showed an inverse correlation with a birth characteristic, gestational age, with a gene-dosage effect (P=0.005), and in interaction with a transferrin receptor rs3817672 genotype (Pinteraction=0.05). This correlation translated into a strong association for rs9366637 with preterm birth (OR=5.0; 95% CI, 1.19-20.9). Our study provides evidence for the involvement of prenatal events in the development of childhood ALL. The inverse correlation of rs9366637 with gestational age has implications on the design of HFE association studies in birth weight and childhood conditions using full-term newborns as controls. PMID:25955080

  3. Exploring genetic variability within lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) and across related legumes using a newly developed set of microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Verma, Priyanka; Sharma, Tilak R; Srivastava, Prem S; Abdin, M Z; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2014-09-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is an economically important grain legume, yet the genetic and genomic resources remain largely uncharacterized and unexploited in this crop. Microsatellites have become markers of choice for crop improvement applications. Hence, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for lentil through the construction of genomic library enriched for GA/CT motifs. As a result 122 functional SSR primer pairs were developed from 151 microsatellite loci and validated in L. culinaris cv. Precoz. Thirty three SSR markers were utilized for the analysis of genetic relationships between cultivated and wild species of Lens and related legumes. A total of 123 alleles were amplified at 33 loci ranging from 2-5 alleles with an average of 3.73 alleles per locus. Polymorphic information content (PIC) for all the loci ranged from 0.13 to 0.99 with an average of 0.66 per locus. Varied levels of cross genera transferability were obtained ranging from 69.70 % across Pisum sativum to 12.12 % across Vigna radiata. The UPGMA based dendrogram was able to establish the uniqueness of each genotype and grouped them into two major clusters clearly resolving the genetic relationships within lentil and related species. The new set of SSR markers reported here were efficient and highly polymorphic and would add to the existing repertoire of lentil SSR markers to be utilized in molecular breeding. Moreover, the improved knowledge about intra- and inter-specific genetic relationships would facilitate germplasm utilization for lentil improvement. PMID:24893599

  4. Unique genetic variation at a species's rear edge is under threat from global

    E-print Network

    Provan, Jim

    Unique genetic variation at a species's rear edge is under threat from global climate change Jim has emerged on how these processes will affect the range-wide genetic diversity of impacted species of genetic variation in rear-edge populations, and that loss of these populations could cause

  5. Unique genetic variation at a species' rear edge is under threat from global

    E-print Network

    Provan, Jim

    Unique genetic variation at a species' rear edge is under threat from global climate change Jim has emerged on how these processes will affect the range-wide genetic diversity of impacted species of genetic variation in rear-edge populations, and that loss of these populations could cause

  6. Genetic relationships of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. populations worldwide: evidence from nuclear-DNA markers

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    nuclear-DNA markers Claire Daguin and Philippe Borsa Laboratoire Génome Populations Interactions and IRD1 Genetic relationships of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. populations worldwide: evidence from. 2000. ­ Genetic relationships of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. populations worldwide: evidence from

  7. Genetic diversity of Qatari date palm using SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Elmeer, K; Mattat, I

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity in the date palm germplasm of 59 female accessions representing 12 cultivars from different locations in Qatar was investigated using 14 loci of simple-sequence repeat (SSR) primers. A total of 94 alleles, with a mean of 6.7 alleles per locus, were scored. The number of alleles per locus varied from 3 (primer mPdCIR090) to 11 (primers mPdCIR010 and mPdCIR015). The amplified SSR band sizes ranged from 104 to 330 bp. The mean gene diversity was 0.66 and ranged from 0.39 (locus mPdCIRO93) to 0.86 (locus mPdCIR015), indicating that the Qatari date palm collection has a high degree of genetic diversity. The heterozygosity ranged from 0 (marker mPdCIR090) to 98% (marker mPdCIR010). Forty-four percent of the variability is explained at the inter-population level, while 56% of the variability is maintained within individuals. However, the loci mPdCIR044, mPdCIR057, mPdCIR090, and mPdCIR093 revealed that the total gene diversity is explained at the inter-population level. The Qatari populations Khalas, Shishi, Barhi, Hillali, Khnaizi, Gar, and Jabri showed significant differentiation compared to all other populations. The average fixation index was 0.24814, showing that about 24.81% of the genetic variation was present among populations, which correlated with analysis of molecular variance. PMID:25867305

  8. Impact of marker ascertainment bias on genomic selection accuracy and estimates of genetic diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome-wide molecular markers are readily being applied to evaluate genetic diversity in germplasm collections and for making genomic selections in breeding programs. To accurately predict phenotypes and assay genetic diversity, molecular markers should assay a representative sample of the polymorp...

  9. Modeling associations between genetic markers using Bayesian networks

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, Edwin; Maciel, Carlos Dias

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Understanding the patterns of association between polymorphisms at different loci in a population (linkage disequilibrium, LD) is of fundamental importance in various genetic studies. Many coefficients were proposed for measuring the degree of LD, but they provide only a static view of the current LD structure. Generative models (GMs) were proposed to go beyond these measures, giving not only a description of the actual LD structure but also a tool to help understanding the process that generated such structure. GMs based in coalescent theory have been the most appealing because they link LD to evolutionary factors. Nevertheless, the inference and parameter estimation of such models is still computationally challenging. Results: We present a more practical method to build GM that describe LD. The method is based on learning weighted Bayesian network structures from haplotype data, extracting equivalence structure classes and using them to model LD. The results obtained in public data from the HapMap database showed that the method is a promising tool for modeling LD. The associations represented by the learned models are correlated with the traditional measure of LD D?. The method was able to represent LD blocks found by standard tools. The granularity of the association blocks and the readability of the models can be controlled in the method. The results suggest that the causality information gained by our method can be useful to tell about the conservability of the genetic markers and to guide the selection of subset of representative markers. Availability: The implementation of the method is available upon request by email. Contact: maciel@sc.usp.br PMID:20823332

  10. Isolation and characterization of 25 unique DNA markers for human chromosome 22

    SciTech Connect

    Van Biezen, N.A.; Deprez, R.H.L.; Thijs, A.; Zwarthoff, E.C. (Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands)); Heutink, P.; Oostra, B.A.; Kessel, A.H.M.G. van (Univ. of Nijmegen (Netherlands))

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-five single-copy anonymous DNA markers for human chromosome 22 were isolated. These markers were assigned to four different regions on the chromosome. Six markers recognize restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The relative positions of five of these polymorphic markers on the framework map of chromosome 22 were determined by linkage analysis. The sizes of the NotI fragments recognized by 22 markers were determined by pulsed-field gel analysis. The total length of the NotI fragments identified is at least 12 Mb, which represents about 20% of the entire chromosome. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  11. A genetic linkage map of crested wheatgrass based on AFLP and RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoxia; Li, Xiaolei; Ma, Yanhong; Yu, Zhuo; Li, Zaozhe

    2012-03-30

    Using a population of 105 interspecific F(2) hybrids derived from a cross between Agropyron mongolicum Keng and Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. 'Fairway' as a mapping population, a genetic linkage map of crested wheatgrass was constructed based on AFLP and RAPD molecular markers. A total of 175 markers, including 152 AFLP and 23 RAPD markers, were ordered in seven linkage groups. The map distance was 416 cM, with a mean distance of 2.47 cM between markers. The number of markers ranged from 13 to 46 in each linkage group and the length of groups ranged from 18 to 104 cM. The research found that 30 out of 175 molecular markers showed segregation distortion, accounting for 17% of all markers. This is the first genetic linkage map of crested wheatgrass. This map will facilitate gene localization, cloning, and molecular marker-assisted selection in the future. PMID:22462407

  12. Genetic markers for diagnosis and pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hee; Yeo, Seung Hyeon; Park, Jeong-Min; Choi, Ji Ye; Lee, Tae-Hee; Park, Soon Yong; Ock, Mee Sun; Eo, Jungwoo; Kim, Heui-Soo; Cha, Hee-Jae

    2014-07-25

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly and represents an important and increasing clinical challenge in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Mutations in the genes encoding amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1) and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) are responsible for early-onset autosomal dominant AD. The ?4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene has been recognized as a major genetic risk factor for the more common, complex, late-onset AD. Fibrillar deposits by phosphorylated tau are also a key pathological feature of AD. The retromer complex also has been reported to late-onset AD. More recently, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) identified putative novel candidate genes associated with late-onset AD. Lastly, several studies showed that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood serum of AD patients can be used as biomarkers in AD diagnosis. This review addresses the advances and challenges in determining genetic and diagnostic markers for complex AD pathogenesis. PMID:24838203

  13. Development of Pineapple Microsatellite Markers and Germplasm Genetic Diversity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Helin; Chen, You; Wang, Jingyi; Chen, Yeyuan; Sun, Guangming; He, Junhu; Wu, Yaoting

    2013-01-01

    Two methods were used to develop pineapple microsatellite markers. Genomic library-based SSR development: using selectively amplified microsatellite assay, 86 sequences were generated from pineapple genomic library. 91 (96.8%) of the 94 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) loci were dinucleotide repeats (39 AC/GT repeats and 52 GA/TC repeats, accounting for 42.9% and 57.1%, resp.), and the other three were mononucleotide repeats. Thirty-six pairs of SSR primers were designed; 24 of them generated clear bands of expected sizes, and 13 of them showed polymorphism. EST-based SSR development: 5659 pineapple EST sequences obtained from NCBI were analyzed; among 1397 nonredundant EST sequences, 843 were found containing 1110 SSR loci (217 of them contained more than one SSR locus). Frequency of SSRs in pineapple EST sequences is 1SSR/3.73?kb, and 44 types were found. Mononucleotide, dinucleotide, and trinucleotide repeats dominate, accounting for 95.6% in total. AG/CT and AGC/GCT were the dominant type of dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats, accounting for 83.5% and 24.1%, respectively. Thirty pairs of primers were designed for each of randomly selected 30 sequences; 26 of them generated clear and reproducible bands, and 22 of them showed polymorphism. Eighteen pairs of primers obtained by the one or the other of the two methods above that showed polymorphism were selected to carry out germplasm genetic diversity analysis for 48 breeds of pineapple; similarity coefficients of these breeds were between 0.59 and 1.00, and they can be divided into four groups accordingly. Amplification products of five SSR markers were extracted and sequenced, corresponding repeat loci were found and locus mutations are mainly in copy number of repeats and base mutations in the flanking region. PMID:24024187

  14. Kazusa Marker DataBase: a database for genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in plants.

    PubMed

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Hideki

    2014-09-01

    In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10 plant species have been targeted: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus japonicus, soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). In addition, the number of plant species registered in this database will be increased as our research progresses. The Kazusa Marker DataBase will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in crops. PMID:25320561

  15. Development and standardization of disomic microsatellite markers for lake sturgeon genetic studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Welsh; B. May

    2006-01-01

    Summary Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) are of conservation concern in North America. To facilitate the recovery of this fish species, an understanding of their population genetic structure is necessary to develop and implement spatially and temporally appropriate management actions. Until recently, few genetic data using nuclear loci have been collected, primarily due to the paucity of suitable genetic markers because

  16. Autism and genetics: Clinical approach and association study with two markers of HRAS gene

    SciTech Connect

    Herault, J.; Petit, E.; Cherpi, C. [Laboratoire de Biochimie Medicale, Tours (France)] [and others

    1995-08-14

    Twin studies and familial aggregation studies indicate that genetic factors could play a role in infantile autism. In an earlier study, we identified a possible positive association between autism and a c-Harvey-ras (HRAS) oncogene marker at the 3{prime} end of the coding region. In an attempt to confirm this finding, we studied a larger population, well-characterized clinically and genetically. We report a positive association between autism and two HRAS markers, the 3{prime} marker used in the initial study and an additional marker in exon 1. 46 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. Impact of Marker Ascertainment Bias on Genomic Selection Accuracy and Estimates of Genetic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Heslot, Nicolas; Rutkoski, Jessica; Poland, Jesse; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Sorrells, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide molecular markers are often being used to evaluate genetic diversity in germplasm collections and for making genomic selections in breeding programs. To accurately predict phenotypes and assay genetic diversity, molecular markers should assay a representative sample of the polymorphisms in the population under study. Ascertainment bias arises when marker data is not obtained from a random sample of the polymorphisms in the population of interest. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) is rapidly emerging as a low-cost genotyping platform, even for the large, complex, and polyploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genome. With GBS, marker discovery and genotyping occur simultaneously, resulting in minimal ascertainment bias. The previous platform of choice for whole-genome genotyping in many species such as wheat was DArT (Diversity Array Technology) and has formed the basis of most of our knowledge about cereals genetic diversity. This study compared GBS and DArT marker platforms for measuring genetic diversity and genomic selection (GS) accuracy in elite U.S. soft winter wheat. From a set of 365 breeding lines, 38,412 single nucleotide polymorphism GBS markers were discovered and genotyped. The GBS SNPs gave a higher GS accuracy than 1,544 DArT markers on the same lines, despite 43.9% missing data. Using a bootstrap approach, we observed significantly more clustering of markers and ascertainment bias with DArT relative to GBS. The minor allele frequency distribution of GBS markers had a deficit of rare variants compared to DArT markers. Despite the ascertainment bias of the DArT markers, GS accuracy for three traits out of four was not significantly different when an equal number of markers were used for each platform. This suggests that the gain in accuracy observed using GBS compared to DArT markers was mainly due to a large increase in the number of markers available for the analysis. PMID:24040295

  18. The genetic signature of perineuronal oligodendrocytes reveals their unique phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Szuchet, Sara; Nielsen, Joseph A.; Lovas, Gabor; Domowicz, Miriam S.; de Velasco, Javier M.; Maric, Dragan; Hudson, Lynn D.

    2014-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes – best known for assembling central nervous system myelin – can be categorized as precursors, myelin-forming cells and non-myelinating perineuronal cells. Perineuronal oligodendrocytes have been well characterized morphologically and ultrastructurally, but knowledge about their function remains scanty. It has been proposed that perineuronal oligodendrocytes support neurons and, following injury, transform into myelin-synthesizing cells. Recent findings implicating perineuronal oligodendrocytes in cytoarchitectural abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders shed new light on these cells. We have obtained the genetic signature of perineuronal oligodendrocytes by identifying gene expression differences between oligodendrocyte subpopulations using cell-specific tags, microarray technology, quantitative time-resolved polymerase chain reaction and bioinformatics tools. We show that perineuronal cells are the progeny of oligodendrocyte progenitors and, hence, are members of the oligodendrocyte lineage. Physiologically they exhibit a novel phenotype. Their expression of PDGFR-?? and its growth factor ligand PDGF-CC sets them apart from members of their lineage as this receptor precludes their response to the same growth factors that act on myelinating cells. Their coordinate expression and context-specific usage of transcription factors Olig2, Ascl1 and Pax6, together with the prominent presence of transcription factors Pea3, Lhx2 and Otx2 – not hitherto linked to the oligodendrocyte lineage – suggested a cell with features that blur the boundary between a neuron and a glial cell. But they also maintain a reservoir of untranslated transcripts encoding major myelin proteins presumably for a demyelinating episode. This first molecular characterization of perineuronal oligodendrocytes revealed the striking difference between the myelinating and non-myelinating phenotypes. PMID:22132705

  19. [Molecular Genetic Markers of Economically Important Traits in Dairy Cattle].

    PubMed

    Yudin, N S; Voevoda, M I

    2015-05-01

    The selection efficiency of complex quantitative economically important traits in dairy cattle depends on the identification of candidate genes responsible for these traits, as well as the determination of causative DNA polymorphism in these genes. Here, we review examples of DNA polymorphisms in coding and noncoding parts of genes that are associated with milk yield, milk fat and protein contents, milk fat and protein percentages, the biochemical composition of milk, and other milk production traits. Together with data with of foreign authors, which were obtained predominantly for Holstein animals, much attention in the review is paid to domestic studies on Russian cattle breeds. Particular attention is dedicated to DNA polymorphisms in the genes encoding transcription factors, which can potentially affect a large number of traits. The results of association analyses are summarized in a table, and they present the progress of research in this area in recent years. Our analysis indicates that the majority of SNPs, which are associated with significant effects on milk production traits, are in fact in a linkage disequilibrium with yet unknown mutations. The identification of functionally significant DNA polymorphisms and other genetic factors (epimutations, VNTR) is necessary for effective marker-assisted selection and genomic selection of diary cattle breeds. PMID:26137639

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers and Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Chinese Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huabo; Tang, Yan; Wu, Liping; Wang, Zhe; Li, Yingyue; Wu, Rongling; Pang, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill, 2n?=?2×?=?24, Rhamnaceae) is an economically important Chinese native species. It has high nutritional value, and its medicinal properties have led to extensive use in traditional oriental medicine. The characterization of genotypes using molecular markers is important for genetic studies and plant breeding. However, few simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are available for this species. In this study, 1,488 unique SSR clones were isolated from Z. jujuba ‘Dongzao’ using enriched genomic libraries coupled with a three-primer colony PCR screening strategy, yielding a high enrichment rate of 73.3%. Finally, 1,188 (80.87%) primer pairs were amplified successfully in the size expected for ‘Dongzao’. A total of 350 primer pairs were further selected and evaluated for their ability to detect polymorphisms across a panel of six diverse cultivars; among these, 301 primer pairs detected polymorphisms, and the polymorphism information content (PIC) value across all loci ranged from 0.15 to 0.82, with an average of 0.52. An analysis of 76 major cultivars employed in Chinese jujube production using 31 primer pairs revealed comparatively high genetic diversity among these cultivars. Within-population differences among individuals accounted for 98.2% of the observed genetic variation. Neighbor-joining clustering divided the cultivars into three main groups, none of which correspond to major geographic regions, suggesting that the genetics and geographical origin of modern Chinese jujube cultivars might not be linked. The current work firstly reports the large-scale development of Chinese jujube SSR markers. The development of these markers and their polymorphic information represent a significant improvement in the available Chinese jujube genomic resources and will facilitate both genetic and breeding applications, further accelerating the development of new cultivars. PMID:24932973

  1. Genetic assessment of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) collection with microsatellite markers acquired via pyrosequencing method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gi-An; Sung, Jung-Sook; Lee, Sok-Young; Chung, Jong-Wook; Yi, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Yeon-Gyu; Lee, Myung-Chul

    2014-01-01

    A genetic evaluation of safflower germplasm collections derived from different geographical regions and countries will provide useful information for sustainable conservation and the utilization of genetic diversity. However, the molecular marker information is limited for evaluation of genetic diversity of safflower germplasm. In this study, we acquired 509 putative genomic SSR markers for sufficient genome coverage using next-generation sequencing methods and characterized thirty polymorphic SSRs in safflower collection composed of 100 diverse accessions. The average allele number and expected heterozygosity were 2.8 and 0.386, respectively. Analysis of population structure and phylogeny based on thirty SSR profiles revealed genetic admixture between geographical regions contrary to genetic clustering. However, the accessions from Korea were genetically conserved in distinctive groups in contrast to other safflower gene pool. In conclusion, these new genomic SSRs will facilitate valuable studies to clarify genetic relationships as well as conduct population structure analyses, genetic map construction and association analysis for safflower. PMID:23875976

  2. Genetic markers for the identification and characterization of Opisthorchis viverrini, a medically important food borne trematode in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Saijuntha, Weerachai; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Wongkham, Sopit; Laha, Thewarach; Pipitgool, Vichit; Petney, Trevor N; Andrews, Ross H

    2006-01-01

    The liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini, is one of the major food borne trematodes in Southeast Asia, where infection causes hepatobiliary disease and subsequent development of cholangiocarcinoma. In Thailand, O. viverrini is most prevalent in the northeast where there is marked regional variation in the rate of infection in humans at provincial, district and village levels. To date, the roles of genetic variation of O. viverrini on this observed variability in infection, transmission and associated disease are not known. We have applied multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE), specifically allozyme electrophoresis, to isolates of O. viverrini from Thailand and Laos to establish genetic markers to examine its systematics and population structure. Forty-six enzymes commonly found useful for genetic characterisation in parasitic helminths were screened, and of these, 33 enzymes gave sufficient staining and resolution to act as potential genetic markers. Sixteen enzymes were monomorphic and 17 enzymes were polymorphic in the pools of worms examined. Whether they are indicative of different enzyme loci, heterozygosity or unique genotypes within the pools of worms examined remains to be determined. Preliminary investigations examining five individual worms at enzyme loci where pools of worms showed multiple bands have confirmed the diagnostic value of the enzyme loci established as well as providing evidence of potential population sub structuring and heterozygosity. For the first time, we have established at least 17 enzymes that provide the basis to undertake comprehensive genetic analyses of the systematics and population structure of O. viverrini, a medically important food borne trematode in Southeast Asia. PMID:17166476

  3. Comparison of the utility of barley retrotransposon families for genetic analysis by molecular marker techniques.

    PubMed

    Leigh, F; Kalendar, R; Lea, V; Lee, D; Donini, P; Schulman, A H

    2003-07-01

    The Sequence-Specific Amplification Polymorphism (S-SAP) method, and the related molecular marker techniques IRAP (inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism) and REMAP (retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism), are based on retrotransposon activity, and are increasingly widely used. However, there have been no systematic analyses of the parameters of these methods or of the utility of different retrotransposon families in producing polymorphic, scorable fingerprints. We have generated S-SAP, IRAP, and REMAP data for three barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties using primers based on sequences from six retrotransposon families (BARE-1, BAGY-1, BAGY-2, Sabrina, Nikita and Sukkula). The effect of the number of selective bases on the S-SAP profiles has been examined and the profiles obtained with eight MseI+3 selective primers compared for all the elements. Polymorphisms detected in the insertion pattern of all the families show that each can be used for S-SAP. The uniqueness of each transposition event and differences in the historic activity of each family suggest that the use of multiple retrotransposon families for genetic analysis will find applications in mapping, fingerprinting, and marker-assisted selection and evolutionary studies, not only in barley and other Hordeum species and related taxa, but also more generally. PMID:12768410

  4. Alu repeats as markers for human population genetics

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, M.A.; Alegria-Hartman, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bazan, H. [Louisiana State Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). Medical Center] [and others

    1993-09-01

    The Human-Specific (HS) subfamily of Alu sequences is comprised of a group of 500 nearly identical members which are almost exclusively restricted to the human genome. Individual subfamily members share an average of 97.9% nucleotide identity with each other and an average of 98.9% nucleotide identity with the HS subfamily consensus sequence. HS Alu family members are thought to be derived from a single source ``master`` gene, and have an average age of 2.8 million years. We have developed a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based assay using primers complementary to the 5 in. and 3 in. unique flanking DNA sequences from each HS Alu that allows the locus to be assayed for the presence or absence of an Alu repeat. Individual HS Alu sequences were found to be either monomorphic or dimorphic for the presence or absence of each repeat. The monomorphic HS Alu family members inserted in the human genome after the human/great ape divergence (which is thought to have occurred 4--6 million years ago), but before the radiation of modem man. The dimorphic HS Alu sequences inserted in the human genome after the radiation of modem man (within the last 200,000-one million years) and represent a unique source of information for human population genetics and forensic DNA analyses. These sites can be developed into Dimorphic Alu Sequence Tagged Sites (DASTS) for the Human Genome Project as well. HS Alu family member insertion dimorphism differs from other types of polymorphism (e.g. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat [VNTR] or Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism [RFLP]) because individuals share HS Alu family member insertions based upon identity by descent from a common ancestor as a result of a single event which occurred one time within the human population. The VNTR and RFLP polymorphisms may arise multiple times within a population and are identical by state only.

  5. Marker-assisted estimation of quantitative genetic parameters in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Alastair

    Marker-assisted estimation of quantitative genetic parameters in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss in an aquaculture population of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Firstly a regression-based model employing

  6. Texas Adapted Genetic Strategies for Beef Cattle--11: Marker Assisted Selection for Beef Improvement 

    E-print Network

    Paschal, Joseph C.

    2005-07-15

    genes associated with trait heritability. Testing for these markers can facilitate selective breeding. Several well-known benefits of DNA testing include validation of parentage, testing for diseases or genetic defects, and testing for qualitative...

  7. [Progress on biosafety assessment of marker genes in genetically modified foods].

    PubMed

    Yang, Lichen; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2003-05-01

    Marker genes are useful in facilitating the detection of genetically modified organisms(GMO). These genes play an important role during the early identification stage of GMO development, but they exist in the mature genetically modified crops. So the safety assessment of these genes could not be neglected. In this paper, all the study on the biosafety assessment of marker genes were reviewed, their possible hazards and risks were appraised, and the marker genes proved safe were list too. GMO Labeling the is one important regulations for the development of genetically modified foods in the market. The accurate detecting techniques for GMO are the basis for setting up labeling regulation. In addition, some methods used to remove marker genes in genetically modified foods were introduced in the paper, which can eliminate their biosafety concern thoroughly. PMID:12914289

  8. Functional markers for gene mapping and genetic diversity studies in sugarcane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thiago G Marconi; Estela A Costa; Hercília RCAN Miranda; Melina C Mancini; Cláudio B Cardoso-Silva; Karine M Oliveira; Luciana R Pinto; Marcelo Mollinari; Antônio AF Garcia; Anete P Souza

    2011-01-01

    Background  The database of sugarcane expressed sequence tags (EST) offers a great opportunity for developing molecular markers that are\\u000a directly associated with important agronomic traits. The development of new EST-SSR markers represents an important tool for\\u000a genetic analysis. In sugarcane breeding programs, functional markers can be used to accelerate the process and select important\\u000a agronomic traits, especially in the mapping of

  9. A genetic map of Asparagus officinalis based on integrated RFLP, RAPD and AFLP molecular markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Spada; E. Caporali; G. Marziani; P. Portaluppi; F. M. Restivo; F. Tassi; A. Falavigna

    1998-01-01

    An integrated genetic map of the dioecious species Asparagus officinalis L. has been constructed on the basis of RFLP, RAPD, AFLP and isoenzyme markers. The segregation analysis of the polymorphic\\u000a markers was carried out on the progeny of five different crosses between male and female doubled-haploid clones generated\\u000a by anther culture. A total of 274 markers have been organized to

  10. Small-scale field test of the genetically engineered lacZY marker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Hattemer-Frey; E. J. Brandt; C. C. Travis

    1990-01-01

    Commercial genetic engineering is advancing into areas that require the small-scale introduction of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) to better quantify variables that affect microorganism distribution and survival and to document potential long-term consequences. A recombinant DNA marker system, the lacZY marker, developed by the Monsanto Agricultural Co., enables the distribution and fate of marked fluorescent pseudomonad organisms to be monitored

  11. Assessment of natural and induced genetic variation in Alstroemeria using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Anastassopoulos; M. Keil

    1996-01-01

    We have used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to study genetic variation in Alstroemeria. The first objective was to examine the discriminatory power of RAPD markers in different genotypes of Alstroemeria obtained by traditional breeding. All genotypes examined, including commercial Alstroemeria varieties, could be distinguished on the basis of their RAPD profiles. Progeny plants could be distinguished from their

  12. GENETIC LINKAGE MAP FOR WATERMELON: SEGREGATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF DNA MARKERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic linkage map is being constructed for watermelon based on a testcross population and an F2 population. About 51.0% and 31.8% of the markers in the testcross and F2 populations are skewed from the expected segregation ratios. AFLP markers appeared to be clustered on linkage regions, while IS...

  13. A genetic linkage map of papaya based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Sondur; R. M. Manshardt; J. I. Stiles

    1996-01-01

    A genetic linkage map of papaya (Carica papaya L.) was constructed using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and a F2 population derived from a University of Hawaii UH breeding line 356 x ‘Sunrise’ cross. A total of 596 10-mer primers were screened, and 96 polymorphisms were detected. At LOD 4.0, 62 of these markers mapped to 11 linkage groups

  14. Usefulness of WRKY gene-derived markers for assessing genetic diversity of Florida coconut cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of the genetic diversity and population structure within Florida coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) germplasm representing eight cultivars was previously described using 15 microsatellite (simple sequence repeat, SSR) markers. Here we report on the analysis of the same genotypes using 13 markers d...

  15. Determining rice cooking, processing, and sensory quality through the use of genetic markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice molecular markers have been developed that are associated with genes which control amylose content, gelatinization temperature, aroma, cooked kernel elongation, and RVA paste viscosity properties. These genetic markers can be used to predict rice cooking, sensory, and processing quality in ric...

  16. Utility of EST-derived SSRs as Population Genetics Markers in a Beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellites are extremely useful DNA markers in population genetics studies of animals, but they are time-consuming and expensive to develop. Microsatellite loci can be identified by mining expressed sequence tag (EST) databases, and if these could be used, marker development time would be decr...

  17. Cystic Fibrosis Locus Defined by a Genetically Linked Polymorphic DNA Marker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lap-Chee Tsui; Manuel Buchwald; David Barker; Jeffrey C. Braman; Robert Knowlton; James W. Schumm; Hans Eiberg; Jan Mohr; Dara Kennedy; Natasa Plavsic; Martha Zsiga; Danuta Markiewicz; Gita Akots; Valerie Brown; Cynthia Helms; Thomas Gravius; Carol Parker; Kenneth Rediker; Helen Donis-Keller

    1985-01-01

    A polymorphic DNA marker has been found genetically linked, in a set of 39 human families, to an autosomal recessive gene that causes cystic fibrosis (CF), a disease affecting one in 2000 Caucasian children. The DNA marker (called D0CRI-917) is also linked to the PON locus, which by independent evidence is linked to the CF locus. The best estimates of

  18. A review on SNP and other types of molecular markers and their use in animal genetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alain Vignal; Denis Milan; Magali SanCristobal; André Eggen

    2002-01-01

    During the last ten years, the use of molecular markers, revealing polymorphism at the DNA level, has been playing an increasing part in animal genetics studies. Amongst others, the microsatellite DNA marker has been the most widely used, due to its easy use by simple PCR, followed by a denaturing gel electrophoresis for allele size determination, and to the high

  19. Distribution of Genetic Marker Concentrations for Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Sewage and Animal Feces

    PubMed Central

    Kelty, Catherine A.; Varma, Manju; Sivaganesan, Mano; Haugland, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Very little is known about the density and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) genetic markers measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in fecal pollution sources. Before qPCR-based FIB technologies can be applied to waste management and public health risk applications, it is vital to characterize the concentrations of these genetic markers in pollution sources (i.e., untreated wastewater and animal feces). We report the distribution of rRNA genetic markers for several general FIB groups, including Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Bacteroidales, as determined by qPCR on reference collections consisting of 54 primary influent sewage samples collected from treatment facilities across the United States and fecal samples representing 20 different animal species. Based on raw sewage sample collection data, individual FIB genetic markers exhibited a remarkable similarity in concentration estimates from locations across the United States ranging from Hawaii to Florida. However, there was no significant correlation between genetic markers for most FIB combinations (P > 0.05). In addition, large differences (up to 5 log10 copies) in the abundance of FIB genetic markers were observed between animal species, emphasizing the importance of indicator microorganism selection and animal source contribution for future FIB applications. PMID:22504809

  20. Genetic analysis of the fragile-X mental retardation syndrome with two flanking polymorphic DNA markers

    SciTech Connect

    Oberle, I.; Heilig, R.; Moisan, J.P.; Kloepfer, C.; Mattei, M.G.; Mattei, J.F.; Boue, J.; Froster-Iskenius, U.; Jacobs, P.A.; Lathrop, G.M.; Lalouel, J.M.

    1986-02-01

    The fragile-X mental retardation syndrome, one of the most prevalent chromosome X-linked diseases (approx. = 1 of 2000 newborn males), is characterized by the presence in affected males and in a portion of carrier females of a fragile site at chromosome band Xq27. The authors have performed a linkage analysis in 16 families between the locus for the fragile-X syndrome, FRAXQ27, and two polymorphic DNA markers that correspond to the anonymous probe St14 and to the coagulation factor IX gene F9. The results indicate that the order of loci is centromere-F9-FRAXQ27-St14-Xqter. The estimate of the recombination fraction for the linkage F9-FRAXQ27 is 0.12 and 0.10 for FRAXQ27-St14. Recombination between St14 and F9 does not appear to be significantly different in normal and fragile-X families. The two flanking probes were used for diagnosis of the carrier state and for detection of transmission of the disease through phenotypically normal males. They should also allow first-trimester diagnosis with a reliability of about 98% in 40% of the families. Used in conjunction with the cytogenetic analysis, the segregation studies with both probes should improve the genetic counseling for the fragile-X syndrome and should be useful for the formal genetic analysis of this unique disease.

  1. Genetic structure of a unique admixed population: implications for medical research

    E-print Network

    Reich, David

    Genetic structure of a unique admixed population: implications for medical research Nick Patterson1 Biology, Jakarta, Indonesia, 5 Division of Medical Virology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Health: In naming population groups, we think a chief aim is to use terms that the group members use them- selves

  2. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of a Citrobacter freundii Plasmid Carrying KPC-2 in a Unique Genetic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yancheng; Imirzalioglu, Can; Hain, Torsten; Kaase, Martin; Gatermann, Soeren; Exner, Martin; Mielke, Martin; Hauri, Anja; Dragneva, Yolanta; Bill, Rita; Wendt, Constanze; Wirtz, Angela; Chakraborty, Trinad

    2014-01-01

    The complete and annotated nucleotide sequence of a 54,036-bp plasmid harboring a blaKPC-2 gene that is clonally present in Citrobacter isolates from different species is presented. The plasmid belongs to incompatibility group N (IncN) and harbors the class A carbapenemase KPC-2 in a unique genetic environment. PMID:25395635

  3. Development of microsatellite markers from an enriched genomic library for genetic analysis of melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Silva Ritschel; Tulio Cesar de Lima Lins; Rodrigo Lourenço Tristan; Gláucia Salles Cortopassi Buso; José Amauri Buso; Márcio Ferreira

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the great advances in genomic technology observed in several crop species, the availability of molecular tools such as microsatellite markers has been limited in melon (Cucumis melo L.) and cucurbit species. The development of microsatellite markers will have a major impact on genetic analysis and breeding of melon, especially on the generation of marker saturated genetic maps and

  4. Genetic linkage map of Chinese native variety faba bean (Vicia faba L.) based on simple sequence repeat markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker is a powerful tool for construction of genetic linkage map which can be applied for locating quantitative trait loci (QTL) and marker-assisted selection (MAS). In this study, a genetic map of faba bean was constructed with SSR markers using a population of 129 F2 ...

  5. Genetics

    MedlinePLUS

    Homozygous; Inheritance; Heterozygous; Inheritance patterns; Heredity and disease; Heritable; Genetic markers ... The chromosomes are made up of strands of genetic information called DNA. Each chromosome contains sections of ...

  6. Evaluation of genetic diversity in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) based on amplified fragment length polymorphism markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Shyamalamma; S. B. C. Chandra; M. Hegde; P. Naryanswamy

    2008-01-01

    Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., commonly called jackfruit, is a medium-sized evergreen tree that bears high yields of the largest known edible fruit. Yet, it has been little explored commercially due to wide variation in fruit quality. The genetic di- versity and genetic relatedness of 50 jackfruit accessions were stud- ied using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Of 16 primer pairs evaluated,

  7. Progress on biosafety assessment of marker genes in genetically modif ied foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang Lichen; Yang Xiaoguang

    2004-01-01

    Marker genes are useful in facilitating the detection of genetically modified organisms( GMO) . These genes play an important role during the early identification stage of GMO development , but they exist in the mature genetically modified crops. So the safety assessment of these genes could not be neglected. In this paper , all the study on the biosafety assessment

  8. Genetic Stock Identification of Steelhead in the Columbia River Basin: An Evaluation of Different Molecular Markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary A. Winans; Melanie M. Paquin; Donald M. Van Doornik; Bruce M. Baker; Perry Thornton; Dan Rawding; Anne Marshall; Paul Moran; Steven Kalinowski

    2004-01-01

    Protein genetic markers (allozymes) have been used during the last decade in a genetic stock identification (GSI) program by state and federal management agencies to monitor stocks of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Columbia River basin. In this paper we report new data for five microsatellite and three intron loci from 32 steelhead populations in the three upriver evolutionarily significant

  9. Influence of Conserved and Hypervariable Genetic Markers on Genotyping Circulating Strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sinisa Vidovic; Greg B. Horsman; Mingmin Liao; Jo-Anne R. Dillon

    2011-01-01

    Presently there is no vaccine against Neisseria gonorrhoeae and therefore accurate information on gonococcal transmission plays a crucial role for interventions designed to limit the spread of infections caused by this microorganism. We evaluated the impact of two different categories of genetic markers, (i) concatenated sequences of 10 housekeeping genes and (ii) hypervariable porB DNA sequences, on the genetic relatedness

  10. Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Rough Bluegrass Determined by RAPD Markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shanmugam Rajasekar; Shui-hang Fei; Nick E. Christians

    2006-01-01

    Information on genetic variation in rough bluegrass (Poa trivialis L.), a cool-season grass that is grown for sports fields and lawns, is needed. The objective of this study was to assess genetic variation in 27 accessions of rough bluegrass obtained from the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Fifteen of the 80 primers screened

  11. Genetic diversity of bitter gourd ( Momordica charantia L.) genotypes revealed by RAPD markers and agronomic traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Dey; A. K. Singh; D. Chandel; T. K. Behera

    2006-01-01

    Bitter gourd or bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is considered as minor cucurbitaceous vegetable in spite of having considerable nutritional and medicinal properties. Although some reports on genetic diversity based on morphological characterization are available, no work has been conducted to estimate genetic diversity using molecular markers in this crop. In the present study, 38 genotypes of M. charantia including

  12. Genetic marker anchoring by six-dimensional pools for development of a soybean physical map

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated genetic and physical maps are extremely valuable for genomic studies and as important references for assembling of whole genome shotgun sequences. Screening of a BAC library using molecular markers is an indispensable procedure for integration of both physical and genetic maps of a genom...

  13. Construction of a 10,000-marker ultradense genetic recombination map of potato: providing a framework for accelerated gene isolation and a genomewide physical map.

    PubMed

    van Os, Hans; Andrzejewski, Sandra; Bakker, Erin; Barrena, Imanol; Bryan, Glenn J; Caromel, Bernard; Ghareeb, Bilal; Isidore, Edwige; de Jong, Walter; van Koert, Paul; Lefebvre, Véronique; Milbourne, Dan; Ritter, Enrique; van der Voort, Jeroen N A M Rouppe; Rousselle-Bourgeois, Françoise; van Vliet, Joke; Waugh, Robbie; Visser, Richard G F; Bakker, Jaap; van Eck, Herman J

    2006-06-01

    An ultradense genetic linkage map with >10,000 AFLP loci was constructed from a heterozygous diploid potato population. To our knowledge, this is the densest meiotic recombination map ever constructed. A fast marker-ordering algorithm was used, based on the minimization of the total number of recombination events within a given marker order in combination with genotyping error-detection software. This resulted in "skeleton bin maps," which can be viewed as the most parsimonious marker order. The unit of distance is not expressed in centimorgans but in "bins." A bin is a position on the genetic map with a unique segregation pattern that is separated from adjacent bins by a single recombination event. Putative centromeres were identified by a strong clustering of markers, probably due to cold spots for recombination. Conversely, recombination hot spots resulted in large intervals of up to 15 cM without markers. The current level of marker saturation suggests that marker density is proportional to physical distance and independent of recombination frequency. Most chromatids (92%) recombined once or never, suggesting strong chiasma interference. Absolute chiasma interference within a chromosome arm could not be demonstrated. Two examples of contig construction and map-based cloning have demonstrated that the marker spacing was in accordance with the expected physical distance: approximately one marker per BAC length. Currently, the markers are used for genetic anchoring of a physical map of potato to deliver a sequence-ready minimal tiling path of BAC contigs of specific chromosomal regions for the potato genome sequencing consortium (http://www.potatogenome.net). PMID:16582432

  14. Genetic Biodiversity of Italian Olives (Olea europaea) Germplasm Analyzed by SSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Vendramin, Giuseppe Giovanni; Chiappetta, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    The olive is an important fruit species cultivated for oil and table olives in Italy and the Mediterranean basin. The conservation of cultivated plants in ex situ collections is essential for the optimal management and use of their genetic resources. The largest ex situ olive germplasm collection consists of approximately 500 Italian olive varieties and corresponding to 85% of the total Italian olive germplasm is maintained at the Consiglio per la Ricerca e sperimentazione per l'Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l'Olivicoltura e l'Industria Olearia (CRA-OLI), in Italy. In this work, eleven preselected nuclear microsatellite markers were used to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flows with the aim of assembling a core collection. The dendrogram obtained utilizing the unweighted pair group method highlights the presence of homonymy and synonymy in olive tree datasets analyzed in this study. 439 different unique genotype profiles were obtained with this combination of 11 loci nSSR, representing 89.8% of the varieties analyzed. The remaining 10.2% comprises different variety pairs in which both accessions are genetically indistinguishable. Clustering analysis performed using BAPS software detected seven groups in Italian olive germplasm and gene flows were determined among identified clusters. We proposed an Italian core collection of 23 olive varieties capturing all detected alleles at microsatellites. The information collected in this study regarding the CRA-OLI ex situ collection can be used for breeding programs, for germplasm conservation, and for optimizing a strategy for the management of olive gene pools. PMID:24723801

  15. Detecting DNA polymorphism and genetic diversity in Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) germplasm: comparison of ISSR and DAMD marker.

    PubMed

    Seyedimoradi, Hiva; Talebi, Reza

    2014-10-01

    Genetic diversity and interrelationships among 31 lentil genotypes were evaluated using 10 Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) and 10 directed amplification of minisatellite DNA region (DAMD) primers. A total of 43 and 48 polymorphic bands were amplified by ISSR and DAMD markers, respectively. Average polymorphism information content (PIC) for ISSR and DAMD markers were 0.37 and 0.41, respectively. All 31 lentil genotypes could be distinguished by ISSR markers into three groups and by DAMD markers into two groups. Various molecular markers show a different efficiency for evaluating DNA polymorphism in lentil and indicate that the patterns of variation are clearly influenced by the genetic marker used. Comparatively, the genetic diversity of examined lentil genotypes by two different marker techniques (ISSR and DAMD) was high and indicated that ISSR and DAMD are effective and promising marker systems for fingerprinting in lentil and give useful information on its genetic relationships. PMID:25320472

  16. Identification of genetically diverse genotypes for photoperiod insensitivity in soybean using RAPD markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Singh; V. S. Bhatia; Sanjeev Yadav; Rashmi Athale; N. Lakshmi; K. N. Guruprasad; G. S. Chauhan

    2008-01-01

    Most of the Indian soybean varieties were found to be highly sensitive to photoperiod, which limits their cultivation in only\\u000a localized area. Identification of genetically diverse source of photoperiod insensitive would help to broaden the genetic\\u000a base for this trait. Present study was undertaken with RAPD markers for genetic diversity estimation in 44 accessions of soybean\\u000a differing in response to

  17. Estimation of genetic diversity using SSR markers in sunflower.

    PubMed

    Zia, Z U; Sadaqat, H A; Tahir, M H N; Sadia, B; Bushman, B S; Hole, D; Michaels, L; Malik, W

    2014-05-01

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were used for the estimation of genetic diversity among a group of 40 sunflower lines developed at the research area of Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Total numbers of alleles amplified by 22 polymorphic primers were 135 with an average of 6.13 alleles per locus, suggesting that SSR is a powerful technique for assessment of genetic diversity at molecular level. The expected heterozygosity (PIC) ranged from 0.17 to 0.89. The highest PIC value was observed at the locus C1779. The genetic distances ranged from 9 to 37%. The highest genetic distance was observed between the lines L50 and V3. Genetic distances were low showing lesser amount of genetic diversity among the sunflower lines. PMID:25715473

  18. The origin of the Japanese race based on genetic markers of immunoglobulin G

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    This review addresses the distribution of genetic markers of immunoglobulin G (Gm) among 130 Mongoloid populations in the world. These markers allowed the populations to be clearly divided into 2 groups, the northern and southern groups. The northern group is characterized by high frequencies of 2 marker genes, ag and ab3st, and an extremely low frequency of the marker gene afb1b3; and the southern group, in contrast, is indicated by a remarkably high frequency of afb1b3 and low frequencies of ag and ab3st. Based on the geographical distribution of the markers and gene flow of Gm ag and ab3st (northern Mongoloid marker genes) from northeast Asia to the Japanese archipelago, the Japanese population belongs basically to the northern Mongoloid group and is thus suggested to have originated in northeast Asia, most likely in the Baikal area of Siberia. PMID:19212099

  19. Potential of marker-assisted selection in hemp genetic improvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Mandolino; A. Carboni

    2004-01-01

    Summary  The development and applications of molecular markers to hemp breeding are recent, dating back only to the mid-1990s. The main achievements in this field are reviewed. The analysis of Cannabis germplasm by RAPD, AFLP and microsatellites is discussed, with its consequence for the still debated species concept in Cannabis. DNA-based markers have also been exploited in the field of forensic

  20. A sequence-based genetic map of Medicago truncatula and comparison of marker colinearity with M. sativa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-Kyu Choi; Dongjin Kim; Taesik Uhm; Eric Limpens; Hyunju Lim; Jeong-Hwan Mun; Peter Kalo; R. Varma Penmetsa; Andrea Seres; Olga Kulikova; Bruce A. Roe; Ton Bisseling; Gyorgy B. Kiss; Douglas R. Cook

    2004-01-01

    A core genetic map of the legume Medicago truncatula has been established by analyzing the segregation of 288 sequence-characterized genetic markers in an F2 population composed of 93 individuals. These molecular markers correspond to 141 ESTs, 80 BAC end sequence tags, and 67 resistance gene analogs, covering 513 cM. In the case of EST-based markers we used an intron-targeted marker

  1. Dinucleotide repeat loci contribute highly informative genetic markers to the human chromosome 2 linkage map

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, S. (Eleanor Roosevelt Institute, Denver, CO (United States)); Sherman, S.L. (Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)); Naylor, S.L. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Microsatellite repeat loci can provide informative markers for genetic linkage. Currently, the human chromosome 2 genetic linkage map has very few highly polymorphic markers. Being such a large chromosome, it will require a large number of informative markers for the dense coverage desired to allow disease genes to be mapped quickly and accurately. Dinucleotide repeat loci from two anonymous chromosome 2 genomic DNA clones were sequenced so that oligonucleotide primers could be designed for amplifying each locus using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Five sets of PCR primers were also generated from nucleotide sequences in the GenBank Database of chromosome 2 genes containing dinucleotide repeats. In addition, one PCR primer pair was made that amplifies a restriction fragment length polymorphism on the TNP1 gene. These markers were placed on the CEPH genetic linkage map by screening the CEPH reference DNA panel with each primer set, combining these data with those of other markers previously placed on the map, and analyzing the combined data set using CRI-MAP and LINKAGE. The microsatellite loci are highly informative markers and the TNP1 locus, as expected, is only moderately informative. A map was constructed with 38 ordered loci (odds [ge] 1000:1) spanning 296 cM (male) and 476 cM (female) of chromosome 2 compared with 306 cM (male) and 529 cM (female) for a previous map of 20 markers. 32 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. In Vivo Biosynthesis of Terpene Nucleosides Provides Unique Chemical Markers of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    PubMed

    Young, David C; Layre, Emilie; Pan, Shih-Jung; Tapley, Asa; Adamson, John; Seshadri, Chetan; Wu, Zhongtao; Buter, Jeffrey; Minnaard, Adriaan J; Coscolla, Mireia; Gagneux, Sebastien; Copin, Richard; Ernst, Joel D; Bishai, William R; Snider, Barry B; Moody, D Branch

    2015-04-23

    Although small molecules shed from pathogens are widely used to diagnose infection, such tests have not been widely implemented for tuberculosis. Here we show that the recently identified compound, 1-tuberculosinyladenosine (1-TbAd), accumulates to comprise >1% of all Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipid. In vitro and in vivo, two isomers of TbAd were detected that might serve as infection markers. Using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance, we established the structure of the previously unknown molecule, N(6)-tuberculosinyladenosine (N(6)-TbAd). Its biosynthesis involves enzymatic production of 1-TbAd by Rv3378c followed by conversion to N(6)-TbAd via the Dimroth rearrangement. Intact biosynthetic genes are observed only within M. tuberculosis complex bacteria, and TbAd was not detected among other medically important pathogens, environmental bacteria, and vaccine strains. With no substantially similar known molecules in nature, the discovery and in vivo detection of two abundant terpene nucleosides support their development as specific diagnostic markers of tuberculosis. PMID:25910243

  3. Population Genetic Effects of Urban Habitat Fragmentation in the Perennial Herb Viola pubescens (Violaceae) using ISSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Culley, Theresa M.; Sbita, Sarah J.; Wick, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Fragmentation of natural habitats can negatively impact plant populations by leading to reduced genetic variation and increased genetic distance as populations become geographically and genetically isolated from one another. To test whether such detrimental effects occur within an urban landscape, the genetic structure of six populations of the perennial herb Viola pubescens was characterized in the metropolitan area of Greater Cincinnati in southwestern Ohio, USA. Methods Using three inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers, 51 loci amplified across all urban populations. For reference, four previously examined agricultural populations in central/northern Ohio and a geographically distant population in Michigan were also included in the analysis. Key Results Urban populations retained high levels of genetic variation (percentage of polymorphic loci, Pp = 80·7 %) with similar genetic distances among populations and an absence of unique alleles. Geographic and genetic distances were correlated with one another, and all populations grouped according to region. Individuals from urban populations clustered together and away from individuals from agricultural populations and from the Michigan population in a principle coordinates analysis. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that most of the genetic variability was partitioned within populations (69·1 %) and among groups (22·2 %) of southwestern Ohio, central/northern Ohio and Michigan groups. Mean Fst was 0·308, indicating substantial population differentiation. Conclusions It is concluded that urban fragmentation does not appear to impede gene flow in V. pubescens in southwestern Ohio. These results are consistent with life history traits of this species and the possibility of high insect abundance in urban habitats due to diverse floral resources and nesting sites. Combined with the cleistogamous breeding system of this species, pollinator availability in the urban matrix may buffer populations against detrimental effects of habitat fragmentation, at least in larger forest fragments. Consequently, it may be inappropriate to generalize about genetic effects of fragmentation across landscapes or even across plant species with different pollination systems. PMID:17556381

  4. Genetic Diversity Revealed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers in a Worldwide Germplasm Collection of Durum Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jing; Sun, Daokun; Chen, Liang; You, Frank M.; Wang, Jirui; Peng, Yunliang; Nevo, Eviatar; Sun, Dongfa; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Peng, Junhua

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of genetic diversity and genetic structure in crops has important implications for plant breeding programs and the conservation of genetic resources. Newly developed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are effective in detecting genetic diversity. In the present study, a worldwide durum wheat collection consisting of 150 accessions was used. Genetic diversity and genetic structure were investigated using 946 polymorphic SNP markers covering the whole genome of tetraploid wheat. Genetic structure was greatly impacted by multiple factors, such as environmental conditions, breeding methods reflected by release periods of varieties, and gene flows via human activities. A loss of genetic diversity was observed from landraces and old cultivars to the modern cultivars released during periods of the Early Green Revolution, but an increase in cultivars released during the Post Green Revolution. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of genetic diversity among the 10 mega ecogeographical regions indicated that South America, North America, and Europe possessed the richest genetic variability, while the Middle East showed moderate levels of genetic diversity. PMID:23538839

  5. The identification of a genetically unique piroplasma in North American river otters (Lontra canadensis).

    PubMed

    Birkenheuer, A J; Harms, C A; Neel, J; Marr, H S; Tucker, M D; Acton, A E; Tuttle, A D; Stoskopf, M K

    2007-05-01

    During a routine health check of a wild-caught North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) small piroplasms were noted within erythrocytes. Analyses of the 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequences determined that this was a genetically unique organism most closely related to Babesia microti-like parasites found in other small carnivores. Subsequently 39 wild-trapped North American river otters from North Carolina were tested for the presence of piroplasma deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) via polymerase chain reaction and piroplasma DNA was detected in 82% (32/39) of these samples. Sequencing of partial 18S rRNA genes from selected cases determined that they were identical to the sentinel case. This report documents the existence of a genetically unique piroplasma in North American river otters and indicates that the prevalence of piroplasma in North Carolina otters is quite high. The pathogenic potential of this organism for otters or other species remains unknown. PMID:17214914

  6. Reproductive Meristem22 is a unique marker for the early stages of stamen development.

    PubMed

    Romanel, Elisson; Das, Pradeep; Amasino, Richard M; Traas, Jan; Meyerowitz, Elliot; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio

    2011-01-01

    Stamens undergo a very elaborate development program that gives rise not only to many specific tissue types, but also to the male gametes. The specification of stamen identity is coordinated by a group of homeotic genes such as APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI), AGAMOUS (AG) and SEPALLATA (SEP1-4) genes. Genome-wide transcriptomic comparisons between floral buds of wild-type and ap3 mutants led to the identification of the REM22 gene, which is expressed in the early stages of stamen development. This gene is member of the plant-specific B3 DNA-binding superfamily. In this work, we dissect the spatio-temporal expression pattern of REM22 during the early stages of stamen development. To this end, both in situ hybridization analyses as well as in vivo fluorescence strategies were employed. At stage 4 of flower development, REM22 is expressed exclusively in those undifferentiated cells of the floral meristem that will give rise to the stamen primordia. At stage 5, REM22 expression is restricted to the epidermal and the subepidermal layers of anther primordia. Later, this expression is confined to the middle layer and the differentiating tapetal cells. After stage 10 when all the tissues of the anther have differentiated, REM22 expression is no longer detectable. Furthermore, we examined the pREM22::GUS-GFP marker line in an inducible system where the ectopic AG function is used to promote microsporogenesis. The data support the idea that REM22 expression is a useful marker to study the early stages of stamen development. PMID:21948714

  7. Gene Transfer in CAULOBACTER CRESCENTUS: Polarized Inheritance of Genetic Markers

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Austin; Allebach, Eileen

    1975-01-01

    Recombination frequencies were determined for 15 independently isolated auxotrophs of C. crescentus crossed pairwise in all possible combinations. The results indicate that the mutants may be grouped into at least two types: "fertile" strains, which recombine with all other mutants at frequencies ranging from less than 10-6 to 3 x 10 -2, and "nonfertile" strains which recombine with fertile strains at high frequencies and with other nonfertile strains at low or negligible frequencies. Several lines of evidence indicate a polarized inheritance of markers. Two of these are (1) the preferential inheritance of unselected markers from the nonfertile parent in fertile x nonfertile crosses, and (2) the consistent ordering of markers based on the frequency at which the mutants recombine with each of the three fertile strains. Although the evidence is not conclusive at this point, the results are most consistent with conjugation as the mechanism of gene transfer in these bacteria. PMID:1137965

  8. Molecular Markers for Genetic Diversity and Bayoud Disease Resistance in Date Palm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    My H. Sedra

    \\u000a The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L) is a monocotyledoneus woody perennial and dioecious plant with a long generation life time. Traditional and ­modern genetic\\u000a improvement in date palm need long time and considerable funds. The molecular markers can assist the selection and give better\\u000a and efficient research strategies. Several researches cited in this overview paper showed the use molecular markers

  9. Genetic dissection of a modern sugarcane cultivar (Saccharum spp.). I. Genome mapping with AFLP markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-Y. Hoarau; B. Offmann; A. D’Hont; A.-M. Risterucci; D. Roques; J.-C. Glaszmann; L. Grivet

    2001-01-01

    Sugarcane cultivars are polyploid, aneuploid clones derived from interspecific hybridization between Saccharum officinarum and S. spontaneum. Their genome has recently started to be unravelled as a result of the development of molecular markers. We constructed an\\u000a AFLP genetic map based on a selfing population of a specific cultivar, R570.Using 37 AFLP primer pairs, we detected 1,185\\u000a polymorphic markers of which

  10. No. of Markers, Genetic Lengths, and Female:Male Length Ratio, for Each Chromosome

    E-print Network

    Sabatti, Chiara

    centromere markers 1 282.61 284.07 270.27 195.12 345.41 0.96 1.08 468 2 252.48 261.61 257.48 189.55 325.41 1 for a chromosome excluding the centromere is calculated by deleting the genetic length and physical length of the two markers flanking the centromere. Kong et al. (2002) (1,257 meioses) #12;243 three deserts; however

  11. African Indigenous Cattle: Unique Genetic Resources in a Rapidly Changing World

    PubMed Central

    Mwai, Okeyo; Hanotte, Olivier; Kwon, Young-Jun; Cho, Seoae

    2015-01-01

    At least 150 indigenous African cattle breeds have been named, but the majority of African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized. As cattle breeds and populations in Africa adapted to various local environmental conditions, they acquired unique features. We know now that the history of African cattle was particularly complex and while several of its episodes remain debated, there is no doubt that African cattle population evolved dramatically over time. Today, we find a mosaic of genetically diverse population from the purest Bos taurus to the nearly pure Bos indicus. African cattle are now found all across the continent, with the exception of the Sahara and the river Congo basin. They are found on the rift valley highlands as well as below sea level in the Afar depression. These unique livestock genetic resources are in danger to disappear rapidly following uncontrolled crossbreeding and breed replacements with exotic breeds. Breeding improvement programs of African indigenous livestock remain too few while paradoxically the demand of livestock products is continually increasing. Many African indigenous breeds are endangered now, and their unique adaptive traits may be lost forever. This paper reviews the unique known characteristics of indigenous African cattle populations while describing the opportunities, the necessity and urgency to understand and utilize these resources to respond to the needs of the people of the continent and to the benefit of African farmers. PMID:26104394

  12. African Indigenous Cattle: Unique Genetic Resources in a Rapidly Changing World.

    PubMed

    Mwai, Okeyo; Hanotte, Olivier; Kwon, Young-Jun; Cho, Seoae

    2015-07-01

    At least 150 indigenous African cattle breeds have been named, but the majority of African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized. As cattle breeds and populations in Africa adapted to various local environmental conditions, they acquired unique features. We know now that the history of African cattle was particularly complex and while several of its episodes remain debated, there is no doubt that African cattle population evolved dramatically over time. Today, we find a mosaic of genetically diverse population from the purest Bos taurus to the nearly pure Bos indicus. African cattle are now found all across the continent, with the exception of the Sahara and the river Congo basin. They are found on the rift valley highlands as well as below sea level in the Afar depression. These unique livestock genetic resources are in danger to disappear rapidly following uncontrolled crossbreeding and breed replacements with exotic breeds. Breeding improvement programs of African indigenous livestock remain too few while paradoxically the demand of livestock products is continually increasing. Many African indigenous breeds are endangered now, and their unique adaptive traits may be lost forever. This paper reviews the unique known characteristics of indigenous African cattle populations while describing the opportunities, the necessity and urgency to understand and utilize these resources to respond to the needs of the people of the continent and to the benefit of African farmers. PMID:26104394

  13. agronomie: plant genetics and breeding Markers of adventitious root formation

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ; accepted 23 September 1996) Summary — This article deals with markers for rootability of cuttings that do not deal with adventitious root formation, eg, research on auxin action, cell cycle activation- cular level. Thus, proline accumulation is a mark- er of drought stress (Hanson and Hitz, 1982), storage

  14. Assessing population genetic structure of sorghum landraces from North-western Morocco using allozyme and microsatellite markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Djè; D. Forcioli; M. Ater; C. Lefèbvre; X. Vekemans

    1999-01-01

    The level of genetic diversity and the population genetic structure of sorghum landraces from North-western Morocco have\\u000a been investigated based on direct field-sampling using both allozyme and microsatellite markers. As expected, microsatellite\\u000a markers showed a much higher degree of polymorphism than allozymes, but relative measures of genetic structure such as Wright’s\\u000a inbreeding coefficient F\\u000a IS and Nei’s coefficient of genetic

  15. PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES: Development of microsatellite markers for the guava rust fungus, Puccinia psidii.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shaobin; Yang, Baojun; Alfenas, Acelino Couto

    2008-03-01

    We developed and characterized 15 polymorphic microsatellite markers present in the genome of the guava rust fungus, Puccinia psidii. The primers for these microsatellite markers were designed by sequencing clones from a genomic DNA library enriched for a simple sequence repeat (SSR) motif of (AG). All these 15 primer pairs successfully amplified DNA fragments from a sample of 22 P. psidii isolates, revealing a total of 71 alleles. The observed heterozygosity at the 15 loci ranged from 0.05 to 1.00. The SSR markers developed would be useful for population genetics study of the rust fungus. PMID:21585788

  16. SEROLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL GENETIC MARKERS AND THEIR ASSOCIATIONS WITH PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS : A REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Balgir, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY The studies pertaining to associations of serological and biochemical genetic markers (blood groups in particular and scrum proteins and enzymes in general) with the psychiatric disorders such as psychoses in general, Schizophrenia, manic-depressive psychosis including unipolar and bipolar affective disorders and neuroses have been critically examined. The reasons for inconsistent findings of various investigators have been pointed out to assist the future researchers to overcome the previous drawbacks. Implications of associations of genetic markers with the psychiatric disorders have been discussed and future areas of research suggested. PMID:21847304

  17. Genetic analysis and marker assisted identification of life phases of red alga Gracilaria corticata (J. Agardh)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ravi S. Baghel; Puja Kumari; A. J. Bijo; Vishal Gupta; C. R. K. Reddy; B. Jha

    2011-01-01

    The present study firstly reports the cytological and molecular marker assisted differentiation of isomorphic population of\\u000a Gracilaria\\u000a corticata (J. Agardh) with inter and intra-phasic genetic diversity analysis using ISSR markers. The genetic diversity of inbreeding\\u000a population of G. corticata as determined in terms of percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL), average heterozygosity (He) and Shannon’s Weaver index (I)\\u000a were 59.80, 0.59

  18. Finding Markers That Make a Difference: DNA Pooling and SNP-Arrays Identify Population Informative Markers for Genetic Stock Identification

    PubMed Central

    Ozerov, Mikhail; Vasemägi, Anti; Wennevik, Vidar; Diaz-Fernandez, Rogelio; Kent, Matthew; Gilbey, John; Prusov, Sergey; Niemelä, Eero; Vähä, Juha-Pekka

    2013-01-01

    Genetic stock identification (GSI) using molecular markers is an important tool for management of migratory species. Here, we tested a cost-effective alternative to individual genotyping, known as allelotyping, for identification of highly informative SNPs for accurate genetic stock identification. We estimated allele frequencies of 2880 SNPs from DNA pools of 23 Atlantic salmon populations using Illumina SNP-chip. We evaluated the performance of four common strategies (global FST, pairwise FST, Delta and outlier approach) for selection of the most informative set of SNPs and tested their effectiveness for GSI compared to random sets of SNP and microsatellite markers. For the majority of cases, SNPs selected using the outlier approach performed best followed by pairwise FST and Delta methods. Overall, the selection procedure reduced the number of SNPs required for accurate GSI by up to 53% compared with randomly chosen SNPs. However, GSI accuracy was more affected by populations in the ascertainment group rather than the ranking method itself. We demonstrated for the first time the compatibility of different large-scale SNP datasets by compiling the largest population genetic dataset for Atlantic salmon to date. Finally, we showed an excellent performance of our top SNPs on an independent set of populations covering the main European distribution range of Atlantic salmon. Taken together, we demonstrate how combination of DNA pooling and SNP arrays can be applied for conservation and management of salmonids as well as other species. PMID:24358184

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Genetic markers for ancestry are correlated with body

    E-print Network

    Reich, David

    Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2007 Abstract Summary Individual-specific percent for osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and obesity. Keywords Admixture mapping . Body composition . Genetic ancestry. Linkage analysis . Osteoporosis . Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) Osteoporos Int DOI 10.1007/s00198

  20. The Application of Genetic Markers to Landscape Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Sunnucks; Andrea C Taylor

    There is great concern about how landscape change will affect the persistence of native biota, and the services they provide\\u000a to human wellbeing. Of fundamental concern is the effect on population processes — birth and death rates, migration and genetic\\u000a exchange. Molecular ecology and landscape genetics make contributions to the analysis and monitoring of landscape change that\\u000a are otherwise inaccessible.

  1. MLVA and SNP analysis identified a unique genetic cluster in Bulgarian Bacillus anthracis strains.

    PubMed

    Antwerpen, M; Ilin, D; Georgieva, E; Meyer, H; Savov, E; Frangoulidis, D

    2011-07-01

    A collection of 40 Bacillus anthracis strains mostly isolated from soil in Bulgaria between 1960 and 1980 were investigated. All strains were proven to be B. anthracis by culture and amplification of a B. anthracis-specific chromosomal marker. PCR demonstrated that in nine strains both virulence plasmids (pX01+/pX02+) and in four strains only one plasmid (pX02+) were present, whereas the majority of strains (n = 27) lacked both plasmids (pX01-/pX02-). Multi-locus-variable number of tandem repeat-analysis (MLVA) using 15 markers differentiated three genotypes. Comparison with typing data of more than 1,000 different B. anthracis strains revealed that Bulgarian genotypes affiliated with the A1.a cluster and form their own unique cluster different from clusters containing strains isolated in geographical proximity, e.g., Turkey, Georgia, Hungary, Albania or Italy. In addition, a new allele of one marker (vrrC2) was identified. Canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms analysis allocated 31 Bulgarian strains into the A.Br.008/009 and nine strains into the A.Br.WNA group, which is the first description of B. anthracis strains of the A.Br.WNA group on the Eurasian continent. PMID:21279731

  2. Using SSR markers to evaluate the genetic diversity of Lentinula edodes’ natural germplasm in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang XiaoWei; Wei Liu; Yaohong Dai; Cheng Fu; Yinbing Bian

    2010-01-01

    In this study, microsatellite markers were utilized to reveal the genetic diversity of 56 strains of Lentinula edodes grown in China. A total of 224 DNA bands were detected through 25 primer pairs, of which, 223 bands (99.6%) were polymorphic\\u000a between two or more strains. The variation in SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) DNA band patterns and average genetic similarity\\u000a among

  3. Genetic similarities among Spanisch populations of Agropyron , Elymus and Thinopyrum , using PCR-based markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pilar García; Juan-Vicente Monte; Carlos Casanova; Consuelo Soler

    2002-01-01

    Arbitrary oligonucleotides were used as primers to amplifygenomic DNA of 48 wild Spanish populations of Agropyroncristatum, Elymus hispanicus,E. caninus,E. repens,Thinopyrum curvifolium, Th.junceum and Th.intermedium. Genetic diversity was analysedusing nineteen primers. The number of amplified products ranged from8 to 18 per primer and a total of 240 markers were scored. Differentlevels of intraspecific genetic diversity were found, the allogamousspecies E. repens

  4. LOW GENETIC DIVERSITY IN THE ANTARCTIC TOOTHFISH (DISSOSTICHUS MAWSONI) OBSERVED WITH MITOCHONDRIAL AND INTRON DNA MARKERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Smith

    2005-01-01

    Two molecular methods, mitochondrial and intron DNA markers, were used to determine genetic relationships among Antarctic toothfi sh (Dissostichus mawsoni) samples from three CCAMLR areas: Subareas 48.1 and 88.1 and Division 58.4.2. D. mawsoni appeared to be characterised by low diversity; no genetic variation was detected with restriction enzyme digests of nine sub-regions of the mitochondrial genome. Polymorphisms were found

  5. RAPD and ISSR markers indicate high genetic variation within Lobathallia radiosa in Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ertu?rul Yüzba??o?lu; Mehmet Gökhan Hal?c?; Muhammer Karabacak; Ahmet Aksoy

    2011-01-01

    Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) methods were used for investigating genetic\\u000a variation within L. radiosa and for delimiting species within the genus Lobothallia. Ten RAPD and 11 ISSR primers produced a total of 261 and 260 reproducible bands, respectively, and all of which were polymorphic\\u000a for the two markers, suggesting high genetic variability within

  6. Supplementary tables for "Informativeness of genetic markers for inference of ancestry" Table A. Informativeness (In) for distinguishing groups within data sets. For each data set (table 4), markers

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    . Informativeness (In) for distinguishing groups within data sets. For each data set (table 4), markers are rankedSupplementary tables for "Informativeness of genetic markers for inference of ancestry" Table A as in supplementary table 4 of Rosenberg et al. (2002). Loci are sorted in lexical order. Locus Alternate Repeat World

  7. Gains in reliability from combining subsets of 500, 5,000, 50,000 or 500,000 genetic markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More genetic markers can increase both reliability and cost of genomic selection. Fewer markers can be used to trace chromosome segments within a population once identified by high-density haplotyping. Combinations of marker densities can improve reliability at lower cost. As of January 2010, 33,414...

  8. Development of a genetic linkage map for Louisiana sugarcane: New microsatellite (SSR) DNA markers identified for LCP 85-384

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of the recently developed genetic linkage map of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivar LCP 85-384 has been limited due to the small number of DNA markers, in particular microsatellite (SSR) DNA markers, on the map. Adding DNA markers to the map improves its usefulness in identifying assoc...

  9. Evidence for intragenic recombination within a novel genetic marker that distinguishes mussels in the Mytilus edulis species complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D Rawson; Karen L Joyner; Keith Meetze; Thomas J Hilbish

    1996-01-01

    We have used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) techniques to design two genetic markers for blue mussels in the Mytilus edulis species complex. Both of these markers target the gene encoding the mussel polyphenolic adhesive protein. The first marker, Glu-5?, is highly differentiated among and can be used to identify the three blue mussel

  10. Combined use of maternal, paternal and bi-parental genetic markers for the identification of wolf–dog hybrids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Vilà; C Walker; A-K Sundqvist; Ø Flagstad; Z Andersone; A Casulli; I Kojola; H Valdmann; J Halverson; H Ellegren

    2003-01-01

    The identification of hybrids is often a subject of primary concern for the development of conservation and management strategies, but can be difficult when the hybridizing species are closely related and do not possess diagnostic genetic markers. However, the combined use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), autosomal and Y chromosome genetic markers may allow the identification of hybrids and of the

  11. Evaluation of Human and Cattle Host Specific Genetic Markers for Bacterial Source Tracking in a Small Urban Watershed

    E-print Network

    Evaluation of Human and Cattle Host Specific Genetic Markers for Bacterial Source Tracking was observed. The human-specific genetic marker was detected in 90% of the water samples, while only 23 is crucial for developing best management practices. In this study, we evaluated human- and cattle

  12. Microsatellite and mating type markers reveal unexpected patterns of genetic diversity in the pine root-infecting fungus

    E-print Network

    Microsatellite and mating type markers reveal unexpected patterns of genetic diversity in the pine and Spain and importantly, has been associated with pine root diseases in South Africa and the USA. Nothing. Keywords: Grosmannia alacris, pine pathogen, population genetics, SSR markers Introduction Grosmannia

  13. The chloroplast psbK-psbI intergenic region, a potential genetic marker for broad sectional relationships in Anthurium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nuclear and chloroplast genetic markers have been extensively used for plant identification and molecular taxonomy studies. The efficacy of genetic markers to be used as DNA barcodes is under constant evaluation and improvement, with identification of new barcodes that provide greater resolution an...

  14. Pollen genetic markers for detection of mutagens in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Nilan, R.A.; Rosichan, J.L.; Arenaz, P.; Hodgdon, A.L.; Kleinhofs, A.

    1981-01-01

    To utilize pollen for in situ monitoring of the genetic hazards of environmental pollutants, the range of genetic traits in pollen must be identified and analyzed. These include ornamentation, shape and form, male sterility viability, intraspecific incompatibility, proteins, and starch deposition. Several proteins that meet the necessary criteria for mutagen detection systems are discussed. At Washington State Univ., a waxy pollen system is being developed in barley for in situ mutagen monitoring. Studies are being conducted to develop data concerning the nature of the mutations induced by various environmental mutagens.

  15. GENETIC DIVERSITY IN THE HIGHBUSH BLUEBERRY EVALUATED WITH MICROSATELLITE MARKERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty-nine accessions representing wild and domesticated highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.) germplasm were genotyped using 28 simple sequence repeats (SSRs). A total of 627 alleles was detected and generated unique fingerprints for all accessions. Duplicates of Coville and Ivanhoe obtained by dif...

  16. Comprehensive genetic discrimination of Leonurus cardiaca populations by AFLP, ISSR, RAPD and IRAP molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Khadivi-Khub, Abdollah; Soorni, Aboozar

    2014-06-01

    Leonurus cardiaca is well known for its medicinal importance. In this investigation, genotypic characterization of this species from six eco-geographical regions of Iran was evaluated by four molecular techniques (AFLP, RAPD, ISSR and IRAP). A total of 899 polymorphic fragments were detected by used molecular markers (AFLP = 356, RAPD = 325, ISSR = 113 and IRAP = 105) with an overall average polymorphism of 81.24%. Genetic variation calculated using Shannon's Information index (I) and Nei's gene diversity index (H) showed high genetic diversity in studied germplasm. Also, analysis of molecular variance showed high genetic variation among (55%) and within populations (45%). UPGMA dendrogram constructed from combined data of molecular markers distinguished studied populations in accordance with the results obtained by each marker which all individuals were clearly differentiated into two major clusters. The correlation coefficients were statistically significant for all marker systems with the highest correlation between similarity matrixes of RAPD and ISSR markers (r = 0.82). The present results have an important implication for L. cardiaca germplasm characterization, improvement, and conservation. Furthermore, the characterized individuals exhibited a great deal of molecular variation and they seem to have a rich gene pool for breeding programs. PMID:24562682

  17. DIVERSITY ASSESSMENT IN COTTON WITH NEW GENETICALLY MAPPED MICROSATELLITE MARKERS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is one of the major crops produced worldwide which provides the world’s leading natural renewal fiber for the manufacture of textiles. In this day and age when most food crops are known to have narrow genetic variability and breeders continue to face tremendous pressure to use wild germplasm ...

  18. Genetic diversity in Spanish donkey breeds using microsatellite DNA markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Unitat de Gentica; Departament de Cinci

    Genetic diversity at 13 equine microsatellite loci was compared in v e endangered Spanish donkey breeds: Andaluza, Catalana, Mallorquina, Encartaciones and Zamorano- Leonesa. All of the equine microsatellites used in this study were amplied and were polymorphic in the domestic donkey breeds with the exception of HMS1, which was mono- morphic, and ASB2, which failed to amplify. Allele number, frequency

  19. Assessing genetic diversity in Valencia peanut germplasm using SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Valencia peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.ssp. fastigiata var. fastigiata) are well known for their in-shell market value. Assessment of genetic diversity of the available Valencia germplasm is key to the success of developing improved cultivars with desirable agronomic and quality traits. In the pres...

  20. An assessment of the utility of universal and specific genetic markers for opium poppy identification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun J; Hwang, In K; Kim, Nam Y; Lee, Kyung L; Han, Myun S; Lee, Yang H; Kim, Mu Y; Yang, Moon S

    2010-09-01

    The proper identification of illicit plants such as Papaver somniferum L (opium poppy) is important for law enforcement agencies. The identification of opium poppy was presently tested using 10 genetic markers that are universal for all plants or specific to a few poppy plants. The genetic distances of universal markers such as nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS), 18S rRNA, plastid rbcL, and trnL-trnF intergenic spacer (IGS) of 14 species included in the Papaveraceae and Fumariaceae family were acquired by sequence comparisons. Both the ITS region and trnL-trnF IGS showed high levels of interspecific divergence. Six Papaver genera-specific markers were developed from coding regions involved in morphine biosynthesis. Three markers (TYDC, NCS, and BBE) produced amplicons only in opium poppy, providing a presence/absence test for opium poppy, while three additional markers (CYP80B1, SAT, and COR) were genus specific. These 10 markers might be useful for the forensic DNA analysis of opium poppy. PMID:20487152

  1. Genetic characterization of guava (psidium guajava l.) Germplasm in the United States using microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity of thirty five Psidium guajava accessions maintained at the USDA, National Plants Germplasm System, Hilo, HI, was characterized using 20 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Diversity analysis detected a total of 178 alleles ranging from four to 16. The observed mean heterozygosit...

  2. Genetic Likage Map for Hydrangea macrophylla Using SSR and AFLP Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used a two-way pseudo-testcross mapping strategy in combination with simple sequence repeat (SSR) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers to construct a genetic map of Hydrangea macrophylla. Map was generated using JoinMap 4.0 software, with a minimum LOD of 3.0 and a maximum r...

  3. ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF WRKY GENES AS USEFUL GENETIC MARKERS IN THEOBROMA CACAO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, there is an international effort in improving disease resistance and crop yield in Theobroma cacao L., an economically important crop of the tropics. Molecular genetic markers are powerful tools in selective breeding of crops. The "candidate gene" approach identifies genes that may be i...

  4. Using benthic infauna abundance and genetic markers in oysters as indicators of hypoxia downstream from a

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Using benthic infauna abundance and genetic markers in oysters as indicators of hypoxia downstream on communities downstream from these systems has not been well assessed. This study sought to examine differences ways: (1) chemical analysis of the sediment, (2) abundance of benthic infauna, and (3) oyster response

  5. Natural skip oviposition of the mosquito Aedes aegypti indicated by codominant genetic markers

    E-print Network

    Severson, David

    larvae, oviposition behaviour, relatedness, RFLP, skip-oviposition, vector biology, yellow fever mosquitoNatural skip oviposition of the mosquito Aedes aegypti indicated by codominant genetic markers Y. M within and among oviposition sites used by the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L) (Diptera: Culicidae). Estimates

  6. Genetic Diversity of Lablab (L. purpureus) Germplasm Assessed by SSR Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic diversity of the USDA Lablab purpureus germplasm collection is unknown and was assessed by using polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers derived from Medicago, soybean and cowpea. Phylogenetic analysis partitioned 47 representative accessions into two main clades (wild clade pr...

  7. Diverse Genetic Markers Concordantly Identify Bovine Origin Escherichia coli O157 Genotypes Underrepresented in Human Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic markers previously reported to occur at significantly different frequencies in isolates of Escherichia coli O157:H7 obtained from cattle and from clinically affected humans are congruent and delineate at least five groups. Isolates in three of these groups consistently carry one or more mark...

  8. Molecular genetic diversity of Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) as revealed by microsatellite DNA markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the oldest known edible fruits and more and more it arouse interest of scientific community given its numerous biological activities. However, information about its genetic resources and characterization using reliable molecular markers are still scarce. In...

  9. ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN BULB ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L.) USING SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEAT MARKERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onions are the second most-valuable vegetable in the world, following only tomato. Despite their economic significance, knowledge of onion genetic diversity and resources is limited, owing to a paucity of public marker and germplasm resources and their out-breeding, biennial habit. The unusually l...

  10. Genetic diversity assessment of Saccharum species and elite cultivars from China using SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity amongst 52 sugarcane clones including Saccharum species and cultivars (used for breeding and commercial production since the beginning of 20th century) has been assessed using 21 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers and capillary electrophoresis (CE) technique. Use of 21 SSR primer...

  11. The Life of the Gay Gene: From Hypothetical Genetic Marker to Social Reality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate ORiordan

    2012-01-01

    The gay gene was first identified in 1993 as a correlation between the genetic marker Xq28 and gay male sexuality. The results of this original study were never replicated, and the biological reality of such an entity remains hypothetical. However, despite such tenuous provenance, the gay gene has persisted as a reference in science news, popular science writings, and in

  12. POPULATION BIOLOGY/GENETICS Molecular Markers Reveal Infestation Dynamics of the Bed Bug

    E-print Network

    Vargo, Ed

    POPULATION BIOLOGY/GENETICS Molecular Markers Reveal Infestation Dynamics of the Bed Bug (Hemiptera://dx.doi.org/10.1603/ME11256 ABSTRACT The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has experienced. Once considered a pest of lower socioeconomic classes, bed bugs are now found extensively across all

  13. Genetic characterization of the Spanish Trotter horse breed using microsatellite markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Javier Azor; Mercedes Valera; María Dolores Gómez; Félix Goyache; Antonio Molina

    2007-01-01

    To assist in selection schemes we carried out the first genetic characterization of the Spanish Trotter horse (Trotador Español). We used 16 microsatellite markers to genotype 40 unrelated Spanish trotters, 25 native Balearic horses (11 Menorquina and 14 Mallorquina horses) and 32 Andalusian horses. The observed heterozygosity for the Spanish Trotters was 0.647 ± 0.037 and the expected heterozygosity was

  14. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of the USDA Lablab Purpureus Germplasm Collection Using Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic diversity of the USDA Lablab purpureus germplasm collection is unknown and was assessed by using polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers derived from Medicago, soybean and cowpea. Phylogenetic analysis paritioned 47 representative accessions into two main clades (wild clade prod...

  15. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF CROTOLARIA GERMPLASM ASSESSED THROGH PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF EST-SSR MARKERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Crotolaria comprises a large number of species, many of which have economic value. An assessment of genetic diversity of the Crotolaria germplasm is lacking. Polymorphic expressed sequence tag - simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers derived from Medicago and soybean were used to asses...

  16. Molecular genetic diversity of Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) as revealed by microsatellite DNA markers (SSR).

    PubMed

    Hasnaoui, Nejib; Buonamici, Anna; Sebastiani, Federico; Mars, Messaoud; Zhang, Dapeng; Vendramin, Giovanni G

    2012-02-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the oldest known edible fruits and more and more it arouse interest of scientific community given its numerous biological activities. However, information about its genetic resources and characterization using reliable molecular markers are still scarce. In the present study, we report the development of 4 new polymorphic SSR markers. They have been used in addition to 11 SSRs previously published to investigate molecular diversity of 33 P. granatum ecotypes. Based on the multi-locus profiles, twenty-two distinctive genotypes were identified. Globally, quite low genetic diversity has been revealed, as measured by allele richness (2.83 per locus) and heterozygosity (He=0.245; Ho=0.243), reflecting the narrow genetic background of the plant material. Four synonymous groups could be detected involving 15 accessions. Results of ordination and cluster analysis suggested that almost all the Tunisian cultivars share similar genetic background, and are likely derived from a small number of introductions in ancient times. Results issued from this study provide essential information to project a pomegranate core-collection without plant material duplication and for sustainable management of pomegranate landraces at national and international level. Furthermore, these SSR markers are powerful tool for marker assisted selection (MAS) program and for QTL studies. PMID:22123180

  17. Miniature inverted-repeat transposable element identification and genetic marker development in Agrostis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) is an important species to the turfgrass industry because of its adaptation for use in high quality turf stands such as golf course putting greens, tees, and fairways. A. stolonifera is a highly outcrossing allotetraploid making genetic marker developmen...

  18. On marker-assisted prediction of genetic value: beyond the ridge.

    PubMed Central

    Gianola, Daniel; Perez-Enciso, Miguel; Toro, Miguel A

    2003-01-01

    Marked-assisted genetic improvement of agricultural species exploits statistical dependencies in the joint distribution of marker genotypes and quantitative traits. An issue is how molecular (e.g., dense marker maps) and phenotypic information (e.g., some measure of yield in plants) is to be used for predicting the genetic value of candidates for selection. Multiple regression, selection index techniques, best linear unbiased prediction, and ridge regression of phenotypes on marker genotypes have been suggested, as well as more elaborate methods. Here, phenotype-marker associations are modeled hierarchically via multilevel models including chromosomal effects, a spatial covariance of marked effects within chromosomes, background genetic variability, and family heterogeneity. Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients are suggested for assessing the inequality of the contribution of different marked effects to genetic variability. Classical and Bayesian methods are presented. The Bayesian approach includes a Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation. The generality and flexibility of the Bayesian method is illustrated when a Lorenz curve is to be inferred. PMID:12586721

  19. Assessment of genetic diversity in broomcorn millet ( Panicum miliaceum L.) using SSR markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xingyu Hu; Jianfei Wang; Ping Lu; Hongsheng Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The genetic diversity of 118 accessions of broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.), collected from various ecological areas, wasanalyzed. Using 46 SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) polymorphic markers from rice, wheat, oat and barley, a total of 226 alleles werefound, which exhibited moderate level of diversity. The number of alleles per primer ranged from two to nine, with an average of 4.91.

  20. Application of marker selection to enhance estimation of genetic effects and gene interaction in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection on important genetic markers can improve estimates of additive and dominance association effects. A composite population of beef cattle was selected for intermediate frequencies of myostatin (GDF8) F94L and µ-calpain (CAPN1) polymorphisms. Important additive associations of the GDF8 locu...

  1. Generation of a genetically encoded marker of rod photoreceptor outer segment growth and renewal

    E-print Network

    Generation of a genetically encoded marker of rod photoreceptor outer segment growth and renewal are still largely unknown. Unlike typical cilia, the outer segment is continuously regenerated or renewed outer segment growth. The process of outer segment renewal was discovered over forty years ago, but we

  2. The Use of Incompletely Linked Markers in Genetic Counseling: Accuracy versus Linkage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjorie A. Asmussen

    1985-01-01

    The utility of incompletely linked, selectively neutral, multiallelic markers for tracing the transmission of associated genes is examined theoretically for all genetic counseling situations in which the diagnosis of deleterious progeny is in question. The analysis focuses on the fraction of progeny from each two locus mating which can be diagnosed with minimal accuracy A solely on the basis of

  3. The use of genetic markers to estimate the frequency of successful alternative reproductive tactics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David F. Westneat; Peter C. Frederick; R. Haven Wiley

    1987-01-01

    This paper outlines a method for estimating rates of successful alternative reproductive tactics from parental exclusions known through the use of genetic markers. We review a method for calculating the probability of excluding a putative father when he is not the actual father. We adapt this method to model two mating tactics of concern to sociobiologists: extrapair copulations (EPCs) and

  4. Genetic diversity in recent elite faba bean lines using AFLP markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud Zeid; Chris-Carolin Schön; Wolfgang Link

    2003-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to study the genetic diversity among a large set (n = 79) of inbred lines of recent elite faba bean ( Vicia faba L.) cultivars with Asian, European (Northern and Southern) and North African origin. The inbred lines were analyzed using eight selected AFLP primer combinations that produced 477 polymorphic fragments. Errors

  5. Genetic management of broodstock populations with DNA markers in rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA markers are very useful for aquaculture and fisheries broodstock management. They have been used for parentage assignment when spawning families share common environments, and to evaluate genetic parameters in broodstock populations. The selective breeding program at the National Center for Cool...

  6. Preliminary Genetic Map of Hydrangea macrophylla Using SSR Markers and a Pseudo-Testcross Strategy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used a “two-way pseudo-testcross” mapping strategy in combination with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to construct a genetic map of Hydrangea macrophylla. Mapping populations were developed from reciprocal crosses between two divergent cultivars, “Bailmer” and “Veitchii”. “Bailmer”, which i...

  7. Mitochondrial genomes of Bremia lactucae and development of haplotype markers for population and genetic studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bremia lactucae, the causative agent of lettuce downy mildew, is the most important pathogen of lettuce in the US and worldwide. In order to identify cytoplasmic markers for use in population and genetic studies the reference mitochondrial genome of B. lactucae isolate SF5 was assembled from Illumi...

  8. Genetic mapping and marker development for resistance of wheat against the root lesion nematode Pratylenchus neglectus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Rlnn1 locus, which resides on chromosome 7A of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) confers moderate resistance against the root lesion nematode Pratylenchus neglectus. Prior to this research, the exact linkage relationships of Rlnn1 with other loci on chromosome 7A were not clear and there were no simple codominant markers available for selection of Rlnn1 in wheat breeding. The objectives of the research reported here were to (1) develop an improved genetic map of the Rlnn1 region of chromosome 7A and (2) develop molecular markers that could be used in marker-assisted selection to improve resistance of wheat against P. neglectus. Results A large-effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) for resistance against P. neglectus was genetically mapped using a population of Excalibur/Kukri doubled haploid lines. This QTL coincides in position with the rust resistance gene(s) Lr20/Sr15, the phytoene synthase gene Psy-A1 and 10 molecular markers, including five new markers designed using wheat-rice comparative genomics and wheat expressed sequence tags. Two of the new markers are suitable for use as molecular diagnostic tools to distinguish plants that carry Rlnn1 and Lr20/Sr15 from those that do not carry these resistance genes. Conclusions The genomic location of Rlnn1 was confirmed to be in the terminal region of the long arm of chromosome 7A. Molecular markers were developed that provide simple alternatives to costly phenotypic assessment of resistance against P. neglectus in wheat breeding. In Excalibur, genetic recombination seems to be completely suppressed in the Rlnn1 region. PMID:24377498

  9. Next generation DNA sequencing technology delivers valuable genetic markers for the genomic orphan legume species, Bituminaria bituminosa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bituminaria bituminosa is a perennial legume species from the Canary Islands and Mediterranean region that has potential as a drought-tolerant pasture species and as a source of pharmaceutical compounds. Three botanical varieties have previously been identified in this species: albomarginata, bituminosa and crassiuscula. B. bituminosa can be considered a genomic 'orphan' species with very few genomic resources available. New DNA sequencing technologies provide an opportunity to develop high quality molecular markers for such orphan species. Results 432,306 mRNA molecules were sampled from a leaf transcriptome of a single B. bituminosa plant using Roche 454 pyrosequencing, resulting in an average read length of 345 bp (149.1 Mbp in total). Sequences were assembled into 3,838 isotigs/contigs representing putatively unique gene transcripts. Gene ontology descriptors were identified for 3,419 sequences. Raw sequence reads containing simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs were identified, and 240 primer pairs flanking these motifs were designed. Of 87 primer pairs developed this way, 75 (86.2%) successfully amplified primarily single fragments by PCR. Fragment analysis using 20 primer pairs in 79 accessions of B. bituminosa detected 130 alleles at 21 SSR loci. Genetic diversity analyses confirmed that variation at these SSR loci accurately reflected known taxonomic relationships in original collections of B. bituminosa and provided additional evidence that a division of the botanical variety bituminosa into two according to geographical origin (Mediterranean region and Canary Islands) may be appropriate. Evidence of cross-pollination was also found between botanical varieties within a B. bituminosa breeding programme. Conclusions B. bituminosa can no longer be considered a genomic orphan species, having now a large (albeit incomplete) repertoire of expressed gene sequences that can serve as a resource for future genetic studies. This experimental approach was effective in developing codominant and polymorphic SSR markers for application in diverse genetic studies. These markers have already given new insight into genetic variation in B. bituminosa, providing evidence that a division of the botanical variety bituminosa may be appropriate. This approach is commended to those seeking to develop useful markers for genomic orphan species. PMID:22171578

  10. A genetic linkage map of lentil (Lens sp.) based on RAPD and AFLP markers using recombinant inbred lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Eujayl; M. Baum; W. Powell; W. Erskine; E. Pehu

    1998-01-01

    A genetic linkage map of Lens sp. was constructed with 177 markers (89 RAPD, 79 AFLP, six RFLP and three morphological markers) using 86 recombinant inbred\\u000a lines (F6:8) obtained from a partially interspecific cross. The map covered 1073?cM of the lentil genome with an average distance of\\u000a 6.0?cM between adjacent markers. Previously mapped RFLP markers were used as anchor probes.

  11. Genetic Alterations in Medullary Thyroid Cancer: Diagnostic and Prognostic Markers

    PubMed Central

    A, Taccaliti; F, Silvetti; G, Palmonella; M, Boscaro

    2011-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare calcitonin producing neuroendocrine tumour that originates from the parafollicular C-cells of the thyroid gland. The RET proto-oncogene encodes the RET receptor tyrosine kinase, with consequently essential roles in cell survival, differentiation and proliferation. Somatic or germline mutations of the RET gene play an important role in this neoplasm in development of sporadic and familial forms, respectively. Genetic diagnosis has an important role in differentiating sporadic from familiar MTC. Furthermore, depending on the location of the mutation, patients can be classified into risk classes. Therefore, genetic screening of the RET gene plays a critical role not only in diagnosis but also in assessing the prognosis and course of MTC. PMID:22654561

  12. An Integrated Genetic and Cytogenetic Map for Zhikong Scallop, Chlamys farreri, Based on Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiaoteng; Liao, Huan; Li, Xuan; Zhan, Aibin; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Shi; Huang, Xiaoting; Bao, Zhenmin

    2014-01-01

    The reliability of genome analysis and proficiency of genetic manipulation requires knowledge of the correspondence between the genetic and cytogenetic maps. In the present study, we integrated cytogenetic and microsatellite-based linkage maps for Zhikong scallop, Chlamys farreri. Thirty-eight marker-anchored BAC clones standing for the 19 linkage groups were used to be FISH probes. Of 38 BAC clones, 30 were successfully located on single chromosome by FISH and used to integrate the genetic and cytogenetic map. Among the 19 linkage groups, 12 linkage groups were physically anchored by 2 markers, 6 linkage groups were anchored by 1 marker, and one linkage group was not anchored any makers by FISH. In addition, using two-color FISH, six linkage groups were distinguished by different chromosomal location; linkage groups LG6 and LG16 were placed on chromosome 10, LG8 and LG18 on chromosome 14. As a result, 18 of 19 linkage groups were localized to 17 pairs of chromosomes of C. farreri. We first integrated genetic and cytogenetic map for C. farreri. These 30 chromosome specific BAC clones in the cytogenetic map could be used to identify chromosomes of C. farreri. The integrated map will greatly facilitate molecular genetic studies that will be helpful for breeding applications in C. farreri and the upcoming genome projects of this species. PMID:24705086

  13. Influence of conserved and hypervariable genetic markers on genotyping circulating strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Vidovic, Sinisa; Horsman, Greg B; Liao, Mingmin; Dillon, Jo-Anne R

    2011-01-01

    Presently there is no vaccine against Neisseria gonorrhoeae and therefore accurate information on gonococcal transmission plays a crucial role for interventions designed to limit the spread of infections caused by this microorganism. We evaluated the impact of two different categories of genetic markers, (i) concatenated sequences of 10 housekeeping genes and (ii) hypervariable porB DNA sequences, on the genetic relatedness and subsequently on genotyping analysis of this human pathogen. Eighty gonococcal isolates from Canada, China, the US, Argentina, Venezuela and Chile, collected over different times, were analyzed. Our results show that the choice of genetic marker had a profound effect on the interpretation of genotyping results associated with N. gonorrhoeae. The concatenated sequences of the housekeeping genes preserved the genetic relatedness of closely related isolates, enabling detection of the predominant strains circulating within a community (Saskatchewan, Canada) over an extended period of time. In contrast, a genetic marker based on antigen gene, porB, may lead to a failure to detect these predominant circulating strains. Based on the analysis of the DNA sequences of the 10 housekeeping genes, we identified two major clonal complexes, CC33 and CC22, which comprised STs from China, and Argentina as well as two STs from Canada. Several minor clonal complexes were observed among isolates from Saskatchewan. eBURST analysis suggested that the majority of the tested gonococcal isolates from Saskatchewan, Canada were endemic, with only a couple of genotypes introduced. PMID:22163288

  14. Genetic Relationships of Ethnic Minorities in Southwest China Revealed by Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Huang, Xiaoqin; Lin, Keqin; Shi, Lei; Hu, Songnian; Chu, Jiayou; Wang, Duen-Mei

    2010-01-01

    Population migrations in Southwest and South China have played an important role in the formation of East Asian populations and led to a high degree of cultural diversity among ethnic minorities living in these areas. To explore the genetic relationships of these ethnic minorities, we systematically surveyed the variation of 10 autosomal STR markers of 1,538 individuals from 30 populations of 25 ethnic minorities, of which the majority were chosen from Southwest China, especially Yunnan Province. With genotyped data of the markers, we constructed phylogenies of these populations with both DA and DC measures and performed a principal component analysis, as well as a clustering analysis by structure. Results showed that we successfully recovered the genetic structure of analyzed populations formed by historical migrations. Aggregation patterns of these populations accord well with their linguistic affiliations, suggesting that deciphering of genetic relationships does in fact offer clues for study of ethnic differentiation. PMID:20360948

  15. Assessment of genetic diversity in Indian rice germplasm (Oryza sativa L.): use of random versus trait-linked microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sheel; Singh, Ashutosh; Singh, M R; Goel, Nitika; Vinod, K K; Mohapatra, T; Singh, A K

    2013-12-01

    Assessment of genetic diversity in a crop germplasm is a vital part of plant breeding. DNA markers such as microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers have been widely used to estimate the genetic diversity in rice. The present study was carried out to decipher the pattern of genetic diversity in terms of both phenotypic and genotypic variability, and to assess the efficiency of random vis-á-vis QTL linked/gene based simple sequence repeat markers in diversity estimation. A set of 88 rice accessions that included landraces, farmer's varieties and popular Basmati lines were evaluated for agronomic traits and molecular diversity. The random set of SSR markers included 50 diversity panel markers developed under IRRI's Generation Challenge Programme (GCP) and the trait-linked/gene based markers comprised of 50 SSR markers reportedly linked to yield and related components. For agronomic traits, significant variability was observed, ranging between the maximum for grains/panicle and the minimum for panicle length. The molecular diversity based grouping indicated that varieties from a common centre were genetically similar, with few exceptions. The trait-linked markers gave an average genetic dissimilarity of 0.45 as against that of 0.37 by random markers, along with an average polymorphic information constant value of 0.48 and 0.41 respectively. The correlation between the kinship matrix generated by trait-linked markers and the phenotype based distance matrix (0.29) was higher than that of random markers (0.19). This establishes the robustness of trait-linked markers over random markers in estimating genetic diversity of rice germplasm. PMID:24371175

  16. Determination of genetic relationships among shape Phaseolus vulgaris populations in a conical cross from RAPD marker analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yonghe Bai; T. E. Michaels; K. P. Pauls

    1998-01-01

    Random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to determine genetic relationships among Phaseolus vulgaris breeding populations. Genetic distances were calculated from the distribution of 317 RAPD markers among 8 parents, 10 individuals from 8 cycle-one populations, 10 individuals from 6 cycle-two populations and 10 individuals from 2 cycle-three populations of a conical cross. Genetic distances between populations and parents were

  17. Evaluation of the extent of genetic variation in mahoganies (Meliaceae) using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, K J; Newton, A C; Waugh, R; Wilson, J; Powell, W

    1994-10-01

    Despite the economic importance of mahoganies (Meliaceae) little is known of the pattern of genetic variation within this family of tropical trees. We describe the application of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based polymorphic DNA assay procedure random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) to assess the extent of genetic variation between eight mahogany species from four genera. Pronounced genetic differentiation was found between the species and genera. There was a clear separation of Cedrela odorata from the other species, with 95% of the variable amplification products differing, whereas Lovoa trichilioides, Khaya spp. and Swietenia spp. were more closely grouped. These results are consistent with the current taxonomic viewpoint. A number of markers were found to be diagnostic for particular species, which could be of value in determining the status of putative hybrids. The application of RAPDs to the study of genetic variation in mahoganies is discussed in the context of developing genetic conservation and improvement strategies for these species. PMID:24177901

  18. Child height, health and human capital: Evidence using genetic markers

    PubMed Central

    von Hinke Kessler Scholder, Stephanie; Davey Smith, George; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Propper, Carol; Windmeijer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Height has long been recognized as being associated with better outcomes: the question is whether this association is causal. We use children's genetic variants as instrumental variables to deal with possible unobserved confounders and examine the effect of child/adolescent height on a wide range of outcomes: academic performance, IQ, self-esteem, depression symptoms and behavioral problems. OLS findings show that taller children have higher IQ, perform better in school, and are less likely to have behavioral problems. The IV results differ: taller girls (but not boys) have better cognitive performance and, in contrast to the OLS, greater height appears to increase behavioral problems. PMID:25673883

  19. Analysis on genetic diversity and genetic structure of Brasenia schreberi in Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces revealed by ISSR Markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ZHANG Guangfu; GAO Bangquan

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the level of genetic diversity of the endangered species Brasenia schreberi, three populations from Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces were sampled and analyzed using inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers. A total of fifty-four individuals were sampled. Twelve filtrated from 77 ISSR primers gave rise to 101 discernible DAN fragments of which 16 were polymorphic (15.84%). The average

  20. Genetic analysis and molecular characterization of Chinese sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cultivars using Insertion-Deletion (InDel) and Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sesame is an important and ancient oil crop in tropical and subtropical areas. China is one of the most important sesame producing countries with many germplasm accessions and excellent cultivars. Domestication and modern plant breeding have presumably narrowed the genetic basis of cultivated sesame. Several modern sesame cultivars were bred with a limited number of landrace cultivars in their pedigree. The genetic variation was subsequently reduced by genetic drift and selection. Characterization of genetic diversity of these cultivars by molecular markers is of great value to assist parental line selection and breeding strategy design. Results Three hundred and forty nine simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 79 insertion-deletion (InDel) markers were developed from cDNA library and reduced-representation sequencing of a sesame cultivar Zhongzhi 14, respectively. Combined with previously published SSR markers, 88 polymorphic markers were used to assess the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships, population structure, and allele distribution among 130 Chinese sesame accessions including 82 cultivars, 44 landraces and 4 wild germplasm accessions. A total of 325 alleles were detected, with the average gene diversity of 0.432. Model-based structure analysis revealed the presence of five subgroups belonging to two main groups, which were consistent with the results from principal coordinate analysis (PCA), phylogenetic clustering and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Several missing or unique alleles were identified from particular types, subgroups or families, even though they share one or both parental/progenitor lines. Conclusions This report presented a by far most comprehensive characterization of the molecular and genetic diversity of sesame cultivars in China. InDels are more polymorphic than SSRs, but their ability for deciphering genetic diversity compared to the later. Improved sesame cultivars have narrower genetic basis than landraces, reflecting the effect of genetic drift or selection during breeding processes. Comparative analysis of allele distribution revealed genetic divergence between improved cultivars and landraces, as well as between cultivars released in different years. These results will be useful for assessing cultivars and for marker-assisted breeding in sesame. PMID:24641723

  1. Small-scale field test of the genetically engineered lacZY marker

    SciTech Connect

    Hattemer-Frey, H.A.; Brandt, E.J.; Travis, C.C. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Commercial genetic engineering is advancing into areas that require the small-scale introduction of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) to better quantify variables that affect microorganism distribution and survival and to document potential long-term consequences. A recombinant DNA marker system, the lacZY marker, developed by the Monsanto Agricultural Co., enables the distribution and fate of marked fluorescent pseudomonad organisms to be monitored under actual field conditions. Critical evaluation of GEMs under field conditions is imperative if plant-beneficial effects are to be correlated with organism release. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of this marker system and its ability to facilitate the assessment of risks associated with deliberate environmental introductions of genetically engineered microorganisms. Results of prerelease contained growth chamber and field experiments demonstrated that: (1) the scientific risk assessment methodology adopted by Monsanto and approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was appropriate and comprehensive; (2) the deliberate introduction of a GEM did not pose unacceptable or unforeseen risks to human health or the environment; (3) the lacZY marker is an effective environmental tracking tool; and (4) regulatory oversight should reflect the expected risk and not be excessively burdensome for all GEMs.

  2. Adaptive genetic markers discriminate migratory runs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) amid continued gene flow

    PubMed Central

    O'Malley, Kathleen G; Jacobson, Dave P; Kurth, Ryon; Dill, Allen J; Banks, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Neutral genetic markers are routinely used to define distinct units within species that warrant discrete management. Human-induced changes to gene flow however may reduce the power of such an approach. We tested the efficiency of adaptive versus neutral genetic markers in differentiating temporally divergent migratory runs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) amid high gene flow owing to artificial propagation and habitat alteration. We compared seven putative migration timing genes to ten microsatellite loci in delineating three migratory groups of Chinook in the Feather River, CA: offspring of fall-run hatchery broodstock that returned as adults to freshwater in fall (fall run), spring-run offspring that returned in spring (spring run), and fall-run offspring that returned in spring (FRS). We found evidence for significant differentiation between the fall and federally listed threatened spring groups based on divergence at three circadian clock genes (OtsClock1b, OmyFbxw11, and Omy1009UW), but not neutral markers. We thus demonstrate the importance of genetic marker choice in resolving complex life history types. These findings directly impact conservation management strategies and add to previous evidence from Pacific and Atlantic salmon indicating that circadian clock genes influence migration timing. PMID:24478800

  3. Genetic evolutionary taboo search for optimal marker placement in infrared patient setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riboldi, M.; Baroni, G.; Spadea, M. F.; Tagaste, B.; Garibaldi, C.; Cambria, R.; Orecchia, R.; Pedotti, A.

    2007-09-01

    In infrared patient setup adequate selection of the external fiducial configuration is required for compensating inner target displacements (target registration error, TRE). Genetic algorithms (GA) and taboo search (TS) were applied in a newly designed approach to optimal marker placement: the genetic evolutionary taboo search (GETS) algorithm. In the GETS paradigm, multiple solutions are simultaneously tested in a stochastic evolutionary scheme, where taboo-based decision making and adaptive memory guide the optimization process. The GETS algorithm was tested on a group of ten prostate patients, to be compared to standard optimization and to randomly selected configurations. The changes in the optimal marker configuration, when TRE is minimized for OARs, were specifically examined. Optimal GETS configurations ensured a 26.5% mean decrease in the TRE value, versus 19.4% for conventional quasi-Newton optimization. Common features in GETS marker configurations were highlighted in the dataset of ten patients, even when multiple runs of the stochastic algorithm were performed. Including OARs in TRE minimization did not considerably affect the spatial distribution of GETS marker configurations. In conclusion, the GETS algorithm proved to be highly effective in solving the optimal marker placement problem. Further work is needed to embed site-specific deformation models in the optimization process.

  4. Genetic diversity in Spanish donkey breeds using microsatellite DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Aranguren-Méndez, J; Jordana, J; Gomez, M

    2001-01-01

    Genetic diversity at 13 equine microsatellite loci was compared in five endangered Spanish donkey breeds: Andaluza, Catalana, Mallorquina, Encartaciones and Zamorano-Leonesa. All of the equine microsatellites used in this study were amplified and were polymorphic in the domestic donkey breeds with the exception of HMS1, which was monomorphic, and ASB2, which failed to amplify. Allele number, frequency distributions and mean heterozygosities were very similar among the Spanish donkey breeds. The unbiased expected heterozygosity (H(E)) over all the populations varied between 0.637 and 0.684 in this study. The low G(ST) value showed that only 3.6% of the diversity was between breeds (P<0.01). Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were shown for a number of locus-population combinations, except HMS5 that showed agreement in all analysed populations. The cumulative exclusion probability (PE) was 0.999 in each breed, suggesting that the loci would be suitable for donkey parentage testing. The constructed dendrogram from the D(A) distance matrix showed little differentiation between Spanish breeds, but great differentiation between them and the Moroccan ass and also with the horse, used as an outgroup. These results confirm the potential use of equine microsatellite loci as a tool for genetic studies in domestic donkey populations, which could also be useful for conservation plans. PMID:11559485

  5. Genetic diversity in Spanish donkey breeds using microsatellite DNA markers

    PubMed Central

    Aranguren-Méndez, José; Jordana, Jordi; Gomez, Mariano

    2001-01-01

    Genetic diversity at 13 equine microsatellite loci was compared in five endangered Spanish donkey breeds: Andaluza, Catalana, Mallorquina, Encartaciones and Zamorano-Leonesa. All of the equine microsatellites used in this study were amplified and were polymorphic in the domestic donkey breeds with the exception of HMS1, which was monomorphic, and ASB2, which failed to amplify. Allele number, frequency distributions and mean heterozygosities were very similar among the Spanish donkey breeds. The unbiased expected heterozygosity (HE) over all the populations varied between 0.637 and 0.684 in this study. The low GST value showed that only 3.6% of the diversity was between breeds (P < 0.01). Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were shown for a number of locus-population combinations, except HMS5 that showed agreement in all analysed populations. The cumulative exclusion probability (PE) was 0.999 in each breed, suggesting that the loci would be suitable for donkey parentage testing. The constructed dendrogram from the DA distance matrix showed little differentiation between Spanish breeds, but great differentiation between them and the Moroccan ass and also with the horse, used as an outgroup. These results confirm the potential use of equine microsatellite loci as a tool for genetic studies in domestic donkey populations, which could also be useful for conservation plans. PMID:11559485

  6. Gene-Based Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers for Genetic and Association Mapping in Common Bean

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In common bean, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are an underestimated source of gene-based markers such as insertion-deletions (Indels) or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, due to the nature of these conserved sequences, detection of markers is difficult and portrays low levels of polymorphism. Therefore, development of intron-spanning EST-SNP markers can be a valuable resource for genetic experiments such as genetic mapping and association studies. Results In this study, a total of 313 new gene-based markers were developed at target genes. Intronic variation was deeply explored in order to capture more polymorphism. Introns were putatively identified after comparing the common bean ESTs with the soybean genome, and the primers were designed over intron-flanking regions. The intronic regions were evaluated for parental polymorphisms using the single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique and Sequenom MassARRAY system. A total of 53 new marker loci were placed on an integrated molecular map in the DOR364?×?G19833 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. The new linkage map was used to build a consensus map, merging the linkage maps of the BAT93?×?JALO EEP558 and DOR364?×?BAT477 populations. A total of 1,060 markers were mapped, with a total map length of 2,041?cM across 11 linkage groups. As a second application of the generated resource, a diversity panel with 93 genotypes was evaluated with 173 SNP markers using the MassARRAY-platform and KASPar technology. These results were coupled with previous SSR evaluations and drought tolerance assays carried out on the same individuals. This agglomerative dataset was examined, in order to discover marker-trait associations, using general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM). Some significant associations with yield components were identified, and were consistent with previous findings. Conclusions In short, this study illustrates the power of intron-based markers for linkage and association mapping in common bean. The utility of these markers is discussed in relation with the usefulness of microsatellites, the molecular markers by excellence in this crop. PMID:22734675

  7. Assessment of Genetic Diversity, Relationships and Structure among Korean Native Cattle Breeds Using Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Sangwon; Kim, Young-Sin; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Byun, Mi-Jeong; Choi, Seong-Bok; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu; Lee, Chang Woo; Jung, Kyoung-Sub; Bae, Kyoung Hun; Kim, Jae-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Four Korean native cattle (KNC) breeds—Hanwoo, Chikso, Heugu, and Jeju black—are entered in the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and population structure of these KNC breeds (n = 120) and exotic breeds (Holstein and Charolais, n = 56). Thirty microsatellite loci recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics/FAO were genotyped. These genotypes were used to determine the allele frequencies, allelic richness, heterozygosity and polymorphism information content per locus and breed. Genetic diversity was lower in Heugu and Jeju black breeds. Phylogenetic analysis, Factorial Correspondence Analysis and genetic clustering grouped each breed in its own cluster, which supported the genetic uniqueness of the KNC breeds. These results will be useful for conservation and management of KNC breeds as animal genetic resources. PMID:25358313

  8. Development of microsatellite markers from an enriched genomic library for genetic analysis of melon (Cucumis melo L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ritschel, Patricia Silva; Lins, Tulio Cesar de Lima; Tristan, Rodrigo Lourenço; Buso, Gláucia Salles Cortopassi; Buso, José Amauri; Ferreira, Márcio Elias

    2004-01-01

    Background Despite the great advances in genomic technology observed in several crop species, the availability of molecular tools such as microsatellite markers has been limited in melon (Cucumis melo L.) and cucurbit species. The development of microsatellite markers will have a major impact on genetic analysis and breeding of melon, especially on the generation of marker saturated genetic maps and implementation of marker assisted breeding programs. Genomic microsatellite enriched libraries can be an efficient alternative for marker development in such species. Results Seven hundred clones containing microsatellite sequences from a Tsp-AG/TC microsatellite enriched library were identified and one-hundred and forty-four primer pairs designed and synthesized. When 67 microsatellite markers were tested on a panel of melon and other cucurbit accessions, 65 revealed DNA polymorphisms among the melon accessions. For some cucurbit species, such as Cucumis sativus, up to 50% of the melon microsatellite markers could be readily used for DNA polymophism assessment, representing a significant reduction of marker development costs. A random sample of 25 microsatellite markers was extracted from the new microsatellite marker set and characterized on 40 accessions of melon, generating an allelic frequency database for the species. The average expected heterozygosity was 0.52, varying from 0.45 to 0.70, indicating that a small set of selected markers should be sufficient to solve questions regarding genotype identity and variety protection. Genetic distances based on microsatellite polymorphism were congruent with data obtained from RAPD marker analysis. Mapping analysis was initiated with 55 newly developed markers and most primers showed segregation according to Mendelian expectations. Linkage analysis detected linkage between 56% of the markers, distributed in nine linkage groups. Conclusions Genomic library microsatellite enrichment is an efficient procedure for marker development in melon. One-hundred and forty-four new markers were developed from Tsp-AG/TC genomic library. This is the first reported attempt of successfully using enriched library for microsatellite marker development in the species. A sample of the microsatellite markers tested proved efficient for genetic analysis of melon, including genetic distance estimates and identity tests. Linkage analysis indicated that the markers developed are dispersed throughout the genome and should be very useful for genetic analysis of melon. PMID:15149552

  9. Immunohistochemical and genetic markers to distinguish hemangiopericytoma and meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Penglai; Zhu, Tongming; Tang, Qisheng; Liu, Hongyi; Zhu, Jianhong; Zhang, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    Hemangiopericytoma (HPC) and meningioma, for their morphology immunohistochemical markers similarity, were usually confused especially before surgery. This study aimed to develop a panel of biomarkers to differentiate HPC from meningioma. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemical staining were employed to determine the levels of p53, bcl-2, c-myc, vimentin, CD34, FVIIIa, MGMT and reticular fiber in 15 meningiomas, HPCs and their normal controls. We found that, in the mRNA expression level, both Bcl-2 and c-myc were high in HPC and meningiomas, but bcl-2 was higher in HPC than in meningiomas, c-myc was lower in HPC than in meningiomas. In protein expression level, reticular fibers were around most HPC tumor cells but observed null in meningiomas; CD34 and FVIIIa were both found positive in HPCs but negative in meningiomas; MGMT was weak focal in HPC but strong diffuse in meningiomas. In conclusion, bcl-2, c-myc, and MGMT could be employed as the new panels of biomarkers for distinguishing HPC from meningiomas.

  10. Genetic characterization of the gypsy moth from China (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae) using inter simple sequence repeats markers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Shi, Juan; Luo, You-Qing; Sun, Shuang-Yan; Pu, Min

    2013-01-01

    This study provides the first genetic characterization of the gypsy moth from China (Lymantriadispar), one of the most recognized pests of forests and ornamental trees in the world. We assessed genetic diversity and structure in eight geographic populations of gypsy moths from China using five polymorphic Inter simple sequence repeat markers, which produced reproducible banding patterns. We observed 102 polymorphic loci across the 176 individuals sampled. Overall genetic diversity (Nei's, H) was 0.2357, while the mean genetic diversity within geographic populations was 0.1845 ± 0.0150. The observed genetic distance among the eight populations ranged from 0.0432 to 0.1034. Clustering analysis (using an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean and multidimensional scaling), revealed strong concordance between the strength of genetic relationships among populations and their geographic proximity. Analysis of molecular variance demonstrated that 25.43% of the total variability (F ST = 0.2543, P < 0.001) was attributable to variation among geographic populations. The results of our analyses investigating the degree of polymorphism, genetic diversity (Nei's and Shannon) and genetic structure, suggest that individuals from Hebei may be better able to adapt to different environments and to disperse to new habitats. This study provides crucial genetic information needed to assess the distribution and population dynamics of this important pest species of global concern. PMID:23951339

  11. Genetic Characterization of Five Hatchery Populations of the Pacific Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) Using Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    An, Hye Suck; Lee, Jang Wook; Kim, Hyun Chul; Myeong, Jeong-In

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, is a popular food in Eastern Asia. Aquacultural production of this species has increased because of recent resource declines, the growing consumption, and ongoing government-operated stock release programs. Therefore, the genetic characterization of hatchery populations is necessary to maintain the genetic diversity of this species and to develop more effective aquaculture practices. We analyzed the genetic structures of five cultured populations in Korea using six microsatellite markers. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 15 to 64, with an average of 23.5. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.797 and 0.904, respectively. The inbreeding coefficient FIS ranged from 0.054 to 0.184 (mean FIS = 0.121 ± 0.056). The genetic differentiation across all populations was low but significant (overall FST = 0.009, P < 0.01). Pairwise multilocus FST tests, estimates of genetic distance, and phylogenetic and principal component analyses did not show a consistent relationship between geographic and genetic distances. These results could reflect extensive aquaculture, the exchange of breeds and eggs between hatcheries and/or genetic drift due to intensive breeding practices. Thus, for optimal resource management, the genetic variation of hatchery stocks should be monitored and inbreeding controlled within the abalone stocks that are being released every year. This genetic information will be useful for the management of both H. discus hannai fisheries and the aquaculture industry. PMID:21954328

  12. Genetic diversity, population structure and marker trait associations for seed quality traits in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Badigannavar, Ashok; Myers, Gerald O

    2015-03-01

    Cottonseed contains 16% seed oil and 23% seed protein by weight. High levels of palmitic acid provides a degree of stability to the oil, while the presence of bound gossypol in proteins considerably changes their properties, including their biological value. This study uses genetic principles to identify genomic regions associated with seed oil, protein and fibre content in upland cotton cultivars. Cotton association mapping panel representing the US germplasm were genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, yielding 234 polymorphic DNA fragments. Phenotypic analysis showed high genetic variability for the seed traits, seed oil range from 6.47-25.16%, protein from 1.85-28.45% and fibre content from 15.88-37.12%. There were negative correlations between seed oil and protein content.With reference to genetic diversity, the average estimate of FST was 8.852 indicating a low level of genetic differentiation among subpopulations. The AMOVA test revealed that variation was 94% within and 6% among subpopulations. Bayesian population structure identified five subpopulations and was in agreement with their geographical distribution. Among the mixed models analysed, mixed linear model (MLM) identified 21 quantitative trait loci for lint percentage and seed quality traits, such as seed protein and oil. Establishing genetic diversity, population structure and marker trait associations for the seed quality traits could be valuable in understanding the genetic relationships and their utilization in breeding programmes. PMID:25846880

  13. Assessment of genetic diversity in broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) using SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xingyu; Wang, Jianfei; Lu, Ping; Zhang, Hongsheng

    2009-08-01

    The genetic diversity of 118 accessions of broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.), collected from various ecological areas, was analyzed. Using 46 SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) polymorphic markers from rice, wheat, oat and barley, a total of 226 alleles were found, which exhibited moderate level of diversity. The number of alleles per primer ranged from two to nine, with an average of 4.91. The range of polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.284-0.980 (average, 0.793). The expected heterozygosity (He) varied from 0.346 to 0.989, with an average of 0.834. The average coefficient of the genetic similarity of SSR markers among the 118 accessions was 0.609, and it ranged from 0.461 to 0.851. The UPGMA (Unweight Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) clustering analysis at the genetic similarity value of 0.609 grouped the 118 accessions into five groups. Mantel test meant that geographical origin and genetic distance presented positive correlation. The clustering results were consistent with known information on ecological growing areas. The genetic similarity coefficient of the accessions in the Loess Plateau ecotype was significantly lower than those in the other ecotypes. It indicates that the highest level of genetic diversity occurred in the Loess Plateau, which is probably the original site of Panicum miliaceum. PMID:19683672

  14. Genetic diversity and phylogeny of Japanese sake-brewing rice as revealed by AFLP and nuclear and chloroplast SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Z; Mori, N; Kawamura, M; Ishii, T; Yoshida, S; Ikegami, M; Takumi, S; Nakamura, C

    2004-11-01

    Japanese rice ( Oryza sativa L.) cultivars that are strictly used for the brewing of sake (Japanese rice wine) represent a unique and traditional group. These cultivars are characterized by common traits such as large grain size with low protein content and a large, central white-core structure. To understand the genetic diversity and phylogenetic characteristics of sake-brewing rice, we performed amplified fragment length polymorphism and simple sequence repeat analyses, using 95 cultivars of local and modern sake-brewing rice together with 76 cultivars of local and modern cooking rice. Our analysis of both nuclear and chloroplast genome polymorphisms showed that the genetic diversity in sake-brewing rice cultivars was much smaller than the diversity found in cooking rice cultivars. Interestingly, the genetic diversity within the modern sake-brewing cultivars was about twofold higher than the diversity within the local sake-brewing cultivars, which was in contrast to the cooking cultivars. This is most likely due to introgression of the modern cooking cultivars into the modern sake-brewing cultivars through breeding practices. Cluster analysis and chloroplast haplotype analysis suggested that the local sake-brewing cultivars originated monophyletically in the western regions of Japan. Analysis of variance tests showed that several markers were significantly associated with sake-brewing traits, particularly with the large white-core structure. PMID:15375619

  15. Microevolutionary Patterns and Molecular Markers: The Genetics of Geographic Variation in Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    Nadler, S. A.

    1996-01-01

    Molecular markers have been used only rarely to characterize the population genetic structure of nematodes. Published studies have suggested that different taxa may show distinct genetic architectures. Isoenzyme and RAPD markers have been used to investigate geographic variation of Ascaris suum at the level of infrapopulations (nematodes within individual hosts), within localities, and among geographic regions. Independent estimates of genetic differentiation among population samples based on isoenzyme and RAPD data showed similar patterns and substantial correlation. Heterozygote deficiencies within infrapopulations and large values for inbreeding coefficients among infrapopulations suggested that the composition of these populations was not consistent with a model of random recruitment from a large panmictic pool of life-cycle stages. Both isoenzyme and RAPD markers revealed moderate levels of genetic differentiation among samples representing infrapopulations and localities. Of total gene diversity, 9.4% (isoenzyme) and 9.2% (RAPD) was partitioned among infrapopulations. Geographic localities accounted for 7.8% (isoenzyme) and 6.2% (RAPD) of total diversity. Only infrapopulations from the same farm had low levels of differentiation. PMID:19277145

  16. Pollen genetic markers for detection of mutagens in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Nilan, R.A.; Rosichan, J.L.; Arenaz, P.; Hodgdon, A.L.; Kleinhofs, A.

    1980-01-01

    To utilize and exploit pollen for in situ mutagen monitoring, screening and toxicology, the range of genetic traits in pollen must be identified and analyzed. To be useful for the development of mutagen detection systems proteins should be: (1) activity stainable or immunologically identifiable in the pollen, (2) the products of one to three loci; and (3) gametophytic and nuclear in origin. Several proteins, including alcohol dehydrogenase in maize, which meet these criteria are discussed. The waxy locus in barley and maize which controls starch deposition for pollen screening and mutant detection. Thirty waxy mutant lines, induced by sodium azide and gamma-rays are characterized for spontaneous and induced reversion frequencies, allelism, karyotype, amylose content, and UDPglucose glucosyltransferase (waxy gene product) activity. Twelve mutant alleles are being mapped by recombinant frequencies.

  17. Methods of analysis for 2-dodecylcyclobutanone and studies to support its role as a unique marker of food irradiation.

    PubMed

    Driffield, M; Speck, D; Lloyd, A S; Parmar, M; Crews, C; Castle, L; Thomas, C

    2014-03-01

    Methods of analysis for 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS), liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection (LC-TOF-MS) and LC with tandem MS (MS/MS) detection have been developed and optimised for maximum sensitivity to allow very low irradiation doses to be detected. The LC-MS/MS method, following derivatisation with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, was found to be the most sensitive technique and was used to determine the amount of 2-DCB formed from the model compounds palmitic acid, glyceryl tripalmitate and 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoylglycerol irradiated over a range of doses by two different irradiation sources (gamma and electron beam). The model compounds were also treated with a number of non-irradiation based processing techniques including heating in the presence and absence of oxygen, light, and redox active metal salts, in a conventional oven, microwave oven and pressure cooker. No 2-DCB was detected in any of the processed non-irradiated model compounds, reaffirming the hypothesis that 2-DCB is a unique radiolytic product that can be used as a marker of irradiation in foodstuffs. PMID:24176347

  18. Genetic characterization of local Criollo pig breeds from the Americas using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Revidatti, M A; Delgado Bermejo, J V; Gama, L T; Landi Periati, V; Ginja, C; Alvarez, L A; Vega-Pla, J L; Martínez, A M

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about local Criollo pig genetic resources and relationships among the various populations. In this paper, genetic diversity and relationships among 17 Criollo pig populations from 11 American countries were assessed with 24 microsatellite markers. Heterozygosities, F-statistics, and genetic distances were estimated, and multivariate, genetic structure and admixture analyses were performed. The overall means for genetic variability parameters based on the 24 microsatellite markers were the following: mean number of alleles per locus of 6.25 ± 2.3; effective number of alleles per locus of 3.33 ± 1.56; allelic richness per locus of 4.61 ± 1.37; expected and observed heterozygosity of 0.62 ± 0.04 and 0.57 ± 0.02, respectively; within-population inbreeding coefficient of 0.089; and proportion of genetic variability accounted for by differences among breeds of 0.11 ± 0.01. Genetic differences were not significantly associated with the geographical location to which breeds were assigned or their country of origin. Still, the NeighborNet dendrogram depicted the clustering by geographic origin of several South American breeds (Criollo Boliviano, Criollo of northeastern Argentina wet, and Criollo of northeastern Argentina dry), but some unexpected results were also observed, such as the grouping of breeds from countries as distant as El Salvador, Mexico, Ecuador, and Cuba. The results of genetic structure and admixture analyses indicated that the most likely number of ancestral populations was 11, and most breeds clustered separately when this was the number of predefined populations, with the exception of some closely related breeds that shared the same cluster and others that were admixed. These results indicate that Criollo pigs represent important reservoirs of pig genetic diversity useful for local development as well as for the pig industry. PMID:25349337

  19. Genetic diversity and domestication origin of tea plant Camellia taliensis (Theaceae) as revealed by microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. Many species in the Thea section of the Camellia genus can be processed for drinking and have been domesticated. However, few investigations have focused on the genetic consequence of domestication and geographic origin of landraces on tea plants using credible wild and planted populations of a single species. Here, C. taliensis provides us with a unique opportunity to explore these issues. Results Fourteen nuclear microsatellite loci were employed to determine the genetic diversity and domestication origin of C. taliensis, which were represented by 587 individuals from 25 wild, planted and recently domesticated populations. C. taliensis showed a moderate high level of overall genetic diversity. The greater reduction of genetic diversity and stronger genetic drift were detected in the wild group than in the recently domesticated group, indicating the loss of genetic diversity of wild populations due to overexploitation and habitat fragmentation. Instead of the endangered wild trees, recently domesticated individuals were used to compare with the planted trees for detecting the genetic consequence of domestication. A little and non-significant reduction in genetic diversity was found during domestication. The long life cycle, selection for leaf traits and gene flow between populations will delay the emergence of bottleneck in planted trees. Both phylogenetic and assignment analyses suggested that planted trees may have been domesticated from the adjacent central forest of western Yunnan and dispersed artificially to distant places. Conclusions This study contributes to the knowledge about levels and distribution of genetic diversity of C. taliensis and provides new insights into genetic consequence of domestication and geographic origin of planted trees of this species. As an endemic tea source plant, wild, planted and recently domesticated C. taliensis trees should all be protected for their unique genetic characteristics, which are valuable for tea breeding. PMID:24405939

  20. Marker-based estimation of genetic parameters in genomics.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhiqiu; Yang, Rong-Cai

    2014-01-01

    Linear mixed model (LMM) analysis has been recently used extensively for estimating additive genetic variances and narrow-sense heritability in many genomic studies. While the LMM analysis is computationally less intensive than the Bayesian algorithms, it remains infeasible for large-scale genomic data sets. In this paper, we advocate the use of a statistical procedure known as symmetric differences squared (SDS) as it may serve as a viable alternative when the LMM methods have difficulty or fail to work with large datasets. The SDS procedure is a general and computationally simple method based only on the least squares regression analysis. We carry out computer simulations and empirical analyses to compare the SDS procedure with two commonly used LMM-based procedures. Our results show that the SDS method is not as good as the LMM methods for small data sets, but it becomes progressively better and can match well with the precision of estimation by the LMM methods for data sets with large sample sizes. Its major advantage is that with larger and larger samples, it continues to work with the increasing precision of estimation while the commonly used LMM methods are no longer able to work under our current typical computing capacity. Thus, these results suggest that the SDS method can serve as a viable alternative particularly when analyzing 'big' genomic data sets. PMID:25025305

  1. Genetic Analysis of 430 Chinese Cynodon dactylon Accessions Using Sequence-Related Amplified Polymorphism Markers

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chunqiong; Liu, Guodao; Bai, Changjun; Wang, Wenqiang

    2014-01-01

    Although Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon) is widely distributed in China, information on its genetic diversity within the germplasm pool is limited. The objective of this study was to reveal the genetic variation and relationships of 430 C. dactylon accessions collected from 22 Chinese provinces using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. Fifteen primer pairs were used to amplify specific C. dactylon genomic sequences. A total of 481 SRAP fragments were generated, with fragment sizes ranging from 260–1800 base pairs (bp). Genetic similarity coefficients (GSC) among the 430 accessions averaged 0.72 and ranged from 0.53–0.96. Cluster analysis conducted by two methods, namely the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) and principle coordinate analysis (PCoA), separated the accessions into eight distinct groups. Our findings verify that Chinese C. dactylon germplasms have rich genetic diversity, which is an excellent basis for C. dactylon breeding for new cultivars. PMID:25338051

  2. Survey of plasmid-associated genetic markers in enterobacteriaceae with reduced susceptibilities to cephalosporins.

    PubMed

    Preston, Karen E; Graffunder, Eileen M; Evans, Ann M; Venezia, Richard A

    2003-07-01

    Clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae with reduced susceptibilities to cephalosporins were collected from 1993 to 2000. The organisms were screened for the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype, and plasmid extracts were screened for genetic markers by hybridization. A bla(TEM) probe was derived from pUC19; other probes were derived from pACM1, the plasmid responsible for the first known appearance of an ESBL in our institution. These probes included bla(SHV), int, aac(3)-Ia, dfrA1, IS6100, tetA, IncM markers, and Anon 13, a marker for the Klebsiella pneumoniae chromosomal sequences that flank bla(SHV-5). There were 42 hybridization patterns among 237 isolates. Patterns designated pACM1-like occurred in 44% of the isolates (eight species) and were always associated with the clavulanic acid (CA)-susceptible ESBL phenotype. The TEM marker was not predictive of the ESBL phenotype. Mapping indicated the presence of an SHV marker and up to 7.5 kb of its flanking chromosomal sequences in three non-IncM plasmids obtained in transformation experiments. We theorize that this DNA segment spread to other plasmids from pACM1-like sources. CA insensitivity became more frequent with time and was usually associated with either the TEM marker or the absence of both bla markers. One plasmid-encoded enzyme with characteristics of an AmpC beta-lactamase was observed in a transformant lacking both TEM and SHV markers. Although SHV type ESBLs were a continuing source of reduced susceptibility to cephalosporins in our institution, organisms with different resistance mechanisms were added to the hospital microflora in later years. These changes might be related, in part, to ESBL control strategies implemented in 1995. PMID:12821465

  3. Elucidating genetic diversity among sour orange rootstocks: a comparative study of the efficiency of RAPD and SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Lamine, Myriam; Mliki, Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    In order to compare the effectiveness of two molecular marker systems, a set of six RAPD and nine SSR markers were used to study the genetic diversity in a population of 46 sour orange accessions, a common rootstock used in almost all citrus orchards in Tunisia. Genetic diversity parameters [average and effective number of alleles, percentage of polymorphism, polymorphic information content (PIC), effective marker index (EMI), and marker index (MI) parameters] for RAPD, SSR, and RAPD?+?SSR were determined in order to assess the efficiency of the two marker systems. The results revealed that these parameters were significantly higher when using RAPD markers. Similarly, cluster analysis using the results of RAPD was practically the same as that obtained when combining data from the two marker systems (RAPD?+?SSR) demonstrating the efficiency of RAPD in discriminating between sour orange accessions. Therefore, the use of SSR markers, known to be more efficient and discriminatory, does not bring significant supplementary information in this work. Indeed, results would have been obtained using only the RAPD markers. Accordingly, this work highlights the efficiency and advantages of RAPD, as an easy and efficient technique, in studying citrus rootstock's genetic diversity, and establishing genetic relationships among citrus accessions. PMID:25586488

  4. Genetic diversity analysis among collected purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) accessions using ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Alam, M Amirul; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Rafii, Mohd Yusop; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Arolu, Ibrahim Wasiu; Abdul Latif, M

    2015-01-01

    Genetic diversity and relationships among 45 collected purslane accessions were evaluated using ISSR markers. The 28 primers gave a total of 167 bands, among which 163 were polymorphic (97.6%). The genetic diversity as estimated by Shannon's information index was 0.513, revealing a quite high level of genetic diversity in the germplasm. The average number of observed allele, effective allele, expected heterozygosity, polymorphic information content (PIC) and Nei's index were 5.96, 1.59, 0.43, 0.35 and 0.35, respectively. The UPGMA dendrogram based on Nei's genetic distance grouped the whole germplasm into 7 distinct clusters. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 89% of total variation occurred within population, while 11% were found among populations. Based on the constructed dendrogram using ISSR markers those accessions that are far from each other by virtue of genetic origin and diversity index (like Ac1 and Ac42; Ac19 and Ac45; Ac9 and Ac23; Ac18 and A25; Ac24 and Ac18) are strongly recommended to select as parent for future breeding program to develop high yielding and stress tolerant purslane variety in contribution to global food security. PMID:25468001

  5. Genetic similarity among male bees of Euglossa truncata Rebêlo & Moure (Hymenoptera: Apidae) revealed by RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Karen M; Almeida, Fernanda S; Sodré, Leda M K; Pascual, Amália N T; Sofia, Silvia H

    2006-01-01

    The genetic RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers have been used successfully in taxonomical studies of several groups of organisms. In the present study these molecular markers were used to analyze the genetic similarity among eighteen males of Euglossa truncata Rebêlo & Moure exhibiting variations in two morphological characters (colour of the antennal scape and metaepisternal hairs) which are frequently used to identify this species of euglossine bee. The twelve primers used in the RAPD analysis amplified 127 loci, of which 40 (31.5%) were polymorphic, showing some variation among the individuals. The coefficients of genetic similarity among the individuals ranged from 0.79 to 0.95, indicating a rather high genetic similarity among the 18 male bees studied. No RAPD band was specific to any morphological character analyzed. The results indicate that all bees analyzed belong to the same species. The high genetic similarity among the eighteen euglossine males studied indicates that the variations observed in the morphological characters are not in disagreement with the identification of this species of Euglossina and these characters can vary among males of E. truncata. PMID:17061795

  6. Genetic similarity among Tunisian olive cultivars and two unknown feral olive trees estimated through SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ayed, Rayda; Sans-Grout, Cinderella; Moreau, Fabienne; Grati-Kamoun, Naziha; Rebai, Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    We used eight informative microsatellite markers for fingerprinting and evaluation of genetic similarity among 15 Tunisian olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars and two feral unknown trees named Soulela 1 and Soulela 2. Thirty-one alleles were revealed, and the number of alleles per SSR varied from 2 (UDO12) to 6 (GAPU71A). Cluster analysis grouped cultivars into three main clusters. The two unknown varieties could not be reliably classified into any of these cultivar groups. SSR analysis indicated the presence of three erroneous denominations of cultivars. We resolved two synonymy cases (Zalmati and Chemlali; Rkhami and Chetoui) and one case of homonymy (Chemlali Tataouine). Genetic analyses of DNA extracted from leaves, oils, and embryos of the two unknown cultivars and the two major Tunisian olive cultivars (Chemlali and Chetoui) were also studied. We conclude that the reliable identification of these two feral cultivars needs to be addressed by a larger set of markers. PMID:24535154

  7. A battery of 12 microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of the Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis complex.

    PubMed

    Rougeron, V; De Meeûs, T; Hide, M; Waleckx, E; Dereure, J; Arevalo, J; Llanos-Cuentas, A; Bañuls, A L

    2010-11-01

    We used 12 microsatellite markers developed for Leishmania braziliensis to genotype 28 strains of the main species of the Leishmania guyanensis complex (i.e. L. guyanensis and L. panamensis) collected in Ecuador and Peru. The important heterozygote deficits observed in these populations are similar with the previous data obtained in L. braziliensis and raise again the debate on the reproductive mode of these protozoan parasites. The data showed genetic polymorphism and geographical differentiation giving information on population structure of the L. guyanensis complex. Regarding the two species, this study enhances again the debate on the taxonomic status of the different isolates belonging to L. guyanensis s.l. since the results showed substantial heterogeneity within this species complex. In conclusion, this study increases the number of available microsatellite loci for L. guyanensis species complex and raises fundamental biological questions. It confirms that microsatellite markers constitute good tools for population genetic studies on parasites of this complex. PMID:20609264

  8. Genetic diversity in Tunisian Crataegus azarolus L. var. aronia L. populations assessed using RAPD markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chayma Rajeb; Chokri Messaoud; Hnia Chograni; Afef Bejaoui; Abdennacer Boulila; Mohamed Nejib Rejeb; Mohamed Boussaid

    2010-01-01

    – \\u000a \\u000a • The genetic diversity of nine wild Tunisian Crataegus azarolus var. aronia L. populations from different bioclimates was assessed using RAPD markers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • Eight selected primers generated a total of 105 bands, 81 of which were polymorphic. Shannon’s index (H?) ranged from 0.222 to 0.278 according to a population with an average of 0.245. The genetic variation within

  9. A genome-wide association study to identify genetic markers associated with endometrial cancer grade

    E-print Network

    2012-04-12

    MEETING ABSTRACT Open Access A genome-wide association study to identify genetic markers associated with endometrial cancer grade T O’Mara1,2, D Duffy2, DJ Thompson3, S Ahmed4, K Ferguson2, CS Healey4, ANECS2, G Montgomery2, M Shah4, J Morrison3, PP... of chemotherapeutic agents targeting aggressive disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying common genetic variation involved in cancer susceptibility. Presently there are lim- ited published studies using GWAS data to identify...

  10. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers and analysis of genetic variability in Curculigo latifolia Dryand.

    PubMed

    Babaei, Nahid; Abdullah, Nur Ashikin Psyquay; Saleh, Ghizan; Abdullah, Thohirah Lee

    2012-11-01

    Curculin, a sweet protein found in Curculigo latifolia fruit has great potential for the pharmaceutical industry. This protein interestingly has been found to have both sweet taste and taste-modifying capacities comparable with other natural sweeteners. According to our knowledge this is the first reported case on the isolation of microsatellite loci in this genus. Hence, the current development of microsatellite markers for C. latifolia will facilitate future population genetic studies and breeding programs for this valuable plant. In this study 11 microsatellite markers were developed using 3' and 5' ISSR markers. The primers were tested on 27 accessions from all states of Peninsular Malaysia. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to seven, with allele size ranging from 141 to 306 bp. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged between 0.00-0.65 and 0.38-0.79, respectively. The polymorphic information content ranged from 0.35 to 0.74 and the Shannon's information index ranged from 0.82 to 1.57. These developed polymorphic microsatellites were used for constructing a dendrogram by unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster analysis using the Dice's similarity coefficient. Accessions association according to their geographical origin was observed. Based on characteristics of isolated microsatellites for C. latifolia accessions all genotype can be distinguished using these 11 microsatellite markers. These polymorphic markers could also be applied to studies on uniformity determination and somaclonal variation of tissue culture plantlets, varieties identification, genetic diversity, analysis of phylogenetic relationship, genetic linkage maps and quantitative trait loci in C. latifolia. PMID:22752726

  11. Genetic relationships among species of the genus Diplotaxis (Brassicaceae) using inter-simple sequence repeat markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Martín; M. D. Sánchez-Yélamo

    2000-01-01

    Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) amplification was evaluated for its applicability as a genetic marker system to establish\\u000a relationships among ten Diplotaxis species. ISSR amplification generated multiple banding profiles with the 12 primers from all DNA samples, with an average\\u000a of 41.2 fragments per primer. This average was clearly higher for the 5? triple-anchored primers than for other primers. The\\u000a banding

  12. Correlation between indigenous Oenococcus oeni strain resistance and the presence of genetic markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent Renouf; Arnaud Delaherche; Olivier Claisse; Aline Lonvaud-Funel

    2008-01-01

    This study reports on monitoring Oenococcus oeni intraspecific diversity evolution during winemaking. Three different wines were monitored. The proportion of O. oeni species was determined by species-specific PCR and O. oeni strains were distinguished by multiplex PCR-RAPD. Each strain was tested by PCR for 16 significant markers revealed by a\\u000a previous genetic comparison between a strong oenological potential strain and

  13. Assessment of genetic relationships between Setaria italica and its wild relative S. viridis using AFLP markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Le Thierry d’Ennequin; O. Panaud; B. Toupance; A. Sarr

    2000-01-01

    AFLP markers were used to assess genetic diversity and patterns of geographic variation among 39 accessions of foxtail millet\\u000a (Setaria italica) and 22 accessions of green foxtail millet (S. viridis), its putative wild progenitor. A high level of polymorphism was revealed. Dendrograms based on Nei and Li distances from\\u000a a neighbour joining procedure were constructed using 160 polymorphic bands. Bootstrap

  14. Genetic analysis of apomixis in Citrus and Poncirus by molecular markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. García; M. J. Asíns; J. Forner; E. A. Carbonell

    1999-01-01

    Propagation of citrus rootstocks depends upon the production of clonal plants from nucellar seedlings. This makes apomixis\\u000a one of the host important traits in breeding programs for citrus rootstocks. The genetic control of apomixis was studied in\\u000a a 50-tree progeny derived from the cross C. volkameriana?P. trifoliata using 69 molecular markers and bulked segregant analysis. The proportion of nucellar seedlings

  15. Genetic analysis of apomixis in Citrus and Poncirus by molecular markers.

    PubMed

    García, R; Asíns, M J; Forner, J; Carbonell, E A

    1999-08-01

    Propagation of citrus rootstocks depends upon the production of clonal plants from nucellar seedlings. This makes apomixis one of the host important traits in breeding programs for citrus rootstocks. The genetic control of apomixis was studied in a 50-tree progeny derived from the cross C. volkameriana×P. trifoliata using 69 molecular markers and bulked segregant analysis. The proportion of nucellar seedlings was estimated by isoenzymatic analysis of 25 seedlings per tree for 2 consecutive years. The type of embryony (polyembryonic versus monoembryonic seeds) was also determined for fruit-yielding trees. Separate genetic maps for each parental species were developed. The integration and comparison of these maps could be accomplished using common multiallelic segregant loci. Differences in gene synteny between the two species-specific genetic maps were shown. Important distortions in the segregation of markers at several genomic regions, some of them also involving differences in the C-methylation pattern, have been observed, especially for the pollen parent. Analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) revealed the presence of six genomic positions (two in P. trifoliata and four in C. volkameriana) contributing individually up to 24% of the total variation for apomixis. Within the same species, QTLs with positive and negative allele effects were present, even in the same linkage group. One of the markers associated to apomixis (Apo2) is also associated to embryony type. Therefore, the genetic control of apomictic reproduction found in citrus (nucellar embryony) is quite complex compared to what has been reported for gametophytic apomixis. Molecular markers linked to QTLs governing apomixis will be useful to assist selection of future apomictic rootstocks for citrus varieties. PMID:22665185

  16. Genetic analysis of STR markers on chromosome 21 in a Han population from southeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y N; Lu, S M; Wang, M; Shen, F X; Chen, Y; Hu, J J

    2015-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) are highly polymorphic sequences and have been extensively used as genetic markers in mapping studies, disease diagnosis, and human identity testing. In this study, 11 STR markers on chromosome 21, including D21S1432, D21S11, D21S1246, D21S1412, D21S1437, D21S1442, D21S2039, D21S1270, D21S1435, D21S1409, and D21S1446, were analyzed in 740 unrelated Han individuals from southeast China. A total of 132 alleles, ranging from 7-21 for each locus, were named according to the guidelines of the International Society for Forensic Haemogenetics. The distributions of allelic frequencies for the 11 STRs and population genetic parameters were determined. All 11 STR markers showed high polymorphism and heterogeneity in the southeast Han population, with polymorphism information content of 0.61-0.87, heterogeneity of 64.5-86.1%, and power of discrimination of 0.835-0.973. Among the 11 STR markers, D21S1412, D21S1270, D21S11, and D21S1442 showed relatively higher heterogeneity. Their combination was relatively informative and was used in a quantitative fluorescence-polymerase chain reaction assay to diagnose Down syndrome (trisomy 21) in a southeast Chinese Han population. The genetic information and population data for these 11 STRs may be used not only in quantitative fluorescence-polymerase chain reaction assays but also in forensic studies and other genetic tests. PMID:25867314

  17. Genetic relationships in the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) analysed by microsatellite DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Nesje, M; Røed, K H; Lifjeld, J T; Lindberg, P; Steen, O F

    2000-01-01

    Microsatellite DNA markers were developed from a peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) and genetic relationships among peregrine falcons in southern Norway were analysed using the markers. The genomic DNA library was screened for the presence of dinucleotide microsatellite repeats. Twelve loci revealed polymorphism through the initial analysis of 24 unrelated peregrine falcons, and Mendelian inheritance was confirmed in two peregrine falcon families bred in captivity. The estimated mean probability of identical genotypes in two unrelated individuals was 3 x 10-8, and the combined exclusion probability for parentage testing was 0.99 and 0.94 for one or both parents unknown, respectively. The markers were used to investigate the parentage of peregrine broods from the same nest site from different breeding seasons, and subsequently the nest-site fidelity of the breeding peregrines. High nest-site fidelity was found by studying pairwise comparisons of relatedness (rxy) estimates among chicks at six nest sites from three different breeding seasons. Cross-species amplifications showed that most loci also appeared to amplify polymorphic products in the gyrfalcon (F. rusticolus), merlin (F. columbarius), hobby (F. subbuteo) and kestrel (F. tinnunculus), demonstrating that the loci will provide powerful genetic markers in these falcons too. PMID:10652075

  18. Genetic variation in two conserved local Romanian pig breeds using type 1 DNA markers

    PubMed Central

    Ciobanu, Daniel C; Day, Andrew E; Nagy, Alexandru; Wales, Richard; Rothschild, Max F; Plastow, Graham S

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of the genetic variation of an endangered population is an important component for the success of conservation. Animals from two local Romanian pig breeds, the Mangalitsa and Bazna, were analysed for variation at a number of genetic loci using PCR-based DNA tests. Polymorphism was assessed at loci which 1) are known to cause phenotypic variation, 2) are potentially involved in trait differences or 3) are putative candidate genes. The traits considered are disease resistance, growth, coat colour, meat quality and prolificacy. Even though the populations are small and the markers are limited to specific genes, we found significant differences in five of the ten characterised loci. In some cases the observed allele frequencies were interesting in relation to gene function and the phenotype of the breed. These breeds are part of a conservation programme in Romania and marker information may be useful in preserving a representative gene pool in the populations. The use of polymorphisms in type 1 (gene) markers may be a useful complement to analysis based on anonymous markers. PMID:11559484

  19. Correlation between molecular markers and adaptively significant genetic variation in Bromus tectorum (Poaceae), an inbreedingannual grass.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Alisa P; Meyer, Susan E; Waters, Jennifer; Stevens, Mikel R; Coleman, Craig E; Fairbanks, Daniel J

    2004-06-01

    Single sequence repeat (SSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphic (AFLP) molecular marker genotypes in cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) were compared to published data on phenotypic variation in seed dormancy, vernalization requirement, and resistance to the pathogen Ustilago bullata. Several features of cheatgrass facilitated this study: it is a recent invader in the western United States, has considerable phenotypic polymorphism, and is an obligate self-pollinator. Forty self-pollinating lines from four populations common to the three phenotypic data sets were analyzed for molecular genetic variation using seven SSR loci and 31 AFLP loci. We examined correlations between distance matrices using the Mantel test for each pair of studies. The two molecular data sets were significantly correlated (r = 0.636). The AFLP markers often distinguished among several lines with identical SSR genotypes. The AFLP data were also significantly correlated with the phenotypic data (r values from 0.4640 to 0.5658), but the SSR data were much more highly correlated (r values from 0.677 to 0.844). The difference between molecular marker systems was especially notable when an outlier population from Potosi Pass, Nevada, was excluded from the analysis. These results suggest that SSR markers may be good surrogates for phenotypic traits in population genetic studies of strongly inbreeding species such as cheatgrass. PMID:21653434

  20. Genetic diversity in basmati rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasm as revealed by microsatellite (SSR) markers.

    PubMed

    Ashfaq, M; Khan, A S

    2012-01-01

    Genetic diversity among rice genotypes, including 15 indica basmati advance lines and 5 basmati improved varieties were investigated by 28 SSR markets including one indel marker. The SSRs covered all the 12 chromosomes that distributed across the rice genomes. The mean number of alleles per locus was 3.60, showing average number of polymorphism information content was 0.48. A total of 101 alleles were also identified from the microsatellite marker loci. A number of SSR markers were also identified that could be utilized to differentiate between rice genotypes. Pair wise Nei,s genetic distance between rice genotypes ranged from 0.07 to 0.95. The dendrogram based on cluster analysis by using SSR polymorphism that grouped the 20 genotypes of rice in to five clusters based on their genetic similarity. The result could be useful for the identification and selection of the diverse genotypes for the future cross breeding program and development of new rice varieties. PMID:22567855

  1. Physical mapping of 49 microsatellite markers on chromosome 19 and correlation with the genetic linkage map

    SciTech Connect

    Reguigne-Arnould, I.; Mollicone, R.; Candelier, J.J. [INSERM, Villejuif (France)] [and others] [INSERM, Villejuif (France); and others

    1996-03-05

    We have regionally localized 49 microsatellite markers developed by Genethon using a panel of previously characterized somatic cell hybrids that retain fragments from chromosome 19. The tight correlation observed between the physical and the genetic orders of the microsatellites provide cytogenetic anchorages to the genetic map data. We propose a position for the centromere just above D19S415, from the study of two hybrids, each of which retains one of the two derivatives of a balanced translocation t(1;19)(q11;q11). Microsatellites, which can be identified by a standard PCR protocol, are useful tools for the localization of disease genes and for the establishment of YAC or cosmid contigs. These markers can also judiciously be used for the characterization of new hybrid cell line panels. We report such a characterization of 11 clones, 8 of which were obtained by irradiation-fusion. Using the whole hybrid panel, we were able to define the order of 12 pairs of genetically colocalized microsatellites. As examples of gene mapping by the combined use of microsatellites and hybrid cell lines, we regionally assigned the PVS locus between the 19q13.2 markers D19S417 and D19S423 and confirmed the locations of fucosyltransferase loci FUT1, FUT2, and FUT5. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Genetic diversity of loquat germplasm (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb) Lindl) assessed by SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Soriano, José Miguel; Romero, Carlos; Vilanova, Santiago; Llácer, Gerardo; Badenes, María Luisa

    2005-02-01

    Genetic relationships among 40 loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb) Lindl) accessions that originated from different countries and that are part of the germplasm collection of the Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA) (Valencia, Spain) were evaluated using microsatellites. Thirty primer pairs flanking microsatellites previously identified in Malus x domestica (Borkh.) were assayed. Thirteen of them amplified polymorphic products and unambiguously distinguished 34 genotypes from the 40 accessions analyzed. Six accessions showing identical marker patterns were Spanish local varieties thought to have been derived from 'Algerie' by a mutational process very common in loquat species. A total of 39 alleles were detected in the population studied, with a mean value of 2.4 alleles per locus. The expected and observed heterozygosities were 0.46 and 51% on average, respectively, leading to a negative value of the Wright's fixation index (-0.20). The values of these parameters indicate a smaller degree of genetic diversity in the set of loquat accessions analyzed than in other members of the Rosaceae family. Unweighted pair-group method (UPGMA) cluster analysis, based on Nei's genetic distance, generally grouped genotypes according to their geographic origins and pedigrees. The high number of alleles and the high expected heterozygosity detected with SSR markers developed in Malus x domestica (Borkh.) make them a suitable tool for loquat cultivar identification, confirming microsatellite marker transportability among genera in the Rosaceae family. PMID:15729402

  3. Genetic diversity of maize germplasm assessed by retrotransposon-based markers.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Betty Cristiane; López-Ribera, Ignacio; da Silva Machado, Maria de Fátima Pires; Vicient, Carlos M

    2014-07-01

    Maize is one of the most important crops and also a model for grass genome research. Transposable elements comprise over 78% of the maize genome and their ability to generate new copies makes them good potential markers. Interretrotransposon-amplified polymorphism (IRAP) and retrotransposon microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP) protocols were used for the first time in maize to study the genetic variability between maize cultivars. Ten PCR primers were selected based on a systematic analysis of the sequence conservation in the extremities of different high copy number transposable elements, whereas one primer was chosen based on a microsatellite sequence. Of the 16 primer combinations tested, 14 produced polymorphic bands. These markers were used to identify genetic similarity among 20 maize cultivars selected by their different kernel oil content. Genetic similarity analysis was performed based on the polymorphic band profiles and dendrograms were developed by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages. Clustering technique revealed that samples were grouped into three clusters that differed in their kernel oil content and size, and in their relative embryo size. In the current investigation, there is evidence that IRAP/REMAP may be useful as markers in maize. PMID:24634146

  4. Developing Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC) markers for population genetic studies in three Aedes disease vectors.

    PubMed

    White, Vanessa Linley; Endersby, Nancy Margaret; Chan, Janice; Hoffmann, Ary Anthony; Weeks, Andrew Raymond

    2015-03-01

    Aedes aegypti, Aedes notoscriptus, and Aedes albopictus are important vectors of many arboviruses implicated in human disease such as dengue fever. Genetic markers applied across vector species can provide important information on population structure, gene flow, insecticide resistance, and taxonomy, however, robust microsatellite markers have proven difficult to develop in these species and mosquitoes generally. Here we consider the utility and transferability of 15 Ribosome protein (Rp) Exon-Primed Intron-Crossing (EPIC) markers for population genetic studies in these 3 Aedes species. Rp EPIC markers designed for Ae. aegypti also successfully amplified populations of the sister species, Ae. albopictus, as well as the distantly related species, Ae. notoscriptus. High SNP and good indel diversity in sequenced alleles plus support for amplification of the same regions across populations and species were additional benefits of these markers. These findings point to the general value of EPIC markers in mosquito population studies. PMID:24895297

  5. Analysis of genetic diversity and differentiation of seven stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei using microsatellite markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Weiji; Li, Weiya; Zhang, Quanqi; Kong, Jie

    2014-08-01

    Seven microsatellite markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity and differentiation of seven stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei, which were introduced from Central and South America to China. All seven microsatellite loci were polymorphic, with polymorphism information content ( PIC) values ranging from 0.593 to 0.952. Totally 92 alleles were identified, and the number of alleles ( Na) and effective alleles ( Ne) varied between 4 and 21 and 2.7 and 14.6, respectively. Observed heterozygosity ( H o) values were lower than the expected heterozygosity ( H e) values (0.526-0.754), which indicated that the seven stocks possessed a rich genetic diversity. Thirty-seven tests were detected for reasonable significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. F is values were positive at five loci, suggesting that there was a relatively high degree of inbreeding within stocks. Pairwise F st values ranged from 0.0225 to 0.151, and most of the stock pairs were moderately differentiated. Genetic distance and cluster analysis using UPGMA revealed a close genetic relationship of L. vannamei between Pop2 and Pop3. AMOVA indicated that the genetic variation among stocks (11.3%) was much lower than that within stocks (88.7%). Although the seven stocks had a certain degree of genetic differentiation and a rich genetic diversity, there is an increasing risk of decreased performance due to inbreeding in subsequent generations.

  6. Genetic diversity and relationships among different tomato varieties revealed by EST-SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Korir, N K; Diao, W; Tao, R; Li, X; Kayesh, E; Li, A; Zhen, W; Wang, S

    2014-01-01

    The genetic diversity and relationship of 42 tomato varieties sourced from different geographic regions was examined with EST-SSR markers. The genetic diversity was between 0.18 and 0.77, with a mean of 0.49; the polymorphic information content ranged from 0.17 to 0.74, with a mean of 0.45. This indicates a fairly high degree of diversity among these tomato varieties. Based on the cluster analysis using unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA), all the tomato varieties fell into 5 groups, with no obvious geographical distribution characteristics despite their diverse sources. The principal component analysis (PCA) supported the clustering result; however, relationships among varieties were more complex in the PCA scatterplot than in the UPGMA dendrogram. This information about the genetic relationships between these tomato lines helps distinguish these 42 varieties and will be useful for tomato variety breeding and selection. We confirm that the EST-SSR marker system is useful for studying genetic diversity among tomato varieties. The high degree of polymorphism and the large number of bands obtained per assay shows that SSR is the most informative marker system for tomato genotyping for purposes of rights/protection and for the tomato industry in general. It is recommended that these varieties be subjected to identification using an SSR-based manual cultivar identification diagram strategy or other easy-to-use and referable methods so as to provide a complete set of information concerning genetic relationships and a readily usable means of identifying these varieties. PMID:24446286

  7. Utility and efficiency of linked marker genes for genetic counseling. II. Identification of linkage phase by offspring phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarti, Aravinda; Nei, Masatoshi

    1982-01-01

    For a linked marker locus to be useful for genetic counseling, the counselee must be heterozygous for both disease and marker loci and his or her linkage phase must be known. It is shown that when the phenotypes of the counselee's previous children for the disease and marker loci are known, the linkage phase can often be inferred with a high probability, and thus it is possible to conduct genetic counseling. To evaluate the utility of linked marker genes for genetic counseling, the accuracy of prediction of the risk for a prospective child with a given marker gene to develop the genetic disease and the proportion of families in which a particular marker locus can be used for genetic counseling are studied for X-linked recessive, autosomal dominant, and autosomal recessive diseases. In the case of X-linked genetic diseases, information from children is very useful for determining the linkage phase of the counselee and predicting the genetic disease. In the case of autosomal dominant diseases, not all children are informative, but if the number of children is large, the phenotypes of children are often more informative than the information from grandparents. In the case of autosomal recessive diseases, information from grandparents is usually useless, since they show a normal phenotype for the disease locus. If we use information on the phenotypes of children, however, the linkage phase of the counselee and the risk of a prospective child can be inferred with a high probability. The proportion of informative families depends on the dominance relationship and frequencies of marker alleles, and the number of children. In general, codominant markers are more useful than are dominant markers, and a locus with high heterozygosity is more useful than is a locus with low heterozygosity. PMID:6954847

  8. Unique apicomplexan IMC sub-compartment proteins are early markers for apical polarity in the malaria parasite

    PubMed Central

    Poulin, Benoit; Patzewitz, Eva-Maria; Brady, Declan; Silvie, Olivier; Wright, Megan H.; Ferguson, David J. P.; Wall, Richard J.; Whipple, Sarah; Guttery, David S.; Tate, Edward W.; Wickstead, Bill; Holder, Anthony A.; Tewari, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Summary The phylum Apicomplexa comprises over 5000 intracellular protozoan parasites, including Plasmodium and Toxoplasma, that are clinically important pathogens affecting humans and livestock. Malaria parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium possess a pellicle comprised of a plasmalemma and inner membrane complex (IMC), which is implicated in parasite motility and invasion. Using live cell imaging and reverse genetics in the rodent malaria model P. berghei, we localise two unique IMC sub-compartment proteins (ISPs) and examine their role in defining apical polarity during zygote (ookinete) development. We show that these proteins localise to the anterior apical end of the parasite where IMC organisation is initiated, and are expressed at all developmental stages, especially those that are invasive. Both ISP proteins are N-myristoylated, phosphorylated and membrane-bound. Gene disruption studies suggest that ISP1 is likely essential for parasite development, whereas ISP3 is not. However, an absence of ISP3 alters the apical localisation of ISP1 in all invasive stages including ookinetes and sporozoites, suggesting a coordinated function for these proteins in the organisation of apical polarity in the parasite. PMID:24244852

  9. Panmixia defines the genetic diversity of a unique arthropod-dispersed fungus specific to Protea flowers

    PubMed Central

    Aylward, Janneke; Dreyer, Léanne L; Steenkamp, Emma T; Wingfield, Michael J; Roets, Francois

    2014-01-01

    Knoxdaviesia proteae, a fungus specific to the floral structures of the iconic Cape Floral Kingdom plant, Protea repens, is dispersed by mites phoretic on beetles that pollinate these flowers. Although the vectors of K. proteae have been identified, little is known regarding its patterns of distribution. Seed bearing infructescences of P. repens were sampled from current and previous flowering seasons, from which K. proteae individuals were isolated and cultured. The genotypes of K. proteae isolates were determined using 12 microsatellite markers specific to this species. Genetic diversity indices showed a high level of similarity between K. proteae isolates from the two different infructescence age classes. The heterozygosity of the population was high (0.74 ± 0.04), and exceptional genotypic diversity was encountered (? = 97.87%). Population differentiation was negligible, owing to the numerous migrants between the infructescence age classes (Nm = 47.83) and between P. repens trees (Nm = 2.96). Parsimony analysis revealed interconnected genotypes, indicative of recombination and homoplasies, and the index of linkage disequilibrium confirmed that outcrossing is prevalent in K. proteae ( = 0.0067; P = 0.132). The high diversity and panmixia in this population is likely a result of regular gene flow and an outcrossing reproductive strategy. The lack of genetic cohesion between individuals from a single P. repens tree suggests that K. proteae dispersal does not primarily occur over short distances via mites as hypothesized, but rather that long-distance dispersal by beetles plays an important part in the biology of these intriguing fungi. PMID:25535560

  10. Molecular Markers for Biomass Traits: Association, Interaction and Genetic Divergence in Silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, Appukuttannair R; Jingade, Anuradha H; Urs, Raje S

    2007-01-01

    Improvement of high yielding, disease resistant silkworm strains became imminent to increase production of silk, which is a major revenue earner for sericulturists. Since environment interacts with phenotype, conventional breeding did not result in commendable yield improvement in synthetic strains of silkworm, Bombyx mori. Identification of DNA markers associated with different economically important biomass traits and its introgression could assist molecular breeding and expression of stabilized high yielding characters, but genetic basis of most quantitative traits in silkworm is poorly understood due to its polygenic control. Correlation analysis (R = 0.9) revealed significant interrelation among biomass traits viz., larval duration (TLD), larval weight (LWT), cocoon weight (CWT), shell weight (SWT), shell ratio (SR) and floss content. PCR using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers revealed 92% polymorphism among 14 tropical and temperate strains of B. mori, with average diversity index of 0.747. Stepwise multiple regression analysis (MRA) selected 35 ISSR markers positively or negatively correlated with different biomass traits, illustrated polygenic control. ISSR marker 830.8(1050bp) was significantly associated with LWT, CWT, SWT, SR and floss content, indicated its pleiotropic role. Two ISSR markers, 835.5(1950bp) and 825.9(710bp) showed significant association with floss content and TLD. These markers were segregated in F(2) generation and Chi-square test confirmed (chi(2) = ~45; P < 0.05) its genetic contribution to the associated biomass traits. Strains, with both positively and negatively correlated markers, had intermediate mean value for biomass traits (eg. SWT = 0.17 +/- 0.014 g in GNM and Moria) indicated interaction of loci in natural populations. Low yielding Indian strains grouped together by Hierarchical clustering. Chinese and Japanese strains were distributed in the periphery of ALSCAL matrix indicated convergence of genetic characters in Indian strains. Average genetic distance between Chinese strains and Indian strains (0.193) significantly (P < 0.01) varied from that between Chinese and Japanese strains. Interaction of loci and allelic substitutions induced phenotypic plasticity in temperate B. mori populations on tropic adaptation in India. These outcomes show possibility to combine favorable alleles at different QTL to increase larval, cocoon and shell weight. PMID:19662204

  11. A genetic linkage map of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei ): sex-linked microsatellite markers and high recombination rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liusuo Zhang; Changjian Yang; Yang Zhang; Li Li; Xiaoming Zhang; Qingli Zhang; Jianhai Xiang

    2007-01-01

    Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is the leading species farmed in the Western Hemisphere and an economically important aquaculture species in China. In this\\u000a project, a genetic linkage map was constructed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and microsatellite markers.\\u000a One hundred and eight select AFLP primer combinations and 30 polymorphic microsatellite markers produced 2071 markers that\\u000a were polymorphic in

  12. Parallel tagged amplicon sequencing of transcriptome-based genetic markers for Triturus newts with the Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing platform.

    PubMed

    Wielstra, B; Duijm, E; Lagler, P; Lammers, Y; Meilink, W R M; Ziermann, J M; Arntzen, J W

    2014-09-01

    Next-generation sequencing is a fast and cost-effective way to obtain sequence data for nonmodel organisms for many markers and for many individuals. We describe a protocol through which we obtain orthologous markers for the crested newts (Amphibia: Salamandridae: Triturus), suitable for analysis of interspecific hybridization. We use transcriptome data of a single Triturus species and design 96 primer pairs that amplify c. 180 bp fragments positioned in 3-prime untranslated regions. Next, these markers are tested with uniplex PCR for a set of species spanning the taxonomical width of the genus Triturus. The 52 markers that consistently show a single band of expected length at gel electrophoreses for all tested crested newt species are then amplified in five multiplex PCRs (with a plexity of ten or eleven) for 132 individual newts: a set of 84 representing the seven (candidate) species and a set of 48 from a presumed hybrid population. After pooling multiplexes per individual, unique tags are ligated to link amplicons to individuals. Subsequently, individuals are pooled equimolar and sequenced on the Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing platform. A bioinformatics pipeline identifies the alleles and recodes these to a genotypic format. Next, we test the utility of our markers. baps allocates the 84 crested newt individuals representing (candidate) species to their expected (candidate) species, confirming the markers are suitable for species delineation. newhybrids, a hybrid index and hiest confirm the 48 individuals from the presumed hybrid population to be genetically admixed, illustrating the potential of the markers to identify interspecific hybridization. We expect the set of markers we designed to provide a high resolving power for analysis of hybridization in Triturus. PMID:24571307

  13. Parallel tagged amplicon sequencing of transcriptome-based genetic markers for Triturus newts with the Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing platform

    PubMed Central

    Wielstra, B; Duijm, E; Lagler, P; Lammers, Y; Meilink, W R M; Ziermann, J M; Arntzen, J W

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing is a fast and cost-effective way to obtain sequence data for nonmodel organisms for many markers and for many individuals. We describe a protocol through which we obtain orthologous markers for the crested newts (Amphibia: Salamandridae: Triturus), suitable for analysis of interspecific hybridization. We use transcriptome data of a single Triturus species and design 96 primer pairs that amplify c. 180 bp fragments positioned in 3-prime untranslated regions. Next, these markers are tested with uniplex PCR for a set of species spanning the taxonomical width of the genus Triturus. The 52 markers that consistently show a single band of expected length at gel electrophoreses for all tested crested newt species are then amplified in five multiplex PCRs (with a plexity of ten or eleven) for 132 individual newts: a set of 84 representing the seven (candidate) species and a set of 48 from a presumed hybrid population. After pooling multiplexes per individual, unique tags are ligated to link amplicons to individuals. Subsequently, individuals are pooled equimolar and sequenced on the Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing platform. A bioinformatics pipeline identifies the alleles and recodes these to a genotypic format. Next, we test the utility of our markers. baps allocates the 84 crested newt individuals representing (candidate) species to their expected (candidate) species, confirming the markers are suitable for species delineation. newhybrids, a hybrid index and hiest confirm the 48 individuals from the presumed hybrid population to be genetically admixed, illustrating the potential of the markers to identify interspecific hybridization. We expect the set of markers we designed to provide a high resolving power for analysis of hybridization in Triturus. PMID:24571307

  14. Random Amplified Polymorphic Markers as Indicator for Genetic Conservation Program in Iranian Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus)

    PubMed Central

    Elyasi Zarringhabaie, Ghorban; Javanmard, Arash; Pirahary, Ommolbanin

    2012-01-01

    The objective of present study was identification of genetic similarity between wild Iran and captive Azerbaijan Pheasant using PCR-RAPD markers. For this purpose, in overall, 28 birds were taken for DNA extraction and subsequently 15 arbitrary primers were applied for PCR-RAPD technique. After electrophoresis, five primers exhibited sufficient variability which yielded overall 65 distinct bands, 59 polymorphic bands, for detalis, range of number of bands per primer was 10 to 14, and produced size varied between 200 to 1500?bp. Highest and lowest polymorphic primers were OPC5, OPC16 (100%) and OPC15 (81%), respectively. Result of genetic variation between two groups was accounted as nonsignificant (8.12%) of the overall variation. According to our expectation the wild Iranian birds showed higher genetic diversity value than the Azerbaijan captive birds. As general conclusion, two pheasant populations have almost same genetic origin and probably are subpopulations of one population. The data reported herein could open the opportunity to search for suitable conservation strategy to improve richness of Iran biodiversity and present study here was the first report that might have significant impact on the breeding and conservation program of Iranian pheasant gene pool. Analyses using more regions, more birds, and more DNA markers will be useful to confirm or to reject these findings. PMID:23002388

  15. Random amplified polymorphic markers as indicator for genetic conservation program in Iranian pheasant (Phasianus colchicus).

    PubMed

    Elyasi Zarringhabaie, Ghorban; Javanmard, Arash; Pirahary, Ommolbanin

    2012-01-01

    The objective of present study was identification of genetic similarity between wild Iran and captive Azerbaijan Pheasant using PCR-RAPD markers. For this purpose, in overall, 28 birds were taken for DNA extraction and subsequently 15 arbitrary primers were applied for PCR-RAPD technique. After electrophoresis, five primers exhibited sufficient variability which yielded overall 65 distinct bands, 59 polymorphic bands, for detalis, range of number of bands per primer was 10 to 14, and produced size varied between 200 to 1500?bp. Highest and lowest polymorphic primers were OPC5, OPC16 (100%) and OPC15 (81%), respectively. Result of genetic variation between two groups was accounted as nonsignificant (8.12%) of the overall variation. According to our expectation the wild Iranian birds showed higher genetic diversity value than the Azerbaijan captive birds. As general conclusion, two pheasant populations have almost same genetic origin and probably are subpopulations of one population. The data reported herein could open the opportunity to search for suitable conservation strategy to improve richness of Iran biodiversity and present study here was the first report that might have significant impact on the breeding and conservation program of Iranian pheasant gene pool. Analyses using more regions, more birds, and more DNA markers will be useful to confirm or to reject these findings. PMID:23002388

  16. [Genetic variability of Siberian fir (Abies sibirica Ledeb.) inferred from AFLP markers].

    PubMed

    Semerikova, S A; Semerikov, V L

    2011-02-01

    Genetic variability of AFLP markers was studied in 20 populations of Siberian fir (Abies sibirica (Pinaceae) and in two populations of Far-Eastern Manchurian fir A. nephrolepis and Sakhalin fir A. sachalinensis each. Four pairs of selective primers were used. In total, 168 samples from three fir species were genotyped for 117 polymorphic loci. According to the AMOVA results, the variability proportion characterizing the differences between three Abies species was several times higher (F(CT) = 0.53) than that accounting for among-population differences within the species (F(SC) = 0.125). Differentiation of the A. sibirica populations based on AFLP markers exceeded 14% (F(ST) = 0.141). Significant correlation between the genetic distances calculated from the AFLP data and the geographic distances between populations was found. The results of AFLP variability analysis supported and supplemented the conclusions inferred previously from allozyme and cpSSR data: several genetically similar geographic groups of Siberian fir were identified. These groups differ both in allele frequencies and in the levels of genetic variation. PMID:21516799

  17. Evaluation of genetically modified sugarcane lines carrying Cry 1AC gene using molecular marker techniques.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Roba M

    2013-01-01

    Five genetically modified insect resistant sugarcane lines harboring the Bt Cry 1AC gene to produce insecticidal proteins were compared with non-transgenic control by using three types of molecular marker techniques namely, RAPD, ISSR and AFLP. These techniques were applied on transgenic and non-transgenic plants to investigate the genetic variations, which may appear in sugarcane clones. This variation might demonstrate the genomic changes associated with the transformation process, which could change important molecular basis of various biological phenomena. Genetic variations were screened using 22 different RAPD primers, 10 ISSR primers and 13 AFLP primer combinations. Analysis of RAPD and ISSR banding patterns gave no exclusive evidence for genetic variations. Meanwhile, the percentage of polymorphic bands was 0.45% in each of RAPD and ISSR, while the polymorphism generated by AFLP analysis was 1.8%. The maximum percentage of polymorphic bands was 1.4%, 1.1% and 5.5% in RAPD, ISSR and AFLP, respectively. These results demonstrate that most transgenic lines showed genomic homogeneity and verified minor genomic changes. Dendrograms revealing the relationships among the transgenic and control plants were developed from the data of each of the three marker types. PMID:23549345

  18. Analysis of the transcriptome of Panax notoginseng root uncovers putative triterpene saponin-biosynthetic genes and genetic markers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Panax notoginseng (Burk) F.H. Chen is important medicinal plant of the Araliacease family. Triterpene saponins are the bioactive constituents in P. notoginseng. However, available genomic information regarding this plant is limited. Moreover, details of triterpene saponin biosynthesis in the Panax species are largely unknown. Results Using the 454 pyrosequencing technology, a one-quarter GS FLX titanium run resulted in 188,185 reads with an average length of 410 bases for P. notoginseng root. These reads were processed and assembled by 454 GS De Novo Assembler software into 30,852 unique sequences. A total of 70.2% of unique sequences were annotated by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) similarity searches against public sequence databases. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) assignment discovered 41 unique sequences representing 11 genes involved in triterpene saponin backbone biosynthesis in the 454-EST dataset. In particular, the transcript encoding dammarenediol synthase (DS), which is the first committed enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of major triterpene saponins, is highly expressed in the root of four-year-old P. notoginseng. It is worth emphasizing that the candidate cytochrome P450 (Pn02132 and Pn00158) and UDP-glycosyltransferase (Pn00082) gene most likely to be involved in hydroxylation or glycosylation of aglycones for triterpene saponin biosynthesis were discovered from 174 cytochrome P450s and 242 glycosyltransferases by phylogenetic analysis, respectively. Putative transcription factors were detected in 906 unique sequences, including Myb, homeobox, WRKY, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), and other family proteins. Additionally, a total of 2,772 simple sequence repeat (SSR) were identified from 2,361 unique sequences, of which, di-nucleotide motifs were the most abundant motif. Conclusion This study is the first to present a large-scale EST dataset for P. notoginseng root acquired by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. The candidate genes involved in triterpene saponin biosynthesis, including the putative CYP450s and UGTs, were obtained in this study. Additionally, the identification of SSRs provided plenty of genetic makers for molecular breeding and genetics applications in this species. These data will provide information on gene discovery, transcriptional regulation and marker-assisted selection for P. notoginseng. The dataset establishes an important foundation for the study with the purpose of ensuring adequate drug resources for this species. PMID:22369100

  19. Exploring the Distribution of Genetic Markers of Pharmacogenomics Relevance in Brazilian and Mexican Populations

    PubMed Central

    Bonifaz-Peña, Vania; Contreras, Alejandra V.; Struchiner, Claudio Jose; Roela, Rosimeire A.; Furuya-Mazzotti, Tatiane K.; Chammas, Roger; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Gómez-Vázquez, María José; McLeod, Howard L.; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Studies of pharmacogenomics-related traits are increasingly being performed to identify loci that affect either drug response or susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. However, the effect of the polymorphisms can differ in magnitude or be absent depending on the population being assessed. We used the Affymetrix Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters (DMET) Plus array to characterize the distribution of polymorphisms of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics (PGx) relevance in two samples from the most populous Latin American countries, Brazil and Mexico. The sample from Brazil included 268 individuals from the southeastern state of Rio de Janeiro, and was stratified into census categories. The sample from Mexico comprised 45 Native American Zapotecas and 224 self-identified Mestizo individuals from 5 states located in geographically distant regions in Mexico. We evaluated the admixture proportions in the Brazilian and Mexican samples using a panel of Ancestry Informative Markers extracted from the DMET array, which was validated with genome-wide data. A substantial variation in ancestral proportions across census categories in Brazil, and geographic regions in Mexico was identified. We evaluated the extent of genetic differentiation (measured as FST values) of the genetic markers of the DMET Plus array between the relevant parental populations. Although the average levels of genetic differentiation are low, there is a long tail of markers showing large frequency differences, including markers located in genes belonging to the Cytochrome P450, Solute Carrier (SLC) and UDP-glucuronyltransferase (UGT) families as well as other genes of PGx relevance such as ABCC8, ADH1A, CHST3, PON1, PPARD, PPARG, and VKORC1. We show how differences in admixture history may have an important impact in the distribution of allele and genotype frequencies at the population level. PMID:25419701

  20. Analysis of genetic relationship in mutant silkworm strains of Bombyx mori using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers.

    PubMed

    Velu, Dhanikachalam; Ponnuvel, Kangayam M; Muthulakshmi, Murugiah; Sinha, Randhir K; Qadri, Syed M H

    2008-05-01

    Amplified inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers were used to determine genetic relationships among mutant silkworm strains of Bombyx mori. Fifteen ISSR primers containing simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs were used in this study. A total of 113 markers were produced among 20 mutant strains, of which 73.45% were found to be polymorphic. In selected mutant genetic stocks, the average number of observed allele was (1.7080+/-0.4567), effective alleles (1.5194+/-0.3950) and genetic diversity (Ht) (0.2901+/-0.0415). The dendrogram produced using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic means (UPGMA) and cluster analysis made using Nei's genetic distance resulted in the formation of one major group containing 6 groups separated 20 mutant silkworm strains. Therefore, ISSR amplification is a valuable method for determining the genetic variability among mutant silkworm strains. This efficient molecular marker would be useful for characterizing a considerable number of silkworm strains maintained at the germplasm center. PMID:18499073

  1. [Analysis of genetic structure in population of Larix kaempferi by chloroplast SSR markers].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Ye; Shiraishi, S; Huang, Min-Ren

    2004-07-01

    Genetic structure of seven populations in Larix kaempferi in Japan was studied by use of cpSSR markers. Ten different length fragments in and ten different kinds of haplotypes were reduced in 197 samples based on 3 pairs of polymorphic primers screened from 11 pairs of primers. There were significant variant haplotypes among the populations. The genetic variation in the populations of Larix kaempferi was detected by using cpSSR with the number of average loci A=3.33, the number of average efficient loci NE=1.20, gene diversity HE=0.17 and 5.37% variation from different populations. The genetic variation was mainly from individuals in population. PMID:15640046

  2. Population genetic diversity in Chinese pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars revealed by fluorescent-AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhaohe; Yin, Yanlei; Qu, Jianlu; Zhu, Liqin; Li, Yun

    2007-12-01

    Eighty-five pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars from six geographical populations located at Shandong, Anhui, Shaanxi, Henan, Yunnan, and Xinjiang Provinces were studied for its population genetic diversity by means of fluorescent-AFLP markers. The results indicated that 135-185 polymorphic loci were amplified by eight pairs of primers at species level. An average of 158.25 polymorphic loci was amplified for each primer combination. The polymorphism percentage ranged from 62.5% to 86.11%, and the average polymorphism percentage was 73.26%. This indicated that there was plentiful genetic diversity in pomegranate cultivars. The genetic diversity at the species level was higher than that at the population level. The order of the genetic diversity was Henan population > Xinjiang population > Shaanxi population > Anhui population > Shandong population > Yunnan population. Variance analysis showed that there was significant difference between populations in genetic diversity. The genetic differentiation coefficient between populations (G(ST)) was 0.2018, which indicated that gene differentiation was mainly within the population, and between populations, it accounted for 20.18% of the total variation. Gene flow (Nm) between the populations measured was 1.9027 based on the genetic differentiation coefficient between populations, indicating that there was mild gene flow between populations. The UPGMA cluster analysis showed that most accessions from the same population were clustered together, but there was partly gene exchange. All genetic parameters indicated that there was plentiful genetic diversity in pomegranate cultivars in China, of which Henan population was significantly higher than the other populations, and it had wide application foreground in pomegranate breeding in China. PMID:18155618

  3. Molecular profiling for genetic variability in Capsicum species based on ISSR and RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Thul, Sanjog T; Darokar, Mahendra P; Shasany, Ajit K; Khanuja, Suman P S

    2012-06-01

    The taxonomic identity of Capsicum species is found to be difficult as it displays variations at morpho-chemical characters. Twenty-two accessions of six Capsicum species, namely, C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. eximium, C. frutescens, and C. luteum were investigated for phenotypic diversity based on flower color and for genetic differences by molecular makers. The genetic cluster analyses of 27 RAPD and eight ISSR primers, respectively, revealed genetic similarities in the ranges of 23-88% and 11-96%. Principal component analysis of the pooled RAPD and ISSR data further supports the genetic similarity and groupings. Different species showed variations in relation to corolla shade of flower. C. annuum accessions formed a single cluster in the molecular analysis as maintaining their flower characteristic. C. chinense accession shared flower features with the accessions of C. frutescens and were found to be closer at genotypic level. C. luteum was found to be rather closer to C. baccatum complex, both phenotypically and genetically. The only accession of C. eximium presenting purple flowers falls apart from the groupings. The floral characteristics and the molecular markers are found to be useful toward the delineation of the species specificity in Capsicum collection and identification of genetic stock. PMID:21861246

  4. Estimating black bear population density and genetic diversity at Tensas River, Louisiana using microsatellite DNA markers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boersen, M.R.; Clark, J.D.; King, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    The Recovery Plan for the federally threatened Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus) mandates that remnant populations be estimated and monitored. In 1999 we obtained genetic material with barbed-wire hair traps to estimate bear population size and genetic diversity at the 329-km2 Tensas River Tract, Louisiana. We constructed and monitored 122 hair traps, which produced 1,939 hair samples. Of those, we randomly selected 116 subsamples for genetic analysis and used up to 12 microsatellite DNA markers to obtain multilocus genotypes for 58 individuals. We used Program CAPTURE to compute estimates of population size using multiple mark-recapture models. The area of study was almost entirely circumscribed by agricultural land, thus the population was geographically closed. Also, study-area boundaries were biologically discreet, enabling us to accurately estimate population density. Using model Chao Mh to account for possible effects of individual heterogeneity in capture probabilities, we estimated the population size to be 119 (SE=29.4) bears, or 0.36 bears/km2. We were forced to examine a substantial number of loci to differentiate between some individuals because of low genetic variation. Despite the probable introduction of genes from Minnesota bears in the 1960s, the isolated population at Tensas exhibited characteristics consistent with inbreeding and genetic drift. Consequently, the effective population size at Tensas may be as few as 32, which warrants continued monitoring or possibly genetic augmentation.

  5. Novel Genetic Markers Associate with Atrial Fibrillation Risk in Europeans and Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sunil K.; Bis, Joshua C.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Chen, Lin Y.; Everett, Brendan M.; Ford, Ian; Franco, Oscar H.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hofman, Albert; Kääb, Stefan; Mahida, Saagar; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kubo, Michiaki; Launer, Lenore J.; MacFarlane, Peter W.; Magnani, Jared W.; McKnight, Barbara; McManus, David D.; Peters, Annette; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rose, Lynda M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Silbernagel, Guenther; Smith, Jonathan D.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Stott, David J.; Taylor, Kent D.; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Van Wagoner, David R.; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify non-redundant atrial fibrillation (AF) genetic susceptibility signals and examine their cumulative relations with AF risk. Background AF-associated loci span broad genomic regions that may contain multiple susceptibility signals. Whether multiple signals exist at AF loci has not been systematically explored. Methods We performed association testing conditioned on the most significant, independently associated genetic markers at nine established AF loci using two complementary techniques in 64,683 individuals of European ancestry (3,869 incident and 3,302 prevalent AF cases). Genetic risk scores were created and tested for association with AF in Europeans and an independent sample of 11,309 individuals of Japanese ancestry (7,916 prevalent AF cases). Results We observed at least four distinct AF susceptibility signals on chromosome 4q25 upstream of PITX2, but not at the remaining eight AF loci. A multilocus score comprised of 12 genetic markers demonstrated an estimated 5-fold gradient in AF risk. We observed a similar spectrum of risk associated with these markers in Japanese. Regions containing AF signals on chromosome 4q25 displayed a greater degree of evolutionary conservation than the remainder of the locus, suggesting that they may tag regulatory elements. Conclusions The chromosome 4q25 AF locus is architecturally complex and harbors at least four AF susceptibility signals in individuals of European ancestry. Similar polygenic AF susceptibility exists between Europeans and Japanese. Future work is necessary to identify causal variants, determine mechanisms by which associated loci predispose to AF, and explore whether AF susceptibility signals classify individuals at risk for AF and related morbidity. PMID:24486271

  6. A population genetics study of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia based on random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction and amplified fragment lenght polymorphism markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ranulfo González; Richard Wilkerson; Marco Fidel Suárez; Felipe García; Gerardo Gallego; Heiber Cárdenas; Carmen Elisa Posso; Myriam Cristina Duque

    2007-01-01

    The genetic variation and population structure of three populations of Anopheles darlingi from Colombia were studied using random amplified polymorphic markers (RAPDs) and amplified fragment length polymor- phism markers (AFLPs). Six RAPD primers produced 46 polymorphic fragments, while two AFLP primer com- binations produced 197 polymorphic fragments from 71 DNA samples. Both of the evaluated genetic markers showed the presence

  7. Population genetics of the yellow fever mosquito in Trinidad: comparisons of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Yan; J. Romero-Severson; M. Walton; D. D. CHADEEand; D. W. Severson

    1999-01-01

    Recent development of DNA markers provides powerful tools for population genetic analyses. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers result from a poly- merase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA fingerprinting technique that can detect multiple restriction fragments in a single polyacrylamide gel, and thus are potentially useful for population genetic studies. Because AFLP markers have to be analysed as dominant loci in

  8. Comparison of short tandem repeat and variable number tandem repeat genetic markers for quantitative determination of allogeneic bone marrow transplant engraftment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SA Schichman; P Suess; AM Vertino; PS Gray

    2002-01-01

    Variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) were among the first genetic markers used to quantitate bone marrow transplant engraftment. The limitations of PCR-based VNTR markers in distinguishing some donor\\/recipient pairs has shown the need for additional genetic markers to analyze engraftment. Short tandem repeats (STRs) provide an excellent tool for this purpose because of their high degree of polymorphism and relatively

  9. A DArT marker genetic map of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) integrated with detailed comparative mapping information; comparison with existing DArT marker genetic maps of Lolium perenne, L. multiflorum and Festuca pratensis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ryegrasses and fescues (genera, Lolium and Festuca) are species of forage and turf grasses which are used widely in agricultural and amenity situations. They are classified within the sub-family Pooideae and so are closely related to Brachypodium distachyon, wheat, barley, rye and oats. Recently, a DArT array has been developed which can be used in generating marker and mapping information for ryegrasses and fescues. This represents a potential common marker set for ryegrass and fescue researchers which can be linked through to comparative genomic information for the grasses. Results A F2 perennial ryegrass genetic map was developed consisting of 7 linkage groups defined by 1316 markers and deriving a total map length of 683 cM. The marker set included 866 DArT and 315 gene sequence-based markers. Comparison with previous DArT mapping studies in perennial and Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) identified 87 and 105 DArT markers in common, respectively, of which 94% and 87% mapped to homoeologous linkage groups. A similar comparison with meadow fescue (F. pratensis) identified only 28 DArT markers in common, of which c. 50% mapped to non-homoelogous linkage groups. In L. perenne, the genetic distance spanned by the DArT markers encompassed the majority of the regions that could be described in terms of comparative genomic relationships with rice, Brachypodium distachyon, and Sorghum bicolor. Conclusions DArT markers are likely to be a useful common marker resource for ryegrasses and fescues, though the success in aligning different populations through the mapping of common markers will be influenced by degrees of population interrelatedness. The detailed mapping of DArT and gene-based markers in this study potentially allows comparative relationships to be derived in future mapping populations characterised using solely DArT markers. PMID:23819624

  10. Genetic and environmental variances of bone microarchitecture and bone remodeling markers: a twin study.

    PubMed

    Bjørnerem, Åshild; Bui, Minh; Wang, Xiaofang; Ghasem-Zadeh, Ali; Hopper, John L; Zebaze, Roger; Seeman, Ego

    2015-03-01

    All genetic and environmental factors contributing to differences in bone structure between individuals mediate their effects through the final common cellular pathway of bone modeling and remodeling. We hypothesized that genetic factors account for most of the population variance of cortical and trabecular microstructure, in particular intracortical porosity and medullary size - void volumes (porosity), which establish the internal bone surface areas or interfaces upon which modeling and remodeling deposit or remove bone to configure bone microarchitecture. Microarchitecture of the distal tibia and distal radius and remodeling markers were measured for 95 monozygotic (MZ) and 66 dizygotic (DZ) white female twin pairs aged 40 to 61 years. Images obtained using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography were analyzed using StrAx1.0, a nonthreshold-based software that quantifies cortical matrix and porosity. Genetic and environmental components of variance were estimated under the assumptions of the classic twin model. The data were consistent with the proportion of variance accounted for by genetic factors being: 72% to 81% (standard errors ?18%) for the distal tibial total, cortical, and medullary cross-sectional area (CSA); 67% and 61% for total cortical porosity, before and after adjusting for total CSA, respectively; 51% for trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD; all p?genetic factors accounted for 47% to 68% of the variance (all p ? 0.001). Cross-twin cross-trait correlations between tibial cortical porosity and medullary CSA were higher for MZ (rMZ ?=?0.49) than DZ (rDZ ?=?0.27) pairs before (p?=?0.024), but not after (p?=?0.258), adjusting for total CSA. For the remodeling markers, the data were consistent with genetic factors accounting for 55% to 62% of the variance. We infer that middle-aged women differ in their bone microarchitecture and remodeling markers more because of differences in their genetic factors than differences in their environment. PMID:25407438

  11. Comparison of AFLP and SAMPL markers for assessment of intra-population genetic variation in Azadirachta indica A. Juss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Singh; A Chaudhury; P. S Srivastava; M Lakshmikumaran

    2002-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is an important tropical tree species with a number of medicinal and biopesticidal properties. In the present work, the extent of intra-population genetic variation was evaluated in neem accessions growing in district Kanpur (UP), India, along with two exotic accessions. Two PCR-based markers namely, AFLP and SAMPL were employed to measure the genetic variation. The relative efficiencies

  12. The Longue Durée of Genetic Ancestry: Multiple Genetic Marker Systems and Celtic Origins on the Atlantic Facade of Europe

    PubMed Central

    McEvoy, Brian; Richards, Martin; Forster, Peter; Bradley, Daniel G.

    2004-01-01

    Celtic languages are now spoken only on the Atlantic facade of Europe, mainly in Britain and Ireland, but were spoken more widely in western and central Europe until the collapse of the Roman Empire in the first millennium a.d. It has been common to couple archaeological evidence for the expansion of Iron Age elites in central Europe with the dispersal of these languages and of Celtic ethnicity and to posit a central European “homeland” for the Celtic peoples. More recently, however, archaeologists have questioned this “migrationist” view of Celtic ethnogenesis. The proposition of a central European ancestry should be testable by examining the distribution of genetic markers; however, although Y-chromosome patterns in Atlantic Europe show little evidence of central European influence, there has hitherto been insufficient data to confirm this by use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Here, we present both new mtDNA data from Ireland and a novel analysis of a greatly enlarged European mtDNA database. We show that mtDNA lineages, when analyzed in sufficiently large numbers, display patterns significantly similar to a large fraction of both Y-chromosome and autosomal variation. These multiple genetic marker systems indicate a shared ancestry throughout the Atlantic zone, from northern Iberia to western Scandinavia, that dates back to the end of the last Ice Age. PMID:15309688

  13. Tuscany autochthonous cattle breeds: an original genetic resource investigated by AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    Negrini, R; Milanesi, E; Bozzi, R; Pellecchia, M; Ajmone-Marsan, P

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the genetic diversity of four autochthonous cattle breeds of Tuscany and their relationships in comparison with Italian Friesian and Italian Brown, using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. A total of 212 individuals were genotyped with three primer combinations generating 102 polymorphic markers. Average expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.23 in Mucca Pisana to 0.26 in Chianina, Italian Friesian, Italian Brown and Maremmana. The differences resulted not significant (Kruskall-Wallis test, p = 0.416). Gst-B index revealed that 86% of the total genetic variance is retained within population and only 14% is accounted by the between populations component. Multivariate analysis at individual and population level indicated that: (i) Calvana and Chianina are quite separate from the other breeds as an effect of the bottleneck experienced or as a signature of different origin; (ii) Podolian, Maremmana and Italian Brown clustered with the double purpose Mucca Pisana, revealing their contribution to its admixed genetic make up; (iii) Italian Friesian behaved always as out group. The 'analysis of molecular variance' recovered a significant subdivision clustering the six populations into three groups: Italian Friesian and Italian Brown versus Maremmana and Mucca Pisana versus Chianina and Calvana (6% of the total variance). PMID:16420260

  14. Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) Using ISSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Farsani, Tayebeh Mohammadi; Etemadi, Nematollah; Sayed-Tabatabaei, Badraldin Ebrahim; Talebi, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) is a major turfgrass for home lawns, public parks, golf courses and sport fields and is known to have originated in the Middle East. Morphological and physiological characteristics are not sufficient to differentiate some bermudagrass genotypes because the differences between them are often subtle and subjected to environmental influences. In this study, twenty seven bermudagrass accessions and introductions, mostly from different parts of Iran, were assayed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers to differentiate and explore their genetic relationships. Fourteen ISSR primers amplified 389 fragments of which 313 (80.5%) were polymorphic. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.328, which shows that the majority of primers are informative. Cluster analysis using the un-weighted paired group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) method and Jaccard’s similarity coefficient (r = 0.828) grouped the accessions into six main clusters according to some degree to geographical origin, their chromosome number and some morphological characteristics. It can be concluded that there exists a wide genetic base of bermudograss in Iran and that ISSR markers are effective in determining genetic diversity and relationships among them. PMID:22312259

  15. Novel Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers Reveal Genetic Differentiation between Two Sympatric Types of Galaxea fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Yuichi; Shinzato, Chuya; Satoh, Noriyuki; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The reef-building, scleractinian coral, Galaxea fascicularis, is classified into soft and hard types, based on nematocyst morphology. This character is correlated with the length of the mitochondrial non-coding region (mt-Long: soft colony type, and nematocysts with wide capsules and long shafts; mt-Short: hard colony type, and nematocysts with thin capsules and short shafts). We isolated and characterized novel polymorphic microsatellite markers for G. fascicularis using next-generation sequencing. Based upon the mitochondrial non-coding region, 53 of the 97 colonies collected were mt-Long (mt-L) and 44 were mt-Short (mt-S). Among the 53 mt-L colonies, 27 loci were identified as amplifiable, polymorphic microsatellite loci, devoid of somatic mutations and free of scoring errors. Eleven of those 27 loci were also amplifiable and polymorphic in the 44 mt-S colonies; these 11 are cross-type microsatellite loci. The other 16 loci were considered useful only for mt-L colonies. These 27 loci identified 10 multilocus lineages (MLLs) among the 53 mt-L colonies (NMLL/N = 0.189), and the 11 cross-type loci identified 7 MLLs in 44 mt-S colonies (NMLL/N = 0.159). Significant genetic differentiation between the two types was detected based on the genetic differentiation index (FST = 0.080, P = 0.001). Bayesian clustering also indicated that these two types are genetically isolated. While nuclear microsatellite genotypes also showed genetic differentiation between mitochondrial types, the mechanism of divergence is not yet clear. These markers will be useful to estimate genetic diversity, differentiation, and connectivity among populations, and to understand evolutionary processes, including divergence of types in G. fascicularis. PMID:26147677

  16. Novel Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers Reveal Genetic Differentiation between Two Sympatric Types of Galaxea fascicularis.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yuichi; Shinzato, Chuya; Satoh, Noriyuki; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The reef-building, scleractinian coral, Galaxea fascicularis, is classified into soft and hard types, based on nematocyst morphology. This character is correlated with the length of the mitochondrial non-coding region (mt-Long: soft colony type, and nematocysts with wide capsules and long shafts; mt-Short: hard colony type, and nematocysts with thin capsules and short shafts). We isolated and characterized novel polymorphic microsatellite markers for G. fascicularis using next-generation sequencing. Based upon the mitochondrial non-coding region, 53 of the 97 colonies collected were mt-Long (mt-L) and 44 were mt-Short (mt-S). Among the 53 mt-L colonies, 27 loci were identified as amplifiable, polymorphic microsatellite loci, devoid of somatic mutations and free of scoring errors. Eleven of those 27 loci were also amplifiable and polymorphic in the 44 mt-S colonies; these 11 are cross-type microsatellite loci. The other 16 loci were considered useful only for mt-L colonies. These 27 loci identified 10 multilocus lineages (MLLs) among the 53 mt-L colonies (NMLL/N = 0.189), and the 11 cross-type loci identified 7 MLLs in 44 mt-S colonies (NMLL/N = 0.159). Significant genetic differentiation between the two types was detected based on the genetic differentiation index (FST = 0.080, P = 0.001). Bayesian clustering also indicated that these two types are genetically isolated. While nuclear microsatellite genotypes also showed genetic differentiation between mitochondrial types, the mechanism of divergence is not yet clear. These markers will be useful to estimate genetic diversity, differentiation, and connectivity among populations, and to understand evolutionary processes, including divergence of types in G. fascicularis. PMID:26147677

  17. Unique Features of High-Density Lipoproteins in the Japanese: In Population and in Genetic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Despite its gradual increase in the past several decades, the prevalence of atherosclerotic vascular disease is low in Japan. This is largely attributed to difference in lifestyle, especially food and dietary habits, and it may be reflected in certain clinical parameters. Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, a strong counter risk for atherosclerosis, are indeed high among the Japanese. Accordingly, lower HDL seems to contribute more to the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) than an increase in non-HDL lipoproteins at a population level in Japan. Interestingly, average HDL levels in Japan have increased further in the past two decades, and are markedly higher than in Western populations. The reasons and consequences for public health of this increase are still unknown. Simulation for the efficacy of raising HDL cholesterol predicts a decrease in CHD of 70% in Japan, greater than the extent by reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol predicted by simulation or achieved in a statin trial. On the other hand, a substantial portion of hyperalphalipoproteinemic population in Japan is accounted for by genetic deficiency of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), which is also commonly unique in East Asian populations. It is still controversial whether CETP mutations are antiatherogenic. Hepatic Schistosomiasis is proposed as a potential screening factor for historic accumulation of CETP deficiency in East Asia. PMID:25849946

  18. Identification of genetically diverse genotypes for photoperiod insensitivity in soybean using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Singh, R K; Bhatia, V S; Yadav, Sanjeev; Athale, Rashmi; Lakshmi, N; Guruprasad, K N; Chauhan, G S

    2008-10-01

    Most of the Indian soybean varieties were found to be highly sensitive to photoperiod, which limits their cultivation in only localized area. Identification of genetically diverse source of photoperiod insensitive would help to broaden the genetic base for this trait. Present study was undertaken with RAPD markers for genetic diversity estimation in 44 accessions of soybean differing in response to photoperiod sensitivity. The selected twenty-five RAPD primers produced a total of 199 amplicons, which generated 89.9 % polymorphism. The number of amplification products ranged from 2 to 13 for different primers. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.0 for monomorphic loci to 0.5 with an average of 0.289. Genetic diversity between pairs of genotypes was 37.7% with a range of 3.9 to 71.6%. UPGMA cluster analysis placed all the accessions of soybean into four major clusters. No discernable geographical patterns were observed in clustering however; the smaller groups corresponded well with pedigree. Mantel's test (r = 0.915) indicates very good fit for clustering pattern. Two genotypes, MACS 330 and 111/2/1939 made a very divergent group from other accessions of soybean and highly photoperiod insensitive that may be potential source for broadening the genetic base of soybean for this trait. PMID:23572904

  19. Genetic diversity analysis of sugarcane parents in Chinese breeding programmes using gSSR markers.

    PubMed

    You, Qian; Xu, Liping; Zheng, Yifeng; Que, Youxiong

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane is the most important sugar and bioenergy crop in the world. The selection and combination of parents for crossing rely on an understanding of their genetic structures and molecular diversity. In the present study, 115 sugarcane genotypes used for parental crossing were genotyped based on five genomic simple sequence repeat marker (gSSR) loci and 88 polymorphic alleles of loci (100%) as detected by capillary electrophoresis. The values of genetic diversity parameters across the populations indicate that the genetic variation intrapopulation (90.5%) was much larger than that of interpopulation (9.5%). Cluster analysis revealed that there were three groups termed as groups I, II, and III within the 115 genotypes. The genotypes released by each breeding programme showed closer genetic relationships, except the YC series released by Hainan sugarcane breeding station. Using principle component analysis (PCA), the first and second principal components accounted for a cumulative 76% of the total variances, in which 43% were for common parents and 33% were for new parents, respectively. The knowledge obtained in this study should be useful to future breeding programs for increasing genetic diversity of sugarcane varieties and cultivars to meet the demand of sugarcane cultivation for sugar and bioenergy use. PMID:23990759

  20. Genetic linkage analysis of schizophrenia using chromosome 11q13-24 markers in Israeli pedigrees

    SciTech Connect

    Mulcrone, J.; Marchblanks, R.; Whatley, S.A. [Institute of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-04-24

    It is generally agreed that there is a genetic component in the etiology of schizophrenia which may be tested by the application of linkage analysis to multiply-affected families. One genetic region of interest is the long arm of chromosome 11 because of previously reported associations of genetic variation in this region with schizophrenia, and because of the fact that it contains the locus for the dopamine D2 receptor gene. In this study we have examined the segregation of schizophrenia with microsatellite dinucleotide repeat DNA markers along chromosome 11q in 5 Israeli families multiply-affected for schizophrenia. The hypothesis of linkage under genetic homogeneity of causation was tested under a number of genetic models. Linkage analysis provided no evidence for significant causal mutations within the region bounded by INT and D11S420 on chromosome 11q. It is still possible, however, that a gene of major effect exists in this region, either with low penetrance or with heterogeneity. 32 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Genetic Diversity Analysis of Sugarcane Parents in Chinese Breeding Programmes Using gSSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    You, Qian; Xu, Liping; Zheng, Yifeng; Que, Youxiong

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane is the most important sugar and bioenergy crop in the world. The selection and combination of parents for crossing rely on an understanding of their genetic structures and molecular diversity. In the present study, 115 sugarcane genotypes used for parental crossing were genotyped based on five genomic simple sequence repeat marker (gSSR) loci and 88 polymorphic alleles of loci (100%) as detected by capillary electrophoresis. The values of genetic diversity parameters across the populations indicate that the genetic variation intrapopulation (90.5%) was much larger than that of interpopulation (9.5%). Cluster analysis revealed that there were three groups termed as groups I, II, and III within the 115 genotypes. The genotypes released by each breeding programme showed closer genetic relationships, except the YC series released by Hainan sugarcane breeding station. Using principle component analysis (PCA), the first and second principal components accounted for a cumulative 76% of the total variances, in which 43% were for common parents and 33% were for new parents, respectively. The knowledge obtained in this study should be useful to future breeding programs for increasing genetic diversity of sugarcane varieties and cultivars to meet the demand of sugarcane cultivation for sugar and bioenergy use. PMID:23990759

  2. [Genetic diversity analysis of natural groups of Lilium sargentiae by SRAP markers].

    PubMed

    Zhi, Li; Teng, Zhonghua; Liu, Xu; Li, Mingyang

    2011-07-01

    Genetic diversity of Lilium sargentiae was detected in this paper by sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) marker. One hundred wild samples were collected from 10 places, and 15 SRAP primer combinations were used for determination. NTSYS-pc2.1 and POPGEN1.32 were used for data analysis. The results showed that a total of 170 clear DNA bands were amplified, 163 of which were polymorphic. The proportion of polymorphic loci was 90.58% on the level of species. Nei's (1973) gene diversity (H) was 0.2631, Shannon's Information index was 0.3661, the G(st), was 0.3672, and the genetic distance ranged from 0.2021 to 0.5749. All materials could be clustered into four groups by UPGMA. The results demonstrated that the genetic diversity of L. sargentiae was rich on the level of species, and the genetic diversity within populations exceeded among populations. The correlations of genetic diversity and distribution were significant in L. sargentiae. PMID:22016960

  3. Borrelia burgdorferi Genetic Markers and Disseminated Disease in Patients with Early Lyme Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kathryn L.; Glickstein, Lisa J.; Damle, Nitin; Sikand, Vijay K.; McHugh, Gail; Steere, Allen C.

    2006-01-01

    Three genetic markers of Borrelia burgdorferi have been associated with disseminated disease: the OspC type, the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer type (RST), and vlsE. Here, we modified previous methods so as to identify the three markers by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism in parallel, analyzed B. burgdorferi isolates from erythema migrans (EM) skin lesions in 91 patients, and correlated the results with evidence of dissemination. OspC type A was found approximately twice as frequently in patients with disseminated disease, whereas type K was identified approximately twice as often in those without evidence of dissemination, but these trends were not statistically significant. The remaining seven types identified were found nearly equally in patients with or without evidence of dissemination. RST 1 strains were significantly associated with dissemination (P = 0.03), whereas RST 2 and RST 3 strains tended to have an inverse association with this outcome. The vlsE gene was identified in all 91 cases, using primer sets specific for an N-terminal sequence of B. burgdorferi strain B31 (vlsEB31) or strain 297 (vlsE297), but neither marker was associated with dissemination. Specific combinations of the three genetic markers usually occurred together. OspC type A was always found with RST 1 and vlsEB31, type K was always identified with RST 2 and more often with vlsE297, and types E and I were almost always found with RST 3 and equally often with vlsEB31 and vlsE297. We conclude that B. burgdorferi strains vary in their capacity to disseminate, but almost all strains isolated from EM lesions sometimes caused disseminated disease. PMID:17035489

  4. Genetic molecular analysis of Coffea arabica (Rubiaceae) hybrids using SRAP markers.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Manoj Kumar; Suresh, Narayana; Bhat, Asha M; Suryaprakash, Nayani; Kumar, Saya Satheesh; Kumar, Anil; Jayarama

    2011-06-01

    In Coffea arabica (arabica coffee), the phenotypic as well as genetic variability has been found low because of the narrow genetic basis and self fertile nature of the species. Because of high similarity in phenotypic appearance among the majority of arabica collections, selection of parental lines for inter-varietals hybridization and identification of resultant hybrids at an early stage of plant growth is difficult. DNA markers are known to be reliable in identifying closely related cultivars and hybrids. Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) is a new molecular marker technology developed based on PCR. In this paper, sixty arabica-hybrid progenies belonging to six crosses were analyzed using 31 highly polymorphic SRAP markers. The analysis revealed seven types of SRAP marker profiles which are useful in discriminating the parents and hybrids. The number of bands amplified per primer pair ranges from 6.13 to 8.58 with average number of seven bands. Among six hybrid combinations, percentage of bands shared between hybrids and their parents ranged from 66.29% to 85.71% with polymorphic bands varied from 27.64% to 60.0%. Percentage of hybrid specific fragments obtained in various hybrid combinations ranged from 0.71% to 10.86% and ascribed to the consequence of meiotic recombination. Based on the similarity index calculation, it was observed that F1 hybrids share maximum number of bands with the female parent compared to male parent. The results obtained in the present study revealed the effectiveness of SRAP technique in cultivar identification and hybrid analysis in this coffee species. PMID:21717853

  5. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers reveal genetic homogeneity in the endangered Himalayan species Meconopsis paniculata and M. simplicifolia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irshad M. Sulaiman; Seyed E. Hasnain

    1996-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker-based analysis was carried out to study the extent of genetic polymorphism between populations of the two endangered Himalayan poppy species, Meconopsis paniculata and M. Simplicifolia. Of the 90 primers tested, 38 revealed marked inter-species genetic polymorphism between individuals of the two species from geographically isolated populations. However, intra-species genetic homogeneity was also evident with

  6. The peopling of Greenland: further insights from the analysis of genetic diversity using autosomal and X-chromosomal markers.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Vania; Tomas, Carmen; Sanchez, Juan J; Syndercombe-Court, Denise; Amorim, António; Gusmão, Leonor; Prata, Maria João; Morling, Niels

    2015-02-01

    The peopling of Greenland has a complex history shaped by population migrations, isolation and genetic drift. The Greenlanders present a genetic heritage with components of European and Inuit groups; previous studies using uniparentally inherited markers in Greenlanders have reported evidence of a sex-biased, admixed genetic background. This work further explores the genetics of the Greenlanders by analysing autosomal and X-chromosomal data to obtain deeper insights into the factors that shaped the genetic diversity in Greenlanders. Fourteen Greenlandic subsamples from multiple geographical settlements were compared to assess the level of genetic substructure in the Greenlandic population. The results showed low levels of genetic diversity in all sets of the genetic markers studied, together with an increased number of X-chromosomal loci in linkage disequilibrium in relation to the Danish population. In the broader context of worldwide populations, Greenlanders are remarkably different from most populations, but they are genetically closer to some Inuit groups from Alaska. Admixture analyses identified an Inuit component in the Greenlandic population of approximately 80%. The sub-populations of Ammassalik and Nanortalik are the least diverse, presenting the lowest levels of European admixture. Isolation-by-distance analyses showed that only 16% of the genetic substructure of Greenlanders is most likely to be explained by geographic barriers. We suggest that genetic drift and a differentiated settlement history around the island explain most of the genetic substructure of the population in Greenland. PMID:24801759

  7. The Black Caribs (Garifuna) of Livingston, Guatemala: Genetic Markers and Admixture Estimates

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Michael H.; Gonzalez, Nancie L.; Schanfield, M. S.; Dykes, Dale D.; Skradski, K.; Polesky, H. F.

    1981-02-01

    The Black Caribs (Garifuna) of Livingston, Guatemala: Genetic Markers and Admixture Estimates By Michael H. Crawford1, Nancie L. Gonzalez2, M. S. Schanfield3-4, Dale D. Dykes5, K. Skradski5 and H. F. Polesky5 ABSTRACT The Black Caribs (Garifuna... of approximately 3,000 inhabitants located on the north (Atlantic) coast of Guatemala near the Belize border (see Figure 1). The Black Caribs are the descendants of escaped or shipwrecked slaves and Carib Indians who inhabited the islands of St. Vincent...

  8. A framework genetic map for Miscanthus sinensis from RNAseq-based markers shows recent tetraploidy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Miscanthus (subtribe Saccharinae, tribe Andropogoneae, family Poaceae) is a genus of temperate perennial C4 grasses whose high biomass production makes it, along with its close relatives sugarcane and sorghum, attractive as a biofuel feedstock. The base chromosome number of Miscanthus (x = 19) is different from that of other Saccharinae and approximately twice that of the related Sorghum bicolor (x = 10), suggesting large-scale duplications may have occurred in recent ancestors of Miscanthus. Owing to the complexity of the Miscanthus genome and the complications of self-incompatibility, a complete genetic map with a high density of markers has not yet been developed. Results We used deep transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq) from two M. sinensis accessions to define 1536 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) for a GoldenGate™ genotyping array, and found that simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers defined in sugarcane are often informative in M. sinensis. A total of 658 SNP and 210 SSR markers were validated via segregation in a full sibling F1 mapping population. Using 221 progeny from this mapping population, we constructed a genetic map for M. sinensis that resolves into 19 linkage groups, the haploid chromosome number expected from cytological evidence. Comparative genomic analysis documents a genome-wide duplication in Miscanthus relative to Sorghum bicolor, with subsequent insertional fusion of a pair of chromosomes. The utility of the map is confirmed by the identification of two paralogous C4-pyruvate, phosphate dikinase (C4-PPDK) loci in Miscanthus, at positions syntenic to the single orthologous gene in Sorghum. Conclusions The genus Miscanthus experienced an ancestral tetraploidy and chromosome fusion prior to its diversification, but after its divergence from the closely related sugarcane clade. The recent timing of this tetraploidy complicates discovery and mapping of genetic markers for Miscanthus species, since alleles and fixed differences between paralogs are comparable. These difficulties can be overcome by careful analysis of segregation patterns in a mapping population and genotyping of doubled haploids. The genetic map for Miscanthus will be useful in biological discovery and breeding efforts to improve this emerging biofuel crop, and also provide a valuable resource for understanding genomic responses to tetraploidy and chromosome fusion. PMID:22524439

  9. Progressive influence of body mass index-associated genetic markers in rural Gambians

    PubMed Central

    Fulford, Anthony J; Ong, Ken K; Elks, Cathy E; Prentice, Andrew M; Hennig, Branwen J

    2015-01-01

    Background In populations of European ancestry, the genetic contribution to body mass index (BMI) increases with age during childhood but then declines during adulthood, possibly due to the cumulative effects of environmental factors. How the effects of genetic factors on BMI change with age in other populations is unknown. Subjects and methods In a rural Gambian population (N=2535), we used a combined allele risk score, comprising genotypes at 28 ‘Caucasian adult BMI-associated’ single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), as a marker of the genetic influence on body composition, and related this to internally-standardised z-scores for birthweight (zBW), weight-for-height (zWT-HT), weight-for-age (zWT), height-for-age (zHT), and zBMI cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results Cross-sectionally, the genetic score was positively associated with adult zWT (0.018±0.009 per allele, p=0.034, N=1426) and zWT-HT (0.025±0.009, p=0.006), but not with size at birth or childhood zWT-HT (0.008±0.005, p=0.11, N=2211). The effect of the genetic score on zWT-HT strengthened linearly with age from birth through to late adulthood (age interaction term: 0.0083 z-scores/allele/year; 95% CI 0.0048 to 0.0118, p=0.0000032). Conclusions Genetic variants for obesity in populations of European ancestry have direct relevance to bodyweight in nutritionally deprived African settings. In such settings, genetic obesity susceptibility appears to regulate change in weight status throughout the life course, which provides insight into its potential physiological role. PMID:25921383

  10. Genetic and demographic bottleneck analysis of Indian camel breeds by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sharat Chandra

    2014-12-01

    The genetic and demographic bottleneck analysis of Indian camel breeds was carried out utilizing 40 microsatellite markers. Allelic polymorphism was observed at 20 loci in the Indian dromedary breeds. A total of 66 alleles were scored. The average number of alleles, expected heterozygosity and polymorphic information content were, respectively, 3.25?±?0.27, 0.56?±?0.04 and 0.49?±?0.04 in Bikaneri; 3.25?±?0.25, 0.53?±?0.03 and 0.46?±?0.03 in Jaisalmeri; 3.0?±?0.21, 0.53?±?0.04 and 0.45?±?0.03 in Kachchhi and 3.1?±?0.19, 0.51?±?0.03 and 0.44?±?0.03 in Mewari breed. Higher genetic variation was observed in most numerous Bikaneri breed. Genetic distances were least between the breed pair Bikaneri and Jaisalmeri which was closely placed with the Kachchhi breed. The Mewari camels had relatively higher genetic distance from the other three Indian dromedary breeds. The bottleneck analysis revealed the presence of genetic bottleneck in all four breeds of Indian dromedary. However, the qualitative graphical method resulted in normal L-shaped distribution of allele frequencies in Jaisalmeri breeds and shifted mode in Bikaneri, Kachchhi and Mewari breeds. The demographic bottleneck analysis revealed minimum reduction (-9.65 %) in the population of camels in Jaisalmeri breeding tract as compared to that of Bikaneri (-14.18 %), Kachchhi (-27.78 %) and Mewari (-32 %) breeding tracts. Conclusively, the genetic bottleneck analysis could explain the demographic bottleneck in the Indian dromedary populations. Therefore, appropriate conservation and improvement efforts are needed in all four dromedary breeds with immediate attention on Mewari and Kachchhi breeds. The present study is the first report in demonstrating the genetic basis of demographic bottleneck in the Indian dromedary populations. PMID:25134805

  11. A 37-marker PCR-based genetic linkage map of human chromosome 9: Observations on mutations and positive interference

    SciTech Connect

    Zahn, L.M.; Kwiatkowski, D.J. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-07-20

    Refinement of an {open_quotes}index{close_quotes} marker genetic linkage map of human chromosome 9 using the CEPH reference pedigrees has been achieved through the addition of 11 markers to the previous map of 26 markers. Five of the 11 markers added to the map are new markers of the GATA repeat type, 1 is a complex repeat, and the remaining 5 as well as the original 26 markers are all GT/CA repeats. Twelve definite and five probable mutations were detected in this analysis and were more common for the GATA repeats than the GT/CA repeats. Strong evidence for positive interference was seen over the length of the chromosome, but there were significantly more double recombination events in the pericentromeric region than elsewhere, suggesting that interference is less strong in that region. 30 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  12. Characterization of a New Vaccinia virus Isolate Reveals the C23L Gene as a Putative Genetic Marker for Autochthonous Group 1 Brazilian Vaccinia virus

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Danilo B.; Franco-Luiz, Ana P. M.; Campos, Rafael K.; Guedes, Maria I. M.; Fonseca, Flávio G.; Trindade, Giliane S.; Drumond, Betânia P.; Kroon, Erna G.; Abrahão, Jônatas S.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1999, several Vaccinia virus (VACV) isolates, the etiological agents of bovine vaccinia (BV), have been frequently isolated and characterized with various biological and molecular methods. The results from these approaches have grouped these VACV isolates into two different clusters. This dichotomy has elicited debates surrounding the origin of the Brazilian VACV and its epidemiological significance. To ascertain vital information to settle these debates, we and other research groups have made efforts to identify molecular markers to discriminate VACV from other viruses of the genus Orthopoxvirus (OPV) and other VACV-BR groups. In this way, some genes have been identified as useful markers to discriminate between the VACV-BR groups. However, new markers are needed to infer ancestry and to correlate each sample or group with its unique epidemiological and biological features. The aims of this work were to characterize a new VACV isolate (VACV DMTV-2005) molecularly and biologically using conserved and non-conserved gene analyses for phylogenetic inference and to search for new genes that would elucidate the VACV-BR dichotomy. The VACV DMTV-2005 isolate reported in this study is biologically and phylogenetically clustered with other strains of Group 1 VACV-BR, the most prevalent VACV group that was isolated during the bovine vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil. Sequence analysis of C23L, the gene that encodes for the CC-chemokine-binding protein, revealed a ten-nucleotide deletion, which is a new Group 1 Brazilian VACV genetic marker. This deletion in the C23L open reading frame produces a premature stop-codon that is shared by all Group 1 VACV-BR strains and may also reflect the VACV-BR dichotomy; the deletion can also be considered to be a putative genetic marker for non-virulent Brazilian VACV isolates and may be used for the detection and molecular characterization of new isolates. PMID:23189200

  13. Genetic identities and local inbreeding in pure diploid clones with homoplasic markers: SNPs may be misleading.

    PubMed

    De Meeûs, Thierry

    2015-07-01

    Expected values for observed heterozygosity, genetic diversity, and inbreeding of individuals relative to inbreeding of the population (FIS) are derived in the case of one locus displaying homoplasy with K possible allelic states (KAM model) in a clonal diploid population. Heterozygosity (HO) and genetic diversity (HS) are substantially affected by homoplasy as long as the number of alleles K?10, while FIS remains weakly affected in any case. Simulations suggest that in big populations, or in case of maximum homoplasy (K=2), expected values can appear far from the observed ones because equilibrium takes too many generations to be reached at homoplasic markers in clonally propagating populations. This raises some concern on the use of SNPs, at least in clonal populations. PMID:25960105

  14. Genetic diversity of Tomistoma schlegelii inferred from mtDNA markers.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Taranjeet; Japning, Jeffrine Rovie Ryan; Sabki, Mohamad Shahbudin; Sidik, Irvan; Chong, Lee Kim; Ong, Alan H K

    2013-04-01

    The genetic diversity of the endangered crocodile Tomistoma schlegelii was characterized using the protein coding ND 6-tRNA(glu)-cyt b and the cytochrome b-control region (cyt b-CR) markers. Concatenate data revealed six haplotypes with an overall haplotype diversity of 0.769 ± 0.039; nucleotide diversity was 0.00535 ± 0.00172. A nearest-neighbor analysis showed that all individuals clustered with four geographic regions (Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak, and East Kalimantan) and were genetically differentiated. With the exception of the individuals from haplotype H2, which occurred in both Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak, all other haplotypes were geographically distinct. The H4 lineage, which was found to be the most divergent, clustered exclusively in the basal clade in all phylogenetic trees, and the haplotype network was unconnected at the 95% reconnection limit, suggesting further investigation to establish its possible status as a distinct evolutionary significant unit or a cryptic species. PMID:23325482

  15. Utility and efficiency of linked marker genes for genetic counseling. III. Proportion of informative families under linkage disequilibrium.

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarti, A

    1983-01-01

    A marker locus closely linked to a disease locus is often useful for genetic counseling provided that a counselee is heterozygous at both disease and marker loci. Furthermore, the linkage phase of these genes in the counselee must be known. When the linkage between the disease and marker loci is very close, one often finds linkage disequilibrium between the loci. To evaluate the effect of such nonrandom associations on the utility of linked marker genes for genetic counseling, the proportion of informative families is studied for X-linked recessive and autosomal dominant diseases. This proportion is higher for X-linked genes than for autosomal genes, if other factors are the same. In general, codominant markers are more useful than dominant markers. Also, under appropriate conditions, the proportion of informative families is higher when linkage disequilibrium is present. The results obtained in this paper are useful for evaluating the utility of polymorphic restriction endonuclease cleavage sites as markers in genetic counseling. PMID:6576632

  16. An intein with genetically selectable markers provides a new approach to internally label proteins with GFP

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Inteins are proteins that catalyze their own removal from within larger precursor proteins. In the process they splice the flanking protein sequences, termed the N-and C-terminal exteins. Large inteins frequently have a homing endonuclease that is involved in maintaining the intein in the host. Splicing and nuclease activity are independent and distinct domains in the folded structure. We show here that other biochemical activities can be incorporated into an intein in place of the endonuclease without affecting splicing and that these activities can provide genetic selection for the intein. We have coupled such a genetically marked intein with GFP as the N-terminal extein to create a cassette to introduce GFP within the interior of a targeted protein. Results The Pch PRP8 mini-intein of Penicillium chrysogenum was modified to include: 1) aminoglycoside phosphotransferase; 2) imidazoleglycerol-phosphate dehydratase, His5 from S. pombe ; 3) hygromycin B phosphotransferase; and 4) the transcriptional activator LexA-VP16. The proteins were inserted at the site of the lost endonuclease. When expressed in E. coli, all of the modified inteins spliced at high efficiency. Splicing efficiency was also greater than 96% when expressed from a plasmid in S. cerevisiae. In addition the inteins conferred either G418 or hygromycin resistance, or histidine or leucine prototropy, depending on the inserted marker and the yeast genetic background. DNA encoding the marked inteins coupled to GFP as the N-terminal extein was PCR amplified with ends homologous to an internal site in the yeast calmodulin gene CMD1. The DNA was transformed into yeast and integrants obtained by direct selection for the intein's marker. The His5-marked intein yielded a fully functional calmodulin that was tagged with GFP within its central linker. Conclusions Inteins continue to show their flexibility as tools in molecular biology. The Pch PRP8 intein can successfully tolerate a variety of genetic markers and still retain high splicing efficiency. We have shown that a genetically marked intein can be used to insert GFP in one-step within a target protein in vivo. PMID:21708017

  17. Prediction of Breast Cancer Survival Using Clinical and Genetic Markers by Tumor Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Hyuna; Jeon, Sujee; Chung, Seokang; Park, Sue K.; Han, Wonshik; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Ji-Young; Yoo, Keun-Young; Han, Bok-Ghee; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Noh, Dong-Young; Kang, Daehee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To identify the genetic variants associated with breast cancer survival, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted of Korean breast cancer patients. Methods From the Seoul Breast Cancer Study (SEBCS), 3,226 patients with breast cancer (1,732 in the discovery and 1,494 in the replication set) were included in a two-stage GWAS on disease-free survival (DFS) by tumor subtypes based on hormone receptor (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). The associations of the re-classified combined prognostic markers through recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) of DFS for breast cancer were assessed with the Cox proportional hazard model. The prognostic predictive values of the clinical and genetic models were evaluated by Harrell’s C. Results In the two-stage GWAS stratified by tumor subtypes, rs166870 and rs10825036 were consistently associated with DFS in the HR+ HER2- and HR- HER2- breast cancer subtypes, respectively (Prs166870=2.88×10-7 and Prs10825036=3.54×10-7 in the combined set). When patients were classified by the RPA in each subtype, genetic factors contributed significantly to differentiating the high risk group associated with DFS inbreast cancer, specifically the HR+ HER2- (Pdiscovery=1.18×10-8 and Preplication=2.08×10-5) and HR- HRE2- subtypes (Pdiscovery=2.35×10-4 and Preplication=2.60×10-2). The inclusion of the SNPs tended to improve the performance of the prognostic models consisting of age, TNM stage and tumor subtypes based on ER, PR, and HER2 status. Conclusion Combined prognostic markers that include clinical and genetic factors by tumor subtypes could improve the prediction of survival in breast cancer. PMID:25867717

  18. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Cucurbit Gummy Stem Blight Fungi Based on Microsatellite Markers.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Marin Talbot; Rath, Manisha; Li, Hao-Xi

    2015-06-01

    Combining population genetics with epidemiology provides insight into the population biology of pathogens, which could lead to improved management of plant diseases. Gummy stem blight, caused by three closely related species of Stagonosporopsis-Stagonosporopsis cucurbitacearum (syn. Didymella bryoniae), S. citrulli, and S. caricae-is a devastating disease of cucurbits worldwide. Sources of inoculum for epidemics, mechanisms of dispersal, and the mating system of these species are not well understood. To improve our knowledge of gummy stem blight epidemiology, we developed 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers by combining microsatellite motif enrichment with next-generation sequencing. When tested on 46 isolates from diverse cucurbit hosts and regions, the markers were robust for the dominant and widely distributed S. citrulli. Within this species, we found no population structure based on broad-scale geographic region or host of origin. Using the microsatellites, a rapid polymerase chain reaction-based method was developed to distinguish the three morphologically similar species causing gummy stem blight. To better understand dispersal, reproduction, and fine-scale genetic diversity of S. citrulli within and among watermelon fields, 155 isolates from two field populations in Georgia, United States were genotyped with the 18 microsatellite loci. Although dominant and widespread clones were detected, we found relatively high genotypic diversity and recombinant genotypes consistent with outcrossing. Significant population genetic structure between the two field populations demonstrated that there is regional geographic structure and limited dispersal among fields. This study provides insight into the fine-scale genetic diversity and reproductive biology of the gummy stem blight pathogen S. citrulli in the field. PMID:25710205

  19. Predicting risk in space: Genetic markers for differential vulnerability to sleep restriction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Namni; Dinges, David F.

    2012-08-01

    Several laboratories have found large, highly reliable individual differences in the magnitude of cognitive performance, fatigue and sleepiness, and sleep homeostatic vulnerability to acute total sleep deprivation and to chronic sleep restriction in healthy adults. Such individual differences in neurobehavioral performance are also observed in space flight as a result of sleep loss. The reasons for these stable phenotypic differential vulnerabilities are unknown: such differences are not yet accounted for by demographic factors, IQ or sleep need, and moreover, psychometric scales do not predict those individuals cognitively vulnerable to sleep loss. The stable, trait-like (phenotypic) inter-individual differences observed in response to sleep loss—with intraclass correlation coefficients accounting for 58-92% of the variance in neurobehavioral measures—point to an underlying genetic component. To this end, we utilized multi-day highly controlled laboratory studies to investigate the role of various common candidate gene variants—each independently—in relation to cumulative neurobehavioral and sleep homeostatic responses to sleep restriction. These data suggest that common genetic variations (polymorphisms) involved in sleep-wake, circadian, and cognitive regulation may serve as markers for prediction of inter-individual differences in sleep homeostatic and neurobehavioral vulnerability to sleep restriction in healthy adults. Identification of genetic predictors of differential vulnerability to sleep restriction—as determined from candidate gene studies—will help identify astronauts most in need of fatigue countermeasures in space flight and inform medical standards for obtaining adequate sleep in space. This review summarizes individual differences in neurobehavioral vulnerability to sleep deprivation and ongoing genetic efforts to identify markers of such differences.

  20. Genetic diversity of Palestine landraces of faba bean (Vicia faba) based on RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Basheer-Salimia, R; Shtaya, M; Awad, M; Abdallah, J; Hamdan, Y

    2013-01-01

    Until now, neither phenotypic nor molecular approaches have been used to characterize the landraces of Palestine faba beans (Vicia faba). We used PCR-based RAPD markers to determine the genetic diversity and relatedness among 26 Palestinian faba bean landraces (traditional farmers' varieties) from 8 localities in the West Bank, Palestine. In tests with 37 primers, 14 generated no polymorphic bands, 12 exhibited weak and unclear products, and 11 primers produced good amplification products with high intensity and pattern stability. Ninety-four DNA fragments (loci) were detected, with an average of 8.54 loci per primer and size ranging from 160 to 1370 bp. A minimum of 4 and a maximum of 14 DNA fragments were obtained using (OPA-05 and OPA-09) and (BC-261) primers, respectively. The maximum percentage of polymorphic markers was 71.4 (BC-298) and the minimum was 50.0 (OPA-05, -09, -16). The 11 primers exhibited relatively high collective resolving power (Rp) values of 26.316, and varied from 0.154 for the OPA-09 primer to 5.236 for the BC-261, with an overall mean of 2.392. The primers BC-261, -322, and -298 were found to be the most useful RAPD primers to assess the genetic diversity of Palestinian faba beans, as they revealed relatively high Rp rates (5.236, 3.618, and 3.150, respectively). Based on the Jaccard coefficient, the genetic distance ranged from 0.358 to 0.069, with a mean of 0.213. We conclude that the RAPD technique is useful for determining genetic diversity and for developing suitable fingerprints for faba bean landraces grown in Palestine. PMID:24065673

  1. DNA-Based Genetic Markers for Rapid Cycling Brassica Rapa (Fast Plants Type) Designed for the Teaching Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Slankster, Eryn E.; Chase, Jillian M.; Jones, Lauren A.; Wendell, Douglas L.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed DNA-based genetic markers for rapid cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr), also known as Fast Plants. Although markers for B. rapa already exist, ours were intentionally designed for use in a teaching laboratory environment. The qualities we selected for were robust amplification in PCR, polymorphism in RCBr strains, and alleles that can be easily resolved in simple agarose slab gels. We have developed two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based markers and 14 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR)-type markers spread over four chromosomes. The DNA sequences of these markers represent variation in a wide range of genomic features. Among the VNTR-type markers, there are examples of variation in a non-genic region, variation within an intron, and variation in the coding sequence of a gene. Among the SNP-based markers there are examples of polymorphism in intronic DNA and synonymous substitution in a coding sequence. Thus these markers can serve laboratory exercises in both transmission genetics and molecular biology. PMID:22675329

  2. Genetic diversity of turmeric germplasm (Curcuma longa; Zingiberaceae) identified by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Sigrist, M S; Pinheiro, J B; Filho, J A Azevedo; Zucchi, M I

    2011-01-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a triploid, vegetatively propagated crop introduced early during the colonization of Brazil. Turmeric rhizomes are ground into a powder used as a natural dye in the food industry, although recent research suggests a greater potential for the development of drugs and cosmetics. In Brazil, little is known about the genetic variability available for crop improvement. We examined the genetic diversity among turmeric accessions from a Brazilian germplasm collection comprising 39 accessions collected from the States of Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Pará. For comparison, 18 additional genotypes were analyzed, including samples from India and Puerto Rico. Total DNA was extracted from lyophilized leaf tissue and genetic analysis was performed using 17 microsatellite markers (single-sequence repeats). Shannon-Weiner indexes ranged from 0.017 (Minas Gerais) to 0.316 (São Paulo). Analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA) demonstrated major differences between countries (63.4%) and that most of the genetic diversity in Brazil is found within states (75.3%). Genotypes from São Paulo State were the most divergent and potentially useful for crop improvement. Structure analysis indicated two main groups of accessions. These results can help target future collecting efforts for introduction of new materials needed to develop more productive and better adapted cultivars. PMID:21425092

  3. Genetic variability in spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), determined with microsatellite DNA markers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, R.; Bowers, K.; Hensley, R.; Mobley, B.; Belouski, E.

    2007-01-01

    Variation in the allele frequencies of five microsatellite loci was surveyed in 1256 individual spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) obtained from 12 bays and estuaries from Laguna Madre, Texas, to Charlotte Harbor, Florida, to St. John's River on the Florida Atlantic Coast. Texas and Louisiana collection sites were resampled each year for two to four years (1998-2001). Genetic differentiation was observed. Spotted seatrout from Florida waters were strongly differentiated from spotted seatrout collected in Louisiana and Texas. The greatest genetic discontinuity was observed between Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor, and Charlotte Harbor seatrout were most similar to Atlantic Coast spotted seatrout. Texas and Louisiana samples were not strongly structured within the northwestern Gulf of Mexico and there was little evidence of temporal differentiation within bays. These findings are contrary to those of earlier analyses with allozymes and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) where evidence of spatial differentiation was found for spotted seatrout resident on the Texas coast. The differences in genetic structure observed among these markers may reflect differences in response to selective pressure, or may be due to differences in underlying genetic processes.

  4. Latino Populations: A Unique Opportunity for the Study of Race, Genetics, and Social Environment in Epidemiological Research

    PubMed Central

    González Burchard, Esteban; Borrell, Luisa N.; Choudhry, Shweta; Naqvi, Mariam; Tsai, Hui-Ju; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Chapela, Rocio; Rogers, Scott D.; Mei, Rui; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Arena, Jose F.; Kittles, Rick; Perez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Ziv, Elad; Risch, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Latinos are the largest minority population in the United States. Although usually classified as a single ethnic group by researchers, Latinos are heterogeneous from cultural, socioeconomic, and genetic perspectives. From a cultural and social perspective, Latinos represent a wide variety of national origins and ethnic and cultural groups, with a full spectrum of social class. From a genetic perspective, Latinos are descended from indigenous American, European, and African populations. We review the historical events that led to the formation of contemporary Latino populations and use results from recent genetic and clinical studies to illustrate the unique opportunity Latino groups offer for studying the interaction between racial, genetic, and environmental contributions to disease occurrence and drug response. PMID:16257940

  5. Estimation of the Genetic Diversity in Tetraploid Alfalfa Populations Based on RAPD Markers for Breeding Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Nagl, Nevena; Taski-Ajdukovic, Ksenija; Barac, Goran; Baburski, Aleksandar; Seccareccia, Ivana; Milic, Dragan; Katic, Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa is an autotetraploid, allogamous and heterozygous forage legume, whose varieties are synthetic populations. Due to the complex nature of the species, information about genetic diversity of germplasm used in any alfalfa breeding program is most beneficial. The genetic diversity of five alfalfa varieties, involved in progeny tests at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, was characterized based on RAPD markers. A total of 60 primers were screened, out of which 17 were selected for the analysis of genetic diversity. A total of 156 polymorphic bands were generated, with 10.6 bands per primer. Number and percentage of polymorphic loci, effective number of alleles, expected heterozygosity and Shannon’s information index were used to estimate genetic variation. Variety Zuzana had the highest values for all tested parameters, exhibiting the highest level of variation, whereas variety RSI 20 exhibited the lowest. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 88.39% of the total genetic variation was attributed to intra-varietal variance. The cluster analysis for individual samples and varieties revealed differences in their population structures: variety Zuzana showed a very high level of genetic variation, Banat and Ghareh were divided in subpopulations, while Pecy and RSI 20 were relatively uniform. Ways of exploiting the investigated germplasm in the breeding programs are suggested in this paper, depending on their population structure and diversity. The RAPD analysis shows potential to be applied in analysis of parental populations in semi-hybrid alfalfa breeding program in both, development of new homogenous germplasm, and identification of promising, complementary germplasm. PMID:21954370

  6. Isolation and identification of unique marker compounds from the Tasmanian poppy Papaver somniferum N. Implications for the identification of illicit heroin of Tasmanian origin.

    PubMed

    Odell, Luke R; Skopec, Jana; McCluskey, Adam

    2008-03-01

    Tasmanian opium accounts for 25% of the world's legal supply of opium straw, and in 1998-99 sufficient numbers of flower pods (66,013) to manufacture ca 500 kg of heroin were stolen. Whilst the heroin signature program has been developed to determine the origin of heroin from other key producers, no such signature currently exists for Tasmanian derived heroin. Tasmanian poppies contain a unique alkaloid, oripavine, which is the source of 'marker' impurities in illicit heroin produced from Tasmanian poppy straw. Treatment of oripavine (500mg) under Thiboumery and Mohr heroin processing conditions, followed by simple evaporative workup afforded 613 mg of a dark orange residue, which upon extensive chromatographic purification yielded oripavine 3-acetate (2) 22 mg; 3-acetyl-N-acetyldesthebaine (3) 35 mg; 3-acetyl-6-methoxy-4,5-epoxyphenanthrene (4) 5.8 mg; 3,4-diacetyl-6-methoxyphenanthrene (5) 27 mg; and 3,4,6-methoxy-5-[2(N-methylacetamido)]ethylphenanthrene (6) 52 mg. Compounds (2-6) are derived from oripavine and are unique to heroin derived from the Tasmanian poppy Papaver somniferum N. Analysis of illicit heroin samples seized from Turkey, Pakistan, Columbia and Myanmar did not reveal any of the aforementioned marker compounds. We have, however, identified four of these marker compounds (3-6) in seized heroin samples from Australia suggesting that they are of Tasmanian origin. Complete details of the isolation and identification of these compounds are provided. PMID:17765420

  7. Enrichment of an intraspecific genetic map of upland cotton by developing markers using parental RAD sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hantao; Jin, Xin; Zhang, Beibei; Shen, Chao; Lin, Zhongxu

    2015-04-01

    RAD sequencing was performed using DH962 and Jimian5 as upland cotton mapping parents. Sequencing data for DH962 and Jimian5 were assembled into the genome sequences of ?55.27 and ?57.06 Mb, respectively. Analysing genome sequences of the two parents, 1,323 SSR, 3,838 insertion/deletion (InDel), and 9,366 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) primer pairs were developed. All of the SSRs, 121 InDels, 441 SNPs, and other 6,747 primer pairs were screened in the two parents, and a total of 535 new polymorphic loci were identified. A genetic map including 1,013 loci was constructed using these results and 506 loci previously published for this population. Twenty-seven new QTLs for yield and fibre quality were identified, indicating that the efficiency of QTL detection was greatly improved by the increase in map density. Comparative genomics showed there to be considerable homology and collinearity between the AT and A2 genomes and between the DT and D5 genomes, although there were a few exchanges and introgressions among the chromosomes of the A2 genome. Here, the development of markers using parental RAD sequencing was effective, and a high-density intraspecific genetic map was constructed. This map can be used for molecular marker-assisted selection in cotton. PMID:25656006

  8. Performance assessment PCR-based assays targeting bacteroidales genetic markers of bovine fecal pollution.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Orin C; White, Karen; Kelty, Catherine A; Hayes, Sam; Sivaganesan, Mano; Jenkins, Michael; Varma, Manju; Haugland, Richard A

    2010-03-01

    There are numerous PCR-based assays available to characterize bovine fecal pollution in ambient waters. The determination of which approaches are most suitable for field applications can be difficult because each assay targets a different gene, in many cases from different microorganisms, leading to variation in assay performance. We describe a performance evaluation of seven end-point PCR and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays reported to be associated with either ruminant or bovine feces. Each assay was tested against a reference collection of DNA extracts from 247 individual bovine fecal samples representing 11 different populations and 175 fecal DNA extracts from 24 different animal species. Bovine-associated genetic markers were broadly distributed among individual bovine samples ranging from 39 to 93%. Specificity levels of the assays spanned 47.4% to 100%. End-point PCR sensitivity also varied between assays and among different bovine populations. For qPCR assays, the abundance of each host-associated genetic marker was measured within each bovine population and compared to results of a qPCR assay targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences from Bacteroidales. Experiments indicate large discrepancies in the performance of bovine-associated assays across different bovine populations. Variability in assay performance between host populations suggests that the use of bovine microbial source-tracking applications will require a priori characterization at each watershed of interest. PMID:20061457

  9. Enrichment of an intraspecific genetic map of upland cotton by developing markers using parental RAD sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hantao; Jin, Xin; Zhang, Beibei; Shen, Chao; Lin, Zhongxu

    2015-01-01

    RAD sequencing was performed using DH962 and Jimian5 as upland cotton mapping parents. Sequencing data for DH962 and Jimian5 were assembled into the genome sequences of ?55.27 and ?57.06 Mb, respectively. Analysing genome sequences of the two parents, 1,323 SSR, 3,838 insertion/deletion (InDel), and 9,366 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) primer pairs were developed. All of the SSRs, 121 InDels, 441 SNPs, and other 6,747 primer pairs were screened in the two parents, and a total of 535 new polymorphic loci were identified. A genetic map including 1,013 loci was constructed using these results and 506 loci previously published for this population. Twenty-seven new QTLs for yield and fibre quality were identified, indicating that the efficiency of QTL detection was greatly improved by the increase in map density. Comparative genomics showed there to be considerable homology and collinearity between the AT and A2 genomes and between the DT and D5 genomes, although there were a few exchanges and introgressions among the chromosomes of the A2 genome. Here, the development of markers using parental RAD sequencing was effective, and a high-density intraspecific genetic map was constructed. This map can be used for molecular marker-assisted selection in cotton. PMID:25656006

  10. Meta-analyses between 18 candidate genetic markers and overweight/obesity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aims The goal of our study is to investigate the associations between 18 candidate genetic markers and overweight/obesity. Methods A total of 72 eligible articles were retrieved from literature databases including PubMed, Embase, SpingerLink, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang. Meta-analyses of 18 genetic markers among 56,738 controls and 48,148 overweight/obese persons were done by Review Manager 5.0. Results Our results showed that SH2B1 rs7498665 polymorphism was significantly associated with the risk of overweight/obesity (overall odds ratio (OR)?=?1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.09-1.34, P?=?0.0004). Increased risk of overweight/obesity was also observed in FAIM2 rs7138803 polymorphism (overall OR?=?1.11, 95% CI?=?1.01-1.22, P?=?0.04). Conclusion Our meta-analyses have shown the important role of 2 polymorphisms (SH2B1 rs7498665 and FAIM2 rs7138803) in the development of overweight/obesity. This study highlighted the importance of above two candidate genes (SH2B1 and FAIM2) in the risk of overweight/obesity. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2785487401176182. PMID:24621099

  11. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers survey of the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) genome: towards an SSR-based molecular genetic map of cassava

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Stephenson; K. Edwards; S. Melzer; J. Nkumbira; U. Gullberg; K. Apel; M. Gale; J. Tohme; M. Fregene

    2001-01-01

    The development of PCR-based, easily automated molecular genetic markers, such as SSR markers, are required for realistic\\u000a cost-effective marker-assisted selection schemes. This paper describes the development and characterization of 172 new SSR\\u000a markers for the cassava genome. The placement of 36 of these markers on the existing RFLP framework map of cassava is also\\u000a reported. Two similar enrichment methods were

  12. Genetic relationships among ten endod types as revealed by a combination of morphological, RAPD and AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    Semagn, Kassa

    2002-01-01

    The genetic relationships among ten types of endod (Phytolacca dodecandra) cultivated by the Institute of Pathobiology of the Addis Ababa University to combat the disease bilharzia in Ethiopia were studied using morphology and molecular markers. A total of 18 morphological characters, 194 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and 42 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to determine genetic proximity between types. Genetic distance and cluster analysis of the AFLP data revealed the lack of genetic difference between E47 and E48 but relatively wider genetic difference among the other endod types. Cluster and principal component analyses performed on the AFLP and RAPD markers demonstrated the presence of distinct separation of E56 but not that of E44 from the others. The AFLP and RAPD data, thcrefore, did not support the hypothesis that the superiority of E44 in agronomic traits and molluscicidal potency is linked to its distinct genetic difference from the other endod types. Matrices correspondence tests demonstrated the presence of greater correspondence between AFLP and RAPD data (r = 0.842) but not between the morphology and that of AFLP and RAPD. This indicates the correspondence more between the two DNA markers systems than either of them with morphological traits. The cophenetic correlation coefficients also revealed poor fit for morphology (r = 0.716), good fit for RAPD (r = 0.872) and very good fit for AFLP (r = 0.975), reflecting the hyper-variability and higher resolving power of AFLP. PMID:12627842

  13. Construction of a Genetic Linkage Map Based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Markers and Development of Sequence-Tagged Site Markers for Marker-Assisted Selection of the Sporeless Trait in the Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii)

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Jun; Obatake, Yasushi; Murakami, Shigeyuki; Fukumasa, Yukitaka; Matsumoto, Teruyuki

    2012-01-01

    A large number of spores from fruiting bodies can lead to allergic reactions and other problems during the cultivation of edible mushrooms, including Pleurotus eryngii (DC.) Quél. A cultivar harboring a sporulation-deficient (sporeless) mutation would be useful for preventing these problems, but traditional breeding requires extensive time and labor. In this study, using a sporeless P. eryngii strain, we constructed a genetic linkage map to introduce a molecular breeding program like marker-assisted selection. Based on the segregation of 294 amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, two mating type factors, and the sporeless trait, the linkage map consisted of 11 linkage groups with a total length of 837.2 centimorgans (cM). The gene region responsible for the sporeless trait was located in linkage group IX with 32 amplified fragment length polymorphism markers and the B mating type factor. We also identified eight markers closely linked (within 1.2 cM) to the sporeless locus using bulked-segregant analysis-based amplified fragment length polymorphism. One such amplified fragment length polymorphism marker was converted into two sequence-tagged site markers, SD488-I and SD488-II. Using 14 wild isolates, sequence-tagged site analysis indicated the potential usefulness of the combination of two sequence-tagged site markers in cross-breeding of the sporeless strain. It also suggested that a map constructed for P. eryngii has adequate accuracy for marker-assisted selection. PMID:22210222

  14. Construction of a genetic linkage map based on amplified fragment length polymorphism markers and development of sequence-tagged site markers for marker-assisted selection of the sporeless trait in the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii).

    PubMed

    Okuda, Yasuhito; Ueda, Jun; Obatake, Yasushi; Murakami, Shigeyuki; Fukumasa, Yukitaka; Matsumoto, Teruyuki

    2012-03-01

    A large number of spores from fruiting bodies can lead to allergic reactions and other problems during the cultivation of edible mushrooms, including Pleurotus eryngii (DC.) Quél. A cultivar harboring a sporulation-deficient (sporeless) mutation would be useful for preventing these problems, but traditional breeding requires extensive time and labor. In this study, using a sporeless P. eryngii strain, we constructed a genetic linkage map to introduce a molecular breeding program like marker-assisted selection. Based on the segregation of 294 amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, two mating type factors, and the sporeless trait, the linkage map consisted of 11 linkage groups with a total length of 837.2 centimorgans (cM). The gene region responsible for the sporeless trait was located in linkage group IX with 32 amplified fragment length polymorphism markers and the B mating type factor. We also identified eight markers closely linked (within 1.2 cM) to the sporeless locus using bulked-segregant analysis-based amplified fragment length polymorphism. One such amplified fragment length polymorphism marker was converted into two sequence-tagged site markers, SD488-I and SD488-II. Using 14 wild isolates, sequence-tagged site analysis indicated the potential usefulness of the combination of two sequence-tagged site markers in cross-breeding of the sporeless strain. It also suggested that a map constructed for P. eryngii has adequate accuracy for marker-assisted selection. PMID:22210222

  15. An integrated genetic and cytogenetic map for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, based on microsatellite and morphological markers.

    PubMed

    Stratikopoulos, Elias E; Augustinos, Antonios A; Petalas, Yannis G; Vrahatis, Michael N; Mintzas, Anastasios; Mathiopoulos, Konstantinos D; Zacharopoulou, Antigone

    2008-06-01

    A genetic map based on microsatellite polymorphisms and visible mutations of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata is presented. Genotyping was performed on single flies from several backcross families. The map is composed of 67 microsatellites and 16 visible markers distributed over four linkage groups. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of selected microsatellite markers on salivary gland polytene chromosomes allowed the alignment of these groups to the second, fourth, fifth and sixth chromosome. None of the markers tested showed segregation either with the X or the third chromosome. However, this map constitutes a substantial starting point for a detailed genetic map of C. capitata. The construction of an integrated map covering the whole genome should greatly facilitate genetic studies and future genome sequence projects of the species. PMID:17786564

  16. Genetic Markers in Blood in a Canadian Eskimo Population with a Comparison of Allele Frequencies in Circumpolar Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phyllis J. McAlpine; S.-H. Chen; Diane W. Cox; J. B. Dossetor; Eloise Giblett; A. G. Steinberg; Nancy E. Simpson

    1974-01-01

    38 genetically determined marker systems were examined in blood samples obtained from a relatively isolated population of Eskimos living in the Eastern Canadian Arctic. 2,3-DPGM, sGOT, sGPT, PGM1; 6PGD, AcP, E2 cholinesterase, haptoglobin, Gm, Inv, and HL-A were found to exist in polymorphic form, while no variation of the remaining 27 markers was detected in the population. The 2,3-DPGM 2–1

  17. Development of Microsatellite Markers and Detection of Genetic Variation between Goniozus Wasp Populations

    PubMed Central

    Khidr, Sahand K.; Hardy, Ian C.W.; Zaviezo, Tania; Mayes, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Molecular genetic markers reveal differences between genotypes according to the presence of alleles (the same or different) at target loci. Microsatellite markers are especially useful codominant markers that have been used in a wide range of studies to elucidate the population structure and dynamics of a range of organisms, including agriculturally beneficial insects such as parasitic wasps (parasitoids). In the present study, twelve primer pairs were designed for the south Asian , Goniozus nephantidis (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), and 24 for its New World congener, Goniozus legneri Gordh, parasitoids of the larvae of the lepidopteran coconut pest Opisina arenosella Walker (Lepidoptera: Crytophasidae) and other lepidopteran pests, respectively, in order to investigate polymorphism within and between populations. The wasps fingerprinted were a total of 85 G. nephantidis and G. legneri, including individuals belonging to three putatively different strains of G. legneri. Annealing gradient tests (50–65°C) were conducted to study the quality of the PCR amplification across an annealing temperature gradient using a mixed genotype DNA template from each species separately. Seven primer pairs, which amplified clear products of approximately the expected size of G. nephantidis and 18 of G. legneri, were then selected for capillary analysis for fragment size determination on a Beckmann CEQ 8000. Neither G. nephantidis nor G. legneri were polymorphic within populations. However, there were six primer pairs that did show polymorphism between G. legneri populations that originated from different geographical areas within South America (Uruguay and Chile). Furthermore, one primer pair revealed diversity between the two strains collected within Chile. One of the markers was subsequently used to provide unbiased assessment of primary sex ratio in G. legneri. PMID:25373190

  18. Is there a genetic contribution to cultural differences? Collectivism, individualism and genetic markers of social sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Genes and culture are often thought of as opposite ends of the nature–nurture spectrum, but here we examine possible interactions. Genetic association studies suggest that variation within the genes of central neurotransmitter systems, particularly the serotonin (5-HTTLPR, MAOA-uVNTR) and opioid (OPRM1 A118G), are associated with individual differences in social sensitivity, which reflects the degree of emotional responsivity to social events and experiences. Here, we review recent work that has demonstrated a robust cross-national correlation between the relative frequency of variants in these genes and the relative degree of individualism–collectivism in each population, suggesting that collectivism may have developed and persisted in populations with a high proportion of putative social sensitivity alleles because it was more compatible with such groups. Consistent with this notion, there was a correlation between the relative proportion of these alleles and lifetime prevalence of major depression across nations. The relationship between allele frequency and depression was partially mediated by individualism–collectivism, suggesting that reduced levels of depression in populations with a high proportion of social sensitivity alleles is due to greater collectivism. These results indicate that genetic variation may interact with ecological and social factors to influence psychocultural differences. PMID:20592043

  19. Comparison of SSR and SNP Markers in Estimation of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Indian Rice Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Sundeep; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Tyagi, R. K.; Singh, N. K.; Singh, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) and Single Nucleotide Polymorphic (SNP), the two most robust markers for identifying rice varieties were compared for assessment of genetic diversity and population structure. Total 375 varieties of rice from various regions of India archived at the Indian National GeneBank, NBPGR, New Delhi, were analyzed using thirty six genetic markers, each of hypervariable SSR (HvSSR) and SNP which were distributed across 12 rice chromosomes. A total of 80 alleles were amplified with the SSR markers with an average of 2.22 alleles per locus whereas, 72 alleles were amplified with SNP markers. Polymorphic information content (PIC) values for HvSSR ranged from 0.04 to 0.5 with an average of 0.25. In the case of SNP markers, PIC values ranged from 0.03 to 0.37 with an average of 0.23. Genetic relatedness among the varieties was studied; utilizing an unrooted tree all the genotypes were grouped into three major clusters with both SSR and SNP markers. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that maximum diversity was partitioned between and within individual level but not between populations. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) with SSR markers showed that genotypes were uniformly distributed across the two axes with 13.33% of cumulative variation whereas, in case of SNP markers varieties were grouped into three broad groups across two axes with 45.20% of cumulative variation. Population structure were tested using K values from 1 to 20, but there was no clear population structure, therefore Ln(PD) derived ?k was plotted against the K to determine the number of populations. In case of SSR maximum ?k was at K=5 whereas, in case of SNP maximum ?k was found at K=15, suggesting that resolution of population was higher with SNP markers, but SSR were more efficient for diversity analysis. PMID:24367635

  20. Development of microsatellite markers to genetically differentiate populations of Octopus minor from Korea and China.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Yi-Kyung; Park, Jung-Youn; An, Chel-Min; Jun, Je-Chun

    2012-08-01

    Of the more than 300 octopus species, Octopus minor is one of the most popular and economically important species in Eastern Asia, including Korea, along with O. vulgaris, O. ocellatus, and O. aegina. We developed 19 microsatellite markers from Octopus minor and eight polymorphic markers were developed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationships among four octopus populations from Korea and three from China. The number of alleles per locus varied from 10 to 49, and allelic richness per locus ranged from 2 to 16.4 across all populations. The average allele number among the populations was 11.1, with a minimum of 8.3 and a maximum of 13.6. The mean allelic richness was 8.7 in all populations. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) test revealed significant deviation in 19 of the 56 single-locus sites, and null alleles were presumed in five of eight loci. The pairwise F ( ST ) values between populations from Korea and China differed significantly in all pairwise comparisons. The genetic distances between the China and Korea samples ranged from 0.161 to 0.454. The genetic distances among the populations from Korea ranged from 0.033 to 0.090, with an average of 0.062; those among populations from China ranged from 0.191 to 0.316, with an average of 0.254. The populations from Korea and China formed clearly separated into clusters via an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram. Furthermore, a population from muddy flats on the western coast of the Korean Peninsula and one from a rocky area on Jeju Island formed clearly separated subclusters. An assignment test based on the allele distribution discriminated between the Korean and Chinese origins with 96.9 % accuracy. PMID:22707143

  1. Genetic diversity in apricot revealed by AFLP markers: species and cultivar comparisons.

    PubMed

    Hagen, S.; Khadari, B.; Lambert, P.; Audergon, J.-M.

    2002-08-01

    The genetic diversity of apricot ( Prunus armeniaca; 2n = 16) was studied using AFLP markers. Forty seven apricot cultivars were selected from the following geographic regions: Europe, North America, North Africa, Turkey, Iran and China. Five EcoRI- MseI AFLP primer combinations revealed 416 legible bands, of which 379 were polymorphic markers. A similarity matrix was prepared using the simple matching coefficient of similarity. A UPGMA dendrogram demonstrated a gradient of decreasing genetic diversity of varieties from the former USSR to Southern Europe. This is coherent with the historical dissemination of apricot from its center of origin in Asia. The American cultivars were intermediate demonstrating a different genetic base than the European and/or Mediterranean cultivars. Euclidean distances from the first ten Factorial Component Analysis coordinate axes were used to generate a tree using the Ward algorithm. The results of these analyses were evaluated based on the known geographic origins and agronomic characteristics of the cultivars studied. Four cultivar groups were identified: Diversification, Geographically Adaptable, Continental Europe and Mediterranean Basin. To evaluate the relationship of the common apricot with some closely related species, one or two accessions of the following related species or sub-species from within the section Armeniaca were included in the analysis: Prunus armeniaca var. ansu, Prunus mume, Prunus brigantiaca, Prunus dasycarpa, and Prunus holosericea. A Neighbour Joining dendrogram was made using the similarity matrix. The P. holosericea accession fell well within the cultivar group, thus supporting its classification as a variant of P. armeniaca. The P. armeniaca var. ansu accession was sister to the common apricot cluster with a bootstrap value of 96%. P. mume was farther removed. P. brigantiaca was the most-distant from the common apricots. P. dasycarpa was intermediate between P. brigantiaca and P. mume, in accord with its plum-apricot hybrid origin. The results have a direct application for the selection of new breeding progenitors. PMID:12582532

  2. [Analysis of genetic diversity of Russian regional populations based on common STR markers used in DNA identification].

    PubMed

    2014-06-01

    We conducted the first genetic analysis of a wide a range of rural Russian populations in European Russia with a panel of common DNA markers commonly used in criminalistics genetic identification. We examined a total of 647 samples from indigenous ethnic Russian populations in Arkhangelsk, Belgorod, Voronezh, Kursk, Rostov, Ryazan, and Orel regions. We employed a multiplex genotyping kit, COrDIS Plus, to genotype Short Tandem Repeat (STR) loci, which included the genetic marker panel officially recommended for DNA identification in the Russian Federation, the United States, and the European Union. In the course of our study, we created a database of allelic frequencies, examined the distribution of alleles and genotypes in seven rural Russian populations, and defined the genetic relationships between these populations. We found that, although multidimensional analysis indicated a difference between the Northern gene pool and the rest of the Russian European populations, a pairwise comparison using 19 STR markers among all populations did not reveal significant differences. This is in concordance with previous studies, which examined up to 12 STR markers of urban Russian populations. Therefore, the database of allelic frequencies created in this study can be applied for forensic examinations and DNA identification among the ethnic Russian population over European Russia. We also noted a decrease in the levels of heterozygosity in the northern Russian population compared to ethnic populations in southern and central Russia, which is consistent with trends identified previously using classical gene markers and analysis of mitochondrial DNA. PMID:25715463

  3. Genetic structure and inter-generic relationship of closed colony of laboratory rodents based on RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mahadeo; Kumar, Sharad

    2014-11-01

    Molecular genetic analysis was performed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) on three commonly used laboratory bred rodent genera viz. mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus) and guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) as sampled from the breeding colony maintained at the Animal Facility, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow. In this study, 60 samples, 20 from each genus, were analyzed for evaluation of genetic structure of rodent stocks based on polymorphic bands using RAPD markers. Thirty five random primers were assessed for RAPD analysis. Out of 35, only 20 primers generated a total of 56.88% polymorphic bands among mice, rats and guinea pigs. The results revealed significantly variant and distinct fingerprint patterns specific to each of the genus. Within-genera analysis, the highest (89.0%) amount of genetic homogeneity was observed in mice samples and the least (79.3%) were observed in guinea pig samples. The amount of genetic homogeneity was observed very high within all genera. The average genetic diversity index observed was low (0.045) for mice and high (0.094) for guinea pigs. The inter-generic distances were maximum (0.8775) between mice and guinea pigs; and the minimum (0.5143) between rats and mice. The study proved that the RAPD markers are useful as genetic markers for assessment of genetic structure as well as inter-generic variability assessments. PMID:25074272

  4. Comparative use of InDel and SSR markers in deciphering the interspecific structure of cultivated citrus genetic diversity: a perspective for genetic association studies.

    PubMed

    García-Lor, Andrés; Luro, François; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Genetic stratification associated with domestication history is a key parameter for estimating the pertinence of genetic association study within a gene pool. Previous molecular and phenotypic studies have shown that most of the diversity of cultivated citrus results from recombination between three main species: C. medica (citron), C. reticulata (mandarin) and C. maxima (pummelo). However, the precise contribution of each of these basic species to the genomes of secondary cultivated species, such as C. sinensis (sweet orange), C. limon (lemon), C. aurantium (sour orange), C. paradisi (grapefruit) and recent hybrids is unknown. Our study focused on: (1) the development of insertion-deletion (InDel) markers and their comparison with SSR markers for use in genetic diversity and phylogenetic studies; (2) the analysis of the contributions of basic taxa to the genomes of secondary species and modern cultivars and (3) the description of the organisation of the Citrus gene pool, to evaluate how genetic association studies should be done at the cultivated Citrus gene pool level. InDel markers appear to be better phylogenetic markers for tracing the contributions of the three ancestral species, whereas SSR markers are more useful for intraspecific diversity analysis. Most of the genetic organisation of the Citrus gene pool is related to the differentiation between C. reticulata, C. maxima and C. medica. High and generalised LD was observed, probably due to the initial differentiation between the basic species and a limited number of interspecific recombinations. This structure precludes association genetic studies at the genus level without developing additional recombinant populations from interspecific hybrids. Association genetic studies should also be affordable at intraspecific level in a less structured pool such as C. reticulata. PMID:22160318

  5. Annotated genetic linkage maps of Pinus pinaster Ait. from a Central Spain population using microsatellite and gene based markers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pinus pinaster Ait. is a major resin producing species in Spain. Genetic linkage mapping can facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) through the identification of Quantitative Trait Loci and selection of allelic variants of interest in breeding populations. In this study, we report annotated genetic linkage maps for two individuals (C14 and C15) belonging to a breeding program aiming to increase resin production. We use different types of DNA markers, including last-generation molecular markers. Results We obtained 13 and 14 linkage groups for C14 and C15 maps, respectively. A total of 211 and 215 markers were positioned on each map and estimated genome length was between 1,870 and 2,166 cM respectively, which represents near 65% of genome coverage. Comparative mapping with previously developed genetic linkage maps for P. pinaster based on about 60 common markers enabled aligning linkage groups to this reference map. The comparison of our annotated linkage maps and linkage maps reporting QTL information revealed 11 annotated SNPs in candidate genes that co-localized with previously reported QTLs for wood properties and water use efficiency. Conclusions This study provides genetic linkage maps from a Spanish population that shows high levels of genetic divergence with French populations from which segregating progenies have been previously mapped. These genetic maps will be of interest to construct a reliable consensus linkage map for the species. The importance of developing functional genetic linkage maps is highlighted, especially when working with breeding populations for its future application in MAS for traits of interest. PMID:23036012

  6. Rhoptry protein 47 gene sequence: A potential novel genetic marker for population genetic studies of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Lei; Li, Ting-Ting; Li, Zhong-Yuan; Huang, Si-Yang; Ning, Hong-Rui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite, is able to infect many animal species and humans, and can cause toxoplasmosis of the host. In this study, we examined sequence variation in rhoptry protein 47 (ROP47) gene among T.?gondii isolates originating from different hosts and geographical regions. The entire genome region of the ROP47 gene was amplified and sequenced, and phylogenetic relationship was reconstructed using maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and neighbor-joining (NJ), based on the ROP47 gene sequences. The results of sequence alignments showed that all ROP47 gene sequences were 396?bp in length. There were 19 variable nucleotide positions in the coding region, resulted in 16 amino acid substitutions (12.21%) among all examined T.?gondii strains and the existence of polymorphic restriction sites for endonucleases SacI and AflIII, allowing the differentiation of the three major clonal lineage types I, II and III by PCR-RFLP. Phylogenetic analysis of ROP47 gene sequences showed that three major clonal lineage types I, II and III were clustered differently, consistent with PCR-RFLP results. These results suggest that ROP47 gene sequence may represent a potential novel genetic marker for population genetic studies of T.?gondii isolates. PMID:25862398

  7. Construction of two genetic linkage maps in cultivated tetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa) using microsatellite and AFLP markers

    PubMed Central

    Julier, Bernadette; Flajoulot, Sandrine; Barre, Philippe; Cardinet, Gaëlle; Santoni, Sylvain; Huguet, Thierry; Huyghe, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Background Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a major forage crop. The genetic progress is slow in this legume species because of its autotetraploidy and allogamy. The genetic structure of this species makes the construction of genetic maps difficult. To reach this objective, and to be able to detect QTLs in segregating populations, we used the available codominant microsatellite markers (SSRs), most of them identified in the model legume Medicago truncatula from EST database. A genetic map was constructed with AFLP and SSR markers using specific mapping procedures for autotetraploids. The tetrasomic inheritance was analysed in an alfalfa mapping population. Results We have demonstrated that 80% of primer pairs defined on each side of SSR motifs in M. truncatula EST database amplify with the alfalfa DNA. Using a F1 mapping population of 168 individuals produced from the cross of 2 heterozygous parental plants from Magali and Mercedes cultivars, we obtained 599 AFLP markers and 107 SSR loci. All but 3 SSR loci showed a clear tetrasomic inheritance. For most of the SSR loci, the double-reduction was not significant. For the other loci no specific genotypes were produced, so the significant double-reduction could arise from segregation distortion. For each parent, the genetic map contained 8 groups of four homologous chromosomes. The lengths of the maps were 2649 and 3045 cM, with an average distance of 7.6 and 9.0 cM between markers, for Magali and Mercedes parents, respectively. Using only the SSR markers, we built a composite map covering 709 cM. Conclusions Compared to diploid alfalfa genetic maps, our maps cover about 88–100% of the genome and are close to saturation. The inheritance of the codominant markers (SSR) and the pattern of linkage repulsions between markers within each homology group are consistent with the hypothesis of a tetrasomic meiosis in alfalfa. Except for 2 out of 107 SSR markers, we found a similar order of markers on the chromosomes between the tetraploid alfalfa and M. truncatula genomes indicating a high level of colinearity between these two species. These maps will be a valuable tool for alfalfa breeding and are being used to locate QTLs. PMID:14683527

  8. Comparison of DNA marker and pedigree-based methods of genetic analysis of plantain and banana (Musa spp.) clones. I. estimation of genetic relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Tenkouano; J. H. Crouch; H. K. Crouch; D. Vuylsteke; R. Ortiz

    1999-01-01

    Traditional approaches to the breeding of Musa crops are highly demanding in terms of both time and space. However, the application of molecular genetic analysis may dramatically\\u000a improve breeding efficiency. The objectives of the present study were to compare pedigree and DNA marker methods of estimating\\u000a genetic relationships across and within generations among diploid, triploid and tetraploid accessions of plantain

  9. Assessing genetic diversity of Elymus sibiricus (Poaceae: Triticeae) populations from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau by ISSR markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao Ma; Xin-Quan Zhang; Yong-Hong Zhou; Shi-Qie Bai; Wei Liu

    2008-01-01

    Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and population structure in eight populations of Elymus sibiricus L. from the southeast of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China. Of the 100 primers screened, 13 produced highly reproducible ISSR bands. Using these primers, 193 discernible DNA fragments were generated with 149 (77.2%) being polymorphic, indicating considerable genetic variation at

  10. Effect of Environmental and Genetic Factors on the Stability of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Isozyme and DNA Markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miroslav GRIGA; Petr SMÝKAL; Miroslav HÝBL

    Environmental (geographic location, year-to-year effect) and genetic (intravarietal variation) effects on the stability of the isozyme patterns of esterase (EST), acid phosphatase (ACP), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH) and glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (PGI) used for pea cultivar genotyping were studied. In addition, selected DNA markers (RAPD, SSR, ISSR, IRAP) were used to study intravarietal genetic homogeneity\\/variation at

  11. Design and analysis of an efficient recursive linking algorithm for constructing likelihood based genetic maps for a large number of markers.

    PubMed

    Tewari, S; Bhandarkar, S M; Arnold, J

    2007-04-01

    A multi-locus likelihood of a genetic map is computed based on a mathematical model of chromatid exchange in meiosis that accounts for any type of bivalent configuration in a genetic interval in any specified order of genetic markers. The computational problem is to calculate the likelihood (L) and maximize L by choosing an ordering of genetic markers on the map and the recombination distances between markers. This maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) could be found either with a straightforward algorithm or with the proposed recursive linking algorithm that implements the likelihood computation process involving an iterative procedure is called Expectation Maximization (EM). The time complexity of the straightforward algorithm is exponential without bound in the number of genetic markers, and implementation of the model with a straightforward algorithm for more than seven genetic markers is not feasible, thus motivating the critical importance of the proposed recursive linking algorithm. The recursive linking algorithm decomposes the pool of genetic markers into segments and renders the model implementable for hundreds of genetic markers. The recursive algorithm is shown to reduce the order of time complexity from exponential to linear in the number of markers. The improvement in time complexity is shown theoretically by a worst-case analysis of the algorithm and supported by run time results using data on linkage group-II of the fungal genome Neurospora crassa. PMID:17589960

  12. Selection for genetic markers in beef cattle reveals complex associations of thyroglobulin and casein1-S1 with carcass and meat traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic markers in casein (CSN1S1) and thyroglobulin (TG) genes have previously been associated with fat distribution in cattle. Determining the nature of these genetic associations (additive, recessive, or dominant) has been difficult because both markers have small minor allele frequencies in mos...

  13. Shared and Unique Genetic and Environmental Influences on Binge Eating and Night Eating: A Swedish Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Root, Tammy L.; Thornton, Laura; Lindroos, Ann Karin; Stunkard, Albert J.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Rasmussen, Finn; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2009-01-01

    We applied twin methodology to female and male twin pairs to further understand the nature of the relation between two behaviors associated with eating disorders—binge eating (BE) and night eating (NE) in an effort to determine the extent of overlap of genetic and environmental factors influencing liability to these behaviors. We calculated heritability estimates for males and females for each behavior and applied bivariate twin modeling to the female data to estimate the genetic and environmental correlation between these two traits. Data on BE and NE were derived from the Swedish Twin Study of Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE) of the Swedish Twin Registry (STR; N = 11604). Prevalence estimates revealed sex differences with females more likely to endorse BE and males more likely to endorse NE. In males, we were only able to estimate univariate heritabilities due to small sample sizes: The heritability for BE was .74 [95% CI = (0.36, 0.93)] and for NE was .44 [95% CI = (0.24, 0.61)]. The best fitting bivariate model for females included additive genetic and unique environmental factors as well as the genetic correlation between BE and NE. Heritability estimates were 0.70 [95% CI = (0.26, 0.77)] for BE and 0.35 [95% CI = (0.17, 0.52)] for NE. The genetic correlation, 0.66 [95% CI = (0.48, 0.96)] suggests considerable overlap in the genetic factors influencing liability to BE and NE. In females, there is considerable overlap in the genetic factors that contribute to these traits, but the incomplete overlap allows for the influence of independent genetic and environmental factors as well. BE and NE in females are therefore best conceptualized as related but not identical traits. PMID:20188292

  14. Genetic Variability among Lucerne Cultivars Based on Biochemical (SDS-PAGE) and Morphological Markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farshadfar, M.; Farshadfar, E.

    The present research was conducted to determine the genetic variability of 18 Lucerne cultivars, based on morphological and biochemical markers. The traits studied were plant height, tiller number, biomass, dry yield, dry yield/biomass, dry leaf/dry yield, macro and micro elements, crude protein, dry matter, crude fiber and ash percentage and SDS- PAGE in seed and leaf samples. Field experiments included 18 plots of two meter rows. Data based on morphological, chemical and SDS-PAGE markers were analyzed using SPSSWIN soft ware and the multivariate statistical procedures: cluster analysis (UPGMA), principal component. Analysis of analysis of variance and mean comparison for morphological traits reflected significant differences among genotypes. Genotype 13 and 15 had the greatest values for most traits. The Genotypic Coefficient of Variation (GCV), Phenotypic Coefficient of Variation (PCV) and Heritability (Hb) parameters for different characters raged from 12.49 to 26.58% for PCV, hence the GCV ranged from 6.84 to 18.84%. The greatest value of Hb was 0.94 for stem number. Lucerne genotypes could be classified, based on morphological traits, into four clusters and 94% of the variance among the genotypes was explained by two PCAs: Based on chemical traits they were classified into five groups and 73.492% of variance was explained by four principal components: Dry matter, protein, fiber, P, K, Na, Mg and Zn had higher variance. Genotypes based on the SDS-PAGE patterns all genotypes were classified into three clusters. The greatest genetic distance was between cultivar 10 and others, therefore they would be suitable parent in a breeding program.

  15. Genomic Selection for Adjacent Genetic Markers of Yorkshire Pigs Using Regularized Regression Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Park, Minsu; Kim, Tae-Hun; Cho, Eun-Seok; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Hee-Seok

    2014-01-01

    This study considers a problem of genomic selection (GS) for adjacent genetic markers of Yorkshire pigs which are typically correlated. The GS has been widely used to efficiently estimate target variables such as molecular breeding values using markers across the entire genome. Recently, GS has been applied to animals as well as plants, especially to pigs. For efficient selection of variables with specific traits in pig breeding, it is required that any such variable selection retains some properties: i) it produces a simple model by identifying insignificant variables; ii) it improves the accuracy of the prediction of future data; and iii) it is feasible to handle high-dimensional data in which the number of variables is larger than the number of observations. In this paper, we applied several variable selection methods including least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), fused LASSO and elastic net to data with 47K single nucleotide polymorphisms and litter size for 519 observed sows. Based on experiments, we observed that the fused LASSO outperforms other approaches. PMID:25358359

  16. A sequence-based genetic map of Medicago truncatula and comparison of marker colinearity with M. sativa.

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hong-Kyu; Kim, Dongjin; Uhm, Taesik; Limpens, Eric; Lim, Hyunju; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Kalo, Peter; Penmetsa, R Varma; Seres, Andrea; Kulikova, Olga; Roe, Bruce A; Bisseling, Ton; Kiss, Gyorgy B; Cook, Douglas R

    2004-01-01

    A core genetic map of the legume Medicago truncatula has been established by analyzing the segregation of 288 sequence-characterized genetic markers in an F(2) population composed of 93 individuals. These molecular markers correspond to 141 ESTs, 80 BAC end sequence tags, and 67 resistance gene analogs, covering 513 cM. In the case of EST-based markers we used an intron-targeted marker strategy with primers designed to anneal in conserved exon regions and to amplify across intron regions. Polymorphisms were significantly more frequent in intron vs. exon regions, thus providing an efficient mechanism to map transcribed genes. Genetic and cytogenetic analysis produced eight well-resolved linkage groups, which have been previously correlated with eight chromosomes by means of FISH with mapped BAC clones. We anticipated that mapping of conserved coding regions would have utility for comparative mapping among legumes; thus 60 of the EST-based primer pairs were designed to amplify orthologous sequences across a range of legume species. As an initial test of this strategy, we used primers designed against M. truncatula exon sequences to rapidly map genes in M. sativa. The resulting comparative map, which includes 68 bridging markers, indicates that the two Medicago genomes are highly similar and establishes the basis for a Medicago composite map. PMID:15082563

  17. Genetic variation in the Solanaceae fruit bearing species lulo and tree tomato revealed by Conserved Ortholog (COSII) markers.

    PubMed

    Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix; Martínez, Rodrigo; Lobo, Mario; Barrero, Luz Stella

    2010-04-01

    The Lulo or naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) and the tree tomato or tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav. Sendt.) are both Andean tropical fruit species with high nutritional value and the potential for becoming premium products in local and export markets. Herein, we present a report on the genetic characterization of 62 accessions of lulos (n = 32) and tree tomatoes (n = 30) through the use of PCR-based markers developed from single-copy conserved orthologous genes (COSII) in other Solanaceae (Asterid) species. We successfully PCR amplified a set of these markers for lulos (34 out of 46 initially tested) and tree tomatoes (26 out of 41) for molecular studies. Six polymorphic COSII markers were found in lulo with a total of 47 alleles and five polymorphic markers in tree tomato with a total of 39 alleles in the two populations. Further genetic analyses indicated a high population structure (with F(ST) > 0.90), which may be a result of low migration between populations, adaptation to various niches and the number of markers evaluated. We propose COSII markers as sound tools for molecular studies, conservation and the breeding of these two fruit species. PMID:21637482

  18. Genetic variation in the Solanaceae fruit bearing species lulo and tree tomato revealed by Conserved Ortholog (COSII) markers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The Lulo or naranjilla (Solanum quitoense Lam.) and the tree tomato or tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav. Sendt.) are both Andean tropical fruit species with high nutritional value and the potential for becoming premium products in local and export markets. Herein, we present a report on the genetic characterization of 62 accessions of lulos (n = 32) and tree tomatoes (n = 30) through the use of PCR-based markers developed from single-copy conserved orthologous genes (COSII) in other Solanaceae (Asterid) species. We successfully PCR amplified a set of these markers for lulos (34 out of 46 initially tested) and tree tomatoes (26 out of 41) for molecular studies. Six polymorphic COSII markers were found in lulo with a total of 47 alleles and five polymorphic markers in tree tomato with a total of 39 alleles in the two populations. Further genetic analyses indicated a high population structure (with FST > 0.90), which may be a result of low migration between populations, adaptation to various niches and the number of markers evaluated. We propose COSII markers as sound tools for molecular studies, conservation and the breeding of these two fruit species. PMID:21637482

  19. Evidence for intragenic recombination within a novel genetic marker that distinguishes mussels in the Mytilus edulis species complex.

    PubMed

    Rawson, P D; Joyner, K L; Meetze, K; Hilbish, T J

    1996-12-01

    We have used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) techniques to design two genetic markers for blue mussels in the Mytilus edulis species complex. Both of these markers target the gene encoding the mussel polyphenolic adhesive protein. The first marker, Glu-5', is highly differentiated among and can be used to identify the three blue mussel species, M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis and M. trossulus. The second marker, Glu-3', can identify M. edulis and M. galloprovincialis. Using these markers we have demonstrated that hybrid mussels from Whitsand Bay, UK carry alleles for this gene that are the products of intragenic recombination. The high frequency (10 per cent) of these recombinant alleles within the hybrid population suggests that recombination is fairly frequent within this gene or that hybridization between M. edulis and M. galloprovincialis is substantial and has been occurring over considerable evolutionary time. The two novel genetic markers, Glu-5' and Glu-3' will be invaluable in additional studies regarding the importance of hybridization among blue mussels. PMID:8972080

  20. Identification of Nonpoint Sources of Fecal Pollution in Coastal Waters by Using Host-Specific 16S Ribosomal DNA Genetic Markers from Fecal Anaerobes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANNE E. BERNHARD; KATHARINE G. FIELD

    2000-01-01

    We describe a new PCR-based method for distinguishing human and cow fecal contamination in coastal waters without culturing indicator organisms, and we show that the method can be used to track bacterial marker sequences in complex environments. We identified two human-specific genetic markers and five cow-specific genetic markers in fecal samples by amplifying 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragments from members

  1. Novel Tetra-nucleotide Microsatellite DNA Markers for Assessing the Evolutionary Genetics and Demographics of Northern Snakehead (Channa argus) Invading North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Timothy L.; Johnson, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    We document the isolation and characterization of 19 tetra-nucleotide microsatellite DNA markers in northern snakehead (Channa argus) fish that recently colonized Meadow Lake, New York City, New York. These markers displayed moderate levels of allelic diversity (averaging 6.8 alleles/locus) and heterozygosity (averaging 74.2%). Demographic analyses suggested that the Meadow Lake collection has not achieved mutation-drift equilibrium. These results were consistent with instances of deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the presence of some linkage disequilibrium. A comparison of individual pair-wise distances suggested the presence of multiple differentiated groups of related individuals. Results of all analyses are consistent with a pattern of multiple, recent introductions. The microsatellite markers developed for C. argus yielded sufficient genetic diversity to potentially: (1) delineate kinship; (2) elucidate fine-scale population structure; (3) define management (eradication) units; (4) estimate dispersal rates; (5) estimate population sizes; and (6) provide unique demographic perspectives of control or eradication effectiveness

  2. Using Random Sequence Primers in the Polymerase Chain Reaction to identify Gender-Specific Genetic Markers in House Wrens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy J. Kirchman

    1994-01-01

    In order to fully understand the biology of asexually reproducing organism, it is essential that one is able to distinguish the males from the females. In determining the gender of monomorphic birds, standard techniques including visual identification, surgery, and karyotyping are impossible or impractical for large-scale studies. A reliable gender identification method that uses genetic markers identified within the DNA

  3. Genetic diversity of Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidea) based on analysis of inter-simple sequence repeat markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Bouzid; S. Lek; M. Mace; O. Ben Hassine; R. Etienne; L. Legal; G. Loot

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the genetic diversity of Ligula intestinalis populations, nine inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were applied to populations from nine geographical areas around the world and 10 host species. The 110 loci selected from the ISSR patterns produced revealed high variability among the analysed samples, with a polymorphism of 100% and a global coefficient of gene differentiation

  4. Estimation of pairwise relatedness between individuals and characterization of isolation-by-distance processes using dominant genetic markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OLIVIER J. H ARDY

    A new estimator of the pairwise relatedness coefficient between individuals adapted to dominant genetic markers is developed. This estimator does not assume genotypes to be in Hardy-Weinberg proportions but requires a knowledge of the departure from these proportions (i.e. the inbreeding coefficient). Simulations show that the estimator provides accurate estimates, except for some particular types of individual pairs such as

  5. ASSESSING GENETIC DIVERSITY AND POPULATION STRUCTURE IN A CITRUS GERMPLASM COLLECTION UTILIZING SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEAT MARKERS (SSRS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-four simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to detect molecular polymorphisms among 370 apparently sexually-derived Citrus accessions from the Citrus Variert Collection maintained at the University of California, Riverside. Genetic diversity statistics were calculated for each indivi...

  6. Evaluation of genetic diversity and pedigree within crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia spp.) cultivars using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity was estimated for 93 crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia spp.) cultivars (51 L. indica cultivars, 5 L. fauriei cultivars, and 37 interspecific hybrids) using 78 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. SSR loci were highly variable among the cultivars, detecting an average of 6.6 alleles per l...

  7. A population genetic comparison of large- and small-bodied sage grouse in Colorado using microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Oyler-mccance; N. W. Kahn; K. P. Burnham; C. E. Braun

    1999-01-01

    Sage grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus ) from southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah (United States) are 33% smaller than all other sage grouse and have obvious plumage and behavioural differences. Because of these differences, they have been tentatively recog- nized as a separate 'small-bodied' species. We collected genetic evidence to further test this proposal, using mitochondrial sequence data and microsatellite markers

  8. Genetic diversity and relationship among faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasm entries as revealed by TRAP markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) markers were used to assess genetic diversity and relationship among 151 world-wide collected faba bean (Vicia faba L.) entries (137 accessions maintained at the USDA-ARS, Pullman, WA, two commercial varieties and 12 elite cultivars and advanced breedi...

  9. Genetic differentiation induced by spaceflight treatment of Cistanche deserticola and identification of inter-simple sequence repeat markers associated with its medicinal constituent contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Yang, D. Y.; Tu, P. F.; Tian, Y. Z.; Guo, Y. H.; Wang, X. M.; Li, X. B.

    2011-02-01

    The dried, fleshy stems of Cistanche deserticola (Orobanchaceae) are popular tonics in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to treat the inability of kidney in expelling extra fluid in the body, causing fluid retention, and reform reproductive system. However, the wild plants of C. deserticola have become endangered due to habitat downsizing and over-harvesting for its medicinal usages. The present research was carried out for the following purposes: (1) promoting the space-breeding research; (2) providing molecular evidence for agricultural selective breeding; and (3) protecting this endangered herbal medicine and conserving its genetic resources.In this study, plants were cultivated from seeds specifically treated in spaceflight for seven days, and sampled to screen positive mutants and identify ISSR markers associated with their medicinal constituents. As a result, nine out of the 94 ISSR primers were showed high polymorphism, and a total of 118 bands were generated, of which 80 were polymorphic, ranging from 250 to 2600 bp. The spaceflight mutants were found to have lower coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst = 0.0269), and higher gene flow (Nm = 18.0740) than those of the controls (Gst = 0.2067 and Nm = 1.9185). The results demonstrated that most of the genetic variation were harnessed within populations (>97%). The Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) revealed high genetic variation within populations (88.03%) and low genetic differentiation among regions (-18.83%) and populations (30.79%), respectively. The results also indicated a profound difference between spaceflight condition and that on the earth. The unique vacuum environment of spaceflight was suggested to induce DNA mutation and various variations of C. deserticola. In addition, six particular ISSR markers were identified, cloned and sequenced; one of them, CA41939-934, was found positively correlated with acteoside with correlation coefficient values of 0.264 (P < 0.05). Our work may provide a valuable molecular evidence for establishing conservation strategies and space-breeding research program.

  10. Genetic diversity and differentiation in Prunus species (Rosaceae) using chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA CAPS markers.

    PubMed

    Ben Mustapha, S; Ben Tamarzizt, H; Baraket, G; Abdallah, D; Salhi Hannachi, A

    2015-01-01

    Chloroplast (cpDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were analyzed to establish genetic relationships among Tunisian plum cultivars using the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Two mtDNA regions (nad 1 b/c and nad 4 1/2) and a cpDNA region (trnL-trnF) were amplified and digested using restriction enzymes. Seventy and six polymorphic sites were revealed in cpDNA and mtDNA, respectively. As a consequence, cpDNA appears to be more polymorphic than mtDNA. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram showed that accessions were distributed independently of their geographical origin, and introduced and local cultivars appear to be closely related. Both UPGMA and principal component analysis grouped Tunisian plum accessions into similar clusters. The analysis of the pooled sequences allowed the detection of 17 chlorotypes and 12 mitotypes. The unique haplotypes detected for cultivars are valuable for management and preservation of the plum local resources. From this study, PCR-RFLP analysis appears to be a useful approach to detect and identify cytoplasmic variation in plum trees. Our results also provide useful information for the management of genetic resources and to establish a program to improve the genetic resources available for plums. PMID:25966190

  11. Unique correlation between mutated citrullinated vimentine IgG autoantibodies and markers of systemic inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Walid E; Mahmoud, Magda I; Shalaby, Kamal A; Abbas, Manal H

    2013-07-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common inflammatory systemic autoimmune disease, primarily affecting the peripheral joints. Anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin autoantibodies (anti-MCV) of IgG isotype were shown to be a useful diagnostic marker of RA especially in RA patients who were anti-cyclic citrullinated protein autoantibodies (anti-CCP) negative. Nevertheless, published data correlates rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-CCP or anti-MCV antibodies with either erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) or serum C-reactive protein (CRP) as markers of disease activity, not investigated the possible correlations of RA autoantibodies towards ESR and CRP in comparison. Herein, we aim to evaluate the usefulness of anti-MCV as a dependable marker in established RA compared with anti-CCP and RF antibodies and to examine correlations between RF, anti-CCP and anti-MCV antibodies towards ESR and serum CRP. Serum RF-IgA, RF-IgM, anti-CCP and anti-MCV levels were measured in 30 patients with RA and 40 patients with other autoimmune diseases (non-RA) compared with 20 normal subjects. Specificity, sensitivity and AUC for RF antibodies, anti-CCP and anti-MCV were calculated towards RA diagnosis. Our results showed that ESR and CRP had significantly higher values in both RA and non-RA patients compared with our healthy controls with observed significant increment in RA patients compared with non-RA patients. An important finding from our study is that 33.3 % of RA patients were anti-CCP negative but being positive towards anti-MCV. Also, in-between 36.7 up to 40 % of RA patients were RF-IgA and RF-IgM negative while being anti-MCV positive. Anti-MCV antibodies showed the highest specificity and sensitivity (97.5 and 86.6 %, respectively) towards RA diagnosis with the highest AUC value (0.920) compared with anti-CCP and RF antibodies. Correlation analyses revealed that there was no significant correlation between ESR along with CRP towards RF-IgA, RF-IgM and anti-CCP while profound highly significant correlation exhibited between ESR and CRP towards anti-MCV data (r = 0.879 and 0.994, respectively). Thus, our data suggest that the assessment of serum anti-MCV autoantibodies along with ESR and CRP considered as a simple laboratory regime for monitoring RA patients to assess and follow-up disease activity. The addition of anti-MCV autoantibodies to serologic markers in the ACR/EULAR classification criteria for RA will add points for patients with negative anti-CCP and RF antibodies. PMID:24426223

  12. Uniparental markers in Italy reveal a sex-biased genetic structure and different historical strata.

    PubMed

    Boattini, Alessio; Martinez-Cruz, Begoña; Sarno, Stefania; Harmant, Christine; Useli, Antonella; Sanz, Paula; Yang-Yao, Daniele; Manry, Jeremy; Ciani, Graziella; Luiselli, Donata; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Comas, David; Pettener, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Located in the center of the Mediterranean landscape and with an extensive coastal line, the territory of what is today Italy has played an important role in the history of human settlements and movements of Southern Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. Populated since Paleolithic times, the complexity of human movements during the Neolithic, the Metal Ages and the most recent history of the two last millennia (involving the overlapping of different cultural and demic strata) has shaped the pattern of the modern Italian genetic structure. With the aim of disentangling this pattern and understanding which processes more importantly shaped the distribution of diversity, we have analyzed the uniparentally-inherited markers in ?900 individuals from an extensive sampling across the Italian peninsula, Sardinia and Sicily. Spatial PCAs and DAPCs revealed a sex-biased pattern indicating different demographic histories for males and females. Besides the genetic outlier position of Sardinians, a North West-South East Y-chromosome structure is found in continental Italy. Such structure is in agreement with recent archeological syntheses indicating two independent and parallel processes of Neolithisation. In addition, date estimates pinpoint the importance of the cultural and demographic events during the late Neolithic and Metal Ages. On the other hand, mitochondrial diversity is distributed more homogeneously in agreement with older population events that might be related to the presence of an Italian Refugium during the last glacial period in Europe. PMID:23734255

  13. Test for interactions between a genetic marker set and environment in generalized linear models.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xinyi; Lee, Seunggeun; Christiani, David C; Lin, Xihong

    2013-09-01

    We consider in this paper testing for interactions between a genetic marker set and an environmental variable. A common practice in studying gene-environment (GE) interactions is to analyze one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at a time. It is of significant interest to analyze SNPs in a biologically defined set simultaneously, e.g. gene or pathway. In this paper, we first show that if the main effects of multiple SNPs in a set are associated with a disease/trait, the classical single SNP-GE interaction analysis can be biased. We derive the asymptotic bias and study the conditions under which the classical single SNP-GE interaction analysis is unbiased. We further show that, the simple minimum p-value-based SNP-set GE analysis, can be biased and have an inflated Type 1 error rate. To overcome these difficulties, we propose a computationally efficient and powerful gene-environment set association test (GESAT) in generalized linear models. Our method tests for SNP-set by environment interactions using a variance component test, and estimates the main SNP effects under the null hypothesis using ridge regression. We evaluate the performance of GESAT using simulation studies, and apply GESAT to data from the Harvard lung cancer genetic study to investigate GE interactions between the SNPs in the 15q24-25.1 region and smoking on lung cancer risk. PMID:23462021

  14. [Analysis of genetic structure of mirror carp population and correlation of microsatellite markers and economic traits].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Wei, Zhen-Bang; Sun, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Cui-Yun

    2008-03-01

    The genetic structure of one breeding population of mirror carp(Cyprinus carpio L.) was analysed using thirty-five polymorphic microsatellite markers. The effective number of alleles (Ae), observed heterozygosity (Ho), expected heterozygosity (He) and polymorphism information content(PIC) were all determined. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was checked by chi-square test. For each locus, 2-7 alleles were detected, with a total of 118 alleles for 35 loci . The value of Ae, Ho, He and PIC showed that the genetic variation of the population was not high .The average effective number of alleles and the mean polymorphism information content were 2.16 and 0.42, respectively, and the observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.431 and 0.4736 , respectively.The probability value of chi-square test showed that more than half of the thirty-five loci have significantly (Plt;0.01) deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The correlation of genotype of each locus and individual phenotype data was analysed , and 4 loci seemed associated with body weight and body size . When compared with the result of QTL mapping of common carp, HLJ319 locus was consistent with the mapping result approximately, which was significantly correlated with body size . Several significantly deviated loci were also analysed, and the possible cause of the kind of deviation was discussed . PMID:18332007

  15. Results of the BRD CAP project: progress toward identifying genetic markers associated with BRD susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Van Eenennaam, Alison; Neibergs, Holly; Seabury, Christopher; Taylor, Jeremy; Wang, Zeping; Scraggs, Erik; Schnabel, Robert D; Decker, Jared; Wojtowicz, Andrzej; Aly, Sharif; Davis, Jessica; Blanchard, Patricia; Crossley, Beate; Rossitto, Paul; Lehenbauer, Terry; Hagevoort, Robert; Chavez, Erik; Neibergs, J Shannon; Womack, James E

    2014-12-01

    The Bovine Respiratory Disease Coordinated Agricultural Project (BRD CAP) is a 5-year project funded by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), with an overriding objective to use the tools of modern genomics to identify cattle that are less susceptible to BRD. To do this, two large genome wide association studies (GWAS) were conducted using a case:control design on preweaned Holstein dairy heifers and beef feedlot cattle. A health scoring system was used to identify BRD cases and controls. Heritability estimates for BRD susceptibility ranged from 19 to 21% in dairy calves to 29.2% in beef cattle when using numerical scores as a semi-quantitative definition of BRD. A GWAS analysis conducted on the dairy calf data showed that single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects explained 20% of the variation in BRD incidence and 17-20% of the variation in clinical signs. These results represent a preliminary analysis of ongoing work to identify loci associated with BRD. Future work includes validation of the chromosomal regions and SNPs that have been identified as important for BRD susceptibility, fine mapping of chromosomes to identify causal SNPs, and integration of predictive markers for BRD susceptibility into genetic tests and national cattle genetic evaluations. PMID:25384903

  16. Retrotransposon-based molecular markers for analysis of genetic diversity within the Genus Linum.

    PubMed

    Melnikova, Nataliya V; Kudryavtseva, Anna V; Zelenin, Alexander V; Lakunina, Valentina A; Yurkevich, Olga Yu; Speranskaya, Anna S; Dmitriev, Alexey A; Krinitsina, Anastasia A; Belenikin, Maxim S; Uroshlev, Leonid A; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V; Sadritdinova, Asiya F; Koroban, Nadezda V; Amosova, Alexandra V; Samatadze, Tatiana E; Guzenko, Elena V; Lemesh, Valentina A; Savilova, Anastasya M; Rachinskaia, Olga A; Kishlyan, Natalya V; Rozhmina, Tatiana A; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L; Muravenko, Olga V

    2014-01-01

    SSAP method was used to study the genetic diversity of 22 Linum species from sections Linum, Adenolinum, Dasylinum, Stellerolinum, and 46 flax cultivars. All the studied flax varieties were distinguished using SSAP for retrotransposons FL9 and FL11. Thus, the validity of SSAP method was demonstrated for flax marking, identification of accessions in genebank collections, and control during propagation of flax varieties. Polymorphism of Fl1a, Fl1b, and Cassandra insertions were very low in flax varieties, but these retrotransposons were successfully used for the investigation of Linum species. Species clusterization based on SSAP markers was in concordance with their taxonomic division into sections Dasylinum, Stellerolinum, Adenolinum, and Linum. All species of sect. Adenolinum clustered apart from species of sect. Linum. The data confirmed the accuracy of the separation in these sections. Members of section Linum are not as closely related as members of other sections, so taxonomic revision of this section is desirable. L. usitatissimum accessions genetically distant from modern flax cultivars were revealed in our work. These accessions are of utmost interest for flax breeding and introduction of new useful traits into flax cultivars. The chromosome localization of Cassandra retrotransposon in Linum species was determined. PMID:25243121

  17. Limitations to estimating bacterial cross-speciestransmission using genetic and genomic markers: inferencesfrom simulation modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Julio Andre, Benavides; Cross, Paul C.; Luikart, Gordon; Scott, Creel

    2014-01-01

    Cross-species transmission (CST) of bacterial pathogens has major implications for human health, livestock, and wildlife management because it determines whether control actions in one species may have subsequent effects on other potential host species. The study of bacterial transmission has benefitted from methods measuring two types of genetic variation: variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, it is unclear whether these data can distinguish between different epidemiological scenarios. We used a simulation model with two host species and known transmission rates (within and between species) to evaluate the utility of these markers for inferring CST. We found that CST estimates are biased for a wide range of parameters when based on VNTRs and a most parsimonious reconstructed phylogeny. However, estimations of CST rates lower than 5% can be achieved with relatively low bias using as low as 250 SNPs. CST estimates are sensitive to several parameters, including the number of mutations accumulated since introduction, stochasticity, the genetic difference of strains introduced, and the sampling effort. Our results suggest that, even with whole-genome sequences, unbiased estimates of CST will be difficult when sampling is limited, mutation rates are low, or for pathogens that were recently introduced.

  18. Genetic neighbourhood of clone structures in eelgrass meadows quantified by spatial autocorrelation of microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Hämmerli, A; Reusch, T B H

    2003-11-01

    Limited dispersal distances in plant populations frequently cause local genetic structure, which can be quantified by spatial autocorrelation. In clonal plants, three levels of spatial organization can contribute to positive autocorrelation; namely, the neighbourhood of (a) ramets, (b) clone fragments and (c) entire clones. Here we use data from an exhaustive sampling scheme on a clonal plant to measure the contribution of the neighbourhoods of each distinct clonal structure to total spatial autocorrelation. Four plots (256 grid points each) within dense meadows of the marine clonal plant Zostera marina (eelgrass) were sampled for clone structure with nine microsatellite markers ( approximately 80 alleles). We found significant coancestry (f(ij)), at all three levels of spatial organization, even when not allowing for joins between samples of identical genets. In addition, absolute values of f(ij) and the maximum distance with significant positive f(ij) decreased with the progressive exclusion of joins between alike genotypes. The neighbourhood of this clonal plant thus consists of three levels of organization, which are reflected in different kinship structures. Each of these kinship structures may affect the level of biparental inbreeding and the physical distance between flowering shoots and their outcrossing neighbourhood. These results also emphasize the notion that spatial autocorrelation crucially depends on the scale and intensity of sampling. PMID:14576737

  19. Uniparental Markers in Italy Reveal a Sex-Biased Genetic Structure and Different Historical Strata

    PubMed Central

    Sarno, Stefania; Harmant, Christine; Useli, Antonella; Sanz, Paula; Yang-Yao, Daniele; Manry, Jeremy; Ciani, Graziella; Luiselli, Donata; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Comas, David; Pettener, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Located in the center of the Mediterranean landscape and with an extensive coastal line, the territory of what is today Italy has played an important role in the history of human settlements and movements of Southern Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. Populated since Paleolithic times, the complexity of human movements during the Neolithic, the Metal Ages and the most recent history of the two last millennia (involving the overlapping of different cultural and demic strata) has shaped the pattern of the modern Italian genetic structure. With the aim of disentangling this pattern and understanding which processes more importantly shaped the distribution of diversity, we have analyzed the uniparentally-inherited markers in ?900 individuals from an extensive sampling across the Italian peninsula, Sardinia and Sicily. Spatial PCAs and DAPCs revealed a sex-biased pattern indicating different demographic histories for males and females. Besides the genetic outlier position of Sardinians, a North West–South East Y-chromosome structure is found in continental Italy. Such structure is in agreement with recent archeological syntheses indicating two independent and parallel processes of Neolithisation. In addition, date estimates pinpoint the importance of the cultural and demographic events during the late Neolithic and Metal Ages. On the other hand, mitochondrial diversity is distributed more homogeneously in agreement with older population events that might be related to the presence of an Italian Refugium during the last glacial period in Europe. PMID:23734255

  20. Assessment of genetic diversity among Indian potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) collection using microsatellite and retrotransposon based marker systems.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vishakha; Nandineni, Madhusudan R

    2014-04-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important non-cereal crop throughout the world and is highly recommended for ensuring global food security. Owing to the complexities in genetics and inheritance pattern of potato, the conventional method of cross breeding for developing improved varieties has been difficult. Identification and tagging of desirable traits with informative molecular markers would aid in the development of improved varieties. Insertional polymorphism of copia-like and gypsy-like long terminal repeat retrotransposons (RTN) were investigated among 47 potato varieties from India using Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) and Retrotransposon Microsatellite Amplified Polymorphism (REMAP) marker techniques and were compared with the DNA profiles obtained with simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The genetic polymorphism, efficiency of polymorphism and effectiveness of marker systems were evaluated to assess the extent of genetic diversity among Indian potato varieties. A total of 139 polymorphic SSR alleles, 270 IRAP and 98 REMAP polymorphic bands, showing polymorphism of 100%, 87.9% and 68.5%, respectively, were used for detailed characterization of the genetic relationships among potato varieties by using cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). IRAP analysis resulted in the highest number of polymorphic bands with an average of 15 polymorphic bands per assay unit when compared to the other two marker systems. Based on pair-wise comparison, the genetic similarity was calculated using Dice similarity coefficient. The SSRs showed a wide range in genetic similarity values (0.485-0.971) as compared to IRAP (0.69-0.911) and REMAP (0.713-0.947). A Mantel's matrix correspondence test showed a high positive correlation (r=0.6) between IRAP and REMAP, an intermediate value (r=0.58) for IRAP and SSR and the lowest value (r=0.17) for SSR and REMAP. Statistically significant cophenetic correlation coefficient values, of 0.961, 0.941 and 0.905 were observed for REMAP, IRAP and SSR, respectively. The widespread presence and distinct DNA profiles for copia-like and gypsy-like RTNs in the examined genotypes indicate that these elements are active in the genome and may have even contributed to the potato genome organization. Although the three marker systems were capable of distinguishing all the 47 varieties; high reproducibility, low cost and ease of DNA profiling data collection make IRAP and REMAP markers highly efficient whole-genome scanning molecular probes for population genetic studies. Information obtained from the present study regarding the genetic association and distinctiveness provides an useful guide for selection of germplasm for plant breeding and conservation efforts. PMID:24440815

  1. Induction, by thymidylate stress, of genetic recombination as evidenced by deletion of a transferred genetic marker in mouse FM3A cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ayusawa, D.; Koyama, H.; Shimizu, K.; Kaneda, S.; Takeishi, K.; Seno, T.

    1986-10-01

    Studies were made on the genetic consequences of methotrexate-directed thymidylate stress, focusing attention on a human thymidylate synthase gene that was introduced as a heterologous genetic marker into mouse thymidylate synthase-negative mutant cells. Thymidylate stress induced thymidylate synthase-negative segregants with concomitant loss of human thymidylate synthase activity with frequencies 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than the uninduced spontaneous level in some but not all transformant lines. Induction of the segregants was suppressed almost completely by cycloheximide and partially by caffeine. Thymidylate stress did not, however, induce mutations, as determined by measuring resistance to ouabain or 6-thioguanine. Thymidylate synthase-negative segregants were also induced by other means such as bromodeoxyuridine treatment and X-ray irradiation. In each of the synthase-negative segregants induced by thymidylate stress, a DNA segment including almost the whole coding region of the transferred human thymidylate synthase gene was deleted in a very specific manner, as shown by Southern blot analysis with a human Alu sequence and a human thymidylate synthase cDNA as probes. In the segregants that emerged spontaneously at low frequency, the entire transferred genetic marker was lost. In the segregants induced by X-ray irradiation, structural alterations of the genetic marker were random. These results show that thymidylate stress is a physiological factor that provokes the instability of this exogenously incorporated DNA in some specific manner and produces nonrandom genetic recombination in mammalian cells.

  2. MLVA and SNP analysis identified a unique genetic cluster in Bulgarian Bacillus anthracis strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Antwerpen; D. Ilin; E. Georgieva; H. Meyer; E. Savov; D. Frangoulidis

    2011-01-01

    A collection of 40 Bacillus anthracis strains mostly isolated from soil in Bulgaria between 1960 and 1980 were investigated. All strains were proven to be B. anthracis by culture and amplification of a B. anthracis-specific chromosomal marker. PCR demonstrated that in nine strains both virulence plasmids (pX01+\\/pX02+) and in four strains\\u000a only one plasmid (pX02+) were present, whereas the majority

  3. Application of Microsatellite Markers in Conservation Genetics and Fisheries Management: Recent Advances in Population Structure Analysis and Conservation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Muneer, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Microsatellites are the most popular and versatile genetic marker with myriads of applications in population genetics, conservation biology, and evolutionary biology. These are the arrays of DNA sequences, consisting of tandemly repeating mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide units, which are distributed throughout the genomes of most eukaryotic species. Microsatellites are codominant in nature, highly polymorphic, easily typed, and Mendelian inherited, all properties which make them very suitable for the study of population structure and pedigree analysis and capable of detecting differences among closely related species. PCR for microsatellites can be automated for identifying simple sequence repeat polymorphism. Small amount of blood samples or alcohol preserved tissue is adequate for analyzing them. Most of the microsatellites are noncoding, and therefore variations are independent of natural selection. These properties make microsatellites ideal genetic markers for conservation genetics and fisheries management. This review addresses the applications of microsatellite markers in conservation genetics and recent advances in population structure analysis in the context of fisheries management. PMID:24808959

  4. [Genetic variability and differentiation of three Russian populations of yellow potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis as revealed by nuclear markers].

    PubMed

    Khrisanfova, G G; Kharchevnikov, D A; Popov, I O; Zinov'eva, S V; Semenova, S K

    2008-05-01

    Genetic variability of yellow potato cyst nematode G. rostochiensis from three Russian populations (Karelia, Vladimir oblast, and Moscow oblast) was investigated using two types of nuclear markers. Using RAPD markers identified with the help of six random primers (P-29, OPA-10, OPT-14, OPA-11, OPB-11, and OPH-20), it was possible to distinguish Karelian population from the group consisting of the populations from two adjacent regions (Moscow oblast and Vladimir oblast). Based on the combined matrix, containing 294 RAPD fragments, dendrogram of genetic differences was constructed, and the indices of genetic divergence and partition (P, H, and G(st)), as well as the gene flow indices N(m) between the nematode samples examined, were calculated. The dendrogram structure, genetic diversity indices, and variations of genetic distances between single individuals in each population from Karelia and Central Russia pointed to genetic isolation and higher genetic diversity of the nematodes from Karelia. Based on polymorphism of rDNA first intergenic spacer ITS1, attribution of all populations examined to the species G. rostochiensis was proved. Small variations of the ITS1 sequence in different geographic populations of nematodes from different regions of the species world range did not allow isolation of separate groups within the species. Possible factors (including interregional transportations of seed potato) affecting nematode population structure in Russia are discussed. PMID:18672794

  5. Outlier SNP markers reveal fine-scale genetic structuring across European hake populations (Merluccius merluccius).

    PubMed

    Milano, Ilaria; Babbucci, Massimiliano; Cariani, Alessia; Atanassova, Miroslava; Bekkevold, Dorte; Carvalho, Gary R; Espiñeira, Montserrat; Fiorentino, Fabio; Garofalo, Germana; Geffen, Audrey J; Hansen, Jakob H; Helyar, Sarah J; Nielsen, Einar E; Ogden, Rob; Patarnello, Tomaso; Stagioni, Marco; Tinti, Fausto; Bargelloni, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Shallow population structure is generally reported for most marine fish and explained as a consequence of high dispersal, connectivity and large population size. Targeted gene analyses and more recently genome-wide studies have challenged such view, suggesting that adaptive divergence might occur even when neutral markers provide genetic homogeneity across populations. Here, 381 SNPs located in transcribed regions were used to assess large- and fine-scale population structure in the European hake (Merluccius merluccius), a widely distributed demersal species of high priority for the European fishery. Analysis of 850 individuals from 19 locations across the entire distribution range showed evidence for several outlier loci, with significantly higher resolving power. While 299 putatively neutral SNPs confirmed the genetic break between basins (F(CT) = 0.016) and weak differentiation within basins, outlier loci revealed a dramatic divergence between Atlantic and Mediterranean populations (F(CT) range 0.275-0.705) and fine-scale significant population structure. Outlier loci separated North Sea and Northern Portugal populations from all other Atlantic samples and revealed a strong differentiation among Western, Central and Eastern Mediterranean geographical samples. Significant correlation of allele frequencies at outlier loci with seawater surface temperature and salinity supported the hypothesis that populations might be adapted to local conditions. Such evidence highlights the importance of integrating information from neutral and adaptive evolutionary patterns towards a better assessment of genetic diversity. Accordingly, the generated outlier SNP data could be used for tackling illegal practices in hake fishing and commercialization as well as to develop explicit spatial models for defining management units and stock boundaries. PMID:24138219

  6. Genetic evidence for reproductive isolation among sympatric epichloë endophytes as inferred from newly developed microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Schirrmann, Melanie K; Zoller, Stefan; Fior, Simone; Leuchtmann, Adrian

    2015-07-01

    Reproductive isolation is central to the maintenance of species, and especially in sympatry, effective barriers to prevent interspecific crosses are expected. Host specificity is thought to constitute an effective mechanism for the formation of barriers in different genera of Fungi, but evidence for endophytes is so far lacking. Sexual Epichloë species (Ascomycota, Clavicipitaceae) represent an ideal study system to investigate the mechanisms underlying speciation as mediated by host specificity because they include species complexes with several host-specific taxa. Here, we studied genetic differentiation of three host-specific Epichloë species using microsatellite markers that were newly in silico identified on the genome of Epichloë poae. Among these, 15 were experimentally tested and applied to study an extensive sampling of isolates representing Epichloë typhina infecting Dactylis glomerata and Epichloë clarkii infecting Holcus lanatus from a site with sympatric populations in Switzerland, as well as a reduced sampling of E. poae infecting Poa nemoralis to create a three-taxon dataset. Both principal coordinate analysis and Bayesian clustering algorithm showed three genetically distinct groups representing the three host-specific species. High pairwise F ST values among the three species, as well as sequencing data of the tefA gene revealing diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), further support the hypothesis of genetic discontinuities among the taxa. These results provide genotypic evidence of the maintenance of reproductive isolation of the species in a context of sympatry. In silico testing of 885 discovered microsatellites on the genome of Epichloë festucae extend their applicability to a wider taxonomic range of Epichloë. PMID:25542204

  7. [Markers for non-invasive molecular genetic diagnosis of oncourological diseases].

    PubMed

    Mikha?lenko, D S; Perepechin, D V; Apolikhin, O I; Efremov, G D; Sivkov, A V

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is accumulated mass of data on the molecular-genetic disorders in prostate cancer (PCa), bladder cancer (BC) and renal cancer (RC). Tumor cells in these diseases are present in the urine sediment; their number is sufficient for molecular genetic analysis that makes possible the development of noninvasive diagnosis of oncourological diseases. A characteristic feature of PCa includes the overexpression of the PCA3 gene; assay kit Progensa™ to quantify such overexpression has been developed; approximately 50% of tumors express a TMPRSS2-ERG chimeric oncogene. Combined analysis of PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG allows to detect PCa with a diagnostic accuracy of 84%, which is significantly higher than that of prostate specific antigen test. As a potential markers of BC, there are somatic mutations in FGFR3, PIK3CA, TERT genes in urine sediment, which are found in this disease with a frequency of about 60, 30 and 50%, respectively. The basis of the test system for DNA diagnosis of BC in urine sediment may include a definition of a combination of mutations in these genes with microsatellite instability. Aberrant methylation of the 5'-regulatory regions of tumor suppressor genes, integrated in the panel, also is considered as a tool in the diagnosis of RC (VHL, RASSF1, RARB2, CDH1), PCa (GSTP1, PTGS2, LGALS3) and BC (RASSF1, APC, SFRP2) after standardization of panels of loci investigated, sample preparation methods, bisulfite conversion, and the design of primers and probes. Thus, a test systems for molecular genetic diagnosis of oncourological diseases in urine sediment are currently available or may be developed in the near future. PMID:25807773

  8. [Comparative analysis of genetic variability of White Sea Cod (Gadus morhua marisalbi) at allozyme and microsatellite markers].

    PubMed

    2013-12-01

    Variability of cod spawning and feeding schools from Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea, was examined at six allozyme and eight microsatellite loci. The degree of genetic differentiation at allozyme loci constituted 0 = 0.36% [95% bootstrap interval 0.0458; 0.6743]. The differentiation estimates obtained using microsatellite markers were higher, 0 = 1.33% [0.057; 3.11]. It was demonstrated that the level of genetic diversity in the White Seacod was lower than that established for the Atlantic cod from Barents Sea using the same set of al- lozyme and microsatellite markers. The genetic data obtained support the opinion that the White Sea cod is a reproductively independent group formed as a result of the Holocene dispersal of Atlantic cod. PMID:25508130

  9. [Comparative analysis of genetic variability of White Sea Cod (Gadus morhua marisalbi) at allozyme and microsatellite markers].

    PubMed

    Stroganov, A N; Cherenkova, N N; Semenova, A V; Afanas'ev, K I; Andreeva, A P

    2013-12-01

    Variability of cod spawning and feeding schools from Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea, was examined at six allozyme and eight microsatellite loci. The degree of genetic differentiation at allozyme loci constituted 0 = 0.36% [95% bootstrap interval 0.0458; 0.6743]. The differentiation estimates obtained using microsatellite markers were higher, 0 = 1.33% [0.057; 3.11]. It was demonstrated that the level of genetic diversity in the White Seacod was lower than that established for the Atlantic cod from Barents Sea using the same set of al- lozyme and microsatellite markers. The genetic data obtained support the opinion that the White Sea cod is a reproductively independent group formed as a result of the Holocene dispersal of Atlantic cod. PMID:25438599

  10. Molecular genetic approach for identifying markers associated with yield traits in the silkworm, Bombyx mori using RFLP-STS primers.

    PubMed

    Mohandas, T P; Sethuraman, B N; Saratchandra, B; Chatterjee, S N

    2004-10-01

    Bombyx mori, the mulberry silkworm, exhibits wide variability in yield and developmental attributes. The genetics of yield expression, shown to be of polygenic nature, is poorly studied in silkworm. To identify markers associated with 10 selected yield traits, multiple regression analysis (MRA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA) were applied on 64 markers generated with eight RFLP-derived sequence-tagged-site (STS) primers on the genomic DNA of 20 silkworm stocks of different origin and diverse yield potential. The analyses led to the identification of ten markers showing significant association with the different yield traits. The markers could classify the stocks according to yield potential, irrespective of their origin and status of diapause. Trait means were significantly different for stocks with and with out the associated marker. The inheritance of a marker G2(1300bp), selected at the first step of MRA for five yield traits was shown to segregate in 1:1 ratio in the F2 progeny from a cross between two divergent stocks. The relevance of the STS primers is discussed in the context of applying multiple regression model for identifying markers associated with yield expression and suitability for molecular breeding work in B. mori for yield improvement. PMID:15609576

  11. Genetic ancestry inference using support vector machines, and the active emergence of a unique American population.

    PubMed

    Haasl, Ryan J; McCarty, Catherine A; Payseur, Bret A

    2013-05-01

    We use genotype data from the Marshfield Clinical Research Foundation Personalized Medicine Research Project to investigate genetic similarity and divergence between Europeans and the sampled population of European Americans in Central Wisconsin, USA. To infer recent genetic ancestry of the sampled Wisconsinites, we train support vector machines (SVMs) on the positions of Europeans along top principal components (PCs). Our SVM models partition continent-wide European genetic variance into eight regional classes, which is an improvement over the geographically broader categories of recent ancestry reported by personal genomics companies. After correcting for misclassification error associated with the SVMs (<10%, in all cases), we observe a >14% discrepancy between insular ancestries reported by Wisconsinites and those inferred by SVM. Values of FST as well as Mantel tests for correlation between genetic and European geographic distances indicate minimal divergence between Europe and the local Wisconsin population. However, we find that individuals from the Wisconsin sample show greater dispersion along higher-order PCs than individuals from Europe. Hypothesizing that this pattern is characteristic of nascent divergence, we run computer simulations that mimic the recent peopling of Wisconsin. Simulations corroborate the pattern in higher-order PCs, demonstrate its transient nature, and show that admixture accelerates the rate of divergence between the admixed population and its parental sources relative to drift alone. Together, empirical and simulation results suggest that genetic divergence between European source populations and European Americans in Central Wisconsin is subtle but already under way. PMID:23211701

  12. Unique genetic loci identified for emotional behavior in control and chronic stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    Carhuatanta, Kimberly A. K.; Shea, Chloe J. A.; Herman, James P.; Jankord, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    An individual's genetic background affects their emotional behavior and response to stress. Although studies have been conducted to identify genetic predictors for emotional behavior or stress response, it remains unknown how prior stress history alters the interaction between an individual's genome and their emotional behavior. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify chromosomal regions that affect emotional behavior and are sensitive to stress exposure. We utilized the BXD behavioral genetics mouse model to identify chromosomal regions that predict fear learning and emotional behavior following exposure to a control or chronic stress environment. 62 BXD recombinant inbred strains and C57BL/6 and DBA/2 parental strains underwent behavioral testing including a classical fear conditioning paradigm and the elevated plus maze. Distinct quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified for emotional learning, anxiety and locomotion in control and chronic stress populations. Candidate genes, including those with already known functions in learning and stress were found to reside within the identified QTLs. Our data suggest that chronic stress history reveals novel genetic predictors of emotional behavior. PMID:25374516

  13. Genetic analysis of a local population of Oryza glumaepatula using SSR markers: implications for management and conservation programs.

    PubMed

    de Campos Vaz, Ana Rosa; de Oliveira Borba, Tereza Cristina; Brondani, Claudio; Rangel, Paulo Hideo Nakano; de Oliveira Camargo, Graziela Silvia; de Campos Telles, Mariana Pires; Filho, José Alexandre Felizola Diniz; Brondani, Rosana Pereira Vianello

    2009-11-01

    Knowledge of natural diversity and population structures of wild species, which might be related to cultivated species, is fundamental for conservation and breeding purposes. In this study, a genetic characterization of a large population of Oryza glumaepatula, occurring in a 10 km(2) area located at Tamengo Basin (Paraguay River, Brazil), was performed using SSR markers. This population is annually dragged from the river to permit navigation; one goal of this study was to examine the impact of this removal on genetic variability. From 18 polymorphic SSR markers, a total of 190 alleles were detected in a sample of 126 individuals, with an average of 10.3 alleles/locus, and a H(e) of 0.67. The five QTL-related markers showed an average H(e) value of 0.56, while the remaining 13 markers detected an average estimate of 0.70. An apparent outcrossing rate of 30%, a high proportion of alleles at low frequencies (56%), and the presence of exclusive alleles (9.5%) were found, with strong evidence of the establishment of individuals from different populations upstream in the Paraguay River. For conservation purposes, the river drag has no effect on the population. However, periodical seed collection from the Corumbá population can preserve part of the genetic variability present in upstream populations reducing the need for upriver collecting expeditions. PMID:19636802

  14. Age-related shifts in the density and distribution of genetic marker water quality indicators in cow and calf feces.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Orin C; Kelty, Catherine A; Peed, Lindsay; Sivaganesan, Mano; Mooney, Thomas; Jenkins, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Calves make up about 16% of the current bovine population in the United States and can excrete high levels of human pathogens in their feces. We describe the density and distribution of genetic markers from 9 PCR- and real-time quantitative PCR-based assays, including CF128, CF193, CowM2, CowM3, GenBac3, Entero1, EC23S857, CampF2, and ttr-6, commonly used to help assess ambient surface water quality. Each assay was tested against a collection of 381 individual bovine fecal samples representing 31 mother and calf pairings collected over a 10-month time period from time of birth through weaning. Genetic markers reported to be associated with ruminant and/or bovine fecal pollution were virtually undetected in calves for up to 115 days from birth, suggesting that physiological changes in calf ruminant function impact host-associated genetic marker shedding. In addition, general fecal indicator markers for Bacteroidales, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp. exhibited three separate trends across time, indicating that these bacteria respond differently to age-related physiological and dietary changes during calf development. The results of this study suggest that currently available PCR-based water quality indicator technologies can under- or overestimate fecal pollution originating from calves and identify a need for novel calf-associated source identification methods. PMID:24362434

  15. Applicability of universal Bacteroidales genetic marker for microbial monitoring of drinking water sources in comparison to conventional indicators.

    PubMed

    Shahryari, A; Nikaeen, M; Khiadani Hajian, M; Nabavi, F; Hatamzadeh, M; Hassanzadeh, A

    2014-11-01

    Water quality monitoring is essential for the provision of safe drinking water. In this study, we compared a selection of fecal indicators with universal Bacteroidales genetic marker to identify fecal pollution of a variety of drinking water sources. A total of 60 samples were collected from water sources. The microbiological parameters included total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci as the fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), Clostridium perfringens and H2S bacteria as alternative indicators, universal Bacteroidales genetic marker as a promising alternative fecal indicator, and Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and E. coli O157 as pathogenic bacteria. From 60 samples analyzed, Bacteroidales was the most frequently detected indicator followed by total coliforms. However, the Bacteroidales assay failed to detect the marker in nine samples positive for FIB and other alternative indicators. The results of our study showed that the absence of Bacteroidales is not necessarily an evidence of fecal and pathogenic bacteria absence and may be unable to ensure the safety of the water. Further research, however, is required for a better understanding of the use of a Bacteroidales genetic marker as an indicator in water quality monitoring programs. PMID:25023746

  16. Age-Related Shifts in the Density and Distribution of Genetic Marker Water Quality Indicators in Cow and Calf Feces

    PubMed Central

    Kelty, Catherine A.; Peed, Lindsay; Sivaganesan, Mano; Mooney, Thomas; Jenkins, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Calves make up about 16% of the current bovine population in the United States and can excrete high levels of human pathogens in their feces. We describe the density and distribution of genetic markers from 9 PCR- and real-time quantitative PCR-based assays, including CF128, CF193, CowM2, CowM3, GenBac3, Entero1, EC23S857, CampF2, and ttr-6, commonly used to help assess ambient surface water quality. Each assay was tested against a collection of 381 individual bovine fecal samples representing 31 mother and calf pairings collected over a 10-month time period from time of birth through weaning. Genetic markers reported to be associated with ruminant and/or bovine fecal pollution were virtually undetected in calves for up to 115 days from birth, suggesting that physiological changes in calf ruminant function impact host-associated genetic marker shedding. In addition, general fecal indicator markers for Bacteroidales, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp. exhibited three separate trends across time, indicating that these bacteria respond differently to age-related physiological and dietary changes during calf development. The results of this study suggest that currently available PCR-based water quality indicator technologies can under- or overestimate fecal pollution originating from calves and identify a need for novel calf-associated source identification methods. PMID:24362434

  17. Genetic mapping of DArT markers in the Festuca-Lolium complex and their use in freezing tolerance association analysis.

    PubMed

    Bartoš, Jan; Sandve, Simen Rød; Kölliker, Roland; Kopecký, David; Christelová, Pavla; Sto?es, St?pán; Ostrem, Liv; Larsen, Arild; Kilian, Andrzej; Rognli, Odd-Arne; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2011-04-01

    Species belonging to the Festuca-Lolium complex are important forage and turf species and as such, have been studied intensively. However, their out-crossing nature and limited availability of molecular markers make genetic studies difficult. Here, we report on saturation of F. pratensis and L. multiflorum genetic maps using Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers and the DArTFest array.The 530 and 149 DArT markers were placed on genetic maps of L. multiflorum and F. pratensis, respectively, with overlap of 20 markers, which mapped in both species. The markers were sequenced and comparative sequence analysis was performed between L. multiflorum, rice and Brachypodium. The utility of the DArTFest array was then tested on a Festulolium population FuRs0357 in an integrated analysis using the DArT marker map positions to study associations between markers and freezing tolerance. Ninety six markers were significantly associated with freezing tolerance and five of these markers were genetically mapped to chromosomes 2, 4 and 7. Three genomic loci associated with freezing tolerance in the FuRs0357 population co-localized with chromosome segments and QTLs previously identified to be associated with freezing tolerance. The present work clearly confirms the potential of the DArTFest array in genetic studies of the Festuca-Lolium complex. The annotated DArTFest array resources could accelerate further studies and improvement of desired traits in Festuca-Lolium species. PMID:21212931

  18. Is the genetic structure of Gran Chaco populations unique? Interregional perspectives on native South American mitochondrial DNA variation.

    PubMed

    Cabana, Graciela S; Merriwether, D Andrew; Hunley, Keith; Demarchi, Darío A

    2006-09-01

    This study reevaluates the hypothesis in Demarchi et al. (2001 Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 115:199-203) that Gran Chaco peoples demonstrate a unique pattern of genetic diversity due to a distinct regional population history. Specifically, they found populations in the central part of the Gran Chaco, or Central Chaco, to have higher within- and lower between-population mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup frequency variation compared to populations in other South American regions. To test this hypothesis of regional uniqueness, we applied analytical and simulation methods to mtDNA first hypervariable (HVI) region sequence data from a broad set of comparative South and Central American population samples. Contrary to the results of Demarchi et al. (2001 Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 115:199-203), we found that the Gran Chaco's regional within-population diversity is about average among regions, and populations are highly differentiated from each other. When we limited the scale of analysis to the Central Chaco, a more localized subregion of the Gran Chaco, our results fell more in line with the original findings of Demarchi et al. (2001 Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 115:199-203). Still, we conclude that neither the Gran Chaco regional pattern, nor the Central Chaco subregional pattern, is unique within South America. Nonetheless, the Central Chaco pattern accords well with the area's history, including pre-European contact lifeways and the documented historical use of the area as an interregional crossroads. However, we cannot exclude post-European contact disruption of traditional mating networks as an equally plausible explanation for the observed diversity pattern. Finally, these results additionally inform broader models of South American genetic diversity. While other researchers proposed an east-west continental division in patterns of genetic variation (e.g., Fuselli et al. 2003 Mol. Biol. Evol. 20:1682-1691), we found that in the geographically intermediate Central Chaco, a strict east-west divide in genetic variation breaks down. We suggest that future genetic characterizations of the continent, and subsequent interpretations of evolutionary history, involve a broad regional sampling of South American populations. PMID:16485304

  19. Genetic rearrangements of six wheat-agropyron cristatum 6P addition lines revealed by molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Han, Haiming; Bai, Li; Su, Junji; Zhang, Jinpeng; Song, Liqiang; Gao, Ainong; Yang, Xinming; Li, Xiuquan; Liu, Weihua; Li, Lihui

    2014-01-01

    Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2n?=?4x?=?28, PPPP) not only is cultivated as pasture fodder but also could provide many desirable genes for wheat improvement. It is critical to obtain common wheat-A. cristatum alien disomic addition lines to locate the desired genes on the P genome chromosomes. Comparative analysis of the homoeologous relationships between the P genome chromosome and wheat genome chromosomes is a key step in transferring different desirable genes into common wheat and producing the desired alien translocation line while compensating for the loss of wheat chromatin. In this study, six common wheat-A. cristatum disomic addition lines were produced and analyzed by phenotypic examination, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), SSR markers from the ABD genomes and STS markers from the P genome. Comparative maps, six in total, were generated and demonstrated that all six addition lines belonged to homoeologous group 6. However, chromosome 6P had undergone obvious rearrangements in different addition lines compared with the wheat chromosome, indicating that to obtain a genetic compensating alien translocation line, one should recombine alien chromosomal regions with homoeologous wheat chromosomes. Indeed, these addition lines were classified into four types based on the comparative mapping: 6PI, 6PII, 6PIII, and 6PIV. The different types of chromosome 6P possessed different desirable genes. For example, the 6PI type, containing three addition lines, carried genes conferring high numbers of kernels per spike and resistance to powdery mildew, important traits for wheat improvement. These results may prove valuable for promoting the development of conventional chromosome engineering techniques toward molecular chromosome engineering. PMID:24595330

  20. Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase in bull spermatozoa provides a unique marker in the quest for semen quality analysis.

    PubMed

    Stradaioli, G; Sylla, L; Monaci, M; Maiorino, M

    2009-07-01

    Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) is a selenoperoxidase accounting for most of the selenium content in mammalian testis, which has been found to be linked to fertility in humans. In this study, we addressed the issue whether PHGPx content in spermatozoa could be a predictive index of fertilization capacity for sire selection in bulls. Measurement of PHGPx in spermatozoa of 92 yearling bulls of three different Italian breeds (Chianina, Romagnola, and Marchigiana) revealed the presence of two quite well separated populations. A PHGPx activity of 130 mU/mg separated the high-PHGPx group (H-PHGPx, n=73) from the low-PHGPx group (L-PHGPx, n=19). Forward motility was markedly higher in the H-PHGPx group, which also contained a lower percentage of detached heads, abnormal midpiece, and proximal droplets. On the other hand, differently from the human studies, no correlation was observed between PHGPx activity and number of spermatozoa in the ejaculate. Apart from sperm count, which typically differed among breeds, and number of detached heads in the L-PHGPx group, which correlated with higher sperm count, no other significant difference in seminal parameters among breeds was apparent. The assay for sperm PHGPx activity therefore emerges as a unique tool to evaluate semen quality for sire selection. PMID:19345404

  1. Genetic Homogeneity of Clostridium botulinum Type A1 Strains with Unique Toxin Gene Clusters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian H. Raphael; Carolina Luquez; Loretta M. McCroskey; Lavin A. Joseph; Mark J. Jacobson; Eric A. Johnson; Susan E. Maslanka; Joanne D. Andreadis

    2008-01-01

    A group of five clonally related Clostridium botulinum type A strains isolated from different sources over a period of nearly 40 years harbored several conserved genetic properties. These strains contained a variant bont\\/A1 with five nucleotide polymorphisms compared to the gene in C. botulinum strain ATCC 3502. The strains also had a common toxin gene cluster composition (ha\\/orfX) similar to

  2. Genetic Markers in Biological Fluids for Aging-Related Major Neurocognitive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Chavira, S.A.; Fernández, T.; Nicolini, H.; Diaz-Cintra, S.; Prado-Alcalá, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Aging-related major neurocognitive disorder (NCD), formerly named dementia, comprises of the different acquired diseases whose primary deficit is impairment in cognitive functions such as complex attention, executive function, learning and memory, language, perceptual/motor skills, and social cognition, and that are related to specific brain regions and/or networks. According to its etiology, the most common subtypes of major NCDs are due to Alzheimer’s disease (AD), vascular disease (VaD), Lewy body disease (LBD), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). These pathologies are frequently present in mixed forms, i.e., AD plus VaD or AD plus LBD, thus diagnosed as due to multiple etiologies. In this paper, the definitions, criteria, pathologies, subtypes and genetic markers for the most common age-related major NCD subtypes are summarized. The current diagnostic criteria consider cognitive decline leading to major NCD or dementia as a progressive degenerative process with an underlying neuropathology that begins before the manifestation of symptoms. Biomarkers associated with this asymptomatic phase are being developed as accurate risk factor and biomarker assessments are fundamental to provide timely treatment since no treatments to prevent or cure NCD yet exist. Biological fluid assessment represents a safer, cheaper and less invasive method compared to contrast imaging studies to predict NCD appearance. Genetic factors particularly have a key role not only in predicting development of the disease but also the age of onset as well as the presentation of comorbidities that may contribute to the disease pathology and trigger synergistic mechanisms which may, in turn, accelerate the neurodegenerative process and its resultant behavioral and functional disorders. PMID:25731625

  3. Transferability of Cucurbita SSR markers for genetic diversity assessment of Turkish bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) genetic resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic diversity present in crop landraces represents a valuable genetic resource for breeding and genetic studies. Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) landraces in Turkey are highly genetically diverse. However, the limited genomic resources available for this crop hinder the molecular characte...

  4. Spectroscopic detection of fluorescent protein marker gene activity in genetically modified plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, O. W.; Chong, Jenny P. C.; Asundi, Anand K.

    2005-04-01

    This work focuses on developing a portable fibre optic fluorescence analyser for rapid identification of genetically modified plants tagged with a fluorescent marker gene. Independent transgenic tobacco plant lines expressing the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene were regenerated following Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Molecular characterisation of these plant lines was carried out at the DNA level by PCR screening to confirm their transgenic status. Conventional transgene expression analysis was then carried out at the RNA level by RT-PCR and at the protein level by Western blotting using anti-GFP rabbit antiserum. The amount of plant-expressed EGFP on a Western blot was quantified against known amounts of purified EGFP by scanning densitometry. The expression level of EGFP in transformed plants was found to range from 0.1 - 0.6% of total extractable protein. A comparison between conventional western analysis of transformants and direct spectroscopic quantification using the fibre optic fluorescence analyser was made. The results showed that spectroscopic measurements of fluorescence emission from strong EGFP expressors correlated positively with Western blot data. However, the fluorescence analyser was also able to identify weakly expressing plant transformants below the detection limit of colorimetric Western blotting.

  5. Segregation of genetic markers among plants regenerated from cultured anthers of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. 'italica').

    PubMed

    Orton, T J; Browers, M A

    1985-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine critical factors in the recovery of embryos from cultured anthers of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. 'italica') and to unambiguously distinguish whether embryos were of gametophytic origin. Among factors tested, genotype, genotype x anther developmental stage, and method of anther culture had a distinct impact on embryo recovery, whereas length of anther exposure to the culture medium did not. However, extreme heterogeneity of embryo emergence within and among replications precluded statistical contrasts. Among 762 plants derived from embryos of four independent cultivars, only one was determined to be of sporophytic origin by use of heterozygous codominant isozyme markers. Two of the cultivars tested were heterozygous at two or more loci. While segregation among loci was consistent with previously published linkage data, segregation of alleles was consistently non-random. In all of seven separate cases involving four cultivars, a significant over-representation of the fast-migrating class was observed. It appears, therefore, that populations of plants derived from microspores within cultured anthers of broccoli do not necessarily represent a random gametic array, and that care must be exercised in breeding and genetic applications. PMID:24254025

  6. Genetic Diversity in Hypericum and AFLP Markers for Species-Specific Identification of H. perforatum L.

    PubMed Central

    Percifield, Ryan J.; Hawkins, Jennifer S.; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Wendel, Jonathan F.

    2008-01-01

    One of the top-selling medicinal products worldwide is Hypericum perforatum (St. John's Wort). Despite its cosmopolitan distribution and utilization, little is known regarding the relationship of the bioactive compounds in H. perforatum to the plants from which they are purportedly derived. In this study, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of 56 Hypericum accessions, representing 11 species, was conducted to gain a better understanding of diversity within Hypericum species, especially within cultivated accessions of H. perforatum, and to establish a molecular methodology that will provide breeders and regulators with a simple, affordable, and accurate tool with which to identify purported H. perforatum material. Utilizing four primer combinations, a total of 298 polymorphic markers were generated, of which 17 were present in all H. perforatum accessions and 2 were specific to only H. perforatum. This study demonstrates that AFLP can be utilized not only to determine the relationships of closely related Hypericum accessions, but as a tool to authenticate material in herbal remedies through the use of genetic fingerprinting. PMID:18072074

  7. Expression of inflammatory markers in a genetic rodent model of depression.

    PubMed

    Strenn, Nina; Suchankova, Petra; Nilsson, Staffan; Fischer, Christina; Wegener, Gregers; Mathé, Aleksander A; Ekman, Agneta

    2015-03-15

    The complex bidirectional communication between the central nervous system and the peripheral immune system is of possible relevance for both normal brain functions and the development of psychiatric disorders. The aim of this investigation was to study central expression of inflammatory markers in a genetic rat model of depression (the Flinders sensitive line (FSL) and its control, the Flinders resistant line (FRL)). A peripheral immune activation was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in order to investigate possible differences in immune reactions between the two rat lines. To confirm behavioural differences between the rat lines the forced swim test was performed, a test to assess depressive-like behaviour. Expression of candidate inflammatory genes was measured in amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex and striatum using quantitative real time PCR. Our results show, for the first time, significantly lower central expression of the glial-specific protein S100B and complement factor C3 in several brain regions of the FSL rats compared to controls, both at baseline and after peripheral immune stimulation. No significant differences in immune responses to LPS were observed between the rats lines. Both S100B and C3 have been suggested to be of relevance for brain development and plasticity as well as brain disorders. These proteins may be of importance for the behavioural differences between the FSL and FRL rats, and this model may be useful in studies exploring the influence of the immune system on brain functions. PMID:25277840

  8. Genetic polymorphism in the NRF2 gene as a prognosis marker for cancer chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Toshihisa

    2014-01-01

    NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a transcription factor that controls the expression of a variety of antioxidant and detoxification genes. Accumulating evidence strongly suggests that NRF2 mediates cancer cell proliferation and drug resistance, as well. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -617C > A in the anti-oxidant response element-like loci of the human NRF2 gene play a pivotal role in the positive feedback loop of transcriptional activation of the NRF2 gene. Since the SNP (-617A) reportedly decreases the binding affinity to the transcription factors of NRF2/small multiple alignment format (MafK), the homozygous -617A/A allele may attenuate the positive feedback loop of transcriptional activation of the NRF2 gene and reduce the NRF2 protein level. As the consequence, cancer cells are considered to become more sensitive to therapy and less aggressive than cancer cells harboring the -617C (WT) allele. Indeed, Japanese lung cancer patients carrying SNP homozygous alleles (c. -617A/A) exhibited remarkable survival over 1,700 days after surgical operation (log-rank p = 0.021). The genetic polymorphism in the human NRF2 gene is considered as one of prognosis markers for cancer therapy. PMID:25408701

  9. Assessing the genetic relationships of Curcuma alismatifolia varieties using simple sequence repeat markers.

    PubMed

    Taheri, S; Abdullah, T L; Abdullah, N A P; Ahmad, Z; Karimi, E; Shabanimofrad, M R

    2014-01-01

    The genus Curcuma is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae) that has recently become popular for use as flowering pot plants, both indoors and as patio and landscape plants. We used PCR-based molecular markers (SSRs) to elucidate genetic variation and relationships between five varieties of Curcuma (Curcuma alismatifolia) cultivated in Malaysia. Of the primers tested, 8 (of 17) SSR primers were selected for their reproducibility and high rates of polymorphism. The number of presumed alleles revealed by the SSR analysis ranged from two to six alleles, with a mean value of 3.25 alleles per locus. The values of HO and HE ranged from 0 to 0.8 (mean value of 0.2) and 0.1837 to 0.7755 (mean value of 0.5102), respectively. Eight SSR primers yielded 26 total amplified fragments and revealed high rates of polymorphism among the varieties studied. The polymorphic information content varied from 0.26 to 0.73. Dice's similarity coefficient was calculated for all pairwise comparisons and used to construct an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) dendrogram. Similarity coefficient values from 0.2105 to 0.6667 (with an average of 0.4386) were found among the five varieties examined. A cluster analysis of data using a UPGMA algorithm divided the five varieties/hybrids into 2 groups. PMID:25222232

  10. [The Dagestan gene pool: analysis of the frequencies of classical genetic markers in Avars].

    PubMed

    Radzhabov, M O; Mamaev, I A; Shamov, I A; Gasaev, D G; Shil'nikova, I N; Shne?der, Iu V

    2010-04-01

    This study is part of long-term research in the gene pool of Dagestan ethnic groups. The phenotype (in percent), gene, and haplotype frequencies in three Avar populations are reported. A total of 37 alleles of 13 loci of immune and biochemical genetic marker systems (ABO, Rhesus, P, Lewis, HP, GC, C'3, TF, 6PGD, GLO1, ESD, ACP, and PGM1) have been studied. Rare haplotypes of the Rhesus system (CDE, Cde, and cdE) have been found in the populations studied. In two out of three local populations (Khunzakh and Kharakhi), a typically "Caucasoid" rare gene ACP1c of the AcP1 locus has proved to be relatively frequent (0.030 and 0.023, respectively). The frequencies of the allele variants P2, le, and Hp1 of loci of the P, Lewis, and HP systems, respectively, have been found to be lower than in other Caucasian ethnic groups and the total northern Eurasian population. The mean allele frequencies for the GC, C'3, TF, 6PGD, GLO1, and ESD systems in the populations studied are comparable wit those for both Caucasian ethnic groups and the total population of the European historical ethnographic province. Statistical analysis of the results has shown 11 cases of significant deviations of the observed phenotype frequencies from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. PMID:20536025

  11. Isolation and characterization of novel microsatellite markers for molecular genetic diversity in Siganus fuscescens.

    PubMed

    Ning, Y F; Li, Z B; Li, Q H; Dai, G; Shangguan, J B; Yuan, Y; Huang, Y S

    2015-01-01

    The rabbitfish Siganus fuscescens is an economically valuable species that is widely distributed throughout the estuaries, intertidal, and offshore coasts of the Indo-Pacific and eastern Mediterranean. Ten novel microsatellite loci from the genome of S. fuscescens were developed using the fast isolation protocol with amplified fragment length polymorphism of sequences containing repeats. Polymorphisms in these 10 microsatellite markers were determined from 32 wild individuals. The number of alleles per locus and the polymorphism information content ranged from 2 to 5 and from 0.059 to 0.668, respectively. The observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.063 to 0.781 and from 0.062 to 0.731, respectively. Although 1 locus (LZY-X7, P < 0.005) showed significant deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, no deviations were detected in the other 9 loci. These microsatellite loci may be useful for further population genetic studies, conservation studies, population structure assessment, and linkage map construction of S. fuscescens. PMID:25729939

  12. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Major Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Cultivars Grown in China by SSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xiaoping; Jiang, Huifang; Yan, Zhongyuan; Chen, Yuning; Zhou, Xiaojing; Huang, Li; Lei, Yong; Huang, Jiaquan; Yan, Liying; Qi, Yue; Wei, Wenhui; Liao, Boshou

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and forty-six highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of 196 peanut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) cultivars which had been extensively planted in different regions in China. These SSR markers amplified 440 polymorphic bands with an average of 2.99, and the average gene diversity index was 0.11. Eighty-six rare alleles with a frequency of less than 1% were identified in these cultivars. The largest Fst or genetic distance was found between the cultivars that adapted to the south regions and those to the north regions in China. A neighbor-joining tree of cultivars adapted to different ecological regions was constructed based on pairwise Nei’s genetic distances, which showed a significant difference between cultivars from the south and the north regions. A model-based population structure analysis divided these peanut cultivars into five subpopulations (P1a, P1b, P2, P3a and P3b). P1a and P1b included most the cultivars from the southern provinces including Guangdong, Guangxi and Fujian. P2 population consisted of the cultivars from Hubei province and parts from Shandong and Henan. P3a and P3b had cultivars from the northern provinces including Shandong, Anhui, Henan, Hebei, Jiangsu and the Yangtze River region including Sichuan province. The cluster analysis, PCoA and PCA based on the marker genotypes, revealed five distinct clusters for the entire population that were related to their germplasm regions. The results indicated that there were obvious genetic variations between cultivars from the south and the north, and there were distinct genetic differentiation among individual cultivars from the south and the north. Taken together, these results provided a molecular basis for understanding genetic diversity of Chinese peanut cultivars. PMID:24520347

  13. Genetic Patterns as a Function of Landscape Process: Applications of Neutral Genetic Markers for Predictive Modeling in Landscape Ecology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melanie A. Murphy; Jeffrey S. Evans

    \\u000a Integrating landscape ecology and population genetics (Manel et al. 2003), landscape genetics1 aims to link observed patterns of genetic variation to underlying landscape process(es) (Storfer et al. 2007). Landscape\\u000a genetics is a useful, emerging approach with the potential to develop new understanding of ecological theory and improve management\\u000a decisions (Balkenhol et al. 2009). Current applications that incorporate both genetic data

  14. A dense genetic map of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, covering all chromosomes based on 1018 molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Yasukochi, Y

    1998-12-01

    A dense linkage map was constructed for the silkworm, Bombyx mori, containing 1018 genetic markers on all 27 autosomes and the Z chromosome. Most of the markers, covering approximately 2000 cM, were randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs amplified with primer-pairs in combinations of 140 commercially available decanucleotides. In addition, eight known genes and five visible mutations were mapped. Bombyx homologues of engrailed and invected genes were found to be closely linked, as in Drosophila melanogaster. The average interval between markers was approximately 2 cM, equal to approximately 500 kb. The correspondence of seven linkage groups to counterparts of the conventional linkage map was determined. This map is the first linkage map in insects having a large number of chromosomes (n = 28) that covers all chromosomes without any gaps. PMID:9832528

  15. Differentiation between subpopulations of a polychromatic damselfly with respect to morph frequencies, but not neutral genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alex; Smith, Myron L; Forbes, Mark R

    2003-12-01

    The damselfly, Nehalennia irene (Hagen), has two distinct female colour morphs. Individuals of one morph have male-like colouration and pattern (androchromes), whereas gynochromes are different from males and androchromes in these respects. In several damselflies, such female-limited polychromatism is attributable to a single genetic locus. We developed six polymorphic genetic markers, which were codominant, to test for genetic differentiation in N. irene, collected from two sites located 8 km from one another in eastern Ontario, Canada. Based on three censuses spanning a 10 year period (1992-2001), morph ratios differed consistently and significantly between these two sites. However, subpopulations at these sites were not genetically differentiated with respect to the putatively neutral markers. Our results suggest that site differences in morph ratios of female N. irene cannot be explained by genetic drift, but are consistent with spatially variable selection operating on different morphs, perhaps mediated by male density. Alternatively, morph type may be a plastic trait and cues for induction may differ between sites. PMID:14629365

  16. Sexual dimorphic effect in the genetic association of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) markers with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Verma, Deepak; Chakraborti, Barnali; Karmakar, Arijit; Bandyopadhyay, Tirthankar; Singh, Asem Surindro; Sinha, Swagata; Chatterjee, Anindita; Ghosh, Saurabh; Mohanakumar, Kochupurackal P; Mukhopadhyay, Kanchan; Rajamma, Usha

    2014-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are heritable and behaviorally-defined neurodevelopmental disorders having skewed sex ratio. Serotonin as modulator of behavior and implication of serotonergic dysfunction in ASD etiology corroborates that serotonergic system genes are potential candidates for autism susceptibility. In the current study X-chromosomal gene, MAOA responsible for degradation of serotonin is investigated for possible association with ASD using population-based approach. Study covers analysis of 8 markers in 421 subjects including cases and ethnically-matched controls from West Bengal. MAOA marker, rs6323 and various haplotypes formed between the markers show significant association with the disorder. Stratification on the basis of sex reveals significant genetic effect of rs6323 with low activity T allele posing higher risk in males, but not in females. Haplotypic association results also show differential effect both in males and females. Contrasting linkage disequilibrium pattern between pair of markers involving rs6323 in male cases and controls further supports the sex-bias in genetic association. Bioinformatic analysis shows presence of Y-encoded SRY transcription factor binding sites in the neighborhood of rs1137070. C allele of rs1137070 causes deletion of GATA-2 binding site and GATA-2 is known to interact with SRY. This is the first study highlighting male-specific effect of rs6323 marker and its haplotypes in ASD etiology and it suggests sexual dimorphic effect of MAOA in this disorder. Overall results of this study identify MAOA as a possible ASD susceptibility locus and the differential genetic effect in males and females might contribute to the sex ratio differences and molecular pathology of the disorder. PMID:24291416

  17. RNA-Seq bulked segregant analysis enables the identification of high-resolution genetic markers for breeding in hexaploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Gonzalez, Ricardo H; Segovia, Vanesa; Bird, Nicholas; Fenwick, Paul; Holdgate, Sarah; Berry, Simon; Jack, Peter; Caccamo, Mario; Uauy, Cristobal

    2015-06-01

    The identification of genetic markers linked to genes of agronomic importance is a major aim of crop research and breeding programmes. Here, we identify markers for Yr15, a major disease resistance gene for wheat yellow rust, using a segregating F2 population. After phenotyping, we implemented RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of bulked pools to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with Yr15. Over 27 000 genes with SNPs were identified between the parents, and then classified based on the results from the sequenced bulks. We calculated the bulk frequency ratio (BFR) of SNPs between resistant and susceptible bulks, selecting those showing sixfold enrichment/depletion in the corresponding bulks (BFR > 6). Using additional filtering criteria, we reduced the number of genes with a putative SNP to 175. The 35 SNPs with the highest BFR values were converted into genome-specific KASP assays using an automated bioinformatics pipeline (PolyMarker) which circumvents the limitations associated with the polyploid wheat genome. Twenty-eight assays were polymorphic of which 22 (63%) mapped in the same linkage group as Yr15. Using these markers, we mapped Yr15 to a 0.77-cM interval. The three most closely linked SNPs were tested across varieties and breeding lines representing UK elite germplasm. Two flanking markers were diagnostic in over 99% of lines tested, thus providing a reliable haplotype for marker-assisted selection in these breeding programmes. Our results demonstrate that the proposed methodology can be applied in polyploid F2 populations to generate high-resolution genetic maps across target intervals. PMID:25382230

  18. Specific genetic markers for wheat, spelt, and four wild relatives: comparison of isozymes, RAPDs, and wheat microsatellites.

    PubMed

    Guadagnuolo, R; Bianchi, D S; Felber, F

    2001-08-01

    Three types of markers-isozymes, RAPDs (random amplified polymorphic DNAs), and wheat microsatellites- were tested on wheat, spelt, and four wild wheat relatives (Aegilops cylindrica, Elymus caninus, Hordeum marinum, and Agropyron junceum). The aim was to evaluate their capability to provide specific markers for differentiation of the cultivated and wild species. The markers were set up for subsequent detection of hybrids and introgression of wheat DNA into wild relatives. All markers allowed differentiation of the cultivated from the wild species. Wheat microsatellites were not amplified in all the wild relatives, whereas RAPDs and isozymes exhibited polymorphism for all species. The dendrograms obtained with RAPD and isozyme data separated Swiss wheat cultivars from those collected in Austria and England, while no difference was found between Swiss spelt and wheat. RAPD data provided a weak discrimination between English and Austrian E. caninus. The microsatellite-based dendrogram discriminated populations of Ae. cylindrica, but no clear separation of H. marinum from E. caninus was revealed. The similarity matrices based on the three different sets of data were strongly correlated. The highest value was recorded between the matrices based on RAPDs and isozymes (Mantel's test, r = 0.93). Correlations between the similarity matrix based on microsatellites and matrices based on RAPDs and isozymes were lower: 0.74 and 0.68, respectively. While microsatellites are very useful for comparisons of closely related accessions, they are less suitable for studies involving less-related taxa. Isozymes provide interesting markers for species differentiation, but their use seems less appropriate for studies of within-species genetic variation. RAPDs can produce a large set of markers, which can be used for the evaluation of both between- and within-species genetic variation, more rapidly and easily than isozymes and microsatellites. PMID:11550895

  19. Genetic dissection of root growth in rice (Oryza sativa L.).II: mapping quantitative trait loci using molecular markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Price; A. D. Tomos

    1997-01-01

    Drought is a major abiotic stress of upland rice, and good root growth has been associated with drought avoidance. We report\\u000a on the genetic mapping of root growth traits in an F2 population derived from two drought-resistant rice varieties, ‘Bala’ and ‘Azucena’. Restriction fragment length polymorphism\\u000a (RFLP) between the parents was 32%, and a molecular map with 71 marker loci

  20. Analysis of genetic diversity through AFLP, SAMPL, ISSR and RAPD markers in Tribulus terrestris , a medicinal herb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryam Sarwat; S. Das; P. S. Srivastava

    2008-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris is well known for its medicinal importance in curing urino-genital disorders. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP),\\u000a selective amplification of microsatellite polymorphic loci (SAMPL), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and randomly amplified\\u000a polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used for the first time for the detection of genetic polymorphism in this medicinal herb\\u000a from samples collected from various geographical regions of

  1. Genetic and Chemical Diversity of High Mucilaginous Plants of Sida Complex by ISSR Markers and Chemical Fingerprinting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjog T. Thul; Ankit K. Srivastava; Subhash C. Singh; Karuna Shanker

    2011-01-01

    A method was developed based on multiple approaches wherein DNA and chemical analysis was carried out toward differentiation\\u000a of important species of Sida complex that is being used for commercial preparation. Isolated DNA samples were successfully performed through PCR amplification\\u000a using ISSR markers and degree of genetic diversity among the different species of Sida is compared with that of chemical

  2. Assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants of Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider using RAPD and ISSR markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunil Kumar; Manisha Mangal; A. K. Dhawan; Narender Singh

    RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) and ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) markers were screened to test the genetic\\u000a integrity of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) plants multiplied through axillary bud multiplication from nodal segments. The in vitro raised plantlets were maintained\\u000a for up to 12 in vitro subcultures. During the study a total of 48 (32 RAPD and 16 ISSR) primers were

  3. Genetic variation within and among populations of a wild rice Oryza granulata from China detected by RAPD and ISSR markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Qian; S. Ge; D.-Y. Hong

    2001-01-01

    Genetic variation within and between five populations of Oryza granulata from two regions of China was investigated using RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) and ISSR (inter-simple sequence\\u000a repeat amplification) markers. Twenty RAPD primers used in this study amplified 199 reproducible bands with 61 (30.65%) polymorphic;\\u000a and 12 ISSR primers amplified 113 bands with 52 (46.02%) polymorphic. Both RAPD and ISSR

  4. Diversity and genetic structure of teak ( Tectona grandis L.f) in its natural range using DNA microsatellite markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inza Jesus Fofana; Daniel Ofori; Mireille Poitel; Daniel Verhaegen

    2009-01-01

    Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) is considered to be an extraordinarily durable building timber with a worldwide reputation. Its widespread use has\\u000a entailed the over-exploitation of natural forests and a large reduction in natural diversity. Fifteen microsatellite markers\\u000a were used to study the genetic variability and structure of 166 teak trees distributed over the whole natural area of teak.\\u000a Analysis showed

  5. A high-density genetic map of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench based on 2926 AFLP®, RFLP and SSR markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Menz; R. R. Klein; J. E. Mullet; J. A. Obert; N. C. Unruh; P. E. Klein

    2002-01-01

    Using AFLP technology and a recombinant inbred line population derived from the sorghum cross of BTx623 × IS3620C, a high-density genetic map of the sorghum genome was constructed. The 1713 cM map encompassed 2926 loci distributed on ten linkage groups; 2454 of those loci are AFLP products generated from either the EcoRI\\/MseI or PstI\\/MseI enzyme combinations. Among the non-AFLP markers, 136

  6. Genetic Markers and Anthropometry in the Populations of the Egyptian Oases of El-Kharga and El-Dakhla

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osaima Selim; K. Kamel; Aida A. Azim; F. Gaballah; Fadila H. Sabry; W. Ibrahim; Nadia Moafy; K. Hoerman

    1974-01-01

    The populations of two Western Desert Egyptian oases have been studied for various genetic markers of the blood and some anthropological characters. Hb AS was found in 9%. Blood group frequencies were similar in both oases; 10.2% were RhD-negative, G-6-PD deficiency was found in 7.5 %; GdA had a frequency of 1 % in El-Kharga and 16% in El-Dakhla; PGDC

  7. Genetic and morphological variation in breadfruit ( Artocarpus altilis (Park.) Fosberg) in the Western Ghats of India using AFLP markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. B. Sreekumar; A. M. Binoy; Sarah T. George

    2007-01-01

    Artocarpus altilis (Park.) Fosberg is an important fruit vegetable tree grown in the homesteads of southern part of India. To provide reasoned\\u000a scientific management practices and conservation measures, the pattern of morphological and genetic variation were investigated\\u000a for six populations using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers and 15 morphological traits. The use of five\\u000a selective primer combinations on 60

  8. Macrocyclic lactone resistance in Dirofilaria immitis: Failure of heartworm preventives and investigation of genetic markers for resistance.

    PubMed

    Bourguinat, Catherine; Lee, Alice C Y; Lizundia, Regina; Blagburn, Byron L; Liotta, Janice L; Kraus, Marc S; Keller, Kathy; Epe, Christian; Letourneau, Louis; Kleinman, Claudia L; Paterson, Tara; Gomez, Elena Carreton; Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto; Smith, Hubert; Bhan, Aron; Peregrine, Andrew S; Carmichael, James; Drake, Jason; Schenker, Rudolf; Kaminsky, Ronald; Bowman, Dwight D; Geary, Timothy G; Prichard, Roger K

    2015-06-15

    Macrocyclic lactone (ML) endectocides are used as chemoprophylaxis for heartworm infection (Dirofilaria immitis) in dogs and cats. Claims of loss of efficacy (LOE) of ML heartworm preventives have become common in some locations in the USA. We directly tested whether resistance to MLs exists in LOE isolates of D. immitis and identified genetic markers that are correlated with, and therefore can predict ML resistance. ML controlled studies showed that LOE strains of D. immitis established infections in dogs despite chemoprophylaxis with oral ivermectin or injectable moxidectin. A whole genome approach was used to search for loci associated with the resistance phenotype. Many loci showed highly significant differences between pools of susceptible and LOE D. immitis. Based on 186 potential marker loci, Sequenom(®) SNP frequency analyses were conducted on 663 individual parasites (adult worms and microfilariae) which were phenotypically characterized as susceptible (SUS), confirmed ML treatment survivors/resistant (RES), or suspected resistant/loss of efficacy (LOE) parasites. There was a subset of SNP loci which appears to be promising markers for predicting ML resistance, including SNPs in some genes that have been associated with ML resistance in other parasites. These data provide unequivocal proof of ML resistance in D. immitis and identify genetic markers that could be used to monitor for ML resistance in heartworms. PMID:25936435

  9. Assessment of genetic diversity and relationships among wild and cultivated Tunisian plums (Prunus spp) using random amplified microsatellite polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Ben Tamarzizt, H; Ben Mustapha, S; Baraket, G; Abdallah, D; Salhi-Hannachi, A

    2015-01-01

    The usefulness of random amplified microsatellite polymorphism markers to study the genetic diversity and relationships among cultivars belonging to Prunus salicina and P. domestica and their wild relatives (P. insititia and P. spinosa) was investigated. A total of 226 of 234 bands were polymorphic (96.58%). The 226 random amplified microsatellite polymorphism markers were screened using 15 random amplified polymorphic DNA and inter-simple sequence repeat primers combinations for 54 Tunisian plum accessions. The percentage of polymorphic bands (96.58%), the resolving power of primers values (135.70), and the polymorphic information content demonstrated the efficiency of the primers used in this study. The genetic distances between accessions ranged from 0.18 to 0.79 with a mean of 0.24, suggesting a high level of genetic diversity at the intra- and interspecific levels. The unweighted pair group with arithmetic mean dendrogram and principal component analysis discriminated cultivars efficiently and illustrated relationships and divergence between spontaneous, locally cultivated, and introduced plum types. These procedures showed continuous variation that occurs independently of the status of the species and geographical origin of the plums. In this study, random amplified microsatellite polymorphism was found to be as a reliable molecular marker for fingerprinting and for examining the diversity study of the plum and its relatives. PMID:25867340

  10. Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency: refinement of genetic localization and analysis of linkage disequilibrium by using new markers in 14 families

    SciTech Connect

    Doerflinger, N.; Linder, C.; Ouahchi, K.; Mandel, J.L.; Koenig, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Strasbourg (France); Gyapay, G.; Weissenbach, J. [Genethon, Evry (France); Le Paslier, D.; Rigault, P.; Landrieu, P. [Hopital Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France)

    1995-05-01

    Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized clinically by neurological symptoms with often striking resemblance to those of Friedreich ataxia. This disorder has been reported previously as familial isolated vitamin E deficiency. We have mapped recently the AVED locus to a 5-cM confidence interval on chromosome 8q by homozygosity mapping in six Mediterranean families. We have now analyzed six new and two previously described families and demonstrate genetic homgeneity despite important clinical variability and wide geographic origins. Analysis of nine new tightly linked microsatellite markers, including four characterized in this study, revealed a predominant but not unique mutation in northern African populations, where this condition is more frequent. Haplotype analysis but also classical recombinations allowed us to refine the AVED position to a 1-cM interval. A YAC contig over this interval was constructed from marker STSs and YAC fingerprint data, in order to facilitate the search of the AVED gene. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Development and Integration of Genome-Wide Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers onto a Reference Linkage Map for Constructing a High-Density Genetic Map of Chickpea.

    PubMed

    Khajuria, Yash Paul; Saxena, Maneesha S; Gaur, Rashmi; Chattopadhyay, Debasis; Jain, Mukesh; Parida, Swarup K; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    The identification of informative in silico polymorphic genomic and genic microsatellite markers by comparing the genome and transcriptome sequences of crop genotypes is a rapid, cost-effective and non-laborious approach for large-scale marker validation and genotyping applications, including construction of high-density genetic maps. We designed 1494 markers, including 1016 genomic and 478 transcript-derived microsatellite markers showing in-silico fragment length polymorphism between two parental genotypes (Cicer arietinum ICC4958 and C. reticulatum PI489777) of an inter-specific reference mapping population. High amplification efficiency (87%), experimental validation success rate (81%) and polymorphic potential (55%) of these microsatellite markers suggest their effective use in various applications of chickpea genetics and breeding. Intra-specific polymorphic potential (48%) detected by microsatellite markers in 22 desi and kabuli chickpea genotypes was lower than inter-specific polymorphic potential (59%). An advanced, high-density, integrated and inter-specific chickpea genetic map (ICC4958 x PI489777) having 1697 map positions spanning 1061.16 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 0.625 cM was constructed by assigning 634 novel informative transcript-derived and genomic microsatellite markers on eight linkage groups (LGs) of our prior documented, 1063 marker-based genetic map. The constructed genome map identified 88, including four major (7-23 cM) longest high-resolution genomic regions on LGs 3, 5 and 8, where the maximum number of novel genomic and genic microsatellite markers were specifically clustered within 1 cM genetic distance. It was for the first time in chickpea that in silico FLP analysis at genome-wide level was carried out and such a large number of microsatellite markers were identified, experimentally validated and further used in genetic mapping. To best of our knowledge, in the presently constructed genetic map, we mapped highest number of new sequence-based robust microsatellite markers (634) which is an advancement over the previously documented (~300 markers) inter-specific genetic maps. This advanced high-density map will serve as a foundation for large-scale marker validation and genotyping applications, including identification and targeted mapping of trait-specific genes/QTLs (quantitative trait loci) with sub-optimal use of resources and labour in chickpea. PMID:25974327

  12. Genetic mapping of Z chromosome and identification of W chromosome-specific markers in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, G M; Mahesh, G; Satish, V; Madhu, M; Muthulakshmi, M; Nagaraju, J

    2005-08-01

    In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, the female is the heterogametic (ZW) sex and the male is homogametic (ZZ). The female heterogamety is a typical situation in the insect order Lepidoptera. Although the W chromosome in silkworm is strongly female determining, no W-linked gene for a morphological character has been found on it. The Z chromosome carries important traits of economic value as well as genes for various phenotypic traits, but only 2% of molecular information based on its relative size is known. Studies conducted so far indicate that the Z-linked genes are not dosage compensated. In the present study, we constructed a genetic map of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fragments (RAPD), simple sequence repeats (SSR), and fluorescent intersimple sequence repeat PCR (FISSR) markers for the Z chromosome using a backcross mapping population. A total of 16 Z-linked markers were identified, characterized, and mapped using od, a recessive trait for translucent skin as an anchor marker yielding a total recombination map of 334.5 cM. The linkage distances obtained suggested that the markers were distributed throughout the Z chromosome. Four RAPD and four SSR markers that were linked to W chromosome were also identified. The proposed mapping approach should be useful to identify and map sex-linked traits in the silkworm. The economic and evolutionary significance of Z- and W-linked genes in silkworm, in particular, and lepidopterans, in general, is discussed. PMID:15931240

  13. Identification of QTLs Associated with Callogenesis and Embryogenesis in Oil Palm Using Genetic Linkage Maps Improved with SSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Jansen, Johannes; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Ishak, Zamzuri; Chin, Cheuk-Weng; Tan, Soon-Guan; Cheah, Suan-Choo; Singh, Rajinder

    2013-01-01

    Clonal reproduction of oil palm by means of tissue culture is a very inefficient process. Tissue culturability is known to be genotype dependent with some genotypes being more amenable to tissue culture than others. In this study, genetic linkage maps enriched with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for dura (ENL48) and pisifera (ML161), the two fruit forms of oil palm, Elaeis guineensis. The SSR markers were mapped onto earlier reported parental maps based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. The new linkage map of ENL48 contains 148 markers (33 AFLPs, 38 RFLPs and 77 SSRs) in 23 linkage groups (LGs), covering a total map length of 798.0 cM. The ML161 map contains 240 markers (50 AFLPs, 71 RFLPs and 119 SSRs) in 24 LGs covering a total of 1,328.1 cM. Using the improved maps, two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with tissue culturability were identified each for callusing rate and embryogenesis rate. A QTL for callogenesis was identified in LGD4b of ENL48 and explained 17.5% of the phenotypic variation. For embryogenesis rate, a QTL was detected on LGP16b in ML161 and explained 20.1% of the variation. This study is the first attempt to identify QTL associated with tissue culture amenity in oil palm which is an important step towards understanding the molecular processes underlying clonal regeneration of oil palm. PMID:23382832

  14. Genetic marker analysis of spatial and temporal relationships among existing populations and new infestations of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S Haymer; Mei He; Donald O McInnis

    1997-01-01

    Genetic relationships among temporally and spatially defined populations of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, have been analysed using markers produced by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Populations sampled include various geographical localities around the world with established Mediterranean fruit fly populations and localities, such as California, where the status of the pest is controversial. Marker pattern relationships for

  15. Usefulness of SNPs as Supplementary Markers in a Paternity Case with 3 Genetic Incompatibilities at Autosomal and Y Chromosomal Loci

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Iris; von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Meier, Patrick; Fimmers, Rolf; Büttner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background In kinship testing, investigation of 15 short tandem repeats (STRs) usually provides decisive genetic information for resolving relationship cases. However, in complex deficiency cases, in cases with more than 2 mutations at different STR loci or when close (untested) relatives of the alleged father are suggested to be the biological father of the child, STR typing alone may not be sufficient. In these cases, the application of supplementary markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is recommended. Methods We describe a paternity case with 3 genetic incompatibilities (Penta D, VWA, and DYS385) between the alleged father and the child after analyzing 23 autosomal and 16 Y chromosomal STR loci. The question arose as to whether the alleged father could be excluded and a related person could be the biological father of the child, or whether the observed genetic incompatibilities were mutations. Interestingly, the 2 excluded full brothers of the alleged father possessed identical genetic incompatibilities at locus VWA and DYS385 as the alleged father. Results and Conclusions Additional performance of a 50-plex SNP assay demonstrated that the observed mismatches were indeed mutations and the alleged father was the biological father of the child. The results show the usefulness of SNPs as supplementary markers in relationship testing when STR analyses show ambiguous results. PMID:24847187

  16. Patterns of genetic diversity and population structure of the threatened Houbara and Macqueen's bustards as revealed by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Korrida, A; Jadallah, S; Chbel, F; Amin-Alami, A; Ahra, M; Aggrey, S

    2012-01-01

    The Houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata) is a threatened avian species that is rapidly declining throughout its range, especially in North Africa, Asia and the Canary Islands. We examined the population structure and genetic variation for the three Houbara subspecies C. undulata undulata, C. u. fuertaventurae and C. u. macqueenii. A total of 266 birds from 10 populations were genotyped using seven polymorphic microsatellite markers. The analysis of microsatellite loci generated 1821 genotypes and 55 different alleles. Estimates of observed and expected heterozygosities were relatively high and ranged from 0.371 to 0.687 and from 0.326 to 0.729, respectively. For the first time, significant phylogeographic structure among Asian Houbara populations was found using neutral nuclear markers. Analysis of molecular variance revealed 12.03% population variability among the subspecies. Population structure and assignment tests inferred using a Bayesian approach revealed two distinct clusters with more than 90% likelihood, one Asian and one North African. A positive correlation between genetic distance and geographic distance was detected among populations (r(2) = 0.302). For conservation purposes, this genetic information will help understand the current genetic status improving management strategies for Houbara bustard breeds and populations. PMID:23079815

  17. Genetic Structure of Lutzomyia longipalpis Populations in Mato Grosso Do Sul, Brazil, Based on Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Mirella F. C.; Ribolla, Paulo E. M.; Alonso, Diego P.; Andrade-Filho, José D.; Casaril, Aline E.; Ferreira, Alda M. T.; Fernandes, Carlos E. S.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.; Oliveira, Alessandra G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lutzomyialongipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the major vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and thus plays a crucial role in the epidemiology of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). This vector is the best studied species of sand fly in the Neotropical region. Many studies claim that this vector is in fact a species complex; however there is still no consensus regarding the number of species that belong into this complex or the geographical distribution of sibling species. The aim of the present study was to analyze the genetic relationships within Lu. longipalpis populations in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected 30 Lu. longipalpis (15 females and 15 males) from five localities (Campo Grande, Três Lagoas, Aquidauana, Miranda and Bonito) and 30 Lu. Cruzi from Corumbá, totaling 180 sandflies from MS, and 30 Lu. longipalpis from Estrela de Alagoas, state of Alagoas (AL), Northeast Brazil. We show that eight previously described microsatellite loci were sufficient in distinguishing Lu. longipalpis from Lu. Cruzi, which is a closely related species, and in differentiating between Lu. longipalpis collected in MS versus Estrela de Alagoas. Analyses of the genotypes revealed introgression between sympatric Lu. longipalpis and Lu. Cruzi. Conclusions/Significance Our findings support the hypothesis of cryptic species within the Lu. longipalpis complex. Furthermore, our data revealed introgression between Lu. longipalpis and Lu. cruzi. This phenomenon should be further investigated to determine the level and incidence of hybridization between these two species. We also demonstrated that microsatellite markers are a powerful tool for differentiating sand fly populations and species. The present study has elucidated the population structure of Lu. longipalpis in MS and, by extension, the Neotropical Lu. longipalpis complex itself. PMID:24066129

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure in native chicken populations from myanmar, Thailand and laos by using 102 indels markers.

    PubMed

    Maw, A A; Kawabe, K; Shimogiri, T; Rerkamnuaychoke, W; Kawamoto, Y; Masuda, S; Okamoto, S

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of native chicken populations from Myanmar, Thailand, and Laos was examined by using 102 insertion and/or deletion (indels) markers. Most of the indels loci were polymorphic (71% to 96%), and the genetic variability was similar in all populations. The average observed heterozygosities (H O ) and expected heterozygosities (H E ) ranged from 0.205 to 0.263 and 0.239 to 0.381, respectively. The coefficients of genetic differentiation (Gst) for all cumulated populations was 0.125, and the Thai native chickens showed higher Gst (0.088) than Myanmar (0.041) and Laotian (0.024) populations. The pairwise Fst distances ranged from 0.144 to 0.308 among populations. A neighbor-joining (NJ) tree, using Nei's genetic distance, revealed that Thai and Laotian native chicken populations were genetically close, while Myanmar native chickens were distant from the others. The native chickens from these three countries were thought to be descended from three different origins (K = 3) from STRUCTURE analysis. Genetic admixture was observed in Thai and Laotian native chickens, while admixture was absent in Myanmar native chickens. PMID:25557671

  19. Genetic Diversity of the Critically Endangered Thuja sutchuenensis Revealed by ISSR Markers and the Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianfeng; Shi, Shengqing; Chang, Ermei; Yang, Wenjuan; Jiang, Zeping

    2013-01-01

    Thuja sutchuenensis Franch. is a critically endangered plant endemic to the North-East Chongqing, China. Genetic variation was studied to assess the distribution of genetic diversity within and among seven populations from the single remnant locations, using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. A total of 15 primers generated 310 well defined bands, with an average of 20.7 bands per primer. The seven populations revealed a relatively high level of genetic diversity in the species. The percentage of polymorphic bands, Nei’s gene diversity and Shannon’s information index at the population and species level were 76.1%, 0.155, 0.252 and 100%, 0.165, 0.295, respectively. A low level of genetic differentiation among populations (GST = 0.102), in line with the results of Analyses of Molecular Variance (AMOVA), and a high level of gene flow (Nm = 4.407) were observed. Both the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmatic Mean (UPGMA) cluster analysis and Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA) supported the grouping of all seven populations into two groups. In addition, Mantel test revealed no significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances (r = 0.329, p = 0.100). The low genetic differentiation among populations implies that the conservation efforts should aim to preserve all the extant populations of this endangered species. PMID:23863693

  20. Development of Microsatellite Markers Derived from Expressed Sequence Tags of Polyporales for Genetic Diversity Analysis of Endangered Polyporus umbellatus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuejin; Chen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Ruihong; Zeng, Ailin; Deyholos, Michael K.; Shu, Jia; Guo, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    A large scale of EST sequences of Polyporales was screened in this investigation in order to identify EST-SSR markers for various applications. The distribution of EST sequences and SSRs in five families of Polyporales was analyzed, respectively. Mononucleotide was the most abundant type, followed by trinucleotide. Among five families, Ganodermataceae occupied the most SSR markers, followed by Coriolaceae. Functional prediction of SSR marker-containing EST sequences in Ganoderma lucidum obtained three main groups, namely, cellular component, biological process, and molecular function. Thirty EST-SSR primers were designed to evaluate the genetic diversity of 13 natural Polyporus umbellatus accessions. Twenty one EST-SSRs were polymorphic with average PIC value of 0.33 and transferability rate of 71%. These 13 P. umbellatus accessions showed relatively high genetic diversity. The expected heterozygosity, Nei's gene diversity, and Shannon information index were 0.41, 0.39, and 0.57, respectively. Both UPGMA dendrogram and principal coordinate analysis (PCA) showed the same cluster result that divided the 13 accessions into three or four groups. PMID:26146636

  1. Exploration of genetic diversity among medicinally important genus Epimedium species based on genomic and EST-SSR marker.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Zubaida; Hu, Weiming; Zhang, Yanjun; Zeng, Shaohua; Wang, Ying

    2015-06-01

    Epimedium species has gained prime importance due to their medicinal and economic values. Therefore, in this study, 26 genomic SSR and 10 EST-SSR markers were developed for 13 medicinal species of the Epimedium genus and one out-group species Vancouveria hexandra W. J. Hooker to explore the existing genetic diversity. A total of 100 alleles by genomic SSR and 65 by EST-SSR were detected. The genomic SSR markers were presented between 2-7 alleles per locus. The observed heterozygosity (Ho) and expected heterozygosity (He) ranged from 0.00 to 4.5 and 0.0254 to 2.8108, respectively. Similarly, for EST-SSR, these values were ranged from 3.00 to 4.00 and 1.9650 to 2.7142. The number of alleles for EST-SSR markers ranged from 3 to 10 with an average of 3.51 per loci. It has been concluded that medicinally important species of the genus Epimedium possesses lower intraspecific genetic variation. PMID:25421361

  2. Evolution of the tRNALeu (UAA) Intron and Congruence of Genetic Markers in Lichen-Symbiotic Nostoc

    PubMed Central

    Kaasalainen, Ulla; Olsson, Sanna; Rikkinen, Jouko

    2015-01-01

    The group I intron interrupting the tRNALeu UAA gene (trnL) is present in most cyanobacterial genomes as well as in the plastids of many eukaryotic algae and all green plants. In lichen symbiotic Nostoc, the P6b stem-loop of trnL intron always involves one of two different repeat motifs, either Class I or Class II, both with unresolved evolutionary histories. Here we attempt to resolve the complex evolution of the two different trnL P6b region types. Our analysis indicates that the Class II repeat motif most likely appeared first and that independent and unidirectional shifts to the Class I motif have since taken place repeatedly. In addition, we compare our results with those obtained with other genetic markers and find strong evidence of recombination in the 16S rRNA gene, a marker widely used in phylogenetic studies on Bacteria. The congruence of the different genetic markers is successfully evaluated with the recently published software Saguaro, which has not previously been utilized in comparable studies. PMID:26098760

  3. A GENETIC LINKAGE MAP FOR HAZELNUT (CORYLUS AVELLANA L.) BASED ON RAPD AND SSR MARKERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A linkage map for European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) was constructed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and the 2-way pseudotestcross approach. RAPD markers in testcross configuration segregating 1:1, were used to construct maps for each paren...

  4. Construction of a genetic linkage map in tetraploid species using molecular markers.

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Z W; Hackett, C A; Bradshaw, J E; McNicol, J W; Milbourne, D

    2001-01-01

    This article presents methodology for the construction of a linkage map in an autotetraploid species, using either codominant or dominant molecular markers scored on two parents and their full-sib progeny. The steps of the analysis are as follows: identification of parental genotypes from the parental and offspring phenotypes; testing for independent segregation of markers; partition of markers into linkage groups using cluster analysis; maximum-likelihood estimation of the phase, recombination frequency, and LOD score for all pairs of markers in the same linkage group using the EM algorithm; ordering the markers and estimating distances between them; and reconstructing their linkage phases. The information from different marker configurations about the recombination frequency is examined and found to vary considerably, depending on the number of different alleles, the number of alleles shared by the parents, and the phase of the markers. The methods are applied to a simulated data set and to a small set of SSR and AFLP markers scored in a full-sib population of tetraploid potato. PMID:11238421

  5. The inheritance of genetic markers in microspore-derived plants of barley Hordeum vulgare L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Thompson; K. Chalmers; R. Waugh; B. P. Forster; W. T. B. Thomas; P. D. S. Caligari; W. Powell

    1991-01-01

    Biochemical, molecular and morphological markers have been used to monitor the segregation of alleles at major gene loci in microspore-derived lines of four spring barley crosses and their parents. Significant deviations from the expected Mendelian ratios were observed for four of the ten markers studied in the cross. Distorted ratios were associated with loci located on chromosomes 4H and 6H.

  6. Identification and characterization of dinucleotide repeat (CA)[sub n] markers for genetic mapping in dog

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrander, E.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Sprague, G.F. Jr. (Univ. of Oregon, Eugene (United States)); Rine, J. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States))

    1993-04-01

    A large block of simple sequence repeat (SSR) polymorphisms for the dog genome has been isolated and characterized. Screening of primary libraries by conventional hybridization methods as well as by screening of enriched marker-selected libraries led to the isolation of a large number of genomic clones that contained (CA)[sub n] repeats. The sequences of 101 clones showed that the size and complexity of (CA)[sub n] repeats in the dog genome were similar to those reported for these markers in the human genome. Detailed analysis of a representative subset of these markers revealed that most markers were moderately to highly polymorphic, with PIC values exceeding 0.70 for 33% of the markers tested. An association between higher PIC values and markers containing longer (CA)[sub n] repeats was observed in these studies, as previously noted for similar markers in the human genome. A list of primer sequences that tag each characterized marker is provided, and a comprehensive system of nomenclature for the dog genome is suggested. 28 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Tissue-specifically regulated site-specific excision of selectable marker genes in bivalent insecticidal, genetically-modified rice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhan; Ding, Xuezhi; Hu, Shengbiao; Sun, Yunjun; Xia, Liqiu

    2013-12-01

    Marker-free, genetically-modified rice was created by the tissue-specifically regulated Cre/loxP system, in which the Cre recombinase gene and hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt) were flanked by two directly oriented loxP sites. Cre expression was activated by the tissue-specific promoter OsMADS45 in flower or napin in seed, resulting in simultaneous excision of the recombinase and marker genes. Segregation of T1 progeny was performed to select recombined plants. The excision was confirmed by PCR, Southern blot and sequence analyses indicating that efficiency varied from 10 to 53 % for OsMADS45 and from 12 to 36 % for napin. The expression of cry1Ac and vip3A was detected by RT-PCR analysis in marker-free transgenic rice. These results suggested that our tissue-specifically regulated Cre/loxP system could auto-excise marker genes from transgenic rice and alleviate public concerns about the security of GM crops. PMID:23974493

  8. Cumulative Small Effect Genetic Markers and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Fernandez, Pablo; Dymerska, Dagmara; Kurzawski, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Ró?a; Sobieszcza?ska, Tatiana; Banaszkiewicz, Zbigniew; Roomere, Hanno; Oitmaa, Eneli; Metspalu, Andres; Janavi?ius, Ram?nas; Elsakov, Pavel; Razumas, Mindaugas; Petrulis, Kestutis; Irmejs, Arv?ds; Miklaševi?s, Edv?ns; Scott, Rodney J.; Lubi?ski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The continued identification of new low-penetrance genetic variants for colorectal cancer (CRC) raises the question of their potential cumulative effect among compound carriers. We focused on 6 SNPs (rs380284, rs4464148, rs4779584, rs4939827, rs6983267, and rs10795668), already described as risk markers, and tested their possible independent and combined contribution to CRC predisposition. Material and Methods. DNA was collected and genotyped from 2330 unselected consecutive CRC cases and controls from Estonia (166 cases and controls), Latvia (81 cases and controls), Lithuania (123 cases and controls), and Poland (795 cases and controls). Results. Beyond individual effects, the analysis revealed statistically significant linear cumulative effects for these 6 markers for all samples except of the Latvian one (corrected P value = 0.018 for the Estonian, corrected P value = 0.0034 for the Lithuanian, and corrected P value = 0.0076 for the Polish sample). Conclusions. The significant linear cumulative effects demonstrated here support the idea of using sets of low-risk markers for delimiting new groups with high-risk of CRC in clinical practice that are not carriers of the usual CRC high-risk markers.

  9. Movements of genes between populations: are pollinators more effective at transferring their own or plant genetic markers?

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Compton, Stephen G; Peng, Fo-En; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2015-06-01

    The transfer of genes between populations is increasingly important in a world where pollinators are declining, plant and animal populations are increasingly fragmented and climate change is forcing shifts in distribution. The distances that pollen can be transported by small insects are impressive, as is the extensive gene flow between their own populations. We compared the relative ease by which small insects introduce genetic markers into their own and host-plant populations. Gene flow via seeds and pollen between populations of an Asian fig species were evaluated using cpDNA and nuclear DNA markers, and between-population gene flow of its pollinator fig wasp was determined using microsatellites. This insect is the tree's only pollinator locally, and only reproduces in its figs. The plant's pollen-to-seed dispersal ratio was 9.183-9.437, smaller than that recorded for other Ficus. The relative effectiveness of the pollinator at introducing markers into its own populations was higher than the rate it introduced markers into the plant's populations (ratio = 14 : 1), but given the demographic differences between plant and pollinator, pollen transfer effectiveness is remarkably high. Resource availability affects the dispersal of fig wasps, and host-plant flowering phenology here and in other plant-pollinator systems may strongly influence relative gene flow rates. PMID:25948688

  10. Hierarchical Analysis of Genetic Structure in Native Fire Ant Populations: Results from Three Classes of Molecular Markers

    PubMed Central

    Ross, K. G.; Krieger, MJB.; Shoemaker, D. D.; Vargo, E. L.; Keller, L.

    1997-01-01

    We describe genetic structure at various scales in native populations of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta using two classes of nuclear markers, allozymes and microsatellites, and markers of the mitochondrial genome. Strong structure was found at the nest level in both the monogyne (single queen) and polygyne (multiple queen) social forms using allozymes. Weak but significant microgeographic structure was detected above the nest level in polygyne populations but not in monogyne populations using both classes of nuclear markers. Pronounced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) differentiation was evident also at this level in the polygyne form only. These microgeographic patterns are expected because polygyny in ants is associated with restricted local gene flow due mainly to limited vagility of queens. Weak but significant nuclear differentiation was detected between sympatric social forms, and strong mtDNA differentiation also was found at this level. Thus, queens of each form seem unable to establish themselves in nests of the alternate type, and some degree of assortative mating by form may exist as well. Strong differentiation was found between the two study regions using all three sets of markers. Phylogeographic analyses of the mtDNA suggest that recent limitations on gene flow rather than longstanding barriers to dispersal are responsible for this large-scale structure. PMID:9335601

  11. Molecular Markers for the Classification of Switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.) Germplasm and to Assess Genetic Diversity in Three Synthetic Switchgrass Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali M. Missaoui; Andrew H. Paterson; Joseph H. Bouton

    2006-01-01

    Information regarding the amount of genetic diversity is necessary to enhance the effectiveness of breeding programs and germplasm conservation efforts. Genetic variation between 21 switchgrass genotypes randomly selected from two lowland (‘Alamo’ and ‘Kanlow’) and one upland (‘Summer’) synthetic cultivars were estimated using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. Comparison of 85 RFLP loci revealed 92% polymorphism between at least

  12. ReproducedfromCropScience.PublishedbyCropScienceSocietyofAmerica.Allcopyrightsreserved. Pedigree-vs. DNA Marker-Based Genetic Similarity Estimates in Cotton

    E-print Network

    Chee, Peng W.

    - vs. DNA Marker-Based Genetic Similarity Estimates in Cotton Guillermo Van Becelaere, Edward L and detailed pedi- mates for a set of 36 Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars. gree records similarity measures the degree ofof true genetic resemblance among cotton cultivars. Nevertheless

  13. Suitability of EST-PCR markers developed in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) for genetic fingerprinting and relationship studies in lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium Ait.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the genetic structure and variability of wild fields or of the dramatic differences in yield among clones (genetic individuals) of Maine’s most economically important fruit crop, lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.). EST-PCR markers, which were originally developed...

  14. Using microsatellite (SSR) and morphological markers to assess the genetic diversity of 12 falcata (Medicago sativa spp. falcata) populations from Eurasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Li; Yunwen Wang; Xiaolong Sun; Jianguo Han

    Falcata (Medicago sativa spp. falcata L.), with its high resistance to cold weather, drought and disease, plays an important role in alfalfa breeding. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic diversity of the 12 falcata populations in Eurasia using SSR markers and morphological traits. Regressions for genetic distance, phenotypic distance and geographic distance were also computed to

  15. Genetic relationships and variation among ecotypes of seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z W; Jarret, R L; Duncan, R R; Kresovich, S

    1994-12-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to assess genetic relationships and variation among ecotypes of the turfgrass seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum Swartz). Vegetative tissues or seeds of 46 seashore paspalum ecotypes were obtained from various locations in the United States, Argentina, and South Africa. Leaf DNA extracts were screened for RAPD markers using 34 10-mer random primers. A total of 195 reproducible RAPD fragments were observed, with an average of six fragments per primer. One hundred and sixty-nine fragments (87% of the total observed) were polymorphic, among which 27 fragments (16%) were present in three or less ecotypes, indicating the occurrence of a high level of genetic variation among the examined accessions of this species. Cluster analysis (UPGMA) and principal coordinates analysis were performed on the RAPD data set. The results illustrate genetic relationships among the 46 ecotypes, and between ecotypes and their geographical origins. Ecotypes from southern Africa could be differentiated from the U.S. and most of the Argentinean ecotypes. With a few exceptions, ecotypes collected from Argentina, Hawaii, Florida, and Texas were separated into distinct clusters. PMID:18470139

  16. Microsatellite markers from the 'South American fruit fly' Anastrepha fraterculus: a valuable tool for population genetic analysis and SIT applications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann is a horticultural pest which causes significant economic losses in the fruit-producing areas of the American continent and limits the access of products to international markets. The use of environmentally friendly control strategies against this pest is constrained due to the limited knowledge of its population structure. Results We developed microsatellite markers for A. fraterculus from four genomic libraries, which were enriched in CA, CAA, GA and CAT microsatellite motifs. Fifty microsatellite regions were evaluated and 14 loci were selected for population genetics studies. Genotypes of 122 individuals sampled from four A. fraterculus populations were analyzed. The level of polymorphism ranged from three to 13 alleles per locus and the mean expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.60 to 0.64. Comparison between allelic and genotypic frequencies showed significant differences among all pairs of populations. Conclusions This novel set of microsatellite markers provides valuable information for the description of genetic variability and population structure of wild populations and laboratory strains of A. fraterculus. This information will be used to identify and characterize candidate strains suitable to implement effective pest control strategies and might represent a first step towards having a more comprehensive knowledge about the genetics of this pest. PMID:25471285

  17. Genetic mapping, marker assisted selection and allelic relationships for the Pu 6 gene conferring rust resistance in sunflower.

    PubMed

    Bulos, Mariano; Vergani, Pablo Nicolas; Altieri, Emiliano

    2014-09-01

    Rust resistance in the sunflower line P386 is controlled by Pu 6 , a gene which was reported to segregate independently from other rust resistant genes, such as R 4 . The objectives of this work were to map Pu 6 , to provide and validate molecular tools for its identification, and to determine the linkage relationship of Pu 6 and R 4 . Genetic mapping of Pu 6 with six markers covered 24.8 cM of genetic distance on the lower end of linkage Group 13 of the sunflower consensus map. The marker most closely linked to Pu 6 was ORS316 at 2.5 cM in the distal position. ORS316 presented five alleles when was assayed with a representative set of resistant and susceptible lines. Allelism test between Pu 6 and R 4 indicated that both genes are linked at a genetic distance of 6.25 cM. This is the first confirmation based on an allelism test that at least two members of the R adv /R 4 /R 11 / R 13a /R 13b /Pu 6 cluster of genes are at different loci. A fine elucidation of the architecture of this complex locus will allow designing and constructing completely new genomic regions combining genes from different resistant sources and the elimination of the linkage drag around each resistant gene. PMID:25320555

  18. De novo assembly and characterization of the carrot transcriptome reveals novel genes, new markers, and genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Among next generation sequence technologies, platforms such as Illumina and SOLiD produce short reads but with higher coverage and lower cost per sequenced nucleotide than 454 or Sanger. A challenge now is to develop efficient strategies to use short-read length platforms for de novo assembly and marker development. The scope of this study was to develop a de novo assembly of carrot ESTs from multiple genotypes using the Illumina platform, and to identify polymorphisms. Results A de novo assembly of transcriptome sequence from four genetic backgrounds produced 58,751 contigs and singletons. Over 50% of these assembled sequences were annotated allowing detection of transposable elements and new carrot anthocyanin genes. Presence of multiple genetic backgrounds in our assembly allowed the identification of 114 computationally polymorphic SSRs, and 20,058 SNPs at a depth of coverage of 20× or more. Polymorphisms were predominantly between inbred lines except for the cultivated x wild RIL pool which had high intra-sample polymorphism. About 90% and 88% of tested SSR and SNP primers amplified a product, of which 70% and 46%, respectively, were of the expected size. Out of verified SSR and SNP markers 84% and 82% were polymorphic. About 25% of SNPs genotyped were polymorphic in two diverse mapping populations. Conclusions This study confirmed the potential of short read platforms for de novo EST assembly and identification of genetic polymorphisms in carrot. In addition we produced the first large-scale transcriptome of carrot, a species lacking genomic resources. PMID:21810238

  19. Cytoplasmic and nuclear markers reveal contrasting patterns of spatial genetic structure in a natural Ipomopsis hybrid zone.

    PubMed

    Wu, Carrie A; Campbell, Diane R

    2005-03-01

    Spatial variation in natural selection may play an important role in determining the genetic structure of hybridizing populations. Previous studies have found that F1 hybrids between naturally hybridizing Ipomopsis aggregata and Ipomopsis tenuituba in central Colorado differ in fitness depending on both genotype and environment: hybrids had higher survival when I. aggregata was the maternal parent, except in the centre of the hybrid zone where both hybrid types had high survival. Here, we developed both maternally (cpDNA PCR-RFLP) and biparentally inherited (nuclear AFLP) species-diagnostic markers to characterize the spatial genetic structure of the natural Ipomopsis hybrid zone, and tested the prediction that the majority of natural hybrids have I. aggregata cytoplasm, except in areas near the centre of the hybrid zone. Analyses of 352 individuals from across the hybrid zone indicate that cytoplasmic gene flow is bidirectional, but contrary to expectation, most plants in the hybrid zone have I. tenuituba cytoplasm. This cytotype distribution is consistent with a hybrid zone in historical transition, with I. aggregata nuclear genes advancing into the contact zone. Further, nuclear data show a much more gradual cline than cpDNA markers that is consistent with morphological patterns across the hybrid populations. A mixture of environment- and pollinator-mediated selection may contribute to the current genetic structure of this hybrid system. PMID:15723669

  20. Genetic diversity and association mapping of bacterial blight and other horticulturally important traits with microsatellite markers in pomegranate from India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nripendra Vikram; Abburi, Venkata Lakshmi; Ramajayam, D; Kumar, Ravinder; Chandra, Ram; Sharma, Kuldeep Kumar; Sharma, Jyotsana; Babu, K Dhinesh; Pal, Ram Krishna; Mundewadikar, Dhananjay M; Saminathan, Thangasamy; Cantrell, Robert; Nimmakayala, Padma; Reddy, Umesh K

    2015-08-01

    This genetic diversity study aimed to estimate the population structure and explore the use of association mapping strategies to identify linked markers for bacterial resistance, growth and fruit quality in pomegranate collections from India. In total, 88 accessions including 37 cultivated types were investigated. A total of 112 alleles were amplified by use of 44 publicly available microsatellites for estimating molecular genetic diversity and population structure. Neighbor-joining analysis, model-based population structure and principal component analysis corroborated the genetic relationships among wild-type and cultivated pomegranate collections from India. Our study placed all 88 germplasm into four clusters. We identified a cultivated clade of pomegranates in close proximity to Daru types of wild-type pomegranates that grow naturally near the foothills of the Himalayas. Admixture analysis sorted various lineages of cultivated pomegranates to their respective ancestral forms. We identified four linked markers for fruit weight, titratable acidity and bacterial blight severity. PGCT001 was found associated with both fruit weight and bacterial blight, and the association with fruit weight during both seasons analyzed was significant after Bonferroni correction. This research demonstrates effectiveness of microsatellites to resolve population structure among the wild and cultivar collection of pomegranates and future use for association mapping studies. PMID:25675870

  1. Population genetics of invasive Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) cryptic species in the United States based on microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Aaron M; Osborne, Lance S; Shatters, Robert G; Hall, Paula A M; Mckenzie, Cindy L

    2013-06-01

    The Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) cryptic species complex of whiteflies contains two species, MEAM1 and MED, that are highly invasive in supportive climates the world over. In the United States, MEAM1 occurs both in the field and in the greenhouse, but MED is only found in the greenhouse. To make inferences about the population structure of both species, and the origin and recent spread of MED within the United States, 987 MEAM1 whiteflies and 340 MED whiteflies were genotyped at six and seven microsatellite loci, respectively, for population genetic analyses. Major results of the study are 1) MED exhibits more population structure and genetic differentiation than MEAM1, 2) nuclear microsatellite markers exhibit a high degree of concordance with mitochondrial markers recovering a major east-west phylogeographic break within MED, 3) both eastern and western MED are found throughout the continental United States and eastern MED is present in Hawaii, and 4) MEAM1 contains two greenhouse U.S. populations significantly differentiated from other U.S. MEAM1. The results suggest that MED was introduced into the United States on at least three occasions and rapidly spread throughout the United States, showing no discernible differentiation across 7,000 km. The results further suggest that there is an enhanced role of the protected agricultural environment in promoting genetic differentiation in both invasive B. tabaci cryptic species. PMID:23865202

  2. Retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP) markers for genetic diversity assessment of the rice blast pathogen (Magnaporthe grisea).

    PubMed

    Chadha, Sonia; Gopalakrishna, T

    2005-10-01

    This present study is the first report of the application of the retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP) technique in fungi. Genome fingerprinting has a major role in the characterization of population structure and in the analysis of the variability in fungi. Retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism assay was used in virulent isolates of a rice blast pathogen (Magnaporthe grisea) as a new assay system for genetic variability studies that overcomes the limitations of previous techniques. The high polymorphism observed in REMAP could be due to past or recent actions of retrotransposon in M. grisea. Retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism, with its superior marker utility, was concluded to be the marker of choice for characterizing M. grisea isolates. PMID:16391701

  3. A genetic linkage map for hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) based on RAPD and SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Mehlenbacher, Shawn A; Brown, Rebecca N; Nouhra, Eduardo R; Gökirmak, Tufan; Bassil, Nahla V; Kubisiak, Thomas L

    2006-02-01

    A linkage map for European hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) was constructed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and the 2-way pseudotestcross approach. A full-sib population of 144 seedlings from the cross OSU 252.146 x OSU 414.062 was used. RAPD markers in testcross configuration, segregating 1:1, were used to construct separate maps for each parent. Fifty additional RAPD loci were assigned to linkage groups as accessory markers whose exact location could not be determined. Markers in intercross configuration, segregating 3:1, were used to pair groups in one parent with their homologues in the other. Eleven groups were identified for each parent, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of hazelnut (n = x = 11). Thirty of the 31 SSR loci were able to be assigned to a linkage group. The maternal map included 249 RAPD and 20 SSR markers and spanned a distance of 661 cM. The paternal map included 271 RAPD and 28 SSR markers and spanned a distance of 812 cM. The maps are quite dense, with an average of 2.6 cM between adjacent markers. The S-locus, which controls pollen-stigma incompatibility, was placed on chromosome 5S where 6 markers linked within a distance of 10 cM were identified. A locus for resistance to eastern filbert blight, caused by Anisogramma anomala, was placed on chromosome 6R for which two additional markers tightly linked to the dominant allele were identified and sequenced. These maps will serve as a starting point for future studies of the hazelnut genome, including map-based cloning of important genes. The inclusion of SSR loci on the map will make it useful in other populations. PMID:16498462

  4. A LCP 85-384 genetic linkage map enriched with polymorphic SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) cultivars, such as Q165, R570 and LCP 85-384, have been used to construct genetic segregation populations for the development of genetic linkage maps. Based on the genetic linkage map for a selfed-progeny population of R570, the French research group at CIRAD tagge...

  5. Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Cultivated Jute Determined by Means of SSR Markers and AFLP Profiling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Basu; M. Ghosh; R. Meyer; W. Powell; S. L. Basak; S. K. Sen

    2004-01-01

    a few common accessions. It has also been indicated that each of the two jute species contain very limited genetic Genetic improvement of the cultivars of jute (Corchorus olitorius variability with respect to (i) adaptability to different agro- L. and Corchorus capsularis L.) is needed to broaden the genetic base nomic environments, (ii) fiber quality, (iii) fiber yield, of new

  6. Analysis of the genetic diversity of Chinese native Cannabis sativa cultivars by using ISSR and chromosome markers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L G; Chang, Y; Zhang, X F; Guan, F Z; Yuan, H M; Yu, Y; Zhao, L J

    2014-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa) is an important fiber crop, and native cultivars exist widely throughout China. In the present study, we analyzed the genetic diversity of 27 important Chinese native hemp cultivars, by using inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and chromosome markers. We determined the following chromosome formulas: 2n = 20 = 14m + 6sm; 2n = 20 = 20m; 2n = 20 = 18m + 2sm; 2n = 20 = 16m + 4sm; and 2n = 20 = 12m + 8sm. The results of our ISSR analysis revealed the genetic relationships among the 27 cultivars; these relationships were analyzed by using the unweighted pair-group method based on DNA polymorphism. Our results revealed that all of the native cultivars showed considerable genetic diversity. At a genetic distance of 0.324, the 27 varieties could be classified into five categories; this grouping corresponded well with the chromosome formulas. All of the investigated hemp cultivars represent relatively primitive types; moreover, the genetic distances show a geographical distribution, with a small amount of regional hybridity. PMID:25511032

  7. Inferring population structure and genetic diversity of broad range of wild diploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) accessions using SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Sakiro?lu, Muhammet; Doyle, Jeffrey J; Charles Brummer, E

    2010-08-01

    Diversity analyses in alfalfa have mainly evaluated genetic relationships of cultivated germplasm, with little known about variation in diploid germplasm in the M. sativa-falcata complex. A collection of 374 individual genotypes derived from 120 unimproved diploid accessions from the National Plant Germplasm System, including M. sativa subsp. caerulea, falcata, and hemicycla, were evaluated with 89 polymorphic SSR loci in order to estimate genetic diversity, infer the genetic bases of current morphology-based taxonomy, and determine population structure. Diploid alfalfa is highly variable. A model-based clustering analysis of the genomic data identified two clearly discrete subpopulations, corresponding to the morphologically defined subspecies falcata and caerulea, with evidence of the hybrid nature of the subspecies hemicycla based on genome composition. Two distinct subpopulations exist within each subsp. caerulea and subsp. falcata. The distinction of caerulea was based on geographical distribution. The two falcata groups were separated based on ecogeography. The results show that taxonomic relationships based on morphology are reflected in the genetic marker data with some exceptions, and that clear distinctions among subspecies are evident at the diploid level. This research provides a baseline from which to systematically evaluate variability in tetraploid alfalfa and serves as a starting point for exploring diploid alfalfa for genetic and breeding experiments. PMID:20352180

  8. Genetic diversity of an Azorean endemic and endangered plant species inferred from inter-simple sequence repeat markers

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Maria S.; Mendonça, Duarte; Bettencourt, Sílvia X.; Borba, Ana R.; Melo, Catarina; Baptista, Cláudio; da Câmara Machado, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the levels and distribution of genetic diversity is important for designing conservation strategies for threatened and endangered species so as to guarantee sustainable survival of populations and to preserve their evolutionary potential. Picconia azorica is a valuable Azorean endemic species recently classified as endangered. To contribute with information useful for the establishment of conservation programmes, the genetic variability and differentiation among 230 samples from 11 populations collected in three Azorean islands was accessed with eight inter-simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 64 polymorphic loci were detected. The majority of genetic variability was found within populations and no genetic structure was detected between populations and between islands. Also the coefficient of genetic differentiation and the level of gene flow indicate that geographical distances do not act as barriers for gene flow. In order to ensure the survival of populations in situ and ex situ management practices should be considered, including artificial propagation through the use of plant tissue culture techniques, not only for the restoration of habitat but also for the sustainable use of its valuable wood. PMID:24969504

  9. Analysis of genetic stability through intersimple sequence repeats molecular markers in micropropagated plantlets of Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata, a medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fusheng; Lv, Yali; Dong, Hailing; Guo, Shunxing

    2010-01-01

    Anoectochilus formosanus HAYATA, commonly known as "Jewel Orchids," which has been used as Chinese folk medicines, is being subjected to a huge crisis, whose wild resources have gradually become more and more scarce. Hence, micropropagation protocol by axillary branching established for A. formosanus was employed for large-scale commercial production. In this study, due to the somaclonal variation and on the basis of some virtue of intersimple sequence repeats (ISSR) analysis, we firstly utilized the ISSR primers to investigate the genetic stability of A. formosanus propagated in vitro for a period of more than 5 years. Among the total 100 bands amplified by 17 ISSR markers, 77 bands were distributed in size from 500 bp to 1.5 kbp, while only 5 bands were beyond 1.8 kbp in size. Meanwhile, according to the cluster analysis, genetic similarity was more than 94% and the polymorphism rate was only 2.76% among the total 1810 scorable bands. All results demonstrate A. formosanus, multiplied by axillary branching, maintained high genetic fidelity even after a period of more than 5 years under in vitro propagation with only a low risk of genetic instability. The results from this study provide an important basis for giving evidence of genetic stability of A. formosanus before micropropagation for large-scale commercial production. PMID:20190397

  10. Genetic diversity, genetic structure and demographic history of Cycas simplicipinna (Cycadaceae) assessed by DNA sequences and SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cycas simplicipinna (T. Smitinand) K. Hill. (Cycadaceae) is an endangered species in China. There were seven populations and 118 individuals that we could collect were genotyped in this study. Here, we assessed the genetic diversity, genetic structure and demographic history of this species. Results Analyses of data of DNA sequences (two maternally inherited intergenic spacers of chloroplast, cpDNA and one biparentally inherited internal transcribed spacer region ITS4-ITS5, nrDNA) and sixteen microsatellite loci (SSR) were conducted in the species. Of the 118 samples, 86 individuals from the seven populations were used for DNA sequencing and 115 individuals from six populations were used for the microsatellite study. We found high genetic diversity at the species level, low genetic diversity within each of the seven populations and high genetic differentiation among the populations. There was a clear genetic structure within populations of C. simplicipinna. A demographic history inferred from DNA sequencing data indicates that C. simplicipinna experienced a recent population contraction without retreating to a common refugium during the last glacial period. The results derived from SSR data also showed that C. simplicipinna underwent past effective population contraction, likely during the Pleistocene. Conclusions Some genetic features of C. simplicipinna such as having high genetic differentiation among the populations, a clear genetic structure and a recent population contraction could provide guidelines for protecting this endangered species from extinction. Furthermore, the genetic features with population dynamics of the species in our study would help provide insights and guidelines for protecting other endangered species effectively. PMID:25016306

  11. Development of Genetic Markers for Triploid Verification of the Pacific Oyster, Crassostrea gigas

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Lim, Hyun Jeong; Kang, Hyun-Soek; Lee, Jung-Mee; Baby, Sumy; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2013-01-01

    The triploid Pacific oyster, which is produced by mating tetraploid and diploid oysters, is favored by the aquaculture industry because of its better flavor and firmer texture, particularly during the summer. However, tetraploid oyster production is not feasible in all oysters; the development of tetraploid oysters is ongoing in some oyster species. Thus, a method for ploidy verification is necessary for this endeavor, in addition to ploidy verification in aquaculture farms and in the natural environment. In this study, a method for ploidy verification of triploid and diploid oysters was developed using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) panels containing primers for molecular microsatellite markers. Two microsatellite multiplex PCR panels consisting of three markers each were developed using previously developed microsatellite markers that were optimized for performance. Both panels were able to verify the ploidy levels of 30 triploid oysters with 100% accuracy, illustrating the utility of microsatellite markers as a tool for verifying the ploidy of individual oysters. PMID:25049868

  12. Genetic markers reveal a gradient of hybridization between cape hakes (Merluccius capensis and Merluccius paradoxus) in their sympatric geographic distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miralles, Laura; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2014-02-01

    The cape hakes Merluccius capensis and Merluccius paradoxus are important fishing resources for African countries such as Namibia and South Africa. In this study we have genetically analyzed adult samples from the overlapping distribution of these species. Eight microsatellite loci, the nuclear 5S rDNA locus and the Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) gene were employed as molecular markers. A North-South gradient of interspecific hybridization was found, with discordant mitochondrial and nuclear genotypes at the northernmost edge of M. paradoxus distribution. These results suggest intense introgression in North Benguela off the Namibian coast. Independent hake stock assessment is recommended in this region for sustainable management of this valuable resource.

  13. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 65:220228, 1999 Use of Unlinked Genetic Markers to Detect Population Stratification in

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Noah

    Stratification in Association Studies Jonathan K. Pritchard1,2 and Noah A. Rosenberg1 1 Department of Biological Summary We examine the issue of population stratification in as- sociation-mapping studies. In case population, we show that if population stratification exists, it can be detected by use of unlinked marker

  14. Genetic diversity, population structure and relationships in indigenous cattle populations of Ethiopia and Korean Hanwoo breeds using SNP markers

    PubMed Central

    Edea, Zewdu; Dadi, Hailu; Kim, Sang-Wook; Dessie, Tadelle; Lee, Taeheon; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Jong-Joo; Kim, Kwan-Suk

    2013-01-01

    In total, 166 individuals from five indigenous Ethiopian cattle populations – Ambo (n = 27), Borana (n = 35), Arsi (n = 30), Horro (n = 36), and Danakil (n = 38) – were genotyped for 8773 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and relationships. As a representative of taurine breeds, Hanwoo cattle (n = 40) were also included in the study for reference. Among Ethiopian cattle populations, the proportion of SNPs with minor allele frequencies (MAFs) ?0.05 ranged from 81.63% in Borana to 85.30% in Ambo, with a mean of 83.96% across all populations. The Hanwoo breed showed the highest proportion of polymorphism, with MAFs ?0.05, accounting for 95.21% of total SNPs. The mean expected heterozygosity varied from 0.370 in Danakil to 0.410 in Hanwoo. The mean genetic differentiation (FST; 1%) in Ethiopian cattle revealed that within individual variation accounted for approximately 99% of the total genetic variation. As expected, FST and Reynold genetic distance were greatest between Hanwoo and Ethiopian cattle populations, with average values of 17.62 and 18.50, respectively. The first and second principal components explained approximately 78.33% of the total variation and supported the clustering of the populations according to their historical origins. At K = 2 and 3, a considerable source of variation among cattle is the clustering of the populations into Hanwoo (taurine) and Ethiopian cattle populations. The low estimate of genetic differentiation (FST) among Ethiopian cattle populations indicated that differentiation among these populations is low, possibly owing to a common historical origin and high gene flow. Genetic distance, phylogenic tree, principal component analysis, and population structure analyses clearly differentiated the cattle population according to their historical origins, and confirmed that Ethiopian cattle populations are genetically distinct from the Hanwoo breed. PMID:23518904

  15. Simple sequence repeat marker development and genetic mapping in quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Jarvis; O. R. Kopp; E. N. Jellen; M. A. Mallory; J. Pattee; A. Bonifacio; C. E. Coleman; M. R. Stevens; D. J. Fairbanks; P. J. Maughan

    2008-01-01

    Quinoa is a regionally important grain crop in the Andean region of South America. Recently quinoa has gained international\\u000a attention for its high nutritional value and tolerances of extreme abiotic stresses. DNA markers and linkage maps are important\\u000a tools for germplasm conservation and crop improvement programmes. Here we report the development of 216 new polymorphic SSR\\u000a (simple sequence repeats) markers

  16. Molecular markers for population genetic analyses in the family Psittacidae (Psittaciformes, Aves)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrícia J. Faria; Cristina Y. Miyaki

    2006-01-01

    The selection of molecular markers for population studies is an important tool for biodiversity conservation. The fam- ily Psittacidae contains many endangered and vulnerable species and we tested three kinds of molecular markers for their potential use in population studies of five psitacid species: 43 hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus), 42 blue-and-yellow macaws (Ara ararauna), 23 red-and-green macaws (Ara chloroptera), 19

  17. Genetic diversity and relationships in cultivars of Lolium multiflorum Lam. using sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Huang, L K; Jiang, X Y; Huang, Q T; Xiao, Y F; Chen, Z H; Zhang, X Q; Miao, J M; Yan, H D

    2014-01-01

    Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used to analyze and estimate the genetic variability, level of diversity, and relationships among 20 cultivars and strains of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). Eighteen SRAP primer combinations generated 334 amplification bands, of which 298 were polymorphic. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.4715 (me10 + em1) to 0.5000 (me5 + em7), with an average of 0.4921. The genetic similarity coefficient ranged from 0.4304 to 0.8529, and coefficients between 0.65 and 0.90 accounted for 90.00%. The cluster analysis separated the accessions into five groups partly according to their germplasm resource origins. PMID:25501225

  18. Detection and genetic distance of resistant populations of Pseudosuccinea columella (Mollusca: Lymnaeidae) to Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda: Digenea) using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Calienes, Aymé Fernandez; Fraga, Jorge; Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Yong, Mary; Sanchez, Jorge; Coustau, Christine; Gutiérrez, Alfredo; Théron, André

    2004-09-01

    Twelve natural populations of Pseudosuccinea columella snails, sampled in the western and central regions of Cuba, were analyzed using the RAPD-PCR technique to screen for resistance to Fasciola hepatica. Ten OPA primers previously shown to produce marker bands for resistance and susceptibility were tested. A new population of P. columella (El Azufre, Pinar del Río) exhibited the amplification patterns of resistant snails, and its resistant status was confirmed after experimental exposure to miracidia. No genetic variability was detected across or within the susceptible isolates. Similarly, the novel resistant isolate displayed an RAPD profile identical to the profile of two other isolates previously identified as resistant to F. hepatica. However, clear differences in RAPD banding patterns and genetic distance were observed between resistant and susceptible isolates. PMID:15301979

  19. Genetic diversity analysis among male and female Jojoba genotypes employing gene targeted molecular markers, start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphism and CAAT box-derived polymorphism (CBDP) markers.

    PubMed

    Heikrujam, Monika; Kumar, Jatin; Agrawal, Veena

    2015-09-01

    To detect genetic variations among different Simmondsia chinensis genotypes, two gene targeted markers, start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphism and CAAT box-derived polymorphism (CBDP) were employed in terms of their informativeness and efficiency in analyzing genetic relationships among different genotypes. A total of 15 SCoT and 17 CBDP primers detected genetic polymorphism among 39 Jojoba genotypes (22 females and 17 males). Comparatively, CBDP markers proved to be more effective than SCoT markers in terms of percentage polymorphism as the former detecting an average of 53.4% and the latter as 49.4%. The Polymorphic information content (PIC) value and marker index (MI) of CBPD were 0.43 and 1.10, respectively which were higher than those of SCoT where the respective values of PIC and MI were 0.38 and 1.09. While comparing male and female genotype populations, the former showed higher variation in respect of polymorphic percentage and PIC, MI and Rp values over female populations. Nei's diversity (h) and Shannon index (I) were calculated for each genotype and found that the genotype "MS F" (in both markers) was highly diverse and genotypes "Q104 F" (SCoT) and "82-18 F" (CBDP) were least diverse among the female genotype populations. Among male genotypes, "32 M" (CBDP) and "MS M" (SCoT) revealed highest h and I values while "58-5 M" (both markers) was the least diverse. Jaccard's similarity co-efficient of SCoT markers ranged from 0.733 to 0.922 in female genotypes and 0.941 to 0.746 in male genotype population. Likewise, CBDP data analysis also revealed similarity ranging from 0.751 to 0.958 within female genotypes and 0.754 to 0.976 within male genotype populations thereby, indicating genetically diverse Jojoba population. Employing the NTSYS (Numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system) Version 2.1 software, both the markers generated dendrograms which revealed that all the Jojoba genotypes were clustered into two major groups, one group consisting of all female genotypes and another group comprising of all male genotypes. During the present investigation, CBDP markers proved more informative in studying genetic diversity among Jojoba. Such genetically diverse genotypes would thus be of great significance for breeding, management and conservation of elite (high yielding) Jojoba germplasm. PMID:26110116

  20. Genetic diversity analysis among male and female Jojoba genotypes employing gene targeted molecular markers, start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphism and CAAT box-derived polymorphism (CBDP) markers

    PubMed Central

    Heikrujam, Monika; Kumar, Jatin; Agrawal, Veena

    2015-01-01

    To detect genetic variations among different Simmondsia chinensis genotypes, two gene targeted markers, start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphism and CAAT box-derived polymorphism (CBDP) were employed in terms of their informativeness and efficiency in analyzing genetic relationships among different genotypes. A total of 15 SCoT and 17 CBDP primers detected genetic polymorphism among 39 Jojoba genotypes (22 females and 17 males). Comparatively, CBDP markers proved to be more effective than SCoT markers in terms of percentage polymorphism as the former detecting an average of 53.4% and the latter as 49.4%. The Polymorphic information content (PIC) value and marker index (MI) of CBPD were 0.43 and 1.10, respectively which were higher than those of SCoT where the respective values of PIC and MI were 0.38 and 1.09. While comparing male and female genotype populations, the former showed higher variation in respect of polymorphic percentage and PIC, MI and Rp values over female populations. Nei's diversity (h) and Shannon index (I) were calculated for each genotype and found that the genotype “MS F” (in both markers) was highly diverse and genotypes “Q104 F” (SCoT) and “82–18 F” (CBDP) were least diverse among the female genotype populations. Among male genotypes, “32 M” (CBDP) and “MS M” (SCoT) revealed highest h and I values while “58-5 M” (both markers) was the least diverse. Jaccard's similarity co-efficient of SCoT markers ranged from 0.733 to 0.922 in female genotypes and 0.941 to 0.746 in male genotype population. Likewise, CBDP data analysis also revealed similarity ranging from 0.751 to 0.958 within female genotypes and 0.754 to 0.976 within male genotype populations thereby, indicating genetically diverse Jojoba population. Employing the NTSYS (Numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system) Version 2.1 software, both the markers generated dendrograms which revealed that all the Jojoba genotypes were clustered into two major groups, one group consisting of all female genotypes and another group comprising of all male genotypes. During the present investigation, CBDP markers proved more informative in studying genetic diversity among Jojoba. Such genetically diverse genotypes would thus be of great significance for breeding, management and conservation of elite (high yielding) Jojoba germplasm. PMID:26110116

  1. Genetic relationships among fruiting-mei (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) cultivars evaluated with AFLP and SNP markers.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jinggui; Twito, Tal; Zhang, Zhen; Chao, ChihCheng T

    2006-10-01

    Genetic relationships among 50 fruiting-mei (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) cultivars from China and Japan were investigated, using 767 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and 103 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The polymorphism among the cultivars was found to be 69.77%, based on EcoR I + Mse I AFLP primer pairs. The sequence alignment of 11 group sequences, derived from 50 samples, yielded 103 SNPs; the total length of genomic sequences was 3683 bp. Among these SNPs, 73 were heterozygous in the loci of different cultivars. The SNP distribution was 58% transition, 40% transversion, and 2% InDels. There was also 1 trinucleotide deletion. AFLP and SNP markers allowed us to evaluate the genetic diversity of these 50 fruiting-mei cultivars. The 2 derived cladograms did display some differences: all cultivars formed 2 subclusters (1A and 1B) in the cladogram based on AFLP polymorphisms, and formed 3 subclusters (2A, 2B, and 2C) in the cladogram based on SNP polymorphisms; and, in the cladogram based on AFLP polymorphisms, most cultivars from the Guangdong to Fujian provinces (G-F) in China, from the Yunnan, Hunan, and Sichuan provinces (Y-S-H) in China, and from Japan grouped in cluster 1A, and 18 (78.26%) of 23 cultivars from Jiangsu to Zhejiang provinces in China (J-Z) grouped in cluster 1B. The results demonstrate that mei cultivars from Japan are clustered with cultivars from China, and support the hypothesis that mei in Japan were introduced from China. Cultivars from the J-Z region of China have more genetic similarities. Cultivars from the G-F and Y-S-H regions have fewer genetic similarities and suggest more germplasm exchanges in the past. PMID:17213907

  2. Evaluating genetic diversity and constructing core collections of Chinese Lentinula edodes cultivars using ISSR and SRAP markers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Zhuo-Ren; Li, Chuang; Bian, Yin-Bing; Xiao, Yang

    2015-06-01

    Genetic diversity among 89 Chinese Lentinula edodes cultivars was analyzed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. A 123 out of 126 ISSR loci (97.62%) and 108 out of 129 SRAP loci (83.73%) were polymorphic between two or more strains. A dendrogram constructed by cluster analysis based on the ISSR and SRAP markers separated the L. edodes strains into two major groups, of which group B was further divided into five subgroups. Clustering results also showed a positive correlation with the main agronomic traits of the strains, and that strains with similar traits clustered together into the same groups or subgroups in most cases. The average coefficient of pairwise genetic similarity was 0.820 (range: 0.576-0.988). Compared to the wild strains, Chinese L. edodes cultivars indicated a lower level of genetic diversity. Two preliminary core collections of L. edodes, Core1 and Core2, were established based on the ISSR and SRAP data, respectively. Core1 was constructed by the advanced M (maximization) strategy using the PowerCore version 1.0 software and contained 21 strains, whereas Core2 was created by the allele preferred sampling strategy using the cluster method and contained 18 strains. Both core collections were highly representative of the genetic diversity of the original germplasm, as confirmed by the values of Na (observed number of alleles), Ne (effective number of alleles), H (Nei's gene diversity) and I (Shannon's information index), as well as results of principal coordinate analysis. The loci retention ratio of Core1 (99.61%) was higher than that of Core2 (97.65%). Moreover, Core1 contained strains with more types of agronomic traits than those in Core2. This study builds the basis for further effective protection, management and use of L. edodes germplasm resource. PMID:25589225

  3. Genetic differentiation in the winter pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa--wilkinsoni complex), inferred by AFLP and mitochondrial DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Salvato, Paola; Battisti, Andrea; Concato, Silvia; Masutti, Luigi; Patarnello, Tomaso; Zane, Lorenzo

    2002-11-01

    The winter pine processionary moth has become an important pine pest in the last century, as a consequence of the spread of pine cultivation in the Mediterranean region. The pattern of genetic differentiation of this group, that includes two sibling species (Thaumetopoea pityocampa and Th. wilkinsoni), has been studied in nine populations using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and single strand conformation polymorphism-sequence analysis (SSCP) of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI) and cytochrome oxydase 2 (COII). Results indicate the existence of strong genetic differentiation between the two species that became separated before the Quaternary ice ages. Moreover data indicate that Th. pityocampa has a strong geographical structure, particularly evident at the nuclear level, where all pairwise phiST resulted to be highly significant and individuals from the same population resulted to be strongly clustered when an individual tree was reconstructed. The estimates of the absolute number of migrants between populations (Nm), obtained from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers, suggest that gene flow is low and that a gender-related dispersal could occur in this species. The males appear to disperse more than females, contributing to the genetic diversity of populations on a relatively wide range, reducing the risks of inbreeding and the genetic loss associated with bottlenecks occurring in isolated populations. PMID:12406253

  4. A population genetic comparison of large- and small-bodied sage grouse in colorado using microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers

    PubMed

    Oyler-McCance; Kahn; Burnham; Braun; Quinn

    1999-09-01

    Sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) from southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah (United States) are 33% smaller than all other sage grouse and have obvious plumage and behavioural differences. Because of these differences, they have been tentatively recog-nized as a separate 'small-bodied' species. We collected genetic evidence to further test this proposal, using mitochondrial sequence data and microsatellite markers to determine whether there was gene flow between the two proposed species. Significant differences in the distribution of alleles between the large- and small-bodied birds were found in both data sets. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 65% of the variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes could be explained by the large- vs. small-bodied distinction. Genetic distances and neighbour-joining trees based on allelic frequency data showed a distinct separation between the proposed species, although cladistic analysis of the phylogenetic history of the mitochondrial sequence haplotypes has shown a lack of reciprocal monophyly. These results further support the recognition of the small-bodied sage grouse as a distinct species based on the biological species concept, providing additional genetic evidence to augment the morphological and behavioural data. Furthermore, small-bodied sage grouse had much less genetic variation than large-bodied sage grouse, which may have implications for conservation issues. PMID:10564451

  5. Effect of crop improvement on genetic diversity in oilseed Brassica rapa (turnip-rape) cultivars, detected by SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Ofori, Atta; Becker, Heiko C; Kopisch-Obuch, Friedrich J

    2008-01-01

    With the improvement of seed quality, Brassica rapa oilseed germplasm went through 2 major breeding bottlenecks during the introgression of genes for zero erucic acid content and low glucosinolate content, respectively. This study investigates the impact of these bottlenecks on the genetic diversity in European winter B. rapa by comparing 3 open-pollinated cultivars, each representing a different breeding period. Diversity was estimated on 32 plants per cultivar, with 16 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers covering each of the B. rapa linkage groups. There was no significant loss of genetic diversity over the 3 cultivars as indicated by allele number (ranging from 59 to 55), mean allele number (from 3.68 to 3.50), Shannon information index (from 0.94 to 0.87) and expected heterozygosity (from 0.53 to 0.48). About 83% of the total variation was attributed to within-cultivar variation, and the remaining 17% to between-cultivar variation by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Individual plants were separated into the 3 cultivars by principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). In conclusion, genetic diversity within cultivars was high and quality breeding in B. rapa did not significantly reduce the genetic diversity of B. rapa winter cultivars, so there is no risk of decline in performance due to quality improvement. PMID:18670055

  6. Genetic diversity of wild and cultivated genotypes of pigeonpea through RAPD and SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Walunjkar, Babasaheb C; Parihar, Akarsh; Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Parmar, L D

    2015-03-01

    Eight wild and four cultivated pigeonpea genotypes were subjected to RAPD and microsatellite analysis, with 40 primers each. Out of these, eight RAPD and five SSR primers were found polymorphic. RAPD primers showed 100% polymorphism and produced a total of 517 DNA fragments, whereas SSR primers produced 67 fragments and they too showed 100% polymorphism. The RAPD markers revealed highest similarity co-efficient of 0.93 (GT-100 and ICPL-87), whereas the highest similarity co-efficient obtained with SSR markers was 1.00 (GTH-1 and GT-100). Average PIC value obtained with RAPD and SSR were 0.90 and 0.18, respectively. The arithmetic mean heterozygosity and marker index were 0.90 and 22.47 respectively with RAPD marker, whereas the corresponding values for SSR markers were 0.18 and 33.66. Moreover; the four wild genotypes (Cajanus scarabaeoides, Rhyncosia rufescence, Cajanus cajanifolius and Rhyncosia canna) and the four cultivars (GTH-1, GT-100, ICPL-87 and GT-1) grouped distinctly in the same subgroups of the dendrograms obtained with both RAPD and SSR analysis. Therefore, the findings of SSR supplement and validate the results obtained with RAPD analysis. PMID:25895271

  7. Genetic mapping of RAPD markers linked to the densonucleosis refractoriness gene, nsd-1, in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Abe, H; Harada, T; Kanehara, M; Shimada, T; Ohbayashi, F; Oshiki, T

    1998-08-01

    In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, nonsusceptibility to B. mori densonucleosis virus type-1 (BmDNV-1) is controlled by a recessive gene, nsd-1 (nonsusceptibility to DNV-1), located on the twenty-first chromosome. We investigated genetic linkage between five random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and the +nsd-1 gene. Initially, we constructed the CSD-1 strain (nsd-1/+) which is congenic to strain C137 (nsd-1/nsd-1) for the twenty-first chromosome, starting with a female of C137 and a male of strain J137 (+nsd-1/+nsd-1). For the crossing over experiment, a female of C137 was crossed with a male (nsd-1/+) of CSD-1. Segregation analysis showed that the most closely linked RAPD marker mapped 3.0 cM distant from +nsd-1. A more specific marker for +nsd-1 was made by converting this RAPD band into a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) using a series of newly designed primer pairs based on its DNA sequence. PMID:9880921

  8. Twenty-one new sequence markers for population genetics, species delimitation and phylogenetics in wall lizards (Podarcis spp.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wall lizards of genus Podarcis are abundant and conspicuous reptiles inhabiting Europe and North Africa. In recent years, they have become a popular lizard model for phylogeographical and evolutionary ecology studies. However a lack of suitable nuclear markers currently presents a limitation on analyses of molecular evolution within this genus. We address this limitation by developing twenty-one new primer pairs for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of anonymous sequence markers in Podarcis vaucheri and performed an assay of their cross-amplification and polymorphism levels in two closely- (P. bocagei and P. liolepis) and two distantly-related (P. muralis and P. tiliguerta) congeners. Findings Cross-amplification and sequencing was straightforward among members of the Iberian and North-African group within genus Podarcis (which includes P. vaucheri), and somewhat less successful in species belonging to other groups (one and four loci out of 21 failed to amplify in P. muralis and P. tiliguerta, respectively, and overall success rates were lower). Nucleotide diversity for the five species examined ranged from 0.35% to 3.5%, with an average of 1.5% across all loci. Insertion and deletion polymorphisms were found in all but three loci. Conclusions Given the high cross-amplification rates, these markers constitute a valuable addition to set of genomic resources available for Podarcis, especially in studies dealing with phylogenetics, species delimitation, population genetics and phylogeography. PMID:23890228

  9. Performance of PCR-based assays targeting Bacteroidales genetic markers of human fecal pollution in sewage and fecal samples.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Orin C; White, Karen; Kelty, Catherine A; Sivaganesan, Mano; Blannon, Janet; Meckes, Mark; Varma, Manju; Haugland, Richard A

    2010-08-15

    There are numerous PCR-based assays available to characterize human fecal pollution in ambient waters. Each assay employs distinct oligonucleotides and many target different genes and microorganisms leading to potential variations in assay performance. Performance comparisons utilizing feces and raw sewage samples are needed to determine which assays are best suited for expensive and time-consuming field validation, fate, transport, and epidemiology studies. We report the assessment of five end-point PCR and 10 real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays that target genes from presumptive Bacteroidales microorganisms reported to be associated with human feces. Each assay was tested against a reference collection of 54 primary influent sewage samples collected from different geographical locations across the United States and 174 fecal DNA extracts from 23 different animal sources. Experiments indicate that human-associated genetic markers are distributed across a broad range of human populations but show substantial differences in specificity for human feces suggesting that particular assays may be more suitable than others depending on the abundance of genetic marker required for detection and the animal sources impacting a particular watershed or beach of interest. PMID:20704227

  10. Genetic maps for Pinus elliottii var. elliottii and P. caribaea var. hondurensis using AFLP and microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, M; Cross, M; Dieters, M J; Henry, R

    2003-05-01

    Genetic maps for individual Pinus elliottii var. elliottii and P. caribaea var. hondurensis trees were generated using a pseudo-testcross mapping strategy. A total of 329 amplified fragment length polymorphic (AFLP) and 12 microsatellite markers were found to segregate in a sample of 93 interspecfic F(1) progeny. The male P. caribaea var. hondurensis parent was more heterozygous than the female P. elliottii var. elliottii parent with 19% more markers segregating on the male side. Framework maps were constructed using a LOD 5 threshold for grouping and interval support threshold of LOD 2. The framework map length for the P. elliottii var. elliottii megagametophyte parent (1,170 cM Kosambi; 23 linkage groups) was notably smaller than the P. caribaea var. hondurensis pollen parent (1,658 cM Kosambi; 27 linkage groups). The difference in map lengths was assumed to be due to sex-related recombination variation, which has been previously reported for pines, as the difference in map lengths not be accounted for by the larger number of markers mapping to the P. caribaea var. hondurensis parent - 109 compared with 78 in P. elliottii var. elliottii parent. Based on estimated genome sizes for these species, the framework maps for P. elliottii var. elliottii and P. caribaea var. hondurensis covered 82% and 88% of their respective genomes. The pseudo-testcross strategy was extended to include AFLP and microsatellite markers in an intercross configuration. These comprehensive maps provided further genome coverage, 1,548 and 1,828 cM Kosambi for P. elliottii var. elliottii and P. caribaea var. hondurensis, respectively, and enabled homologous linkage groups to be identified in the two parental maps. Homologous linkage groups were identified for 11 out of 24 P. elliottii var. elliottii and 10 out of 25 P. caribaea var. hondurensis groups. A higher than expected level of segregation distortion was found for both AFLP and microsatellite markers. An explanation for this segregation distortion was not clear, but it may be at least in part due to genetic mechanisms for species isolation in this wide cross. PMID:12750783

  11. Genome-Wide Computational Analysis of Musa Microsatellites: Classification, Cross-Taxon Transferability, Functional Annotation, Association with Transposons & miRNAs, and Genetic Marker Potential

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Liu, Yuxuan; Li, Chunyu; Sheng, Ou; Mayer, Christoph; Yi, Ganjun

    2015-01-01

    The development of organized, informative, robust, user-friendly, and freely accessible molecular markers is imperative to the Musa marker assisted breeding program. Although several hundred SSR markers have already been developed, the number of informative, robust, and freely accessible Musa markers remains inadequate for some breeding applications. In view of this issue, we surveyed SSRs in four different data sets, developed large-scale non-redundant highly informative therapeutic SSR markers, and classified them according to their attributes, as well as analyzed their cross-taxon transferability and utility for the genetic study of Musa and its relatives. A high SSR frequency (177 per Mbp) was found in the Musa genome. AT-rich dinucleotide repeats are predominant, and trinucleotide repeats are the most abundant in transcribed regions. A significant number of Musa SSRs are associated with pre-miRNAs, and 83% of these SSRs are promising candidates for the development of therapeutic SSR markers. Overall, 74% of the SSR markers were polymorphic, and 94% were transferable to at least one Musa spp. Two hundred forty-three markers generated a total of 1047 alleles, with 2-8 alleles each and an average of 4.38 alleles per locus. The PIC values ranged from 0.31 to 0.89 and averaged 0.71. We report the largest set of non-redundant, polymorphic, new SSR markers to be developed in Musa. These additional markers could be a valuable resource for marker-assisted breeding, genetic diversity and genomic studies of Musa and related species. PMID:26121637

  12. GENETIC DIVERSITY IN US PEANUT CORE OF CORE COLLECTION USING SSR MARKERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut is the second most important legume crop under cultivation in the United States. Peanut improvement is hampered by limited genetic variability in the germplasm available to breeding programs. As an aid towards increasing the available genetic variation, core collection that represents the r...

  13. Assessment of genetic diversity and relationships among caladium cultivars and species using molecular markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caladium (Caladium hortulanum Birdsey) is an important aroid widely used in the ornamental plant industry. Concerns have been raised about possible loss of genetic diversity due to a drastic decline in the number of cultivars in the last century. This study assessed genetic diversity and relationshi...

  14. Leukocyte telomere length associates with prospective mortality independent of immune-related parameters and known genetic markers

    PubMed Central

    Deelen, Joris; Beekman, Marian; Codd, Veryan; Trompet, Stella; Broer, Linda; Hägg, Sara; Fischer, Krista; Thijssen, Peter E; Suchiman, H Eka D; Postmus, Iris; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; de Craen, Anton J M; Metspalu, Andres; Pedersen, Nancy L; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Wouter Jukema, J; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Samani, Nilesh J; Eline Slagboom, P

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human leukocyte telomere length (LTL) decreases with age and shorter LTL has previously been associated with increased prospective mortality. However, it is not clear whether LTL merely marks the health status of an individual by its association with parameters of immune function, for example, or whether telomere shortening also contributes causally to lifespan variation in humans. Methods: We measured LTL in 870 nonagenarian siblings (mean age 93 years), 1580 of their offspring and 725 spouses thereof (mean age 59 years) from the Leiden Longevity Study (LLS). Results: We found that shorter LTL is associated with increased prospective mortality in middle (30–80 years; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.75, P = 0.001) and highly advanced age (?90 years; HR = 0.92, P = 0.028), and show that this association cannot be explained by the association of LTL with the immune-related markers insulin-like growth factor 1 to insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 molar ratio, C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, cytomegalovirus serostatus or white blood cell counts. We found no difference in LTL between the middle-aged LLS offspring and their spouses (? = 0.006, P = 0.932). Neither did we observe an association of LTL-associated genetic variants with mortality in a prospective meta-analysis of multiple cohorts (n = 8165). Conclusions: We confirm LTL to be a marker of prospective mortality in middle and highly advanced age and additionally show that this association could not be explained by the association of LTL with various immune-related markers. Furthermore, the approaches performed here do not further support the hypothesis that LTL variation contributes to the genetic propensity for longevity. PMID:24425829

  15. A genetic linkage map of Picea abies Karst., based on RAPD markers, as a tool in population genetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Binelli; G. Bucci

    1994-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) is a most important species among European forest trees for both economical and ecological reasons. However, this species has suffered from a lack of information on the genetic side due to the scarcity of linkage data. In this study we have used a population of 72 megagametophytes from a single tree in a natural Italian

  16. Copyright 2000 by the Genetics Society of America Inferring Linkage Disequilibrium Between a Polymorphic Marker

    E-print Network

    Zeng, Zhao-Bang

    variation using the sample from random mating populations. It is shown that the disequilibrium over a wide discussed. LINKAGE disequilibrium between pairs of loci may be share a common disease-causing mutation; Spileman et al. DNA markers in segregating populations. A theoretical 1993; Hill and Weir 1994; Jorde 1995

  17. Verification of genetic identity of introduced cacao germplasm in Ghana using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate identification of individual genotypes is important for cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) breeding, germplasm conservation and seed propagation. The development of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in cacao offers an effective way to use a high-throughput genotyping system for cacao gen...

  18. Correlation between molecular markers and adaptively significant genetic variation in Bromus tectorum (Poaceae), an inbreedingannual grass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Ramakrishnan; SUSAN E. MEYER; JENNIFER WATERS; MIKEL R. STEVENS; CRAIG E. COLEMAN; DANIEL J. FAIRBANKS

    2004-01-01

    Single sequence repeat (SSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphic (AFLP) molecular marker genotypes in cheatgrass ( Bromus tectorum) were compared to published data on phenotypic variation in seed dormancy, vernalization requirement, and resistance to the pathogen Ustilago bullata. Several features of cheatgrass facilitated this study: it is a recent invader in the western United States, has considerable phenotypic polymorphism, and

  19. Genetic diversity analysis of cyanogenic potential (CNp) of root among improved genotypes of cassava using simple sequence repeat markers.

    PubMed

    Moyib, O K; Mkumbira, J; Odunola, O A; Dixon, A G

    2012-12-01

    Cyanogenic potential (CNp) of cassava constitutes a serious problem for over 500 million people who rely on the crop as their main source of calories. Genetic diversity is a key to successful crop improvement for breeding new improved variability for target traits. Forty-three improved genotypes of cassava developed by International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (ITA), Ibadan, were characterized for CNp trait using 35 Simple Sequence.Repeat (SSR) markers. Essential colorimetry picric test was used for evaluation of CNp on a color scale of 1 to 14. The CNp scores obtained ranged from 3 to 9, with a mean score of 5.48 (+/- 0.09) based on Statistical Analysis System (SAS) package. TMS M98/ 0068 (4.0 +/- 0.25) was identified as the best genotype with low CNp while TMS M98/0028 (7.75 +/- 0.25) was the worst. The 43 genotypes were assigned into 7 phenotypic groups based on rank-sum analysis in SAS. Dissimilarity analysis representatives for windows generated a phylogenetic tree with 5 clusters which represented hybridizing groups. Each of the clusters (except 4) contained low CNp genotypes that could be used for improving the high CNp genotypes in the same or near cluster. The scatter plot of the genotypes showed that there was little or no demarcation for phenotypic CNp groupings in the molecular groupings. The result of this study demonstrated that SSR markers are powerful tools for the assessment of genetic variability, and proper identification and selection of parents for genetic improvement of low CNp trait among the IITA cassava collection. PMID:23678653

  20. Construction of a high-density genetic map for sesame based on large scale marker development by specific length amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The genetics and molecular biology of sesame has only recently begun to be studied even though sesame is an important oil seed crop. A high-density genetic map for sesame has not been published yet due to a lack of sufficient molecular markers. Specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) is a recently developed high-resolution strategy for large-scale de novo SNP discovery and genotyping. SLAF-seq was employed in this study to obtain sufficient markers to construct a high-density genetic map for sesame. Results In total, 28.21 Gb of data containing 201,488,285 pair-end reads was obtained after sequencing. The average coverage for each SLAF marker was 23.48-fold in the male parent, 23.38-fold in the female parent, and 14.46-fold average in each F2 individual. In total, 71,793 high-quality SLAFs were detected of which 3,673 SLAFs were polymorphic and 1,272 of the polymorphic markers met the requirements for use in the construction of a genetic map. The final map included 1,233 markers on the 15 linkage groups (LGs) and was 1,474.87 cM in length with an average distance of 1.20 cM between adjacent markers. To our knowledge, this map is the densest genetic linkage map to date for sesame. 'SNP_only’ markers accounted for 87.51% of the markers on the map. A total of 205 markers on the map showed significant (P?genetic map for sesame. The map was constructed using an F2 population and the SLAF-seq approach, which allowed the efficient development of a large number of polymorphic markers in a short time. Results of this study will not only provide a platform for gene/QTL fine mapping, map-based gene isolation, and molecular breeding for sesame, but will also serve as a reference for positioning sequence scaffolds on a physical map, to assist in the process of assembling the sesame genome sequence. PMID:24060091

  1. SSCP-SNP in pearl millet--a new marker system for comparative genetics.

    PubMed

    Bertin, I; Zhu, J H; Gale, M D

    2005-05-01

    A considerable array of genomic resources are in place in pearl millet, and marker-aided selection is already in use in the public breeding programme at ICRISAT. This paper describes experiments to extend these publicly available resources to a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based marker system. A new marker system, single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP)-SNP, was developed using annotated rice genomic sequences to initially predict the intron-exon borders in millet expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and then to design primers that would amplify across the introns. An adequate supply of millet ESTs was available for us to identify 299 homologues of single-copy rice genes in which the intron positions could be precisely predicted. PCR primers were then designed to amplify approximately 500-bp genomic fragments containing introns. Analysis of these fragments on SSCP gels revealed considerable polymorphism. A detailed DNA sequence analysis of variation at four of the SSCP-SNP loci over a panel of eight inbred genotypes showed complex patterns of variation, with about one SNP or indel (insertion-deletion) every 59 bp in the introns, but considerably fewer in the exons. About two-thirds of the variation was derived from SNPs and one-third from indels. Most haplotypes were detected by SSCP. As a marker system, SSCP-SNP has lower development costs than simple sequence repeats (SSRs), because much of the work is in silico, and similar deployment costs and through-put potential. The rates of polymorphism were lower but useable, with a mean PIC of 0.49 relative to 0.72 for SSRs in our eight inbred genotype panel screen. The major advantage of the system is in comparative applications. Syntenic information can be used to target SSCP-SNP markers to specific chromosomal regions or, conversely, SSCP-SNP markers can be used to unravel detailed syntenic relationships in specific parts of the genome. Finally, a preliminary analysis showed that the millet SSCP-SNP primers amplified in other cereals with a success rate of about 50%. There is also considerable potential to promote SSCP-SNP to a COS (conserved orthologous set) marker system for application across species by more specifically designing primers to precisely match the model genome sequence. PMID:15809850

  2. Population genetic structure and demographic history of Atrina pectinata based on mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Xue, Dong-Xiu; Wang, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Jin-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The pen shell, Atrina pectinata, is one of the commercial bivalves in East Asia and thought to be recently affected by anthropogenic pressure (habitat destruction and/or fishing pressure). Information on its population genetic structure is crucial for the conservation of A. pectinata. Considering its long pelagic larval duration and iteroparity with high fecundity, the genetic structure for A. pectinata could be expected to be weak at a fine scale. However, the unusual oceanography in the coasts of China and Korea suggests potential for restricted dispersal of pelagic larvae and geographical differentiation. In addition, environmental changes associated with Pleistocene sea level fluctuations on the East China Sea continental shelf may also have strongly influenced historical population demography and genetic diversity of marine organisms. Here, partial sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and seven microsatellite loci were used to estimate population genetic structure and demographic history of seven samples from Northern China coast and one sample from North Korea coast. Despite high levels of genetic diversity within samples, there was no genetic differentiation among samples from Northern China coast and low but significant genetic differentiation between some of the Chinese samples and the North Korean sample. A late Pleistocene population expansion, probably after the Last Glacial Maximum, was also demonstrated for A. pectinata samples. No recent genetic bottleneck was detected in any of the eight samples. We concluded that both historical recolonization (through population range expansion and demographic expansion in the late Pleistocene) and current gene flow (through larval dispersal) were responsible for the weak level of genetic structure detected in A. pectinata. PMID:24789175

  3. Prostate cancer genomics: can we distinguish between indolent and fatal disease using genetic markers?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most heritable cancers in men, and recent genome-wide association studies have revealed numerous genetic variants associated with disease. The risk variants identified using case-control designs that compared unaffected individuals with all types of patients with prostate cancer show little or no ability to discriminate between indolent and fatal forms of this disease. This suggests different genetic components are involved in the initiation as compared with the prognosis of prostate cancer. Future studies contrasting patients with more and less aggressive disease, and exploring association with disease progression and prognosis, should be more effective in detecting genetic risk factors for prostate cancer outcome. PMID:20667146

  4. Genetic Structure of Earthworm Populations at a Regional Scale: Inferences from Mitochondrial and Microsatellite Molecular Markers in Aporrectodea icterica (Savigny 1826)

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Leguizamon, Magally; Mathieu, Jérôme; Decaëns, Thibaud; Dupont, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fundamental role that soil invertebrates (e.g. earthworms) play in soil ecosystems, the magnitude of their spatial genetic variation is still largely unknown and only a few studies have investigated the population genetic structure of these organisms. Here, we investigated the genetic structure of seven populations of a common endogeic earthworm (Aporrectodea icterica) sampled in northern France to explore how historical species range changes, microevolutionary processes and human activities interact in shaping genetic variation at a regional scale. Because combining markers with distinct modes of inheritance can provide extra, complementary information on gene flow, we compared the patterns of genetic structure revealed using nuclear (7 microsatellite loci) and mitochondrial markers (COI). Both types of markers indicated low genetic polymorphism compared to other earthworm species, a result that can be attributed to ancient bottlenecks, for instance due to species isolation in southern refugia during the ice ages with subsequent expansion toward northern Europe. Historical events can also be responsible for the existence of two divergent, but randomly interbreeding mitochondrial lineages within all study populations. In addition, the comparison of observed heterozygosity among microsatellite loci and heterozygosity expected under mutation-drift equilibrium suggested a recent decrease in effective size in some populations that could be due to contemporary events such as habitat fragmentation. The absence of relationship between geographic and genetic distances estimated from microsatellite allele frequency data also suggested that dispersal is haphazard and that human activities favour passive dispersal among geographically distant populations. PMID:25003795

  5. Persistence of host-specific Bacteroides–Prevotella 16S rRNA genetic markers in environmental waters: effects of temperature and salinity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Okabe; Yoko Shimazu

    2007-01-01

    Host-specific Bacteroides–Prevotella 16S rRNA genetic markers are promising alternative indicators for identifying the sources of fecal pollution because of their\\u000a high abundance in the feces of warm-blooded animals and high host specificity. However, little is known about the persistence\\u000a of these genetic markers in environments after being released into environmental waters. The persistence of feces-derived\\u000a four different host-specific Bacteroides–Prevotella 16S

  6. Development of DArT Marker Platforms and Genetic Diversity Assessment of the U.S. Collection of the New Oilseed Crop Lesquerella and Related Species

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Von Mark V.; Kilian, Andrzej; Dierig, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The advantages of using molecular markers in modern genebanks are well documented. They are commonly used to understand the distribution of genetic diversity in populations and among species which is crucial for efficient management and effective utilization of germplasm collections. We describe the development of two types of DArT molecular marker platforms for the new oilseed crop lesquerella (Physaria spp.), a member of the Brassicaceae family, to characterize a collection in the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) with relatively little known in regards to the genetic diversity and traits. The two types of platforms were developed using a subset of the germplasm conserved ex situ consisting of 87 Physaria and 2 Paysonia accessions. The microarray DArT revealed a total of 2,833 polymorphic markers with an average genotype call rate of 98.4% and a scoring reproducibility of 99.7%. On the other hand, the DArTseq platform developed for SNP and DArT markers from short sequence reads showed a total of 27,748 high quality markers. Cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis indicated that the different accessions were successfully classified by both systems based on species, by geographical source, and breeding status. In the germplasm set analyzed, which represented more than 80% of the P. fendleri collection, we observed that a substantial amount of variation exists in the species collection. These markers will be valuable in germplasm management studies and lesquerella breeding, and augment the microsatellite markers previously developed on the taxa. PMID:23724020

  7. Genetic Diversity of Fragaria iinumae and F. nipponica Based on Microsatellite Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) - Agricultural Research Service (ARS) - National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Corvallis, Oregon, is a genebank that preserves strawberry genetic resources. The Fragaria L. collection consists of accessions from 17 species and 37 countries. ...

  8. Characterization of novel rice germplasm from West Africa and genetic marker associations with rice cooking quality 

    E-print Network

    Traore, Karim

    2006-10-30

    Genetic resource enhancement is the foundation of any good breeding program. Landraces from West Africa, interspecifics between Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima and improved lines from the West African Rice Development Association and other...

  9. Conservation genetics of endangered Brasenia schreberi based on RAPD and AFLP markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changkyun Kim; Hye Ryun Na; Hong-Keun Choi

    2008-01-01

    Brasenia schreberi J.F. Gmelin is a declared endangered species found in the lakes and ponds of South Korea. For planning its conservation strategy,\\u000a we examined the genetic diversity within and among six populations, using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified\\u000a fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Polymorphisms were more frequently detected per loci with AFLP (69.3%) than RAPD (36.8%).\\u000a High genetic

  10. Using Molecular Genetic Markers to Resolve a Subspecies Boundary: The Northern Boundary of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher in the Four-Corner States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, Eben H.; Sogge, Mark K.; Theimer, Tad C.; Girard, Jessica; Keim, Paul

    2008-01-01

    *Executive Summary* The northern boundary of the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is currently approximated as running through southern Colorado and Utah, but the exact placement is uncertain because this subspecies shares a border with the more northern and non-endangered E. t. adastus. To help resolve this issue, we evaluated the geographic distribution of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA by sampling breeding sites across the four-corner states (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). We found that breeding sites clustered into two major groups generally consistent with the currently designated boundary, with the exception of three sites situated along the current boundary. However, delineating a precise boundary that would separate the two subspecies is made difficult because (1) we found evidence for a region of intergradation along the boundary area, suggesting the boundary is not discreet, and (2) the boundary region is sparsely populated, with too few extant breeding populations to precisely locate a boundary. The boundary region encompasses an area where elevation changes markedly over relatively short distances, with low elevation deserts to the south and more mesic, higher elevation habitats to the north. We hypothesized that latitudinal and elevational differences and their concomitant ecological effects could form an ecological barrier that inhibited gene flow between the subspecies, forming the basis for the subspecies boundary. We modeled changes in geographic patterns of genetic markers as a function of latitude and elevation finding significant support for this relationship. The model was brought into a GIS environment to create multiple subspecies boundaries, with the strength of each predicted boundary evaluated on the basis of how much genetic variation it explained. The candidate boundary that accounted for the most genetic variation was situated generally near the currently recognized subspecies boundary, but should be more biologically meaningful because it incorporates the landscape features that may be driving separation of the subspecies. Even so, we caution that using any narrow boundary line as an indicator of subspecies identity could be misleading because biologically the boundary is a region of intergradation rather than a discrete line. Designating, a boundary ultimately becomes a regulatory and management decision based on how much of the genetic variation unique to a subspecies should be protected. We discuss how the results of this study can help guide this decision process by wildlife policy makers.

  11. Standing at the Gateway to Europe - The Genetic Structure of Western Balkan Populations Based on Autosomal and Haploid Markers

    PubMed Central

    Kovacevic, Lejla; Tambets, Kristiina; Ilumäe, Anne-Mai; Kushniarevich, Alena; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Solnik, Anu; Bego, Tamer; Primorac, Dragan; Skaro, Vedrana; Leskovac, Andreja; Jakovski, Zlatko; Drobnic, Katja; Tolk, Helle-Viivi; Kovacevic, Sandra; Rudan, Pavao; Metspalu, Ene; Marjanovic, Damir

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary inhabitants of the Balkan Peninsula belong to several ethnic groups of diverse cultural background. In this study, three ethnic groups from Bosnia and Herzegovina - Bosniacs, Bosnian Croats and Bosnian Serbs - as well as the populations of Serbians, Croatians, Macedonians from the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegrins and Kosovars have been characterized for the genetic variation of 660 000 genome-wide autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms and for haploid markers. New autosomal data of the 70 individuals together with previously published data of 20 individuals from the populations of the Western Balkan region in a context of 695 samples of global range have been analysed. Comparison of the variation data of autosomal and haploid lineages of the studied Western Balkan populations reveals a concordance of the data in both sets and the genetic uniformity of the studied populations, especially of Western South-Slavic speakers. The genetic variation of Western Balkan populations reveals the continuity between the Middle East and Europe via the Balkan region and supports the scenario that one of the major routes of ancient gene flows and admixture went through the Balkan Peninsula. PMID:25148043

  12. Mitochondrial DNA markers reveal high genetic diversity but low genetic differentiation in the black fly Simulium tani Takaoka & Davies along an elevational gradient in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Low, Van Lun; Adler, Peter H; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Lim, Phaik Eem; Tan, Tiong Kai; Lim, Yvonne A L; Chen, Chee Dhang; Norma-Rashid, Yusoff; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2014-01-01

    The population genetic structure of Simulium tani was inferred from mitochondria-encoded sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunits I (COI) and II (COII) along an elevational gradient in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. A statistical parsimony network of 71 individuals revealed 71 haplotypes in the COI gene and 43 haplotypes in the COII gene; the concatenated sequences of the COI and COII genes revealed 71 haplotypes. High levels of genetic diversity but low levels of genetic differentiation were observed among populations of S. tani at five elevations. The degree of genetic diversity, however, was not in accordance with an altitudinal gradient, and a Mantel test indicated that elevation did not have a limiting effect on gene flow. No ancestral haplotype of S. tani was found among the populations. Pupae with unique structural characters at the highest elevation showed a tendency to form their own haplotype cluster, as revealed by the COII gene. Tajima's D, Fu's Fs, and mismatch distribution tests revealed population expansion of S. tani in Cameron Highlands. A strong correlation was found between nucleotide diversity and the levels of dissolved oxygen in the streams where S. tani was collected. PMID:24941043

  13. Mosaic small supernumerary marker chromosome 1 at amniocentesis: prenatal diagnosis, molecular genetic analysis and literature review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Chen, Ming; Su, Yi-Ning; Huang, Jian-Pei; Chern, Schu-Rern; Wu, Peih-Shan; Su, Jun-Wei; Chang, Shun-Ping; Chen, Yu-Ting; Lee, Chen-Chi; Chen, Li-Feng; Pan, Chen-Wen; Wang, Wayseen

    2013-10-15

    We present prenatal diagnosis and molecular cytogenetic analysis of mosaic small supernumerary marker chromosome 1 [sSMC(1)]. We review the literature of sSMC(1) at amniocentesis and chromosome 1p21.1-p12 duplication syndrome. We discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation of the involved genes of ALX3, RBM15, NTNG1, SLC25A24, GPSM2, TBX15 and NOTCH2 in this case. PMID:23933412

  14. Genetic linkage between X-chromosome markers and bipolar affective illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miron Baron; Neil Risch; Rahel Hamburger; Batsheva Mandel; Stuart Kushner; Michael Newman; Dov Drumer; Robert H. Belmaker

    1987-01-01

    A pedigree study shows close linkage of bipolar affective illness (manic depression) to the X-chromosome markers colour blindness and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. The maximum lod score ranges from 7.52 (assuming homogeneity) to 9.17 (assuming heterogeneity); that is, the odds in favour of linkage range between 3×107 to 1 and 109 to 1. These results provide confirmation that a major psychiatric

  15. Functionally associated molecular genetic marker map construction in perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Faville; A. C. Vecchies; M. Schreiber; M. C. Drayton; L. J. Hughes; E. S. Jones; K. M. Guthridge; K. F. Smith; T. Sawbridge; G. C. Spangenberg; G. T. Bryan; J. W. Forster

    2004-01-01

    A molecular marker-based map of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) has been constructed through the use of polymorphisms associated with expressed sequence tags (ESTs). A pair-cross between genotypes from a North African ecotype and the cultivar Aurora was used to generate a two-way pseudo-testcross population. A selection of 157 cDNAs assigned to eight different functional categories associated with agronomically important

  16. Massive Sorghum Collection Genotyped with SSR Markers to Enhance Use of Global Genetic Resources

    PubMed Central

    Bouchet, Sophie; Chantereau, Jacques; Deu, Monique; Gardes, Laetitia; Noyer, Jean-Louis; Rami, Jean-François; Rivallan, Ronan; Li, Yu; Lu, Ping; Wang, Tianyu; Folkertsma, Rolf T.; Arnaud, Elizabeth; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe; Hash, C. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Large ex situ collections require approaches for sampling manageable amounts of germplasm for in-depth characterization and use. We present here a large diversity survey in sorghum with 3367 accessions and 41 reference nuclear SSR markers. Of 19 alleles on average per locus, the largest numbers of alleles were concentrated in central and eastern Africa. Cultivated sorghum appeared structured according to geographic regions and race within region. A total of 13 groups of variable size were distinguished. The peripheral groups in western Africa, southern Africa and eastern Asia were the most homogeneous and clearly differentiated. Except for Kafir, there was little correspondence between races and marker-based groups. Bicolor, Caudatum, Durra and Guinea types were each dispersed in three groups or more. Races should therefore better be referred to as morphotypes. Wild and weedy accessions were very diverse and scattered among cultivated samples, reinforcing the idea that large gene-flow exists between the different compartments. Our study provides an entry to global sorghum germplasm collections. Our reference marker kit can serve to aggregate additional studies and enhance international collaboration. We propose a core reference set in order to facilitate integrated phenotyping experiments towards refined functional understanding of sorghum diversity. PMID:23565161

  17. Large-scale development of cost-effective SNP marker assays for diversity assessment and genetic mapping in chickpea and comparative mapping in legumes

    PubMed Central

    Hiremath, Pavana J; Kumar, Ashish; Penmetsa, Ramachandra Varma; Farmer, Andrew; Schlueter, Jessica A; Chamarthi, Siva K; Whaley, Adam M; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Gaur, Pooran M; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Kavi Kishor, Polavarapu B; Shah, Trushar M; Cook, Douglas R; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2012-01-01

    A set of 2486 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were compiled in chickpea using four approaches, namely (i) Solexa/Illumina sequencing (1409), (ii) amplicon sequencing of tentative orthologous genes (TOGs) (604), (iii) mining of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) (286) and (iv) sequencing of candidate genes (187). Conversion of these SNPs to the cost-effective and flexible throughput Competitive Allele Specific PCR (KASPar) assays generated successful assays for 2005 SNPs. These marker assays have been designated as Chickpea KASPar Assay Markers (CKAMs). Screening of 70 genotypes including 58 diverse chickpea accessions and 12 BC3F2 lines showed 1341 CKAMs as being polymorphic. Genetic analysis of these data clustered chickpea accessions based on geographical origin. Genotyping data generated for 671 CKAMs on the reference mapping population (Cicer arietinum ICC 4958 × Cicer reticulatum PI 489777) were compiled with 317 unpublished TOG-SNPs and 396 published markers for developing the genetic map. As a result, a second-generation genetic map comprising 1328 marker loci including novel 625 CKAMs, 314 TOG-SNPs and 389 published marker loci with an average inter-marker distance of 0.59 cM was constructed. Detailed analyses of 1064 mapped loci of this second-generation chickpea genetic map showed a higher degree of synteny with genome of Medicago truncatula, followed by Glycine max, Lotus japonicus and least with Vigna unguiculata. Development of these cost-effective CKAMs for SNP genotyping will be useful not only for genetics research and breeding applications in chickpea, but also for utilizing genome information from other sequenced or model legumes. PMID:22703242

  18. Single-locus EST-SSR markers for characterization of population genetic diversity and structure across ploidy levels in switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miki Okada; Christina Lanzatella; Christian M. Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Polyploidy, ploidal variation between populations, and aneuploidy within some populations complicate population genetic analyses\\u000a in switchgrass. We report 21 genic-simple sequence repeat marker loci with single-locus disomic segregation in tetraploids\\u000a and apparently tetrasomic inheritance in octoploids, thus allowing population genetic analyses across ploidy levels. Based\\u000a on 472 individuals sampled over four tetraploid and eight octoploid cultivars, six to 55 alleles

  19. Genetic diversity among Puccinia melanocephala isolates from Brazil assessed using simple sequence repeat markers.

    PubMed

    Peixoto-Junior, R F; Creste, S; Landell, M G A; Nunes, D S; Sanguino, A; Campos, M F; Vencovsky, R; Tambarussi, E V; Figueira, A

    2014-01-01

    Brown rust (causal agent Puccinia melanocephala) is an important sugarcane disease that is responsible for large losses in yield worldwide. Despite its importance, little is known regarding the genetic diversity of this pathogen in the main Brazilian sugarcane cultivation areas. In this study, we characterized the genetic diversity of 34 P. melanocephala isolates from 4 Brazilian states using loci identified from an enriched simple sequence repeat (SSR) library. The aggressiveness of 3 isolates from major sugarcane cultivation areas was evaluated by inoculating an intermediately resistant and a susceptible cultivar. From the enriched library, 16 SSR-specific primers were developed, which produced scorable alleles. Of these, 4 loci were polymorphic and 12 were monomorphic for all isolates evaluated. The molecular characterization of the 34 isolates of P. melanocephala conducted using 16 SSR loci revealed the existence of low genetic variability among the isolates. The average estimated genetic distance was 0.12. Phenetic analysis based on Nei's genetic distance clustered the isolates into 2 major groups. Groups I and II included 18 and 14 isolates, respectively, and both groups contained isolates from all 4 geographic regions studied. Two isolates did not cluster with these groups. It was not possible to obtain clusters according to location or state of origin. Analysis of disease severity data revealed that the isolates did not show significant differences in aggressiveness between regions. PMID:25299099

  20. Determination of genetic stability in long-term somatic embryogenic cultures and derived plantlets of cork oak using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Tina; Pinto, Glória; Loureiro, João; Costa, Armando; Santos, Conceição

    2006-09-01

    Microsatellites were used to test genetic stability in somatic embryos (SE) of Quercus suber L. The SE were obtained by a simple somatic embryogenesis protocol: leaf explants from two adult plants (QsG0, QsG5) and from two juvenile plants (QsGM1, QsGM2) were inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and zeatin. Calluses with primary embryogenic structures were transferred to MSWH (MS medium without growth regulators) and SE proliferated by secondary somatic embryogenesis. High morphological heterogeneity was found among cotyledonary SE. However, converted plants looked morphologically normal with well-developed rooting systems and shoots. The genetic stability of the plant material during the somatic embryogenesis process was evaluated by using six to eight nuclear microsatellites transferred from Q. myrsinifolia Blume, Q. petraea (Matts.) Liebl. and Q. robur L. Five of eight microsatellites distinguished among the genotypes analyzed, and for QsG0, QsGM1 and QsGM2, uniform microsatellite patterns were generally observed within and between SE and the respective donor genotypes. For genotype QsG5, the same pattern was observed in all samples analyzed except one, where the mutation percentage was 2.5%. We conclude that microsatellite markers can be used to assess genetic stability of clonal materials and to determine genetic stability throughout the process of somatic embryogenesis. The simple somatic embryogenesis protocol described has potential for the commercial propagation of Q. suber because it results in a low percentage of mutations. PMID:16740490

  1. Insights into intrathalline genetic diversity of the cosmopolitan lichen symbiotic green alga Trebouxia decolorans Ahmadjian using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Dal Grande, Francesco; Alors, David; Divakar, Pradeep K; Bálint, Miklós; Crespo, Ana; Schmitt, Imke

    2014-03-01

    Trebouxia decolorans is a widespread and common symbiotic green alga that is found in association with different species of lichen-forming fungi. By applying T. decolorans-specific microsatellite markers, we investigated the within-thallus diversity of T. decolorans in thalli of Xanthoria parietina and Anaptychia ciliaris. We found several algal strains in most of the thalli of both hosts. High genetic differentiation among thalli suggests that algal diversity is generated de novo via mutation in both fungal hosts. Rarefied allelic richness of the algae was higher in thalli of X. parietina. Our results indicate that in X. parietina intrathalline algal diversity is additionally created by environmental uptake of algae either at the start of the symbiotic association or during the lifetime of the thallus. This study indicates that promiscuous host-symbiont associations in lichen symbioses with Trebouxia spp. may be more common than currently recognized. PMID:24412431

  2. Genetic markers of white matter integrity in schizophrenia revealed by parallel ICA

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Cota Navin; Chen, Jiayu; Liu, Jingyu; Damaraju, Eswar; Wright, Carrie; Perrone-Bizzozero, Nora I.; Pearlson, Godfrey; Luo, Li; Michael, Andrew M.; Turner, Jessica A.; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming a consensus that white matter integrity is compromised in schizophrenia (SZ), however the underlying genetics remains elusive. Evidence suggests a polygenic basis of the disorder, which involves various genetic variants with modest individual effect sizes. In this work, we used a multivariate approach, parallel independent component analysis (P-ICA), to explore the genetic underpinnings of white matter abnormalities in SZ. A pre-filtering step was first applied to locate 6527 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) discriminating patients from controls with a nominal uncorrected p-value of 0.01. These potential susceptibility loci were then investigated for associations with fractional anisotropy (FA) images in a cohort consisting of 73 SZ patients and 87 healthy controls (HC). A significant correlation (r = ?0.37, p = 1.25 × 10?6) was identified between one genetic factor and one FA component after controlling for scanning site, ethnicity, age, and sex. The identified FA-SNP association remained stable in a 10-fold validation. A 5000-run permutation test yielded a p-value of 2.00 × 10?4. The FA component reflected decreased white matter integrity in the forceps major for SZ patients. The SNP component was overrepresented in genes whose products are involved in corpus callosum morphology (e.g., CNTNAP2, NPAS3, and NFIB) as well as canonical pathways of synaptic long term depression and protein kinase A signaling. Taken together, our finding delineates a part of genetic architecture underlying SZ-related FA reduction, emphasizing the important role of genetic variants involved in neural development. PMID:25784871

  3. Two Different High Throughput Sequencing Approaches Identify Thousands of De Novo Genomic Markers for the Genetically Depleted Bornean Elephant

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Reeta; Goossens, Benoit; Kun-Rodrigues, Célia; Teixeira, Tatiana; Othman, Nurzhafarina; Boone, Jason Q.; Jue, Nathaniel K.; Obergfell, Craig; O'Neill, Rachel J.; Chikhi, Lounès

    2012-01-01

    High throughput sequencing technologies are being applied to an increasing number of model species with a high-quality reference genome. The application and analyses of whole-genome sequence data in non-model species with no prior genomic information are currently under way. Recent sequencing technologies provide new opportunities for gathering genomic data in natural populations, laying the empirical foundation for future research in the field of conservation and population genomics. Here we present the case study of the Bornean elephant, which is the most endangered subspecies of Asian elephant and exhibits very low genetic diversity. We used two different sequencing platforms, the Roche 454 FLX (shotgun) and Illumina, GAIIx (Restriction site associated DNA, RAD) to evaluate the feasibility of the two methodologies for the discovery of de novo markers (single nucleotide polymorphism, SNPs and microsatellites) using low coverage data. Approximately, 6,683 (shotgun) and 14,724 (RAD) SNPs were detected within our elephant sequence dataset. Genotyping of a representative sample of 194 SNPs resulted in a SNP validation rate of ? 83 to 94% and 17% of the loci were polymorphic with a low diversity (Ho?=?0.057). Different numbers of microsatellites were identified through shotgun (27,226) and RAD (868) techniques. Out of all di-, tri-, and tetra-microsatellite loci, 1,706 loci had sufficient flanking regions (shotgun) while only 7 were found with RAD. All microsatellites were monomorphic in the Bornean but polymorphic in another elephant subspecies. Despite using different sample sizes, and the well known differences in the two platforms used regarding sequence length and throughput, the two approaches showed high validation rate. The approaches used here for marker development in a threatened species demonstrate the utility of high throughput sequencing technologies as a starting point for the development of genomic tools in a non-model species and in particular for a species with low genetic diversity. PMID:23185354

  4. Molecular phylogeography of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) and genetic relationships with congeners using cytochrome b gene marker.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Song, Sze-Looi; Prasartvit, Anchana; Lim, Phaik-Eem

    2015-08-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an important emerging zoonotic parasite causing human eosinophilic meningitis (or meningoencephalitis) in many parts of the world. To-date there is only a single study using mitochondrial cytochrome b (CYTB) gene to determine its genetic structure in eight geographical localities in Thailand. The present study examined the molecular phylogeography of this rat lungworm and its phylogenetic relationship with congeners using CYTB gene marker. A total of 15 CYTB haplotypes was found in 37 sequences from 14 geographical localities (covering north, west, east, central and south regions) in Thailand. These CYTB haplotypes were distinct from those of A. cantonensis for China and Hawaii. In Thailand, some CYTB haplotypes appeared to be confined to specific geographical localities. The partial CYTB DNA nucleotide sequences separated unequivocally the A. cantonensis isolates of Thailand, China and Hawaii as well as the congeners Angiostrongylus malaysiensis, A. costaricensis and Angiostrongylus vasorum, with A. malaysiensis grouped with A. cantonensis and A. costaricensis grouped with A. vasorum. Likewise the congeners of Metastrongylus and Onchocerca genera could also be clearly differentiated. The present study added two new definitive hosts (Bandicota savilei and Rattus losea) and three new localities (Mae Hong Son in the north, Tak in the west, and Phang Nga in the south) for A. malaysiensis in Thailand, indicating its wide occurrence in the country. Three CYTB haplotypes were found in the Thailand samples of A. malaysiensis. In addition to differentiation of congeners, CYTB gene marker could be used for determining the genetic diversity of a given population/taxon. PMID:25930187

  5. GENETICS Fine-Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci for Body Weight and Abdominal Fat Traits: Effects of Marker Density and Sample Size1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Liu; H. Zhang; H. Li; N. Li; Y. Zhang; Q. Zhang; S. Wang; Q. Wang; H. Wang

    Highly significant QTL for BW and ab- dominal fat traits on chicken chromosome 1 were re- ported previously in a unique F2 population. The objective of this study was to confirm and refine the QTL locations. Compared with the previous experiment, this study added 8 new families, including all the animals in the pedigree, and genotyped 9 more microsatellite markers,

  6. Use of genetic and physical mapping to locate the spinal muscular atrophy locus between two new highly polymorphic DNA markers

    SciTech Connect

    Clermont, O.; Burlet, P.; Burglen, L.; Lefebvre, S.; Pascal, F.; McPherson, J.; Wasmuth, J.J.; Cohen, D.; Le Paslier, D.; Weissenbach, J. (and others)

    1994-04-01

    The gene for autosomal recessive forms of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) has recently been mapped to chromosome 5q13, within a 4-cM region between the blocks D5S465/D5S125 and MAP-1B/D5S112. The authors identified two new highly polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers - namely, AFM265wf5 (D5S629) and AFM281yh9 (D5S637) - which are the closest markers to the SMA locus. Multilocus analysis by the location-score method was used to establish the best estimate of the SMA gene location. The data suggest that the most likely location for SMA is between locus D5S629 and the block D5S637/D5S351/MAP-1B/D5S112/D5S357. Genetic analysis of inbred SMA families, based on homozygosity by descent and physical mapping using meta-YACs, gave additional information for the loci order as follows: cen-D5S6-D5S125/D5S465-D5S435-D5S629-SMA-D5S637-D5S351-MAP-1B/D5S112-D5S357-D5S39-tel. These data give the direction for bidirectional walking in order to clone this interval and isolate the SMA gene. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. An Examination of the Relationship between Lipid Levels and Associated Genetic Markers across Racial/Ethnic Populations in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Lucia; Zhu, Jonathan; Scott, Erick R.; Wineinger, Nathan E.

    2015-01-01

    Large genome-wide association studies have reported hundreds of genetic markers associated with lipid levels. However, the discovery and estimated effect of variants at these loci, derived from samples of exclusively European descent, may not generalize to the majority of the world populations. We examined the collective strength of association among these loci in a diverse set of U.S. populations from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. We constructed a genetic risk score for each lipid outcome based on previously identified lipid-associated genetic markers, and examined the relationship between the genetic risk scores and corresponding outcomes. We discover this relationship was often moderated by race/ethnicity. Our findings provide insight into the generalizability and predictive utility of large sample size meta-analyses results when leveraging data from a single population. We hope these findings will encourage researchers to investigate genetic susceptibility in more diverse populations and explore the source of such discrepancies. Until then, we caution clinicians, genetic counselors, and genetic testing consumers when interpreting genetic data on complex traits. PMID:25951326

  8. Genetic Analysis Workshop 15: simulation of a complex genetic model for rheumatoid arthritis in nuclear families including a dense SNP map with linkage disequilibrium between marker loci and trait loci.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael B; Lind, Gregg R; Li, Na; Jang, Soon-Young

    2007-01-01

    Data for Problem 3 of the Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 were generated by computer simulation in an attempt to mimic some of the genetic and epidemiological features of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) such as its population prevalence, sex ratio, risk to siblings of affected individuals, association with cigarette smoking, the strong effect of genotype in the HLA region and other genetic effects. A complex genetic model including epistasis and genotype-by-environment interaction was applied to a population of 1.9 million nuclear families of size four from which we selected 1500 families with both offspring affected and 2000 unrelated, unaffected individuals all of whose first-degree relatives were unaffected. This process was repeated to produce 100 replicate data sets. In addition, we generated marker data for 22 autosomes consisting of a genome-wide set of 730 simulated STRP markers, 9187 SNP markers and an additional 17,820 SNP markers on chromosome 6. Appropriate linkage disequilibrium between markers and between trait loci and markers was modelled using HapMap Phase 1 data http://www.hapmap.org/downloads/phasing/2005-03_phaseI/. The code base for this project was written primarily in the Octave programming language, but it is being ported to the R language and developed into a larger project for general genetic simulation called GenetSim http://genetsim.org/. All of the source code that was used to generate the GAW 15 Problem 3 data is freely available for download at http://genetsim.org/gaw15/. PMID:18466538

  9. Development of Genetic Markers Linked to Straighthead Resistance through Fine Mapping in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wengui; Jia, Melissa; Jackson, Aaron; Li, Xiaobai; Jia, Limeng; Huang, Bihu; Xu, Peizhou; Correa-Victoria, Fernando; Li, Shigui

    2012-01-01

    Straighthead, a physiological disorder characterized by sterile florets and distorted spikelets, causes significant yield losses in rice, and occurs in many countries. The current control method of draining paddies early in the season stresses plants, is costly, and wastes water. Development of resistant cultivar is regarded as the most efficient way for its control. We mapped a QTL for straighthead resistance using two recombinant inbred line (RIL) F9 populations that were phenotyped over two years using monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) to induce the symptoms. One population of 170 RILs was genotyped with 136 SSRs and the other population of 91 RILs was genotyped with 159 SSRs. A major QTL qSH-8 was identified in an overlapping region in both populations, and explained 46% of total variation in one and 67% in another population for straighthead resistance. qSH-8 was fine mapped from 1.0 Mbp to 340 kb using 7 SSR markers and further mapped to 290 kb in a population between RM22573 and InDel 27 using 4 InDel markers. SSR AP3858-1 and InDel 11 were within the fine mapped region, and co-segregated with straighthead resistance in both RIL populations, as well as in a collection of diverse global accessions. These results demonstrate that AP3858-1 and InDel 11 can be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) for straighthead resistant cultivars, which is especially important because there is no effective way to directly evaluate straighthead resistance. PMID:23285082

  10. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers for genetic analysis in Allium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan E. Wilkie; Peter G. Isaac; Robert J. Slater

    1993-01-01

    RAPD analysis was applied to onion (Allium cepa) and otherAllium species in order to assess the degree of polymorphism within the genus and to investigate if this approach was suitable for genetic studies of onion. Seven cultivars ofA. cepa, including shallot, and single cultivars of Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum), chive (A. schoenoprasum), leek (A. ampeloprasum), and a wild relative

  11. A Genetic Linkage Map of Mycosphaerella Fijiensis, using SSR and DArT Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the causal agent of black leaf streak or Black Sigatoka disease in bananas. This pathogen threatens global banana production as the main export Cavendish cultivars are highly susceptible. Previously a genetic linkage map was generated predominantly using anonymous AFLP ma...

  12. A new genetic linkage map of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench constructed with SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is a diverse genus of C4 monocot plants. The domesticated grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is among the world’s important cereals, with multiple uses such as for human food, animal feed, and industrial feedstocks. A genetic linkage map of sorghum based on simple sequence repeat ...

  13. GENETIC ANALYSES OF CHINESE CYNODON ACCESSIONS BY FLOW CYTOMETRY AND AFLP MARKERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Is widely distributed in China but little information exists on genetic diversity within the germplasm pool. This study was conducted to assess variations in ploidy and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) among Cynodon accessions collected from eleven Chinese p...

  14. Genetic diversity evaluation of wild Persian shallot ( Allium hirtifolium Boiss.) using morphological and RAPD markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ebrahimi; Z. Zamani; A. Kashi

    2009-01-01

    Persian shallot, a bulb producing plant from Alliaceae, is a wildly growing plant collected for its bulbs. Bulbs of Persian shallot, called “Mooseer” in Farsi, are oval, white skinned, usually of one and rarely of two main bulbs and are completely different from common shallot (Allium ascalonicum). There is no information about genetic diversity of this species; therefore, the diversity

  15. Genetic stability of micropropagated almond plantlets, as assessed by RAPD and ISSR markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Martins; D. Sarmento; M. M. Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    Almond shoots produced by axillary branching from clone VII derived from a seedling of cultivar Boa Casta were evaluated for somaclonal variation using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) analysis. To verify genetic stability we compared RAPD and ISSR patterns of plantlets obtained after 4 and 6 years of in vitro multiplication. A total of 64 RAPD

  16. Genetic variation detected with RAPD markers among upland and lowland rice cultivars ( Oryza sativa L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L.-X. Yu; H. T. Nguyen

    1994-01-01

    Genetic variation of nine upland and four lowland rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) was investigated at the DNA level using the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Forty-two random primers were used to amplify DNA segments and 260 PCR products were obtained. The results of agarosegel electrophoretic analysis of these PCR products indicated that

  17. Head and Neck Cancer Susceptibility: A Genetic Marker in the Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nelofar Kureshi; Shehzad Ghaffar; Sammer Siddiqui; Iftikhar Salahuddin; Philippe M. Frossard

    2004-01-01

    Progress in the elucidation of molecular genetic changes that lead to the development of tumors should soon bring novel diagnostic and therapeutic procedures into clinical practice. In this respect, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a central role in folate metabolism that affects DNA methylation and synthesis. DNA methylation is an epigenetic feature that influences cellular development and function. Germ line mutation

  18. A genetic linkage map of quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa ) based on AFLP, RAPD, and SSR markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Maughan; A. Bonifacio; E. N. Jellen; M. R. Stevens; C. E. Coleman; M. Ricks; S. L. Mason; D. E. Jarvis; B. W. Gardunia; D. J. Fairbanks

    2004-01-01

    Quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is an important seed crop for human consumption in the Andean region of South America. It is the primary staple in areas too arid or saline for the major cereal crops. The objective of this project was to build the first genetic linkage map of quinoa. Selection of the mapping population was based on a

  19. GENETIC DIVERSITY IN FLOWERING DOGWOOD (CORNUS FLORIDA L.) USING MICROSATELLITE (SSR) MARKERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L.) is a popular ornamental species in North America, Asia and Europe. There are over 100 named cultivars, many of which were developed in different geographical areas. Our objective was to analyze the genetic backgrounds of flowering dogwood cultivars and breeding ...

  20. Trend Tests for Case-Control Studies of Genetic Markers: Power, Sample Size and Robustness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris Freidlin; Gang Zheng; Zhaohai Li; Joseph L. Gastwirth

    2002-01-01

    The Cochran-Armitage trend test is commonly used as a genotype-based test for candidate gene association. Corresponding to each underlying genetic model there is a particular set of scores assigned to the genotypes that maximizes its power. When the variance of the test statistic is known, the formulas for approximate power and associated sample size are readily obtained. In practice, however,