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1

Genetic uniqueness of Chinese village pig populations inferred from microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

In this study, 19 microsatellite loci were genotyped for 10 Chinese village pig populations including 817 individuals to investigate their genetic characteristics. The allele frequencies, effective numbers of alleles (ne), average heterozygosity within populations (H), genetic differentiation between populations (Fst), and coefficient of gene differentiation (Gst) were calculated. The results showed that village populations had relatively large H and ne values, but with smaller average Gst, compared with indigenous purebred pig populations. The smaller average Gst (0.0386) suggested that the genetic difference between village populations was only 3.86%, and the other 96.14% was found within populations. Most of the pairwise Fst-values were significant (P < 0.05), demonstrating differentiation among populations. A neighbor-joining tree constructed from modified Cavalli-Sforza genetic distances divided Chinese village pig populations, Chinese indigenous pig breeds, and Euro-American pig breeds into 3 separate clusters. All of above genetic analyses showed that Chinese village pig populations are unique genetic resources, which could be used for future pig production. PMID:19648495

Fang, M; Hu, X; Jin, W; Li, N; Wu, C

2009-11-01

2

USC study finds unique genetic marker may improve detection of recurrent ovarian cancer:  

Cancer.gov

Ovarian cancer is a major health concern for women and the identification of sensitive biomarkers for early detection and/or monitoring of disease recurrence is of high clinical relevance. New work published in the Dec. 7 issue of the online journal PLoS ONE reports promising advances toward the development of blood-based DNA markers for ovarian cancer.

3

[Genetic markers of hypertension].  

PubMed

Essential hypertension is a widespread multifactorial pathology which is probably controlled by numerous genes. Twenty to forty percent of hypertension may be genetically determined. In this review, polymorphism of three group of candidate genes is analyzed. Products of these genes are most likely involved in hypertension development. These are the genes controlling the renin-angiotensin system, ionic channels, and nitric oxide system and NO-synthase. PMID:10495944

Chistiakov, D A; Turakulov, R I

1999-05-01

4

Molecular Marker Systems for Oenothera Genetics  

PubMed Central

The genus Oenothera has an outstanding scientific tradition. It has been a model for studying aspects of chromosome evolution and speciation, including the impact of plastid nuclear co-evolution. A large collection of strains analyzed during a century of experimental work and unique genetic possibilities allow the exchange of genetically definable plastids, individual or multiple chromosomes, and/or entire haploid genomes (Renner complexes) between species. However, molecular genetic approaches for the genus are largely lacking. In this study, we describe the development of efficient PCR-based marker systems for both the nuclear genome and the plastome. They allow distinguishing individual chromosomes, Renner complexes, plastomes, and subplastomes. We demonstrate their application by monitoring interspecific exchanges of genomes, chromosome pairs, and/or plastids during crossing programs, e.g., to produce plastome–genome incompatible hybrids. Using an appropriate partial permanent translocation heterozygous hybrid, linkage group 7 of the molecular map could be assigned to chromosome 9·8 of the classical Oenothera map. Finally, we provide the first direct molecular evidence that homologous recombination and free segregation of chromosomes in permanent translocation heterozygous strains is suppressed. PMID:18791241

Rauwolf, Uwe; Golczyk, Hieronim; Meurer, Jorg; Herrmann, Reinhold G.; Greiner, Stephan

2008-01-01

5

Genetic Defects as Tumor Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carcinogenesis is long-term multistep accumulation of defects of genes responsible for cell division, DNA repair, and apoptosis. The functions of these genes are known both for norm and for pathologies caused by their damage and resulting in “asocial” cell behavior. Owing to the recent progress in studying the mechanisms of carcinogenesis, some genetic defects may be considered from the applied

A. V. Lichtenstein; G. I. Potapova

2003-01-01

6

Genetic Markers in Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For classic “Mendelian” genetic diseases, a single gene is responsible. A rare mutation in that gene causes a dramatic change\\u000a in protein concentration or function that is both necessary and sufficient to cause the disease, and environmental factors\\u000a play a small or nonexistent role. Examples in cardiology include familial hypercholesterolemia, familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,\\u000a Marfan syndrome, and congenital long QT syndrome.

Marc S. Sabatine

7

Genetic and biological markers in drug abuse and alcoholism  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Polymorphic Gene Marker Studies; Pharmacogenetic Approaches to the Prediction of Drug Response; Genetic Markers of Drug Abuse in Mouse Models; Genetics as a Tool for Identifying Biological Markers of Drug Abuse; and Studies of an Animal Model of Alcoholism.

Braude, M.C.; Chao, H.M.

1986-01-01

8

Balancing genetic uniqueness and genetic variation in determining conservation and translocation strategies: a comprehensive case study of threatened dwarf galaxias, Galaxiella pusilla (Mack) (Pisces: Galaxiidae).  

PubMed

Genetic markers are widely used to define and manage populations of threatened species based on the notion that populations with unique lineages of mtDNA and well-differentiated nuclear marker frequencies should be treated separately. However, a danger of this approach is that genetic uniqueness might be emphasized at the cost of genetic diversity, which is essential for adaptation and is potentially boosted by mixing geographically separate populations. Here, we re-explore the issue of defining management units, focussing on a detailed study of Galaxiella pusilla, a small freshwater fish of national conservation significance in Australia. Using a combination of microsatellite and mitochondrial markers, 51 populations across the species range were surveyed for genetic structure and diversity. We found an inverse relationship between genetic differentiation and genetic diversity, highlighting a long-term risk of deliberate isolation of G. pusilla populations based on protection of unique lineages. Instead, we adopt a method for identifying genetic management units that takes into consideration both uniqueness and genetic variation. This produced a management framework to guide future translocation and re-introduction efforts for G. pusilla, which contrasted to the framework based on a more traditional approach that may overlook important genetic variation in populations. PMID:23432132

Coleman, R A; Weeks, A R; Hoffmann, A A

2013-04-01

9

Genetic markers and population history: Finland revisited.  

PubMed

The Finnish population in Northern Europe has been a target of extensive genetic studies during the last decades. The population is considered as a homogeneous isolate, well suited for gene mapping studies because of its reduced diversity and homogeneity. However, several studies have shown substantial differences between the eastern and western parts of the country, especially in the male-mediated Y chromosome. This divergence is evident in non-neutral genetic variation also and it is usually explained to stem from founder effects occurring in the settlement of eastern Finland as late as in the 16th century. Here, we have reassessed this population historical scenario using Y-chromosomal, mitochondrial and autosomal markers and geographical sampling covering entire Finland. The obtained results suggest substantial Scandinavian gene flow into south-western, but not into the eastern, Finland. Male-biased Scandinavian gene flow into the south-western parts of the country would plausibly explain the large inter-regional differences observed in the Y-chromosome, and the relative homogeneity in the mitochondrial and autosomal data. On the basis of these results, we suggest that the expression of 'Finnish Disease Heritage' illnesses, more common in the eastern/north-eastern Finland, stems from long-term drift, rather than from relatively recent founder effects. PMID:19367325

Palo, Jukka U; Ulmanen, Ismo; Lukka, Matti; Ellonen, Pekka; Sajantila, Antti

2009-10-01

10

Am. J. Hum. Genet. 73:14021422, 2003 Informativeness of Genetic Markers for Inference of Ancestry*  

E-print Network

Am. J. Hum. Genet. 73:1402­1422, 2003 1402 Informativeness of Genetic Markers for Inference-control genetic association studies. Markers that are informative in one collection of source populations, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; and 3 Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago

Rosenberg, Noah

11

Diversity in Natural Fern Populations: Dominant Markers as Genetic Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Our aim, in the present chapter, is to provide a synthesis of the use of dominant markers in the Pteridophytes’ genetics.\\u000a We try to provide a ­comprehensive review of the advantages and disadvantages of the selection of dominant markers as genetic\\u000a tools, when compared to other molecular techniques ­available. Dominant markers fulfill most of the ideal characteristics\\u000a of a fingerprinting

E. L. Peredo; A. Revilla; M. Méndez; V. Menéndez; H. Fernández

12

Extensive Genetic Diversity, Unique Population Structure and Evidence of Genetic Exchange in the Sexually Transmitted Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis  

PubMed Central

Background Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of human trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection world-wide. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the genetic diversity and population structure of this haploid parasite due to the lack of appropriate tools. The development of a panel of microsatellite makers and SNPs from mining the parasite's genome sequence has paved the way to a global analysis of the genetic structure of the pathogen and association with clinical phenotypes. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we utilize a panel of T. vaginalis-specific genetic markers to genotype 235 isolates from Mexico, Chile, India, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Italy, Africa and the United States, including 19 clinical isolates recently collected from 270 women attending New York City sexually transmitted disease clinics. Using population genetic analysis, we show that T. vaginalis is a genetically diverse parasite with a unique population structure consisting of two types present in equal proportions world-wide. Parasites belonging to the two types (type 1 and type 2) differ significantly in the rate at which they harbor the T. vaginalis virus, a dsRNA virus implicated in parasite pathogenesis, and in their sensitivity to the widely-used drug, metronidazole. We also uncover evidence of genetic exchange, indicating a sexual life-cycle of the parasite despite an absence of morphologically-distinct sexual stages. Conclusions/Significance Our study represents the first robust and comprehensive evaluation of global T. vaginalis genetic diversity and population structure. Our identification of a unique two-type structure, and the clinically relevant phenotypes associated with them, provides a new dimension for understanding T. vaginalis pathogenesis. In addition, our demonstration of the possibility of genetic exchange in the parasite has important implications for genetic research and control of the disease. PMID:22479659

Conrad, Melissa D.; Gorman, Andrew W.; Schillinger, Julia A.; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Arroyo, Rossana; Malla, Nancy; Dubey, Mohan Lal; Gonzalez, Jorge; Blank, Susan; Secor, William E.; Carlton, Jane M.

2012-01-01

13

Unique genetic variation at a species' rear edge is under threat from global climate change  

PubMed Central

Global climate change is having a significant effect on the distributions of a wide variety of species, causing both range shifts and population extinctions. To date, however, no consensus has emerged on how these processes will affect the range-wide genetic diversity of impacted species. It has been suggested that species that recolonized from low-latitude refugia might harbour high levels of genetic variation in rear-edge populations, and that loss of these populations could cause a disproportionately large reduction in overall genetic diversity in such taxa. In the present study, we have examined the distribution of genetic diversity across the range of the seaweed Chondrus crispus, a species that has exhibited a northward shift in its southern limit in Europe over the last 40 years. Analysis of 19 populations from both sides of the North Atlantic using mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), sequence data from two single-copy nuclear regions and allelic variation at eight microsatellite loci revealed unique genetic variation for all marker classes in the rear-edge populations in Iberia, but not in the rear-edge populations in North America. Palaeodistribution modelling and statistical testing of alternative phylogeographic scenarios indicate that the unique genetic diversity in Iberian populations is a result not only of persistence in the region during the last glacial maximum, but also because this refugium did not contribute substantially to the recolonization of Europe after the retreat of the ice. Consequently, loss of these rear-edge populations as a result of ongoing climate change will have a major effect on the overall genetic diversity of the species, particularly in Europe, and this could compromise the adaptive potential of the species as a whole in the face of future global warming. PMID:21593035

Provan, Jim; Maggs, Christine A.

2012-01-01

14

Toward Diagnostic and Phenotype Markers for Genetically Transmitted Speech Delay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Converging evidence supports the hypothesis that the most common subtype of childhood speech sound disorder (SSD) of currently unknown origin is genetically transmitted. We report the first findings toward a set of diagnostic markers to differentiate this proposed etiological subtype (provisionally termed "speech delay-genetic") from other…

Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Lewis, Barbara A.; Tomblin, J. Bruce; McSweeny, Jane L.; Karlsson, Heather B.; Scheer, Alison R.

2005-01-01

15

Single nucleotide polymorphism markers for genetic mapping in Drosophila melanogaster  

SciTech Connect

For nearly a century, genetic analysis in Drosophila melanogaster has been a powerful tool for analyzing gene function, yet Drosophila lacks the molecular genetic mapping tools that have recently revolutionized human, mouse and plant genetics. Here, we describe the systematic characterization of a dense set of molecular markers in Drosophila using an STS-based physical map of the genome. We identify 474 biallelic markers in standard laboratory strains of Drosophila that the genome. The majority of these markers are single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and sequences for these variants are provided in an accessible format. The average density of the new markers is 1 marker per 225 kb on the autosomes and 1 marker per 1 Mb on the X chromosome. We include in this survey a set of P-element strains that provide additional utility for high-resolution mapping. We demonstrate one application of the new markers in a simple set of crosses to map a mutation in the hedgehog gene to an interval of <1 Mb. This new map resource significantly increases the efficiency and resolution of recombination mapping and will be of immediate value to the Drosophila research community.

Hoskins, Roger A.; Phan, Alexander C.; Naeemuddin, Mohammed; Mapa, Felipa A.; Ruddy, David A.; Ryan, Jessica J.; Young, Lynn M.; Wells, Trent; Kopczynski, Casey; Ellis, Michael C.

2001-04-16

16

Genetic diversity of Prunus rootstocks analyzed by RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used RAPD markers to characterize Prunus rootstocks from different species, both commercial, and selected clones from the breeding program at Aula Dei Experimental\\u000a Station (Zaragoza, Spain). Molecular markers were used to study the genetic variation among different species, and within\\u000a species. Forty one genotypes were used in this study. They included P. amygdalo-persica, and P. persica P. davidiana

A. M. Casas; E. Igartua; G. Balaguer; M. A. Moreno

1999-01-01

17

Novel genetic markers in inflammatory bowel disease  

PubMed Central

Genetic factors play a significant role in determining inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility. Epidemiologic data support genetic contribution to the pathogenesis of IBD, which include familial aggregation, twin studies, racial and ethnic differences in disease prevalence. Linkage studies have identified several susceptibility genes contained in different genomic regions named IBD1 to IBD9. Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD2) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes are the most extensively studied genetic regions (IBD1 and IBD3 respectively) in IBD. Mutations of the NOD2 gene are associated with Crohn's disease (CD) and several HLA genes are associated with ulcerative colitis (UC) and CD. Toll like receptors (TLRs) have an important role in the innate immune response against infections by mediating recognition of pathogen-associated microbial patterns. Studying single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in molecules involved in bacterial recognition seems to be essential to define genetic backgrounds at risk of IBD. Recently, numerous new genes have been identified to be involved in the genetic susceptibility to IBD: NOD1/Caspase-activation recruitment domains 4 (CARD4), Chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20), IL-11, and IL-18 among others. The characterization of these novel genes potentially will lead to the identification of therapeutic agents and clinical assessment of phenotype and prognosis in patients with IBD. PMID:17948929

Rodriguez-Bores, Lorena; Fonseca, Gabriela C; Villeda, Marco A; Yamamoto-Furusho, Jesus K

2007-01-01

18

Genetic Markers and Quantitative Genetic Variation in Medicago Truncatula (Leguminosae): A Comparative Analysis of Population Structure  

PubMed Central

Two populations of the selfing annual Medicago truncatula Gaertn. (Leguminoseae), each subdivided into three subpopulations, were studied for both metric traits (quantitative characters) and genetic markers (random amplified polymorphic DNA and one morphological, single-locus marker). Hierarchical analyses of variance components show that (1) populations are more differentiated for quantitative characters than for marker loci, (2) the contribution of both within and among subpopulations components of variance to overall genetic variance of these characters is reduced as compared to markers, and (3) at the population level, within population structure is slightly but not significantly larger for markers than for quantitative traits. Under the hypothesis that most markers are neutral, such comparisons may be used to make hypotheses about the strength and heterogeneity of natural selection in the face of genetic drift and gene flow. We thus suggest that in these populations, quantitative characters are under strong divergent selection among populations, and that gene flow is restricted among populations and subpopulations. PMID:8844165

Bonnin, I.; Prosperi, J. M.; Olivieri, I.

1996-01-01

19

Genetic Diversity and Relationships of Korean Chicken Breeds Based on 30 Microsatellite Markers  

PubMed Central

The effective management of endangered animal genetic resources is one of the most important concerns of modern breeding. Evaluation of genetic diversity and relationship of local breeds is an important factor towards the identification of unique and valuable genetic resources. This study aimed to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of six Korean native chicken breeds (n = 300), which were compared with three imported breeds in Korea (n = 150). For the analysis of genetic diversity, 30 microsatellite markers from FAO/ISAG recommended diversity panel or previously reported microsatellite markers were used. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 15 per locus, with a mean of 8.13. The average observed heterozygosity within native breeds varied between 0.46 and 0.59. The overall heterozygote deficiency (FIT) in native chicken was 0.234±0.025. Over 30.7% of FIT was contributed by within-population deficiency (FIS). Bayesian clustering analysis, using the STRUCTURE software suggested 9 clusters. This study may provide the background for future studies to identify the genetic uniqueness of the Korean native chicken breeds PMID:25178290

Suh, Sangwon; Sharma, Aditi; Lee, Seunghwan; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Seong-Bok; Kim, Hyun; Seong, Hwan-Hoo; Yeon, Seong-Hum; Kim, Dong-Hun; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu

2014-01-01

20

Genetic diversity and relationships of korean chicken breeds based on 30 microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

The effective management of endangered animal genetic resources is one of the most important concerns of modern breeding. Evaluation of genetic diversity and relationship of local breeds is an important factor towards the identification of unique and valuable genetic resources. This study aimed to analyze the genetic diversity and population structure of six Korean native chicken breeds (n = 300), which were compared with three imported breeds in Korea (n = 150). For the analysis of genetic diversity, 30 microsatellite markers from FAO/ISAG recommended diversity panel or previously reported microsatellite markers were used. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 15 per locus, with a mean of 8.13. The average observed heterozygosity within native breeds varied between 0.46 and 0.59. The overall heterozygote deficiency (F IT) in native chicken was 0.234±0.025. Over 30.7% of F IT was contributed by within-population deficiency (F IS). Bayesian clustering analysis, using the STRUCTURE software suggested 9 clusters. This study may provide the background for future studies to identify the genetic uniqueness of the Korean native chicken breeds. PMID:25178290

Suh, Sangwon; Sharma, Aditi; Lee, Seunghwan; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Seong-Bok; Kim, Hyun; Seong, Hwan-Hoo; Yeon, Seong-Hum; Kim, Dong-Hun; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu

2014-10-01

21

Uniparental genetic markers in South Amerindians  

PubMed Central

A comprehensive review of uniparental systems in South Amerindians was undertaken. Variability in the Y-chromosome haplogroups were assessed in 68 populations and 1,814 individuals whereas that of Y-STR markers was assessed in 29 populations and 590 subjects. Variability in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup was examined in 108 populations and 6,697 persons, and sequencing studies used either the complete mtDNA genome or the highly variable segments 1 and 2. The diversity of the markers made it difficult to establish a general picture of Y-chromosome variability in the populations studied. However, haplogroup Q1a3a* was almost always the most prevalent whereas Q1a3* occurred equally in all regions, which suggested its prevalence among the early colonizers. The STR allele frequencies were used to derive a possible ancient Native American Q-clade chromosome haplotype and five of six STR loci showed significant geographic variation. Geographic and linguistic factors moderately influenced the mtDNA distributions (6% and 7%, respectively) and mtDNA haplogroups A and D correlated positively and negatively, respectively, with latitude. The data analyzed here provide rich material for understanding the biological history of South Amerindians and can serve as a basis for comparative studies involving other types of data, such as cultural data. PMID:22888284

Bisso-Machado, Rafael; Bortolini, Maria Catira; Salzano, Francisco Mauro

2012-01-01

22

Genetic Marker Identified for Aggressive Bladder Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers led by Ludmila Prokunina-Olsson, Ph.D., in DCEG's Laboratory of Translational Genomics, have identified the first genetic variant associated with risk of aggressive bladder cancer. The variant, rs7257330, is in the promoter region of the CCNE1 gene, which encodes for cyclin E protein, a cell cycle regulator. This result comes from a fine-mapping analysis of data from two bladder cancer genome-wide association studies and functional studies.

23

Original article Genetic markers for Prunus avium L.  

E-print Network

Original article Genetic markers for Prunus avium L. 2. Clonal identifications and discrimination from P cerasus and P cerasus x P avium F Santi, M Lemoine INRA, Station d'Amélioration des arbres cherry in wild cherries. Isozyme / Prunus / wild cherry / sour cherry / duke cherry / identification

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

24

INSL5 may be a unique marker of colorectal endocrine cells and neuroendocrine tumors  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? INSL5 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells along the colorectum. ? INSL5 is expressed increasingly from proximal colon to rectum. ? INSL5 co-localizes rarely with chromogranin A. ? All rectal neuroendocrine tumors examined expressed INSL5. -- Abstract: Insulin-like peptide 5 (INSL5) is a member of the insulin superfamily, and is a potent agonist for RXFP4. We have shown that INSL5 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells (EECs) along the colorectum with a gradient increase toward the rectum. RXFP4 is ubiquitously expressed along the digestive tract. INSL5-positive EECs have little immunoreactivity to chromogranin A (CgA) and might be a unique marker of colorectal EECs. CgA-positive EECs were distributed normally along the colorectum in INSL5 null mice, suggesting that INSL5 is not required for the development of CgA-positive EECs. Exogenous INSL5 did not affect the proliferation of human colon cancer cell lines, and chemically-induced colitis in INSL5 null mice did not show any significant changes in inflammation or mucosal healing compared to wild-type mice. In contrast, all of the rectal neuroendocrine tumors examined co-expressed INSL5 and RXFP4. INSL5 may be a unique marker of colorectal EECs, and INSL5–RXFP4 signaling might play a role in an autocrine/paracrine fashion in the colorectal epithelium and rectal neuroendocrine tumors.

Mashima, Hirosato, E-mail: hmashima1-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan)] [Department of Gastroenterology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Ohno, Hideki [Division of Advanced Medical Science, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan)] [Division of Advanced Medical Science, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Yamada, Yumi; Sakai, Toshitaka; Ohnishi, Hirohide [Department of Gastroenterology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan)] [Department of Gastroenterology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan)

2013-03-22

25

Genetic markers and the coregonid problem  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coregonid fishes are the forage base in many ecosystems in the northern hemisphere and they have traditionally been part of commercial and native fisheries. Coregonids display extreme variability in morphology, life history, and behavior. Defining boundaries among coregonid taxa has been (and continues to be) the focus of many studies. Cytogenetic, biochemical, and molecular methods have been used to study the 'coregonid problem'. A survey of the literature reveals that questions of taxonomy, followed by phylogeography are most often studied. Sample collections have occurred throughout a representative portion of the coregonid range. The whitefish species Coregonus clupeaformis and C. lavaretus are most often studied. This was expected however because they are the most widely distributed, display the most variation, and are the most commercially important. However, species with restricted ranges such as the Irish pollan (C. pollan) or omul (C. migratorius) have also been studied intensively. Genetic methods have provided insights into several issues, including the placement of Stenodus and the status of C. clupeaformis and C. lavaretus. More recently, studies of sympatric forms over broad geographic scales shed light on processes involved in the evolution of the group and suggest different approaches for management and designation of taxa. ?? 2007 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

Stott, W.; Todd, T. N.

2007-01-01

26

Applications of DNA genetic markers to the study of plant growth and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA genetic markers, such as restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and random amplified polymorphic DNA markers (RAPDs), are powerful tools for studying the genetics of plant growth and development. DNA markers are defined sequences of DNA that can be used in traditional linkage mapping. Using DNA marker technology, scientists can uncover relationships between cloned cDNA sequences and classically characterized genes.

Nevin Dale Young

1993-01-01

27

Major histocompatibility locus genetic markers of beryllium sensitization and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major histocompatibility locus genetic markers of beryllium sensitization and disease. C. Saltini, L. Richeldi, M. Losi, M. Amicosante, C. Voorter, E. van den Berg-Loonen, R.A. Dweik, H.P. Wiedemann, D.C. Deubner, C. Tinelli. #ERS Journals Ltd 2001. ABSTRACT: Hypersensitivity to beryllium (Be) is found in 1-16% of exposed workers undergoing immunological screening for beryllium disease using the beryllium lym- phocyte proliferation

C. Saltini; L. Richeldi; M. Losi; M. Amicosante; C. Voorter; E. Van Den Berg-Loonen; R. A. Dweik; H. P. Wiedemann; D. C. Deubner; C. Tinelli

2001-01-01

28

Genetic Kinship Investigation from Blood Groups to DNA Markers  

PubMed Central

The forensic application of hereditary characteristics became possible after the discovery of human blood groups by Karl Landsteiner in 1901. The foundation for their use in kinship investigation was laid by Emil von Dungern and Ludwig Hirschfeld in 1910 by clarification of the inheritance of the ABO groups. Up to the middle of the 20th century further red cell membrane systems were discovered. From the 1920s Fritz Schiff and Georg Strassmann fought for the introduction of blood groups into forensic kinship investigation. A new era of hemogenetics was opened from 1955 as genetic polymorphisms were described in serum proteins. Starting in 1958 there followed the complex HLA system of white blood cells, which from 1963 was joined by polymophisms in erythrocyte enzymes. Therefore, from the 1980s, it was possible to clarify the majority of kinship cases with a combination of conventional markers. From 1990 to 2000 the conventional markers were gradually replaced by the more effective DNA markers. Simultaneously typing shifted from the phenotype level to the genotype level. The genomic structure of conventional genetic markers could also now be explained. As a reflection of scientific progress the legal situation also changed, particularly in the form of the official guidelines for kinship investigation. PMID:22851931

Geserick, Gunther; Wirth, Ingo

2012-01-01

29

Genetic relationships between Lolium (Poaceae) species revealed by RAPD markers.  

PubMed

The genus Lolium is one of the most important groupings of temperate forage grasses, including about eight recognized species that are native to some temperate and subtropical regions of the northern hemisphere. We examined genetic relationships among 18 accessions representing all Lolium species using RAPD markers. Among 50 random primers that we screened, 13 gave reproducible amplification banding patterns. Each of these 13 primers generated 19-43 scorable fragments. A total of 367 RAPD fragments were detected, of which 95.9% were polymorphic across all the Lolium accessions. Dice's coefficient of dissimilarity ranged from 0.016 to 0.622, which is indicative of substantial genetic variations in these Lolium accessions. A neighbor-joining cluster analysis, with bootstrap permutation, produced an unrooted dendrogram, which grouped 18 accessions into two main clades, supporting high bootstrap values (98 and 96%). The first clade included the self-pollinated species, L. persicum, L. temulentum, L. remotum, and L. subulatum. The cross-pollinated species, i.e., L. multiflorum, L. perenne, L. rigidum, and L. canariense, composed the second clade, in which L. canariense formed a distinct subclade, indicating its higher genetic separation from other allogamous species. The value of r = 0.97 in the Mantel test for cophenetic correlation applied to the cluster analysis indicated the high degree of fit of the accessions to a group. A principal coordinate analysis, whose first three coordinates explained 72.6% of the variation, showed similar groupings as in the cluster analysis. The genetic relationships estimated by the polymorphism of RAPD markers are basically in agreement with those previously inferred with other genetic markers. PMID:23546973

Ma, X; Gu, X-Y; Chen, T-T; Chen, S-Y; Huang, L-K; Zhang, X-Q

2013-01-01

30

SURFACE ANTIGENS OF MAMMALIAN CELLS AS GENETIC MARKERS. II  

PubMed Central

A second surface antigen, BL, lethal in the presence of specific antibody and complement has been identified on some human cells and shown to behave as a good genetic marker. It is autosomal, unlinked to the human AL antigen previously described, and unlinked to 15 other human genes. The AL antigen, which is linked to the lactic dehydrogenase A gene, is found on the HeLa, the cultured human fibroblast, and in small amounts on the human lymphocyte. BL occurs on HeLa cells, on cultured human fibroblasts, and on human lymphocytes, but not on human RBCs. Hybrid cells formed by fusion of human and Chinese hamster cells have been prepared containing each of the four possible combinations of these two markers. Highly selective antisera sensitive to each marker separately can be obtained. The use of single-cell plating to demonstrate the presence of the antigens and of hybrid cells containing desired combinations of the markers facilitates study in this system. PMID:4736830

Wuthier, Paul; Jones, Carol; Puck, Theodore T.

1973-01-01

31

Genetic diversity in European pigs utilizing amplified fragment length polymorphism markers.  

PubMed

The use of DNA markers to evaluate genetic diversity is an important component of the management of animal genetic resources. The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) has published a list of recommended microsatellite markers for such studies; however, other markers are potential alternatives. This paper describes results obtained with a set of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers as part of a genetic diversity study of European pig breeds that also utilized microsatellite markers. Data from 148 AFLP markers genotyped across samples from 58 European and one Chinese breed were analysed. The results were compared with previous analyses of data from 50 microsatellite markers genotyped on the same animals. The AFLP markers had an average within-breed heterozygosity of 0.124 but there was wide variation, with individual markers being monomorphic in 3-98% of the populations. The biallelic and dominant nature of AFLP markers creates a challenge for their use in genetic diversity studies as each individual marker contains limited information and AFLPs only provide indirect estimates of the allelic frequencies that are needed to estimate genetic distances. Nonetheless, AFLP marker-based characterization of genetic distances was consistent with expectations based on breed and regional distributions and produced a similar pattern to that obtained with microsatellites. Thus, data from AFLP markers can be combined with microsatellite data for measuring genetic diversity. PMID:16734682

SanCristobal, M; Chevalet, C; Peleman, J; Heuven, H; Brugmans, B; van Schriek, M; Joosten, R; Rattink, A P; Harlizius, B; Groenen, M A M; Amigues, Y; Boscher, M-Y; Russell, G; Law, A; Davoli, R; Russo, V; Dèsautés, C; Alderson, L; Fimland, E; Bagga, M; Delgado, J V; Vega-Pla, J L; Martinez, A M; Ramos, M; Glodek, P; Meyer, J N; Gandini, G; Matassino, D; Siggens, K; Laval, G; Archibald, A; Milan, D; Hammond, K; Cardellino, R; Haley, C; Plastow, G

2006-06-01

32

Comparison of RAPD and RFLP genetic markers in determining genetic similarity among Brassica oleracea L. genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic similarity among 45 Brassica Oleracea genotypes was compared using two molecular markers, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). The genotypes included 37 broccolis (var. italica), five cauliflowers (var. botrytis) and three cabbages (var. capitata) which represented a wide range of commercially-available germplasm, and included open-pollinated cultivars, commercial hybrids, and inbred parents of hybrid cultivars.

J. B. dos Santos; J. Nienhuis; P. Skroch; J. Tivang; M. K. Slocum

1994-01-01

33

Spatial and temporal genetic structure in chloroplast and allozyme markers in Phacelia dubia implicate genetic drift  

Microsoft Academic Search

For neutral genes, uniparental inheritance is expected to reduce effective population size relative to biparentally inherited genes. In finite populations, the ensuing genetic drift can cause stronger spatial and temporal differentiation. An intrapopulation polymorphism in chloroplast DNA was used to examine relative spatial and temporal population structure of chloroplast and allozyme markers in the annual plant Phacelia dubia. There was

Foster Levy; Christopher L Neal

1999-01-01

34

Evidence of pre-Roman tribal genetic structure in Basques from uniparentally inherited markers.  

PubMed

Basque people have received considerable attention from anthropologists, geneticists, and linguists during the last century due to the singularity of their language and to other cultural and biological characteristics. Despite the multidisciplinary efforts performed to address the questions of the origin, uniqueness, and heterogeneity of Basques, the genetic studies performed up to now have suffered from a weak study design where populations are not analyzed in an adequate geographic and population context. To address the former questions and to overcome these design limitations, we have analyzed the uniparentally inherited markers (Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA) of ~900 individuals from 18 populations, including those where Basque is currently spoken and populations from adjacent regions where Basque might have been spoken in historical times. Our results indicate that Basque-speaking populations fall within the genetic Western European gene pool, that they are similar to geographically surrounding non-Basque populations, and also that their genetic uniqueness is based on a lower amount of external influences compared with other Iberians and French populations. Our data suggest that the genetic heterogeneity and structure observed in the Basque region result from pre-Roman tribal structure related to geography and might be linked to the increased complexity of emerging societies during the Bronze Age. The rough overlap of the pre-Roman tribe location and the current dialect limits support the notion that the environmental diversity in the region has played a recurrent role in cultural differentiation and ethnogenesis at different time periods. PMID:22411853

Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Harmant, Christine; Platt, Daniel E; Haak, Wolfgang; Manry, Jeremy; Ramos-Luis, Eva; Soria-Hernanz, David F; Bauduer, Frédéric; Salaberria, Jasone; Oyharçabal, Bernard; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Comas, David

2012-09-01

35

Novel genetic markers improve measures of atrial fibrillation risk prediction  

PubMed Central

Aims Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with adverse outcome. Whether recently discovered genetic risk markers improve AF risk prediction is unknown. Methods and results We derived and validated a novel AF risk prediction model from 32 possible predictors in the Women's Health Study (WHS), a cohort of 20 822 women without cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline followed prospectively for incident AF (median: 14.5 years). We then created a genetic risk score (GRS) comprised of 12 risk alleles in nine loci and assessed model performance in the validation cohort with and without the GRS. The newly derived WHS AF risk algorithm included terms for age, weight, height, systolic blood pressure, alcohol use, and smoking (current and past). In the validation cohort, this model was well calibrated with good discrimination [C-index (95% CI) = 0.718 (0.684–0.753)] and improved all reclassification indices when compared with age alone. The addition of the genetic score to the WHS AF risk algorithm model improved the C-index [0.741 (0.709–0.774); P = 0.001], the category-less net reclassification [0.490 (0.301–0.670); P < 0.0001], and the integrated discrimination improvement [0.00526 (0.0033–0.0076); P < 0.0001]. However, there was no improvement in net reclassification into 10-year risk categories of <1, 1–5, and 5+% [0.041 (?0.044–0.12); P = 0.33]. Conclusion Among women without CVD, a simple risk prediction model utilizing readily available risk markers identified women at higher risk for AF. The addition of genetic information resulted in modest improvements in predictive accuracy that did not translate into improved reclassification into discrete AF risk categories. PMID:23444395

Everett, Brendan M.; Cook, Nancy R.; Conen, David; Chasman, Daniel I.; Ridker, Paul M; Albert, Christine M.

2013-01-01

36

Texas Adapted Genetic Strategies for Beef Cattle--11: Marker Assisted Selection for Beef Improvement  

E-print Network

This publication is Number 11 in the series "Texas Adapted Genetic Strategies for Beef Cattle. Bits of DNA called markers can be useful in determining possible specific performance of a particular trait; these markers are typically located near...

Paschal, Joseph C.

2005-07-15

37

[Mitochondria DNA markers and genetic demographic processes in neolithic Europe].  

PubMed

Distribution patterns of mitochondrial DNA markers, BamHI-2/AvaII-5(3), BamHI-3/MspI-4, and BamHI-1/AvaII-5(3), and mitotypes with the control region corresponding to the Cambridge reference sequence in European and Middle Eastern populations are discussed with respect to the history of the European populations in the Neolith. It is suggested that distribution of mtDNA markers is associated with the Neolithic invasion of the Caucasoid populations from the Middle East to Europe in accordance with the "wave-of-advance" hypothesis of Ammerman and Cavalli-Sforza. However, genetic differences between regional European population groups indicate a more pronounced demic diffusion in the southeast of Europe, better correlated with the hypothesis of C. Renfrew, while in the northeast the agriculture and the Indo-European languages could have been adopted by the ancient Caucasoid populations without any considerable genetic admixture with at least the women from the Neolithic migration wave from the Middle East. PMID:9749344

Maliarchuk, B A

1998-07-01

38

Association of susceptible genetic markers and autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disorder of unknown aetiology resulting in inflammation of the synovium, cartilage and bone. The disease has a heterogeneous character, consisting of clinical subsets of anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive and APCA-negative disease. Although, the pathogenesis of RA is incompletely understood, genetic factors play a vital role in susceptibility to RA as the heritability of RA is between 50 and 60%, with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) locus accounting for at least 30% of overall genetic risk. Non-HLA genes, i.e. tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) within the MHC (major histocompatibility complex) have also been investigated for association with RA. Although, some contradictory results have originated from several studies on TNF-? gene, the data published so far indicate the possible existence of TNF-? gene promoter variants that act as markers for disease severity and response to treatment in RA. The correlation of HLA and non-HLA genes within MHC region is apparently interpreted. A considerable number of confirmed associations with RA and other autoimmune disease susceptibility loci including peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PADI4), protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT4), cluster of differentiation 244 (CD244) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4), located outside the MHC have been reported recently. In this review, we aim to give an update on recent progress in RA genetics, the importance of the combination of HLA-DRB1 alleles, non-HLA gene polymorphism, its detection and autoantibodies as susceptibility markers for early RA disease. PMID:25189266

Mohan, Vasanth Konda; Ganesan, Nalini; Gopalakrishnan, Rajasekhar

2014-08-01

39

Genetic characterization of Barbari goats using microsatellite markers  

PubMed Central

Genetic variation in Barbari goats, a highly prolific breed distributed widely in the northern part of India, known for better milk and meat quality, was studied as a part of genetic characterization and conservation. The genomic DNA from 50 unrelated Barbari goats were amplified via PCR with a panel of 21 microsatellite markers, and resolved through 6 per cent denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by silver staining. The number of alleles ranged from 4 to 11, with allele sizes ranging from 88 to 220 bp. The distribution of allele frequencies was between 0.0104 and 0.5208. Polymorphism information content varied from 0.5563 to 0.8348. The population was not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for all except two microsatellite loci (ILSTS044 and ILSTS060). The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.8478 to 1.0000 while the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.6208 to 0.8509. Based on the results of the present study, there is a good scope for exploiting the genetic variability in the Barbari goats for further improvement of performance. PMID:19255527

Ramamoorthi, J.; Thilagam, K.; Karthickeyan, S. M. K.

2009-01-01

40

Molecular Markers Show How Pollen and Seed Dispersal Affect Population Genetic  

E-print Network

485 Molecular Markers Show How Pollen and Seed Dispersal Affect Population Genetic Structure of fragmentation and decreased population sizes is reduced genetic diversity as populations become increasingly. Earlier studies indicated biochemical differentiation of central coast populations from those of Northern

Standiford, Richard B.

41

How many marker loci are necessary? Analysis of dominant marker data sets using two popular population genetic algorithms  

PubMed Central

The number of marker loci required to answer a given research question satisfactorily is especially important for dominant markers since they have a lower information content than co-dominant marker systems. In this study, we used simulated dominant marker data sets to determine the number of dominant marker loci needed to obtain satisfactory results from two popular population genetic analyses: STRUCTURE and AMOVA (analysis of molecular variance). Factors such as migration, level of population differentiation, and unequal sampling were varied in the data sets to mirror a range of realistic research scenarios. AMOVA performed well under all scenarios with a modest quantity of markers while STRUCTURE required a greater number, especially when populations were closely related. The popular ?K method of determining the number of genetically distinct groups worked well when sampling was balanced, but underestimated the true number of groups with unbalanced sampling. These results provide a window through which to interpret previous work with dominant markers and we provide a protocol for determining the number of markers needed for future dominant marker studies. PMID:24223282

Nelson, Michael F; Anderson, Neil O

2013-01-01

42

Complete Nucleotide Sequence of a Citrobacter freundii Plasmid Carrying KPC-2 in a Unique Genetic Environment.  

PubMed

The complete and annotated nucleotide sequence of a 54,036-bp plasmid harboring a blaKPC-2 gene that is clonally present in Citrobacter isolates from different species is presented. The plasmid belongs to incompatibility group N (IncN) and harbors the class A carbapenemase KPC-2 in a unique genetic environment. PMID:25395635

Yao, Yancheng; Imirzalioglu, Can; Hain, Torsten; Kaase, Martin; Gatermann, Soeren; Exner, Martin; Mielke, Martin; Hauri, Anja; Dragneva, Yolanta; Bill, Rita; Wendt, Constanze; Wirtz, Angela; Domann, Eugen; Chakraborty, Trinad

2014-01-01

43

Complete Nucleotide Sequence of a Citrobacter freundii Plasmid Carrying KPC-2 in a Unique Genetic Environment  

PubMed Central

The complete and annotated nucleotide sequence of a 54,036-bp plasmid harboring a blaKPC-2 gene that is clonally present in Citrobacter isolates from different species is presented. The plasmid belongs to incompatibility group N (IncN) and harbors the class A carbapenemase KPC-2 in a unique genetic environment. PMID:25395635

Yao, Yancheng; Imirzalioglu, Can; Hain, Torsten; Kaase, Martin; Gatermann, Soeren; Exner, Martin; Mielke, Martin; Hauri, Anja; Dragneva, Yolanta; Bill, Rita; Wendt, Constanze; Wirtz, Angela; Chakraborty, Trinad

2014-01-01

44

PATTERNS OF GENETIC ARCHITECTURE FOR LIFE-HISTORY TRAITS AND MOLECULAR MARKERS IN A SUBDIVIDED SPECIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the utility and limitations of molecular markers for predicting the evolutionary potential of natural populations is important for both evolutionary and conservation genetics. To address this issue, the distribution of genetic variation for quantitative traits and molecular markers is estimated within and among 14 permanent lake populations of Daphnia pulicaria representing two regional groups from Oregon. Estimates of population

Kendall K. Morgan; Justin Hicks; Ken Spitze; Leigh Latta; Michael E. Pfrender; Casse S. Weaver; Marco Ottone; Michael Lynch

2001-01-01

45

Inferring Species Trees Directly from Biallelic Genetic Markers: Bypassing Gene Trees in a Full Coalescent Analysis  

E-print Network

trees possible for each genetic marker. Here we describe a polynomial-time algorithm that computesInferring Species Trees Directly from Biallelic Genetic Markers: Bypassing Gene Trees in a Full of Biostatistics, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University *Corresponding author: E-mail: david

Rosenberg, Noah

46

Am. J. Hum. Genet. 65:220228, 1999 Use of Unlinked Genetic Markers to Detect Population Stratification in  

E-print Network

Am. J. Hum. Genet. 65:220­228, 1999 220 Use of Unlinked Genetic Markers to Detect Population to vary among segments of the population, as the result of genetic drift or founder effects (Slatkin 1991 Summary We examine the issue of population stratification in as- sociation-mapping studies. In case

Rosenberg, Noah

47

A genetic linkage map of crested wheatgrass based on AFLP and RAPD markers.  

PubMed

Using a population of 105 interspecific F(2) hybrids derived from a cross between Agropyron mongolicum Keng and Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. 'Fairway' as a mapping population, a genetic linkage map of crested wheatgrass was constructed based on AFLP and RAPD molecular markers. A total of 175 markers, including 152 AFLP and 23 RAPD markers, were ordered in seven linkage groups. The map distance was 416 cM, with a mean distance of 2.47 cM between markers. The number of markers ranged from 13 to 46 in each linkage group and the length of groups ranged from 18 to 104 cM. The research found that 30 out of 175 molecular markers showed segregation distortion, accounting for 17% of all markers. This is the first genetic linkage map of crested wheatgrass. This map will facilitate gene localization, cloning, and molecular marker-assisted selection in the future. PMID:22462407

Yu, Xiaoxia; Li, Xiaolei; Ma, Yanhong; Yu, Zhuo; Li, Zaozhe

2012-03-30

48

Associations of genetic markers in cattle receiving differing implant protocols.  

PubMed

The potential interaction of growth-promoting implants and genetic markers previously reported to be associated with growth, carcass traits, and tenderness was evaluated. Two implant protocols were applied to subsets of steers (n = 383) and heifers (n = 65) that were also genotyped for 47 SNP reported to be associated with variation in growth, fat thickness, LM area, marbling, or tenderness. The "mild" protocol consisted of a single terminal implant [16 mg estradiol benzoate (EB), 80 mg trenbalone acetate (TBA) or 8 mg EB, 80 mg TBA given to steers and heifers, respectively]. The "aggressive" protocol consisted of both a growing implant (8 mg EB, 40 mg TBA) for the lightest half of the animals on the aggressive protocol and 2 successive implants (28 mg EB, 200 mg TBA) given to all animals assigned to the aggressive treatment. Implant protocol had measurable impact on BW and ADG (P < 0.05), with the aggressive protocol increasing these traits before the terminal implant (relative to the mild protocol), whereas the mild protocol increased ADG after the terminal implant so that the final BW and ADG over the experimental period were similar between protocols. Animals on the aggressive protocol had significantly increased (P < 0.05) LM area (1.9 cm(2)), slice shear force (1.4 kg), and intact desmin (0.05 units), but decreased (P < 0.05) marbling score (49 units) and adjusted fat thickness (0.1 cm), and yield grade (0.15 units). Among both treatments, 8 of 9 growth-related SNP were associated with BW or ADG, and 6 of 17 tenderness-related SNP were associated with slice shear force or intact desmin. Favorable growth alleles generally were associated with increased carcass yield traits but decreased tenderness. Similarly, favorable tenderness genotypes for some markers were associated with decreased BW and ADG. Some interactions of implant protocol and genotype were noted, with some growth SNP alleles increasing the effect of the aggressive protocol. In contrast, putative beneficial effects of favorable tenderness SNP alleles were mitigated by the effects of aggressive implant. These type of antagonisms of management variables and genotypes must be accounted for in marker assisted selection (MAS) programs, and our results suggest that MAS could be used to manage, but likely will not eliminate negative impact of implants on quality. PMID:22767554

King, D A; Shackelford, S D; McDaneld, T G; Kuehn, L A; Kemp, C M; Smith, T P L; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M

2012-07-01

49

DRAFT DO NOT CITE OR DISTRIBUTE -INITIAL COMPILATION OF INFORMATION PRESENTED TO DATE TO IDENTIFY INFORMATION GAPS Acoustic Genetic Markers (PBT) Genetic Markers (GSI) Pit Tags Coded Wire tags  

E-print Network

INFORMATION GAPS Acoustic Genetic Markers (PBT) Genetic Markers (GSI) Pit Tags Coded Wire tags 3a What fishDRAFT DO NOT CITE OR DISTRIBUTE - INITIAL COMPILATION OF INFORMATION PRESENTED TO DATE TO IDENTIFY and age. Genetic markers can be applied to any species of fish to allow for individual or stock

50

Detection of common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) in Lentil (Lens culinaris L.) using unique chemical fingerprint markers.  

PubMed

Detection of adulteration of split red lentil (Lens culinaris L.) seeds with low level addition of split common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) is hampered by a lack of reliable detection methods. An analytical method was developed using high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) based on two unique chemical markers found in common vetch: ß-cyanoalanine (BCA) and ?-glutamyl-ß-cyanoalanine (GCA). These two markers were present in samples of common vetch seed grown in Canada and Serbia. Authentic lentil samples grown in Canada, Australia, USA, Turkey, Syria, and Morocco had no detectable levels of these chemical markers. Commercial lentil samples for export from lentil processing plants in Saskatchewan, Canada, also had no detectable levels of GCA and BCA. The presence of vetch in intentionally adulterated lentil samples could be determined via chemical markers with a detection limit of 5% (w/w). The proposed method is a simple sample extraction and rapid HPLC analysis that could be widely used to detect intentional adulteration of lentils with common vetch. PMID:22980791

Thavarajah, Pushparajah; Thavarajah, Dil; Premakumara, G A S; Vandenberg, Albert

2012-12-15

51

The identification of a genetically unique piroplasma in North American river otters (Lontra canadensis).  

PubMed

During a routine health check of a wild-caught North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) small piroplasms were noted within erythrocytes. Analyses of the 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequences determined that this was a genetically unique organism most closely related to Babesia microti-like parasites found in other small carnivores. Subsequently 39 wild-trapped North American river otters from North Carolina were tested for the presence of piroplasma deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) via polymerase chain reaction and piroplasma DNA was detected in 82% (32/39) of these samples. Sequencing of partial 18S rRNA genes from selected cases determined that they were identical to the sentinel case. This report documents the existence of a genetically unique piroplasma in North American river otters and indicates that the prevalence of piroplasma in North Carolina otters is quite high. The pathogenic potential of this organism for otters or other species remains unknown. PMID:17214914

Birkenheuer, A J; Harms, C A; Neel, J; Marr, H S; Tucker, M D; Acton, A E; Tuttle, A D; Stoskopf, M K

2007-05-01

52

Kazusa Marker DataBase: a database for genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in plants  

PubMed Central

In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10 plant species have been targeted: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus japonicus, soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). In addition, the number of plant species registered in this database will be increased as our research progresses. The Kazusa Marker DataBase will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in crops.

Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Hideki

2014-01-01

53

Kazusa Marker DataBase: a database for genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in plants.  

PubMed

In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10 plant species have been targeted: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus japonicus, soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). In addition, the number of plant species registered in this database will be increased as our research progresses. The Kazusa Marker DataBase will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in crops. PMID:25320561

Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Hideki

2014-09-01

54

On the informativeness of dominant and co-dominant genetic markers for Bayesian supervised clustering  

E-print Network

We study the accuracy of Bayesian supervised method used to cluster individuals into genetically homogeneous groups on the basis of dominant or codominant molecular markers. We provide a formula relating an error criterion the number of loci used and the number of clusters. This formula is exact and holds for arbitrary number of clusters and markers. Our work suggests that dominant markers studies can achieve an accuracy similar to that of codominant markers studies if the number of markers used in the former is about 1.7 times larger than in the latter.

Guillot, Gilles; 10.2174/1876527001103010007

2011-01-01

55

Genetic diversity in apricot cultivars based on AFLP markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of cultivars used as genitors in apricot breeding programs aimed at introducing sharka resistance were examined by AFLP\\u000a molecular marker analysis. The markers obtained indicated that apricot cultivars resistant to sharka were related to the European\\u000a cultivars, but they potentially share a common ancestor donor of sharka outside of the European group. Segregation of AFLP\\u000a and RAPD markers

M. A. Hurtado; A. Westman; E. Beck; G. A. Abbott; G. Llácer; M. L. Badenes

2002-01-01

56

[Progress on biosafety assessment of marker genes in genetically modified foods].  

PubMed

Marker genes are useful in facilitating the detection of genetically modified organisms(GMO). These genes play an important role during the early identification stage of GMO development, but they exist in the mature genetically modified crops. So the safety assessment of these genes could not be neglected. In this paper, all the study on the biosafety assessment of marker genes were reviewed, their possible hazards and risks were appraised, and the marker genes proved safe were list too. GMO Labeling the is one important regulations for the development of genetically modified foods in the market. The accurate detecting techniques for GMO are the basis for setting up labeling regulation. In addition, some methods used to remove marker genes in genetically modified foods were introduced in the paper, which can eliminate their biosafety concern thoroughly. PMID:12914289

Yang, Lichen; Yang, Xiaoguang

2003-05-01

57

Generation of a genetically encoded marker of rod photoreceptor outer segment growth and renewal  

E-print Network

Generation of a genetically encoded marker of rod photoreceptor outer segment growth and renewal are still largely unknown. Unlike typical cilia, the outer segment is continuously regenerated or renewed

58

Comparative analysis of genetic diversity in sacred lotus ( Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) using AFLP and SSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) is an aquatic plant of economic and ornamental importance in China. In this study, we developed twenty novel sacred\\u000a lotus SSR markers, and used AFLP and SSR markers to investigate the genetic diversity and genetic relationships among 58 accessions\\u000a of N.\\u000a nucifera including 15 seed lotus, 12 rhizome lotus, 24 flower lotus and 7

Jihong HuLei; Lei Pan; Honggao Liu; Shuzhen Wang; Zhihua Wu; Weidong Ke; Yi Ding

59

A genetic map of Asparagus officinalis based on integrated RFLP, RAPD and AFLP molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated genetic map of the dioecious species Asparagus officinalis L. has been constructed on the basis of RFLP, RAPD, AFLP and isoenzyme markers. The segregation analysis of the polymorphic\\u000a markers was carried out on the progeny of five different crosses between male and female doubled-haploid clones generated\\u000a by anther culture. A total of 274 markers have been organized to

A. Spada; E. Caporali; G. Marziani; P. Portaluppi; F. M. Restivo; F. Tassi; A. Falavigna

1998-01-01

60

The genetic structure of tetraploid Avena: a comparison of isozyme and RAPD markers.  

PubMed

Isozymes were the first widely used molecular markers in plant population analysis. They yielded valuable information on the amount and the structure of genetic variability. DNA technology has provided new types of markers based on DNA sequence, which make it possible to study polymorphisms in a much greater proportion of the genome. This is the reason why the use of isozymes is less popular nowadays. This effect would be justified if all markers provided the same type of information on polymorphism and genetic relationships among populations; otherwise, it would be necessary to use different markers to obtain the complete picture of the genetic structure of populations and species. In this study, we compared data of isozyme and RAPD markers in the populations of two tetraploid species of wild oats: Avena barbata populations collected in Argentina, and Avena murphyi populations collected in Spain and Morocco. The samples were evaluated for 9 isozymatic systems and 10 primers. The structure of genetic variability was studied using Nei's method, and the relationships between populations were estimated using Hedrick and Jaccard's similarities for isozymes and RAPDs, respectively. As expected, RAPDs were more polymorphic than isozymes, but the information obtained from both markers was weakly correlated. The various reasons for this observation are discussed, but our conclusion is that in order to study the structure of genetic variability, several types of markers should be used. PMID:12378251

Benchacho, Mohammed; Guma, Rosana; Pérez De La Vega, Marcelino; García, Pedro

2002-01-01

61

Assessing genetic diversity of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm using microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of 24 wheat microsatellite markers, representing at least one marker from each chromosome, was used for the assessment of genetic diversity in 998 accessions of hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) which originated from 68 countries of five continents. A total of 470 alleles were detected with an average allele number of 18.1 per locus. The highest number

X. Q. Huang; A. Börner; M. S. Röder; M. W. Ganal

2002-01-01

62

Genetic diversity in apricot revealed by AFLP markers: species and cultivar comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic diversity of apricot (Prunus armeniaca; 2n = 16) was studied using AFLP markers. Forty seven apricot cultivars were selected from the following geographic regions: Europe, North America, North Africa, Turkey, Iran and China. Five EcoRI-MseI AFLP primer combinations revealed 416 legible bands, of which 379 were polymorphic markers. A similarity matrix was prepared using the simple matching coefficient

L. S. Hagen; B. Khadari; P. Lambert; J.-M. Audergon

2002-01-01

63

A review on SNP and other types of molecular markers and their use in animal genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last ten years, the use of molecular markers, revealing polymorphism at the DNA level, has been playing an increasing part in animal genetics studies. Amongst others, the microsatellite DNA marker has been the most widely used, due to its easy use by simple PCR, followed by a denaturing gel electrophoresis for allele size determination, and to the high

Alain Vignal; Denis Milan; Magali SanCristobal; André Eggen

2002-01-01

64

Cystic Fibrosis Locus Defined by a Genetically Linked Polymorphic DNA Marker  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polymorphic DNA marker has been found genetically linked, in a set of 39 human families, to an autosomal recessive gene that causes cystic fibrosis (CF), a disease affecting one in 2000 Caucasian children. The DNA marker (called D0CRI-917) is also linked to the PON locus, which by independent evidence is linked to the CF locus. The best estimates of

Lap-Chee Tsui; Manuel Buchwald; David Barker; Jeffrey C. Braman; Robert Knowlton; James W. Schumm; Hans Eiberg; Jan Mohr; Dara Kennedy; Natasa Plavsic; Martha Zsiga; Danuta Markiewicz; Gita Akots; Valerie Brown; Cynthia Helms; Thomas Gravius; Carol Parker; Kenneth Rediker; Helen Donis-Keller

1985-01-01

65

Genetic diversity of androdioecious Osmanthus fragrans (Oleaceae) cultivars using microsatellite markers1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: For cultivar classification, identification, and genetic improvement, microsatellite markers were developed to analyze the genetic diversity of androdioecious Osmanthus fragrans cultivars. • Methods and Results: Fifteen microsatellite markers were developed from sequences downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information, which included two with null alleles. These primers were screened on 62 typical androdioecious O. fragrans cultivars belonging to four groups (Asiaticus, Albus, Luteus, and Aurantiacus). The number of alleles ranged from two to six, with a mean of 3.7 per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.1000 to 0.9091 and from 0.1287 to 0.9167, respectively. Results from structure analyses indicated that Asiaticus and Albus were genetically mixed, and Luteus and Aurantiacus were partially genetically differentiated. • Conclusions: These markers will be useful for genetic study of androdioecious O. fragrans cultivars and facilitate cultivar classification, particularly for the cultivar groups Luteus and Aurantiacus.

Duan, Yifan; Wang, Xianrong; Xiang, Qibai; Liang, Lili; Li, Xuexia; Liu, Yulian; Li, Meng

2013-01-01

66

Decay of genetic markers for fecal bacterial indicators and pathogens in sand from Lake Superior.  

PubMed

Beach sands impact water quality and pathogen loads, however, the comparative decay of the fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli, and pathogens in freshwater sand have not been examined. In this study, freshwater sand microcosms were inoculated with sewage and pure cultures of bacterial pathogens to compare relative decay rates. The abundance of culturable Enterococcus spp. and E. coli, genetic markers for Enterococcus spp. (Entero1), total Bacteroides (AllBac), and human-specific Bacteroides (HF183), and genetic markers for the pathogens Campylobacter jejuni, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Shigella flexneri were monitored over the course of two weeks using conventional culture methods and quantitative PCR (qPCR). The effect of moisture on the persistence of culturable FIB and all genetic markers was also determined. In addition, propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment was used to examine differences in the persistence of total genetic markers and those from live cells. Decay rates were statistically compared using Tukey's test. Moisture had a significant (p ? 0.05) effect on the decay rates of culturable indicator bacteria, total AllBac markers, and genetic markers for FIB, Salmonella, and MRSA from live cells. At 14% sand moisture, the decay rate of total markers was slower than that of live cells for all qPCR assays, but at 28% moisture, there was no difference in the decay rates of total and live markers for any assay. AllBac and MRSA markers increased in sand at 28% moisture, probably indicating cellular growth. Overall, culturable FIB and HF183 had decay rates that were most comparable to the bacterial pathogen markers examined in this study, whereas Entero1 and AllBac rarely exhibited decay rates similar to the bacterial pathogens in this study. The choice of FIB for assessment of fecal contamination in freshwater sand should take into account the pathogen of concern and sand moisture conditions. PMID:24793108

Eichmiller, Jessica J; Borchert, Andrew J; Sadowsky, Michael J; Hicks, Randall E

2014-08-01

67

An annotated genetic map of loblolly pine based on microsatellite and cDNA markers  

PubMed Central

Background Previous loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) genetic linkage maps have been based on a variety of DNA polymorphisms, such as AFLPs, RAPDs, RFLPs, and ESTPs, but only a few SSRs (simple sequence repeats), also known as simple tandem repeats or microsatellites, have been mapped in P. taeda. The objective of this study was to integrate a large set of SSR markers from a variety of sources and published cDNA markers into a composite P. taeda genetic map constructed from two reference mapping pedigrees. A dense genetic map that incorporates SSR loci will benefit complete pine genome sequencing, pine population genetics studies, and pine breeding programs. Careful marker annotation using a variety of references further enhances the utility of the integrated SSR map. Results The updated P. taeda genetic map, with an estimated genome coverage of 1,515 cM(Kosambi) across 12 linkage groups, incorporated 170 new SSR markers and 290 previously reported SSR, RFLP, and ESTP markers. The average marker interval was 3.1 cM. Of 233 mapped SSR loci, 84 were from cDNA-derived sequences (EST-SSRs) and 149 were from non-transcribed genomic sequences (genomic-SSRs). Of all 311 mapped cDNA-derived markers, 77% were associated with NCBI Pta UniGene clusters, 67% with RefSeq proteins, and 62% with functional Gene Ontology (GO) terms. Duplicate (i.e., redundant accessory) and paralogous markers were tentatively identified by evaluating marker sequences by their UniGene cluster IDs, clone IDs, and relative map positions. The average gene diversity, He, among polymorphic SSR loci, including those that were not mapped, was 0.43 for 94 EST-SSRs and 0.72 for 83 genomic-SSRs. The genetic map can be viewed and queried at http://www.conifergdb.org/pinemap. Conclusions Many polymorphic and genetically mapped SSR markers are now available for use in P. taeda population genetics, studies of adaptive traits, and various germplasm management applications. Annotating mapped genes with UniGene clusters and GO terms allowed assessment of redundant and paralogous EST markers and further improved the quality and utility of the genetic map for P. taeda. PMID:21269494

2011-01-01

68

Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Marker-Based Genetic Diversity in Tamarind (Tamarindus indica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tamarindus indica, commonly called tamarind, is a medium-sized evergreen tree that gives a high yield. The fruit is commonly used as a spice. Despite its commercial importance in the international market, it has been little explored. The genetic diversity and genetic relatedness of 36 tamarind genotypes were studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Twelve primer pairs were used

Ali Qaid Ahmed Yahya Algabal; Narayanaswamy Papanna; Luke Simon

2011-01-01

69

Progress on biosafety assessment of marker genes in genetically modif ied foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marker genes are useful in facilitating the detection of genetically modified organisms( GMO) . These genes play an important role during the early identification stage of GMO development , but they exist in the mature genetically modified crops. So the safety assessment of these genes could not be neglected. In this paper , all the study on the biosafety assessment

Yang Lichen; Yang Xiaoguang

2004-01-01

70

Genetic Diversity and Relationships of Wheat Landraces from Oman Investigated with SSR Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about genetic diversity and geographic origin of wheat landraces from Oman, an ancient area of wheat cultivation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the genetic relationships and levels of diversity of six wheat landraces collected in Oman with a set of 30 evenly distributed SSR markers. The total gene diversity, (HT), conserved in the three

P. Zhang; S. Dreisigacker; A. Buerkert; S. Alkhanjari; A. E. Melchinger; M. L. Warburton

2006-01-01

71

PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES NOTE 989 The reported markers will be used for directly estimating  

E-print Network

PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES NOTE 989 The reported markers will be used for directly estimating Alcornocales' Natural Park. We will furthermore assess how the spatial genetic structure is affected for permissions and logistical support in the area. A. Valido helped with sampling, and K. Holbrook and J. Muñoz

Harvell, Catherine Drew

72

Genetic Stock Identification of Steelhead in the Columbia River Basin: An Evaluation of Different Molecular Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein genetic markers (allozymes) have been used during the last decade in a genetic stock identification (GSI) program by state and federal management agencies to monitor stocks of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Columbia River basin. In this paper we report new data for five microsatellite and three intron loci from 32 steelhead populations in the three upriver evolutionarily significant

Gary A. Winans; Melanie M. Paquin; Donald M. Van Doornik; Bruce M. Baker; Perry Thornton; Dan Rawding; Anne Marshall; Paul Moran; Steven Kalinowski

2004-01-01

73

Genetic diversity of bitter gourd ( Momordica charantia L.) genotypes revealed by RAPD markers and agronomic traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bitter gourd or bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is considered as minor cucurbitaceous vegetable in spite of having considerable nutritional and medicinal properties. Although some reports on genetic diversity based on morphological characterization are available, no work has been conducted to estimate genetic diversity using molecular markers in this crop. In the present study, 38 genotypes of M. charantia including

S. S. Dey; A. K. Singh; D. Chandel; T. K. Behera

2006-01-01

74

Genetic diversity and relationships of lotus ( Nelumbo) cultivars based on allozyme and ISSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity and genetic relationships of lotus (Nelumbo Adanson) cultivars were evaluated using allozyme and ISSR markers. The samples used covered 11 accessions of possible hybrids between Nelumbo nucifera and Nelumbo lutea and 92 accessions of N. nucifera including 69 flower lotus, 13 rhizome lotus, 5 seed lotus and 5 wild lotus. For allozyme studies, a total of 31 alleles

Hong-Li Tian; Jian-Hua Xue; Jun Wen; Grant Mitchell; Shi-Liang Zhou

2008-01-01

75

Influence of wastewater disinfection on densities of culturable fecal indicator bacteria and genetic markers.  

PubMed

The US Environmental Protection Agency has proposed the use of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) as a rapid alternative analytical method for monitoring recreational water quality at beaches. For qPCR to be considered for other Clean Water Act purposes, such as inclusion in discharge permits and use in Total Maximum Daily Load calculations, it is necessary to understand how qPCR detectable genetic markers are influenced by wastewater disinfection. This study investigated genetic markers for Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, Clostridium spp., Bacteroides, total Bacteroidales, as well as the human-associated Bacteroides markers, HF183 and HumM2, to determine which, if any, were influenced by disinfection (chlorination or ultraviolet light) of effluents from secondary wastewater treatment in different seasons. The effects of disinfection on culturable enterococci, E. coli, Bacteroides, and C. perfringens were also compared to their associated genetic markers. Disinfection of secondary treatment effluents significantly reduced culturable fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) but not genetic marker densities. No significant differences were observed in the responses of FIB culture and genetic marker densities to type of disinfection (chlorination vs UV) or season. Results of this study provide evidence that qPCR may not be suitable for monitoring efficacy of wastewater disinfection on the inactivation of bacterial pathogens. PMID:25252344

Chern, Eunice C; Brenner, Kristen; Wymer, Larry; Haugland, Richard A

2014-09-01

76

A Genetic Map of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) With Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, Isozyme, Disease Resistance and Morphological Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed linkage map of lettuce was constructed using 53 genetic markers including 4 1 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) loci, five downy mildew resistance genes, four isozyme loci and three morphological markers. The genetic markers were distributed into nine linkage groups and cover 404 cM which may be 25-30% of the lettuce genome. The majority (31 of 34) of

Benoit S. Landry; Rick V. Kesseli; Barry Farrara; Richard W. Michelmore

1987-01-01

77

A novel set of single-copy nuclear DNA markers for the genetic study of Salicaceae.  

PubMed

Species of Populus are widely distributed worldwide, playing a significant role in both ecology and economy. However, the lack of single-copy nuclear markers limits knowledge about the phylogeny and population genetics of this genus. In the present study, primer pairs of 15 single-copy nuclear markers were developed through bioinformatic methods based on complete genomic sequences of Populus trichocarpa and Salix arbutifolia. Twenty individuals of Populus davidiana Dode and Salix matsudana Koidz were used to evaluate the basic application of these markers with respect to marker length and diversity indices, respectively. The utility of single-copy nuclear markers is anticipated to facilitate further studies about the phylogeny, population genetics, and phylogeography of this genus, in addition to providing information about the evolutionary dynamics of Salicaceae. PMID:25062424

Du, S H; Wang, Z S; Zhang, J G

2014-01-01

78

Genetic Biodiversity of Italian Olives (Olea europaea) Germplasm Analyzed by SSR Markers  

PubMed Central

The olive is an important fruit species cultivated for oil and table olives in Italy and the Mediterranean basin. The conservation of cultivated plants in ex situ collections is essential for the optimal management and use of their genetic resources. The largest ex situ olive germplasm collection consists of approximately 500 Italian olive varieties and corresponding to 85% of the total Italian olive germplasm is maintained at the Consiglio per la Ricerca e sperimentazione per l'Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l'Olivicoltura e l'Industria Olearia (CRA-OLI), in Italy. In this work, eleven preselected nuclear microsatellite markers were used to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flows with the aim of assembling a core collection. The dendrogram obtained utilizing the unweighted pair group method highlights the presence of homonymy and synonymy in olive tree datasets analyzed in this study. 439 different unique genotype profiles were obtained with this combination of 11 loci nSSR, representing 89.8% of the varieties analyzed. The remaining 10.2% comprises different variety pairs in which both accessions are genetically indistinguishable. Clustering analysis performed using BAPS software detected seven groups in Italian olive germplasm and gene flows were determined among identified clusters. We proposed an Italian core collection of 23 olive varieties capturing all detected alleles at microsatellites. The information collected in this study regarding the CRA-OLI ex situ collection can be used for breeding programs, for germplasm conservation, and for optimizing a strategy for the management of olive gene pools. PMID:24723801

Vendramin, Giuseppe Giovanni; Chiappetta, Adriana

2014-01-01

79

Levels of genetic polymorphism: marker loci versus quantitative traits.  

PubMed Central

Species are the units used to measure ecological diversity and alleles are the units of genetic diversity. Genetic variation within and among species has been documented most extensively using allozyme electrophoresis. This reveals wide differences in genetic variability within, and genetic distances among, species, demonstrating that species are not equivalent units of diversity. The extent to which the pattern observed for allozymes can be used to infer patterns of genetic variation in quantitative traits depends on the forces generating and maintaining variability. Allozyme variation is probably not strictly neutral but, nevertheless, heterozygosity is expected to be influenced by population size and genetic distance will be affected by time since divergence. The same is true for quantitative traits influenced by many genes and under weak stabilizing selection. However, the limited data available suggest that allozyme variability is a poor predictor of genetic variation in quantitative traits within populations. It is a better predictor of general phenotypic divergence and of postzygotic isolation between populations or species, but is only weakly correlated with prezygotic isolation. Studies of grasshopper and planthopper mating signal variation and assortative mating illustrate how these characters evolve independently of general genetic and morphological variation. The role of such traits in prezygotic isolation, and hence speciation, means that they will contribute significantly to the diversity of levels of genetic variation within and among species. PMID:9533123

Butlin, R K; Tregenza, T

1998-01-01

80

Choosing the right molecular genetic markers for studying biodiversity: from molecular evolution to practical aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of molecular genetic markers (MGMs) has become widespread among evolutionary biologists, and the methods of analysis\\u000a of genetic data improve rapidly, yet an organized framework in which scientists can work is lacking. Elements of molecular\\u000a evolution are summarized to explain the origin of variation at the DNA level, its measures, and the relationships linking\\u000a genetic variability to the

Chenuil Anne

2006-01-01

81

Using genetic markers to orient the edges in quantitative trait networks: The NEO software  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Systems genetic studies have been used to identify genetic loci that affect transcript abundances and clinical traits such as body weight. The pairwise correlations between gene expression traits and\\/or clinical traits can be used to define undirected trait networks. Several authors have argued that genetic markers (e.g expression quantitative trait loci, eQTLs) can serve as causal anchors for orienting

Jason E Aten; Tova F Fuller; Aldons J Lusis; Steve Horvath

2008-01-01

82

A unique genetic code change in the mitochondrial genome of the parasitic nematode Radopholus similis  

PubMed Central

Background Mitochondria (mt) contain their own autonomously replicating DNA, constituted as a small circular genome encoding essential subunits of the respiratory chain. Mt DNA is characterized by a genetic code which differs from the standard one. Interestingly, the mt genome of nematodes share some peculiar features, such as small transfer RNAs, truncated ribosomal RNAs and - in the class of Chromadorean nematodes - unidirectional transcription. Findings We present the complete mt genomic sequence (16,791 bp) of the plant-parasitic nematode Radopholus similis (class Chromadorea). Although it has a gene content similar to most other nematodes, many idiosyncrasies characterize the extremely AT-rich mt genome of R. similis (85.4% AT). The secondary structure of the large (16S) rRNA is further reduced, the gene order is unique, the large non-coding region contains two large repeats, and most interestingly, the UAA codon is reassigned from translation termination to tyrosine. In addition, 7 out of 12 protein-coding genes lack a canonical stop codon and analysis of transcriptional data showed the absence of polyadenylation. Northern blot analysis confirmed that only one strand is transcribed and processed. Furthermore, using nucleotide content bias methods, regions for the origin of replication are suggested. Conclusion The extraordinary mt genome of R. similis with its unique genetic code appears to contain exceptional features correlated to DNA decoding. Therefore the genome may provide an incentive to further elucidate these barely understood processes in nematodes. This comprehension may eventually lead to parasitic nematode-specific control targets as healthy mitochondria are imperative for organism survival. In addition, the presented genome is an interesting exceptional event in genetic code evolution. PMID:19778425

Jacob, Joachim EM; Vanholme, Bartel; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Gheysen, Godelieve

2009-01-01

83

The origin of the Japanese race based on genetic markers of immunoglobulin G  

PubMed Central

This review addresses the distribution of genetic markers of immunoglobulin G (Gm) among 130 Mongoloid populations in the world. These markers allowed the populations to be clearly divided into 2 groups, the northern and southern groups. The northern group is characterized by high frequencies of 2 marker genes, ag and ab3st, and an extremely low frequency of the marker gene afb1b3; and the southern group, in contrast, is indicated by a remarkably high frequency of afb1b3 and low frequencies of ag and ab3st. Based on the geographical distribution of the markers and gene flow of Gm ag and ab3st (northern Mongoloid marker genes) from northeast Asia to the Japanese archipelago, the Japanese population belongs basically to the northern Mongoloid group and is thus suggested to have originated in northeast Asia, most likely in the Baikal area of Siberia. PMID:19212099

Matsumoto, Hideo

2009-01-01

84

Unique Regulatory Properties of Mesangial Cells Are Genetically Determined in the Rat  

PubMed Central

Mesangial cells are glomerular cells of stromal origin. During immune complex mediated crescentic glomerulonephritis (Crgn), infiltrating and proliferating pro-inflammatory macrophages lead to crescent formation. Here we have hypothesised that mesangial cells, given their mesenchymal stromal origin, show similar immunomodulatory properties as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), by regulating macrophage function associated with glomerular crescent formation. We show that rat mesangial cells suppress conA-stimulated splenocyte proliferation in vitro, as previously shown for MSCs. We then investigated mesangial cell-macrophage interaction by using mesangial cells isolated from nephrotoxic nephritis (NTN)-susceptible Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and NTN-resistant Lewis (LEW) rats. We first determined the mesangial cell transcriptome in WKY and LEW rats and showed that this is under marked genetic control. Supernatant transfer results show that WKY mesangial cells shift bone marrow derived macrophage (BMDM) phenotype to M1 or M2 according to the genetic background (WKY or LEW) of the BMDMs. Interestingly, these effects were different when compared to those of MSCs suggesting that mesangial cells can have unique immunomodulatory effects in the kidney. These results demonstrate the importance of the genetic background in the immunosuppressive effects of cells of stromal origin and specifically of mesangial cell-macrophage interactions in the pathophysiology of crescentic glomerulonephritis. PMID:25343449

Lai, Ping-Chin; Chiu, Ling-Yin; Srivastava, Prashant; Trento, Cristina; Dazzi, Francesco; Petretto, Enrico; Cook, H. Terence; Behmoaras, Jacques

2014-01-01

85

Genetic diversity of spineless Cereus jamacaru accessions using morphological and molecular markers.  

PubMed

This is the first study to examine the genetic diversity of mandacaru cactus (Cereus jamacaru P. DC.). Plants of spineless mandacaru are commonly found in gardens and parks of urban areas in northeastern Brazil. In addition to exploring their ornamental potential, morphological, and genetic characterization may contribute to the development of plant materials that can be used as a source of macromolecules of potential economic interest. The goal of this study was to estimate the genetic variability of spineless mandacaru accessions using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers, and to characterize their morphology. Ten samples of newly emitted shoots with differentiated areolas and ribs were collected from each accession from the Cactaceous Germplasm Collection of Embrapa Agroindústria Tropical, in Fortaleza, CE. Shoot shape and aspects of spine primordia (presence, location, grouping, and size of spines) were evaluated. The morphological analysis showed that the spineless mandacaru presented spine primordia. Twenty-six RAPD and 15 ISSR primers were polymorphic. A total of 262 markers were obtained, 129 of which were polymorphic. The average polymorphism of ISSR markers was higher than that of RAPD markers. The dendrograms for both analyses showed differentiation between accessions. Nevertheless, the molecular markers detected higher levels of diversity and a different pattern of diversity than those found using morphological markers. The molecular results revealed significant genetic variability both within and between groups. PMID:24222234

Oliveira, F I C; Bordallo, P N; Castro, A C R; Correia, D

2013-01-01

86

Detecting DNA polymorphism and genetic diversity in Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) germplasm: comparison of ISSR and DAMD marker.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity and interrelationships among 31 lentil genotypes were evaluated using 10 Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) and 10 directed amplification of minisatellite DNA region (DAMD) primers. A total of 43 and 48 polymorphic bands were amplified by ISSR and DAMD markers, respectively. Average polymorphism information content (PIC) for ISSR and DAMD markers were 0.37 and 0.41, respectively. All 31 lentil genotypes could be distinguished by ISSR markers into three groups and by DAMD markers into two groups. Various molecular markers show a different efficiency for evaluating DNA polymorphism in lentil and indicate that the patterns of variation are clearly influenced by the genetic marker used. Comparatively, the genetic diversity of examined lentil genotypes by two different marker techniques (ISSR and DAMD) was high and indicated that ISSR and DAMD are effective and promising marker systems for fingerprinting in lentil and give useful information on its genetic relationships. PMID:25320472

Seyedimoradi, Hiva; Talebi, Reza

2014-10-01

87

Genetic Diversity Revealed by Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers in a Worldwide Germplasm Collection of Durum Wheat  

PubMed Central

Evaluation of genetic diversity and genetic structure in crops has important implications for plant breeding programs and the conservation of genetic resources. Newly developed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are effective in detecting genetic diversity. In the present study, a worldwide durum wheat collection consisting of 150 accessions was used. Genetic diversity and genetic structure were investigated using 946 polymorphic SNP markers covering the whole genome of tetraploid wheat. Genetic structure was greatly impacted by multiple factors, such as environmental conditions, breeding methods reflected by release periods of varieties, and gene flows via human activities. A loss of genetic diversity was observed from landraces and old cultivars to the modern cultivars released during periods of the Early Green Revolution, but an increase in cultivars released during the Post Green Revolution. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of genetic diversity among the 10 mega ecogeographical regions indicated that South America, North America, and Europe possessed the richest genetic variability, while the Middle East showed moderate levels of genetic diversity. PMID:23538839

Ren, Jing; Sun, Daokun; Chen, Liang; You, Frank M.; Wang, Jirui; Peng, Yunliang; Nevo, Eviatar; Sun, Dongfa; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Peng, Junhua

2013-01-01

88

Molecular Markers and Cotton Genetic Improvement: Current Status and Future Prospects  

PubMed Central

Narrow genetic base and complex allotetraploid genome of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is stimulating efforts to avail required polymorphism for marker based breeding. The availability of draft genome sequence of G. raimondii and G. arboreum and next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies facilitated the development of high-throughput marker technologies in cotton. The concepts of genetic diversity, QTL mapping, and marker assisted selection (MAS) are evolving into more efficient concepts of linkage disequilibrium, association mapping, and genomic selection, respectively. The objective of the current review is to analyze the pace of evolution in the molecular marker technologies in cotton during the last ten years into the following four areas: (i) comparative analysis of low- and high-throughput marker technologies available in cotton, (ii) genetic diversity in the available wild and improved gene pools of cotton, (iii) identification of the genomic regions within cotton genome underlying economic traits, and (iv) marker based selection methodologies. Moreover, the applications of marker technologies to enhance the breeding efficiency in cotton are also summarized. Aforementioned genomic technologies and the integration of several other omics resources are expected to enhance the cotton productivity and meet the global fiber quantity and quality demands.

Malik, Waqas; Iqbal, Muhammad Zaffar; Ali Khan, Asif; Qayyum, Abdul; Ali Abid, Muhammad; Noor, Etrat; Qadir Ahmad, Muhammad; Hasan Abbasi, Ghulam

2014-01-01

89

Population Genetic Effects of Urban Habitat Fragmentation in the Perennial Herb Viola pubescens (Violaceae) using ISSR Markers  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Fragmentation of natural habitats can negatively impact plant populations by leading to reduced genetic variation and increased genetic distance as populations become geographically and genetically isolated from one another. To test whether such detrimental effects occur within an urban landscape, the genetic structure of six populations of the perennial herb Viola pubescens was characterized in the metropolitan area of Greater Cincinnati in southwestern Ohio, USA. Methods Using three inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers, 51 loci amplified across all urban populations. For reference, four previously examined agricultural populations in central/northern Ohio and a geographically distant population in Michigan were also included in the analysis. Key Results Urban populations retained high levels of genetic variation (percentage of polymorphic loci, Pp = 80·7 %) with similar genetic distances among populations and an absence of unique alleles. Geographic and genetic distances were correlated with one another, and all populations grouped according to region. Individuals from urban populations clustered together and away from individuals from agricultural populations and from the Michigan population in a principle coordinates analysis. Hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that most of the genetic variability was partitioned within populations (69·1 %) and among groups (22·2 %) of southwestern Ohio, central/northern Ohio and Michigan groups. Mean Fst was 0·308, indicating substantial population differentiation. Conclusions It is concluded that urban fragmentation does not appear to impede gene flow in V. pubescens in southwestern Ohio. These results are consistent with life history traits of this species and the possibility of high insect abundance in urban habitats due to diverse floral resources and nesting sites. Combined with the cleistogamous breeding system of this species, pollinator availability in the urban matrix may buffer populations against detrimental effects of habitat fragmentation, at least in larger forest fragments. Consequently, it may be inappropriate to generalize about genetic effects of fragmentation across landscapes or even across plant species with different pollination systems. PMID:17556381

Culley, Theresa M.; Sbita, Sarah J.; Wick, Anne

2007-01-01

90

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Genetic markers for ancestry are correlated with body  

E-print Network

Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2007 Abstract Summary Individual-specific percent for osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and obesity. Keywords Admixture mapping . Body composition . Genetic ancestry. Linkage analysis . Osteoporosis . Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) Osteoporos Int DOI 10.1007/s00198

Reich, David

91

Augmenting the Genetic Toolbox for Sulfolobus islandicus with a Stringent Positive Selectable Marker for Agmatine Prototrophy  

PubMed Central

Sulfolobus species have become the model organisms for studying the unique biology of the crenarchaeal division of the archaeal domain. In particular, Sulfolobus islandicus provides a powerful opportunity to explore natural variation via experimental functional genomics. To support these efforts, we further expanded genetic tools for S. islandicus by developing a stringent positive selection for agmatine prototrophs in strains in which the argD gene, encoding arginine decarboxylase, has been deleted. Strains with deletions in argD were shown to be auxotrophic for agmatine even in nutrient-rich medium, but growth could be restored by either supplementation of exogenous agmatine or reintroduction of a functional copy of the argD gene from S. solfataricus P2 into the ?argD host. Using this stringent selection, a robust targeted gene knockout system was established via an improved next generation of the MID (marker insertion and unmarked target gene deletion) method. Application of this novel system was validated by targeted knockout of the upsEF genes involved in UV-inducible cell aggregation formation. PMID:23835176

Cooper, Tara E.; Krause, David J.

2013-01-01

92

Retene Emission from Residential Solid Fuels in China and Evaluation of Retene as a Unique Marker for Soft Wood Combustion  

PubMed Central

Retene (1-methyl-7-isopropylphenanthrene) is often used as a marker for softwood combustion and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) source apportionment. The emission factors of retene (EFRET) from 11 crop residues, 27 firewood and 5 coals were measured using traditional rural Chinese stoves. Retene was measured in combustion emissions from all of the residential fuels tested and EFRET varied significantly among the fuels due to the differences in fuel properties and combustion conditions. EFRET for pine (0.34±0.08 mg/kg) and larch (0.29±0.22 mg/kg) were significantly higher than those of other wood types, including fir and cypress (0.081±0.058 mg/kg). However, EFRET for crop residues varied from 0.048±0.008 to 0.37±0.14 mg/kg and were not significantly lower than those for softwood (0.074±0.026 to 0.34±0.08 mg/kg). The EFRET for coal were very high and ranged from 2.2±1.5 (anthracite briquette) to 187±113 mg/kg (raw bituminous chunk). EFRET was positively correlated with EFs of co-emitted particulate matter (EFPM) and phenanthrene (EFPHE) for crop residue and coal, but not for wood. In addition, the ratios of EFPHE/EFRET and EFPM/EFRET for coals were much lower than those for crop residues and wood. These data suggest that retene is not a unique PAH marker for softwood combustion and that coal combustion, in particular, should be taken into account when retene is used for PAH source apportionment. PMID:22452486

Shen, Guofeng; Tao, Shu; Wei, Siye; Zhang, Yanyan; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Yang, Yifeng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xilong; Massey Simonich, Staci L.

2012-01-01

93

Genetic diversity and identification of cymbidium cultivars as measured by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA from thirty-six cymbidium cultivars was examined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the efficiency of\\u000a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers in identifying cultivars and determining levels of genetic variability.\\u000a A total of 132 RAPD markers, 78% of which were polymorphic, were produced from 15 10mer arbitrary primers. All the cultivars\\u000a were distinguishable when a number of primers

P. Obara-Okeyo; S. Kako

1998-01-01

94

A genetic linkage map of microsatellite, gene-specific and morphological markers in diploid Fragaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diploid Fragaria provide a potential model for genomic studies in the Rosaceae. To develop a genetic linkage map of diploid Fragaria, we scored 78 markers (68 microsatellites, one sequence-characterised amplified region, six gene-specific markers and three morphological traits) in an interspecific F 2 population of 94 plants generated from a cross of F.vesca f. semperflorens ×  F. nubicola. Co-segregation analysis arranged

D. J. Sargent; T. M. Davis; K. R. Tobutt; M. J. Wilkinson; N. H. Battey; D. W. Simpson

2004-01-01

95

Genetic and geographic variation of bulbous barley ( Hordeum bulbosum L.) assessed by RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic relationships among 21 barley accessions (17 of bulbous barley H. bulbosum L. and 4 of cultivated barley (H. vulgare L.) collected from different part of Turkey were investigated using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Eleven informative\\u000a primers amplified 111 markers of which 98 (89.8%) were polymorphic. A dendogram was constructed using the UPGMA method based\\u000a on the RAPD markers.

A. Okumus; F. Uzun

2007-01-01

96

Genetic diversity of Mycosphaerella fijiensis in Brazil analyzed using an ERIC-PCR marker.  

PubMed

The Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) marker was used to analyze the genetic variability of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causative agent of Black Sigatoka disease in banana plants. A total of 123 isolates were used, which were divided into populations based on their original hosts and collection sites in Brazil. A total of 9 loci were amplified, 77.8% of which were found to be polymorphic. The genetic diversity found in the population was 0.20. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) demonstrated that the highest level of genetic variation is within populations. Cluster analysis revealed three main groups in Brazil, with no correlation between geographic and genetic distance. PMID:25299083

Silva, G F; Paixão, R D V; Queiroz, C B; Santana, M F; Souza, A; Sousa, N R; Hanada, R E; Gasparotto, L

2014-01-01

97

Identification of genetic markers with synergistic survival effect in cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Cancers are complex diseases arising from accumulated genetic mutations that disrupt intracellular signaling networks. While several predisposing genetic mutations have been found, these individual mutations account only for a small fraction of cancer incidence and mortality. With large-scale measurement technologies, such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays, it is now possible to identify combinatorial effects that have significant impact on cancer patient survival. Results The identification of synergetic functioning SNPs on genome-scale is a computationally daunting task and requires advanced algorithms. We introduce a novel algorithm, Geninter, to identify SNPs that have synergetic effect on survival of cancer patients. Using a large breast cancer cohort we generate a simulator that allows assessing reliability and accuracy of Geninter and logrank test, which is a standard statistical method to integrate genetic and survival data. Conclusions Our results show that Geninter outperforms the logrank test and is able to identify SNP-pairs with synergetic impact on survival. PMID:24267921

2013-01-01

98

Diversity Array Technology Markers: Genetic Diversity Analyses and Linkage Map Construction in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)  

PubMed Central

We developed Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers for application in genetic studies of Brassica napus and other Brassica species with A or C genomes. Genomic representation from 107 diverse genotypes of B. napus L. var. oleifera (rapeseed, AACC genomes) and B. rapa (AA genome) was used to develop a DArT array comprising 11 520 clones generated using PstI/BanII and PstI/BstN1 complexity reduction methods. In total, 1547 polymorphic DArT markers of high technical quality were identified and used to assess molecular diversity among 89 accessions of B. napus, B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. carinata collected from different parts of the world. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses based on genetic distance matrices identified distinct populations clustering mainly according to their origin/pedigrees. DArT markers were also mapped in a new doubled haploid population comprising 131 lines from a cross between spring rapeseed lines ‘Lynx-037DH’ and ‘Monty-028DH’. Linkage groups were assigned on the basis of previously mapped simple sequence repeat (SSRs), intron polymorphism (IP), and gene-based markers. The map consisted of 437 DArT, 135 SSR, 6 IP, and 6 gene-based markers and spanned 2288 cM. Our results demonstrate that DArT markers are suitable for genetic diversity analysis and linkage map construction in rapeseed. PMID:22193366

Raman, Harsh; Raman, Rosy; Nelson, Matthew N.; Aslam, M.N.; Rajasekaran, Ravikesavan; Wratten, Neil; Cowling, Wallace A.; Kilian, A.; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Schondelmaier, Joerg

2012-01-01

99

Assessment of genetic diversity in Brassica juncea (Brassicaceae) genotypes using phenotypic differences and SSR markers.  

PubMed

Brassica mustard species represent one of the most important oilseed crops in India, nevertheless, their genetic diversity is barely known. A better understanding on this topic is essential for the proper utilization of genotypes in breeding programmes. We evaluated the genetic diversity among 44 Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) genotypes including varieties/purelines from different agro-climatic zones of India and few exotic genotypes (Australia, Poland and China). For this, we used A and B genome specific SSR markers and phenotypic data on 12 yield and yield contributing traits. Out of the 143 primers tested, 134 reported polymorphism and a total of 355 alleles were amplified. Dendrograms based on Jaccard's similarity coefficients and Manhattan dissimilarity coefficients were generated based on an average linkage algorithm (UPGMA) using marker data and phenotypic data. Genotypes were grouped into four clusters based on genetic distances. Both the clustering patterns based on Jaccard's similarity and Manhattan dissimilarity coefficients, independently, discriminated the genotypes effectively as per their pedigree and origin. PCoA revealed that, the grouping of genotypes based on SSR marker data is more convincing than phenotypic data, however, the correlation between phenotypic and genetic distance matrices was observed to be very low (r = 0.11). Hence, for diversity studies reliability on molecular markers is worth proving and SSR markers are the stronger tools than quantitative traits in discriminating B. juncea genotypes. PMID:24432543

Vinu, V; Singh, Naveen; Vasudev, Sujata; Yadava, Devendra Kumar; Kumar, Sushil; Naresh, Sugandh; Bhat, Sripad Ramachandra; Prabhu, Kumble Vinod

2013-12-01

100

A genetic linkage map of microsatellite, gene-specific and morphological markers in diploid Fragaria.  

PubMed

Diploid Fragaria provide a potential model for genomic studies in the Rosaceae. To develop a genetic linkage map of diploid Fragaria, we scored 78 markers (68 microsatellites, one sequence-characterised amplified region, six gene-specific markers and three morphological traits) in an interspecific F2 population of 94 plants generated from a cross of F.vesca f. semperflorens x F. nubicola. Co-segregation analysis arranged 76 markers into seven discrete linkage groups covering 448 cM, with linkage group sizes ranging from 100.3 cM to 22.9 cM. Marker coverage was generally good; however some clustering of markers was observed on six of the seven linkage groups. Segregation distortion was observed at a high proportion of loci (54%), which could reflect the interspecific nature of the progeny and, in some cases, the self-incompatibility of F. nubicola. Such distortion may also account for some of the marker clustering observed in the map. One of the morphological markers, pale-green leaf (pg) has not previously been mapped in Fragaria and was located to the mid-point of linkage group VI. The transferable nature of the markers used in this study means that the map will be ideal for use as a framework for additional marker incorporation aimed at enhancing and resolving map coverage of the diploid Fragaria genome. The map also provides a sound basis for linkage map transfer to the cultivated octoploid strawberry. PMID:15290052

Sargent, D J; Davis, T M; Tobutt, K R; Wilkinson, M J; Battey, N H; Simpson, D W

2004-11-01

101

Use of Genetic Markers to Verify the Distribution of Northern Leopard Frogs (Lithobates pipiens) and Southern Leopard Frogs (Lithobates  

E-print Network

Use of Genetic Markers to Verify the Distribution of Northern Leopard Frogs (Lithobates pipiens to address this question. KEY WORDS: Lithobates pipiens, Lithobates sphenocephalus, genetics, distribution, northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) and southern leopard frogs (L. sphenocepha- lus), have

Richter, Stephen C.

102

Methods of analysis for 2-dodecylcyclobutanone and studies to support its role as a unique marker of food irradiation.  

PubMed

Methods of analysis for 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS), liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection (LC-TOF-MS) and LC with tandem MS (MS/MS) detection have been developed and optimised for maximum sensitivity to allow very low irradiation doses to be detected. The LC-MS/MS method, following derivatisation with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, was found to be the most sensitive technique and was used to determine the amount of 2-DCB formed from the model compounds palmitic acid, glyceryl tripalmitate and 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoylglycerol irradiated over a range of doses by two different irradiation sources (gamma and electron beam). The model compounds were also treated with a number of non-irradiation based processing techniques including heating in the presence and absence of oxygen, light, and redox active metal salts, in a conventional oven, microwave oven and pressure cooker. No 2-DCB was detected in any of the processed non-irradiated model compounds, reaffirming the hypothesis that 2-DCB is a unique radiolytic product that can be used as a marker of irradiation in foodstuffs. PMID:24176347

Driffield, M; Speck, D; Lloyd, A S; Parmar, M; Crews, C; Castle, L; Thomas, C

2014-03-01

103

Genetic diversity of Cosmos species revealed by RAPD and ISSR markers.  

PubMed

The genus Cosmos is native of America and is constituted by 34 species; 28 of them are endemic of Mexico. The cosmos are used as a nematicide, antimalarial, and antioxidative agent. The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity among 7 cosmos species based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequences repeats (ISSR) markers. With RAPD markers, the obtained polymorphism was 91.7 % and the genetic diversity was 0.33, whereas these values were 65.6%, and 0.22 from ISSR markers, respectively, indicating the presence of high genetic diversity among the Cosmos species that were analyzed. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrograms that were obtained with both markers were notably similar, revealing 2 clusters and indicating a clear genetic differentiation among the Cosmos species that were assessed. The first cluster comprised the species Cosmos sulphureus, Cosmos pacificus, and Cosmos diversifolius, while the second cluster included the species Cosmos purpureus, Cosmos crithmifolius, Cosmos bipinnatus, and Cosmos parviflorus. Besides this, the Cosmos species were clustered according to their collection sites. The Mantel test corroborates the correlation between the genetic distance and the geographic altitude of each Cosmos species. The results suggest that it is necessary to preserve the Cosmos species in their natural habitat in addition to the germoplasm collection for ex situ conservation. PMID:24338421

Rodríguez-Bernal, A; Piña-Escutia, J L; Vázquez-García, L M; Arzate-Fernández, A M

2013-01-01

104

Microsatellite isolation and marker development in carrot - genomic distribution, linkage mapping, genetic diversity analysis and marker transferability across Apiaceae  

PubMed Central

Background The Apiaceae family includes several vegetable and spice crop species among which carrot is the most economically important member, with ~21 million tons produced yearly worldwide. Despite its importance, molecular resources in this species are relatively underdeveloped. The availability of informative, polymorphic, and robust PCR-based markers, such as microsatellites (or SSRs), will facilitate genetics and breeding of carrot and other Apiaceae, including integration of linkage maps, tagging of phenotypic traits and assisting positional gene cloning. Thus, with the purpose of isolating carrot microsatellites, two different strategies were used; a hybridization-based library enrichment for SSRs, and bioinformatic mining of SSRs in BAC-end sequence and EST sequence databases. This work reports on the development of 300 carrot SSR markers and their characterization at various levels. Results Evaluation of microsatellites isolated from both DNA sources in subsets of 7 carrot F2 mapping populations revealed that SSRs from the hybridization-based method were longer, had more repeat units and were more polymorphic than SSRs isolated by sequence search. Overall, 196 SSRs (65.1%) were polymorphic in at least one mapping population, and the percentage of polymophic SSRs across F2 populations ranged from 17.8 to 24.7. Polymorphic markers in one family were evaluated in the entire F2, allowing the genetic mapping of 55 SSRs (38 codominant) onto the carrot reference map. The SSR loci were distributed throughout all 9 carrot linkage groups (LGs), with 2 to 9 SSRs/LG. In addition, SSR evaluations in carrot-related taxa indicated that a significant fraction of the carrot SSRs transfer successfully across Apiaceae, with heterologous amplification success rate decreasing with the target-species evolutionary distance from carrot. SSR diversity evaluated in a collection of 65 D. carota accessions revealed a high level of polymorphism for these selected loci, with an average of 19 alleles/locus and 0.84 expected heterozygosity. Conclusions The addition of 55 SSRs to the carrot map, together with marker characterizations in six other mapping populations, will facilitate future comparative mapping studies and integration of carrot maps. The markers developed herein will be a valuable resource for assisting breeding, genetic, diversity, and genomic studies of carrot and other Apiaceae. PMID:21806822

2011-01-01

105

Genetic diversity analysis using lowly polymorphic dominant markers: the example of AFLP in pigs.  

PubMed

DNA markers are commonly used for large-scale evaluation of genetic diversity in farm animals, as a component of the management of animal genetic resources. AFLP markers are useful for such studies as they can be generated relatively simply; however, challenges in analysis arise from their dominant scoring and the low level of polymorphism of some markers. This paper describes the results obtained with a set of AFLP markers in a study of 59 pig breeds. AFLP fingerprints were generated using four primer combinations (PC), yielding a total of 148 marker loci, and average harmonic mean of breed sample size was 37.3. The average proportion of monomorphic populations was 63% (range across loci: 3%-98%). The moment-based method of Hill and Weir (2004, Mol Ecol 13:895-908) was applied to estimate gene frequencies, gene diversity (F(ST)), and Reynolds genetic distances. A highly significant average F(ST) of 0.11 was estimated, together with highly significant PC effects on gene diversity. The variance of F(ST) across loci also significantly exceeded the variance expected under the hypothesis of AFLP neutrality, strongly suggesting the sensitivity of AFLP to selection or other forces. Moment estimates were compared to estimates derived from the square root estimation of gene frequency, as currently applied for dominant markers, and the biases incurred in the latter method were evaluated. The paper discusses the hypotheses underlying the moment estimations and various issues relating to the biallelic, dominant, and lowly polymorphic nature of this set of AFLP markers and to their use as compared to microsatellites for measuring genetic diversity. PMID:16740626

Foulley, J-L; van Schriek, M G M; Alderson, L; Amigues, Y; Bagga, M; Boscher, M-Y; Brugmans, B; Cardellino, R; Davoli, R; Delgado, J V; Fimland, E; Gandini, G C; Glodek, P; Groenen, M A M; Hammond, K; Harlizius, B; Heuven, H; Joosten, R; Martinez, A M; Matassino, D; Meyer, J-N; Peleman, J; Ramos, A M; Rattink, A P; Russo, V; Siggens, K W; Vega-Pla, J L; Ollivier, L

2006-01-01

106

Impact of Mapped SSR Markers on the Genetic Diversity of Apricot ( Prunus armeniaca L.) in Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of mapped microsatellites on the study of genetic diversity of Tunisian apricot accessions was assessed. The genetic\\u000a variability of 47 traditional apricot cultivars originating from several areas in Tunisia was investigated with 32 polymorphic\\u000a microsatellite loci selected for their location throughout the eight linkage groups of Prunus genome. The higher polymorphism and greater transportability of these markers among

Hedia Bourguiba; Lamia Krichen; Jean-Marc Audergon; Bouchaib Khadari; Neila Trifi-Farah

2010-01-01

107

Genetic similarities among Spanisch populations of Agropyron , Elymus and Thinopyrum , using PCR-based markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arbitrary oligonucleotides were used as primers to amplifygenomic DNA of 48 wild Spanish populations of Agropyroncristatum, Elymus hispanicus,E. caninus,E. repens,Thinopyrum curvifolium, Th.junceum and Th.intermedium. Genetic diversity was analysedusing nineteen primers. The number of amplified products ranged from8 to 18 per primer and a total of 240 markers were scored. Differentlevels of intraspecific genetic diversity were found, the allogamousspecies E. repens

Pilar García; Juan-Vicente Monte; Carlos Casanova; Consuelo Soler

2002-01-01

108

LOW GENETIC DIVERSITY IN THE ANTARCTIC TOOTHFISH (DISSOSTICHUS MAWSONI) OBSERVED WITH MITOCHONDRIAL AND INTRON DNA MARKERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two molecular methods, mitochondrial and intron DNA markers, were used to determine genetic relationships among Antarctic toothfi sh (Dissostichus mawsoni) samples from three CCAMLR areas: Subareas 48.1 and 88.1 and Division 58.4.2. D. mawsoni appeared to be characterised by low diversity; no genetic variation was detected with restriction enzyme digests of nine sub-regions of the mitochondrial genome. Polymorphisms were found

P. J. Smith

2005-01-01

109

Assessing Genetic Diversity in Olea europaea L. Using ISSR and SSR Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olea europaea L. is one of the most economically important crops in the Mediterranean area, and known for having large genetic variability.\\u000a In order to assess the genetic diversity, DNA from 41 olive cultivars, present in the protected denomination of origin (PDO)\\u000a region of Trás-os-Montes, was screened using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and microsatellite (SSR) markers. Eleven\\u000a ISSR primers

Sónia Gomes; Paula Martins-Lopes; João Lopes; Henrique Guedes-Pinto

2009-01-01

110

Collecting Duct Carcinomas Represent a Unique Tumor Entity Based on Genetic Alterations  

PubMed Central

Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) is a rare renal neoplasm that is associated with poor prognosis due to its highly aggressive course and limited response to immuno- or chemotherapy. Histologically, CDC is defined as a subtype of renal cell carcinomas, but in some cases, it is difficult to differentiate from urothelial carcinomas (UC). Therefore the aim of this study was to determine genetic alterations of CDC in comparison to that of urothelial carcinomas of the upper urinary tract (UUT-UC) to clarify the histological origin of this rare tumor entity. Twenty-nine CDC samples were obtained from seven different German centers and compared with twenty-six urothelial carcinomas of the upper urinary tract. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was used to investigate the genetic composition of patients’ tumors and allowed the detection of losses and gains of DNA copy numbers throughout the entire genome. The clinical data were correlated with CGH results. CGH analysis of CDC revealed DNA aberrations in many chromosomes. DNA losses were more frequently observed than gains, while high-level amplifications were not detected. The mean frequency of CDC chromosomal aberrations (4.9/case) was slightly lower than that in UUT-UC (5.4/case). Recurrent CDC DNA losses occurred at 8p (n=9/29), 16p (9/29), 1p (n=7/29) and 9p (n=7/29), and gains occurred in 13q (n=9/29). In contrast to CDC, the most frequently detected UUT-UC DNA aberration was a loss at 9q (n=13/26). DNA losses at 9q, 13q and 8q as well as gains at 8p showed significant variations in UUT-UC compared to CDC. There was no correlation between the patients’ clinical course and the presence or absence of these recurrent genetic alterations. CDCs are characterized by a different genetic pattern compared to UUT-UC. Regarding the published data on renal cell carcinoma, we conclude that CDC appears to be a unique entity among kidney carcinomas. PMID:24167600

Parr, Martin; Hartmann, Arndt; Fussel, Susanne; Toma, Marieta; Grobholz, Rainer; Pflugmann, Thomas; Wullich, Bernd; Strauss, Arne; Behnes, Carl Ludwig; Otto, Wolfgang; Stockle, Michael; Jung, Volker

2013-01-01

111

RAPD-SCAR marker and genetic relationship analysis of three Demodex species (Acari: Demodicidae).  

PubMed

For a long time, classification of Demodex mites has been mainly based on their hosts and phenotype characteristics. The study was the first to conduct molecular identification and genetic relationship analysis for six isolates of three Demodex species by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Totally, 239 DNA fragments were amplified from six Demodex isolates with 10 random primers in RAPD, of which 165 were polymorphic. Using a single primer, at least five fragments and at most 40 in the six isolates were amplified, whereas within a single isolate, a range of 35-49 fragments were amplified. DNA fingerprints of primers CZ 1-9 revealed intra- and interspecies difference in six Demodex isolates, whereas primer CZ 10 only revealed interspecies difference. The genetic distance and dendrogram showed the intraspecific genetic distances were closer than the interspecific genetic distances. The interspecific genetic distances of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex canis (0.7931-0.8140) were shorter than that of Demodex brevis and D. canis (0.8182-0.8987). The RAPD-SCAR marker displayed primer CZ 10 could be applied to identify the three Demodex species. The 479-bp fragment was specific for D. brevis, and the 261-bp fragment was specific for D. canis. The conclusion was that the RAPD-SCAR multi-marker was effective in molecular identification of three Demodex species. The genetic relationship between D. folliculorum and D. canis was nearer than that between D. folliculorum and D. brevis. PMID:22205351

Zhao, Ya-E; Wu, Li-Ping

2012-06-01

112

Expanding possibilities for intervention against small ruminant lentiviruses through genetic marker-assisted selective breeding.  

PubMed

Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS) has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions. PMID:23771240

White, Stephen N; Knowles, Donald P

2013-06-01

113

Expanding Possibilities for Intervention against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses through Genetic Marker-Assisted Selective Breeding  

PubMed Central

Small ruminant lentiviruses include members that infect sheep (ovine lentivirus [OvLV]; also known as ovine progressive pneumonia virus/maedi-visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus [CAEV]). Breed differences in seroprevalence and proviral concentration of OvLV had suggested a strong genetic component in susceptibility to infection by OvLV in sheep. A genetic marker test for susceptibility to OvLV has been developed recently based on the TMEM154 gene with validation data from over 2,800 sheep representing nine cohorts. While no single genotype has been shown to have complete resistance to OvLV, consistent association in thousands of sheep from multiple breeds and management conditions highlight a new strategy for intervention by selective breeding. This genetic marker-assisted selection (MAS) has the potential to be a useful addition to existing viral control measures. Further, the discovery of multiple additional genomic regions associated with susceptibility to or control of OvLV suggests that additional genetic marker tests may be developed to extend the reach of MAS in the future. This review will cover the strengths and limitations of existing data from host genetics as an intervention and outline additional questions for future genetic research in sheep, goats, small ruminant lentiviruses, and their host-pathogen interactions. PMID:23771240

White, Stephen N.; Knowles, Donald P.

2013-01-01

114

The Genetic Structure of the Kuwaiti Population: Mitochondrial DNA Markers  

E-print Network

to determine whether modern humans are descendants from a single ancestor or several ancestral populations (Lahr and Foley 1994; Ramachandran et al. 2005; Relethford 2008; Relethford and Harpending 1994; Stringer and Andrews 1988). Genetic data from H.... erectus and archaic H. sapiens fossil remains have been used by scientists to investigate the origin of modern humans (Lahr and Foley 1994; Relethford 1995; Stringer and Andrews 1988; Wilson and Cann 1992). The fossil evidence indicates that H. erectus...

Theyab, Jasem

2010-06-14

115

Genetic fingerprinting of Theobroma clones using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers have been used to characterise cocoa clones representing the three main cultivated subpopulations: Criollo, Forastero and Trinitario. The use of single primers of arbitrary nucleotide sequence resulted in the selective amplification of DNA fragments which were unique to the individual cocoa clones studied. The use of a single primer allowed each of the clones

J. Wilde; R. Waugh; W. Powell

1992-01-01

116

Genetic differentiation in Pyrenophora teres populations measured with AFLP markers.  

PubMed

The genetic structure and occurrence of mating types and forms of Pyrenophora teres, the causal agent of net blotch on barley, was studied among 278 isolates collected from the northern hemisphere and from Australia. Genetic differentiation was high (F(CT) 0.238, P=0.002) between P. teres f. teres (PTT) isolates originating from Northern Europe, North America, Russia and Australia. The P. teres population in Australia was clearly divided into two subgroups (F(CT) 0.793, P<0.001) according to the form identity: PTT and P. teres f. maculata (PTM), with the PTT samples showing a greater degree of differentiation (F(ST) 0.573, P<0.001) among Australian states than the PTM samples (F(CT) 0.219, P<0.001). No differentiation was found among locations within Australian states. Both mating types (MAT1 and MAT2) were equally common (1:1) in several locations in Australia and in Finland. The only exception was Krasnodar, Russia, where only MAT2 was identified. Our results show that the prevalence of sexual reproduction, occurrence of forms of P. teres, and genetic differentiation between geographical regions are highly variable. The paper discusses the various effects and outcomes of population selection in Australia and in the northern barley growing regions. PMID:17324759

Serenius, Marjo; Manninen, Outi; Wallwork, Hugh; Williams, Kevin

2007-02-01

117

Genetic linkage analysis of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using human chromosome 21 microsatellite DNA markers  

SciTech Connect

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; Lou Gehrig`s Disease) is a lethal neurodegenerative disease of upper and lower motorneurons in the brain and spinal cord. We previously reported linkage of a gene for familial ALS (FALS) to human chromosome 21 using 4 restriction fragment length polymorphism DNA markers and identified disease-associated mutations in the superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 gene in some ALS families. We report here the genetic linkage data that led us to examine the SOD-1 gene for mutations. We also report a new microsatellite DNA marker for D21S63, derived from the cosmid PW517. Ten microsatellite DNA markers, including the new marker D21S63, were used to reinvestigate linkage of FALS to chromosome 21. Genetic linkage analysis performed with 13 ALS familes for these 10 DNA markers confirmed the presence of a FALS gene on chromosome 21. The highest total 2-point LOD score for all families was 4.33, obtained at a distance of 10 cM from the marker D21S223. For 5 ALS families linked to chromosome 21, a peak 2-point LOD score of 5.94 was obtained at the DNA marker D21S223. A multipoint score of 6.50 was obtained with the markers D21S213, D21S223, D21S167, and FALS for 5 chromosome 21-linked ALS families. The haplotypes of these families for the 10 DNA markers reveal recombination events that further refined the location of the FALS gene to a segment of approximately 5 megabases (Mb) between D21S213 and D21S219. The only characterized gene within this segment was SOD-1, the structural gene for Cu, Zn SOD. 30 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Rosen, D.R.; Sapp, P.; O`Regan, J.; McKenna-Yasek, D.; Schlumpf, K.S.; Haines, J.L.; Gusella, J.F.; Horvitz, H.R.; Brown, R.H. Jr. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1994-05-15

118

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Genetic and Physical Mapping of Sex-Linked AFLP Markers  

E-print Network

October 2010 # Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010 Abstract Identification of the sexORIGINAL ARTICLE Genetic and Physical Mapping of Sex-Linked AFLP Markers in Nile Tilapia aquaculture. We previously identified an XX/XY sex-determining locus in this species within a 10-cM interval

Kocher, Thomas D.

119

On marker-assisted prediction of genetic value: beyond the ridge.  

PubMed Central

Marked-assisted genetic improvement of agricultural species exploits statistical dependencies in the joint distribution of marker genotypes and quantitative traits. An issue is how molecular (e.g., dense marker maps) and phenotypic information (e.g., some measure of yield in plants) is to be used for predicting the genetic value of candidates for selection. Multiple regression, selection index techniques, best linear unbiased prediction, and ridge regression of phenotypes on marker genotypes have been suggested, as well as more elaborate methods. Here, phenotype-marker associations are modeled hierarchically via multilevel models including chromosomal effects, a spatial covariance of marked effects within chromosomes, background genetic variability, and family heterogeneity. Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients are suggested for assessing the inequality of the contribution of different marked effects to genetic variability. Classical and Bayesian methods are presented. The Bayesian approach includes a Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation. The generality and flexibility of the Bayesian method is illustrated when a Lorenz curve is to be inferred. PMID:12586721

Gianola, Daniel; Perez-Enciso, Miguel; Toro, Miguel A

2003-01-01

120

The use of genetic markers to estimate the frequency of successful alternative reproductive tactics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines a method for estimating rates of successful alternative reproductive tactics from parental exclusions known through the use of genetic markers. We review a method for calculating the probability of excluding a putative father when he is not the actual father. We adapt this method to model two mating tactics of concern to sociobiologists: extrapair copulations (EPCs) and

David F. Westneat; Peter C. Frederick; R. Haven Wiley

1987-01-01

121

POSTER PRESENTATION Open Access Genetic markers in clinical subtypes of juvenile  

E-print Network

, France. 23-25 November 2011 Introduction Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common children in clinical subtypes of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Journal of Translational Medicine 2011 9(Suppl 2):P61POSTER PRESENTATION Open Access Genetic markers in clinical subtypes of juvenile idiopathic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

122

Marker-assisted estimation of quantitative genetic parameters in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss  

E-print Network

Marker-assisted estimation of quantitative genetic parameters in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4J1, Canada (Received 29 July 2002 and in revised form 7 November 2002) Summary in an aquaculture population of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Firstly a regression-based model employing

Wilson, Alastair

123

Analysis of genetic diversity and phylogeny in Saccharum and related genera using RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular diversity in Saccharum complex was studied using 195 RAPD markers generated by 12 random primers. Among the Saccharum species, S. officinarum showed a low level of genetic diversity while S. sinense was found to be more diverse. Six taxonomical groups were clearly resolved in the cluster analysis. S. officinarum, S. robustum, S. spontaneum and Erianthus spp. formed discrete groups.

N. Vijayan Nair; Suresh Nair; T. V. Sreenivasan; Madan Mohan

1999-01-01

124

Cultivar identification and genetic fingerprinting of temperate fruit tree species using DNA markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In recent years we have witnessed critical advances in the applications of molecular markers for genetic fingerprint- ing in cultivated plants. Their advantages have been widely recognised but they are even more important in woody perennials due to some particularities of these species such as their long generation time, their large individual size and their vegetative propagation. In this

A. Wünsch; J. I. Hormaza

2002-01-01

125

Analysis of genetic diversity in Ganoderma population with a novel molecular marker SRAP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic marker technology designed to detect naturally occurring polymorphisms at the DNA level had become an invaluable and revolutionizing tool for both applied and basic studies of fungi. To eliminate the confusion on the taxonomy of Ganoderma strains, in this study, a collection of 31 accessions representative of morphotypes and some unclassified types was used for analyzing molecular diversity using

Shu-Jing Sun; Wei Gao; Shu-Qian Lin; Jian Zhu; Bao-Gui Xie; Zhi-Bin Lin

2006-01-01

126

Development of microsatellite markers in Cannabis sativa for DNA typing and genetic relatedness analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite markers were developed for Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana) to be used for DNA typing (genotype identification) and to measure the genetic relationships between the different plants. Twelve different oligonucleotide probes were used to screen an enriched microsatellite library of Cannabis sativa in which 49% of the clones contained microsatellite sequences. Characterization of microsatellite loci in Cannabis revealed that GA\\/CT

H. J. Alghanim; J. R. Almirall

2003-01-01

127

Assessment of genetic diversity in broomcorn millet ( Panicum miliaceum L.) using SSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic diversity of 118 accessions of broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.), collected from various ecological areas, wasanalyzed. Using 46 SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) polymorphic markers from rice, wheat, oat and barley, a total of 226 alleles werefound, which exhibited moderate level of diversity. The number of alleles per primer ranged from two to nine, with an average of 4.91.

Xingyu Hu; Jianfei Wang; Ping Lu; Hongsheng Zhang

2009-01-01

128

Genetic linkage mapping in peach using morphological, RFLP and RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have constructed a genetic linkage map of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] consisting of RFLP, RAPD and morphological markers, based on 71 F2 individuals derived from the self-fertilization of four F1 individuals of a cross between ‘New Jersey Pillar’ and KV 77119. This progeny, designated as the West Virginia (WV) family, segregates for genes controlling canopy shape, fruit flesh

S. Rajapakse; L. E. Belthoff; G. He; A. E. Estager; R. Scorza; I. Verde; R. E. Ballard; W. V. Baird; A. Callahan; R. Monet; A. G. Abbott

1995-01-01

129

COMBINING ISOTOPIC AND GENETIC MARKERS TO IDENTIFY BREEDING ORIGINS OF MIGRANT BIRDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative method for linking reproductive and nonreproductive phases of migratory life cycles is fundamental to understanding the biology of migratory organisms. Here we combine genetic (mtDNA) and biochemical (stable isotope) information to examine seasonal movements in the Swainson's Thrush ( Catharus ustulatus), a Neotropical migrant. We show that when these intrinsic markers are used in concert, they can predict

Jeffrey F. Kelly; Kristen C. Ruegg; Thomas B. Smith

2005-01-01

130

Utility of RAPD markers in identifying genetic linkages to genes of economic interest in peach.  

PubMed

The identification of molecular markers linked to economically important traits for use in crop improvement is very important in long-lived perennial species. Three-hundred-and-sixty RAPD primers were used with bulked segregant analysis to identify markers linked to loci of specific interest in peach [(Prunus persica) L. Batch] and peach x almond [(Prunus dulcis) Batch] crosses. The traits analyzed included flesh color, adhesion, and texture; pollen fertility; plant stature; and three isozyme loci. The Mendelian behavior of the RAPD loci was established, and RAPD markers were mapped relative to the loci controlling flesh color, adhesion, and texture, and the isozyme loci Mdh-1, 6Pgd-2 and Aat-1, as well as the existing RFLP genetic linkage map constructed previously using a peach x almond F2 population. This technique has facilitated rapid identification of RAPD and RFLP markers that are linked to the traits under study. Loci controlling these traits mapped predominantly to linkage groups 2 and 3 of the peach genetic linkage map. Linkages to genes with both dominant and co-dominant alleles were identified, but linkages to dominant genes were more difficult to find. In several crosses, RAPD marker bands proved to be allelic. One co-dominant RAPD formed a heteroduplex band in heterozygous individuals and in mixtures of alternate homozygotes. The Mendelian behavior of the RAPD loci studied was established and the results suggest that RAPD markers will be useful for plant improvement in peach. PMID:24162426

Warburton, M L; Becerra-Velásquez, V L; Goffreda, J C; Bliss, F A

1996-10-01

131

[The genetic markers and morphology of erythrocytes in the clinical manifestation of chronic obstructive bronchitis].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate genetic characteristics of patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis (COB) using classic biochemical markers, their contribution to the development and course of the disease, and morphological peculiarities of erythrocytes in these patients. The subjects were 60 COB patients and 50 practically healthy people; their serum samples were studied. The following classic biochemical markers were investigated: haptoglobin; transferrin; C3 compliment component; group-specific component; ABO blood systems and Rh-factor. Erythrocytometry of blood smears was performed upon admission and before discharge. The study evaluated the contribution of heredity to the forming of COB and established specific genetic markers of predisposition to the development of COB and certain features of its clinical course; the condition of peripheral blood erythrocytes in COB patients was studied. PMID:16512391

Kuz'mina, O A; Afanas'ev, Iu I; Churnosov, M I

2006-01-01

132

Genetic marker anchoring by six-dimensional pools for development of a soybean physical map  

PubMed Central

Background Integrated genetic and physical maps are extremely valuable for genomic studies and as important references for assembling whole genome shotgun sequences. Screening of a BAC library using molecular markers is an indispensable procedure for integration of both physical and genetic maps of a genome. Molecular markers provide anchor points for integration of genetic and physical maps and also validate BAC contigs assembled based solely on BAC fingerprints. We employed a six-dimensional BAC pooling strategy and an in silico approach to anchor molecular markers onto the soybean physical map. Results A total of 1,470 markers (580 SSRs and 890 STSs) were anchored by PCR on a subset of a Williams 82 BstY I BAC library pooled into 208 pools in six dimensions. This resulted in 7,463 clones (~1× genome equivalent) associated with 1470 markers, of which the majority of clones (6,157, 82.5%) were anchored by one marker and 1106 (17.5%) individual clones contained two or more markers. This contributed to 1184 contigs having anchor points through this 6-D pool screening effort. In parallel, the 21,700 soybean Unigene set from NCBI was used to perform in silico mapping on 80,700 Williams 82 BAC end sequences (BES). This in silico analysis yielded 9,835 positive results anchored by 4152 unigenes that contributed to 1305 contigs and 1624 singletons. Among the 1305 contigs, 305 have not been previously anchored by PCR. Therefore, 1489 (78.8%) of 1893 contigs are anchored with molecular markers. These results are being integrated with BAC fingerprints to assemble the BAC contigs. Ultimately, these efforts will lead to an integrated physical and genetic map resource. Conclusion We demonstrated that the six-dimensional soybean BAC pools can be efficiently used to anchor markers to soybean BACs despite the complexity of the soybean genome. In addition to anchoring markers, the 6-D pooling method was also effective for targeting BAC clones for investigating gene families and duplicated regions in the genome, as well as for extending physical map contigs. PMID:18211698

Wu, Xiaolei; Zhong, Guohua; Findley, Seth D; Cregan, Perry; Stacey, Gary; Nguyen, Henry T

2008-01-01

133

Genetic diversity and relationship of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) using sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers.  

PubMed

Chicory is a crop with economically important roles and is cultivated worldwide. The genetic diversity and relationship of 80 accessions of chicories and endives were evaluated by sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers to provide a theoretical basis for future breeding programs in China. The polymorphic rate was 96.83%, and the average polymorphic information content was 0.323, suggesting the rich genetic diversity of chicory. The genetic diversity degree of chicory was higher (GS = 0.677) than that of endive (GS = 0.701). The accessions with the highest genetic diversity (effective number of alleles, NE = 1.609; Nei's genetic diversity, H = 0.372; Shannon information index, I = 0.556) were from Italy. The richest genetic diversity was revealed in a chicory line (NE = 1.478, H = 0.289, I = 0.443) among the 3 types (line, wild, and cultivar). The chicory genetic structure of 8 geographical groups showed that the genetic differentiation coefficient (GST) was 14.20% and the number of immigrants per generation (Nm) was 3.020. A GST of 6.80% and an Nm of 6.853 were obtained from different types. This observation suggests that these chicory lines, especially those from the Mediterranean region, have potential for providing rich genetic resources for further breeding programs, that the chicory genetic structure among different countries obviously differs with a certain amount of gene flow, and that SRAP markers could be applied to analyze genetic relationships and classifications of Cichorium intybus and C. endivia. PMID:25299087

Liang, X Y; Zhang, X Q; Bai, S Q; Huang, L K; Luo, X M; Ji, Y; Jiang, L F

2014-01-01

134

Genetic mapping and marker development for resistance of wheat against the root lesion nematode Pratylenchus neglectus  

PubMed Central

Background The Rlnn1 locus, which resides on chromosome 7A of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) confers moderate resistance against the root lesion nematode Pratylenchus neglectus. Prior to this research, the exact linkage relationships of Rlnn1 with other loci on chromosome 7A were not clear and there were no simple codominant markers available for selection of Rlnn1 in wheat breeding. The objectives of the research reported here were to (1) develop an improved genetic map of the Rlnn1 region of chromosome 7A and (2) develop molecular markers that could be used in marker-assisted selection to improve resistance of wheat against P. neglectus. Results A large-effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) for resistance against P. neglectus was genetically mapped using a population of Excalibur/Kukri doubled haploid lines. This QTL coincides in position with the rust resistance gene(s) Lr20/Sr15, the phytoene synthase gene Psy-A1 and 10 molecular markers, including five new markers designed using wheat-rice comparative genomics and wheat expressed sequence tags. Two of the new markers are suitable for use as molecular diagnostic tools to distinguish plants that carry Rlnn1 and Lr20/Sr15 from those that do not carry these resistance genes. Conclusions The genomic location of Rlnn1 was confirmed to be in the terminal region of the long arm of chromosome 7A. Molecular markers were developed that provide simple alternatives to costly phenotypic assessment of resistance against P. neglectus in wheat breeding. In Excalibur, genetic recombination seems to be completely suppressed in the Rlnn1 region. PMID:24377498

2013-01-01

135

Integration of physical and genetic maps of common bean through BAC-derived microsatellite markers  

PubMed Central

Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important legume for direct human consumption and the goal of this study was to integrate a recently constructed physical map for the species with a microsatellite based genetic map using a BAC library from the genotype G19833 and the recombinant inbred line population DOR364 × G19833. Results We searched for simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in the 89,017 BAC-end sequences (BES) from the physical map and genetically mapped any polymorphic BES-SSRs onto the genetic map. Among the BES it was possible to identify 623 contig-linked SSRs, most of which were highly AT-rich. A subgroup of 230 di-nucleotide and tri-nucleotide based SSR primer pairs from these BACs was tested on the mapping parents with 176 single copy loci and 114 found to be polymorphic markers. Of these, 99 were successfully integrated into the genetic map. The 99 linkages between the genetic and physical maps corresponded to an equal number of contigs containing a total of 5,055 BAC clones. Conclusions Class II microsatellites were more common in the BES than longer class I microsatellites. Both types of markers proved to be valuable for linking BAC clones to the genetic map and were successfully placed across all 11 linkage groups. The integration of common bean physical and genetic maps is an important part of comparative genome analysis and a prelude to positional cloning of agronomically important genes for this crop. PMID:20637113

2010-01-01

136

An Integrated Genetic and Cytogenetic Map for Zhikong Scallop, Chlamys farreri, Based on Microsatellite Markers  

PubMed Central

The reliability of genome analysis and proficiency of genetic manipulation requires knowledge of the correspondence between the genetic and cytogenetic maps. In the present study, we integrated cytogenetic and microsatellite-based linkage maps for Zhikong scallop, Chlamys farreri. Thirty-eight marker-anchored BAC clones standing for the 19 linkage groups were used to be FISH probes. Of 38 BAC clones, 30 were successfully located on single chromosome by FISH and used to integrate the genetic and cytogenetic map. Among the 19 linkage groups, 12 linkage groups were physically anchored by 2 markers, 6 linkage groups were anchored by 1 marker, and one linkage group was not anchored any makers by FISH. In addition, using two-color FISH, six linkage groups were distinguished by different chromosomal location; linkage groups LG6 and LG16 were placed on chromosome 10, LG8 and LG18 on chromosome 14. As a result, 18 of 19 linkage groups were localized to 17 pairs of chromosomes of C. farreri. We first integrated genetic and cytogenetic map for C. farreri. These 30 chromosome specific BAC clones in the cytogenetic map could be used to identify chromosomes of C. farreri. The integrated map will greatly facilitate molecular genetic studies that will be helpful for breeding applications in C. farreri and the upcoming genome projects of this species. PMID:24705086

Fu, Xiaoteng; Liao, Huan; Li, Xuan; Zhan, Aibin; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Shi; Huang, Xiaoting; Bao, Zhenmin

2014-01-01

137

Genetically encoded dendritic marker sheds light on neuronal connectivity in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

In recent years, Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a powerful model for neuronal circuit development, pathology, and function. A major impediment to these studies has been the lack of a genetically encoded, specific, universal, and phenotypically neutral marker of the somatodendritic compartment. We have developed such a marker and show that it is effective and specific in all neuronal populations tested in the peripheral and central nervous system. The marker, which we name DenMark (Dendritic Marker), is a hybrid protein of the mouse protein ICAM5/Telencephalin and the red fluorescent protein mCherry. We show that DenMark is a powerful tool for revealing novel aspects of the neuroanatomy of developing dendrites, identifying previously unknown dendritic arbors, and elucidating neuronal connectivity. PMID:21059961

Nicolai, Laura J. J.; Ramaekers, Ariane; Raemaekers, Tim; Drozdzecki, Andrzej; Mauss, Alex S.; Yan, Jiekun; Landgraf, Matthias; Annaert, Wim; Hassan, Bassem A.

2010-01-01

138

Genetic Relationships of Ethnic Minorities in Southwest China Revealed by Microsatellite Markers  

PubMed Central

Population migrations in Southwest and South China have played an important role in the formation of East Asian populations and led to a high degree of cultural diversity among ethnic minorities living in these areas. To explore the genetic relationships of these ethnic minorities, we systematically surveyed the variation of 10 autosomal STR markers of 1,538 individuals from 30 populations of 25 ethnic minorities, of which the majority were chosen from Southwest China, especially Yunnan Province. With genotyped data of the markers, we constructed phylogenies of these populations with both DA and DC measures and performed a principal component analysis, as well as a clustering analysis by structure. Results showed that we successfully recovered the genetic structure of analyzed populations formed by historical migrations. Aggregation patterns of these populations accord well with their linguistic affiliations, suggesting that deciphering of genetic relationships does in fact offer clues for study of ethnic differentiation. PMID:20360948

Zhang, Feng; Huang, Xiaoqin; Lin, Keqin; Shi, Lei; Hu, Songnian; Chu, Jiayou; Wang, Duen-Mei

2010-01-01

139

Markers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dry erase whiteboards come with toxic dry erase markers and toxic cleaning products. Dry erase markers labeled "nontoxic" are not free of toxic chemicals and can cause health problems. Children are especially vulnerable to environmental health hazards; moreover, schools commonly have problems with indoor air pollution, as they are more densely…

Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

2011-01-01

140

Analysis on genetic diversity and genetic structure of Brasenia schreberi in Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces revealed by ISSR Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the level of genetic diversity of the endangered species Brasenia schreberi, three populations from Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces were sampled and analyzed using inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers. A total of fifty-four individuals were sampled. Twelve filtrated from 77 ISSR primers gave rise to 101 discernible DAN fragments of which 16 were polymorphic (15.84%). The average

ZHANG Guangfu; GAO Bangquan

2008-01-01

141

Assessment of Genetic Diversity, Relationships and Structure among Korean Native Cattle Breeds Using Microsatellite Markers.  

PubMed

Four Korean native cattle (KNC) breeds-Hanwoo, Chikso, Heugu, and Jeju black-are entered in the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and population structure of these KNC breeds (n = 120) and exotic breeds (Holstein and Charolais, n = 56). Thirty microsatellite loci recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics/FAO were genotyped. These genotypes were used to determine the allele frequencies, allelic richness, heterozygosity and polymorphism information content per locus and breed. Genetic diversity was lower in Heugu and Jeju black breeds. Phylogenetic analysis, Factorial Correspondence Analysis and genetic clustering grouped each breed in its own cluster, which supported the genetic uniqueness of the KNC breeds. These results will be useful for conservation and management of KNC breeds as animal genetic resources. PMID:25358313

Suh, Sangwon; Kim, Young-Sin; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Byun, Mi-Jeong; Choi, Seong-Bok; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu; Lee, Chang Woo; Jung, Kyoung-Sub; Bae, Kyoung Hun; Kim, Jae-Hwan

2014-11-01

142

Assessment of Genetic Diversity, Relationships and Structure among Korean Native Cattle Breeds Using Microsatellite Markers  

PubMed Central

Four Korean native cattle (KNC) breeds—Hanwoo, Chikso, Heugu, and Jeju black—are entered in the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and population structure of these KNC breeds (n = 120) and exotic breeds (Holstein and Charolais, n = 56). Thirty microsatellite loci recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics/FAO were genotyped. These genotypes were used to determine the allele frequencies, allelic richness, heterozygosity and polymorphism information content per locus and breed. Genetic diversity was lower in Heugu and Jeju black breeds. Phylogenetic analysis, Factorial Correspondence Analysis and genetic clustering grouped each breed in its own cluster, which supported the genetic uniqueness of the KNC breeds. These results will be useful for conservation and management of KNC breeds as animal genetic resources. PMID:25358313

Suh, Sangwon; Kim, Young-Sin; Cho, Chang-Yeon; Byun, Mi-Jeong; Choi, Seong-Bok; Ko, Yeoung-Gyu; Lee, Chang Woo; Jung, Kyoung-Sub; Bae, Kyoung Hun; Kim, Jae-Hwan

2014-01-01

143

A genetic linkage map of lentil (Lens sp.) based on RAPD and AFLP markers using recombinant inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic linkage map of Lens sp. was constructed with 177 markers (89 RAPD, 79 AFLP, six RFLP and three morphological markers) using 86 recombinant inbred\\u000a lines (F6:8) obtained from a partially interspecific cross. The map covered 1073?cM of the lentil genome with an average distance of\\u000a 6.0?cM between adjacent markers. Previously mapped RFLP markers were used as anchor probes.

I. Eujayl; M. Baum; W. Powell; W. Erskine; E. Pehu

1998-01-01

144

Identifying genetic marker sets associated with phenotypes via an efficient adaptive score test.  

PubMed

In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and gene-expression profiling have generated a large number of valuable datasets for assessing how genetic variations are related to disease outcomes. With such datasets, it is often of interest to assess the overall effect of a set of genetic markers, assembled based on biological knowledge. Genetic marker-set analyses have been advocated as more reliable and powerful approaches compared with the traditional marginal approaches (Curtis and others, 2005. Pathways to the analysis of microarray data. TRENDS in Biotechnology 23, 429-435; Efroni and others, 2007. Identification of key processes underlying cancer phenotypes using biologic pathway analysis. PLoS One 2, 425). Procedures for testing the overall effect of a marker-set have been actively studied in recent years. For example, score tests derived under an Empirical Bayes (EB) framework (Liu and others, 2007. Semiparametric regression of multidimensional genetic pathway data: least-squares kernel machines and linear mixed models. Biometrics 63, 1079-1088; Liu and others, 2008. Estimation and testing for the effect of a genetic pathway on a disease outcome using logistic kernel machine regression via logistic mixed models. BMC bioinformatics 9, 292-2; Wu and others, 2010. Powerful SNP-set analysis for case-control genome-wide association studies. American Journal of Human Genetics 86, 929) have been proposed as powerful alternatives to the standard Rao score test (Rao, 1948. Large sample tests of statistical hypotheses concerning several parameters with applications to problems of estimation. Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 44, 50-57). The advantages of these EB-based tests are most apparent when the markers are correlated, due to the reduction in the degrees of freedom. In this paper, we propose an adaptive score test which up- or down-weights the contributions from each member of the marker-set based on the Z-scores of their effects. Such an adaptive procedure gains power over the existing procedures when the signal is sparse and the correlation among the markers is weak. By combining evidence from both the EB-based score test and the adaptive test, we further construct an omnibus test that attains good power in most settings. The null distributions of the proposed test statistics can be approximated well either via simple perturbation procedures or via distributional approximations. Through extensive simulation studies, we demonstrate that the proposed procedures perform well in finite samples. We apply the tests to a breast cancer genetic study to assess the overall effect of the FGFR2 gene on breast cancer risk. PMID:22734045

Cai, Tianxi; Lin, Xihong; Carroll, Raymond J

2012-09-01

145

Adaptive genetic markers discriminate migratory runs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) amid continued gene flow.  

PubMed

Neutral genetic markers are routinely used to define distinct units within species that warrant discrete management. Human-induced changes to gene flow however may reduce the power of such an approach. We tested the efficiency of adaptive versus neutral genetic markers in differentiating temporally divergent migratory runs of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) amid high gene flow owing to artificial propagation and habitat alteration. We compared seven putative migration timing genes to ten microsatellite loci in delineating three migratory groups of Chinook in the Feather River, CA: offspring of fall-run hatchery broodstock that returned as adults to freshwater in fall (fall run), spring-run offspring that returned in spring (spring run), and fall-run offspring that returned in spring (FRS). We found evidence for significant differentiation between the fall and federally listed threatened spring groups based on divergence at three circadian clock genes (OtsClock1b, OmyFbxw11, and Omy1009UW), but not neutral markers. We thus demonstrate the importance of genetic marker choice in resolving complex life history types. These findings directly impact conservation management strategies and add to previous evidence from Pacific and Atlantic salmon indicating that circadian clock genes influence migration timing. PMID:24478800

O'Malley, Kathleen G; Jacobson, Dave P; Kurth, Ryon; Dill, Allen J; Banks, Michael A

2013-12-01

146

Identification of functional genetic variations underlying drought tolerance in maize using SNP markers.  

PubMed

Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is a common form of genetic variation and popularly exists in maize genome. An Illumina GoldenGate assay with 1 536 SNP markers was used to genotype maize inbred lines and identified the functional genetic variations underlying drought tolerance by association analysis. Across 80 lines, 1 006 polymorphic SNPs (65.5% of the total) in the assay with good call quality were used to estimate the pattern of genetic diversity, population structure, and familial relatedness. The analysis showed the best number of fixed subgroups was six, which was consistent with their original sources and results using only simple sequence repeat markers. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) and association mapping with phenotypic traits investigated under water-stressed and well-watered regimes showed rapid LD decline within 100-500 kb along the physical distance of each chromosome, and that 29 SNPs were associated with at least two phenotypic traits in one or more environments, which were related to drought-tolerant or drought-responsive genes. These drought-tolerant SNPs could be converted into functional markers and then used for maize improvement by marker-assisted selection. PMID:21564545

Hao, Zhuanfang; Li, Xinhai; Xie, Chuanxiao; Weng, Jianfeng; Li, Mingshun; Zhang, Degui; Liang, Xiaoling; Liu, Lingling; Liu, Sisi; Zhang, Shihuang

2011-08-01

147

Genetic Characterization of the Gypsy Moth from China (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae) Using Inter Simple Sequence Repeats Markers  

PubMed Central

This study provides the first genetic characterization of the gypsy moth from China (Lymantriadispar), one of the most recognized pests of forests and ornamental trees in the world. We assessed genetic diversity and structure in eight geographic populations of gypsy moths from China using five polymorphic Inter simple sequence repeat markers, which produced reproducible banding patterns. We observed 102 polymorphic loci across the 176 individuals sampled. Overall genetic diversity (Nei’s, H) was 0.2357, while the mean genetic diversity within geographic populations was 0.1845 ± 0.0150. The observed genetic distance among the eight populations ranged from 0.0432 to 0.1034. Clustering analysis (using an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean and multidimensional scaling), revealed strong concordance between the strength of genetic relationships among populations and their geographic proximity. Analysis of molecular variance demonstrated that 25.43% of the total variability (FST = 0.2543, P < 0.001) was attributable to variation among geographic populations. The results of our analyses investigating the degree of polymorphism, genetic diversity (Nei’s and Shannon) and genetic structure, suggest that individuals from Hebei may be better able to adapt to different environments and to disperse to new habitats. This study provides crucial genetic information needed to assess the distribution and population dynamics of this important pest species of global concern. PMID:23951339

Chen, Fang; Shi, Juan; Luo, You-qing; Sun, Shuang-yan; Pu, Min

2013-01-01

148

Novel SSR Markers from BAC-End Sequences, DArT Arrays and a Comprehensive Genetic Map with 1,291 Marker Loci for Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)  

PubMed Central

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the third most important cool season food legume, cultivated in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The goal of this study was to develop novel molecular markers such as microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-end sequences (BESs) and diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers, and to construct a high-density genetic map based on recombinant inbred line (RIL) population ICC 4958 (C. arietinum)×PI 489777 (C. reticulatum). A BAC-library comprising 55,680 clones was constructed and 46,270 BESs were generated. Mining of these BESs provided 6,845 SSRs, and primer pairs were designed for 1,344 SSRs. In parallel, DArT arrays with ca. 15,000 clones were developed, and 5,397 clones were found polymorphic among 94 genotypes tested. Screening of newly developed BES-SSR markers and DArT arrays on the parental genotypes of the RIL mapping population showed polymorphism with 253 BES-SSR markers and 675 DArT markers. Segregation data obtained for these polymorphic markers and 494 markers data compiled from published reports or collaborators were used for constructing the genetic map. As a result, a comprehensive genetic map comprising 1,291 markers on eight linkage groups (LGs) spanning a total of 845.56 cM distance was developed (http://cmap.icrisat.ac.in/cmap/sm/cp/thudi/). The number of markers per linkage group ranged from 68 (LG 8) to 218 (LG 3) with an average inter-marker distance of 0.65 cM. While the developed resource of molecular markers will be useful for genetic diversity, genetic mapping and molecular breeding applications, the comprehensive genetic map with integrated BES-SSR markers will facilitate its anchoring to the physical map (under construction) to accelerate map-based cloning of genes in chickpea and comparative genome evolution studies in legumes. PMID:22102885

Nayak, Spurthi N.; Varghese, Nicy; Shah, Trushar M.; Penmetsa, R. Varma; Thirunavukkarasu, Nepolean; Gudipati, Srivani; Gaur, Pooran M.; Kulwal, Pawan L.; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; KaviKishor, Polavarapu B.; Winter, Peter; Kahl, Gunter; Town, Christopher D.; Kilian, Andrzej; Cook, Douglas R.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

2011-01-01

149

Analysis of genetic markers in forensic DNA samples using the polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

The ability to extract and type DNA from forensic evidentiary samples has revolutionized the field of forensic serology. Previously, genetic marker typing was limited to the analysis of blood group markers and soluble polymorphic protein markers. Because the number of suitable markers expressed in particular fluids and tissues is relatively small, and because mixtures of fluids cannot be separated for conventional genetic marker typing, a suspect frequently cannot be included or excluded as a fluid donor in a case. However, the development of methods to extract DNA from virtually all biological specimens has greatly expanded the potential for individual identification. Of particular importance was the ability to extract mixtures of sperm cells and epithelial cells found in sexual assault cases such that the DNA from the sperm cells could be typed independently of the DNA from the victim's epithelial cells. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was the first DNA-based method applied to problems of individual identification. This method, while powerful in its ability to differentiate individuals, is limited by the quantity and quality of DNA required for an unambiguous result and by the amount of time it takes to obtain a result. Despite these limitations, several laboratories are using RFLP analysis successfully for the detection of polymorphisms in forensic DNA case samples. While the field of forensic serology was being revolutionized by the prospect of DNA analysis, the field of molecular biology was being revolutionized by the invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which ultimately has had an impact on every area of biological science. The PCR DNA amplification technology is ideally suited for the analysis of forensic DNA samples in that it is sensitive and rapid and not as limited by the quality of DNA as the RFLP method. The focus of this article is the use of the PCR for typing genetic markers, and we will address specifically the special considerations that arise from applying DNA amplification and typing technology to forensic materials. PMID:1687345

Reynolds, R; Sensabaugh, G; Blake, E

1991-01-01

150

Assessment of genetic diversity in broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) using SSR markers.  

PubMed

The genetic diversity of 118 accessions of broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.), collected from various ecological areas, was analyzed. Using 46 SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) polymorphic markers from rice, wheat, oat and barley, a total of 226 alleles were found, which exhibited moderate level of diversity. The number of alleles per primer ranged from two to nine, with an average of 4.91. The range of polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.284-0.980 (average, 0.793). The expected heterozygosity (He) varied from 0.346 to 0.989, with an average of 0.834. The average coefficient of the genetic similarity of SSR markers among the 118 accessions was 0.609, and it ranged from 0.461 to 0.851. The UPGMA (Unweight Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) clustering analysis at the genetic similarity value of 0.609 grouped the 118 accessions into five groups. Mantel test meant that geographical origin and genetic distance presented positive correlation. The clustering results were consistent with known information on ecological growing areas. The genetic similarity coefficient of the accessions in the Loess Plateau ecotype was significantly lower than those in the other ecotypes. It indicates that the highest level of genetic diversity occurred in the Loess Plateau, which is probably the original site of Panicum miliaceum. PMID:19683672

Hu, Xingyu; Wang, Jianfei; Lu, Ping; Zhang, Hongsheng

2009-08-01

151

Gene-Based Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers for Genetic and Association Mapping in Common Bean  

PubMed Central

Background In common bean, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are an underestimated source of gene-based markers such as insertion-deletions (Indels) or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, due to the nature of these conserved sequences, detection of markers is difficult and portrays low levels of polymorphism. Therefore, development of intron-spanning EST-SNP markers can be a valuable resource for genetic experiments such as genetic mapping and association studies. Results In this study, a total of 313 new gene-based markers were developed at target genes. Intronic variation was deeply explored in order to capture more polymorphism. Introns were putatively identified after comparing the common bean ESTs with the soybean genome, and the primers were designed over intron-flanking regions. The intronic regions were evaluated for parental polymorphisms using the single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique and Sequenom MassARRAY system. A total of 53 new marker loci were placed on an integrated molecular map in the DOR364?×?G19833 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. The new linkage map was used to build a consensus map, merging the linkage maps of the BAT93?×?JALO EEP558 and DOR364?×?BAT477 populations. A total of 1,060 markers were mapped, with a total map length of 2,041?cM across 11 linkage groups. As a second application of the generated resource, a diversity panel with 93 genotypes was evaluated with 173 SNP markers using the MassARRAY-platform and KASPar technology. These results were coupled with previous SSR evaluations and drought tolerance assays carried out on the same individuals. This agglomerative dataset was examined, in order to discover marker-trait associations, using general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM). Some significant associations with yield components were identified, and were consistent with previous findings. Conclusions In short, this study illustrates the power of intron-based markers for linkage and association mapping in common bean. The utility of these markers is discussed in relation with the usefulness of microsatellites, the molecular markers by excellence in this crop. PMID:22734675

2012-01-01

152

Analysis of genetic diversity in banana cultivars (Musa cvs.) from the South of Oman using AFLP markers and classification by phylogenetic, hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses*  

PubMed Central

Banana is an important crop grown in Oman and there is a dearth of information on its genetic diversity to assist in crop breeding and improvement programs. This study employed amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to investigate the genetic variation in local banana cultivars from the southern region of Oman. Using 12 primer combinations, a total of 1094 bands were scored, of which 1012 were polymorphic. Eighty-two unique markers were identified, which revealed the distinct separation of the seven cultivars. The results obtained show that AFLP can be used to differentiate the banana cultivars. Further classification by phylogenetic, hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses showed significant differences between the clusters found with molecular markers and those clusters created by previous studies using morphological analysis. Based on the analytical results, a consensus dendrogram of the banana cultivars is presented. PMID:20443211

Opara, Umezuruike Linus; Jacobson, Dan; Al-Saady, Nadiya Abubakar

2010-01-01

153

Genetic diversity in natural populations of Jacaranda decurrens Cham. determined using RAPD and AFLP markers  

PubMed Central

Jacaranda decurrens (Bignoniaceae) is an endemic species of the Cerrado with validated antitumoral activity. The genetic diversity of six populations of J. decurrens located in the State of São Paulo was determined in this study by using molecular markers for randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Following optimization of the amplification reaction, 10 selected primers generated 78 reproducible RAPD fragments that were mostly (69.2%) polymorphic. Two hundred and five reproducible AFLP fragments were generated by using four selected primer combinations; 46.3% of these fragments were polymorphic, indicating a considerable level of genetic diversity. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) using these two groups of markers indicated that variability was strongly structured amongst populations. The unweighted pair group method with arithmatic mean (UPGMA) and Pearson's correlation coefficient (RAPD -0.16, p = 0.2082; AFLP 0.37, p = 0.1006) between genetic matrices and geographic distances suggested that the population structure followed an island model in which a single population of infinite size gave rise to the current populations of J. decurrens, independently of their spatial position. The results of this study indicate that RAPD and AFLP markers were similarly efficient in measuring the genetic variability amongst natural populations of J. decurrens. These data may be useful for developing strategies for the preservation of this medicinal species in the Cerrado. PMID:21637428

2010-01-01

154

Genetic characterization of local Criollo pig breeds from the Americas using microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Little is known about local Criollo pig genetic resources and relationships among the various populations. In this paper, genetic diversity and relationships among 17 Criollo pig populations from 11 American countries were assessed with 24 microsatellite markers. Heterozygosities, F-statistics, and genetic distances were estimated, and multivariate, genetic structure and admixture analyses were performed. The overall means for genetic variability parameters based on the 24 microsatellite markers were the following: mean number of alleles per locus of 6.25 ± 2.3; effective number of alleles per locus of 3.33 ± 1.56; allelic richness per locus of 4.61 ± 1.37; expected and observed heterozygosity of 0.62 ± 0.04 and 0.57 ± 0.02, respectively; within-population inbreeding coefficient of 0.089; and proportion of genetic variability accounted for by differences among breeds of 0.11 ± 0.01. Genetic differences were not significantly associated with the geographical location to which breeds were assigned or their country of origin. Still, the NeighborNet dendrogram depicted the clustering by geographic origin of several South American breeds (Criollo Boliviano, Criollo of northeastern Argentina wet, and Criollo of northeastern Argentina dry), but some unexpected results were also observed, such as the grouping of breeds from countries as distant as El Salvador, Mexico, Ecuador, and Cuba. The results of genetic structure and admixture analyses indicated that the most likely number of ancestral populations was 11, and most breeds clustered separately when this was the number of predefined populations, with the exception of some closely related breeds that shared the same cluster and others that were admixed. These results indicate that Criollo pigs represent important reservoirs of pig genetic diversity useful for local development as well as for the pig industry. PMID:25349337

Revidatti, M A; Delgado Bermejo, J V; Gama, L T; Periati, V Landi; Ginja, C; Alvarez, L A; Vega-Pla, J L; Martínez, A M; Consortium, BioPig

2014-11-01

155

Genetic analysis and molecular characterization of Chinese sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cultivars using Insertion-Deletion (InDel) and Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers  

PubMed Central

Background Sesame is an important and ancient oil crop in tropical and subtropical areas. China is one of the most important sesame producing countries with many germplasm accessions and excellent cultivars. Domestication and modern plant breeding have presumably narrowed the genetic basis of cultivated sesame. Several modern sesame cultivars were bred with a limited number of landrace cultivars in their pedigree. The genetic variation was subsequently reduced by genetic drift and selection. Characterization of genetic diversity of these cultivars by molecular markers is of great value to assist parental line selection and breeding strategy design. Results Three hundred and forty nine simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 79 insertion-deletion (InDel) markers were developed from cDNA library and reduced-representation sequencing of a sesame cultivar Zhongzhi 14, respectively. Combined with previously published SSR markers, 88 polymorphic markers were used to assess the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships, population structure, and allele distribution among 130 Chinese sesame accessions including 82 cultivars, 44 landraces and 4 wild germplasm accessions. A total of 325 alleles were detected, with the average gene diversity of 0.432. Model-based structure analysis revealed the presence of five subgroups belonging to two main groups, which were consistent with the results from principal coordinate analysis (PCA), phylogenetic clustering and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Several missing or unique alleles were identified from particular types, subgroups or families, even though they share one or both parental/progenitor lines. Conclusions This report presented a by far most comprehensive characterization of the molecular and genetic diversity of sesame cultivars in China. InDels are more polymorphic than SSRs, but their ability for deciphering genetic diversity compared to the later. Improved sesame cultivars have narrower genetic basis than landraces, reflecting the effect of genetic drift or selection during breeding processes. Comparative analysis of allele distribution revealed genetic divergence between improved cultivars and landraces, as well as between cultivars released in different years. These results will be useful for assessing cultivars and for marker-assisted breeding in sesame. PMID:24641723

2014-01-01

156

Mapping and analysis of quantitative trait loci in Lycopersicon (tomato) with the aid of genetic markers using approximate maximum likelihood methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

1691 F-2 progeny of a cross between Lycopersicon esculentum and L pimpinellifolium grown under field conditions were scored for 18 quantitative traits of economic interest and 10 segregating genetic markers. Each parental strain was homozygous for one allele of each marker. Four of the markers were electrophoretic, and six were morphological. Three pairs of the genetic markers were linked. An

J I Weller

1987-01-01

157

Analysis of genetic diversity among wild bermudagrass germplasm from southwest China using SSR markers.  

PubMed

Fifty-five wild accessions of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) were collected from southwest China (Sichuan, Chongqing, Yunnan, Guizhou, and Tibet), and their genetic diversity was analyzed using simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 267 polymorphic bands were detected with 18 primer combinations. The genetic similarity among the accessions ranged from 0.688 to 0.894 with an average of 0.797. All 55 wild accessions were clustered into 7 eco-geographic groups. Our data showed that the dendrogram was almost in accordance with geographic distribution, and accessions from the same collection sites tended to be clustered into the same group. A genetic differentiation analysis revealed that the percentage of genetic variance was 70.07 and 29.93% within and among groups, respectively. Finally, we discuss the implications of these results for C. dactylon in southwest China. PMID:23096923

Ling, Y; Zhang, X-Q; Ma, X; Chen, S-Y; Chen, T-T; Liu, W

2012-01-01

158

Genetic Analysis of 430 Chinese Cynodon dactylon Accessions Using Sequence-Related Amplified Polymorphism Markers.  

PubMed

Although Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon) is widely distributed in China, information on its genetic diversity within the germplasm pool is limited. The objective of this study was to reveal the genetic variation and relationships of 430 C. dactylon accessions collected from 22 Chinese provinces using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. Fifteen primer pairs were used to amplify specific C. dactylon genomic sequences. A total of 481 SRAP fragments were generated, with fragment sizes ranging from 260-1800 base pairs (bp). Genetic similarity coefficients (GSC) among the 430 accessions averaged 0.72 and ranged from 0.53-0.96. Cluster analysis conducted by two methods, namely the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) and principle coordinate analysis (PCoA), separated the accessions into eight distinct groups. Our findings verify that Chinese C. dactylon germplasms have rich genetic diversity, which is an excellent basis for C. dactylon breeding for new cultivars. PMID:25338051

Huang, Chunqiong; Liu, Guodao; Bai, Changjun; Wang, Wenqiang

2014-01-01

159

Genetic Analysis of 430 Chinese Cynodon dactylon Accessions Using Sequence-Related Amplified Polymorphism Markers  

PubMed Central

Although Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon) is widely distributed in China, information on its genetic diversity within the germplasm pool is limited. The objective of this study was to reveal the genetic variation and relationships of 430 C. dactylon accessions collected from 22 Chinese provinces using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. Fifteen primer pairs were used to amplify specific C. dactylon genomic sequences. A total of 481 SRAP fragments were generated, with fragment sizes ranging from 260–1800 base pairs (bp). Genetic similarity coefficients (GSC) among the 430 accessions averaged 0.72 and ranged from 0.53–0.96. Cluster analysis conducted by two methods, namely the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) and principle coordinate analysis (PCoA), separated the accessions into eight distinct groups. Our findings verify that Chinese C. dactylon germplasms have rich genetic diversity, which is an excellent basis for C. dactylon breeding for new cultivars. PMID:25338051

Huang, Chunqiong; Liu, Guodao; Bai, Changjun; Wang, Wenqiang

2014-01-01

160

Genetic diversity and population differentiation in the cockle Cerastoderma edule estimated by microsatellite markers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The edible cockle Cerastoderma edule is a marine bivalve commercially fished in several European countries that have lately suffered a significant decrease in production. Despite its commercial importance, genetic studies in this species are scarce. In this work, genetic diversity and population differentiation of C. edule has been assessed using 11 microsatellite markers in eight locations from the European Atlantic coast. All localities showed similar observed and expected heterozygosity values, but displayed differences in allelic richness, with lowest values obtained for localities situated farther north. Global Fst value revealed the existence of significant genetic structure; all but one locality from the Iberian Peninsula were genetically homogeneous, while more remote localities from France, The Netherlands, and Scotland were significantly different from all other localities. A combined effect of isolation by distance and the existence of barriers that limit gene flow may explain the differentiation observed.

Martínez, L.; Méndez, J.; Insua, A.; Arias-Pérez, A.; Freire, R.

2013-03-01

161

Using host-associated genetic markers to investigate sources of fecal contamination in two Vermont streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The use of host-associated Bacteroidales-based 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid genetic markers was investigated as a tool for providing information to managers on sources of bacterial impairment in Vermont streams. The study was conducted during 2009 in two watersheds on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 303(d) List of Impaired Waters, the Huntington and the Mettawee Rivers. Streamwater samples collected during high-flow and base-flow conditions were analyzed for concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacteroidales genetic markers (General AllBac, Human qHF183 and BacHum, Ruminant BoBac, and Canid BacCan) to identify humans, ruminants, and canids as likely or unlikely major sources of fecal contamination. Fecal reference samples from each of the potential source groups, as well as from common species of wildlife, were collected during the same season and from the same watersheds as water samples. The results were combined with data from other states to assess marker cross reaction and to relate marker results to E. coli, the regulated water-quality parameter, with a higher degree of statistical significance. Results from samples from the Huntington River collected under different flow conditions on three dates indicated that humans were unlikely to be a major source of fecal contamination, except for a single positive result at one station that indicated the potential for human sources. Ruminants (deer, moose, cow, or sheep) were potential sources of fecal contamination at all six stations on the Huntington River during one high-flow event and at all but two stations during the other high-flow event. Canids were potential sources of fecal contamination at some stations during two high-flow events, with genetic-marker concentrations in samples from two of the six stations showing consistent positive results for canids for both storm dates. A base-flow sample showed no evidence of major fecal contamination in the Huntington River from humans, ruminants, or canids. Results from samples from the Mettawee River watershed collected during high-flow conditions (12 storm samples on 2 dates at 6 stations) indicated that there was no evidence of fecal contamination from humans in seven samples and possible evidence in five samples. Results for humans were positive for only one station during both storm events. For two of the five samples with evidence for human fecal contamination, results for two different human genetic markers agreed, but results from three samples were inconsistent. In samples from five of the six Mettawee stations, ruminants were a potential source of fecal contamination on at least one of the three sampled dates, including three positive results for the base-flow sample. Yet samples from all of the stations that showed positive results for ruminants did so for only one or two of the three sampled dates. Samples from only one of the six stations gave consistent results, which were negative for ruminants for all three dates. In the Mettawee River base-flow sample, humans were an unlikely source of major fecal contamination. Factors that may influence results and conclusions include the timing of sample collection relative to the storm event; variability of E. coli and Bacteroidales concentrations in fecal reference samples and in water; sampling and analytical errors; the potential cross reactivity of host-associated genetic markers; and different persistence and survival rates of E. coli bacteria and Bacteroidales genetic markers on land, in water, and by season. These factors interfere with the ability to directly relate Bacteroidales concentrations to E. coli concentrations in river samples. It must be recognized that while use of Bacteroidales genetic markers as a source tracking tool coupled with the interpretive approach described in this report cannot be used quantitatively to pinpoint sources, it can be used to exclude potential sources as major contributors to fecal contamination.

Medalie, Laura; Matthews, Leslie J.; Stelzer, Erin A.

2011-01-01

162

Genetic diversity of two haploid markers in the Udegey population from southeastern Siberia.  

PubMed

The Udegeys are a small ethnic group who live along the tributaries of the Amur River Basin of southeastern Siberia in Russia. They are thought to speak a language belonging to a subdivision of the Tungusic-Manchu branch of the Altaic family. To understand the genetic features and genetic history of the Udegeys, we analyzed two haploid markers, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and Y-chromosomal variation, in 51 individuals (including 21 males) from the Udegey population. In general, the Udegeys' mtDNA profiles revealed similarities to Siberians and other northeastern Asian populations, although a moderate European contribution was also detected. Interestingly, pairwise values of F(ST) and the MDS plots based on the mtDNA variation showed that the Orok and Nivkh inhabiting the very same region of the Udegey were significantly different from the Udegey, implying that they may have been isolated and undergone substantial genetic drift. The Udegeys were characterized by a high frequency (66.7%) of Y chromosome haplogroup C, indicating a close genetic relationship with Mongolians and Siberians. On the paternal side, however, very little admixture was observed between the Udegeys and Europeans. Thus, the combined haploid genetic markers of both mtDNA and the Y chromosome imply that the Udegeys are overall closest to Siberians and northeast Asians of the Altaic linguistic family, with a minor maternal contribution from the European part of the continent. PMID:19953529

Jin, Han-Jun; Kim, Ki-Cheol; Kim, Wook

2010-06-01

163

A genome-wide association study to identify genetic markers associated with endometrial cancer grade  

E-print Network

MEETING ABSTRACT Open Access A genome-wide association study to identify genetic markers associated with endometrial cancer grade T O’Mara1,2, D Duffy2, DJ Thompson3, S Ahmed4, K Ferguson2, CS Healey4, ANECS2, G Montgomery2, M Shah4, J Morrison3, PP... of chemotherapeutic agents targeting aggressive disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying common genetic variation involved in cancer susceptibility. Presently there are lim- ited published studies using GWAS data to identify...

2012-04-12

164

Genetic similarity among Tunisian olive cultivars and two unknown feral olive trees estimated through SSR markers.  

PubMed

We used eight informative microsatellite markers for fingerprinting and evaluation of genetic similarity among 15 Tunisian olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars and two feral unknown trees named Soulela 1 and Soulela 2. Thirty-one alleles were revealed, and the number of alleles per SSR varied from 2 (UDO12) to 6 (GAPU71A). Cluster analysis grouped cultivars into three main clusters. The two unknown varieties could not be reliably classified into any of these cultivar groups. SSR analysis indicated the presence of three erroneous denominations of cultivars. We resolved two synonymy cases (Zalmati and Chemlali; Rkhami and Chetoui) and one case of homonymy (Chemlali Tataouine). Genetic analyses of DNA extracted from leaves, oils, and embryos of the two unknown cultivars and the two major Tunisian olive cultivars (Chemlali and Chetoui) were also studied. We conclude that the reliable identification of these two feral cultivars needs to be addressed by a larger set of markers. PMID:24535154

Ben-Ayed, Rayda; Sans-Grout, Cinderella; Moreau, Fabienne; Grati-Kamoun, Naziha; Rebai, Ahmed

2014-06-01

165

Genetic linkage of mild pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) to markers in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 19  

SciTech Connect

Pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) is a dominantly inherited form of short-limb dwarfism characterized by dysplastic changes in the spine, epiphyses, and metaphyses and early onset osteoarthropathy. Chondrocytes from affected individuals accumulate an unusual appearing material in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, which has led to the hypothesis that a structural abnormality in a cartilage-specific protein produces the phenotype. The authors recently identified a large family with a mild form of pseudoachondroplasia. By genetic linkage to a dinucleotide repeat polymorphic marker (D19S199), they have localized the disease gene to chromosome 19 (maximum lod score of 7.09 at a recombination fraction of 0.03). Analysis of additional markers and recombinations between the linked markers and the phenotype suggests that the disease gene resides within a 6.3-cM interval in the immediate pericentromeric region of the chromosome. 39 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Briggs, M.D.; Rasmussen, M.; Garber, P.; Rimoin, D.L.; Cohn, D.H. (Steven Spielberg Pediatric Research Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Weber, J.L. (Marshfield Medical Research Foundation, WI (United States)); Yuen, J.; Reinker, K. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States))

1993-12-01

166

A genetic linkage map of Silene vulgaris based on AFLP markers.  

PubMed

A genetic linkage map of an intraspecific cross between 2 Silene vulgaris s.l. ecotypes is presented. Three-hundred AFLP markers from 2 different restriction enzyme combinations were used to genotype an F2 mapping population. Maternal and paternal pure-coupling phase maps with 114 and 186 markers on 12 and 13 linkage groups, respectively, were constructed. Total map length of the paternal and maternal maps are 547 and 446 Kosambi cM, respectively. Nearly half of the markers (49%) exhibited significant transmission ratio distortion. Genome coverage and potential causes of the observed segregation ratio distortions are discussed. The maps represent a first step towards the identification of quantitative trait loci associated with habitat adaptation in the non-model species Silene vulgaris. PMID:16699551

Bratteler, Martin; Lexer, Christian; Widmer, Alex

2006-04-01

167

Latino Populations: A Unique Opportunity for the Study of Race, Genetics, and Social Environment in Epidemiological Research  

PubMed Central

Latinos are the largest minority population in the United States. Although usually classified as a single ethnic group by researchers, Latinos are heterogeneous from cultural, socioeconomic, and genetic perspectives. From a cultural and social perspective, Latinos represent a wide variety of national origins and ethnic and cultural groups, with a full spectrum of social class. From a genetic perspective, Latinos are descended from indigenous American, European, and African populations. We review the historical events that led to the formation of contemporary Latino populations and use results from recent genetic and clinical studies to illustrate the unique opportunity Latino groups offer for studying the interaction between racial, genetic, and environmental contributions to disease occurrence and drug response. PMID:16257940

Gonzalez Burchard, Esteban; Borrell, Luisa N.; Choudhry, Shweta; Naqvi, Mariam; Tsai, Hui-Ju; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R.; Chapela, Rocio; Rogers, Scott D.; Mei, Rui; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Arena, Jose F.; Kittles, Rick; Perez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Ziv, Elad; Risch, Neil

2005-01-01

168

Genetic linkage maps of rose constructed with new microsatellite markers and locating QTL controlling flowering traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

New microsatellites markers [simple sequence repeat (SSR)] have been isolated from rose and integrated into an existing amplified\\u000a fragment-length polymorphism genetic map. This new map was used to identify quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling date\\u000a of flowering and number of petals. From a rose bud expressed sequence tag (EST) database of 2,556 unigenes and a rose genomic\\u000a library, 44 EST-SSRs

L. Hibrand-Saint Oyant; L. Crespel; S. Rajapakse; L. Zhang; F. Foucher

2008-01-01

169

Analysis of genetic diversity in Agave tequilana var. Azul using RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

By federal law in Mexico, A. tequilana Weber var. Azul is the only variety of agave permitted for the production of any tequila. Our objective was to assay levels\\u000a of genetic variation in field populations of A. tequilana var. Azul using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Ten plants were collected from each of four different\\u000a fields, with two fields

Katia Gil Vega; Mario González Chavira; Octavio Martínez de la Vega; June Simpson; George Vandemark

2001-01-01

170

The development of a new system of genetic markers for Kamchatka mykiss Parasalmo (Onchorhynchus) mykiss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Region) and ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeats or Inter-Microsatellite-PCR)\\u000a gene marker systems were developed for genetic analysis of populations of Kamchatka mykiss Parasalmo (O.) mykiss and other salmonids. Both systems demonstrated a high level of variability between newborn populations of mykiss, and, despite\\u000a the initial species specificity, can be used for analysis of other

S. D. Pavlov; M. N. Mel’nikova; A. L. Senchukova; E. A. Pivovarov

2010-01-01

171

UNC study finds genetic marker in vitamin D receptor gene associated with increased pancreatic cancer survival  

Cancer.gov

Pancreatic cancer patients with a genetic marker linked to increased expression of the receptor for vitamin D have higher rates of overall survival, according to findings presented at the American Association for Cancer Research's Pancreatic Cancer: Progress and Challenges conference, held in Lake Tahoe, Nev., June 18-21. The study was conducted by scientists from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Eshelman School of Pharmacy. UNC is home to the Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center.

172

Cultivar identification and genetic fingerprinting of temperate fruit tree species using DNA markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years we have witnessed critical advances in the applications of molecular markers for genetic fingerprinting in\\u000a cultivated plants. Their advantages have been widely recognised but they are even more important in woody perennials due to\\u000a some particularities of these species such as their long generation time, their large individual size and their vegetative\\u000a propagation. In this review, the

A. Wünsch; J. I. Hormaza

2002-01-01

173

Genetic linkage map of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] using morphological and molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic linkage map of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batch] was constructed in order to identify molecular markers linked to economically important agronomic traits that\\u000a would be particularly useful for long-lived perennial species. An intraspecific F2 population was generated from self-pollinating a single F1 plant from a cross between a flat non-acid peach, ‘Ferjalou Jalousia’ and an acid round nectarine

E. Dirlewanger; V. Pronier; C. Parvery; C. Rothan; A. Guye; R. Monet

1998-01-01

174

Quantitative forward mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium using 8-azaguanine resistance as a genetic marker.  

PubMed Central

We have developed a quantitative forward mutation assay using Salmonella typhimurium, in which resistance to the purine analog 8-azaguanine is used as a genetic marker. We present the assay protocol, the concentration-dependent toxicity and mutagenicity of five known mutagens (N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, ICR-191, 9-aminoacridine, dimethylnitrosamine, and benzo[a]pyrene), and reconstruction experiments testing the assay for possible bias. The relative merits of forward versus reverse mutation assays are discussed. PMID:343109

Skopek, T R; Liber, H L; Krolewski, J J; Thilly, W G

1978-01-01

175

Genetic markers distinguishing between the two subspecies of the rosy bitterling, Rhodeus ocellatus (Cyprinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven populations of the rosy bitterling,Rhodeus ocellatus, from different localities in Japan, were genetically compared at 16 protein-coding loci using starch-gel electrophoresis.\\u000a Two loci,Ldh-2 andPgdh, were demonstrated as diagnostic markers for the identification of two subspecies;R. ocellatus kurumeus, which is native to Japan, andR. ocellatus ocellatus, which was introduced from China. The two subspecies were distinguished by the complete substitution

Yoshikazu Nagata; Tadashi Tetsukawa; Takanori Kobayashi; Ken-ichi Numachi

1996-01-01

176

Genetic diversity among elite Bulgarian barley varieties evaluated by RFLP and RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation among five elite winter barley cultivars (H. vulgare L.) currently grown in Bulgaria was assessed at the molecular level using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)\\u000a and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The present study sampled RFLPs in four well characterized multigene\\u000a families in barley: the seed storage protein loci; the 18S, 5.8S and 26S ribosomal DNA loci;

Elena Todorovska; Adelina Trifonova; Atanas Atanassov

2003-01-01

177

[Cloning goat producing human lactoferrin with genetically modified donor cells selected by single or dual markers].  

PubMed

We compared the efficiency of cloning goat using human lactoferrin (hLF) with genetically modified donor cells marked by single (Neo(r)) or double (Neo(r)/GFP) markers. Single marker expression vector (pBLC14) or dual markers expression vector (pAPLM) was delivered to goat fetal fibroblasts (GFF), and then the transgenic GFF was used as donor cells to produce transgenic goats. Respectively, 58.8% (20/34) and 86.7% (26/30) resistant cell lines confirmed the transgenic integration by PCR. Moreover, pAPLM cells lines were subcultured with several passages, only 20% (6/30) cell lines was observed fluorescence from each cell during the cell passage. Somatic cell nuclear transfer using the donor cells harbouring pBLC14 or pAPLM construct, resulting in a total of 806 reconstructed embryos, a pregnancy rate at 35 d (53.8%, 39.1%) and 60 d (26.9%, 21.7%), and an offspring birth rate (1.9%, 1.4%) with 5 and 7 newborn cloned goats, respectively. Transgene was confirmed by PCR and southern-blot in all cloned offspring. There were no significant differences at the reconstructed embryo fusion rates, pregnancy rates and the birth rate (P > 0.05) between single and double markers groups. The Neo(r)/GFP double markers could improve the reliability for accurately and efficiently selecting the genetically modified donor cells. No adverse effect was observed on the efficiency of transgenic goat production by SCNT using somatic cells transfected with double (Neo(r)/GFP) markers vector. PMID:23593872

An, Liyou; Yuan, Yuguo; Yu, Baoli; Yang, Tingjia; Cheng, Yong

2012-12-01

178

Genetic variability and structure of Quercus brantii assessed by ISSR, IRAP and SCoT markers.  

PubMed

Persian oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) is one of the most important woody species of the Zagros forests in Iran. Three molecular marker techniques: start codon targeted (SCoT), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) markers were compared for fingerprinting of 125 individuals of this species collected from different geographical locations of north-west of Iran. A total of 233 bands were amplified by 18 ISSR primers, of which 224 (96.10%) were polymorphic, and 126 polymorphic bands (97.65%) were observed in 129 bands amplified by 10 IRAP primers. Besides, 118 bands were observed for all 10 SCoT primers, of which 113 were polymorphic (95.71%). Average polymorphism information content (PIC) for ISSR, IRAP and SCoT markers was 0.30, 0.32 and 0.38, respectively, and this revealed that SCoT markers were more informative than IRAP and ISSR for the assessment of diversity among individuals. Based on the three different molecular types, cluster analysis revealed that 125 individuals taken for the analysis can be divided into three distinct clusters. The Jaccard's genetic similarity based on the combined data ranged from 0.23 to 0.76. These results suggest that efficiency of SCoT, IRAP and ISSR markers was relatively the same in fingerprinting of individuals. All molecular marker types revealed a low genetic differentiation among populations, indicating the possibility of gene flow between the studied populations. These results have an important implication for Persian oak (Q. brantii) germplasm characterization, improvement, and conservation. PMID:25241382

Alikhani, Leila; Rahmani, Mohammad-Shafie; Shabanian, Naghi; Badakhshan, Hedieh; Khadivi-Khub, Abdollah

2014-11-15

179

Genetic relationships in the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) analysed by microsatellite DNA markers.  

PubMed

Microsatellite DNA markers were developed from a peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) and genetic relationships among peregrine falcons in southern Norway were analysed using the markers. The genomic DNA library was screened for the presence of dinucleotide microsatellite repeats. Twelve loci revealed polymorphism through the initial analysis of 24 unrelated peregrine falcons, and Mendelian inheritance was confirmed in two peregrine falcon families bred in captivity. The estimated mean probability of identical genotypes in two unrelated individuals was 3 x 10-8, and the combined exclusion probability for parentage testing was 0.99 and 0.94 for one or both parents unknown, respectively. The markers were used to investigate the parentage of peregrine broods from the same nest site from different breeding seasons, and subsequently the nest-site fidelity of the breeding peregrines. High nest-site fidelity was found by studying pairwise comparisons of relatedness (rxy) estimates among chicks at six nest sites from three different breeding seasons. Cross-species amplifications showed that most loci also appeared to amplify polymorphic products in the gyrfalcon (F. rusticolus), merlin (F. columbarius), hobby (F. subbuteo) and kestrel (F. tinnunculus), demonstrating that the loci will provide powerful genetic markers in these falcons too. PMID:10652075

Nesje, M; Røed, K H; Lifjeld, J T; Lindberg, P; Steen, O F

2000-01-01

180

Genetic diversity analysis of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers.  

PubMed

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) is not only a nutrient-rich vegetable but also an important medicinal herb. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to investigate the genetic diversity and differentiation of 24 okra genotypes. In this study, the PCR products were separated by electrophoresis on 8% nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel and visualized by silver staining. The 22 ISSR primers produced 289 amplified DNA fragments, and 145 (50%) fragments were polymorphic. The 289 markers were used to construct the dendrogram based on the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis. The dendrogram indicated that 24 okras were clustered into 4 geographically distinct groups. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.531929, which showed that the majority of primers were informative. The high values of allele frequency, genetic diversity, and heterozygosity showed that primer-sample combinations produced measurable fragments. The mean distances ranged from 0.045455 to 0.454545. The dendrogram indicated that the ISSR markers succeeded in distinguishing most of the 24 varieties in relation to their genetic backgrounds and geographical origins. PMID:24841648

Yuan, C Y; Zhang, C; Wang, P; Hu, S; Chang, H P; Xiao, W J; Lu, X T; Jiang, S B; Ye, J Z; Guo, X H

2014-01-01

181

[Genetic singularity coefficients of common vetch Vicia sativa L. accessions determined with molecular markers].  

PubMed

Organization and practical application of ex situ collections require estimation of genetic differences between numerous accessions of local cultivars and field weed forms collected from the same ecological and geographical region and similar in their morphophysiological characteristics. A mathematical algorithm for estimating the degree of genetic singularity of a specimen in the system of local gene pool determined with the help of molecular markers is described. The utility of this algorithm is demonstrated by the example of classification of 677 common vetch accessions from the collection of the Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry from 11 ecological-geographic regions of Russia analyzed using AFLP. The proposed classification of accessions is the result of processing the AFLP data by weighting the marker traits based on their frequency in particular regions. This allowed each accession to be characterized according to the ratio of rare and frequent alleles as a genetic singularity coefficient. The proposed method is appropriate for any types of molecular markers. A practical result of its application is the classification of accessions using a five-point score scale, which can be added to descriptors of certificate databases and used for optimization of the work with collections. PMID:19137734

Potokina, E K; Aleksandrova, T G

2008-11-01

182

Genetic differentiation between natural and hatchery populations of Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) based on microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) is one of the major aquaculture species around the world and supports an important segment of the aquaculture industry in China. In this study, we used ten microsatellite markers to detect genetic diversity within six R. philippinarum populations and genetic differentiation between them. A total of 109 alleles were detected across all loci. Compared to wild populations (N(A) = 8.4-9.1 alleles/locus, H(E) = 0.75-0.77, H(O) = 0.67-0.73), hatchery stocks showed less genetic variation as revealed in lower number of alleles and lower heterozygosity (N(A) = 7.4-7.5 alleles/locus, H(E) = 0.72-0.75, H(O) = 0.68-0.70), indicating that a bottleneck effect has occurred in hatchery history. Significant genetic differentiation was observed between cultured stocks (P < 0.05), and between cultured and wild populations (P < 0.05). Phylogenetic analysis showed a clear separation of the northern three populations and the southern three populations, suggesting that geographically separated populations of R. philippinarum could be genetically differentiated with limited genetic information exchanged between them. The information obtained in this study indicates that the northern and southern populations of R. philippinarum should be managed separately in hatchery practices for the preservation of genetic diversity in wild populations. PMID:24535849

Xing, K; Gao, M L; Li, H J

2014-01-01

183

Genetic variability of oil palm parental genotypes and performance of its' progenies as revealed by molecular markers and quantitative traits.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted to assess the genetic relationships between the parental palms (dura and pisifera) and performance of their progenies based on nine microsatellite markers and 29 quantitative traits. Correlation analyses between genetic distances and hybrids performance were estimated. The coefficients of correlation values of genetic distances with hybrid performance were non-significant, except for mean nut weight and leaf number. However, the correlation coefficient of genetic distances with these characters was low to be used as predicted value. These results indicated that genetic distances based on the microsatellite markers may not be useful for predicting hybrid performance. The genetic distance analysis using UPGMA clustering system generated 5 genetic clusters with coefficient of 1.26 based on quantitative traits of progenies. The genotypes, DP16, DP14, DP4, DP13, DP12, DP15, DP8, DP1 and DP2 belonging to distant clusters and greater genetic distances could be selected for further breeding programs. PMID:21513898

Abdullah, Norziha; Rafii Yusop, Mohd; Ithnin, Maizura; Saleh, Ghizan; Latif, M A

2011-04-01

184

Genetic Relationships of Aglaonema Species and Cultivars Inferred from AFLP Markers  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Aglaonema is an important ornamental foliage plant genus, but genetic relationships among its species and cultivars have not been reported. This study analysed genetic relatedness of 54 cultivars derived from nine species using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. • Methods Initially, 48 EcoRI + 2/MseI + 3 primer set combinations were screened, from which six primer sets that showed clear scoreable and highly polymorphic fragments were selected and used for AFLP reactions. AFLP fragments were scored and entered into a binary data matrix as discrete variables. Jaccard’s coefficient of similarity was calculated for all pair?wise comparisons among the 54 cultivars, and a dendrogram was constructed by the unweighted pair?group method using the arithmetic average (UPGMA). • Key Results The number of AFLP fragments generated per primer set ranged from 59 to 112 with fragment sizes varying from 50 to 565 bp. A total of 449 AFLP fragments was detected, of which 314 were polymorphic (70 %). All cultivars were clearly differentiated by their AFLP fingerprints. The 54 cultivars were divided into seven clusters; cultivars within each cluster generally share similar morphological characteristics. Cluster I contains 35 cultivars, most of them are interspecific hybrids developed mainly from A. commutatum, A. crispum or A. nitidum. However, Jaccard’s similarity coefficients among these hybrids are 0·84 or higher, suggesting that these popular hybrid cultivars are genetically much closer than previously thought. This genetic similarity may imply that A. nitidum and A. crispum are likely progenitors of A. commutatum. • Conclusions Results of this study demonstrate the efficiency and ease of using AFLP markers for investigating genetic relationships of ornamental foliage plants, a group usually propagated vegetatively. The AFLP markers developed will help future Aglaonema cultivar identification, germplasm conservation and new cultivar development. PMID:14726418

CHEN, JIANJUN; DEVANAND, PACHANOOR S.; NORMAN, DAVID J.; HENNY, RICHARD J.; CHAO, CHIH?CHENG T.

2004-01-01

185

Characterization of genetic resistance to helminths in goats using microsatellite genetic markers  

E-print Network

Twenty-four microsatellite markers, isolated from caprine and bovine genomic libraries were used to genotype DNA collected from the Kenya dual purpose goat (KDPG) flock. Two hundred and eighty-one animals with eggs per gram of feces (EPG) and packed...

Kogi, Joseph Kan'gethe

2012-06-07

186

Multi-Genetic Marker Approach and Spatio-Temporal Analysis Suggest There Is a Single Panmictic Population of Swordfish Xiphias gladius in the Indian Ocean  

PubMed Central

Genetic population structure of swordfish Xiphias gladius was examined based on 2231 individual samples, collected mainly between 2009 and 2010, among three major sampling areas within the Indian Ocean (IO; twelve distinct sites), Atlantic (two sites) and Pacific (one site) Oceans using analysis of nineteen microsatellite loci (n?=?2146) and mitochondrial ND2 sequences (n?=?2001) data. Sample collection was stratified in time and space in order to investigate the stability of the genetic structure observed with a special focus on the South West Indian Ocean. Significant AMOVA variance was observed for both markers indicating genetic population subdivision was present between oceans. Overall value of F-statistics for ND2 sequences confirmed that Atlantic and Indian Oceans swordfish represent two distinct genetic stocks. Indo-Pacific differentiation was also significant but lower than that observed between Atlantic and Indian Oceans. However, microsatellite F-statistics failed to reveal structure even at the inter-oceanic scale, indicating that resolving power of our microsatellite loci was insufficient for detecting population subdivision. At the scale of the Indian Ocean, results obtained from both markers are consistent with swordfish belonging to a single unique panmictic population. Analyses partitioned by sampling area, season, or sex also failed to identify any clear structure within this ocean. Such large spatial and temporal homogeneity of genetic structure, observed for such a large highly mobile pelagic species, suggests as satisfactory to consider swordfish as a single panmictic population in the Indian Ocean. PMID:23717447

Muths, Delphine; Le Couls, Sarah; Evano, Hugues; Grewe, Peter; Bourjea, Jerome

2013-01-01

187

Population genetic analysis of white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus, using microsatellite genetic markers.  

PubMed

The white shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus) is a commercially and recreationally valuable species, yet little is known of its population structure or genetic diversity. White shrimp are distributed along the Atlantic coast of the United States and from the west coast of Florida to the Bay of Campeche, Mexico. In this study, shrimp were collected from North Carolina, South Carolina (four separate collections were taken from 1995 to 1999), Georgia, the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of Florida, Louisiana, Texas and Mexico. DNA was isolated from these individuals, and genetic variation was assessed at six microsatellite loci. These loci were, for the most part, highly polymorphic with an average expected heterozygosity of 0.68. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions were observed over all samples, but experimental results suggested the presence of null alleles, which confounded a biological interpretation of this result. Pairwise tests of the similarity of allele frequency distributions and distance measure analyses showed broad-scale genetic homogeneity superimposed over occasional indications of random geographical and temporal differentiation. FST and RST estimates over all loci and samples were 0.002 or less and indicated little population structure. Weak but significant genetic differentiation was evident only between pooled western Atlantic and pooled Gulf of Mexico samples. Within the Gulf of Mexico or within the western Atlantic, the large-scale genetic homogeneity observed may be a consequence of genetic mixing resulting from pelagic larvae and adult migrations, while the random local genetic differentiation may be a result of genetic sampling or experimental sampling error. The weak differentiation between shrimp from the Gulf of Mexico and the western Atlantic can be explained by a relatively recent separation of these two populations and/or small amounts of ongoing gene flow. PMID:12919471

Ball, Amy O; Chapman, Robert W

2003-09-01

188

Evaluation of genetically modified sugarcane lines carrying Cry 1AC gene using molecular marker techniques.  

PubMed

Five genetically modified insect resistant sugarcane lines harboring the Bt Cry 1AC gene to produce insecticidal proteins were compared with non-transgenic control by using three types of molecular marker techniques namely, RAPD, ISSR and AFLP. These techniques were applied on transgenic and non-transgenic plants to investigate the genetic variations, which may appear in sugarcane clones. This variation might demonstrate the genomic changes associated with the transformation process, which could change important molecular basis of various biological phenomena. Genetic variations were screened using 22 different RAPD primers, 10 ISSR primers and 13 AFLP primer combinations. Analysis of RAPD and ISSR banding patterns gave no exclusive evidence for genetic variations. Meanwhile, the percentage of polymorphic bands was 0.45% in each of RAPD and ISSR, while the polymorphism generated by AFLP analysis was 1.8%. The maximum percentage of polymorphic bands was 1.4%, 1.1% and 5.5% in RAPD, ISSR and AFLP, respectively. These results demonstrate that most transgenic lines showed genomic homogeneity and verified minor genomic changes. Dendrograms revealing the relationships among the transgenic and control plants were developed from the data of each of the three marker types. PMID:23549345

Ismail, Roba M

2013-01-01

189

Random Amplified Polymorphic Markers as Indicator for Genetic Conservation Program in Iranian Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus)  

PubMed Central

The objective of present study was identification of genetic similarity between wild Iran and captive Azerbaijan Pheasant using PCR-RAPD markers. For this purpose, in overall, 28 birds were taken for DNA extraction and subsequently 15 arbitrary primers were applied for PCR-RAPD technique. After electrophoresis, five primers exhibited sufficient variability which yielded overall 65 distinct bands, 59 polymorphic bands, for detalis, range of number of bands per primer was 10 to 14, and produced size varied between 200 to 1500?bp. Highest and lowest polymorphic primers were OPC5, OPC16 (100%) and OPC15 (81%), respectively. Result of genetic variation between two groups was accounted as nonsignificant (8.12%) of the overall variation. According to our expectation the wild Iranian birds showed higher genetic diversity value than the Azerbaijan captive birds. As general conclusion, two pheasant populations have almost same genetic origin and probably are subpopulations of one population. The data reported herein could open the opportunity to search for suitable conservation strategy to improve richness of Iran biodiversity and present study here was the first report that might have significant impact on the breeding and conservation program of Iranian pheasant gene pool. Analyses using more regions, more birds, and more DNA markers will be useful to confirm or to reject these findings. PMID:23002388

Elyasi Zarringhabaie, Ghorban; Javanmard, Arash; Pirahary, Ommolbanin

2012-01-01

190

Random amplified polymorphic markers as indicator for genetic conservation program in Iranian pheasant (Phasianus colchicus).  

PubMed

The objective of present study was identification of genetic similarity between wild Iran and captive Azerbaijan Pheasant using PCR-RAPD markers. For this purpose, in overall, 28 birds were taken for DNA extraction and subsequently 15 arbitrary primers were applied for PCR-RAPD technique. After electrophoresis, five primers exhibited sufficient variability which yielded overall 65 distinct bands, 59 polymorphic bands, for detalis, range of number of bands per primer was 10 to 14, and produced size varied between 200 to 1500?bp. Highest and lowest polymorphic primers were OPC5, OPC16 (100%) and OPC15 (81%), respectively. Result of genetic variation between two groups was accounted as nonsignificant (8.12%) of the overall variation. According to our expectation the wild Iranian birds showed higher genetic diversity value than the Azerbaijan captive birds. As general conclusion, two pheasant populations have almost same genetic origin and probably are subpopulations of one population. The data reported herein could open the opportunity to search for suitable conservation strategy to improve richness of Iran biodiversity and present study here was the first report that might have significant impact on the breeding and conservation program of Iranian pheasant gene pool. Analyses using more regions, more birds, and more DNA markers will be useful to confirm or to reject these findings. PMID:23002388

Elyasi Zarringhabaie, Ghorban; Javanmard, Arash; Pirahary, Ommolbanin

2012-01-01

191

[Genetic variability of Siberian fir (Abies sibirica Ledeb.) inferred from AFLP markers].  

PubMed

Genetic variability of AFLP markers was studied in 20 populations of Siberian fir (Abies sibirica (Pinaceae) and in two populations of Far-Eastern Manchurian fir A. nephrolepis and Sakhalin fir A. sachalinensis each. Four pairs of selective primers were used. In total, 168 samples from three fir species were genotyped for 117 polymorphic loci. According to the AMOVA results, the variability proportion characterizing the differences between three Abies species was several times higher (F(CT) = 0.53) than that accounting for among-population differences within the species (F(SC) = 0.125). Differentiation of the A. sibirica populations based on AFLP markers exceeded 14% (F(ST) = 0.141). Significant correlation between the genetic distances calculated from the AFLP data and the geographic distances between populations was found. The results of AFLP variability analysis supported and supplemented the conclusions inferred previously from allozyme and cpSSR data: several genetically similar geographic groups of Siberian fir were identified. These groups differ both in allele frequencies and in the levels of genetic variation. PMID:21516799

Semerikova, S A; Semerikov, V L

2011-02-01

192

Evaluation of genetic variability and distances among five Iranian native chicken populations using RAPD markers.  

PubMed

Genetic variability was studied on five Iranian native chicken populations using Random Amplified Polymorphism DNA (RAPD) markers. The purpose of this study was for the analysis of variation within and between Iranian native chicken populations and for the reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree for these populations using the RAPD marker assay. The populations surveyed were from five provinces including Mazandaran (MZD), Isfahan (ISF), Yazd (YZD), Fars (FRS) and West Azerbaijan (WAZ). On the base of results of this study, the FRS and MZD populations had the highest genetic distance (0.182) and the FRS and ISF populations the lowest one (0.066). The YZD and MZD populations had the highest (0.208) and lowest (0.156) within-population genetic diversity. The phylogenetic tree was reconstructed on UPGMA method and showed two main separated groups. The ISF and FRS populations were first clustered into one group and, then, were clustered into a larger group with YZD and WAZ. Another consists MZD population was clustered separately from this group. This study showed that RAPD technique is an useful tool for evaluation of genetic variation among domesticated animals. PMID:19803121

Dehghanzadeh, H; Mirhoseini, S Z; Romanov, M N; Ghorbani, A

2009-06-01

193

Questionable Specificity of Genetic Total Faecal Pollution Markers for Integrated Water Quality Monitoring and Source Tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterisation of microbial faecal hazards in water is a fundamental aspect for target-orientated water resources management to achieve appropriate water quality for various purposes like water supply or agriculture and thus to minimize related health risks. Nowadays the management of water resources increasingly demands detailed knowledge on the extent and the origin of microbial pollution. Cultivation of standard faecal indicator bacteria, which has been used for over a century to test the microbiological water quality, cannot sufficiently meet these challenges. The abundant intestinal bacterial populations are very promising alternative targets for modern faecal indication systems. Numerous assays for the detection of genetic markers targeting source-specific populations of the phylum Bacteroidetes have been developed in recent years. In some cases markers for total faecal pollution were also proposed in order to relate source-specific marker concentrations to general faecal pollution levels. However, microbial populations in intestinal and non-intestinal systems exhibit a dazzling array of diversity and molecular analysis of microbial faecal pollution has been based on a fragmentary puzzle of very limited sequence information. The aim of this study was to test the available qPCR-based methods detecting genetic Bacteroidetes markers for total faecal pollution in terms of their value and specificity as indicators of faecal pollution. We applied the AllBac (Layton et al., 2006) the BacUni (Kildare et al., 2007) and the Bacteroidetes (Dick and Field, 2004) assays on soil DNA samples. Samples were collected in well characterised karst spring catchments in Austria's Eastern Calcareous Alps. They were at various levels of altitude between 800 and 1800 meters above sea level and from several different habitats (woodland, alpine pastures, krummholz). In addition we tried to choose sampling sites representing a presumptive gradient of faecal pollution levels. For example sites with obvious faecal influence (e.g. right next to a cowpat) were included as well as more pristine sites without faecal influence from large animals (e.g. fenced areas). Surprisingly, results from investigations with the AllBac assay showed concentrations of the total faecal marker in soil in the range of 106 to 109 Marker Equivalents per g of soil, which is equal or only slightly lower than the concentrations of this particular marker in faeces or raw sewage. Preliminary results from the other tested assays seem to confirm that the targeted markers are also highly abundant in soils. In addition, the markers were present in comparable concentrations in soils from pristine locations as well as in soils under the potential influence of faeces giving a strong indication that these methods also target non-intestinal, autochthonous soil populations. In contrast, source-specific markers (ruminant-specific BacR and human-specific BacH, Reischer et al., 2007, 2006) could only be detected in 30 to 50% of the soil samples at concentrations close to the detection limit, which is at least four orders of magnitude lower than in faecal samples of the respective target sources, ruminant animals and humans. The achieved results call the applicability of the proposed qPCR-based assays for total faecal pollution into question. In fact the assays do not seem to be specific for intestinal Bacteroidetes populations at all and the respective marker concentration levels in pristine soils negate their applicability in the investigated areas. This study also emphasizes the need to test the specificity and sensitivity of qPCR-based assays for total faecal pollution on the local level and especially against non-intestinal environmental samples, which might contribute to marker levels in the aquatic compartment. In conclusion there is a strong demand for marker-based detection techniques for total faecal pollution in water quality monitoring and risk assessment but currently none of the tested assays seems to meet the methodical requirements.

Vierheilig, Julia; Reischer, Georg H.; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

2010-05-01

194

Analysis of the transcriptome of Panax notoginseng root uncovers putative triterpene saponin-biosynthetic genes and genetic markers  

PubMed Central

Background Panax notoginseng (Burk) F.H. Chen is important medicinal plant of the Araliacease family. Triterpene saponins are the bioactive constituents in P. notoginseng. However, available genomic information regarding this plant is limited. Moreover, details of triterpene saponin biosynthesis in the Panax species are largely unknown. Results Using the 454 pyrosequencing technology, a one-quarter GS FLX titanium run resulted in 188,185 reads with an average length of 410 bases for P. notoginseng root. These reads were processed and assembled by 454 GS De Novo Assembler software into 30,852 unique sequences. A total of 70.2% of unique sequences were annotated by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) similarity searches against public sequence databases. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) assignment discovered 41 unique sequences representing 11 genes involved in triterpene saponin backbone biosynthesis in the 454-EST dataset. In particular, the transcript encoding dammarenediol synthase (DS), which is the first committed enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of major triterpene saponins, is highly expressed in the root of four-year-old P. notoginseng. It is worth emphasizing that the candidate cytochrome P450 (Pn02132 and Pn00158) and UDP-glycosyltransferase (Pn00082) gene most likely to be involved in hydroxylation or glycosylation of aglycones for triterpene saponin biosynthesis were discovered from 174 cytochrome P450s and 242 glycosyltransferases by phylogenetic analysis, respectively. Putative transcription factors were detected in 906 unique sequences, including Myb, homeobox, WRKY, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), and other family proteins. Additionally, a total of 2,772 simple sequence repeat (SSR) were identified from 2,361 unique sequences, of which, di-nucleotide motifs were the most abundant motif. Conclusion This study is the first to present a large-scale EST dataset for P. notoginseng root acquired by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. The candidate genes involved in triterpene saponin biosynthesis, including the putative CYP450s and UGTs, were obtained in this study. Additionally, the identification of SSRs provided plenty of genetic makers for molecular breeding and genetics applications in this species. These data will provide information on gene discovery, transcriptional regulation and marker-assisted selection for P. notoginseng. The dataset establishes an important foundation for the study with the purpose of ensuring adequate drug resources for this species. PMID:22369100

2011-01-01

195

Exploring the Distribution of Genetic Markers of Pharmacogenomics Relevance in Brazilian and Mexican Populations  

PubMed Central

Studies of pharmacogenomics-related traits are increasingly being performed to identify loci that affect either drug response or susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. However, the effect of the polymorphisms can differ in magnitude or be absent depending on the population being assessed. We used the Affymetrix Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters (DMET) Plus array to characterize the distribution of polymorphisms of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics (PGx) relevance in two samples from the most populous Latin American countries, Brazil and Mexico. The sample from Brazil included 268 individuals from the southeastern state of Rio de Janeiro, and was stratified into census categories. The sample from Mexico comprised 45 Native American Zapotecas and 224 self-identified Mestizo individuals from 5 states located in geographically distant regions in Mexico. We evaluated the admixture proportions in the Brazilian and Mexican samples using a panel of Ancestry Informative Markers extracted from the DMET array, which was validated with genome-wide data. A substantial variation in ancestral proportions across census categories in Brazil, and geographic regions in Mexico was identified. We evaluated the extent of genetic differentiation (measured as FST values) of the genetic markers of the DMET Plus array between the relevant parental populations. Although the average levels of genetic differentiation are low, there is a long tail of markers showing large frequency differences, including markers located in genes belonging to the Cytochrome P450, Solute Carrier (SLC) and UDP-glucuronyltransferase (UGT) families as well as other genes of PGx relevance such as ABCC8, ADH1A, CHST3, PON1, PPARD, PPARG, and VKORC1. We show how differences in admixture history may have an important impact in the distribution of allele and genotype frequencies at the population level. PMID:25419701

Bonifaz-Peña, Vania; Contreras, Alejandra V.; Struchiner, Claudio Jose; Roela, Rosimeire A.; Furuya-Mazzotti, Tatiane K.; Chammas, Roger; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Gómez-Vázquez, María José; McLeod, Howard L.; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo

2014-01-01

196

Genetic mapping of DArT markers in the Festuca – Lolium complex and their use in freezing tolerance association analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species belonging to the Festuca–Lolium complex are important forage and turf species and as such, have been studied intensively. However, their out-crossing nature\\u000a and limited availability of molecular markers make genetic studies difficult. Here, we report on saturation of F. pratensis and L. multiflorum genetic maps using Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers and the DArTFest array.The 530 and 149 DArT

Jan Bartoš; Simen Rød Sandve; Roland Kölliker; David Kopecký; Pavla Christelová; Št?pán Sto?es; Liv Østrem; Arild Larsen; Andrzej Kilian; Odd-Arne Rognli; Jaroslav Doležel

2011-01-01

197

An efficient method to find potentially universal population genetic markers, applied to metazoans  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the impressive growth of sequence databases, the limited availability of nuclear markers that are sufficiently polymorphic for population genetics and phylogeography and applicable across various phyla restricts many potential studies, particularly in non-model organisms. Numerous introns have invariant positions among kingdoms, providing a potential source for such markers. Unfortunately, most of the few known EPIC (Exon Primed Intron Crossing) loci are restricted to vertebrates or belong to multigenic families. Results In order to develop markers with broad applicability, we designed a bioinformatic approach aimed at avoiding multigenic families while identifying intron positions conserved across metazoan phyla. We developed a program facilitating the identification of EPIC loci which allowed slight variation in intron position. From the Homolens databases we selected 29 gene families which contained 52 promising introns for which we designed 93 primer pairs. PCR tests were performed on several ascidians, echinoderms, bivalves and cnidarians. On average, 24 different introns per genus were amplified in bilaterians. Remarkably, five of the introns successfully amplified in all of the metazoan genera tested (a dozen genera, including cnidarians). The influence of several factors on amplification success was investigated. Success rate was not related to the phylogenetic relatedness of a taxon to the groups that most influenced primer design, showing that these EPIC markers are extremely conserved in animals. Conclusions Our new method now makes it possible to (i) rapidly isolate a set of EPIC markers for any phylum, even outside the animal kingdom, and thus, (ii) compare genetic diversity at potentially homologous polymorphic loci between divergent taxa. PMID:20836842

2010-01-01

198

Potential Vulnerability Markers within the Affective Domain in Subjects at Genetic and Clinical High Risk for Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Relative to ample high-risk studies on neurocognitive function, only a few high-risk studies have examined affective functioning components as possible vulnerability markers. In this study, we comprehensively assessed baseline affective functioning in subjects at clinical high risk (CHR) and genetic high risk (GHR) for schizophrenia, and healthy controls (HC), and compared the results to elucidate possible vulnerability markers in

Seung Jae Lee; So Young Yoo; Do-Hyung Kang; Kyung Jin Lee; Tae Hyun Ha; Whee Wee; Ae-Ra Lee; Nam Sick Kim; Jun Soo Kwon

2008-01-01

199

Transcriptome Sequencing of Hevea brasiliensis for Development of Microsatellite Markers and Construction of a Genetic Linkage Map  

PubMed Central

To obtain more information on the Hevea brasiliensis genome, we sequenced the transcriptome from the vegetative shoot apex yielding 2 311 497 reads. Clustering and assembly of the reads produced a total of 113 313 unique sequences, comprising 28 387 isotigs and 84 926 singletons. Also, 17 819 expressed sequence tag (EST)-simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified from the data set. To demonstrate the use of this EST resource for marker development, primers were designed for 430 of the EST-SSRs. Three hundred and twenty-three primer pairs were amplifiable in H. brasiliensis clones. Polymorphic information content values of selected 47 SSRs among 20 H. brasiliensis clones ranged from 0.13 to 0.71, with an average of 0.51. A dendrogram of genetic similarities between the 20 H. brasiliensis clones using these 47 EST-SSRs suggested two distinct groups that correlated well with clone pedigree. These novel EST-SSRs together with the published SSRs were used for the construction of an integrated parental linkage map of H. brasiliensis based on 81 lines of an F1 mapping population. The map consisted of 97 loci, consisting of 37 novel EST-SSRs and 60 published SSRs, distributed on 23 linkage groups and covered 842.9 cM with a mean interval of 11.9 cM and ?4 loci per linkage group. Although the numbers of linkage groups exceed the haploid number (18), but with several common markers between homologous linkage groups with the previous map indicated that the F1 map in this study is appropriate for further study in marker-assisted selection. PMID:22086998

Triwitayakorn, Kanokporn; Chatkulkawin, Pornsupa; Kanjanawattanawong, Supanath; Sraphet, Supajit; Yoocha, Thippawan; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Chanprasert, Juntima; Ngamphiw, Chumpol; Jomchai, Nukoon; Therawattanasuk, Kanikar; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

2011-01-01

200

Isolation and identification of unique marker compounds from the Tasmanian poppy Papaver somniferum N. Implications for the identification of illicit heroin of Tasmanian origin.  

PubMed

Tasmanian opium accounts for 25% of the world's legal supply of opium straw, and in 1998-99 sufficient numbers of flower pods (66,013) to manufacture ca 500 kg of heroin were stolen. Whilst the heroin signature program has been developed to determine the origin of heroin from other key producers, no such signature currently exists for Tasmanian derived heroin. Tasmanian poppies contain a unique alkaloid, oripavine, which is the source of 'marker' impurities in illicit heroin produced from Tasmanian poppy straw. Treatment of oripavine (500mg) under Thiboumery and Mohr heroin processing conditions, followed by simple evaporative workup afforded 613 mg of a dark orange residue, which upon extensive chromatographic purification yielded oripavine 3-acetate (2) 22 mg; 3-acetyl-N-acetyldesthebaine (3) 35 mg; 3-acetyl-6-methoxy-4,5-epoxyphenanthrene (4) 5.8 mg; 3,4-diacetyl-6-methoxyphenanthrene (5) 27 mg; and 3,4,6-methoxy-5-[2(N-methylacetamido)]ethylphenanthrene (6) 52 mg. Compounds (2-6) are derived from oripavine and are unique to heroin derived from the Tasmanian poppy Papaver somniferum N. Analysis of illicit heroin samples seized from Turkey, Pakistan, Columbia and Myanmar did not reveal any of the aforementioned marker compounds. We have, however, identified four of these marker compounds (3-6) in seized heroin samples from Australia suggesting that they are of Tasmanian origin. Complete details of the isolation and identification of these compounds are provided. PMID:17765420

Odell, Luke R; Skopec, Jana; McCluskey, Adam

2008-03-01

201

Comparative analyses of different genetic markers for the detection of Acanthamoeba spp. isolates.  

PubMed

Acanthamoeba are widespread free-living amoebae which may cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), keratitis, skin ulcerations and disseminated tissue infection. An important diagnostic and prognostic factor for the treatment of infection is a quick and correct diagnosis of amoebae strains. The aim of our study was to develop a rapid method for detection and identification of pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. strains from diagnostic material collected from water. In this study we analysed five amplification-based genetic markers (Aca 16S, Ac6/210, GP, JDP, Nelson) used for identification of pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. strains isolated in water sources in Poland, Iceland and Sweden. Our results demonstrated the presence of pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains in tap water. PCR assay appeared to be a more rapid and sensitive method to detect the presence of amoebae than the limited conventional techniques. Based on our observations, we can confirm that the use of four out of five genetic markers (Aca 16S, Ac 6/210, JDP, GP, Nelson) may be helpful in identification of Acanthamoeba spp. strains, but only one Aca 16S primer pair is a highly specific marker that distinguishes between pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba and other free-living amoeba families. PMID:25119362

Derda, Monika; Wojtkowiak-Giera, Agnieszka; Hada?, Edward

2014-09-01

202

Can Coronene and/or Benzo(a)pyrene/Coronene ratio act as unique markers for vehicle emission?  

PubMed

Coronene is a high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with seven aromatic rings. It, more specifically a lower ratio of Benzo[a]pyrene to Coronone (BaP/COR), is suggested as a marker for vehicle emission. In the present study, emissions of Coronene were measured from residential combustions of wood, crop straw, and pellets. The detection of COR in non-vehicle emission sources, and comparable BaP/COR ratios between the solid fuel combustion and vehicle emissions indicated that the generality of COR or the BaP/COR ratio as markers for the vehicle emission would be questionable, especially for the area where solid fuel combustion dominated the PAHs emission. PMID:24048010

Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yuanchen; Wei, Siye; Fu, Xiaofang; Ding, Aijun; Wu, Haisuo; Tao, Shu

2014-01-01

203

The Longue Durée of Genetic Ancestry: Multiple Genetic Marker Systems and Celtic Origins on the Atlantic Facade of Europe  

PubMed Central

Celtic languages are now spoken only on the Atlantic facade of Europe, mainly in Britain and Ireland, but were spoken more widely in western and central Europe until the collapse of the Roman Empire in the first millennium a.d. It has been common to couple archaeological evidence for the expansion of Iron Age elites in central Europe with the dispersal of these languages and of Celtic ethnicity and to posit a central European “homeland” for the Celtic peoples. More recently, however, archaeologists have questioned this “migrationist” view of Celtic ethnogenesis. The proposition of a central European ancestry should be testable by examining the distribution of genetic markers; however, although Y-chromosome patterns in Atlantic Europe show little evidence of central European influence, there has hitherto been insufficient data to confirm this by use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Here, we present both new mtDNA data from Ireland and a novel analysis of a greatly enlarged European mtDNA database. We show that mtDNA lineages, when analyzed in sufficiently large numbers, display patterns significantly similar to a large fraction of both Y-chromosome and autosomal variation. These multiple genetic marker systems indicate a shared ancestry throughout the Atlantic zone, from northern Iberia to western Scandinavia, that dates back to the end of the last Ice Age. PMID:15309688

McEvoy, Brian; Richards, Martin; Forster, Peter; Bradley, Daniel G.

2004-01-01

204

Dispersal capacity and genetic structure of Arapaima gigas on different geographic scales using microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Despite the ecological and economic importance of the Arapaima gigas (Cuvier 1817), few data about its dispersal capacity are available. The present study was based on the analysis of microsatellite markers in order to estimate the dispersal capacity of the species on fine, meso, and large geographic scales. For this, 561 specimens obtained from stocks separated by distances of up to 25 km (fine scale), 100 km (meso scale), and 1300-2300 km (large scale) were analyzed. The fine scale analysis indicated a marked genetic similarity between lakes, with low genetic differentiation, and significant differences between only a few pairs of sites. Low to moderate genetic differentiation was observed between pairs of sites on a meso scale (100 km), which could be explained by the distances between sites. By contrast, major genetic differentiation was recorded in the large scale analysis, that is, between stocks separated by distances of over 1300 km, with the analysis indicating that differentiation was not related solely to distance. The genetic structuring analysis indicated the presence of two stocks, one represented by the arapaimas of the Mamirauá Reserve, and the other by those of Santarém and Tucuruí. The dispersal of arapaimas over short distances indicates a process of lateral migration within the várzea floodplains, which may be the principal factor determining the considerable homogeneity observed among the várzea lakes. The populations separated by distances of approximately 100 km were characterized by reduced genetic differentiation, which was associated with the geographic distances between sites. Populations separated by distances of over 1300 km were characterized by a high degree of genetic differentiation, which may be related primarily to historical bottlenecks in population size and the sedentary behavior of the species. Evidence was found of asymmetric gene flow, resulting in increasing genetic variability in the population of the Mamirauá Reserve. PMID:23372730

Araripe, Juliana; do Rêgo, Péricles Sena; Queiroz, Helder; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio

2013-01-01

205

Dispersal Capacity and Genetic Structure of Arapaima gigas on Different Geographic Scales Using Microsatellite Markers  

PubMed Central

Despite the ecological and economic importance of the Arapaima gigas (Cuvier 1817), few data about its dispersal capacity are available. The present study was based on the analysis of microsatellite markers in order to estimate the dispersal capacity of the species on fine, meso, and large geographic scales. For this, 561 specimens obtained from stocks separated by distances of up to 25 km (fine scale), 100 km (meso scale), and 1300–2300 km (large scale) were analyzed. The fine scale analysis indicated a marked genetic similarity between lakes, with low genetic differentiation, and significant differences between only a few pairs of sites. Low to moderate genetic differentiation was observed between pairs of sites on a meso scale (100 km), which could be explained by the distances between sites. By contrast, major genetic differentiation was recorded in the large scale analysis, that is, between stocks separated by distances of over 1300 km, with the analysis indicating that differentiation was not related solely to distance. The genetic structuring analysis indicated the presence of two stocks, one represented by the arapaimas of the Mamirauá Reserve, and the other by those of Santarém and Tucuruí. The dispersal of arapaimas over short distances indicates a process of lateral migration within the várzea floodplains, which may be the principal factor determining the considerable homogeneity observed among the várzea lakes. The populations separated by distances of approximately 100 km were characterized by reduced genetic differentiation, which was associated with the geographic distances between sites. Populations separated by distances of over 1300 km were characterized by a high degree of genetic differentiation, which may be related primarily to historical bottlenecks in population size and the sedentary behavior of the species. Evidence was found of asymmetric gene flow, resulting in increasing genetic variability in the population of the Mamirauá Reserve. PMID:23372730

Araripe, Juliana; do Rêgo, Péricles Sena; Queiroz, Helder; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio

2013-01-01

206

Assessment of genome origins and genetic diversity in the genus Eleusine with DNA markers.  

PubMed

Finger millet (Eleusine coracana), an allotetraploid cereal, is widely cultivated in the arid and semiarid regions of the world. Three DNA marker techniques, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and inter simple sequence repeat amplification (ISSR), were employed to analyze 22 accessions belonging to 5 species of Eleusine. An 8 probe--3 enzyme RFLP combination, 18 RAPD primers, and 6 ISSR primers, respectively, revealed 14, 10, and 26% polymorphism in 17 accessions of E. coracana from Africa and Asia. These results indicated a very low level of DNA sequence variability in the finger millets but did allow each line to be distinguished. The different Eleusine species could be easily identified by DNA marker technology and the 16% intraspecific polymorphism exhibited by the two analyzed accessions of E. floccifolia suggested a much higher level of diversity in this species than in E. coracana. Between species, E. coracana and E. indica shared the most markers, while E. indica and E. tristachya shared a considerable number of markers, indicating that these three species form a close genetic assemblage within the Eleusine. Eleusine floccifolia and E. compressa were found to be the most divergent among the species examined. Comparison of RFLP, RAPD, and ISSR technologies, in terms of the quantity and quality of data output, indicated that ISSRs are particularly promising for the analysis of plant genome diversity. PMID:7672607

Salimath, S S; de Oliveira, A C; Godwin, I D; Bennetzen, J L

1995-08-01

207

Assessment of genetic diversity of Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) using ISSR markers.  

PubMed

Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) is a major turfgrass for home lawns, public parks, golf courses and sport fields and is known to have originated in the Middle East. Morphological and physiological characteristics are not sufficient to differentiate some bermudagrass genotypes because the differences between them are often subtle and subjected to environmental influences. In this study, twenty seven bermudagrass accessions and introductions, mostly from different parts of Iran, were assayed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers to differentiate and explore their genetic relationships. Fourteen ISSR primers amplified 389 fragments of which 313 (80.5%) were polymorphic. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.328, which shows that the majority of primers are informative. Cluster analysis using the un-weighted paired group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) method and Jaccard's similarity coefficient (r = 0.828) grouped the accessions into six main clusters according to some degree to geographical origin, their chromosome number and some morphological characteristics. It can be concluded that there exists a wide genetic base of bermudograss in Iran and that ISSR markers are effective in determining genetic diversity and relationships among them. PMID:22312259

Farsani, Tayebeh Mohammadi; Etemadi, Nematollah; Sayed-Tabatabaei, Badraldin Ebrahim; Talebi, Majid

2012-01-01

208

Identification and characterization of RAPD markers inferring genetic relationships among Pine species.  

PubMed

Total genomic DNAs were extracted from several populations of pine species and amplified using oligonucleotides of random sequences. Polymorphism in random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers was high and sufficient in distinguishing each of the species. Genetic relationships among eight pine species (Pinus sylvestris, Pinus strobus, Pinus rigida, Pinus resinosa, Pinus nigra, Pinus contorta, Pinus monticola, and Pinus banksiana) from different provenances were analyzed. The degree of band sharing was used to evaluate genetic distance between species and to construct a phylogenetic tree. In general, the dendrogram corroborated the description of relationships based on morphological characteristics and crossability, but also provided new insights into pine taxonomy. RAPD markers specific to some pine species were cloned and sequenced. PCR amplifications using pairs of designed specific primers revealed that all the cloned sequences were likely genus specific because they were not found in spruce or larch. True species-specific sequences were identified using designed primers flanking cloned RAPD fragments. The analysis of RAPD fragment sequences confirmed the genetic relationships among species. A 2281-bp RAPD band called PI-Mt-Stb-23 from P. strobus was used as a probe in restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and produced distinct banding patterns for each species examined, consistent with the highly polymorphic character of DNA-fingerprinting probes. PMID:11908668

Nkongolo, K K; Michael, P; Gratton, W S

2002-02-01

209

Mapping migration in a songbird using high-resolution genetic markers.  

PubMed

Neotropic migratory birds are declining across the Western Hemisphere, but conservation efforts have been hampered by the inability to assess where migrants are most limited-the breeding grounds, migratory stopover sites or wintering areas. A major challenge has been the lack of an efficient, reliable and broadly applicable method for measuring the strength of migratory connections between populations across the annual cycle. Here, we show how high-resolution genetic markers can be used to identify genetically distinct groups of a migratory bird, the Wilson's warbler (Cardellina pusilla), at fine enough spatial scales to facilitate assessing regional drivers of demographic trends. By screening 1626 samples using 96 highly divergent single nucleotide polymorphisms selected from a large pool of candidates (~450 000), we identify novel region-specific migratory routes and timetables of migration along the Pacific Flyway. Our results illustrate that high-resolution genetic markers are more reliable, precise and amenable to high throughput screening than previously described intrinsic marking techniques, making them broadly applicable to large-scale monitoring and conservation of migratory organisms. PMID:25346105

Ruegg, Kristen C; Anderson, Eric C; Paxton, Kristina L; Apkenas, Vanessa; Lao, Sirena; Siegel, Rodney B; DeSante, David F; Moore, Frank; Smith, Thomas B

2014-12-01

210

Assessment of Genetic Diversity of Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) Using ISSR Markers  

PubMed Central

Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) is a major turfgrass for home lawns, public parks, golf courses and sport fields and is known to have originated in the Middle East. Morphological and physiological characteristics are not sufficient to differentiate some bermudagrass genotypes because the differences between them are often subtle and subjected to environmental influences. In this study, twenty seven bermudagrass accessions and introductions, mostly from different parts of Iran, were assayed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers to differentiate and explore their genetic relationships. Fourteen ISSR primers amplified 389 fragments of which 313 (80.5%) were polymorphic. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) was 0.328, which shows that the majority of primers are informative. Cluster analysis using the un-weighted paired group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) method and Jaccard’s similarity coefficient (r = 0.828) grouped the accessions into six main clusters according to some degree to geographical origin, their chromosome number and some morphological characteristics. It can be concluded that there exists a wide genetic base of bermudograss in Iran and that ISSR markers are effective in determining genetic diversity and relationships among them. PMID:22312259

Farsani, Tayebeh Mohammadi; Etemadi, Nematollah; Sayed-Tabatabaei, Badraldin Ebrahim; Talebi, Majid

2012-01-01

211

A DArT marker genetic map of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) integrated with detailed comparative mapping information; comparison with existing DArT marker genetic maps of Lolium perenne, L. multiflorum and Festuca pratensis  

PubMed Central

Background Ryegrasses and fescues (genera, Lolium and Festuca) are species of forage and turf grasses which are used widely in agricultural and amenity situations. They are classified within the sub-family Pooideae and so are closely related to Brachypodium distachyon, wheat, barley, rye and oats. Recently, a DArT array has been developed which can be used in generating marker and mapping information for ryegrasses and fescues. This represents a potential common marker set for ryegrass and fescue researchers which can be linked through to comparative genomic information for the grasses. Results A F2 perennial ryegrass genetic map was developed consisting of 7 linkage groups defined by 1316 markers and deriving a total map length of 683 cM. The marker set included 866 DArT and 315 gene sequence-based markers. Comparison with previous DArT mapping studies in perennial and Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum) identified 87 and 105 DArT markers in common, respectively, of which 94% and 87% mapped to homoeologous linkage groups. A similar comparison with meadow fescue (F. pratensis) identified only 28 DArT markers in common, of which c. 50% mapped to non-homoelogous linkage groups. In L. perenne, the genetic distance spanned by the DArT markers encompassed the majority of the regions that could be described in terms of comparative genomic relationships with rice, Brachypodium distachyon, and Sorghum bicolor. Conclusions DArT markers are likely to be a useful common marker resource for ryegrasses and fescues, though the success in aligning different populations through the mapping of common markers will be influenced by degrees of population interrelatedness. The detailed mapping of DArT and gene-based markers in this study potentially allows comparative relationships to be derived in future mapping populations characterised using solely DArT markers. PMID:23819624

2013-01-01

212

Genetic Diversity Analysis of Sugarcane Parents in Chinese Breeding Programmes Using gSSR Markers  

PubMed Central

Sugarcane is the most important sugar and bioenergy crop in the world. The selection and combination of parents for crossing rely on an understanding of their genetic structures and molecular diversity. In the present study, 115 sugarcane genotypes used for parental crossing were genotyped based on five genomic simple sequence repeat marker (gSSR) loci and 88 polymorphic alleles of loci (100%) as detected by capillary electrophoresis. The values of genetic diversity parameters across the populations indicate that the genetic variation intrapopulation (90.5%) was much larger than that of interpopulation (9.5%). Cluster analysis revealed that there were three groups termed as groups I, II, and III within the 115 genotypes. The genotypes released by each breeding programme showed closer genetic relationships, except the YC series released by Hainan sugarcane breeding station. Using principle component analysis (PCA), the first and second principal components accounted for a cumulative 76% of the total variances, in which 43% were for common parents and 33% were for new parents, respectively. The knowledge obtained in this study should be useful to future breeding programs for increasing genetic diversity of sugarcane varieties and cultivars to meet the demand of sugarcane cultivation for sugar and bioenergy use. PMID:23990759

You, Qian; Xu, Liping; Zheng, Yifeng; Que, Youxiong

2013-01-01

213

[Genetic diversity analysis of natural groups of Lilium sargentiae by SRAP markers].  

PubMed

Genetic diversity of Lilium sargentiae was detected in this paper by sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) marker. One hundred wild samples were collected from 10 places, and 15 SRAP primer combinations were used for determination. NTSYS-pc2.1 and POPGEN1.32 were used for data analysis. The results showed that a total of 170 clear DNA bands were amplified, 163 of which were polymorphic. The proportion of polymorphic loci was 90.58% on the level of species. Nei's (1973) gene diversity (H) was 0.2631, Shannon's Information index was 0.3661, the G(st), was 0.3672, and the genetic distance ranged from 0.2021 to 0.5749. All materials could be clustered into four groups by UPGMA. The results demonstrated that the genetic diversity of L. sargentiae was rich on the level of species, and the genetic diversity within populations exceeded among populations. The correlations of genetic diversity and distribution were significant in L. sargentiae. PMID:22016960

Zhi, Li; Teng, Zhonghua; Liu, Xu; Li, Mingyang

2011-07-01

214

Genetic linkage analysis of schizophrenia using chromosome 11q13-24 markers in Israeli pedigrees  

SciTech Connect

It is generally agreed that there is a genetic component in the etiology of schizophrenia which may be tested by the application of linkage analysis to multiply-affected families. One genetic region of interest is the long arm of chromosome 11 because of previously reported associations of genetic variation in this region with schizophrenia, and because of the fact that it contains the locus for the dopamine D2 receptor gene. In this study we have examined the segregation of schizophrenia with microsatellite dinucleotide repeat DNA markers along chromosome 11q in 5 Israeli families multiply-affected for schizophrenia. The hypothesis of linkage under genetic homogeneity of causation was tested under a number of genetic models. Linkage analysis provided no evidence for significant causal mutations within the region bounded by INT and D11S420 on chromosome 11q. It is still possible, however, that a gene of major effect exists in this region, either with low penetrance or with heterogeneity. 32 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Mulcrone, J.; Marchblanks, R.; Whatley, S.A. [Institute of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

1995-04-24

215

Genetic ancestry inference using support vector machines, and the active emergence of a unique American population  

PubMed Central

We use genotype data from the Marshfield Clinical Research Foundation Personalized Medicine Research Project to investigate genetic similarity and divergence between Europeans and the sampled population of European Americans in Central Wisconsin, USA. To infer recent genetic ancestry of the sampled Wisconsinites, we train support vector machines (SVMs) on the positions of Europeans along top principal components (PCs). Our SVM models partition continent-wide European genetic variance into eight regional classes, which is an improvement over the geographically broader categories of recent ancestry reported by personal genomics companies. After correcting for misclassification error associated with the SVMs (<10%, in all cases), we observe a >14% discrepancy between insular ancestries reported by Wisconsinites and those inferred by SVM. Values of FST as well as Mantel tests for correlation between genetic and European geographic distances indicate minimal divergence between Europe and the local Wisconsin population. However, we find that individuals from the Wisconsin sample show greater dispersion along higher-order PCs than individuals from Europe. Hypothesizing that this pattern is characteristic of nascent divergence, we run computer simulations that mimic the recent peopling of Wisconsin. Simulations corroborate the pattern in higher-order PCs, demonstrate its transient nature, and show that admixture accelerates the rate of divergence between the admixed population and its parental sources relative to drift alone. Together, empirical and simulation results suggest that genetic divergence between European source populations and European Americans in Central Wisconsin is subtle but already under way. PMID:23211701

Haasl, Ryan J; McCarty, Catherine A; Payseur, Bret A

2013-01-01

216

Identification of Genetic Factors Contributing to Heterosis in a Hybrid From Two Elite Maize Inbred Lines Using Molecular Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of molecular markers to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting agriculturally important traits has become a key approach in plant genetics-both for understanding the genetic basis of these traits and to help design novel plant improvement programs. In the study reported here, we mapped QTLs (and evaluated their phenotypic effects) associated with seven major traits (including grain yield)

Charles W. Stuber; Stephen E. Lincoln; David W. Wolff; Tim Helentjarisn; Eric S. Lander

217

Population genetics of the yellow fever mosquito in Trinidad: comparisons of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent development of DNA markers provides powerful tools for population genetic analyses. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers result from a poly- merase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA fingerprinting technique that can detect multiple restriction fragments in a single polyacrylamide gel, and thus are potentially useful for population genetic studies. Because AFLP markers have to be analysed as dominant loci in

G. Yan; J. Romero-Severson; M. Walton; D. D. CHADEEand; D. W. Severson

1999-01-01

218

A population genetics study of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia based on random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction and amplified fragment lenght polymorphism markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic variation and population structure of three populations of Anopheles darlingi from Colombia were studied using random amplified polymorphic markers (RAPDs) and amplified fragment length polymor- phism markers (AFLPs). Six RAPD primers produced 46 polymorphic fragments, while two AFLP primer com- binations produced 197 polymorphic fragments from 71 DNA samples. Both of the evaluated genetic markers showed the presence

Ranulfo González; Richard Wilkerson; Marco Fidel Suárez; Felipe García; Gerardo Gallego; Heiber Cárdenas; Carmen Elisa Posso; Myriam Cristina Duque

2007-01-01

219

Application of bovine microsatellite markers for genetic diversity analysis of European bison (Bison bonasus).  

PubMed

In this study, the cross-amplification of a commercial multiplex set of 11 cattle (Bos taurus) microsatellites was tested on a panel of 35 European bison (Bison bonasus) individuals. After polymerase chain reaction optimization, all loci cross-amplified successfully in investigated bisons. Number of alleles and observed and expected heterozygosity per locus are in the range of 2-4, 0.086-0.629 and 0.288-0.621 respectively. The availability of a heterologous set of multiplexed microsatellite markers derived from cattle opens an avenue for collecting profound genetic data for efficient conservation management strategies of the European bison. PMID:17177698

Roth, T; Pfeiffer, I; Weising, K; Brenig, B

2006-12-01

220

Diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers in apple for genetic linkage maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) provides a high-throughput whole-genome genotyping platform for the detection and scoring\\u000a of hundreds of polymorphic loci without any need for prior sequence information. The work presented here details the development\\u000a and performance of a DArT genotyping array for apple. This is the first paper on DArT in horticultural trees. Genetic mapping\\u000a of DArT markers in two

Henk J. SchoutenW; W. Eric van de Weg; Jason Carling; Sabaz Ali Khan; Steven J. McKay; Martijn P. W. van Kaauwen; Alexander H. J. Wittenberg; Herma J. J. Koehorst-van Putten; Yolanda Noordijk; Zhongshan Gao; D. Jasper G. Rees; Maria M. Van Dyk; Damian Jaccoud; Michael J. Considine; Andrzej Kilian

2012-01-01

221

A framework genetic map for Miscanthus sinensis from RNAseq-based markers shows recent tetraploidy  

PubMed Central

Background Miscanthus (subtribe Saccharinae, tribe Andropogoneae, family Poaceae) is a genus of temperate perennial C4 grasses whose high biomass production makes it, along with its close relatives sugarcane and sorghum, attractive as a biofuel feedstock. The base chromosome number of Miscanthus (x = 19) is different from that of other Saccharinae and approximately twice that of the related Sorghum bicolor (x = 10), suggesting large-scale duplications may have occurred in recent ancestors of Miscanthus. Owing to the complexity of the Miscanthus genome and the complications of self-incompatibility, a complete genetic map with a high density of markers has not yet been developed. Results We used deep transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq) from two M. sinensis accessions to define 1536 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) for a GoldenGate™ genotyping array, and found that simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers defined in sugarcane are often informative in M. sinensis. A total of 658 SNP and 210 SSR markers were validated via segregation in a full sibling F1 mapping population. Using 221 progeny from this mapping population, we constructed a genetic map for M. sinensis that resolves into 19 linkage groups, the haploid chromosome number expected from cytological evidence. Comparative genomic analysis documents a genome-wide duplication in Miscanthus relative to Sorghum bicolor, with subsequent insertional fusion of a pair of chromosomes. The utility of the map is confirmed by the identification of two paralogous C4-pyruvate, phosphate dikinase (C4-PPDK) loci in Miscanthus, at positions syntenic to the single orthologous gene in Sorghum. Conclusions The genus Miscanthus experienced an ancestral tetraploidy and chromosome fusion prior to its diversification, but after its divergence from the closely related sugarcane clade. The recent timing of this tetraploidy complicates discovery and mapping of genetic markers for Miscanthus species, since alleles and fixed differences between paralogs are comparable. These difficulties can be overcome by careful analysis of segregation patterns in a mapping population and genotyping of doubled haploids. The genetic map for Miscanthus will be useful in biological discovery and breeding efforts to improve this emerging biofuel crop, and also provide a valuable resource for understanding genomic responses to tetraploidy and chromosome fusion. PMID:22524439

2012-01-01

222

Genetic Analysis of a Unique Bacteriocin, Smb, Produced by Streptococcus mutans GS5  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dipeptide lantibiotic, named Smb, in Streptococcus mutans GS5 was characterized by molecular genetic approaches. The Smb biosynthesis gene locus is encoded by a 9.5-kb region of chromosomal DNA and consists of seven genes in the order smbM1 ,- T ,- F ,- M2 ,- G ,- A ,- B. This operon is not present in some other strains of

Hideo Yonezawa; Howard K. Kuramitsu

2005-01-01

223

Unique genetic and environmental determinants of prolonged fatigue: a twin study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Prolonged fatigue syndromes have been proposed as prevalent and disabling forms of distress that occur independently of conventional notions of anxiety and depression. Methods. To investigate the genetic and environmental antecedents of common forms of psychological and somatic distress, we measured fatigue, anxiety, depression and psychological distress in 1004 normal adult twin pairs (533 monozygotic (MZ), 471 dizygotic (DZ))

I. HICKIE; K. KIRK; N. MARTIN

1999-01-01

224

Unique genetic loci identified for emotional behavior in control and chronic stress conditions  

PubMed Central

An individual's genetic background affects their emotional behavior and response to stress. Although studies have been conducted to identify genetic predictors for emotional behavior or stress response, it remains unknown how prior stress history alters the interaction between an individual's genome and their emotional behavior. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify chromosomal regions that affect emotional behavior and are sensitive to stress exposure. We utilized the BXD behavioral genetics mouse model to identify chromosomal regions that predict fear learning and emotional behavior following exposure to a control or chronic stress environment. 62 BXD recombinant inbred strains and C57BL/6 and DBA/2 parental strains underwent behavioral testing including a classical fear conditioning paradigm and the elevated plus maze. Distinct quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified for emotional learning, anxiety and locomotion in control and chronic stress populations. Candidate genes, including those with already known functions in learning and stress were found to reside within the identified QTLs. Our data suggest that chronic stress history reveals novel genetic predictors of emotional behavior. PMID:25374516

Carhuatanta, Kimberly A. K.; Shea, Chloe J. A.; Herman, James P.; Jankord, Ryan

2014-01-01

225

Extensive Genetic Diversity, Unique Population Structure and Evidence of Genetic Exchange in the Sexually Transmitted Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTrichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of human trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection world-wide. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the genetic diversity and population structure of this haploid parasite due to the lack of appropriate tools. The development of a panel of microsatellite makers and SNPs from mining the parasite's genome sequence has paved the

Melissa D. Conrad; Andrew W. Gorman; Julia A. Schillinger; Pier Luigi Fiori; Rossana Arroyo; Nancy Malla; Mohan Lal Dubey; Jorge Gonzalez; Susan Blank; William E. Secor; Jane M. Carlton

2012-01-01

226

Predicting risk in space: Genetic markers for differential vulnerability to sleep restriction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several laboratories have found large, highly reliable individual differences in the magnitude of cognitive performance, fatigue and sleepiness, and sleep homeostatic vulnerability to acute total sleep deprivation and to chronic sleep restriction in healthy adults. Such individual differences in neurobehavioral performance are also observed in space flight as a result of sleep loss. The reasons for these stable phenotypic differential vulnerabilities are unknown: such differences are not yet accounted for by demographic factors, IQ or sleep need, and moreover, psychometric scales do not predict those individuals cognitively vulnerable to sleep loss. The stable, trait-like (phenotypic) inter-individual differences observed in response to sleep loss—with intraclass correlation coefficients accounting for 58-92% of the variance in neurobehavioral measures—point to an underlying genetic component. To this end, we utilized multi-day highly controlled laboratory studies to investigate the role of various common candidate gene variants—each independently—in relation to cumulative neurobehavioral and sleep homeostatic responses to sleep restriction. These data suggest that common genetic variations (polymorphisms) involved in sleep-wake, circadian, and cognitive regulation may serve as markers for prediction of inter-individual differences in sleep homeostatic and neurobehavioral vulnerability to sleep restriction in healthy adults. Identification of genetic predictors of differential vulnerability to sleep restriction—as determined from candidate gene studies—will help identify astronauts most in need of fatigue countermeasures in space flight and inform medical standards for obtaining adequate sleep in space. This review summarizes individual differences in neurobehavioral vulnerability to sleep deprivation and ongoing genetic efforts to identify markers of such differences.

Goel, Namni; Dinges, David F.

2012-08-01

227

Genetic diversity analysis in valencia peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) using microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Cultivated peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L) is an important source of oil and protein. Considerable variation has been recorded for morphological, physiological and agronomic traits, whereas few molecular variations have been recorded for this crop. The identification and understanding of molecular genetic diversity in cultivated peanut types will help in effective genetic conservation along with efficient breeding programs in this crop. The New Mexico breeding program has embarked upon a program of improvement of Valencia peanut (belonging to the sub species fastigiata), because efforts to improve the yield potential are lacking due to lack of identified divergent exotic types. For the first time, this study has shown molecular diversity using microsatellite markers in the cultivated Valencia peanut (sub spp. fastigiata) from around the globe. In this investigation, 48 cultivated Valencia peanut genotypes have been selected and analyzed using 18 fluorescently labeled SSR (f-SSR) primer pairs. These primer pairs amplified 120 polymorphic loci among the genotypes screened and amplified from 3 to 19 alleles with an average of 6.9 allele per primer pair. The f-SSR marker data was further analyzed using cluster algorithms and principal component analysis. The results indicated that (1) considerable genetic variations were discovered among the analyzed genotypes; (2) The f-SSR based clustering could identify the putative pedigree types of the present Valencia types of diverse origins, and (3) The f-SSR in general is sufficient to obtain estimates of genetic divergence for the material in study. The results are being utilized in our breeding program for parental selection and linkage map construction. PMID:15647791

Krishna, Girish Kumar; Zhang, Jinfa; Burow, Mark; Pittman, Roy N; Delikostadinov, Stanko G; Lu, Yingzhi; Puppala, Naveen

2004-01-01

228

Is there a genetic contribution to cultural differences? Collectivism, individualism and genetic markers of social sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Genes and culture are often thought of as opposite ends of the nature–nurture spectrum, but here we examine possible interactions. Genetic association studies suggest that variation within the genes of central neurotransmitter systems, particularly the serotonin (5-HTTLPR, MAOA-uVNTR) and opioid (OPRM1 A118G), are associated with individual differences in social sensitivity, which reflects the degree of emotional responsivity to social events and experiences. Here, we review recent work that has demonstrated a robust cross-national correlation between the relative frequency of variants in these genes and the relative degree of individualism–collectivism in each population, suggesting that collectivism may have developed and persisted in populations with a high proportion of putative social sensitivity alleles because it was more compatible with such groups. Consistent with this notion, there was a correlation between the relative proportion of these alleles and lifetime prevalence of major depression across nations. The relationship between allele frequency and depression was partially mediated by individualism–collectivism, suggesting that reduced levels of depression in populations with a high proportion of social sensitivity alleles is due to greater collectivism. These results indicate that genetic variation may interact with ecological and social factors to influence psychocultural differences. PMID:20592043

Lieberman, Matthew D.

2010-01-01

229

Study Of Genetic Diversity Between Grasspea Landraces Using Morphological And Molecular Marker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grass pea is a beneficial crop to Iran since it has some major advantageous such as high grain and forage quality, high drought tolerance and medium level of salinity tolerance and a good native germplasm variation which accessible for breeding programs. This study was carried out to evaluate morphological traits of the grass pea landraces using a randomized complete block design with 3 replications at Research Farm of Isfahan University of Technology. To evaluate genetic diversity of 14 grass pea landraces from various locations in Iran were investigated using 32 RAPD & ISJ primers at Biocenter of University of Zabol. Analysis of variance indicated a highly significant differences among 14 grass pea landrace for the morphological traits. Average of polymorphism percentage of RAPD primer was 73.9%. Among used primer, 12 random primers showed polymorphism and a total of 56 different bands were observed in the genotypes. Jafar-abad and Sar-chahan genotypes with similarity coefficient of 66% and Khoram-abad 2 and Khoram-abad 7 genotypes with similarity coefficient of 3% were the most related and the most distinct genotypes, respectively. Fourteen primers out of 17 semi random primers produced 70 polymorphic bands which included 56% of the total 126 produced bands. Genetic relatedness among population was investigated using Jacard coefficient and unweighted pair group mean analysis (UPGMA) algorithm. The result of this research verified possibility of use of RAPD & ISJ markers for estimation of genetic diversity, management of genetic resources and determination of repetitive accessions in grass pea.

Sedehi, Abbasali Vahabi; Lotfi, Asefeh; Solooki, Mahmood

2008-01-01

230

Genetic diversity and conservation implications of four Cupressus species in China as revealed by microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Understanding the extent and distribution of genetic diversity is crucial for the conservation and management of endangered species. Cupressus chengiana, C. duclouxiana, C. gigantea, and C. funebris are four ecologically and economically important species in China. We investigated their genetic diversity, population structure, and extant effective population size (35 populations, 484 individuals) employing six pairs of nuclear microsatellite markers (selected from 53). Their genetic diversity is moderate among conifers, and genetic differentiation among populations is much lower in C. gigantea than in the other three species; the estimated effective population size was largest for C. chengiana, at 1.70, 2.91, and 3.91 times the estimates for C. duclouxiana, C. funebris, and C. gigantea, respectively. According to Bayesian clustering analysis, the most plausible population subdivision scheme within species is two groups in C. chengiana, three groups in C. duclouxiana, and a single group for both C. funebris and C. gigantea. We propose a conservation strategy for these cypress species. PMID:24292698

Lu, Xu; Xu, Haiyan; Li, Zhonghu; Shang, Huiying; Adams, Robert P; Mao, Kangshan

2014-04-01

231

Assessment of genetic diversity and conservation priority of Omani local chickens using microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Designing strategies for conservation and improvement livestock should be based on assessment of genetic characteristics of populations under consideration. In Oman, conservation programs for local livestock breeds have been started. The current study assessed the genetic diversity and conservation potential of local chickens from Oman. Twenty-nine microsatellite markers were analyzed in 158 birds from six agro-ecological zones: Batinah, Dhofar, North Hajar, East Hajar, Musandam, and East Coast. Overall, a total of 217 alleles were observed. Across populations, the average number of alleles per locus was 7.48 and ranged from 2 (MCW98 and MCW103) to 20 (LEI094). The mean expected heterozygosity (H E) was 0.62. Average fixation index among populations (F ST) was 0.034, indicating low population differentiation, while the mean global deficit of heterozygotes across populations (F IT) was 0.159. Based on Nei's genetic distance, a neighbor-joining tree was constructed for the populations, which clearly identified the Dhofar population as the most distant one of the Omani chicken populations. The analysis of conservation priorities identified Dhofar and Musandam populations as the ones that largely contribute to the maximal genetic diversity of the Omani chicken gene pool. PMID:24590534

Al-Qamashoui, Badar; Simianer, Henner; Kadim, Isam; Weigend, Steffen

2014-06-01

232

[Genetic variation and relationship in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) germplasm detected by SSR markers].  

PubMed

Genetic variation and relationship of 53 accessions of D. glomerata collected from 5 continents were analyzed using simple sequence repeat (SSR) molecular markers with 15 SSR primer pairs. The following results were obtained. (1) A total of 127 alleles were detected at 15 loci. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 5 to 12, with an average of 8.5. The rate of polymorphic sites (P) was 95.21%; the polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.30(A04C24)to 0.44(A01F24) with an average of 0.36. (2) The genetic similarity (GS) among all accessions ranged from 0.43 to 0.94, for all geographical groups GS ranged from 0.73 to 0.91, and high genetic diversity was observed in Asia (P, 90.55%) and Europe (P, 86.61%) groups. These results suggested that there was rich genetic diversity among all orchardgrass accessions tested. (3) Based on the cluster and principal component analyses, 53 accessions could be divided into five groups according to the nearest phylogenetic relationship, and accessions from the same continent were classified into the same group associated with their geographical distributions. PMID:19586867

Xie, Wen-Gang; Zhang, Xin-Quan; Ma, Xiao; Peng, Yan; Huang, Lin-Kai

2009-06-01

233

Genetic variability in spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), determined with microsatellite DNA markers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Variation in the allele frequencies of five microsatellite loci was surveyed in 1256 individual spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) obtained from 12 bays and estuaries from Laguna Madre, Texas, to Charlotte Harbor, Florida, to St. John's River on the Florida Atlantic Coast. Texas and Louisiana collection sites were resampled each year for two to four years (1998-2001). Genetic differentiation was observed. Spotted seatrout from Florida waters were strongly differentiated from spotted seatrout collected in Louisiana and Texas. The greatest genetic discontinuity was observed between Tampa Bay and Charlotte Harbor, and Charlotte Harbor seatrout were most similar to Atlantic Coast spotted seatrout. Texas and Louisiana samples were not strongly structured within the northwestern Gulf of Mexico and there was little evidence of temporal differentiation within bays. These findings are contrary to those of earlier analyses with allozymes and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) where evidence of spatial differentiation was found for spotted seatrout resident on the Texas coast. The differences in genetic structure observed among these markers may reflect differences in response to selective pressure, or may be due to differences in underlying genetic processes.

Ward, R.; Bowers, K.; Hensley, R.; Mobley, B.; Belouski, E.

2007-01-01

234

Unique echocardiographic markers of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) in the adult.  

PubMed

Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital heart defect in adults. We report a 38-year-old male presenting with exertional syncope. He was referred for the evaluation of multiple muscular ventricular septal defects diagnosed on an outpatient echocardiogram. Echocardiography revealed mild left ventricular enlargement, abnormal flow-pattern in the ventricular septum and dilatation of the right coronary artery. Pulsed-wave Doppler with sample volume placed in the coronary ostium showed systolic coronary flow predominancy. This unique finding is characteristic for ALCAPA and can differentiate it from other coronary anomalies. Coronary angiography confirmed ALCAPA syndrome. Surgical correction was planned. PMID:24128127

Ghaderi, Fereshteh; Gholoobi, Arash; Moeinipour, Aliasghar

2014-01-01

235

Unique genetic compartmentalization of the SUF system in cryptophytes and characterization of a SufD mutant in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

The mobilization of sulfur (SUF) system is one of three systems involved in iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis and maintenance. In eukaryotes the SUF system is specific for the plastid and therefore of symbiotic origin. Analyses in cryptophytes showed a unique genetic compartmentalization of the SUF system, which evolved by at least two different gene transfer events. We analyzed one of the components, SufD, in the cryptophyte Guillardia theta and in Arabidopsis thaliana. We demonstrated that SufD fulfils house keeping functions during embryogenesis and in adult plants in A. thaliana. PMID:15710401

Hjorth, Elmar; Hadfi, Katalin; Zauner, Stefan; Maier, Uwe-G

2005-02-14

236

Population genetics of Sargassum horneri (Fucales, Phaeophyta) in China revealed by ISSR and SRAP markers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sargassum horneri is a common brown macro-alga that is found in the inter-tidal ecosystems of China. To investigate the current status of seaweed resources and provide basic data for its sustainable development, ISSR (inter simple sequence repeat) and SRAP (sequence related amplified polymorphism) markers were used to analyze the population genetics among nine natural populations of S. horneri. The nine studied populations were distributed over 2 000 km from northeast to south China. The percentage of polymorphic loci P % (ISSR, 99.44%; SRAP, 100.00%), Nei's genetic diversity H (ISSR, 0.107-0.199; SRAP, 0.100-0.153), and Shannon's information index I (ISSR, 0.157-0.291; SRAP, 0.148-0.219) indicated a fair amount of genetic variability among the nine populations. Moreover, the high degree of gene differentiation G st (ISSR, 0.654; SRAP, 0.718) and low gene flow N m (ISSR, 0.265; SRAP, 0.196) implied that there was significant among-population differentiation, possibly as a result of habitat fragmentation. The matrices of genetic distances and fixation indices ( F st) among the populations correlated well with their geographical distribution (Mantel test R =0.541 5, 0.541 8; P =0.005 0, 0.002 0 and R =0.728 6, 0.641 2; P =0.001 0, 0.001 0, respectively); the Rongcheng population in the Shandong peninsula was the only exception. Overall, the genetic differentiation agreed with the geographic isolation. The fair amount of genetic diversity that was revealed in the S. horneri populations in China indicated that the seaweed resources had not been seriously affected by external factors.

Yu, Shenhui; Chong, Zhuo; Zhao, Fengjuan; Yao, Jianting; Duan, Delin

2013-05-01

237

Distribution of genetic markers of fecal pollution on a freshwater sandy shoreline in proximity to wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

Water, sand, and sediment from a Lake Superior harbor site continuously receiving wastewater effluent was sampled monthly for June to October 2010 and from May to September 2011. Understanding the dynamics of genetic markers of fecal bacteria in these matrices is essential to accurately characterizing health risks. Genetic markers for enterococci, total Bacteroides, and human-associated Bacteroides were measured in site-water, sand, and sediment and in final effluent by quantitative PCR. The similarity between the quantity of molecular markers in the water column and effluent indicated that the abundance of genetic markers in the water column was likely controlled by effluent inputs. Effluent turbidity was positively correlated (p ? 0.05) with AllBac and HF183 in final effluent and AllBac in the water column. In sand and sediment, Entero1 and AllBac were most abundant in the upper 1-3 cm depths, whereas HF183 was most abundant in the upper 1 cm of sand and at 7 cm in sediment. The AllBac and Entero1 markers were 1- and 2-orders of magnitude more abundant in sand and sediment relative to the water column per unit mass. These results indicate that sand and sediment may act as reservoirs for genetic markers of fecal pollution at some freshwater sites. PMID:23473470

Eichmiller, Jessica J; Hicks, Randall E; Sadowsky, Michael J

2013-04-01

238

Distribution of genetic markers of fecal pollution on a freshwater sandy shoreline in proximity to wastewater effluent  

PubMed Central

Water, sand, and sediment from a Lake Superior harbor site continuously receiving wastewater effluent was sampled monthly for June to October 2010 and from May to September 2011. Understanding the dynamics of genetic markers of fecal bacteria in these matrices is essential to accurately characterizing health risks. Genetic markers for enterococci, total Bacteroides, and human-associated Bacteroides were measured in site-water, sand, and sediment and in final effluent by quantitative PCR. The similarity between the quantity of molecular markers in the water column and effluent indicated that the abundance of genetic markers in the water column was likely controlled by effluent inputs. Effluent turbidity was positively correlated (p ? 0.05) with AllBac and HF183 in final effluent and AllBac in the water column. In sand and sediment, Entero1 and AllBac were most abundant in the upper 1– 3 cm depths, whereas HF183 was most abundant in the upper 1 cm of sand and at 7 cm in sediment. The AllBac and Entero1 markers were 1- and 2-orders of magnitude more abundant in sand and sediment relative to the water column per unit mass. These results indicate that sand and sediment may act as reservoirs for genetic markers of fecal pollution at some freshwater sites. PMID:23473470

Eichmiller, Jessica J.; Hicks, Randall E.; Sadowsky, Michael J.

2013-01-01

239

Genetic Diversity and Relatedness of Sweet Cherry (Prunus Avium L.) Cultivars Based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphic Markers  

PubMed Central

Most previous studies on genetic fingerprinting and cultivar relatedness in sweet cherry were based on isoenzyme, RAPD, and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. This study was carried out to assess the utility of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated from 3? untranslated regions (UTR) for genetic fingerprinting in sweet cherry. A total of 114 sweet cherry germplasm representing advanced selections, commercial cultivars, and old cultivars imported from different parts of the world were screened with seven SSR markers developed from other Prunus species and with 40 SNPs obtained from 3? UTR sequences of Rainier and Bing sweet cherry cultivars. Both types of marker study had 99 accessions in common. The SSR data was used to validate the SNP results. Results showed that the average number of alleles per locus, mean observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and polymorphic information content values were higher in SSRs than in SNPs although both set of markers were similar in their grouping of the sweet cherry accessions as shown in the dendrogram. SNPs were able to distinguish sport mutants from their wild type germplasm. For example, “Stella” was separated from “Compact Stella.” This demonstrates the greater power of SNPs for discriminating mutants from their original parents than SSRs. In addition, SNP markers confirmed parentage and also determined relationships of the accessions in a manner consistent with their pedigree relationships. We would recommend the use of 3? UTR SNPs for genetic fingerprinting, parentage verification, gene mapping, and study of genetic diversity in sweet cherry. PMID:22737155

Fernandez i Marti, Angel; Athanson, Blessing; Koepke, Tyson; Font i Forcada, Carolina; Dhingra, Amit; Oraguzie, Nnadozie

2012-01-01

240

Genetic diversity and relatedness of sweet cherry (prunus avium L.) cultivars based on single nucleotide polymorphic markers.  

PubMed

Most previous studies on genetic fingerprinting and cultivar relatedness in sweet cherry were based on isoenzyme, RAPD, and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. This study was carried out to assess the utility of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated from 3' untranslated regions (UTR) for genetic fingerprinting in sweet cherry. A total of 114 sweet cherry germplasm representing advanced selections, commercial cultivars, and old cultivars imported from different parts of the world were screened with seven SSR markers developed from other Prunus species and with 40 SNPs obtained from 3' UTR sequences of Rainier and Bing sweet cherry cultivars. Both types of marker study had 99 accessions in common. The SSR data was used to validate the SNP results. Results showed that the average number of alleles per locus, mean observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and polymorphic information content values were higher in SSRs than in SNPs although both set of markers were similar in their grouping of the sweet cherry accessions as shown in the dendrogram. SNPs were able to distinguish sport mutants from their wild type germplasm. For example, "Stella" was separated from "Compact Stella." This demonstrates the greater power of SNPs for discriminating mutants from their original parents than SSRs. In addition, SNP markers confirmed parentage and also determined relationships of the accessions in a manner consistent with their pedigree relationships. We would recommend the use of 3' UTR SNPs for genetic fingerprinting, parentage verification, gene mapping, and study of genetic diversity in sweet cherry. PMID:22737155

Fernandez I Marti, Angel; Athanson, Blessing; Koepke, Tyson; Font I Forcada, Carolina; Dhingra, Amit; Oraguzie, Nnadozie

2012-01-01

241

Population Genetics Study of Anopheles Darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia Based on Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Markers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The genetic variation and population structure of three populations of Anopheles darlingi from Colombia were studied using random amplified polymorphic markers (RAPDs) and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers (AFLPs). Six RAPD primers produced 4...

F. Garcia, G. Gallego, M. F. Suarez, R. Gonzalez, R. Wilkerson

2007-01-01

242

Molecular Markers Allow to Remove Introgressed Genetic Background: A Simulation Study  

PubMed Central

The maintenance of genetically differentiated populations can be important for several reasons (whether for wild species or domestic breeds of economic interest). When those populations are introgressed by foreign individuals, methods to eliminate the exogenous alleles can be implemented to recover the native genetic background. This study used computer simulations to explore the usefulness of several molecular based diagnostic approaches to recover of a native population after suffering an introgression event where some exogenous alleles were admixed for a few generations. To remove the exogenous alleles, different types of molecular markers were used in order to decide which of the available individuals contributed descendants to next generation and their number of offspring. Recovery was most efficient using diagnostic markers (i.e., with private alleles) and least efficient when using alleles present in both native and exogenous populations at different frequencies. The increased inbreeding was a side-effect of the management strategy. Both values (% of native alleles and inbreeding) were largely dependent on the amount of exogenous individuals entering the population and the number of generations of admixture that occurred prior to management. PMID:23152901

Amador, Carmen; Toro, Miguel Angel; Fernandez, Jesus

2012-01-01

243

A method for gene amplification and simultaneous deletion in Corynebacterium glutamicum genome without any genetic markers.  

PubMed

A method for the simultaneous replacement of a given gene by a target gene, leaving no genetic markers, has been developed. The method is based on insertional inactivation and double-crossover homologous recombination. With this method, the lysC(T311I), fbp and ddh genes were inserted into Corynebacterium glutamicum genome, and the pck, alaT and avtA genes were deleted. Mobilizable plasmids with lysC(T311I), fbp and ddh cassettes and two homologous arms on the ends of pck, alaT and avtA were constructed, and then transformed into C. glutamicum. The target-expression cassettes were inserted in the genome via the first homologous recombination, and the genetic markers were removed via the second recombination. The target-transformants were sequentially screened from kanamycin-resistance and sucrose-resistance plates. The enzyme activities of transformants were stably maintained for 30 generations under non-selective culture conditions, suggesting that the integrated cassettes in host were successfully expressed and maintained as stable chromosomal insertions in C. glutamicum. The target-transformants were used to optimize the l-lysine production, showing that the productions were strongly increased because the selected genes were closely linked to l-lysine production. In short, this method can be used to construct amino acid high-producing strains with unmarked gene amplification and simultaneous deletion in genome. PMID:24613758

Xu, Jianzhong; Xia, Xiuhua; Zhang, Junlan; Guo, Yanfeng; Qian, He; Zhang, Weiguo

2014-03-01

244

Population genetics and drug resistance markers: an essential for malaria surveillance in Pakistan.  

PubMed

Plasmodium (P.) vivax is the prevalent malarial species accounting for 70% of malaria cases in Pakistan. However, baseline epidemiological data on P. vivax population structure and drug resistance are lacking from Pakistan. For population structure studies, molecular genetic markers, circumsporozoite protein (csp) and merozoite surface protein-1 (msp-1) are considered useful as these play an important role in P. vivax survival under immune and environmental pressure. Furthermore, these genes have also been identified as suitable candidates for vaccine development. While efforts for effective vaccine are underway, anti-malarial agents remain the mainstay for control. Evidence of resistance against commonly used anti-malarial agents, particularly Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) is threatening to make this form of control defunct. Therefore, studies on drug resistance are necessary so that anti-malarial treatment strategies can be structured and implemented accordingly by the Malaria Control Program, Pakistan. This review aims to provide information on genetic markers of P. vivax population structure and drug resistance and comment on their usefulness in molecular surveillance and control. PMID:24304992

Raza, Afsheen; Beg, Mohammad Asim

2013-12-01

245

A High Density Consensus Genetic Map of Tetraploid Cotton That Integrates Multiple Component Maps through Molecular Marker Redundancy Check  

PubMed Central

A consensus genetic map of tetraploid cotton was constructed using six high-density maps and after the integration of a sequence-based marker redundancy check. Public cotton SSR libraries (17,343 markers) were curated for sequence redundancy using 90% as a similarity cutoff. As a result, 20% of the markers (3,410) could be considered as redundant with some other markers. The marker redundancy information had been a crucial part of the map integration process, in which the six most informative interspecific Gossypium hirsutum×G. barbadense genetic maps were used for assembling a high density consensus (HDC) map for tetraploid cotton. With redundant markers being removed, the HDC map could be constructed thanks to the sufficient number of collinear non-redundant markers in common between the component maps. The HDC map consists of 8,254 loci, originating from 6,669 markers, and spans 4,070 cM, with an average of 2 loci per cM. The HDC map presents a high rate of locus duplications, as 1,292 markers among the 6,669 were mapped in more than one locus. Two thirds of the duplications are bridging homoeologous AT and DT chromosomes constitutive of allopolyploid cotton genome, with an average of 64 duplications per AT/DT chromosome pair. Sequences of 4,744 mapped markers were used for a mutual blast alignment (BBMH) with the 13 major scaffolds of the recently released Gossypium raimondii genome indicating high level of homology between the diploid D genome and the tetraploid cotton genetic map, with only a few minor possible structural rearrangements. Overall, the HDC map will serve as a valuable resource for trait QTL comparative mapping, map-based cloning of important genes, and better understanding of the genome structure and evolution of tetraploid cotton. PMID:23029214

Blenda, Anna; Fang, David D.; Rami, Jean-Francois; Garsmeur, Olivier; Luo, Feng; Lacape, Jean-Marc

2012-01-01

246

Assessment of genetic diversity and relationships among Egyptian mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivers grown in Suez Canal and Sinai region using RAPD markers.  

PubMed

DNA-based RAPD (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA) markers have been used extensively to study genetic diversity and relationships in a number of fruit crops. In this study, 10 (7 commercial mango cultivars and 3 accessions) mango genotypes traditionally grown in Suez Canal and Sinai region of Egypt, were selected to assess genetic diversity and relatedness. Total genomic DNA was extracted and subjected to RAPD analysis using 30 arbitrary 10-mer primers. Of these, eleven primers were selected which gave 92 clear and bright fragments. A total of 72 polymorphic RAPD bands were detected out of 92 bands, generating 78% polymorphisms. The mean PIC values scores for all loci were of 0.85. This reflects a high level of discriminatory power of a marker and most of these primers produced unique band pattern for each cultivar. A dendrogram based on Nei's Genetic distance co-efficient implied a moderate degree of genetic diversity among the cultivars used for experimentation, with some differences. The hybrid which had derived from cultivar as female parent was placed together. In the cluster, the cultivars and accessions formed separate groups according to bearing habit and type of embryo and the members in each group were very closely linked. Cluster analysis clearly showed two main groups, the first consisting of indigenous to the Delta of Egypt cultivars and the second consisting of indigenous to the Suez Canal and Sinai region. From the analysis of results, it appears the majority of mango cultivars originated from a local mango genepool and were domesticated later. The results indicated the potential of RAPD markers for the identification and management of mango germplasm for breeding purposes. PMID:24783778

Mansour, Hassan; Mekki, Laila E; Hussein, Mohammed A

2014-01-01

247

Development of Microsatellite Markers and Detection of Genetic Variation between Goniozus Wasp Populations  

PubMed Central

Molecular genetic markers reveal differences between genotypes according to the presence of alleles (the same or different) at target loci. Microsatellite markers are especially useful codominant markers that have been used in a wide range of studies to elucidate the population structure and dynamics of a range of organisms, including agriculturally beneficial insects such as parasitic wasps (parasitoids). In the present study, twelve primer pairs were designed for the south Asian , Goniozus nephantidis (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), and 24 for its New World congener, Goniozus legneri Gordh, parasitoids of the larvae of the lepidopteran coconut pest Opisina arenosella Walker (Lepidoptera: Crytophasidae) and other lepidopteran pests, respectively, in order to investigate polymorphism within and between populations. The wasps fingerprinted were a total of 85 G. nephantidis and G. legneri, including individuals belonging to three putatively different strains of G. legneri. Annealing gradient tests (50–65°C) were conducted to study the quality of the PCR amplification across an annealing temperature gradient using a mixed genotype DNA template from each species separately. Seven primer pairs, which amplified clear products of approximately the expected size of G. nephantidis and 18 of G. legneri, were then selected for capillary analysis for fragment size determination on a Beckmann CEQ 8000. Neither G. nephantidis nor G. legneri were polymorphic within populations. However, there were six primer pairs that did show polymorphism between G. legneri populations that originated from different geographical areas within South America (Uruguay and Chile). Furthermore, one primer pair revealed diversity between the two strains collected within Chile. One of the markers was subsequently used to provide unbiased assessment of primary sex ratio in G. legneri.

Khidr, Sahand K.; Hardy, Ian C.W.; Zaviezo, Tania; Mayes, Sean

2014-01-01

248

Development of microsatellite markers and detection of genetic variation between Goniozus wasp populations.  

PubMed

Molecular genetic markers reveal differences between genotypes according to the presence of alleles (the same or different) at target loci. Microsatellite markers are especially useful co-dominant markers that have been used in a wide range of studies to elucidate the population structure and dynamics of a range of organisms, including agriculturally beneficial insects such as parasitic wasps (parasitoids). In the present study, twelve primer pairs were designed for the south Asian , Goniozus nephantidis (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae), and 24 for its New World congener, Goniozus legneri Gordh, parasitoids of the larvae of the lepidopteran coconut pest Opisina arenosella Walker (Lepidoptera: Crytophasidae) and other lepidopteran pests, respectively, in order to investigate polymorphism within and between populations. The wasps fingerprinted were a total of 85 G. nephantidis and G. legneri, including individuals belonging to three putatively different strains of G. legneri. Annealing gradient tests (50-65°C) were conducted to study the quality of the PCR amplification across an annealing temperature gradient using a mixed genotype DNA template from each species separately. Seven primer pairs, which amplified clear products of approximately the expected size of G. nephantidis and 18 of G. legneri, were then selected for capillary analysis for fragment size determination on a Beckmann CEQ 8000. Neither G. nephantidis nor G. legneri were polymorphic within populations. However, there were six primer pairs that did show polymorphism between G. legneri populations that originated from different geographical areas within South America (Uruguay and Chile). Furthermore, one primer pair revealed diversity between the two strains collected within Chile. One of the markers was subsequently used to provide unbiased assessment of primary sex ratio in G. legneri. PMID:25373190

Khidr, Sahand K; Hardy, Ian C W; Zaviezo, Tania; Mayes, Sean

2014-01-01

249

Fingertips ischemia, nephroangiosclerosis, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: is genetic thrombophilia the unique explanation?  

PubMed

Case Presentation. 53-years-old-man with essential hypertension and nonnephrotic proteinuria (1.3?gr/24?h) and with normal renal function (eGFR-MDRD 123?mL/min/1.73?m(2)) was admitted to nephrology department; kidney biopsy showed FSGS; two years later the patient presented with ulceration and ischemic gangrene of the IV and V right-hand fingertips; genetic analysis demonstrated polymorphism of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genes C677T (heterozygote C677T/1298AC with normal value of homocysteine) and mutations of prothrombin gene G20210A and of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G 675 with slight increase of its value. After five years from biopsy, 24-hours proteinuria was still around 1-1.3?g/die; renal function was still normal (eGFR 107?ml/min/1.73?m(2)). These data are against the previous diagnosis of primary FSGS. We hypothesize that genetic thrombophilia may explain all the clinical signs of our patient. Conclusions. Alterations in genes of thrombophilia should be ruled out in patients with bioptic diagnosis of "primary" FSGS, in particular if clinically atypical. PMID:24772174

Giovannini, Lisa; Donadio, Carlo

2014-01-01

250

Chromosome 15q25.1 genetic markers associated with level of response to alcohol in humans  

PubMed Central

As with other genetically complex common psychiatric and medical conditions, multiple genetic and environmental components contribute to alcohol use disorders (AUDs), which can confound attempts to identify genetic components. Intermediate phenotypes are often more closely correlated with underlying biology and have often proven invaluable in genetic studies. Level of response (LR) to alcohol is an intermediate phenotype for AUDs, and individuals with a low LR are at increased risk. A high rate of concurrent alcohol and nicotine use and dependence suggests that these conditions may share biochemical and genetic mechanisms. Genetic association studies indicate that a genetic locus, which includes the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster, plays a role in nicotine consumption and dependence. Genetic association with alcohol dependence was also recently shown. We show here that two of the markers from the nicotine studies also show an association (multiple testing corrected P < 0.025) with several LR phenotypes in a sample of 367 siblings. Additional markers in the region were analyzed and shown to be located in a 250-kb expanse of high linkage disequilibrium containing three additional genes. These findings indicate that LR intermediate phenotypes have utility in genetic approaches to AUDs and will prove valuable in the identification of other genetic loci conferring susceptibility to AUDs. PMID:19064933

Joslyn, Geoff; Brush, Gerry; Robertson, Margaret; Smith, Tom L.; Kalmijn, Jelger; Schuckit, Marc; White, Raymond L.

2008-01-01

251

A multi-farm assessment of Greek black pig genetic diversity using microsatellite molecular markers.  

PubMed

Local breeds are important for the maintenance of genetic diversity and future food security. Nowadays, the worldwide distribution of pigs is dominated by a few breeds, tending towards a severe loss of pig biodiversity. Thus, it is critical to maintain distinct populations of pig breeds. The Greek black pig, a breed raised locally and known for the high quality of its meat for cured products, is the only traditional indigenous pig breed reared in Greece. We investigated the genetic diversity, based on microsatellite analysis, of the Greek black pig and evaluated its genetic uniqueness. One hundred and three pigs from 12 Greek farms were analyzed using 11 microsatellites. The total number of alleles amounted to 135, with a mean number of alleles per locus of 12.27, ranging between 10 and 16 alleles. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.363 to 0.825 per locus. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.471 to 0.707. The inbreeding coefficient ranged from -0.329 to 0.229. We conclude that the Greek black pig, despite its low population size, has a high degree of genetic variability, which will be useful for breeding programs aimed at maintaining long-term survival of this ancient breed. PMID:24782089

Michailidou, S; Kalivas, A; Ganopoulos, I; Stea, E; Michailidis, G; Tsaftaris, A; Argiriou, A

2014-01-01

252

A Dense Genetic Map of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori, Covering All Chromosomes Based on 1018 Molecular Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dense linkage map was constructed for the silkworm, Bombyx mori, containing 1018 genetic markers on all 27 autosomes and the Z chromosome. Most of the markers, covering z2000 cM, were randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs amplified with primer-pairs in combinations of 140 commercially available decanucleotides. In addition, eight known genes and five visible mutations were mapped. Bombyx homo- logues of

Yuji Yasukochi

253

Genetic linkage maps of white birches ( Betula platyphylla Suk. and B. pendula Roth) based on RAPD and AFLP markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pseudo-testcross mapping strategy was used in combination with the random amplified polymorphism DNA (RAPD) and amplified\\u000a fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genotyping methods to develop two moderately dense genetic linkage maps for Betula platyphylla Suk. (Asian white birch) and B. pendula Roth (European white birch). Eighty F1 progenies were screened with 291 RAPD markers and 451 AFLP markers. We selected

Tingbo Jiang; Boru Zhou; Fuling Gao; Baozhu Guo

2011-01-01

254

Construction of a Genetic Linkage Map Based on Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Markers and Development of Sequence-Tagged Site Markers for Marker-Assisted Selection of the Sporeless Trait in the Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii)  

PubMed Central

A large number of spores from fruiting bodies can lead to allergic reactions and other problems during the cultivation of edible mushrooms, including Pleurotus eryngii (DC.) Quél. A cultivar harboring a sporulation-deficient (sporeless) mutation would be useful for preventing these problems, but traditional breeding requires extensive time and labor. In this study, using a sporeless P. eryngii strain, we constructed a genetic linkage map to introduce a molecular breeding program like marker-assisted selection. Based on the segregation of 294 amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, two mating type factors, and the sporeless trait, the linkage map consisted of 11 linkage groups with a total length of 837.2 centimorgans (cM). The gene region responsible for the sporeless trait was located in linkage group IX with 32 amplified fragment length polymorphism markers and the B mating type factor. We also identified eight markers closely linked (within 1.2 cM) to the sporeless locus using bulked-segregant analysis-based amplified fragment length polymorphism. One such amplified fragment length polymorphism marker was converted into two sequence-tagged site markers, SD488-I and SD488-II. Using 14 wild isolates, sequence-tagged site analysis indicated the potential usefulness of the combination of two sequence-tagged site markers in cross-breeding of the sporeless strain. It also suggested that a map constructed for P. eryngii has adequate accuracy for marker-assisted selection. PMID:22210222

Ueda, Jun; Obatake, Yasushi; Murakami, Shigeyuki; Fukumasa, Yukitaka; Matsumoto, Teruyuki

2012-01-01

255

Construction of a genetic linkage map based on amplified fragment length polymorphism markers and development of sequence-tagged site markers for marker-assisted selection of the sporeless trait in the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii).  

PubMed

A large number of spores from fruiting bodies can lead to allergic reactions and other problems during the cultivation of edible mushrooms, including Pleurotus eryngii (DC.) Quél. A cultivar harboring a sporulation-deficient (sporeless) mutation would be useful for preventing these problems, but traditional breeding requires extensive time and labor. In this study, using a sporeless P. eryngii strain, we constructed a genetic linkage map to introduce a molecular breeding program like marker-assisted selection. Based on the segregation of 294 amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, two mating type factors, and the sporeless trait, the linkage map consisted of 11 linkage groups with a total length of 837.2 centimorgans (cM). The gene region responsible for the sporeless trait was located in linkage group IX with 32 amplified fragment length polymorphism markers and the B mating type factor. We also identified eight markers closely linked (within 1.2 cM) to the sporeless locus using bulked-segregant analysis-based amplified fragment length polymorphism. One such amplified fragment length polymorphism marker was converted into two sequence-tagged site markers, SD488-I and SD488-II. Using 14 wild isolates, sequence-tagged site analysis indicated the potential usefulness of the combination of two sequence-tagged site markers in cross-breeding of the sporeless strain. It also suggested that a map constructed for P. eryngii has adequate accuracy for marker-assisted selection. PMID:22210222

Okuda, Yasuhito; Ueda, Jun; Obatake, Yasushi; Murakami, Shigeyuki; Fukumasa, Yukitaka; Matsumoto, Teruyuki

2012-03-01

256

Genetic maps of SSR and SRAP markers in diploid orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) using the pseudo-testcross strategy.  

PubMed

Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) is one of the most important cool-season forage grasses commonly grown throughout the temperate regions of the world. The objective of this work was to construct a diploid (2n = 2x = 14) orchardgrass genetic linkage map useful as a framework for basic genetic studies and plant breeding. A combination of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) molecular markers were used for map construction. The linkage relationships among 164 SSRs and 108 SRAPs, assayed in a pseudo-testcross F1 segregating population generated from a cross between two diploid parents, were used to construct male (01996) and female (YA02-103) parental genetic maps. The paternal genetic map contains 90 markers (57 SSRs and 33 SRAPs) over 9 linkage groups (LGs), and the maternal genetic map is composed of 87 markers (54 SSRs and 33 SRAPs) assembled over 10 LGs. The total map distance of the male map is 866.7 centimorgans (cM), representing 81% genome coverage, whereas the female map spans 772.0 cM, representing 75% coverage. The mean map distance between markers is 9.6 cM in the male map and 8.9 cM in the female map. About 14% of the markers remained unassigned. The level of segregation distortion observed in this cross was 15%. Homology between the two maps was established between five LGs of the male map and five LGs of the female map using 10 bridging markers. The information presented in this study establishes a foundation for extending genetic mapping in this species, serves as a framework for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs), and provides basic information for future molecular breeding studies. PMID:21423284

Xie, Wengang; Zhang, Xinquan; Cai, Hongwei; Huang, Linkai; Peng, Yan; Ma, Xiao

2011-03-01

257

Developmenrt of EST-SSR and genomic-SSR markers to assess genetic diversity in Jatropha Curcas L.  

PubMed Central

Background Jatropha curcas L. has attracted a great deal of attention worldwide, regarding its potential as a new biodiesel crop. However, the understanding of this crop remains very limited and little genomic research has been done. We used simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers that could be transferred from Manihot esculenta (cassava) to analyze the genetic relationships among 45 accessions of J. curcas from our germplasm collection. Results In total, 187 out of 419 expressed sequence tag (EST)-SSR and 54 out of 182 genomic (G)-SSR markers from cassava were polymorphic among the J. curcas accessions. The EST-SSR markers comprised 26.20% dinucleotide repeats, 57.75% trinucleotide repeats, 7.49% tetranucleotide repeats, and 8.56% pentanucleotide repeats, whereas the majority of the G-SSR markers were dinucleotide repeats (62.96%). The 187 EST-SSRs resided in genes that are involved mainly in biological and metabolic processes. Thirty-six EST-SSRs and 20 G-SSRs were chosen to analyze the genetic diversity among 45 J. curcas accessions. A total of 183 polymorphic alleles were detected. On the basis of the distribution of these polymorphic alleles, the 45 accessions were classified into six groups, in which the genotype showed a correlation with geographic origin. The estimated mean genetic diversity index was 0.5572, which suggests that our J. curcas germplasm collection has a high level of genetic diversity. This should facilitate subsequent studies on genetic mapping and molecular breeding. Conclusion We identified 241 novel EST-SSR and G-SSR markers in J. curcas, which should be useful for genetic mapping and quantitative trait loci analysis of important agronomic traits. By using these markers, we found that the intergroup gene diversity of J. curcas was greater than the intragroup diversity, and that the domestication of the species probably occurred partly in America and partly in Hainan, China. PMID:20181259

2010-01-01

258

Comparison of SSR and SNP Markers in Estimation of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Indian Rice Varieties  

PubMed Central

Simple sequence repeat (SSR) and Single Nucleotide Polymorphic (SNP), the two most robust markers for identifying rice varieties were compared for assessment of genetic diversity and population structure. Total 375 varieties of rice from various regions of India archived at the Indian National GeneBank, NBPGR, New Delhi, were analyzed using thirty six genetic markers, each of hypervariable SSR (HvSSR) and SNP which were distributed across 12 rice chromosomes. A total of 80 alleles were amplified with the SSR markers with an average of 2.22 alleles per locus whereas, 72 alleles were amplified with SNP markers. Polymorphic information content (PIC) values for HvSSR ranged from 0.04 to 0.5 with an average of 0.25. In the case of SNP markers, PIC values ranged from 0.03 to 0.37 with an average of 0.23. Genetic relatedness among the varieties was studied; utilizing an unrooted tree all the genotypes were grouped into three major clusters with both SSR and SNP markers. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that maximum diversity was partitioned between and within individual level but not between populations. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) with SSR markers showed that genotypes were uniformly distributed across the two axes with 13.33% of cumulative variation whereas, in case of SNP markers varieties were grouped into three broad groups across two axes with 45.20% of cumulative variation. Population structure were tested using K values from 1 to 20, but there was no clear population structure, therefore Ln(PD) derived ?k was plotted against the K to determine the number of populations. In case of SSR maximum ?k was at K=5 whereas, in case of SNP maximum ?k was found at K=15, suggesting that resolution of population was higher with SNP markers, but SSR were more efficient for diversity analysis. PMID:24367635

Singh, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Sundeep; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Tyagi, R. K.; Singh, N. K.; Singh, Rakesh

2013-01-01

259

Genetic structure and inter-generic relationship of closed colony of laboratory rodents based on RAPD markers.  

PubMed

Molecular genetic analysis was performed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) on three commonly used laboratory bred rodent genera viz. mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus) and guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) as sampled from the breeding colony maintained at the Animal Facility, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow. In this study, 60 samples, 20 from each genus, were analyzed for evaluation of genetic structure of rodent stocks based on polymorphic bands using RAPD markers. Thirty five random primers were assessed for RAPD analysis. Out of 35, only 20 primers generated a total of 56.88 % polymorphic bands among mice, rats and guinea pigs. The results revealed significantly variant and distinct fingerprint patterns specific to each of the genus. Within-genera analysis, the highest (89.0 %) amount of genetic homogeneity was observed in mice samples and the least (79.3 %) were observed in guinea pig samples. The amount of genetic homogeneity was observed very high within all genera. The average genetic diversity index observed was low (0.045) for mice and high (0.094) for guinea pigs. The inter-generic distances were maximum (0.8775) between mice and guinea pigs; and the minimum (0.5143) between rats and mice. The study proved that the RAPD markers are useful as genetic markers for assessment of genetic structure as well as inter-generic variability assessments. PMID:25074272

Kumar, Mahadeo; Kumar, Sharad

2014-11-01

260

Genetic diversity and geographical differentiation of Iranian landrace, cultivars, and exotic chickpea lines as revealed by morphological and microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

Assessment of the extent of genetic variability within chickpea is fundamental for chickpea breeding and conservation of genetic resources and is particularly useful as a general guide in the choice of parents for breeding hybrids. To establish genetic diversity among 60 accessions of chickpea comprising landraces, internationally developed improved lines, and cultivars, genetic distances were evaluated using 14 simple sequence repeat markers. These markers showed a high level of polymorphism; a total of 59 different alleles were detected, with a mean of 4.2 alleles per locus. The polymorphic information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.31 to 0.89. All the markers, with the exception of TAA170, TA110, GA34, and Ts35, were considered to be informative (PIC?>?0.5), indicating their potential usefulness for cultivar identification. Based on the UNJ clustering method, all accessions were clustered in five groups, which indicated the probable origin and region similarity of Iranian landraces over the other cultivars. It also represents a wide diversity among available germplasm. The result has firmly established that introduction of genetic materials from exotic sources has broadened the genetic base of the national chickpea breeding program. As further implications of the findings, this study can be useful for selective breeding for specific traits and in enhancing the genetic base of breeding programs. PMID:24757326

Ghaffari, Parvin; Talebi, Reza; Keshavarzi, Fatemeh

2014-04-01

261

Genetic analysis of Pinus strobus and Pinus monticola populations from Canada using ISSR and RAPD markers: development of genome-specific SCAR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pinus is the largest genus of conifers, containing over 100 species and is also the most widespread genus in the Northern Hemisphere.\\u000a Pinus monticola and P. strobus are two closely related and economically important species in Canada. Morphological and allometric characteristics have been\\u000a used to assess genetic variation within these two species but these markers are not reliable due to

M. S. Mehes; K. K. Nkongolo; P. Michael

2007-01-01

262

Annotated genetic linkage maps of Pinus pinaster Ait. from a Central Spain population using microsatellite and gene based markers  

PubMed Central

Background Pinus pinaster Ait. is a major resin producing species in Spain. Genetic linkage mapping can facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) through the identification of Quantitative Trait Loci and selection of allelic variants of interest in breeding populations. In this study, we report annotated genetic linkage maps for two individuals (C14 and C15) belonging to a breeding program aiming to increase resin production. We use different types of DNA markers, including last-generation molecular markers. Results We obtained 13 and 14 linkage groups for C14 and C15 maps, respectively. A total of 211 and 215 markers were positioned on each map and estimated genome length was between 1,870 and 2,166 cM respectively, which represents near 65% of genome coverage. Comparative mapping with previously developed genetic linkage maps for P. pinaster based on about 60 common markers enabled aligning linkage groups to this reference map. The comparison of our annotated linkage maps and linkage maps reporting QTL information revealed 11 annotated SNPs in candidate genes that co-localized with previously reported QTLs for wood properties and water use efficiency. Conclusions This study provides genetic linkage maps from a Spanish population that shows high levels of genetic divergence with French populations from which segregating progenies have been previously mapped. These genetic maps will be of interest to construct a reliable consensus linkage map for the species. The importance of developing functional genetic linkage maps is highlighted, especially when working with breeding populations for its future application in MAS for traits of interest. PMID:23036012

2012-01-01

263

Genetic diversity within and between European pig breeds using microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

An important prerequisite for a conservation programme is a comprehensive description of genetic diversity. The aim of this study was to use anonymous genetic markers to assess the between- and the within-population components of genetic diversity for European pig breeds at the scale of the whole continent using microsatellites. Fifty-eight European pig breeds and lines were analysed including local breeds, national varieties of international breeds and commercial lines. A sample of the Chinese Meishan breed was also included. Eleven additional breeds from a previous project were added for some analyses. Approximately 50 individuals per breed were genotyped for a maximum of 50 microsatellite loci. Substantial within-breed variability was observed, with the average expected heterozygosity and observed number of alleles per locus being 0.56 [range 0.43-0.68] and 4.5 respectively. Genotypic frequencies departed from Hardy-Weinberg expectations (P < 0.01) in 15 European populations, with an excess of homozygotes in 12 of them. The European breeds were on average genetically very distinct, with a Wright F(ST) index value of 0.21. The Neighbour-Joining tree drawn from the Reynolds distances among the breeds showed that the national varieties of major breeds and the commercial lines were mostly clustered around their breeds of reference (Duroc, Hampshire, Landrace, Large White and Piétrain). In contrast, local breeds, with the exception of the Iberian breeds, exhibited a star-like topology. The results are discussed in the light of various forces, which may have driven the recent evolution of European pig breeds. This study has consequences for the interpretation of biodiversity results and will be of importance for future conservation programmes. PMID:16734675

SanCristobal, M; Chevalet, C; Haley, C S; Joosten, R; Rattink, A P; Harlizius, B; Groenen, M A M; Amigues, Y; Boscher, M-Y; Russell, G; Law, A; Davoli, R; Russo, V; Désautés, C; Alderson, L; Fimland, E; Bagga, M; Delgado, J V; Vega-Pla, J L; Martinez, A M; Ramos, M; Glodek, P; Meyer, J N; Gandini, G C; Matassino, D; Plastow, G S; Siggens, K W; Laval, G; Archibald, A L; Milan, D; Hammond, K; Cardellino, R

2006-06-01

264

[A unique marker of Pseudomonas from the first group of rRNA homology--selective sensitivity to the bacteriostatic action of barium ions].  

PubMed

On the basis of the study of the bacteriostatic action of chlorides and nitrates of barium and 24 other metals on 18 Pseudomonas species of all groups of rRNA homology and on 49 bacterial species belonging to 25 other genera, unique selective sensitivity to the bacteriostatic action of Ba2+ ions has been established in Pseudomonas of the first group of rRNA homology. The marker of barium sensitivity is in line with changes in the classification of Pseudomonas and is of interest for their further more precise systematization. The test for barium sensitivity of bacteria helps simplify the identification of Pseudomonas of the first group of rRNA homology and makes the identification more accurate. PMID:1282762

Sivolodski?, E P

1992-01-01

265

Genetic Markers of Co-Morbid Depression and Alcoholism in Women  

PubMed Central

Background Alcohol Dependence (AD) is often accompanied by co-morbid depression. Recent clinical evidence supports the benefit of subtype specific pharmacotherapy in treating the population of AD subjects with co-morbid major depressive disorder (MDD). However, in many AD subjects, depression is a reactive response to chronic alcohol use and withdrawal, and abates with a period of abstinence. Genetic markers may distinguish alcohol dependent subjects with MDD not tied chronologically and etiologically to their alcohol consumption. In this work we investigated the association of adenylyl cyclase genes (ADCY1–9), which are implicated in both AD and mood disorders, with alcoholism and co-morbid depression. Methods Subjects from Vienna, Austria (n = 323) were genotyped and SNPs (1,152) encompassing the genetic locations of the nine ADCY genes were examined. The Vienna cohort contained alcohol dependent subjects differentiated using the Lesch Alcoholism Typology. In this typology subjects are segregated into four types. Type III alcoholism is distinguished by co-occurrence of symptoms of depression and by affecting predominantly females. Results We identified four haplotypes associated with the phenotype of Type III alcoholism in females. One haplotype was in a genomic area in proximity to ADCY2, but actually within a lincRNA gene, two haplotypes were within ADCY5, and one haplotype was within the coding region of ADCY8. Three of the four haplotypes contributed independently to Type III alcoholism and together generated a positive predictive value of 72% and a negative predictive value of 78% for distinguishing women with a Lesch Type III diagnosis versus women designated as Type I or II alcoholics. Conclusions Polymorphisms in ADCY8 and ADCY5 and within a lincRNA are associated with an AD phenotype in females, which is distinguished by co-morbid signs of depression. Each of these genetic locations can rationally contribute to the polygenic etiology of the alcoholism/depression phenotype and the use of these genetic markers may aid in choosing appropriate and beneficial treatment strategies. PMID:23278386

Procopio, Daniela O.; Saba, Laura M.; Walter, Henriette; Lesch, Otto; Skala, Katrin; Schlaff, Golda; Vanderlinden, Lauren; Clapp, Peter; Hoffman, Paula L.; Tabakoff, Boris

2012-01-01

266

Genetic identification and characterization of limestone canyon virus, a unique Peromyscus-borne hantavirus.  

PubMed

Hantaviruses, family Bunyaviridae, are rodent-borne RNA viruses that can cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in various regions of the Americas. A coevolutionary relationship exists between hantaviruses and their specific rodent reservoir hosts; the phylogeny of the viruses generally matches that of the rodents. There are several Peromyscus-borne hantaviruses, including Sin Nombre virus, the most common cause of HPS in North America. This report describes the genetic detection and characterization of a newly discovered Peromyscus boylii-borne virus, Limestone Canyon (LSC) virus, the most divergent member of the Peromyscus-borne hantaviruses to date. Analysis of a 1209-nucleotide region of the S segment of LSC virus showed it to be more closely related to hantaviruses found in harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis and R. mexicanus) than to other Peromyscus-associated hantaviruses (Sin Nombre, New York, and Monongahela). Phylogenetic analysis of virtually the entire M genome segment (3489 nucleotides) of LSC virus revealed a similar picture in which LSC virus was found to be very distinct from other Peromyscus-associated viruses, but its exact relationship to the other Peromyscus-borne and the Reithrodontomys-borne viruses was not resolved. These results indicate that hantavirus host species-jumping events can occur by which a hantavirus may switch to, and become established in, a rodent host belonging to a different genus. P. boylii are present throughout the southwestern United States and central Mexico. More extensive screening of HPS patients by using RT-PCR assays will be necessary to determine if LSC virus can cause human disease. PMID:11485402

Sanchez, A J; Abbott, K D; Nichol, S T

2001-08-01

267

Combined Assessment of Genetic Variability in Populations of Brown Trout ( Salmo trutta L.) Based on Allozymes, Microsatellites, and RAPD Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Genetic variability within and among four Spanish natural populations of Salmo trutta L. was evaluated on the basis of 25 enzyme loci, 3 microsatellite loci, and 9 randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs).\\u000a A total of 21 allelic markers were found, 12 of which were reported by microsatellites, whereas enzyme and RAPD accounted\\u000a only for 6 and 3, respectively. Genetic

M. E. Cagigas; E. Vazquez; G. Blanco; J. A. Sánchez

1999-01-01

268

Crystal structure of human esterase D: a potential genetic marker of retinoblastoma  

SciTech Connect

Retinoblastoma (RB), a carcinoma of the retina, is caused by mutations in the long arm of chromosome 13, band 13q14. The esterase D (ESD) gene maps at a similar location as the RB gene locus and therefore serves as a potential marker for the prognosis of retinoblastoma. Because very little is known about the structure and function of ESD, we determined the 3-dimensional structure of the enzyme at 1.5 {angstrom} resolution using X-ray crystallography. ESD shows a single domain with an {alpha}/{beta}-hydrolase fold. A number of insertions are observed in the canonical {alpha}/{beta}-hydrolase fold. The active site is located in a positively charged, shallow cleft on the surface lined by a number of aromatic residues. Superimposition studies helped identify the typical catalytic triad residues -- Ser-153, His264, and Asp230 -- involved in catalysis. Mutagenesis of any of the catalytic triad residues to alanine abolished the enzyme activity. Backbone amides of Leu54 and Met150 are involved in the formation of the oxyanion hole. Interestingly, a M150A mutation increased the enzyme activity by 62%. The structure of human ESD determined in this study will aid the elucidation of the physiological role of the enzyme in the human body and will assist in the early diagnosis of retinoblastoma. Wu, D., Li, Y., Song, G., Zhang, D., Shaw, N., Liu, Z. J. Crystal structure of human esterase D: a potential genetic marker of retinoblastoma.

Wu, Dong; Li, Yang; Song, Gaojie; Zhang, David; Shaw, Neil; Liu, Zhi-Jie; (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

2009-07-10

269

Genomic selection for adjacent genetic markers of yorkshire pigs using regularized regression approaches.  

PubMed

This study considers a problem of genomic selection (GS) for adjacent genetic markers of Yorkshire pigs which are typically correlated. The GS has been widely used to efficiently estimate target variables such as molecular breeding values using markers across the entire genome. Recently, GS has been applied to animals as well as plants, especially to pigs. For efficient selection of variables with specific traits in pig breeding, it is required that any such variable selection retains some properties: i) it produces a simple model by identifying insignificant variables; ii) it improves the accuracy of the prediction of future data; and iii) it is feasible to handle high-dimensional data in which the number of variables is larger than the number of observations. In this paper, we applied several variable selection methods including least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), fused LASSO and elastic net to data with 47K single nucleotide polymorphisms and litter size for 519 observed sows. Based on experiments, we observed that the fused LASSO outperforms other approaches. PMID:25358359

Park, Minsu; Kim, Tae-Hun; Cho, Eun-Seok; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Hee-Seok

2014-12-01

270

Genomic Selection for Adjacent Genetic Markers of Yorkshire Pigs Using Regularized Regression Approaches  

PubMed Central

This study considers a problem of genomic selection (GS) for adjacent genetic markers of Yorkshire pigs which are typically correlated. The GS has been widely used to efficiently estimate target variables such as molecular breeding values using markers across the entire genome. Recently, GS has been applied to animals as well as plants, especially to pigs. For efficient selection of variables with specific traits in pig breeding, it is required that any such variable selection retains some properties: i) it produces a simple model by identifying insignificant variables; ii) it improves the accuracy of the prediction of future data; and iii) it is feasible to handle high-dimensional data in which the number of variables is larger than the number of observations. In this paper, we applied several variable selection methods including least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), fused LASSO and elastic net to data with 47K single nucleotide polymorphisms and litter size for 519 observed sows. Based on experiments, we observed that the fused LASSO outperforms other approaches. PMID:25358359

Park, Minsu; Kim, Tae-Hun; Cho, Eun-Seok; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Hee-Seok

2014-01-01

271

Combining association tests across multiple genetic markers in case-control studies.  

PubMed

In the search to detect genetic associations between complex traits and DNA variants, a practice is to select a subset of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (tag SNPs) in a gene or chromosomal region of interest. This allows study of untyped polymorphisms in this region through the phenomenon of linkage disequilibrium (LD). However, it is crucial in the analysis to utilize such multiple SNP markers efficiently. In this study, we present a robust testing approach (T(C)) that combines single marker association test statistics or p values. This combination is based on the summation of single test statistics or p values, giving greater weight to those with lower p values. We compared the powers of T(C) in identifying common trait loci, using tag SNPs within the same haplotype block that the trait loci reside, with competing published tests, in case-control settings. These competing tests included the Bonferroni procedure (T(B)), the simple permutation procedure (T(P)), the permutation procedure proposed by Hoh et al. (T(P-H)) and its revised version using 'deflated' statistics (T(P-H_def)), the traditional chi(2) procedure (T(CHI)), the regression procedure (Hotelling T(2) test) (T(R)) and the haplotype-based test (T(H)). Results of these comparisons show that our proposed combining procedure (T(C)) is preferred in all scenarios examined. We also apply this new test to a data set from a previously reported association study on airway responsiveness to methacholine. PMID:17940337

Zhou, Huanyu; Wei, Lee-Jen; Xu, Xiping; Xu, Xin

2008-01-01

272

Characterization of novel rice germplasm from West Africa and genetic marker associations with rice cooking quality  

E-print Network

not vary. Marker association studies revealed that the Waxy microsatellite and the Waxy exon 10 SNP markers were associated with soluble amylose content and RVA characteristics. These markers will speed up the development of new rice cultivars...

Traore, Karim

2006-10-30

273

Discovery and characterization of novel genetic markers for use in the management of Lahontan cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi).  

PubMed

The Lahontan cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi) is threatened by habitat destruction, over-harvest and hybridization with nonnative trout. Currently, three Geographic Management Units (GMUs) are recognized within the taxon. Here, we describe a suite of 68 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genetic markers for use in the study and management of Lahontan cutthroat trout and a closely related subspecies, the Paiute cutthroat trout (O. c. seleneris). These include markers variable within the two subspecies (n = 35), diagnostic for the two subspecies (n = 23) and diagnostic for Yellowstone cutthroat trout (O. c. bouvieri) and other closely related subspecies (n = 10). Sixty-three markers were discovered by Sanger sequencing of 171 EST loci in an ascertainment panel including Lahontan cutthroat trout from four populations representing all GMUs. Five markers were identified in a secondary sequencing effort with a single population of Lahontan cutthroat trout. TaqMan assays were validated on six Lahontan cutthroat trout populations and a diverse panel of other trout. Over 90% of the markers variable in Lahontan cutthroat trout were polymorphic in at least two populations, and 66% were variable within all three GMUs. All Lahontan diagnostic markers were also fixed for the Lahontan allele in Paiute cutthroat trout. Most of the Yellowstone diagnostic markers can also be used for this purpose in other cutthroat trout subspecies. This is the first set of SNP markers to be developed for Lahontan cutthroat trout, and will be an important tool for conservation and management. PMID:23253773

Pritchard, Victoria L; Campbell, Nathan R; Narum, Shawn R; Peacock, Mary M; Garza, John Carlos

2013-03-01

274

Genetic insight into Mediterranean chukar (Alectoris chukar, Galliformes) populations inferred from mitochondrial DNA and RAPD markers.  

PubMed

The chukar (Alectoris chukar, Galliformes) is one of the most important game birds as it is widely distributed and hunted over the whole of its range. The aim of this work was to assess the genetic differentiation as well as the possible presence of hybrid specimens in A. chukar populations from Italy, Greece and Cyprus. To provide phylogenetic context, conspecific, allopatric specimens from Israel, Georgia, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Mongolia, China and USA were compared. Sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Control Region supplied information on the ancestry of A. chukar populations, whereas Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting was used to assess whether hybridization had occurred. The Italian population was found to be an inter-specific mixture of A. chukar and A. rufa (i.e., the red-legged partridge) mtDNA lineages, whereas the representatives from Greece and Cyprus showed only the A. chukar maternal line. RAPD markers revealed introgression with A. rufa genes in the Italian population, whereas no A. chukar x A. rufa hybrid specimens were detected in the eastern Mediterranean populations. The genetic data obtained from the Italian A. chukar population as well as from a few Greek specimens pointed against their Mediterranean kinship, suggesting relationships with A. chukar subspecies from the easternmost part of the Asian continent. PMID:17286187

Barbanera, Filippo; Guerrini, Monica; Hadjigerou, Pantelis; Panayides, Panicos; Sokos, Christos; Wilkinson, Peter; Khan, Aleem A; Khan, Bakht Y; Cappelli, Fabio; Dini, Fernando

2007-11-01

275

Genetic and Clinical Markers of Elevated Liver Fat Content in Overweight and Obese Hispanic Children  

PubMed Central

Objective Genetic variation in six genes has been associated with elevated liver fat and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in adults. We sought to determine the influence of these genes on liver fat and whether a genetic risk score (GRS) would improve upon the ability of common clinical risk factors to predict elevated liver fat content (ELF) in Hispanic children. Design and Methods 223 obese Hispanic children were genotyped for six SNPs. MRI was used to measure liver fat. A GRS was tested for association with ELF using multivariate linear regression. Predictors were assessed via ROC curves and pair-wise analysis was used to determine significance alone and combined with clinical markers. Results Only variants in PNPLA3 and APOC3 genes were associated with liver fat (p<0.001, p=0.01, respectively). Subjects with a GRS=4 had ~3-fold higher liver fat content than subjects with GRS of 0 (15.1±12.7% vs. 5.1±3.7%, p=0.03). While the addition of the GRS to a model containing BMI and liver enzymes increased ROC AUC from 0.83 to 0.85 [95% CI, 0.79-0.89], (p=0.01), it does not improve detection of ELF from a clinical perspective. Conclusions Only PNPLA3 and APOC3 were related to ELF and a GRS comprised of these susceptibility alleles did not add to the discriminatory power of traditional biomarkers for clinical assessment of liver fat. PMID:23804528

Walker, Ryan W.; Sinatra, Frank; Hartiala, Jaana; Weigensberg, Marc; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Alderete, Tanya L.; Goran, Michael I.; Allayee, Hooman

2013-01-01

276

Genetic Introgression and Species Boundary of Two Geographically Overlapping Pine Species Revealed by Molecular Markers  

PubMed Central

Gene introgression and hybrid barriers have long been a major focus of studies of geographically overlapping species. Two pine species, Pinus massoniana and P. hwangshanensis, are frequently observed growing adjacent to each other, where they overlap in a narrow hybrid zone. As a consequence, these species constitute an ideal system for studying genetic introgression and reproductive barriers between naturally hybridizing, adjacently distributed species. In this study, we sampled 270 pine trees along an elevation gradient in Anhui Province, China and analyzed these samples using EST-SSR markers. The molecular data revealed that direct gene flow between the two species was fairly low, and that the majority of gene introgression was intermediated by backcrossing. On the basis of empirical observation, the on-site distribution of pines was divided into a P. massoniana zone, a hybrid zone, and a P. hwangshanensis zone. STRUCTURE analysis revealed the existence of a distinct species boundary between the two pine species. The genetic boundary of the hybrid zone, on the other hand, was indistinct owing to intensive backcrossing with parental species. Compared with P. massoniana, P. hwangshanensis was found to backcross with the hybrids more intensively, consistent with the observation that morphological and anatomical characteristics of trees in the contact zone were biased towards P. hwangshanensis. The introgression ability of amplified alleles varied across species, with some being completely blocked from interspecific introgression. Our study has provided a living example to help explain the persistence of adjacently distributed species coexisting with their interfertile hybrids. PMID:24977711

Dai, Xiaogang; Xu, Jin; Li, Shuxian; Yin, Tongming

2014-01-01

277

Test for interactions between a genetic marker set and environment in generalized linear models  

PubMed Central

We consider in this paper testing for interactions between a genetic marker set and an environmental variable. A common practice in studying gene–environment (GE) interactions is to analyze one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at a time. It is of significant interest to analyze SNPs in a biologically defined set simultaneously, e.g. gene or pathway. In this paper, we first show that if the main effects of multiple SNPs in a set are associated with a disease/trait, the classical single SNP–GE interaction analysis can be biased. We derive the asymptotic bias and study the conditions under which the classical single SNP–GE interaction analysis is unbiased. We further show that, the simple minimum p-value-based SNP-set GE analysis, can be biased and have an inflated Type 1 error rate. To overcome these difficulties, we propose a computationally efficient and powerful gene–environment set association test (GESAT) in generalized linear models. Our method tests for SNP-set by environment interactions using a variance component test, and estimates the main SNP effects under the null hypothesis using ridge regression. We evaluate the performance of GESAT using simulation studies, and apply GESAT to data from the Harvard lung cancer genetic study to investigate GE interactions between the SNPs in the 15q24–25.1 region and smoking on lung cancer risk. PMID:23462021

Lin, Xinyi; Lee, Seunggeun; Christiani, David C.; Lin, Xihong

2013-01-01

278

Retrotransposon-Based Molecular Markers for Analysis of Genetic Diversity within the Genus Linum  

PubMed Central

SSAP method was used to study the genetic diversity of 22 Linum species from sections Linum, Adenolinum, Dasylinum, Stellerolinum, and 46 flax cultivars. All the studied flax varieties were distinguished using SSAP for retrotransposons FL9 and FL11. Thus, the validity of SSAP method was demonstrated for flax marking, identification of accessions in genebank collections, and control during propagation of flax varieties. Polymorphism of Fl1a, Fl1b, and Cassandra insertions were very low in flax varieties, but these retrotransposons were successfully used for the investigation of Linum species. Species clusterization based on SSAP markers was in concordance with their taxonomic division into sections Dasylinum, Stellerolinum, Adenolinum, and Linum. All species of sect. Adenolinum clustered apart from species of sect. Linum. The data confirmed the accuracy of the separation in these sections. Members of section Linum are not as closely related as members of other sections, so taxonomic revision of this section is desirable. L. usitatissimum accessions genetically distant from modern flax cultivars were revealed in our work. These accessions are of utmost interest for flax breeding and introduction of new useful traits into flax cultivars. The chromosome localization of Cassandra retrotransposon in Linum species was determined.

Melnikova, Nataliya V.; Kudryavtseva, Anna V.; Zelenin, Alexander V.; Lakunina, Valentina A.; Yurkevich, Olga Yu.; Speranskaya, Anna S.; Dmitriev, Alexey A.; Krinitsina, Anastasia A.; Belenikin, Maxim S.; Uroshlev, Leonid A.; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V.; Sadritdinova, Asiya F.; Koroban, Nadezda V.; Amosova, Alexandra V.; Samatadze, Tatiana E.; Guzenko, Elena V.; Lemesh, Valentina A.; Savilova, Anastasya M.; Rachinskaia, Olga A.; Kishlyan, Natalya V.; Rozhmina, Tatiana A.; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L.; Muravenko, Olga V.

2014-01-01

279

Retrotransposon-Based Molecular Markers for Analysis of Genetic Diversity within the Genus Linum.  

PubMed

SSAP method was used to study the genetic diversity of 22 Linum species from sections Linum, Adenolinum, Dasylinum, Stellerolinum, and 46 flax cultivars. All the studied flax varieties were distinguished using SSAP for retrotransposons FL9 and FL11. Thus, the validity of SSAP method was demonstrated for flax marking, identification of accessions in genebank collections, and control during propagation of flax varieties. Polymorphism of Fl1a, Fl1b, and Cassandra insertions were very low in flax varieties, but these retrotransposons were successfully used for the investigation of Linum species. Species clusterization based on SSAP markers was in concordance with their taxonomic division into sections Dasylinum, Stellerolinum, Adenolinum, and Linum. All species of sect. Adenolinum clustered apart from species of sect. Linum. The data confirmed the accuracy of the separation in these sections. Members of section Linum are not as closely related as members of other sections, so taxonomic revision of this section is desirable. L. usitatissimum accessions genetically distant from modern flax cultivars were revealed in our work. These accessions are of utmost interest for flax breeding and introduction of new useful traits into flax cultivars. The chromosome localization of Cassandra retrotransposon in Linum species was determined. PMID:25243121

Melnikova, Nataliya V; Kudryavtseva, Anna V; Zelenin, Alexander V; Lakunina, Valentina A; Yurkevich, Olga Yu; Speranskaya, Anna S; Dmitriev, Alexey A; Krinitsina, Anastasia A; Belenikin, Maxim S; Uroshlev, Leonid A; Snezhkina, Anastasiya V; Sadritdinova, Asiya F; Koroban, Nadezda V; Amosova, Alexandra V; Samatadze, Tatiana E; Guzenko, Elena V; Lemesh, Valentina A; Savilova, Anastasya M; Rachinskaia, Olga A; Kishlyan, Natalya V; Rozhmina, Tatiana A; Bolsheva, Nadezhda L; Muravenko, Olga V

2014-01-01

280

Estimation of genetic diversity in some Iranian wild Prunus subgenus Cerasus accessions using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Iran is one of the main origins of Prunus germplasm. In this study, ISSR markers were used for genetic diversity evaluation of 39 accessions of subgenus Cerasus belonging to six species i.e. Prunus avium L., Prunus cerasus L., Prunus mahaleb L., Prunus incana Pall., Prunus microcarpa Boiss., and Prunus brachypetala Boiss.. With 12 ISSR primers, 151 polymorphic bands were

Ali Shahi-Gharahlar; Zabihollah Zamani; Reza Fatahi; Naser Bouzari

2011-01-01

281

Genetic linkage map of EST-SSR and SRAP markers in the endangered Chinese endemic herb Dendrobium (Orchidaceae).  

PubMed

Dendrobium officinale is an endangered orchid from southeast Asia that is known for its medicinal properties in traditional Chinese medicine. We constructed an integrated genetic linkage map of an F(1) population derived from an interspecific cross between D. officinale and D. aduncum (both, 2n = 38), using expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSR) and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP). A total of 349 polymorphic loci, including 261 SRAP loci and 88 EST-SSR loci, were identified for genetic linkage analysis. The software JoinMap 4.0 was used to construct the genetic maps. A total of 157 loci were arranged into 27 major linkage groups, each containing a minimum of four markers, and a further 23 markers were distributed to five triplets and four doublets, the frame map covered a total distance of 1580.4 cM, with a mean of 11.89 cM between adjacent markers. This primary map of the D. officinale and D. aduncum hybrid provides a basis for genetic studies and should facilitate future studies of medical traits mapping and marker-assisted selection in Dendrobium species breeding programs. PMID:23315811

Lu, J J; Wang, S; Zhao, H Y; Liu, J J; Wang, H Z

2012-01-01

282

Use of genetic markers to quantify bumblebee foraging range and nest Ben Darvill, Mairi E. Knight and Dave Goulson  

E-print Network

Use of genetic markers to quantify bumblebee foraging range and nest density Ben Darvill, Mairi E to quantify bumblebee foraging range and nest density. Á/ Oikos 107: 471Á/478. Bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae bumblebee species Bombus terrestris, and implicitly assume this to be representative of other species. Here

283

A population genetic comparison of large- and small-bodied sage grouse in Colorado using microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sage grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus ) from southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah (United States) are 33% smaller than all other sage grouse and have obvious plumage and behavioural differences. Because of these differences, they have been tentatively recog- nized as a separate 'small-bodied' species. We collected genetic evidence to further test this proposal, using mitochondrial sequence data and microsatellite markers

S. J. Oyler-mccance; N. W. Kahn; K. P. Burnham; C. E. Braun

1999-01-01

284

Genetic diversity in Kenyan populations of Acacia senegal (L.) willd revealed by combined RAPD and ISSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acacia senegal belongs to the subgenus, Aculeiferum. It is an African arid and semi arid zone multipurpose tree species, highly valued for gum arabic production, agroforestry and desertification control besides other multiple uses. Genetic variation and resulting variable groupings were assessed using combined RAPD+ISSR markers within and among four Kenyan populations of A. senegal. Using 10 RAPD and 5 ISSR

Chiveu Chemulanga Josiah; Dangasuk Otto George; Omunyin Michael Eleazar; Wachira Francis Nyamu

2008-01-01

285

Genetic diversity of Ligula intestinalis (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidea) based on analysis of inter-simple sequence repeat markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the genetic diversity of Ligula intestinalis populations, nine inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were applied to populations from nine geographical areas around the world and 10 host species. The 110 loci selected from the ISSR patterns produced revealed high variability among the analysed samples, with a polymorphism of 100% and a global coefficient of gene differentiation

W. Bouzid; S. Lek; M. Mace; O. Ben Hassine; R. Etienne; L. Legal; G. Loot

2008-01-01

286

Markers of genetic susceptibility in human environmental hygiene and toxicology: The role of selected CYP, NAT and GST genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inherited genetic traits co-determine the susceptibility of an individual to a toxic chemical. Special emphasis has been put on individual responses to environmental and industrial carcinogens, but other chronic diseases are of increasing interest. Polymorphisms of relevant xenobiotic metabolising enzymes may be used as toxicological susceptibility markers. A growing number of genes encoding enzymes involved in biotransformation of toxicants and

Ricarda Thier; Thomas Brüning; Peter H. Roos; Hans-Peter Rihs; Klaus Golka; Yon Ko; Hermann M. Bolt

2003-01-01

287

Genetic fidelity in micropropagated plantlets of Ochreinauclea missionis an endemic, threatened and medicinal tree using ISSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers were employed to determine the genetic fidelity of Ochreinauclea missionis plantlets multiplied in vitro by using nodal segments. Thirty two ISSR primers were screened, of which twenty nine primers generated total of 183 clear, distinct and reproducible bands. Among 183 bands, 178 bands were monomorphic (97.2%) and 5 bands were polymorphic patterns (2.73%). Although

M. Chandrika; V. Ravishankar Rai

2009-01-01

288

Genetic characterization of Salix alba L. and Salix fragilis L. by means of different PCR-derived marker systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salix alba L. and Salix fragilis L. are two closely related willow species whose phenotypic features, showing a large and continuous variation, have a low diagnostic value for identifying pure species and interspecific hybrids. In this paper, the effectiveness of different multilocus PCR-based molecular markers, such as I-SSRs, RAPDs and AFLPs in detecting genetic polymorphisms able to discriminate the two

S. Meneghetti; G. Barcaccia; P. Paiero; M. Lucchin

2007-01-01

289

Efficient Marker-Free Recovery of Custom Genetic Modifications with CRISPR/Cas9 in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

Facilitated by recent advances using CRISPR/Cas9, genome editing technologies now permit custom genetic modifications in a wide variety of organisms. Ideally, modified animals could be both efficiently made and easily identified with minimal initial screening and without introducing exogenous sequence at the locus of interest or marker mutations elsewhere. To this end, we describe a coconversion strategy, using CRISPR/Cas9 in which screening for a dominant phenotypic oligonucleotide-templated conversion event at one locus can be used to enrich for custom modifications at another unlinked locus. After the desired mutation is identified among the F1 progeny heterozygous for the dominant marker mutation, F2 animals that have lost the marker mutation are picked to obtain the desired mutation in an unmarked genetic background. We have developed such a coconversion strategy for Caenorhabditis elegans, using a number of dominant phenotypic markers. Examining the coconversion at a second (unselected) locus of interest in the marked F1 animals, we observed that 14-84% of screened animals showed homologous recombination. By reconstituting the unmarked background through segregation of the dominant marker mutation at each step, we show that custom modification events can be carried out recursively, enabling multiple mutant animals to be made. While our initial choice of a coconversion marker [rol-6(su1006)] was readily applicable in a single round of coconversion, the genetic properties of this locus were not optimal in that CRISPR-mediated deletion mutations at the unselected rol-6 locus can render a fraction of coconverted strains recalcitrant to further rounds of similar mutagenesis. An optimal marker in this sense would provide phenotypic distinctions between the desired mutant/+ class and alternative +/+, mutant/null, null/null, and null/+ genotypes. Reviewing dominant alleles from classical C. elegans genetics, we identified one mutation in dpy-10 and one mutation in sqt-1 that meet these criteria and demonstrate that these too can be used as effective conversion markers. Coconversion was observed using a variety of donor molecules at the second (unselected) locus, including oligonucleotides, PCR products, and plasmids. We note that the coconversion approach described here could be applied in any of the variety of systems where suitable coconversion markers can be identified from previous intensive genetic analyses of gain-of-function alleles. PMID:25161212

Arribere, Joshua A; Bell, Ryan T; Fu, Becky X H; Artiles, Karen L; Hartman, Phil S; Fire, Andrew Z

2014-11-01

290

ReproducedfromCropScience.PublishedbyCropScienceSocietyofAmerica.Allcopyrightsreserved. Pedigree-vs. DNA Marker-Based Genetic Similarity Estimates in Cotton  

E-print Network

of pedi- grees and DNA fingerprinting. The COP measures theKnowledge of genetic diversity- vs. DNA Marker-Based Genetic Similarity Estimates in Cotton Guillermo Van Becelaere, Edward L that the COP only explained a small DNA markers, such as RFLPs, amplified fragment portion of the variation

Chee, Peng W.

291

Evaluation of Genetic Markers as Instruments for Mendelian Randomization Studies on Vitamin D  

PubMed Central

Background Mendelian randomization (MR) studies use genetic variants mimicking the influence of a modifiable exposure to assess and quantify a causal association with an outcome, with an aim to avoid problems with confounding and reverse causality affecting other types of observational studies. Aim We evaluated genetic markers that index differences in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) as instruments for MR studies on vitamin D. Methods and Findings We used data from up-to 6,877 participants in the 1958 British birth cohort with information on genetic markers and 25(OH)D. As potential instruments, we selected 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) which are located in the vitamin D metabolism pathway or affect skin pigmentation/tanning, including 4 SNPs from genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analyses on 25(OH)D. We analyzed SNP associations with 25(OH)D and evaluated the use of allele scores dividing genes to those affecting 25(OH)D synthesis (DHCR7, CYP2R1) and metabolism (GC, CYP24A1, CYP27B1). In addition to the GWA SNPs, only two SNPs (CYP27B1, OCA2) showed evidence for association with 25(OH)D, with the OCA2 association abolished after lifestyle adjustment. Per allele differences varied between ?0.02 and ?0.08 nmol/L (P?0.02 for all), with a 6.1 nmol/L and a 10.2 nmol/L difference in 25(OH)D between individuals with highest compared lowest number of risk alleles in synthesis and metabolism allele scores, respectively. Individual SNPs but not allele scores showed associations with lifestyle factors. An exception was geographical region which was associated with synthesis score. Illustrative power calculations (80% power, 5% alpha) suggest that approximately 80,000 participants are required to establish a causal effect of vitamin D on blood pressure using the synthesis allele score. Conclusions Combining SNPs into allele scores provides a more powerful instrument for MR analysis than a single SNP in isolation. Population stratification and the potential for pleiotropic effects need to be considered in MR studies on vitamin D. PMID:22629401

Whittaker, John C.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hypponen, Elina

2012-01-01

292

Establishment and genetic characterization of six unique tumor cell lines as preclinical models for sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Sinonasal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) are rare tumors, etiologically related to occupational exposure to wood and leather dust. In spite of surgical and radiotherapeutic advances, the 5 year survival is still 30–50%. Therefore, alternative treatment options are needed. We report the establishment and characterization of six unique human sinonasal SCC cell lines, named SCCNC1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 7. In vitro growth and invasion characteristics were evaluated and genetic profiles were compared to those of the original primary tumors. The population doubling times ranged from 21 to 34?hours. Cell lines SCCNC2 and 7 were highly invasive in matrigel. Five cell lines carried a high number of copy number alterations, including amplifications and homozygous deletions, while one showed only three abnormalities. Sequence analysis revealed three cell lines with TP53 mutation and none with KRAS or BRAF. Overexpression of p53 was observed in five, and of EGFR in four cell lines. None of the cell lines showed strong immunopositivity of p16 or presence of human papilloma virus. In conclusion, we have created six new cell lines that are clinically and genetically representative of sinonasal SCC and that will be a useful tool for the preclinical testing of new therapeutic agents. PMID:24816148

Garcia-Inclan, Cristina; Lopez-Hernandez, Alejandro; Alonso-Guervos, Marta; Allonca, Eva; Potes, Sira; Melon, Santiago; Lopez, Fernando; Llorente, Jose Luis; Hermsen, Mario

2014-01-01

293

Pleiotropy between genetic markers of obesity and risk of prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Background To address inconsistent findings of obesity and prostate cancer risk, we analyzed the association between prostate cancer (PC) and genetic markers of obesity and metabolism. Methods Analyses included 176,520 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with 23 metabolic traits. We examined the association between SNPs and PC in 871 cases and 906 controls, including 427 high-grade cases with Gleason ?7. Genetic risk scores (GRSs) for body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were also created by summing alleles associated with increasing BMI or WHR. Results PC was associated with 5 loci, including cyclin M2, with p-values less than 1×10?4. In addition, the WHR GRS was associated with high-grade PC versus controls (OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.00 – 1.11, p-value = 0.048), and high-grade PC versus low-grade PC (OR: 1.07, 95% CI 1.01 – 1.13, p-value = 0.03). None of these findings exceed the threshold for significance after correction for multiple testing. Conclusions Variants in genes known to be associated with metabolism and obesity may be associated with PC. We show evidence for pleiotropy between WHR GRS and PC grade. This finding is consistent with the function of several WHR genes, and previously described relationships with cancer traits. Impact Limitations in standard obesity measures suggest alternative characterizations of obesity may be needed to understand the role of metabolic dysregulation in PC. The underlying genetics of WHR or other Metabochip SNPs, while not statistically significant beyond multiple testing thresholds within our sample size, support the metabolic hypothesis of prostate carcinogenesis and warrant further investigation in independent samples. PMID:23810916

Edwards, Todd L.; Giri, Ayush; Motley, Saundra; Duong, Wynne; Fowke, Jay H.

2013-01-01

294

Genetic diversity of cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) germplasm assessed by retrotransposon-based markers.  

PubMed

Retrotransposon segments were characterized and inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) markers developed for cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) and the Linum genus. Over 75 distinct long terminal repeat retrotransposon segments were cloned, the first set for Linum, and specific primers designed for them. IRAP was then used to evaluate genetic diversity among 708 accessions of cultivated flax comprising 143 landraces, 387 varieties, and 178 breeding lines. These included both traditional and modern, oil (86), fiber (351), and combined-use (271) accessions, originating from 36 countries, and 10 wild Linum species. The set of 10 most polymorphic primers yielded 141 reproducible informative data points per accession, with 52% polymorphism and a 0.34 Shannon diversity index. The maximal genetic diversity was detected among wild Linum species (100% IRAP polymorphism and 0.57 Jaccard similarity), while diversity within cultivated germplasm decreased from landraces (58%, 0.63) to breeding lines (48%, 0.85) and cultivars (50%, 0.81). Application of Bayesian methods for clustering resulted in the robust identification of 20 clusters of accessions, which were unstratified according to origin or user type. This indicates an overlap in genetic diversity despite disruptive selection for fiber versus oil types. Nevertheless, eight clusters contained high proportions (70-100%) of commercial cultivars, whereas two clusters were rich (60%) in landraces. These findings provide a basis for better flax germplasm management, core collection establishment, and exploration of diversity in breeding, as well as for exploration of the role of retrotransposons in flax genome dynamics. PMID:21293839

Smýkal, P; Ba?ová-Kerteszová, N; Kalendar, R; Corander, J; Schulman, A H; Pavelek, M

2011-05-01

295

Genetic Mapping of Brain Plasticity Across Development in Williams Syndrome: ERP Markers of Face and Language Processing  

PubMed Central

In Williams Syndrome (WS), a known genetic deletion results in atypical brain function with strengths in face and language processing. We examined how genetic influences on brain activity change with development. In three studies, ERPs from large samples of children, adolescents, and adults with the full genetic deletion for WS were compared to typically developing controls, and two adults with partial deletions for WS. Studies 1 and 2 identified ERP markers of brain plasticity in WS across development. Study 3 suggested that in adults with partial deletions for WS, specific genes may be differentially implicated in face and language processing. PMID:24219698

Mills, D. L.; Dai, L.; Fishman, I.; Yam, A.; Appelbaum, L. G.; Galaburda, A.; Bellugi, U.; Korenberg, J. R.

2014-01-01

296

Induction, by thymidylate stress, of genetic recombination as evidenced by deletion of a transferred genetic marker in mouse FM3A cells  

SciTech Connect

Studies were made on the genetic consequences of methotrexate-directed thymidylate stress, focusing attention on a human thymidylate synthase gene that was introduced as a heterologous genetic marker into mouse thymidylate synthase-negative mutant cells. Thymidylate stress induced thymidylate synthase-negative segregants with concomitant loss of human thymidylate synthase activity with frequencies 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than the uninduced spontaneous level in some but not all transformant lines. Induction of the segregants was suppressed almost completely by cycloheximide and partially by caffeine. Thymidylate stress did not, however, induce mutations, as determined by measuring resistance to ouabain or 6-thioguanine. Thymidylate synthase-negative segregants were also induced by other means such as bromodeoxyuridine treatment and X-ray irradiation. In each of the synthase-negative segregants induced by thymidylate stress, a DNA segment including almost the whole coding region of the transferred human thymidylate synthase gene was deleted in a very specific manner, as shown by Southern blot analysis with a human Alu sequence and a human thymidylate synthase cDNA as probes. In the segregants that emerged spontaneously at low frequency, the entire transferred genetic marker was lost. In the segregants induced by X-ray irradiation, structural alterations of the genetic marker were random. These results show that thymidylate stress is a physiological factor that provokes the instability of this exogenously incorporated DNA in some specific manner and produces nonrandom genetic recombination in mammalian cells.

Ayusawa, D.; Koyama, H.; Shimizu, K.; Kaneda, S.; Takeishi, K.; Seno, T.

1986-10-01

297

Assessment of genetic diversity among Indian potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) collection using microsatellite and retrotransposon based marker systems.  

PubMed

Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important non-cereal crop throughout the world and is highly recommended for ensuring global food security. Owing to the complexities in genetics and inheritance pattern of potato, the conventional method of cross breeding for developing improved varieties has been difficult. Identification and tagging of desirable traits with informative molecular markers would aid in the development of improved varieties. Insertional polymorphism of copia-like and gypsy-like long terminal repeat retrotransposons (RTN) were investigated among 47 potato varieties from India using Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) and Retrotransposon Microsatellite Amplified Polymorphism (REMAP) marker techniques and were compared with the DNA profiles obtained with simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The genetic polymorphism, efficiency of polymorphism and effectiveness of marker systems were evaluated to assess the extent of genetic diversity among Indian potato varieties. A total of 139 polymorphic SSR alleles, 270 IRAP and 98 REMAP polymorphic bands, showing polymorphism of 100%, 87.9% and 68.5%, respectively, were used for detailed characterization of the genetic relationships among potato varieties by using cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). IRAP analysis resulted in the highest number of polymorphic bands with an average of 15 polymorphic bands per assay unit when compared to the other two marker systems. Based on pair-wise comparison, the genetic similarity was calculated using Dice similarity coefficient. The SSRs showed a wide range in genetic similarity values (0.485-0.971) as compared to IRAP (0.69-0.911) and REMAP (0.713-0.947). A Mantel's matrix correspondence test showed a high positive correlation (r=0.6) between IRAP and REMAP, an intermediate value (r=0.58) for IRAP and SSR and the lowest value (r=0.17) for SSR and REMAP. Statistically significant cophenetic correlation coefficient values, of 0.961, 0.941 and 0.905 were observed for REMAP, IRAP and SSR, respectively. The widespread presence and distinct DNA profiles for copia-like and gypsy-like RTNs in the examined genotypes indicate that these elements are active in the genome and may have even contributed to the potato genome organization. Although the three marker systems were capable of distinguishing all the 47 varieties; high reproducibility, low cost and ease of DNA profiling data collection make IRAP and REMAP markers highly efficient whole-genome scanning molecular probes for population genetic studies. Information obtained from the present study regarding the genetic association and distinctiveness provides an useful guide for selection of germplasm for plant breeding and conservation efforts. PMID:24440815

Sharma, Vishakha; Nandineni, Madhusudan R

2014-04-01

298

Application of microsatellite markers in conservation genetics and fisheries management: recent advances in population structure analysis and conservation strategies.  

PubMed

Microsatellites are the most popular and versatile genetic marker with myriads of applications in population genetics, conservation biology, and evolutionary biology. These are the arrays of DNA sequences, consisting of tandemly repeating mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide units, which are distributed throughout the genomes of most eukaryotic species. Microsatellites are codominant in nature, highly polymorphic, easily typed, and Mendelian inherited, all properties which make them very suitable for the study of population structure and pedigree analysis and capable of detecting differences among closely related species. PCR for microsatellites can be automated for identifying simple sequence repeat polymorphism. Small amount of blood samples or alcohol preserved tissue is adequate for analyzing them. Most of the microsatellites are noncoding, and therefore variations are independent of natural selection. These properties make microsatellites ideal genetic markers for conservation genetics and fisheries management. This review addresses the applications of microsatellite markers in conservation genetics and recent advances in population structure analysis in the context of fisheries management. PMID:24808959

Abdul-Muneer, P M

2014-01-01

299

Application of Microsatellite Markers in Conservation Genetics and Fisheries Management: Recent Advances in Population Structure Analysis and Conservation Strategies  

PubMed Central

Microsatellites are the most popular and versatile genetic marker with myriads of applications in population genetics, conservation biology, and evolutionary biology. These are the arrays of DNA sequences, consisting of tandemly repeating mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide units, which are distributed throughout the genomes of most eukaryotic species. Microsatellites are codominant in nature, highly polymorphic, easily typed, and Mendelian inherited, all properties which make them very suitable for the study of population structure and pedigree analysis and capable of detecting differences among closely related species. PCR for microsatellites can be automated for identifying simple sequence repeat polymorphism. Small amount of blood samples or alcohol preserved tissue is adequate for analyzing them. Most of the microsatellites are noncoding, and therefore variations are independent of natural selection. These properties make microsatellites ideal genetic markers for conservation genetics and fisheries management. This review addresses the applications of microsatellite markers in conservation genetics and recent advances in population structure analysis in the context of fisheries management. PMID:24808959

Abdul-Muneer, P. M.

2014-01-01

300

Integration of novel SSR and gene-based SNP marker loci in the chickpea genetic map and establishment of new anchor points with Medicago truncatula genome  

PubMed Central

This study presents the development and mapping of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in chickpea. The mapping population is based on an inter-specific cross between domesticated and non-domesticated genotypes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum ICC 4958 × C. reticulatum PI 489777). This same population has been the focus of previous studies, permitting integration of new and legacy genetic markers into a single genetic map. We report a set of 311 novel SSR markers (designated ICCM—ICRISAT chickpea microsatellite), obtained from an SSR-enriched genomic library of ICC 4958. Screening of these SSR markers on a diverse panel of 48 chickpea accessions provided 147 polymorphic markers with 2–21 alleles and polymorphic information content value 0.04–0.92. Fifty-two of these markers were polymorphic between parental genotypes of the inter-specific population. We also analyzed 233 previously published (H-series) SSR markers that provided another set of 52 polymorphic markers. An additional 71 gene-based SNP markers were developed from transcript sequences that are highly conserved between chickpea and its near relative Medicago truncatula. By using these three approaches, 175 new marker loci along with 407 previously reported marker loci were integrated to yield an improved genetic map of chickpea. The integrated map contains 521 loci organized into eight linkage groups that span 2,602 cM, with an average inter-marker distance of 4.99 cM. Gene-based markers provide anchor points for comparing the genomes of Medicago and chickpea, and reveal extended synteny between these two species. The combined set of genetic markers and their integration into an improved genetic map should facilitate chickpea genetics and breeding, as well as translational studies between chickpea and Medicago. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1265-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20098978

Nayak, Spurthi N.; Zhu, Hongyan; Varghese, Nicy; Datta, Subhojit; Choi, Hong-Kyu; Horres, Ralf; Jungling, Ruth; Singh, Jagbir; Kavi Kishor, P. B.; Sivaramakrishnan, S.; Hoisington, Dave A.; Kahl, Gunter; Winter, Peter; Cook, Douglas R.

2010-01-01

301

Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) marker reveals genetic diversity of Dendrobium nobile Lindl., an endangered medicinal orchid species.  

PubMed

Genetic variability in the wild genotypes of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. collected from different parts of Northeast India, was analyzed using a Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) marker system. A total of sixty individuals comprising of six natural populations were investigated for the existing natural genetic diversity. One hundred and thirty two (132) amplicons were produced by SCoT marker generating 96.21% polymorphism. The PIC value of the SCoT marker system was 0.78 and the Rp values of the primers ranged between 4.43 and 7.50. The percentage of polymorphic loci (Pp) ranging from 25% to 56.82%, Nei's gene diversity (h) from 0.08 to 0.15 with mean Nei's gene diversity of 0.28, and Shannon's information index (I) values ranging from 0.13 to 0.24 with an average value of 0.43 were recorded. The gene flow value (0.37) and the diversity among populations (0.57) demonstrated higher genetic variation among the populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed 43.37% of variation within the populations, whereas 56.63% variation was recorded among the populations. Cluster analysis also reveals high genetic variation among the genotypes. Present investigation suggests the effectiveness of SCoT marker system to estimate the genetic diversity of D. nobile and that it can be seen as a preliminary point for future research on the population and evolutionary genetics of this endangered orchid species of medicinal importance. PMID:23939470

Bhattacharyya, Paromik; Kumaria, Suman; Kumar, Shrawan; Tandon, Pramod

2013-10-15

302

Assessment of genetic diversity in Trigonella foenum-graecum and Trigonella caerulea using ISSR and RAPD markers  

PubMed Central

Background Various species of genus Trigonella are important from medical and culinary aspect. Among these, Trigonella foenum-graecum is commonly grown as a vegetable. This anti-diabetic herb can lower blood glucose and cholesterol levels. Another species, Trigonella caerulea is used as food in the form of young seedlings. This herb is also used in cheese making. However, little is known about the genetic variation present in these species. In this report we describe the use of ISSR and RAPD markers to study genetic diversity in both, Trigonella foenum-graecum and Trigonella caerulea. Results Seventeen accessions of Trigonella foenum-graecum and nine accessions of Trigonella caerulea representing various countries were analyzed using ISSR and RAPD markers. Genetic diversity parameters (average number of alleles per polymorphic locus, percent polymorphism, average heterozygosity and marker index) were calculated for ISSR, RAPD and ISSR+RAPD approaches in both the species. Dendrograms were constructed using UPGMA algorithm based on the similarity index values for both Trigonella foenum-graecum and Trigonella caerulea. The UPGMA analysis showed that plants from different geographical regions were distributed in different groups in both the species. In Trigonella foenum-graecum accessions from Pakistan and Afghanistan were grouped together in one cluster but accessions from India and Nepal were grouped together in another cluster. However, in both the species accessions from Turkey did not group together and fell in different clusters. Conclusions Based on genetic similarity indices, higher diversity was observed in Trigonella caerulea as compared to Trigonella foenum-graecum. The genetic similarity matrices generated by ISSR and RAPD markers in both species were highly correlated (r = 0.78 at p = 0.001 for Trigonella foenum-graecum and r = 0.98 at p = 0.001 for Trigonella caerulea) indicating congruence between these two systems. Implications of these observations in the analysis of genetic diversity and in supporting the possible Center of Origin and/or Diversity for Trigonella are discussed. PMID:15285785

Dangi, Rakhee S; Lagu, Meena D; Choudhary, Lal B; Ranjekar, Prabhakar K; Gupta, Vidya S

2004-01-01

303

Analysis of the Dendrobium officinale transcriptome reveals putative alkaloid biosynthetic genes and genetic markers.  

PubMed

Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo (Orchidaceae) is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant. The stem contains an alkaloid that is the primary bioactive component. However, the details of alkaloid biosynthesis have not been effectively explored because of the limited number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) available in GenBank. In this study, we analyzed RNA isolated from the stem of D. officinale using a single half-run on the Roche 454 GS FLX Titanium platform to generate 553,084 ESTs with an average length of 417 bases. The ESTs were assembled into 36,407 unique putative transcripts. A total of 69.97% of the unique sequences were annotated, and a detailed view of alkaloid biosynthesis was obtained. Functional assignment based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) terms revealed 69 unique sequences representing 25 genes involved in alkaloid backbone biosynthesis. A series of qRT-PCR experiments confirmed that the expression levels of 5 key enzyme-encoding genes involved in alkaloid biosynthesis are greater in the leaves of D. officinale than in the stems. Cytochrome P450s, aminotransferases, methyltransferases, multidrug resistance protein (MDR) transporters and transcription factors were screened for possible involvement in alkaloid biosynthesis. Furthermore, a total of 1061 simple sequence repeat motifs (SSR) were detected from 36,407 unigenes. Dinucleotide repeats were the most abundant repeat type. Of these, 179 genes were associated with a metabolic pathway in KEGG. This study is the first to produce a large volume of transcriptome data from D. officinale. It extends the foundation to facilitate gene discovery in D. officinale and provides an important resource for the molecular genetic and functional genomic studies in this species. PMID:23756193

Guo, Xu; Li, Ying; Li, Chunfang; Luo, Hongmei; Wang, Lizhi; Qian, Jun; Luo, Xiang; Xiang, Li; Song, Jingyuan; Sun, Chao; Xu, Haibin; Yao, Hui; Chen, Shilin

2013-09-15

304

Genetic rearrangements of six wheat-agropyron cristatum 6P addition lines revealed by molecular markers.  

PubMed

Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2n?=?4x?=?28, PPPP) not only is cultivated as pasture fodder but also could provide many desirable genes for wheat improvement. It is critical to obtain common wheat-A. cristatum alien disomic addition lines to locate the desired genes on the P genome chromosomes. Comparative analysis of the homoeologous relationships between the P genome chromosome and wheat genome chromosomes is a key step in transferring different desirable genes into common wheat and producing the desired alien translocation line while compensating for the loss of wheat chromatin. In this study, six common wheat-A. cristatum disomic addition lines were produced and analyzed by phenotypic examination, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), SSR markers from the ABD genomes and STS markers from the P genome. Comparative maps, six in total, were generated and demonstrated that all six addition lines belonged to homoeologous group 6. However, chromosome 6P had undergone obvious rearrangements in different addition lines compared with the wheat chromosome, indicating that to obtain a genetic compensating alien translocation line, one should recombine alien chromosomal regions with homoeologous wheat chromosomes. Indeed, these addition lines were classified into four types based on the comparative mapping: 6PI, 6PII, 6PIII, and 6PIV. The different types of chromosome 6P possessed different desirable genes. For example, the 6PI type, containing three addition lines, carried genes conferring high numbers of kernels per spike and resistance to powdery mildew, important traits for wheat improvement. These results may prove valuable for promoting the development of conventional chromosome engineering techniques toward molecular chromosome engineering. PMID:24595330

Han, Haiming; Bai, Li; Su, Junji; Zhang, Jinpeng; Song, Liqiang; Gao, Ainong; Yang, Xinming; Li, Xiuquan; Liu, Weihua; Li, Lihui

2014-01-01

305

Genetic Rearrangements of Six Wheat-Agropyron cristatum 6P Addition Lines Revealed by Molecular Markers  

PubMed Central

Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2n?=?4x?=?28, PPPP) not only is cultivated as pasture fodder but also could provide many desirable genes for wheat improvement. It is critical to obtain common wheat–A. cristatum alien disomic addition lines to locate the desired genes on the P genome chromosomes. Comparative analysis of the homoeologous relationships between the P genome chromosome and wheat genome chromosomes is a key step in transferring different desirable genes into common wheat and producing the desired alien translocation line while compensating for the loss of wheat chromatin. In this study, six common wheat–A. cristatum disomic addition lines were produced and analyzed by phenotypic examination, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), SSR markers from the ABD genomes and STS markers from the P genome. Comparative maps, six in total, were generated and demonstrated that all six addition lines belonged to homoeologous group 6. However, chromosome 6P had undergone obvious rearrangements in different addition lines compared with the wheat chromosome, indicating that to obtain a genetic compensating alien translocation line, one should recombine alien chromosomal regions with homoeologous wheat chromosomes. Indeed, these addition lines were classified into four types based on the comparative mapping: 6PI, 6PII, 6PIII, and 6PIV. The different types of chromosome 6P possessed different desirable genes. For example, the 6PI type, containing three addition lines, carried genes conferring high numbers of kernels per spike and resistance to powdery mildew, important traits for wheat improvement. These results may prove valuable for promoting the development of conventional chromosome engineering techniques toward molecular chromosome engineering. PMID:24595330

Su, Junji; Zhang, Jinpeng; Song, Liqiang; Gao, Ainong; Yang, Xinming; Li, Xiuquan; Liu, Weihua; Li, Lihui

2014-01-01

306

Applicability of universal Bacteroidales genetic marker for microbial monitoring of drinking water sources in comparison to conventional indicators.  

PubMed

Water quality monitoring is essential for the provision of safe drinking water. In this study, we compared a selection of fecal indicators with universal Bacteroidales genetic marker to identify fecal pollution of a variety of drinking water sources. A total of 60 samples were collected from water sources. The microbiological parameters included total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci as the fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), Clostridium perfringens and H2S bacteria as alternative indicators, universal Bacteroidales genetic marker as a promising alternative fecal indicator, and Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and E. coli O157 as pathogenic bacteria. From 60 samples analyzed, Bacteroidales was the most frequently detected indicator followed by total coliforms. However, the Bacteroidales assay failed to detect the marker in nine samples positive for FIB and other alternative indicators. The results of our study showed that the absence of Bacteroidales is not necessarily an evidence of fecal and pathogenic bacteria absence and may be unable to ensure the safety of the water. Further research, however, is required for a better understanding of the use of a Bacteroidales genetic marker as an indicator in water quality monitoring programs. PMID:25023746

Shahryari, A; Nikaeen, M; Khiadani Hajian, M; Nabavi, F; Hatamzadeh, M; Hassanzadeh, A

2014-11-01

307

Age-related shifts in the density and distribution of genetic marker water quality indicators in cow and calf feces.  

PubMed

Calves make up about 16% of the current bovine population in the United States and can excrete high levels of human pathogens in their feces. We describe the density and distribution of genetic markers from 9 PCR- and real-time quantitative PCR-based assays, including CF128, CF193, CowM2, CowM3, GenBac3, Entero1, EC23S857, CampF2, and ttr-6, commonly used to help assess ambient surface water quality. Each assay was tested against a collection of 381 individual bovine fecal samples representing 31 mother and calf pairings collected over a 10-month time period from time of birth through weaning. Genetic markers reported to be associated with ruminant and/or bovine fecal pollution were virtually undetected in calves for up to 115 days from birth, suggesting that physiological changes in calf ruminant function impact host-associated genetic marker shedding. In addition, general fecal indicator markers for Bacteroidales, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp. exhibited three separate trends across time, indicating that these bacteria respond differently to age-related physiological and dietary changes during calf development. The results of this study suggest that currently available PCR-based water quality indicator technologies can under- or overestimate fecal pollution originating from calves and identify a need for novel calf-associated source identification methods. PMID:24362434

Shanks, Orin C; Kelty, Catherine A; Peed, Lindsay; Sivaganesan, Mano; Mooney, Thomas; Jenkins, Michael

2014-03-01

308

Investigation of genetic diversity and population structure of common wheat cultivars in northern China using DArT markers  

PubMed Central

Background In order to help establish heterotic groups of Chinese northern wheat cultivars (lines), Diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of Chinese common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Results In total, 1637 of 7000 DArT markers were polymorphic and scored with high confidence among a collection of 111 lines composed mostly of cultivars and breeding lines from northern China. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of DArT markers ranged from 0.03 to 0.50, with an average of 0.40, with P > 80 (reliable markers). With principal-coordinates analysis (PCoA) of DArT data either from the whole genome or from the B-genome alone, all lines fell into one of two major groups reflecting 1RS/1BL type (1RS/1BL and non-1RS/1BL). Evidence of geographic clustering of genotypes was also observed using DArT markers from the A genome. Cluster analysis based on the unweighted pair-group method with algorithmic mean suggested the existence of two subgroups within the non-1RS/1BL group and four subgroups within the 1RS/1BL group. Furthermore, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed highly significant (P < 0.001) genetic variance within and among subgroups and among groups. Conclusion These results provide valuable information for selecting crossing parents and establishing heterotic groups in the Chinese wheat-breeding program. PMID:21569312

2011-01-01

309

Assessment of cattle genetic introgression into domestic yak populations using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers  

PubMed Central

Hybridization between yak Poephagus grunniens and taurine Bos taurus or indicine B. indicus cattle has been widely practiced throughout the yak geographical range, and gene flow is expected to have occurred between these species. To assess the impact of cattle admixture on domestic yak, we examined 1076 domestic yak from 29 populations collected in China, Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia and Russia using mitochondrial DNA and 17 autosomal microsatellite loci. A cattle diagnostic marker-based analysis reveals cattle-specific mtDNA and/or autosomal microsatellite allele introgression in 127 yak individuals from 22 populations. The mean level of cattle admixture across the populations, calculated using allelic information at 17 autosomal microsatellite loci, remains relatively low (mYcattle = 2.66 ± 0.53% and Qcattle = 0.69 ± 2.58%), although it varies a lot across populations as well as among individuals within population. Although the level of cattle admixture shows a clear geographical structure, with higher levels of admixture in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and Mongolian and Russian regions, and lower levels in the Himalayan and Pamir Plateau region, our results indicate that the level of cattle admixture is not significantly correlated with the altitude across geographical regions as well as within geographical region. Although yak-cattle hybridization is primarily driven to produce F1 hybrids, our results show that the subsequent gene flow between yak and cattle took place and has affected contemporary genetic make-up of domestic yak. To protect yak genetic integrity, hybridization between yak and cattle should be tightly controlled. PMID:19917041

Qi, X B; Jianlin, H; Wang, G; Rege, J E O; Hanotte, O

2010-01-01

310

Assessment of cattle genetic introgression into domestic yak populations using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA markers.  

PubMed

Hybridization between yak Poephagus grunniens and taurine Bos taurus or indicine B. indicus cattle has been widely practiced throughout the yak geographical range, and gene flow is expected to have occurred between these species. To assess the impact of cattle admixture on domestic yak, we examined 1076 domestic yak from 29 populations collected in China, Bhutan, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia and Russia using mitochondrial DNA and 17 autosomal microsatellite loci. A cattle diagnostic marker-based analysis reveals cattle-specific mtDNA and/or autosomal microsatellite allele introgression in 127 yak individuals from 22 populations. The mean level of cattle admixture across the populations, calculated using allelic information at 17 autosomal microsatellite loci, remains relatively low (mY(cattle) = 2.66 +/- 0.53% and Q(cattle) = 0.69 +/- 2.58%), although it varies a lot across populations as well as among individuals within population. Although the level of cattle admixture shows a clear geographical structure, with higher levels of admixture in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and Mongolian and Russian regions, and lower levels in the Himalayan and Pamir Plateau region, our results indicate that the level of cattle admixture is not significantly correlated with the altitude across geographical regions as well as within geographical region. Although yak-cattle hybridization is primarily driven to produce F(1) hybrids, our results show that the subsequent gene flow between yak and cattle took place and has affected contemporary genetic make-up of domestic yak. To protect yak genetic integrity, hybridization between yak and cattle should be tightly controlled. PMID:19917041

Qi, X B; Jianlin, H; Wang, G; Rege, J E O; Hanotte, O

2010-06-01

311

Genetic mapping of DArT markers in the Festuca-Lolium complex and their use in freezing tolerance association analysis.  

PubMed

Species belonging to the Festuca-Lolium complex are important forage and turf species and as such, have been studied intensively. However, their out-crossing nature and limited availability of molecular markers make genetic studies difficult. Here, we report on saturation of F. pratensis and L. multiflorum genetic maps using Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers and the DArTFest array.The 530 and 149 DArT markers were placed on genetic maps of L. multiflorum and F. pratensis, respectively, with overlap of 20 markers, which mapped in both species. The markers were sequenced and comparative sequence analysis was performed between L. multiflorum, rice and Brachypodium. The utility of the DArTFest array was then tested on a Festulolium population FuRs0357 in an integrated analysis using the DArT marker map positions to study associations between markers and freezing tolerance. Ninety six markers were significantly associated with freezing tolerance and five of these markers were genetically mapped to chromosomes 2, 4 and 7. Three genomic loci associated with freezing tolerance in the FuRs0357 population co-localized with chromosome segments and QTLs previously identified to be associated with freezing tolerance. The present work clearly confirms the potential of the DArTFest array in genetic studies of the Festuca-Lolium complex. The annotated DArTFest array resources could accelerate further studies and improvement of desired traits in Festuca-Lolium species. PMID:21212931

Bartoš, Jan; Sandve, Simen Rød; Kölliker, Roland; Kopecký, David; Christelová, Pavla; Sto?es, St?pán; Ostrem, Liv; Larsen, Arild; Kilian, Andrzej; Rognli, Odd-Arne; Doležel, Jaroslav

2011-04-01

312

Functional study of a genetic marker allele associated with resistance to Ascaris suum in pigs.  

PubMed

Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP TXNIP and SNP ARNT), both on chromosome 4, have been reported to be associated with roundworm (Ascaris suum) burden in pigs. In the present study, we selected pigs with two SNP TXNIP genotypes (AA; n = 24 and AB; n = 24), trickle-infected them with A. suum from 8 weeks of age until necropsy 8 weeks later, and tested the hypothesis that pigs with the AA genotype would have higher levels of resistance than pigs of AB genotype. We used different indicators of resistance (worm burden, fecal egg counts (FEC), number of liver white spots and A. suum-specific serum IgG antibody levels). Pigs of the AA genotype had lower mean macroscopic worm burden (2.4 vs 19.3; P = 0.06), lower mean total worm burden (26.5 vs 70.1; P = 0.09) and excreted fewer A. suum eggs at week 8 PI (mean number of eggs/g feces: 238 vs 1259; P = 0.14) than pigs of the AB genotype, as expected based on prior associations. The pigs were also genotyped at another locus (SNP ARNT) which showed a similar trend. This study provides suggestive evidence that resistant pigs may be selected using a genetic marker, TXNIP, and provides further support to the quantitative trait locus on chromosome 4. PMID:24709292

Skallerup, Per; Thamsborg, Stig M; Jørgensen, Claus B; Enemark, Heidi L; Yoshida, Ayako; Göring, Harald H H; Fredholm, Merete; Nejsum, Peter

2014-05-01

313

Spectroscopic detection of fluorescent protein marker gene activity in genetically modified plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work focuses on developing a portable fibre optic fluorescence analyser for rapid identification of genetically modified plants tagged with a fluorescent marker gene. Independent transgenic tobacco plant lines expressing the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) gene were regenerated following Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Molecular characterisation of these plant lines was carried out at the DNA level by PCR screening to confirm their transgenic status. Conventional transgene expression analysis was then carried out at the RNA level by RT-PCR and at the protein level by Western blotting using anti-GFP rabbit antiserum. The amount of plant-expressed EGFP on a Western blot was quantified against known amounts of purified EGFP by scanning densitometry. The expression level of EGFP in transformed plants was found to range from 0.1 - 0.6% of total extractable protein. A comparison between conventional western analysis of transformants and direct spectroscopic quantification using the fibre optic fluorescence analyser was made. The results showed that spectroscopic measurements of fluorescence emission from strong EGFP expressors correlated positively with Western blot data. However, the fluorescence analyser was also able to identify weakly expressing plant transformants below the detection limit of colorimetric Western blotting.

Liew, O. W.; Chong, Jenny P. C.; Asundi, Anand K.

2005-04-01

314

Genetic Diversity in Hypericum and AFLP Markers for Species-Specific Identification of H. perforatum L.  

PubMed Central

One of the top-selling medicinal products worldwide is Hypericum perforatum (St. John's Wort). Despite its cosmopolitan distribution and utilization, little is known regarding the relationship of the bioactive compounds in H. perforatum to the plants from which they are purportedly derived. In this study, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of 56 Hypericum accessions, representing 11 species, was conducted to gain a better understanding of diversity within Hypericum species, especially within cultivated accessions of H. perforatum, and to establish a molecular methodology that will provide breeders and regulators with a simple, affordable, and accurate tool with which to identify purported H. perforatum material. Utilizing four primer combinations, a total of 298 polymorphic markers were generated, of which 17 were present in all H. perforatum accessions and 2 were specific to only H. perforatum. This study demonstrates that AFLP can be utilized not only to determine the relationships of closely related Hypericum accessions, but as a tool to authenticate material in herbal remedies through the use of genetic fingerprinting. PMID:18072074

Percifield, Ryan J.; Hawkins, Jennifer S.; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Wendel, Jonathan F.

2008-01-01

315

Genetic polymorphism in the NRF2 gene as a prognosis marker for cancer chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a transcription factor that controls the expression of a variety of antioxidant and detoxification genes. Accumulating evidence strongly suggests that NRF2 mediates cancer cell proliferation and drug resistance, as well. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -617C > A in the anti-oxidant response element-like loci of the human NRF2 gene play a pivotal role in the positive feedback loop of transcriptional activation of the NRF2 gene. Since the SNP (-617A) reportedly decreases the binding affinity to the transcription factors of NRF2/small multiple alignment format (MafK), the homozygous -617A/A allele may attenuate the positive feedback loop of transcriptional activation of the NRF2 gene and reduce the NRF2 protein level. As the consequence, cancer cells are considered to become more sensitive to therapy and less aggressive than cancer cells harboring the -617C (WT) allele. Indeed, Japanese lung cancer patients carrying SNP homozygous alleles (c. -617A/A) exhibited remarkable survival over 1,700 days after surgical operation (log-rank p = 0.021). The genetic polymorphism in the human NRF2 gene is considered as one of prognosis markers for cancer therapy. PMID:25408701

Ishikawa, Toshihisa

2014-01-01

316

Genetic diversity of the Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) as assessed by SSR markers.  

PubMed

Bambara groundnut ( Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an important African legume crop. In this study, a collection consisting of 240 accessions was analyzed using 22 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In total, 166 alleles were detected, with a mean of 7.59 alleles per locus. Allelic and gene diversities were higher in the west African and Cameroon/Nigeria regions with 6.68 and 6.18 alleles per locus, and 0.601 and 0.571, respectively. The genetic distance showed high similarity between west African and Cameroon/Nigeria accessions. Principal coordinate analyses and neighbor-joining analysis consistently revealed that the majority of west African accessions were grouped with Cameroon/Nigeria accessions, but they were differentiated from east African, central African, and southeast Asian accessions. Population structure analysis showed that two subpopulations existed, and most of the east African accessions were restricted to one subpopulation with some Cameroon/Nigeria accessions, whereas most of the west African accessions were associated with most of the Cameroon/Nigeria accessions in the other subpopulation. Comparison with SSR analysis of other Vigna cultigens, i.e., cultivated azuki bean ( Vigna angularis ) and mungbean ( Vigna radiata ), reveals that the mean gene diversity of Bambara groundnut was lower than azuki bean but higher than mungbean. PMID:22017518

Somta, P; Chankaew, S; Rungnoi, O; Srinives, P

2011-11-01

317

spa Typing Method for Discriminating among Staphylococcus aureus Isolates: Implications for Use of a Single Marker To Detect Genetic Micro and Macrovariation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strain typing of microbial pathogens has two major aims: (i) to index genetic microvariation for use in outbreak investigations and (ii) to index genetic macrovariation for use in phylogenetic and population-based analyses. Until now, there has been no clear indication that one genetic marker can efficiently be used for both purposes. Previously, we had shown that DNA sequence analysis of

Larry Koreen; Srinivas V. Ramaswamy; Edward A. Graviss; Steven Naidich; James M. Musser; Barry N. Kreiswirth

2004-01-01

318

[Genetic diversity of Dactylis glomerata germplasm resources detected by Inter-simple Sequence Repeats (ISSRS) molecular markers].  

PubMed

Inter-simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) molecular markers were used to detect the genetic diversity among 50 materials of Dactylis glomerata collected from China and other countries. Twelve primers produced 101 polymorphic bands, averaged 8.41 bands each primer pair. The average percentage of polymorpgic bands was 86.3.8%, and the range of GS (define) was 0.6116-0.9290, indicating a rich genetic diversity of D. glomerata. Based on the cluster and principal component analyses on the genetic characteristics, D. glomerata could be divided into 5 groups according to the nearest phylogenetic relationship. In most cases, accessions from the same continent were classified into the same group, the accessions from China and the United States belong to the different groups, respectively, indicating the geographical distribution of genetic diversity of D. glomerata. The present paper also discussed collection and conservation of germplasm resources in D. glomerata. PMID:16963418

Zeng, Bing; Zhang, Xin-Quan; Fan, Yan; Lan, Ying; Ma, Xiao; Peng, Yan; Liu, Wei

2006-09-01

319

Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Major Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Cultivars Grown in China by SSR Markers  

PubMed Central

One hundred and forty-six highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of 196 peanut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) cultivars which had been extensively planted in different regions in China. These SSR markers amplified 440 polymorphic bands with an average of 2.99, and the average gene diversity index was 0.11. Eighty-six rare alleles with a frequency of less than 1% were identified in these cultivars. The largest Fst or genetic distance was found between the cultivars that adapted to the south regions and those to the north regions in China. A neighbor-joining tree of cultivars adapted to different ecological regions was constructed based on pairwise Nei’s genetic distances, which showed a significant difference between cultivars from the south and the north regions. A model-based population structure analysis divided these peanut cultivars into five subpopulations (P1a, P1b, P2, P3a and P3b). P1a and P1b included most the cultivars from the southern provinces including Guangdong, Guangxi and Fujian. P2 population consisted of the cultivars from Hubei province and parts from Shandong and Henan. P3a and P3b had cultivars from the northern provinces including Shandong, Anhui, Henan, Hebei, Jiangsu and the Yangtze River region including Sichuan province. The cluster analysis, PCoA and PCA based on the marker genotypes, revealed five distinct clusters for the entire population that were related to their germplasm regions. The results indicated that there were obvious genetic variations between cultivars from the south and the north, and there were distinct genetic differentiation among individual cultivars from the south and the north. Taken together, these results provided a molecular basis for understanding genetic diversity of Chinese peanut cultivars. PMID:24520347

Ren, Xiaoping; Jiang, Huifang; Yan, Zhongyuan; Chen, Yuning; Zhou, Xiaojing; Huang, Li; Lei, Yong; Huang, Jiaquan; Yan, Liying; Qi, Yue; Wei, Wenhui; Liao, Boshou

2014-01-01

320

New Microsatellite Markers for Examining Genetic Variation in Peripheral and Core Populations of the Coastal Giant Salamander (Dicamptodon tenebrosus)  

PubMed Central

The Coastal Giant Salamander (Dicamptodon tenebrosus) is classified as threatened at the northern periphery of its range in British Columbia (BC), Canada, primarily due to forestry practices and habitat fragmentation. Characterising dispersal behaviour and population connectivity is therefore a priority for this region, while genetic differentiation in core versus peripheral locations remains unstudied in this wide-ranging species. We present seven new polymorphic microsatellite markers for use in population genetic analyses of D. tenebrosus. We examine locus characteristics and genetic variation in 12 streams at the species' northern range limit in BC, and within two regions representing sub-peripheral (North Cascades) and core localities (South Cascades) in Washington State, United States. In BC, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2–5 and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.044–0.825. Genetic differentiation was highest between BC and the South Cascades, and intermediate between BC and the North Cascades. Across loci, mean allelic richness was similar across regions, while private allelic richness was highest in the core locality (corrected for sample size). These new microsatellite loci will be a valuable addition to existing markers for detailed landscape and population genetic analyses of D. tenebrosus across its range. PMID:21179519

Dudaniec, Rachael Y.; Storfer, Andrew; Spear, Stephen F.; Richardson, John S.

2010-01-01

321

A Multi-Population Consensus Genetic Map Reveals Inconsistent Marker Order among Maps Likely Attributed to Structural Variations in the Apple Genome  

PubMed Central

Genetic maps serve as frameworks for determining the genetic architecture of quantitative traits, assessing structure of a genome, as well as aid in pursuing association mapping and comparative genetic studies. In this study, a dense genetic map was constructed using a high-throughput 1,536 EST-derived SNP GoldenGate genotyping platform and a global consensus map established by combining the new genetic map with four existing reliable genetic maps of apple. The consensus map identified markers with both major and minor conflicts in positioning across all five maps. These major inconsistencies among marker positions were attributed either to structural variations within the apple genome, or among mapping populations, or genotyping technical errors. These also highlighted problems in assembly and anchorage of the reference draft apple genome sequence in regions with known segmental duplications. Markers common across all five apple genetic maps resulted in successful positioning of 2875 markers, consisting of 2033 SNPs and 843 SSRs as well as other specific markers, on the global consensus map. These markers were distributed across all 17 linkage groups, with an average of 169±33 marker per linkage group and with an average distance of 0.70±0.14 cM between markers. The total length of the consensus map was 1991.38 cM with an average length of 117.14±24.43 cM per linkage group. A total of 569 SNPs were mapped onto the genetic map, consisting of 140 recombinant individuals, from our recently developed apple Oligonucleotide pool assays (OPA). The new functional SNPs, along with the dense consensus genetic map, will be useful for high resolution QTL mapping of important traits in apple and for pursuing comparative genetic studies in Rosaceae. PMID:23144832

Khan, Muhammad Awais; Han, Yuepeng; Zhao, Youfu Frank; Troggio, Michela; Korban, Schuyler S.

2012-01-01

322

A reference consensus genetic map for molecular markers and economically important traits in faba bean (Vicia faba L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the earliest domesticated crops from the Near East. Today this legume is a key protein feed and food worldwide and continues to serve an important role in culinary traditions throughout Middle East, Mediterranean region, China and Ethiopia. Adapted to a wide range of soil types, the main faba bean breeding objectives are to improve yield, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, seed quality and other agronomic traits. Genomic approaches aimed at enhancing faba bean breeding programs require high-quality genetic linkage maps to facilitate quantitative trait locus analysis and gene tagging for use in a marker-assisted selection. The objective of this study was to construct a reference consensus map in faba bean by joining the information from the most relevant maps reported so far in this crop. Results A combination of two approaches, increasing the number of anchor loci in diverse mapping populations and joining the corresponding genetic maps, was used to develop a reference consensus map in faba bean. The map was constructed from three main recombinant inbreed populations derived from four parental lines, incorporates 729 markers and is based on 69 common loci. It spans 4,602 cM with a range from 323 to 1041 loci in six main linkage groups or chromosomes, and an average marker density of one locus every 6 cM. Locus order is generally well maintained between the consensus map and the individual maps. Conclusion We have constructed a reliable and fairly dense consensus genetic linkage map that will serve as a basis for genomic approaches in faba bean research and breeding. The core map contains a larger number of markers than any previous individual map, covers existing gaps and achieves a wider coverage of the large faba bean genome as a whole. This tool can be used as a reference resource for studies in different genetic backgrounds, and provides a framework for transferring genetic information when using different marker technologies. Combined with syntenic approaches, the consensus map will increase marker density in selected genomic regions and will be useful for future faba bean molecular breeding applications. PMID:24377374

2013-01-01

323

Microsatellite (SSR) markers reveal genetic identities, genetic diversity and relationships in a Malus×domestica borkh. core subset collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collection of 66 Malus?domestica Borkh. accessions from the USDA-ARS Plant Genetic Resources Unit’s core collection was screened with a set of eight SSR (simple\\u000a sequence repeat) primers developed at the PGRU in order to determine genetic identities, estimate genetic diversity, and to\\u000a identify genetic relationships among these accessions. All eight primer pairs generated multiple fragments when used in amplification

S. C. Hokanson; A. K. Szewc-McFadden; W. F. Lamboy; J. R. McFerson

1998-01-01

324

Combination of Genetic and Quantitative Serological Immune Markers are Associated with Complicated Crohn’s Disease Behavior  

PubMed Central

Background Treatment of Crohn’s disease (CD) with biologics may alter disease progression, leading to fewer disease-related complications, but cost and adverse event profiles often limit their effective use. Tools identifying patients at high risk of complications, who would benefit the most from biologics, would be valuable. Previous studies suggest that biomarkers may aid in determining the course of CD. We aimed to determine if combined serologic immune responses and NOD2 genetic markers are associated with CD complications. Methods In this cross-sectional study, banked blood from well-characterized CD patients (n = 593; mean follow-up: 12 years) from tertiary and community centers was analyzed for six serological biomarkers (ASCA-IgA, ASCA-IgG, anti-OmpC, anti-CBir1, anti-I2, pANCA). In a patient subset (n = 385), NOD2 (SNP8, SNP12, SNP13) genotyping was performed. Complications included stricturing and penetrating disease behaviors. A logistic regression model for the risk of complications over time was constructed and evaluated by cross-validation. Results For each serologic marker, complication rates were stratified by quartile. Complication frequency was significantly different across quartiles for each marker (P trend ? 0.001). Patients with SNP13 NOD2 risk alleles experienced increased complications versus patients without NOD2 mutations (P ? 0.001). A calibration plot of modeled versus observed complication rates demonstrated good agreement (R = 0.973). Performance of the model integrating serologic and genetic markers was demonstrated by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.801; 95% confidence interval: 0.757–0.846). Conclusions This model combining serologic and NOD2 genetic markers may provide physicians with a tool to assess the probability of patients developing a complication over the course of CD. PMID:21391291

Lichtenstein, Gary R.; Targan, Stephan R.; Dubinsky, Marla C.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Barken, Derren M.; Princen, Fred; Carroll, Susan; Brown, Michelle; Stachelski, Jordan; Chuang, Emil; Landers, Carol J.; Stempak, Joanne M.; Singh, Sharat; Silverberg, Mark S.

2014-01-01

325

Genetic Structure, Linkage Disequilibrium and Signature of Selection in Sorghum: Lessons from Physically Anchored DArT Markers  

PubMed Central

Population structure, extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) as well as signatures of selection were investigated in sorghum using a core sample representative of worldwide diversity. A total of 177 accessions were genotyped with 1122 informative physically anchored DArT markers. The properties of DArTs to describe sorghum genetic structure were compared to those of SSRs and of previously published RFLP markers. Model-based (STRUCTURE software) and Neighbor-Joining diversity analyses led to the identification of 6 groups and confirmed previous evolutionary hypotheses. Results were globally consistent between the different marker systems. However, DArTs appeared more robust in terms of data resolution and bayesian group assignment. Whole genome linkage disequilibrium as measured by mean r2 decreased from 0.18 (between 0 to 10 kb) to 0.03 (between 100 kb to 1 Mb), stabilizing at 0.03 after 1 Mb. Effects on LD estimations of sample size and genetic structure were tested using i. random sampling, ii. the Maximum Length SubTree algorithm (MLST), and iii. structure groups. Optimizing population composition by the MLST reduced the biases in small samples and seemed to be an efficient way of selecting samples to make the best use of LD as a genome mapping approach in structured populations. These results also suggested that more than 100,000 markers may be required to perform genome-wide association studies in collections covering worldwide sorghum diversity. Analysis of DArT markers differentiation between the identified genetic groups pointed out outlier loci potentially linked to genes controlling traits of interest, including disease resistance genes for which evidence of selection had already been reported. In addition, evidence of selection near a homologous locus of FAR1 concurred with sorghum phenotypic diversity for sensitivity to photoperiod. PMID:22428056

Bouchet, Sophie; Pot, David; Deu, Monique; Rami, Jean-Francois; Billot, Claire; Perrier, Xavier; Rivallan, Ronan; Gardes, Laetitia; Xia, Ling; Wenzl, Peter; Kilian, Andrzej; Glaszmann, Jean-Christophe

2012-01-01

326

Development of Ninety-Seven Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers for Rainbow Trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-density microsatellite genetic map for rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss is needed for the identification of quantitative trait loci affecting traits of economic interest to the aquaculture industry. These markers are also useful for evolutionary and population genetic studies. The candidate marker sequences that are identifed must be characterized with respect to their uniqueness, polymorphism, heterozygosity, ploidy, and usefulness as

C. E. Rexroad III; Y. Palti

2003-01-01

327

Diversity and genetic structure of teak ( Tectona grandis L.f) in its natural range using DNA microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) is considered to be an extraordinarily durable building timber with a worldwide reputation. Its widespread use has\\u000a entailed the over-exploitation of natural forests and a large reduction in natural diversity. Fifteen microsatellite markers\\u000a were used to study the genetic variability and structure of 166 teak trees distributed over the whole natural area of teak.\\u000a Analysis showed

Inza Jesus Fofana; Daniel Ofori; Mireille Poitel; Daniel Verhaegen

2009-01-01

328

Fingerprinting and genetic variability in cork oak ( Quercus suber L.) elite trees using ISSR and SSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quercus suber L., is a socially, economically and ecologically important forest species in rural areas of the Mediterranean basin. Fifty\\u000a three elite-trees from nine stands of four provenance regions in the Community of Extremadura (Spain) were analysed with the\\u000a aim to establish their DNA-fingerprinting and the genetic relationships among them. Two types of molecular markers, microsatellites\\u000a and intermicrosatellites, were used

Aimara Löpez-Aljorna; Maria Angeles Bueno; Itziar Aguinagalde; Juan Pedro Martín

2007-01-01

329

Fate of introduced genetic markers in transformed root clones and regenerated plants of monohaploid and diploid potato genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrobacterium transformation of stem internodes of four monohaploid (839-79, 849-7, 851-23, 855-1) and two diploid (M9 and HH260) potato genotypes using hairy root-inducing single (LBA 1020, LBA 9365, LBA 9402) and binary (LBA 1060KG) vectors is reported. Various media and successive culture steps were tested for plant regeneration from different transformed root clones. The fate of introduced genetic markers in

E. de Vries-Uijtewaal; L. J. W. Gilissen; E. Flipse; K. Sree Ramulu; W. J. Stiekema; B. Groot

1989-01-01

330

Genetically engineered resistance to organophosphate herbicides provides a new scoreable and selectable marker system for transgenic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organophosphate hydrolase (OPH, E.C. 3.1.8.1; encoded by the bacterial opd gene) provides a new scoreable and selectable genetic marker system for use in plant cell culture and regenerated plant tissue.\\u000a OPH hydrolyzes a wide range of substrates that produce visually detectable products, which can be readily quantified in biological\\u000a tissues. A variety of different OP compounds, both herbicides and pesticides,

T. Scott Pinkerton; John A. Howard; James R. Wild

2008-01-01

331

Analysis of genetic diversity through AFLP, SAMPL, ISSR and RAPD markers in Tribulus terrestris , a medicinal herb  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tribulus terrestris is well known for its medicinal importance in curing urino-genital disorders. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP),\\u000a selective amplification of microsatellite polymorphic loci (SAMPL), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and randomly amplified\\u000a polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used for the first time for the detection of genetic polymorphism in this medicinal herb\\u000a from samples collected from various geographical regions of

Maryam Sarwat; S. Das; P. S. Srivastava

2008-01-01

332

A genetic linkage map of water yam ( Dioscorea alata L.) based on AFLP markers and QTL analysis for anthracnose resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genetic linkage map of the tetraploid water yam (Dioscorea alata L.) genome was constructed based on 469 co-dominantly scored amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers segregating in an intraspecific F1 cross. The F1 was obtained by crossing two improved breeding lines, TDa 95\\/00328 as female parent and TDa 87\\/01091 as male parent. Since the mapping population was an F1

H. D. Mignouna; R. A. Mank; T. H. N. Ellis; N. van den Bosch; R. Asiedu; M. M. Abang; J. Peleman

2002-01-01

333

Detection of Low Genetic Variation in a Critically Endangered Chinese Pine, Pinus squamata , Using RAPD and ISSR Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

With only 32 individuals in the northeastern corner of Yunnan Province, China, Pinus squamata is one of the most endangered conifers in the world. Using two classes of molecular markers, RAPD and ISSR, its very low\\u000a genetic variation was revealed. Shannon's index of phenotypic diversity (I) was 0.030, the mean effective number of alleles per locus (Ae) was 1.032, the

Zhi-Yong Zhang; Yong-Yan Chen; De-Zhu Li

2005-01-01

334

Development of Reproducible EST-derived SSR Markers and Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Panax ginseng Cultivars and Related Species  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the genetics or genomics of Panax ginseng. In this study, we developed 70 expressed sequence tag-derived polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers by trials of 140 primer pairs. All of the 70 markers showed reproducible polymorphism among four Panax speciesand 19 of them were polymorphic in six P. ginseng cultivars. These markers segregated 1:2:1 manner of Mendelian inheritance in an F2 population of a cross between two P. ginseng cultivars, ‘Yunpoong’ and ‘Chunpoong’, indicating that these are reproducible and inheritable mappable markers. A phylogenetic analysis using the genotype data showed three distinctive groups: a P. ginseng-P. japonicus clade, P. notoginseng and P. quinquefolius, with similarity coefficients of 0.70. P. japonicus was intermingled with P. ginseng cultivars, indicating that both species have similar genetic backgrounds. P. ginseng cultivars were subdivided into three minor groups: an independent cultivar ‘Chunpoong’, a subgroup with three accessions including two cultivars, ‘Gumpoong’ and ‘Yunpoong’ and one landrace ‘Hwangsook’ and another subgroup with two accessions including one cultivar, ‘Gopoong’ and one landrace ‘Jakyung’. Each primer pair produced 1 to 4 bands, indicating that the ginseng genome has a highly replicated paleopolyploid genome structure. PMID:23717085

Choi, Hong-Il; Kim, Nam Hoon; Kim, Jun Ha; Choi, Beom Soon; Ahn, In-Ok; Lee, Joon-Soo; Yang, Tae-Jin

2011-01-01

335

Fecal source tracking in water by next-generation sequencing technologies using host-specific Escherichia coli genetic markers.  

PubMed

High levels of fecal bacteria are a concern for the aquatic environment, and identifying sources of those bacteria is important for mitigating fecal pollution and preventing waterborne disease. Escherichia coli has been used as an indicator of fecal pollution, however less success has been achieved using this organism for library-independent microbial source tracking. In this study, using next-generation sequencing technology we sequenced the whole genomes of 22 E. coli isolates from known sources (9 from humans, 2 from cows, 6 from pigs, and 5 from chickens) and identified candidate host-specific genomic regions. Specificity testing on the candidate regions was performed using 30 E. coli isolates from each source. Finally, we identified 4 human-, 2 cow-, 3 pig-, and 4 chicken-specific genetic markers useful for source tracking. We also found that a combination of multiplex PCR and dual index sequencing is effective for detecting multiple genetic markers in multiple isolates at one time. This technique was applied to investigating identified genetic markers in 549 E. coli isolates obtained from the Yamato River, Japan. Results indicate that humans constitute a major source of water contamination in the river. However, further work must include isolates obtained from geographically diverse animal hosts to make this method more reliable. PMID:25055157

Gomi, Ryota; Matsuda, Tomonari; Matsui, Yasuto; Yoneda, Minoru

2014-08-19

336

Genetic Dissection of New Genotypes of Drumstick Tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Marker  

PubMed Central

The knowledge of genetic diversity of tree crop is very important for breeding and improvement program for the purpose of improving the yield and quality of its produce. Genetic diversity study and analysis of genetic relationship among 20 Moringa oleifera were carried out with the aid of twelve primers from, random amplified polymorphic DNA marker. The seeds of twenty M. oleifera genotypes from various origins were collected and germinated and raised in nursery before transplanting to the field at University Agricultural Park (TPU). Genetic diversity parameter, such as Shannon's information index and expected heterozygosity, revealed the presence of high genetic divergence with value of 1.80 and 0.13 for Malaysian population and 0.30 and 0.19 for the international population, respectively. Mean of Nei's gene diversity index for the two populations was estimated to be 0.20. In addition, a dendrogram constructed, using UPGMA cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distance, grouped the twenty M. oleifera into five distinct clusters. The study revealed a great extent of variation which is essential for successful breeding and improvement program. From this study, M. oleifera genotypes of wide genetic origin, such as T-01, T-06, M-01, and M-02, are recommended to be used as parent in future breeding program. PMID:23862149

Rufai, Shamsuddeen; Hanafi, M. M.; Rafii, M. Y.; Ahmad, S.; Arolu, I. W.; Ferdous, Jannatul

2013-01-01

337

Genetic markers associated with abstinence length in alcohol-dependent subjects treated with acamprosate.  

PubMed

Acamprosate supports abstinence in some alcohol-dependent subjects, yet predictors of response are unknown. To identify response biomarkers, we investigated associations of abstinence length with polymorphisms in candidate genes in glycine and glutamate neurotransmission pathways and genes previously implicated in acamprosate response. Association analyses were conducted in the discovery sample of 225 alcohol-dependent subjects treated with acamprosate for 3 months in community-based treatment programs in the United States. Data from 110 alcohol-dependent males treated with acamprosate in the study PREDICT were used for replication of the top association findings. Statistical models were adjusted for relevant covariates, including recruitment site and baseline clinical variables associated with response. In the discovery sample, shorter abstinence was associated with increased intensity of alcohol craving and lower number of days between the last drink and initiation of acamprosate treatment. After adjustment for covariates, length of abstinence was associated with the GRIN2B rs2058878 (P=4.6 × 10(-5)). In the replication sample, shorter abstinence was associated with increased craving, increased depressive mood score and higher alcohol consumption. Association of abstinence length with GRIN2B rs2058878 was marginally significant (P=0.0675); as in the discovery sample, the minor A allele was associated with longer abstinence. Furthermore, rs2300272, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs2058878, was also associated with abstinence length (P=0.049). This is the first report of a replicated association of genetic markers with the length of abstinence in acamprosate-treated alcoholics. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms of this association and its usefulness for individualized treatment selection should follow. PMID:25290263

Karpyak, V M; Biernacka, J M; Geske, J R; Jenkins, G D; Cunningham, J M; Rüegg, J; Kononenko, O; Leontovich, A A; Abulseoud, O A; Hall-Flavin, D K; Loukianova, L L; Schneekloth, T D; Skime, M K; Frank, J; Nöthen, M M; Rietschel, M; Kiefer, F; Mann, K F; Weinshilboum, R M; Frye, M A; Choi, D S

2014-01-01

338

Identification of QTLs Associated with Callogenesis and Embryogenesis in Oil Palm Using Genetic Linkage Maps Improved with SSR Markers  

PubMed Central

Clonal reproduction of oil palm by means of tissue culture is a very inefficient process. Tissue culturability is known to be genotype dependent with some genotypes being more amenable to tissue culture than others. In this study, genetic linkage maps enriched with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for dura (ENL48) and pisifera (ML161), the two fruit forms of oil palm, Elaeis guineensis. The SSR markers were mapped onto earlier reported parental maps based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. The new linkage map of ENL48 contains 148 markers (33 AFLPs, 38 RFLPs and 77 SSRs) in 23 linkage groups (LGs), covering a total map length of 798.0 cM. The ML161 map contains 240 markers (50 AFLPs, 71 RFLPs and 119 SSRs) in 24 LGs covering a total of 1,328.1 cM. Using the improved maps, two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with tissue culturability were identified each for callusing rate and embryogenesis rate. A QTL for callogenesis was identified in LGD4b of ENL48 and explained 17.5% of the phenotypic variation. For embryogenesis rate, a QTL was detected on LGP16b in ML161 and explained 20.1% of the variation. This study is the first attempt to identify QTL associated with tissue culture amenity in oil palm which is an important step towards understanding the molecular processes underlying clonal regeneration of oil palm. PMID:23382832

Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Jansen, Johannes; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Ishak, Zamzuri; Chin, Cheuk-Weng; Tan, Soon-Guan; Cheah, Suan-Choo; Singh, Rajinder

2013-01-01

339

Identification of QTLs associated with callogenesis and embryogenesis in oil palm using genetic linkage maps improved with SSR markers.  

PubMed

Clonal reproduction of oil palm by means of tissue culture is a very inefficient process. Tissue culturability is known to be genotype dependent with some genotypes being more amenable to tissue culture than others. In this study, genetic linkage maps enriched with simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed for dura (ENL48) and pisifera (ML161), the two fruit forms of oil palm, Elaeis guineensis. The SSR markers were mapped onto earlier reported parental maps based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. The new linkage map of ENL48 contains 148 markers (33 AFLPs, 38 RFLPs and 77 SSRs) in 23 linkage groups (LGs), covering a total map length of 798.0 cM. The ML161 map contains 240 markers (50 AFLPs, 71 RFLPs and 119 SSRs) in 24 LGs covering a total of 1,328.1 cM. Using the improved maps, two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with tissue culturability were identified each for callusing rate and embryogenesis rate. A QTL for callogenesis was identified in LGD4b of ENL48 and explained 17.5% of the phenotypic variation. For embryogenesis rate, a QTL was detected on LGP16b in ML161 and explained 20.1% of the variation. This study is the first attempt to identify QTL associated with tissue culture amenity in oil palm which is an important step towards understanding the molecular processes underlying clonal regeneration of oil palm. PMID:23382832

Ting, Ngoot-Chin; Jansen, Johannes; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Ishak, Zamzuri; Chin, Cheuk-Weng; Tan, Soon-Guan; Cheah, Suan-Choo; Singh, Rajinder

2013-01-01

340

Assessment of simple marker-free genetic transformation techniques in alfalfa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods to avoid the presence of selectable marker genes (SMG) in transgenic plants are available but not implemented in many\\u000a crop species. We assessed the efficiency of simple marker-free Agrobacterium-mediated transformation techniques in alfalfa: regeneration without selection, or marker-less, and co-transformation with\\u000a two vectors, one containing the SMG and one containing a non-selected gene. To easily estimate the efficiency of

Nicoletta Ferradini; Alessandro Nicolia; Stefano Capomaccio; Fabio Veronesi; Daniele Rosellini

341

Genetic transformation of apple ( Malus x domestica ) without use of a selectable marker gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selectable marker genes are widely used for the efficient transformation of crop plants. In most cases, antibiotic or herbicide\\u000a resistance marker genes are preferred because they tend to be most efficient. Due mainly to consumer and grower concerns,\\u000a considerable effort is being put into developing strategies (site-specific recombination, homologous recombination, transposition,\\u000a and cotransformation) to eliminate the marker gene from the

Mickael Malnoy; Ewa E. Boresjza-Wysocka; John L. Norelli; Moshe A. Flaishman; David Gidoni; Herb S. Aldwinckle

2010-01-01

342

Pathway analysis of genetic markers associated with a functional MRI faces paradigm implicates polymorphisms in calcium responsive pathways.  

PubMed

Several lines of evidence suggest that common polygenic variation influences brain function in humans. Combining high-density genetic markers with brain imaging techniques is constricted by the practicalities of collecting sufficiently large brain imaging samples. Pathway analysis promises to leverage knowledge on function of genes to detect recurring signals of moderate effect. We adapt this approach, exploiting the deep information collected on brain function by fMRI methods, to identify molecular pathways containing genetic variants which influence brain activation during a commonly applied experiment based on a face matching task (n=246) which was developed to study neural processing of faces displaying negative emotions. Genetic markers moderately associated (p<10(-4)) with whole brain activation phenotypes constructed by applying principal components to contrast maps, were tested for pathway enrichment using permutation based methods. The most significant pathways are related to post NMDA receptor activation events, driven by genetic variants in calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMK2G, CAMK2D) and a calcium-regulated nucleotide exchange factor (RASGRF2) in which all are activated by intracellular calcium/calmodulin. The most significant effect of the combined polygenic model were localized to the left inferior frontal gyrus (p=1.03 × 10(-9)), a region primarily involved in semantic processing but also involved in processing negative emotions. These findings suggest that pathway analysis of GWAS results derived from principal component analysis of fMRI data is a promising method, to our knowledge, not previously described. PMID:23274185

Mattingsdal, Morten; Brown, Andrew Anand; Djurovic, Srdjan; Sønderby, Ida Elken; Server, Andres; Melle, Ingrid; Agartz, Ingrid; Hovig, Eivind; Jensen, Jimmy; Andreassen, Ole A

2013-04-15

343

Genetic variation and comparison of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) cultivars and wild accessions as revealed by SSR markers.  

PubMed

Orchardgrass is a highly variable, perennial forage grass that is cultivated throughout temperate and subtropical regions of the world. Despite its economic importance, the genetic relationship and distance among and within cultivars are largely unknown but would be of great interest for breeding programs. We investigated the molecular variation and structure of cultivar populations, compared the level of genetic diversity among cultivars (Baoxing, Anba, Bote, and Kaimo), subspecies (Dactylis glomerata ssp Woronowii) and advanced breeding line (YA02-116) to determine whether there is still sufficient genetic diversity within presently used cultivars for future breeding progress in China. Twenty individuals were analyzed from each of six accessions using SSR markers; 114 easily scored bands were generated from 15 SSR primer pairs, with an average of 7.6 alleles per locus. The polymorphic rate was 100% among the 120 individuals, reflecting a high degree of genetic diversity. Among the six accessions, the highest genetic diversity was observed in Kaimo (H = 0.2518; I = 0.3916; P = 87.3%) and 02-116 had a lower level of genetic diversity (H = 0.1806; I = 0.2788; P = 58.73%) compared with other cultivars tested. An of molecular variance revealed a much larger genetic variation within accessions (65%) than between them (35%). This observation suggests that these cultivars have potential for providing rich genetic resource for further breeding program. Furthermore, the study also indicated that Chinese orchardgrass breeding has involved strong selection for adaptation to forage production, which may result in restricted genetic base of orchardgrass cultivar. PMID:22427034

Xie, W G; Lu, X F; Zhang, X Q; Huang, L K; Cheng, L

2012-01-01

344

Identification of Single-Copy Orthologous Genes between Physalis and Solanum lycopersicum and Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Physalis Using Molecular Markers  

PubMed Central

The genus Physalis includes a number of commercially important edible and ornamental species. Its high nutritional value and potential medicinal properties leads to the increased commercial interest in the products of this genus worldwide. However, lack of molecular markers prevents the detailed study of genetics and phylogeny in Physalis, which limits the progress of breeding. In the present study, we compared the DNA sequences between Physalis and tomato, and attempted to analyze genetic diversity in Physalis using tomato markers. Blasting 23180 DNA sequences derived from Physalis against the International Tomato Annotation Group (ITAG) Release2.3 Predicted CDS (SL2.40) discovered 3356 single-copy orthologous genes between them. A total of 38 accessions from at least six species of Physalis were subjected to genetic diversity analysis using 97 tomato markers and 25 SSR markers derived from P. peruviana. Majority (73.2%) of tomato markers could amplify DNA fragments from at least one accession of Physalis. Diversity in Physalis at molecular level was also detected. The average Nei’s genetic distance between accessions was 0.3806 with a range of 0.2865 to 0.7091. These results indicated Physalis and tomato had similarity at both molecular marker and DNA sequence levels. Therefore, the molecular markers developed in tomato can be used in genetic study in Physalis. PMID:23166835

Wei, Jingli; Hu, Xiaorong; Yang, Jingjing; Yang, Wencai

2012-01-01

345

Genetic diversity and population structure of yellow camellia (Camellia nitidissima) in China as revealed by RAPD and AFLP markers.  

PubMed

Camellia nitidissima, a rare plant but a useful genetic resource for commercial cultivation of ornamental camellias, is distributed in a narrow region of South China and North Vietnam. In this study, RAPD and AFLP markers were used to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of six natural populations of C. nitidissima from Guangxi in South China. Twenty RAPD primers amplified 183 bands, of which 143 bands were polymorphic, and 8 AFLP primer pairs produced 502 bands, of which 364 were polymorphic. Independent as well as combined analyses of the cluster analyses of the RAPD and AFLP fragments showed that the six populations could be classified into two major genetic groups corresponding to the Nanning and Fangcheng areas. The Mantel test revealed significant correlation between the genetic and geographic distances of C. nitidissima populations (r = 0.953, p = 0.036). AMOVA analysis allowed the partitioning of the genetic variation between groups (36.09%), among populations within groups (25.78%), and within populations (38.14%). An understanding of both the genetic diversity and the population structure of C. nitidissima in China can also provide insight into the conservation and management of this endangered species. PMID:17109218

Tang, Shaoqing; Bin, Xiaoyun; Wang, Li; Zhong, Yang

2006-10-01

346

Genetic Diversity of the Critically Endangered Thuja sutchuenensis Revealed by ISSR Markers and the Implications for Conservation  

PubMed Central

Thuja sutchuenensis Franch. is a critically endangered plant endemic to the North-East Chongqing, China. Genetic variation was studied to assess the distribution of genetic diversity within and among seven populations from the single remnant locations, using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. A total of 15 primers generated 310 well defined bands, with an average of 20.7 bands per primer. The seven populations revealed a relatively high level of genetic diversity in the species. The percentage of polymorphic bands, Nei’s gene diversity and Shannon’s information index at the population and species level were 76.1%, 0.155, 0.252 and 100%, 0.165, 0.295, respectively. A low level of genetic differentiation among populations (GST = 0.102), in line with the results of Analyses of Molecular Variance (AMOVA), and a high level of gene flow (Nm = 4.407) were observed. Both the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmatic Mean (UPGMA) cluster analysis and Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA) supported the grouping of all seven populations into two groups. In addition, Mantel test revealed no significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances (r = 0.329, p = 0.100). The low genetic differentiation among populations implies that the conservation efforts should aim to preserve all the extant populations of this endangered species. PMID:23863693

Liu, Jianfeng; Shi, Shengqing; Chang, Ermei; Yang, Wenjuan; Jiang, Zeping

2013-01-01

347

Population genetic study of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in South Korea using newly developed 12 microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) is distributed from southeastern Siberia to northern Vietnam, including Korea and Japan, as well as Europe. In Korea, most of its predators and competitors are extinct, which has resulted in rapid growth of the raccoon dog population. This population increase has raised concerns about its role in the ecosystem and the zoonotic transfer of various contagious diseases, and thus an effective method of raccoon dog population control in Korea is required. To investigate the genetic diversity and structure of raccoon dog populations, 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified and characterized. These novel microsatellite markers were employed to obtain basic population genetic parameters for 104 N. procyonoides specimens from five locations in South Korea. The mean allele number of 12 loci across samples was 8.7, and the number of alleles per locus ranged 2-13. Mean expected and observed heterozygosities were 0.723 and 0.619, respectively. Genetic differentiation, estimated by pairwise FST, was significant for all population pairs excepting Seoul/Gyeonggi and Gangwon pair, with a moderate level of genetic differentiation for all the population pairs (mean FST = 0.054), but little differentiation between Seoul/Gyeonggi and Gangwon (FST = 0.024). Bayesian-based clustering analysis predicted that Korean raccoon dog population is composed of four distinct genetic subpopulations. These genetic information and structure of raccoon dog will be very useful to prevent spreading infectious diseases. PMID:23676711

Hong, Yoonjee; Kim, Kyung-Seok; Lee, Hang; Min, Mi-Sook

2013-01-01

348

Genet. Res., Camb. (1999), 73, pp. 217224. With 4 figures. Printed in the United Kingdom # 1999 Cambridge University Press Targeted identification of markers linked to malaria and  

E-print Network

A. KASSNER Department of Animal Health and Biomedical Sciences, 1655 Linden Dri e, Uni ersity towards the map-based cloning of the associated genes are limited by the availability of genetic markers-positive RAPD fragments were cloned and evaluated as RFLP markers. Of the 62 RAPD\\RFLP fragments examined, 10

Severson, David

349

Population genetic structure of clinical and environmental isolates of Blastomyces dermatitidis, Based on 27 Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Blastomyces dermatitidis, a thermally dimorphic fungus, is the etiologic agent of North American blastomycosis. Clinical presentation is varied, ranging from silent infections to fulminant respiratory disease and dissemination to skin and other sites. Exploration of the population genetic structure of B. dermatitidis would improve our knowledge regarding variation in virulence phenotypes, geographic distribution, and difference in host specificity. The objective of this study was to develop and test a panel of microsatellite markers to delineate the population genetic structure within a group of clinical and environmental isolates of B. dermatitidis. We developed 27 microsatellite markers and genotyped B. dermatitidis isolates from various hosts and environmental sources (n = 112). Assembly of a neighbor-joining tree of allele-sharing distance revealed two genetically distinct groups, separated by a deep node. Bayesian admixture analysis showed that two populations were statistically supported. Principal coordinate analysis also reinforced support for two genetic groups, with the primary axis explaining 61.41% of the genetic variability. Group 1 isolates average 1.8 alleles/locus, whereas group 2 isolates are highly polymorphic, averaging 8.2 alleles/locus. In this data set, alleles at three loci are unshared between the two groups and appear diagnostic. The mating type of individual isolates was determined by PCR. Both mating type-specific genes, the HMG and ??-box domains, were represented in each of the genetic groups, with slightly more isolates having the HMG allele. One interpretation of this study is that the species currently designated B. dermatitidis includes a cryptic subspecies or perhaps a separate species. ?? 2011, American Society for Microbiology.

Meece, J. K.; Anderson, J. L.; Fisher, M. C.; Henk, D. A.; Sloss, B. L.; Reed, K. D.

2011-01-01

350

Strong genetic differentiation among east Atlantic populations of the sword razor shell ( Ensis siliqua) assessed with mtDNA and RAPD markers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sword razor shell Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758) is a bivalve with a high commercial value being appreciated in fresh and processed markets. However, the genetic studies carried out in populations of E. siliqua are scarce. In this work, the genetic variability and differentiation of the sword razor shell was assessed using PCR-RFLPs of a fragment of the 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene and random amplified polymorphic loci (RAPD) in nine localities from Ireland, Spain, and Portugal. In the 314 individuals examined for the mitochondrial fragment, 12 composite haplotypes were observed; meanwhile, a unique phenotype was observed for each of the 242 individuals analyzed with 61 RAPD loci. Two of the mitochondrial composite haplotypes accounted for the majority of individuals (89.81%) and showed a remarkably disjoint distribution between Irish and Iberian samples, with the exception of Aveiro which exhibited as the most frequent haplotype the same found in Ireland. The level of variability observed for each sample was generally correlated with both types of markers and the results obtained suggest the existence of a strong population differentiation between Irish and Iberian localities, except for the Portuguese sample from Aveiro which is surprisingly closer to Irish individuals, although it is probably highly differentiated.

Arias, Alberto; Fernández-Moreno, Mercedes; Fernández-Tajes, Juan; Gaspar, Miguel B.; Méndez, Josefina

2011-03-01

351

Construction of a genetic linkage map in tetraploid species using molecular markers.  

PubMed Central

This article presents methodology for the construction of a linkage map in an autotetraploid species, using either codominant or dominant molecular markers scored on two parents and their full-sib progeny. The steps of the analysis are as follows: identification of parental genotypes from the parental and offspring phenotypes; testing for independent segregation of markers; partition of markers into linkage groups using cluster analysis; maximum-likelihood estimation of the phase, recombination frequency, and LOD score for all pairs of markers in the same linkage group using the EM algorithm; ordering the markers and estimating distances between them; and reconstructing their linkage phases. The information from different marker configurations about the recombination frequency is examined and found to vary considerably, depending on the number of different alleles, the number of alleles shared by the parents, and the phase of the markers. The methods are applied to a simulated data set and to a small set of SSR and AFLP markers scored in a full-sib population of tetraploid potato. PMID:11238421

Luo, Z W; Hackett, C A; Bradshaw, J E; McNicol, J W; Milbourne, D

2001-01-01

352

BREEDING, GENETICS, AND PHYSIOLOGY Increasing Efficiency of a Marker-Assisted Breeding Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular tools such as genotyping and marker-assisted selection (MAS) are being used in the development of improved rice varieties. In this program, DNA markers are used to select progeny of crosses in early generations for desirable agronomic traits, molecularly characterize a working germplasm collection, and track introgression of yield quantitative trait loci (QTL) from a wild rice species. Cooking quality

V. A. Boyett; J. W. Gibbons; K. A. K. Moldenhauer

353

Identification and characterization of dinucleotide repeat (CA)[sub n] markers for genetic mapping in dog  

SciTech Connect

A large block of simple sequence repeat (SSR) polymorphisms for the dog genome has been isolated and characterized. Screening of primary libraries by conventional hybridization methods as well as by screening of enriched marker-selected libraries led to the isolation of a large number of genomic clones that contained (CA)[sub n] repeats. The sequences of 101 clones showed that the size and complexity of (CA)[sub n] repeats in the dog genome were similar to those reported for these markers in the human genome. Detailed analysis of a representative subset of these markers revealed that most markers were moderately to highly polymorphic, with PIC values exceeding 0.70 for 33% of the markers tested. An association between higher PIC values and markers containing longer (CA)[sub n] repeats was observed in these studies, as previously noted for similar markers in the human genome. A list of primer sequences that tag each characterized marker is provided, and a comprehensive system of nomenclature for the dog genome is suggested. 28 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Ostrander, E.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Sprague, G.F. Jr. (Univ. of Oregon, Eugene (United States)); Rine, J. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States))

1993-04-01

354

Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Cultivated Jute Determined by Means of SSR Markers and AFLP Profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

a few common accessions. It has also been indicated that each of the two jute species contain very limited genetic Genetic improvement of the cultivars of jute (Corchorus olitorius variability with respect to (i) adaptability to different agro- L. and Corchorus capsularis L.) is needed to broaden the genetic base nomic environments, (ii) fiber quality, (iii) fiber yield, of new

A. Basu; M. Ghosh; R. Meyer; W. Powell; S. L. Basak; S. K. Sen

2004-01-01

355

Genetic analysis of four wild chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta populations in China based on microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis To assess the genetic variation and population structure of wild chum salmon in China, we analyzed microsatellite loci for populations in the Amur, Wusuli, Suifen Current and the Tumen rivers. We evaluated expected heterozygosity with two estimators of genetic differentiation (FST and GST) and Nei’s standard genetic distance. The average expected heterozygosity across the 10 loci was 0.65 in

Jin-Ping Chen; Da-Jiang Sun; Chong-Zhi Dong; Bing Liang; Wen-Hua Wu; Shu-Yi Zhang

2005-01-01

356

Application of molecular markers to assess genetic relationships among accessions of wild oat, Avena sterilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Avena sterilis collection in the National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) is an invaluable source of genetic variation to be exploited by oat breeding programs. Prior knowledge of the structure and distribution of genetic variation within the A. sterilis collection would be useful to efficiently screen the collection for valuable traits. To determine genetic structure within a subset of the

J. C. Goffreda; W. B. Burnquist; S. C. Beer; S. D. Tanksley; M. E. Sorrells

1992-01-01

357

Genetic variation and phylogenetics of Lanyu and exotic pig breeds in Taiwan analyzed by nineteen microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

The Lanyu pig is an indigenous miniature pig breed on Lanyu Islet near Taiwan, with a mitochondrial DNA genetic lineage remote from Asian and European pig breeds. The unknown population genetic structure and increased inbreeding among the small population of conserved Lanyu pigs is now of great conservation concern. Additionally, the presence for more than a century of exotic pig breeds in Taiwan has made gene introgression from exotic pig breeds into Lanyu pigs very possible. The present study thus aimed to investigate nuclear genetic variation within the conserved Lanyu pigs and the phylogenetic relationship and possible genetic introgression between Lanyu and exotic pig breeds by determining the polymorphism of 19 microsatellite loci. In the neighbor-joining tree constructed from 7 pig breeds based on Cavalli-Sforza and Edward chord genetic distances, 3 major clades were recognized, in which the Asian and European breeds were separately clustered into 2 clades with a 93.0 and 99.9% bootstrap confidence value, respectively. All individuals of the Lanyu breed formed a unique subclade within the Asian clade based on the distance of the proportion of shared alleles, -ln(ps), suggesting that the Lanyu breed possesses a unique nuclear genetic structure and that no nuclear gene introgression from exotic breeds into the conserved Lanyu pigs has occurred in recent history. Fifteen of 19 microsatellite loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (by Wright's statistic), suggesting a significant loss of heterozygosity in the conserved population. The valuable nuclear genetic structure and phylogenetic information should assist future conservation and population management of Lanyu pigs. PMID:18708610

Chang, W H; Chu, H P; Jiang, Y N; Li, S H; Wang, Y; Chen, C H; Chen, K J; Lin, C Y; Ju, Y T

2009-01-01

358

Genetic diversity and population structure assessed by SSR and SNP markers in a large germplasm collection of grape  

PubMed Central

Background The economic importance of grapevine has driven significant efforts in genomics to accelerate the exploitation of Vitis resources for development of new cultivars. However, although a large number of clonally propagated accessions are maintained in grape germplasm collections worldwide, their use for crop improvement is limited by the scarcity of information on genetic diversity, population structure and proper phenotypic assessment. The identification of representative and manageable subset of accessions would facilitate access to the diversity available in large collections. A genome-wide germplasm characterization using molecular markers can offer reliable tools for adjusting the quality and representativeness of such core samples. Results We investigated patterns of molecular diversity at 22 common microsatellite loci and 384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2273 accessions of domesticated grapevine V. vinifera ssp. sativa, its wild relative V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris, interspecific hybrid cultivars and rootstocks. Despite the large number of putative duplicates and extensive clonal relationships among the accessions, we observed high level of genetic variation. In the total germplasm collection the average genetic diversity, as quantified by the expected heterozygosity, was higher for SSR loci (0.81) than for SNPs (0.34). The analysis of the genetic structure in the grape germplasm collection revealed several levels of stratification. The primary division was between accessions of V. vinifera and non-vinifera, followed by the distinction between wild and domesticated grapevine. Intra-specific subgroups were detected within cultivated grapevine representing different eco-geographic groups. The comparison of a phenological core collection and genetic core collections showed that the latter retained more genetic diversity, while maintaining a similar phenotypic variability. Conclusions The comprehensive molecular characterization of our grape germplasm collection contributes to the knowledge about levels and distribution of genetic diversity in the existing resources of Vitis and provides insights into genetic subdivision within the European germplasm. Genotypic and phenotypic information compared in this study may efficiently guide further exploration of this diversity for facilitating its practical use. PMID:23497049

2013-01-01

359

Molecular genetics of herpes simplex virus. III. Fine mapping of a genetic locus determining resistance to phosphonoacetate by two methods of marker transfer.  

PubMed Central

We have transferred a genetic locus determining resistance to phosphonoacetic acid (PAAr) from one herpes simplex viral genome to another by two methods of marker transfer. One method requires recombination between an intact DNA molecule and a restriction endonuclease DNA fragment, whereas the other requires repair of a partial heteroduplex formed between the two DNA molecules. These two methods mapped the PAAr locus between positions 0.45 and 0.53 map units on the physical map of the viral DNA. Fine mapping of the PAAr locus showed that it maps at or near an EcoRI restriction endonuclease site at either 0.46 or 0.49 map units. We also describe and compare the two methods of marker transfer. Images PMID:219255

Knipe, D M; Ruyechan, W T; Roizman, B

1979-01-01

360

Hierarchical Analysis of Genetic Structure in Native Fire Ant Populations: Results from Three Classes of Molecular Markers  

PubMed Central

We describe genetic structure at various scales in native populations of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta using two classes of nuclear markers, allozymes and microsatellites, and markers of the mitochondrial genome. Strong structure was found at the nest level in both the monogyne (single queen) and polygyne (multiple queen) social forms using allozymes. Weak but significant microgeographic structure was detected above the nest level in polygyne populations but not in monogyne populations using both classes of nuclear markers. Pronounced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) differentiation was evident also at this level in the polygyne form only. These microgeographic patterns are expected because polygyny in ants is associated with restricted local gene flow due mainly to limited vagility of queens. Weak but significant nuclear differentiation was detected between sympatric social forms, and strong mtDNA differentiation also was found at this level. Thus, queens of each form seem unable to establish themselves in nests of the alternate type, and some degree of assortative mating by form may exist as well. Strong differentiation was found between the two study regions using all three sets of markers. Phylogeographic analyses of the mtDNA suggest that recent limitations on gene flow rather than longstanding barriers to dispersal are responsible for this large-scale structure. PMID:9335601

Ross, K. G.; Krieger, MJB.; Shoemaker, D. D.; Vargo, E. L.; Keller, L.

1997-01-01

361

Genetic mapping, marker assisted selection and allelic relationships for the Pu 6 gene conferring rust resistance in sunflower.  

PubMed

Rust resistance in the sunflower line P386 is controlled by Pu 6 , a gene which was reported to segregate independently from other rust resistant genes, such as R 4 . The objectives of this work were to map Pu 6 , to provide and validate molecular tools for its identification, and to determine the linkage relationship of Pu 6 and R 4 . Genetic mapping of Pu 6 with six markers covered 24.8 cM of genetic distance on the lower end of linkage Group 13 of the sunflower consensus map. The marker most closely linked to Pu 6 was ORS316 at 2.5 cM in the distal position. ORS316 presented five alleles when was assayed with a representative set of resistant and susceptible lines. Allelism test between Pu 6 and R 4 indicated that both genes are linked at a genetic distance of 6.25 cM. This is the first confirmation based on an allelism test that at least two members of the R adv /R 4 /R 11 / R 13a /R 13b /Pu 6 cluster of genes are at different loci. A fine elucidation of the architecture of this complex locus will allow designing and constructing completely new genomic regions combining genes from different resistant sources and the elimination of the linkage drag around each resistant gene. PMID:25320555

Bulos, Mariano; Vergani, Pablo Nicolas; Altieri, Emiliano

2014-09-01

362

Cytoplasmic and nuclear markers reveal contrasting patterns of spatial genetic structure in a natural Ipomopsis hybrid zone.  

PubMed

Spatial variation in natural selection may play an important role in determining the genetic structure of hybridizing populations. Previous studies have found that F1 hybrids between naturally hybridizing Ipomopsis aggregata and Ipomopsis tenuituba in central Colorado differ in fitness depending on both genotype and environment: hybrids had higher survival when I. aggregata was the maternal parent, except in the centre of the hybrid zone where both hybrid types had high survival. Here, we developed both maternally (cpDNA PCR-RFLP) and biparentally inherited (nuclear AFLP) species-diagnostic markers to characterize the spatial genetic structure of the natural Ipomopsis hybrid zone, and tested the prediction that the majority of natural hybrids have I. aggregata cytoplasm, except in areas near the centre of the hybrid zone. Analyses of 352 individuals from across the hybrid zone indicate that cytoplasmic gene flow is bidirectional, but contrary to expectation, most plants in the hybrid zone have I. tenuituba cytoplasm. This cytotype distribution is consistent with a hybrid zone in historical transition, with I. aggregata nuclear genes advancing into the contact zone. Further, nuclear data show a much more gradual cline than cpDNA markers that is consistent with morphological patterns across the hybrid populations. A mixture of environment- and pollinator-mediated selection may contribute to the current genetic structure of this hybrid system. PMID:15723669

Wu, Carrie A; Campbell, Diane R

2005-03-01

363

Genetic mapping, marker assisted selection and allelic relationships for the Pu6 gene conferring rust resistance in sunflower  

PubMed Central

Rust resistance in the sunflower line P386 is controlled by Pu6, a gene which was reported to segregate independently from other rust resistant genes, such as R4. The objectives of this work were to map Pu6, to provide and validate molecular tools for its identification, and to determine the linkage relationship of Pu6 and R4. Genetic mapping of Pu6 with six markers covered 24.8 cM of genetic distance on the lower end of linkage Group 13 of the sunflower consensus map. The marker most closely linked to Pu6 was ORS316 at 2.5 cM in the distal position. ORS316 presented five alleles when was assayed with a representative set of resistant and susceptible lines. Allelism test between Pu6 and R4 indicated that both genes are linked at a genetic distance of 6.25 cM. This is the first confirmation based on an allelism test that at least two members of the Radv/R4/R11/ R13a/R13b/Pu6 cluster of genes are at different loci. A fine elucidation of the architecture of this complex locus will allow designing and constructing completely new genomic regions combining genes from different resistant sources and the elimination of the linkage drag around each resistant gene. PMID:25320555

Bulos, Mariano; Vergani, Pablo Nicolas; Altieri, Emiliano

2014-01-01

364

Development of polymorphic microsatellite markers and the population genetic structure of the half-fin anchovy, Setipinna taty.  

PubMed

Microsatellite markers for the half-fin anchovy Setipinna taty were developed from the enriched (CA)15 genomic library, and they were used for the population genetic studies of the half-fin anchovy from Chinese coastal areas. Samples were collected from five localities of the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea. Eleven simple sequence repeat markers were used to assess genetic differentiation in 30 individuals at each locality. As a result, 59 alleles were recorded over all loci with an average of 5.36 alleles per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.27 to 0.73 and 0.50 to 0.89, respectively. Analysis of molecular variation indicated that the variation within individuals was high (70.68%), while variations of individuals within and among populations were low (22.47 and 6.85%). The phylogenetic tree showed that these populations could be divided into two clusters: populations of the East China Sea, which came from Ninghai, Xiangshan and Zhoushan, and populations of the Yellow Sea, which were from Yantai and Weihai. It revealed that significant geographic structure existed in this species. All of the results indicated that high genetic diversity existed in the half-fin anchovy from different geographic populations. This conclusion was consistent with the classification based on morphological and physiological characteristics. PMID:24737520

Sun, Y N; Qin, Y; Zhu, Z H; Sun, D Q

2014-01-01

365

A suite of genetic markers useful in assessing wildcat (Felis silvestris ssp.)-domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) admixture.  

PubMed

The wildcat (Felis silvestris ssp.) is a conservation concern largely due to introgressive hybridization with its congener F. s. catus, the common domestic cat. Because of a recent divergence and entirely overlapping ranges, hybridization is common and pervasive between these taxa threatening the genetic integrity of remaining wildcat populations. Identifying pure wildcats for inclusion in conservation programs using current morphological discriminants is difficult because of gross similarity between them and the domestic, critically hampering conservation efforts. Here, we present a vetted panel of microsatellite loci and mitochondrial polymorphisms informative for each of the 5 naturally evolved wildcat subspecies and the derived domestic cat. We also present reference genotypes for each assignment class. Together, these marker sets and corresponding reference genotypes allow for the development of a genetic rational for defining "units of conservation" within a phylogenetically based taxonomy of the entire F. silvestris species complex. We anticipate this marker panel will allow conservators to assess genetic integrity and quantify admixture in managed wildcat populations and to be a starting point for more in-depth analysis of hybridization. PMID:21846752

Driscoll, Carlos; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; O'Brien, Stephen J; Macdonald, David W

2011-01-01

366

A Suite of Genetic Markers Useful in Assessing Wildcat (Felis silvestris ssp.)-- Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris catus) Admixture  

PubMed Central

The wildcat (Felis silvestris ssp.) is a conservation concern largely due to introgressive hybridization with its congener F. s. catus, the common domestic cat. Because of a recent divergence and entirely overlapping ranges, hybridization is common and pervasive between these taxa threatening the genetic integrity of remaining wildcat populations. Identifying pure wildcats for inclusion in conservation programs using current morphological discriminants is difficult because of gross similarity between them and the domestic, critically hampering conservation efforts. Here, we present a vetted panel of microsatellite loci and mitochondrial polymorphisms informative for each of the 5 naturally evolved wildcat subspecies and the derived domestic cat. We also present reference genotypes for each assignment class. Together, these marker sets and corresponding reference genotypes allow for the development of a genetic rational for defining “units of conservation” within a phylogenetically based taxonomy of the entire F. silvestris species complex. We anticipate this marker panel will allow conservators to assess genetic integrity and quantify admixture in managed wildcat populations and to be a starting point for more in-depth analysis of hybridization. PMID:21846752

Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Macdonald, David W.

2011-01-01

367

AFLP genome scan in the black rat (Rattus rattus) from Madagascar: detecting genetic markers undergoing plague-mediated selection.  

PubMed

The black rat (Rattus rattus) is the main reservoir of plague (Yersinia pestis infection) in Madagascar's rural zones. Black rats are highly resistant to plague within the plague focus (central highland), whereas they are susceptible where the disease is absent (low altitude zone). To better understand plague wildlife circulation and host evolution in response to a highly virulent pathogen, we attempted to determine genetic markers associated with plague resistance in this species. To this purpose, we combined a population genomics approach and an association study, both performed on 249 AFLP markers, in Malagasy R. rattus. Simulated distributions of genetic differentiation were compared to observed data in four independent pairs, each consisting of one population from the plague focus and one from the plague-free zone. We found 22 loci (9% of 249) with higher differentiation in at least two independent population pairs or with combining P-values over the four pairs significant. Among the 22 outlier loci, 16 presented significant association with plague zone (plague focus vs. plague-free zone). Population genetic structure inferred from outlier loci was structured by plague zone, whereas the neutral loci dataset revealed structure by geography (eastern vs. western populations). A phenotype association study revealed that two of the 22 loci were significantly associated with differentiation between dying and surviving rats following experimental plague challenge. The 22 outlier loci identified in this study may undergo plague selective pressure either directly or more probably indirectly due to hitchhiking with selected loci. PMID:20444082

Tollenaere, C; Duplantier, J-M; Rahalison, L; Ranjalahy, M; Brouat, C

2011-03-01

368

Use of EST-SSR markers for evaluating genetic diversity and fingerprinting celery (Apium graveolens L.) cultivars.  

PubMed

Celery (Apium graveolens L.) is one of the most economically important vegetables worldwide, but genetic and genomic resources supporting celery molecular breeding are quite limited, thus few studies on celery have been conducted so far. In this study we made use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers generated from previous celery transcriptome sequencing and attempted to detect the genetic diversity and relationships of commonly used celery accessions and explore the efficiency of the primers used for cultivars identification. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of Apium graveolens L. var. dulce showed that approximately 43% of genetic diversity was within accessions, 45% among accessions, and 22% among horticultural types. The neighbor-joining tree generated by unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA), and population structure analysis, as well as principal components analysis (PCA), separated the cultivars into clusters corresponding to the geographical areas where they originated. Genetic distance analysis suggested that genetic variation within Apium graveolens was quite limited. Genotypic diversity showed any combinations of 55 genic SSRs were able to distinguish the genotypes of all 30 accessions. PMID:24518809

Fu, Nan; Wang, Ping-Yong; Liu, Xiao-Dan; Shen, Huo-Lin

2014-01-01

369

Genetic diversity of an Azorean endemic and endangered plant species inferred from inter-simple sequence repeat markers  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of the levels and distribution of genetic diversity is important for designing conservation strategies for threatened and endangered species so as to guarantee sustainable survival of populations and to preserve their evolutionary potential. Picconia azorica is a valuable Azorean endemic species recently classified as endangered. To contribute with information useful for the establishment of conservation programmes, the genetic variability and differentiation among 230 samples from 11 populations collected in three Azorean islands was accessed with eight inter-simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 64 polymorphic loci were detected. The majority of genetic variability was found within populations and no genetic structure was detected between populations and between islands. Also the coefficient of genetic differentiation and the level of gene flow indicate that geographical distances do not act as barriers for gene flow. In order to ensure the survival of populations in situ and ex situ management practices should be considered, including artificial propagation through the use of plant tissue culture techniques, not only for the restoration of habitat but also for the sustainable use of its valuable wood. PMID:24969504

Lopes, Maria S.; Mendonça, Duarte; Bettencourt, Sílvia X.; Borba, Ana R.; Melo, Catarina; Baptista, Cláudio; da Câmara Machado, Artur

2014-01-01

370

Inferring population structure and genetic diversity of broad range of wild diploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) accessions using SSR markers.  

PubMed

Diversity analyses in alfalfa have mainly evaluated genetic relationships of cultivated germplasm, with little known about variation in diploid germplasm in the M. sativa-falcata complex. A collection of 374 individual genotypes derived from 120 unimproved diploid accessions from the National Plant Germplasm System, including M. sativa subsp. caerulea, falcata, and hemicycla, were evaluated with 89 polymorphic SSR loci in order to estimate genetic diversity, infer the genetic bases of current morphology-based taxonomy, and determine population structure. Diploid alfalfa is highly variable. A model-based clustering analysis of the genomic data identified two clearly discrete subpopulations, corresponding to the morphologically defined subspecies falcata and caerulea, with evidence of the hybrid nature of the subspecies hemicycla based on genome composition. Two distinct subpopulations exist within each subsp. caerulea and subsp. falcata. The distinction of caerulea was based on geographical distribution. The two falcata groups were separated based on ecogeography. The results show that taxonomic relationships based on morphology are reflected in the genetic marker data with some exceptions, and that clear distinctions among subspecies are evident at the diploid level. This research provides a baseline from which to systematically evaluate variability in tetraploid alfalfa and serves as a starting point for exploring diploid alfalfa for genetic and breeding experiments. PMID:20352180

Sakiro?lu, Muhammet; Doyle, Jeffrey J; Charles Brummer, E

2010-08-01

371

Microsatellite markers to assess the influence of population size, isolation and demographic change on the genetic structure of the UK butterfly Polyommatus bellargus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five microsatellite DNA markers were isolated and used to quantify population genetic structure among a subset of UK populations of the Adonis blue ( Polyommatus bellargus Rottemburg). Specifically, whether population size, degree of isolation or history of bottle- necking in 1976-1978 can explain current patterns of genetic variation. The butterfly is at its northern range limit in the UK, where

G. L. Harper; N. Maclean; D. Goulson

2003-01-01

372

Genetic and geographic differentiation in the Rio Negro tuco-tuco (Ctenomys rionegrensis): inferring the roles of migration and drift from multiple genetic markers.  

PubMed

Among tuco-tucos, Ctenomys rionegrensis is especially amenable to the study of the forces driving population differentiation because of the restricted geographic range it occupies in Uruguay. Within this limited area, the Rio Negro tuco-tuco is limited to sandy soils. It nonetheless exhibits remarkable variation in pelage color, including melanic, agouti, and dark-backed individuals. Two hypotheses have been put forth to explain this pattern: (1) local differentiation and fixation of alternative pelage types by genetic drift under limited gene flow; or (2) fixation by natural selection that may take place even in the presence of gene flow. A previous allozyme study rejected the genetic drift hypothesis on the basis of high inferred levels of migration. New estimates of gene flow from microsatellites and mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences were obtained for C. rionegrensis populations to further test these hypotheses. Much lower levels of gene flow were estimated with these more sensitive markers. Microsatellite-based estimates of gene flow are close to zero and may come closest to estimating current levels of migration. A lack of equilibrium between migration and genetic drift is also strongly suggested by the absence of an isolation-by-distance pattern found in all three genetic datasets. The microsatellite genotype data show that the species is strongly structured geographically, with subpopulations constituting distinct genetic entities. If current levels of gene flow are very low, as indicated by the new data, the local fixation of alternative alleles, including those responsible for pelage color polymorphism, is possible by drift alone. A scenario is thus proposed in which the species expanded in the recent past from a more restricted geographic range and has subsequently differentiated in near isolation, with genetic drift possibly playing a primary role in overall genetic differentiation. The local fixation of pelage color types could also be due to drift, but selection on this trait cannot be ruled out without direct analysis. PMID:12778560

Wlasiuk, Gabriela; Garza, John Carlos; Lessa, Enrique P

2003-04-01

373

Genetic transformation of Trametes versicolor to phleomycin resistance with the dominant selectable marker shble  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a stable, DNA-mediated transformation system for the white-rot basidiomycete Trametes versicolor based on the dominant selectable marker shble (phleomycin resistance). We employed a vector containing the selectable marker under control of expression sequences from the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune and a polyethylene glycol\\/CaCl2 protoplast-fusion technique to introduce the transforming DNA. This transformation system generated stable phleomycin-resistant transformants at

K. Bartholomew; G. Dos Santos; T. Dumonceaux; T. Charles; F. Archibald

2001-01-01

374

The use of microsatellite markers for the detection of genetic similarity among winter bread wheat lines for chromosome 3A.  

PubMed

Previous studies with chromosome substitution and recombinant inbred chromosome lines identified that chromosome 3A of wheat cv. Wichita contains alleles that influence grain yield, yield components and agronomic performance traits relative to alleles on chromosome 3A of Cheyenne, a cultivar believed to be the founder parent of many Nebraska developed cultivars. This study was carried out to examine the genetic similarity among wheat cultivars based on the variation in chromosome 3A. Forty-eight cultivars, two promising lines and four substitution lines (in duplicate) were included in the study. Thirty-six chromosome 3A-specific and 12 group-3 barley simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs were used. A total of 106 polymorphic bands were scored. Transferability of barley microsatellite markers to wheat was 73%. The coefficient of genetic distance (D) among the genotypes ranged from 0.40 to 0.91 and averaged D=0.66. Cluster analysis by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages showed one large and one small cluster with eight minor clusters in the large cluster. Several known pedigree relationships largely corresponded with the results of SSR clusters and principal coordinate analysis. Cluster analysis was also carried out by using 22 alleles that separate Wichita 3A from Cheyenne 3A, and three clusters were identified (a small cluster related to Cheyenne of mainly western Nebraska wheat cultivars; a larger, intermediate cluster with many modern Nebraska wheat cultivars; a large cluster related to Wichita with many modern high-yielding or Kansas wheat cultivars). Using three SSR markers that identify known agronomically important quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions, we again separated the cultivars into three main clusters that were related to Cheyenne or Wichita, or had a different 3A lineage. These results suggest that SSR markers linked to agronomically important QTLs are a valuable asset for estimating both genetic similarity for chromosome 3A and how the chromosome has been used in cultivar improvement. PMID:15290051

Mahmood, A; Baenziger, P S; Budak, H; Gill, K S; Dweikat, I

2004-11-01

375

Genetic diversity, population structure and relationships in indigenous cattle populations of Ethiopia and Korean Hanwoo breeds using SNP markers  

PubMed Central

In total, 166 individuals from five indigenous Ethiopian cattle populations – Ambo (n = 27), Borana (n = 35), Arsi (n = 30), Horro (n = 36), and Danakil (n = 38) – were genotyped for 8773 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and relationships. As a representative of taurine breeds, Hanwoo cattle (n = 40) were also included in the study for reference. Among Ethiopian cattle populations, the proportion of SNPs with minor allele frequencies (MAFs) ?0.05 ranged from 81.63% in Borana to 85.30% in Ambo, with a mean of 83.96% across all populations. The Hanwoo breed showed the highest proportion of polymorphism, with MAFs ?0.05, accounting for 95.21% of total SNPs. The mean expected heterozygosity varied from 0.370 in Danakil to 0.410 in Hanwoo. The mean genetic differentiation (FST; 1%) in Ethiopian cattle revealed that within individual variation accounted for approximately 99% of the total genetic variation. As expected, FST and Reynold genetic distance were greatest between Hanwoo and Ethiopian cattle populations, with average values of 17.62 and 18.50, respectively. The first and second principal components explained approximately 78.33% of the total variation and supported the clustering of the populations according to their historical origins. At K = 2 and 3, a considerable source of variation among cattle is the clustering of the populations into Hanwoo (taurine) and Ethiopian cattle populations. The low estimate of genetic differentiation (FST) among Ethiopian cattle populations indicated that differentiation among these populations is low, possibly owing to a common historical origin and high gene flow. Genetic distance, phylogenic tree, principal component analysis, and population structure analyses clearly differentiated the cattle population according to their historical origins, and confirmed that Ethiopian cattle populations are genetically distinct from the Hanwoo breed. PMID:23518904

Edea, Zewdu; Dadi, Hailu; Kim, Sang-Wook; Dessie, Tadelle; Lee, Taeheon; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Jong-Joo; Kim, Kwan-Suk

2013-01-01

376

Genetic markers for SSG resistance in Leishmania donovani and SSG treatment failure in visceral leishmaniasis patients of the Indian subcontinent.  

PubMed

The current standard to assess pentavalent antimonial (SSG) susceptibility of Leishmania is a laborious in vitro assay of which the result has little clinical value because SSG-resistant parasites are also found in SSG-cured patients. Candidate genetic markers for clinically relevant SSG-resistant parasites identified by full genome sequencing were here validated on a larger set of clinical strains. We show that 3 genomic locations suffice to specifically detect the SSG-resistant parasites found only in patients experiencing SSG treatment failure. This finding allows the development of rapid assays to monitor the emergence and spread of clinically relevant SSG-resistant Leishmania parasites. PMID:22753945

Vanaerschot, Manu; Decuypere, Saskia; Downing, Tim; Imamura, Hideo; Stark, Olivia; De Doncker, Simonne; Roy, Syamal; Ostyn, Bart; Maes, Louis; Khanal, Basudha; Boelaert, Marleen; Schönian, Gabriele; Berriman, Matthew; Chappuis, François; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Sundar, Shyam; Rijal, Suman

2012-09-01

377

Long-term human impacts on genetic structure of Italian walnut inferred by SSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life history traits, historic factors, and human activities can all shape the genetic diversity of a species. In Italy, walnut\\u000a (Juglans regia L.) has a long history of cultivation both for wood and edible nuts. To better understand the genetic variability of current\\u000a Italian walnut resources, we analyzed the relationships among the genetic structure of local walnut populations (inferred\\u000a by

Paola Pollegioni; Keith Woeste; Irene Olimpieri; Danilo Marandola; Francesco Cannata; Maria Emilia Malvolti

2011-01-01

378

Population genetic structure of island and mainland populations of the quokka, Setonix brachyurus (Macropodidae): a comparison of AFLP and microsatellite markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Translocation and reintroduction are important tools for the conservation or recovery of species threatened with extinction\\u000a in the wild. However, an understanding of the potential genetic consequences of mixing populations requires an understanding\\u000a of the genetic variation within, and similarities among, donor and recipient populations. Genetic diversity was measured using\\u000a two independent marker systems (microsatellites and AFLPs) for one island

Erika A. Alacs; Peter B. S. Spencer; Paul J. de Tores; Siegfried L. Krauss

2011-01-01

379

Detection and genetic distance of resistant populations of Pseudosuccinea columella (Mollusca: Lymnaeidae) to Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda: Digenea) using RAPD markers.  

PubMed

Twelve natural populations of Pseudosuccinea columella snails, sampled in the western and central regions of Cuba, were analyzed using the RAPD-PCR technique to screen for resistance to Fasciola hepatica. Ten OPA primers previously shown to produce marker bands for resistance and susceptibility were tested. A new population of P. columella (El Azufre, Pinar del Río) exhibited the amplification patterns of resistant snails, and its resistant status was confirmed after experimental exposure to miracidia. No genetic variability was detected across or within the susceptible isolates. Similarly, the novel resistant isolate displayed an RAPD profile identical to the profile of two other isolates previously identified as resistant to F. hepatica. However, clear differences in RAPD banding patterns and genetic distance were observed between resistant and susceptible isolates. PMID:15301979

Calienes, Aymé Fernandez; Fraga, Jorge; Pointier, Jean-Pierre; Yong, Mary; Sanchez, Jorge; Coustau, Christine; Gutiérrez, Alfredo; Théron, André

2004-09-01

380

Two genetic markers closely linked to adult polycystic kidney disease on chromosome 16  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic locus for autosomal dominant adult polycystic kidney disease was recently assigned to chromosome 16 by the finding of genetic linkage to the alpha globin gene cluster. Further study showed that the phosphoglycolate phosphatase locus is also closely linked to both the locus for adult polycystic kidney disease and the alpha globin gene cluster. These findings have important implications

S T Reeders; M H Breuning; G Corney; S J Jeremiah; P Meera Khan; K E Davies; D A Hopkinson; P L Pearson; D J Weatherall

1986-01-01

381

A population genetic comparison of large- and small-bodied sage grouse in colorado using microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers  

PubMed

Sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) from southwestern Colorado and southeastern Utah (United States) are 33% smaller than all other sage grouse and have obvious plumage and behavioural differences. Because of these differences, they have been tentatively recog-nized as a separate 'small-bodied' species. We collected genetic evidence to further test this proposal, using mitochondrial sequence data and microsatellite markers to determine whether there was gene flow between the two proposed species. Significant differences in the distribution of alleles between the large- and small-bodied birds were found in both data sets. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 65% of the variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes could be explained by the large- vs. small-bodied distinction. Genetic distances and neighbour-joining trees based on allelic frequency data showed a distinct separation between the proposed species, although cladistic analysis of the phylogenetic history of the mitochondrial sequence haplotypes has shown a lack of reciprocal monophyly. These results further support the recognition of the small-bodied sage grouse as a distinct species based on the biological species concept, providing additional genetic evidence to augment the morphological and behavioural data. Furthermore, small-bodied sage grouse had much less genetic variation than large-bodied sage grouse, which may have implications for conservation issues. PMID:10564451

Oyler-McCance; Kahn; Burnham; Braun; Quinn

1999-09-01

382

Genetic differentiation in populations of the cestode Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea) as revealed by eight microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

The genetic structure of populations of the fish cestode, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi collected from Bailianhe Reservoir (BLH), Changshou (CSH) and Liangzi (LZH) Lakes was investigated by using 8 microsatellite loci. A total of 108 adult worms were genotyped at each of the 8 loci. For the 3 populations, the mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 2.38 to 5.5, and the mean expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.432 to 0.559. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) was from 0.384 to 0.492. The significant Fis values indicated non-random mating within LZH and BLH populations. On the other hand, when samples were further classified into subpopulations at the level of host fish species, no or little heterozygote deficiency was detected at most loci, showing that cross-fertilization, predominantly, but not exclusively, must have occurred within the subpopulations. Microsatellite markers also revealed an unexpected high level of genetic differentiation, as measured by R(st) and N(m) values or by delta(u)2 genetic distance among subpopulations from different hosts. Factors influencing the population genetic structure and the parasite host specificity are discussed. PMID:12793654

Luo, H Y; Nie, P; Zhang, Y A; Yao, W J; Wang, G T

2003-05-