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1

The unique hypusine modification of eIF5A promotes islet ? cell inflammation and dysfunction in mice  

PubMed Central

In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, pancreatic islet dysfunction results in part from cytokine-mediated inflammation. The ubiquitous eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A), which is the only protein to contain the amino acid hypusine, contributes to the production of proinflammatory cytokines. We therefore investigated whether eIF5A participates in the inflammatory cascade leading to islet dysfunction during the development of diabetes. As described herein, we found that eIF5A regulates iNOS levels and that eIF5A depletion as well as the inhibition of hypusination protects against glucose intolerance in inflammatory mouse models of diabetes. We observed that following knockdown of eIF5A expression, mice were resistant to ? cell loss and the development of hyperglycemia in the low-dose streptozotocin model of diabetes. The depletion of eIF5A led to impaired translation of iNOS-encoding mRNA within the islet. A role for the hypusine residue of eIF5A in islet inflammatory responses was suggested by the observation that inhibition of hypusine synthesis reduced translation of iNOS-encoding mRNA in rodent ? cells and human islets and protected mice against the development of glucose intolerance the low-dose streptozotocin model of diabetes. Further analysis revealed that hypusine is required in part for nuclear export of iNOS-encoding mRNA, a process that involved the export protein exportin1. These observations identify the hypusine modification of eIF5A as a potential therapeutic target for preserving islet function under inflammatory conditions. PMID:20501948

Maier, Bernhard; Ogihara, Takeshi; Trace, Anthony P.; Tersey, Sarah A.; Robbins, Reiesha D.; Chakrabarti, Swarup K.; Nunemaker, Craig S.; Stull, Natalie D.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Thompson, John E.; Dondero, Richard S.; Lewis, Eli C.; Dinarello, Charles A.; Nadler, Jerry L.; Mirmira, Raghavendra G.

2010-01-01

2

Protein-protein-interaction Network Organization of the Hypusine Modification System*  

PubMed Central

Hypusine modification of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) represents a unique and highly specific post-translational modification with regulatory functions in cancer, diabetes, and infectious diseases. However, the specific cellular pathways that are influenced by the hypusine modification remain largely unknown. To globally characterize eIF-5A and hypusine-dependent pathways, we used an approach that combines large-scale bioreactor cell culture with tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry: “bioreactor-TAP-MS/MS.” By applying this approach systematically to all four components of the hypusine modification system (eIF-5A1, eIF-5A2, DHS, and DOHH), we identified 248 interacting proteins as components of the cellular hypusine network, with diverse functions including regulation of translation, mRNA processing, DNA replication, and cell cycle regulation. Network analysis of this data set enabled us to provide a comprehensive overview of the protein-protein interaction landscape of the hypusine modification system. In addition, we validated the interaction of eIF-5A with some of the newly identified associated proteins in more detail. Our analysis has revealed numerous novel interactions, and thus provides a valuable resource for understanding how this crucial homeostatic signaling pathway affects different cellular functions. PMID:22888148

Sievert, Henning; Venz, Simone; Platas-Barradas, Oscar; Dhople, Vishnu M.; Schaletzky, Martin; Nagel, Claus-Henning; Braig, Melanie; Preukschas, Michael; Pallmann, Nora; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Brummendorf, Tim H.; Portner, Ralf; Walther, Reinhard; Duncan, Kent E.; Hauber, Joachim; Balabanov, Stefan

2012-01-01

3

Functional significance of eIF5A and its hypusine modification in eukaryotes  

PubMed Central

The unusual basic amino acid, hypusine [N?-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)-lysine], is a modified lysine with the addition of the 4-aminobutyl moiety from the polyamine spermidine. This naturally occurring amino acid is a product of a unique posttranslational modification that occurs in only one cellular protein, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A, eIF-5A). Hypusine is synthesized exclusively in this protein by two sequential enzymatic steps involving deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH). The deoxyhypusine/hypusine synthetic pathway has evolved in archaea and eukaryotes, and eIF5A, DHS and DOHH are highly conserved suggesting a vital cellular function of eIF5A. Gene disruption and mutation studies in yeast and higher eukaryotes have provided valuable information on the essential nature of eIF5A and the deoxyhypusine/hypusine modification in cell growth and in protein synthesis. In view of the extraordinary specificity and functional significance of hypusine-containing eIF5A in mammalian cell proliferation, eIF5A and the hypusine biosynthetic enzymes are novel potential targets for intervention in aberrant cell proliferation. PMID:19997760

Park, M. H.; Nishimura, K.; Zanelli, C. F.; Valentini, S. R.

2010-01-01

4

A Unique Modification of the Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 5A Shows the Presence of the Complete Hypusine Pathway in Leishmania donovani  

PubMed Central

Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH) catalyzes the final step in the post-translational synthesis of an unusual amino acid hypusine (N€-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl) lysine), which is present on only one cellular protein, eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). We present here the molecular and structural basis of the function of DOHH from the protozoan parasite, Leishmania donovani, which causes visceral leishmaniasis. The L. donovani DOHH gene is 981 bp and encodes a putative polypeptide of 326 amino acids. DOHH is a HEAT-repeat protein with eight tandem repeats of ?-helical pairs. Four conserved histidine-glutamate sequences have been identified that may act as metal coordination sites. A ?42 kDa recombinant protein with a His-tag was obtained by heterologous expression of DOHH in Escherichia coli. Purified recombinant DOHH effectively catalyzed the hydroxylation of the intermediate, eIF5A-deoxyhypusine (eIF5A-Dhp), in vitro. L. donovani DOHH (LdDOHH) showed ?40.6% sequence identity with its human homolog. The alignment of L. donovani DOHH with the human homolog shows that there are two significant insertions in the former, corresponding to the alignment positions 159-162 (four amino acid residues) and 174-183 (ten amino acid residues) which are present in the variable loop connecting the N- and C-terminal halves of the protein, the latter being present near the substrate binding site. Deletion of the ten-amino-acid-long insertion decreased LdDOHH activity to 14% of the wild type recombinant LdDOHH. Metal chelators like ciclopirox olamine (CPX) and mimosine significantly inhibited the growth of L. donovani and DOHH activity in vitro. These inhibitors were more effective against the parasite enzyme than the human enzyme. This report, for the first time, confirms the presence of a complete hypusine pathway in a kinetoplastid unlike eubacteria and archaea. The structural differences between the L. donovani DOHH and the human homolog may be exploited for structure based design of selective inhibitors against the parasite. PMID:22438895

Chawla, Bhavna; Kumar, Ravi Ranjan; Tyagi, Nidhi; Subramanian, Gowri; Srinivasan, N.; Park, Myung Hee; Madhubala, Rentala

2012-01-01

5

A novel mouse model for inhibition of DOHH-mediated hypusine modification reveals a crucial function in embryonic development, proliferation and oncogenic transformation  

PubMed Central

The central importance of translational control by post-translational modification has spurred major interest in regulatory pathways that control translation. One such pathway uniquely adds hypusine to eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A), and thereby affects protein synthesis and, subsequently, cellular proliferation through an unknown mechanism. Using a novel conditional knockout mouse model and a Caenorhabditis elegans knockout model, we found an evolutionarily conserved role for the DOHH-mediated second step of hypusine synthesis in early embryonic development. At the cellular level, we observed reduced proliferation and induction of senescence in 3T3 Dohh?/? cells as well as reduced capability for malignant transformation. Furthermore, mass spectrometry showed that deletion of DOHH results in an unexpected complete loss of hypusine modification. Our results provide new biological insight into the physiological roles of the second step of the hypusination of eIF5A. Moreover, the conditional mouse model presented here provides a powerful tool for manipulating hypusine modification in a temporal and spatial manner, to analyse both how this unique modification normally functions in vivo as well as how it contributes to different pathological conditions. PMID:24832488

Sievert, Henning; Pällmann, Nora; Miller, Katharine K.; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Venz, Simone; Sendoel, Ataman; Preukschas, Michael; Schweizer, Michaela; Boettcher, Steffen; Janiesch, P. Christoph; Streichert, Thomas; Walther, Reinhard; Hengartner, Michael O.; Manz, Markus G.; Brümmendorf, Tim H.; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Braig, Melanie; Hauber, Joachim; Duncan, Kent E.; Balabanov, Stefan

2014-01-01

6

Inhibition of HIV1 gene expression by Ciclopirox and Deferiprone, drugs that prevent hypusination of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF5A has been implicated in HIV-1 replication. This protein contains the apparently unique amino acid hypusine that is formed by the post-translational modification of a lysine residue catalyzed by deoxyhypusine synthase and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH). DOHH activity is inhibited by two clinically used drugs, the topical fungicide ciclopirox and the systemic medicinal iron chelator deferiprone.

Mainul Hoque; Hartmut M Hanauske-Abel; Paul Palumbo; Deepti Saxena; Darlene D'Alliessi Gandolfi; Myung Hee Park; Tsafi Pe'ery; Michael B Mathews

2009-01-01

7

Biosynthetic labeling of hypusine in mammalian cells  

SciTech Connect

Using a dual-label technique in which /sup 3/H - and /sup 14/C-labeled forms of putrescine and of spermidine were employed as biosynthetic precursors of hypusine, two -C-H bond cleavages were detected during production of this unique amino acid in Chinese hamster ovary cells. One of these cleavages occurs at the C-1 position of the 4-aminobutyl group during its transfer from the secondary amine nitrogen of spermidine to the nitrogen at the upsilon-position of a specific lysine residue in the polypeptide precursor of eukaryotic initiation factor 4D. Breakage of the other -C-H bond takes place at the C-2 position in this aminobutyl segment after it has been coupled to lysine to form the intermediate deoxyhypusine residue. Hydroxylation at this carbon atom, which constitutes the last step in hypusine biosynthesis, is the cause of bond cleavage. The data obtained are consistent with a notion that no additional -C-H bond fissions occur during hypusine biosynthesis. The authors findings permit a suggestion of a mechanism for enzymic aminobutyl group transfer in which 4-amino-butyraldehyde produced by oxidative cleavage of spermidine is coupled with the upsilon-amino group of a specific lysine residue to form an enzyme-bound imine intermediate.

Park, M.H.; Folk, J.E.

1986-05-01

8

Unique posttranslational modifications in eukaryotic translation factors and their roles in protozoan parasite viability and pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Protozoan parasites are one of the major causes of diseases worldwide. The vector transmitted parasites exhibit complex life cycles involving interactions between humans, protozoa, and arthropods. In order to adapt themselves to the changing microenvironments, they have to undergo complex morphological and metabolic changes. These changes can be brought about by expressing a new pool of proteins in the cell or by modifying the existing repertoire of proteins via posttranslational modifications (PTMs). PTMs involve covalent modification and processing of proteins thereby modulating their functions. Some of these changes may involve PTMs of parasite proteins to help the parasite survive within the host and the vector. Out of many PTMs known, three are unique since they occur only on single proteins: ethanolamine phosphoglycerol (EPG) glutamate, hypusine and diphthamide. These modifications occur on eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (eEF1A), eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), respectively. Interestingly, the proteins carrying these unique modifications are all involved in the elongation steps of translation. Here we review these unique PTMs, which are well conserved in protozoan parasites, and discuss their roles in viability and pathogenesis of parasites. Characterization of these modifications and studying their roles in physiology as well as pathogenesis will provide new insights in parasite biology, which may also help in developing new therapeutic interventions. PMID:23201129

Mittal, Nimisha; Subramanian, Gowri; Bütikofer, Peter; Madhubala, Rentala

2013-01-01

9

Inhibition of HIV-1 gene expression by Ciclopirox and Deferiprone, drugs that prevent hypusination of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A  

PubMed Central

Background Eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF5A has been implicated in HIV-1 replication. This protein contains the apparently unique amino acid hypusine that is formed by the post-translational modification of a lysine residue catalyzed by deoxyhypusine synthase and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH). DOHH activity is inhibited by two clinically used drugs, the topical fungicide ciclopirox and the systemic medicinal iron chelator deferiprone. Deferiprone has been reported to inhibit HIV-1 replication in tissue culture. Results Ciclopirox and deferiprone blocked HIV-1 replication in PBMCs. To examine the underlying mechanisms, we investigated the action of the drugs on eIF5A modification and HIV-1 gene expression in model systems. At early times after drug exposure, both drugs inhibited substrate binding to DOHH and prevented the formation of mature eIF5A. Viral gene expression from HIV-1 molecular clones was suppressed at the RNA level independently of all viral genes. The inhibition was specific for the viral promoter and occurred at the level of HIV-1 transcription initiation. Partial knockdown of eIF5A-1 by siRNA led to inhibition of HIV-1 gene expression that was non-additive with drug action. These data support the importance of eIF5A and hypusine formation in HIV-1 gene expression. Conclusion At clinically relevant concentrations, two widely used drugs blocked HIV-1 replication ex vivo. They specifically inhibited expression from the HIV-1 promoter at the level of transcription initiation. Both drugs interfered with the hydroxylation step in the hypusine modification of eIF5A. These results have profound implications for the potential therapeutic use of these drugs as antiretrovirals and for the development of optimized analogs. PMID:19825182

Hoque, Mainul; Hanauske-Abel, Hartmut M; Palumbo, Paul; Saxena, Deepti; D'Alliessi Gandolfi, Darlene; Park, Myung Hee; Pe'ery, Tsafi; Mathews, Michael B

2009-01-01

10

Biochemical quantitation of the eIF5A hypusination in Arabidopsis thaliana uncovers ABA-dependent regulation  

PubMed Central

The eukaryotic translation elongation factor eIF5A is the only protein known to contain the unusual amino acid hypusine which is essential for its biological activity. This post-translational modification is achieved by the sequential action of the enzymes deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH). The crucial molecular function of eIF5A during translation has been recently elucidated in yeast and it is expected to be fully conserved in every eukaryotic cell, however the functional description of this pathway in plants is still sparse. The genetic approaches with transgenic plants for either eIF5A overexpression or antisense have revealed some activities related to the control of cell death processes but the molecular details remain to be characterized. One important aspect of fully understanding this pathway is the biochemical description of the hypusine modification system. Here we have used recombinant eIF5A proteins either modified by hypusination or non-modified to establish a bi-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-E) profile for the three eIF5A protein isoforms and their hypusinated or unmodified proteoforms present in Arabidopsis thaliana. The combined use of the recombinant 2D-E profile together with 2D-E/western blot analysis from whole plant extracts has provided a quantitative approach to measure the hypusination status of eIF5A. We have used this information to demonstrate that treatment with the hormone abscisic acid produces an alteration of the hypusine modification system in Arabidopsis thaliana. Overall this study presents the first biochemical description of the post-translational modification of eIF5A by hypusination which will be functionally relevant for future studies related to the characterization of this pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:24904603

Belda-Palazon, Borja; Nohales, Maria A.; Rambla, Jose L.; Acena, Jose L.; Delgado, Oscar; Fustero, Santos; Martinez, M. Carmen; Granell, Antonio; Carbonell, Juan; Ferrando, Alejandro

2014-01-01

11

Characterization of hypusine-containing 21,000-dalton protein in Neurospora crassa  

SciTech Connect

The deoxyhypusine/hypusine-containing 21,000-dalton protein was labeled by ({sup 3}H)spermidine both in vitro and in vivo in polyamine depleted Neurospora crassa arg-12 ota aga and aga mutants. The in vitro labeling of the 21,000-dalton protein could be dramatically stimulated by NAD{sup +} and NADP{sup +} but not by FMN or FAD. The in vitro labeled 21,000-dalton protein contained the radioactivity of deoxyhypusine and hypusine with a ratio of 2 to 1. The in vivo labeled protein resulted only in hypusine. Three isoform structures of the in vitro labeled 21,000-dalton protein were found with pl values ranging from 5.2 to 6.5. In contrast, the 21,000-dalton protein metabolically labeled in vivo with ({sup 3}H)ornithine gave only one spot with a pl value of 3.5. The deoxyhypusine-modifying enzyme is heat labile and has a half life of 40 min. The complete inhibition of deoxyhypusine-modifying enzyme by NEM and pCMBS suggests that the sulfhydryl group is required for the activity. The unmodified 21,000-dalton protein is heat stable and has a half life of more than 5 hrs. In order to determine the functional role of hypusine modification of 21,000-dalton protein, a protein synthesizing cell-free system has been established to translate endogenous mRNA to discrete polypeptides ranging up to 200,000-dalton. The inhibitory effect of spermidine on protein synthesis in cell-free system of unmodified 21,000-dalton protein is in contrast to the stimulatory effect on protein synthesis in cell-free system of modified protein, suggesting that unmodified 21,000-dalton protein might be responsible for the inhibitory effect of spermidine on protein synthesis in cell-free system containing unmodified 21,000-dalton protein.

Yang, Yunchung.

1989-01-01

12

A Hypusine-eIF5A-PEAK1 Switch Regulates the Pathogenesis of Pancreatic Cancer.  

PubMed

Deregulation of protein synthesis is a hallmark of cancer cell proliferation, survival, and metastatic progression. eIF5A1 and its highly related isoform eIF5A2 are translation initiation factors that have been implicated in a range of human malignancies, but how they control cancer development and disease progression is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated how eIF5A proteins regulate pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) pathogenesis. eIF5A proteins are the only known proteins regulated by a distinct posttranslational modification termed hypusination, which is catalyzed by two enzymes, deoxyhypusine synthase (DHPS) and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH). The highly selective nature of the hypusine modification and its amenability to pharmacologic inhibition make eIF5A proteins attractive therapeutic targets. We found that the expression and hypusination of eIF5A proteins are upregulated in human PDAC tissues and in premalignant pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia tissues isolated from Pdx-1-Cre: LSL-KRAS(G12D) mice. Knockdown of eIF5A proteins in PDAC cells inhibited their growth in vitro and orthotopic tumor growth in vivo, whereas amplification of eIF5A proteins increased PDAC cell growth and tumor formation in mice. Small-molecule inhibitors of DHPS and DOHH both suppressed eIF5A hypusination, preventing PDAC cell growth. Interestingly, we found that eIF5A proteins regulate PDAC cell growth by modulating the expression of PEAK1, a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase essential for PDAC cell growth and therapy resistance. Our findings suggest that eIF5A proteins utilize PEAK1 as a downstream effector to drive PDAC pathogenesis and that pharmacologic inhibition of the eIF5A-hypusine-PEAK1 axis may provide a novel therapeutic strategy to combat this deadly disease. Cancer Res; 74(22); 6671-81. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25261239

Fujimura, Ken; Wright, Tracy; Strnadel, Jan; Kaushal, Sharmeela; Metildi, Cristina; Lowy, Andrew M; Bouvet, Michael; Kelber, Jonathan A; Klemke, Richard L

2014-11-15

13

Biosynthetic labeling of hypusine in mammalian cells. Carbon-hydrogen bond fissions revealed by dual labeling  

SciTech Connect

Using a dual-label technique in which /sup 3/H- and /sup 14/C-labeled forms of putrescine and of spermidine were employed as biosynthetic precursors of hypusine, two -C-H bond cleavages were detected during production of this unique amino acid in Chinese hamster ovary cells. One of these cleavages occurs at C-1 of the 4-aminobutyl group during its transfer from the secondary amine nitrogen of spermidine to the nitrogen at the epsilon-position of a specific lysine residue in the polypeptide precursor of eukaryotic initiation factor 4D. Breakage of the other -C-H bond takes place at C-2 in this aminobutyl segment after it has been coupled to lysine to form the intermediate deoxyhypusine residue. Hydroxylation at this carbon atom, which constitutes the last step in hypusine biosynthesis, is the cause of bond cleavage. The data obtained are consistent with a notion that no additional -C-H bond fissions occur during hypusine biosynthesis. Our findings permit suggestion of a mechanism for enzymic aminobutyl group transfer in which 4-aminobutyraldehyde produced by oxidative cleavage of spermidine is coupled with the epsilon-amino group of a specific lysine residue to form an enzyme-bound imine intermediate.

Park, M.H.; Folk, J.E.

1986-10-25

14

Cryptosporidium parvum has an active hypusine biosynthesis pathway  

PubMed Central

The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum causes severe enteric infection and diarrheal disease with substantial morbidity and mortality in untreated AIDS patients and children in developing or resource-limited countries. No fully effective treatment is available. Hypusination of eIF5A is an important post-translational modification essential for cell proliferation. This modification occurs in a two step process catalyzed by deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) followed by deoxyhypusine hydroxylase. An ORF of 1086 bp was identified in the C. parvum (Cp) genome which encodes for a putative polypeptide of 362 amino acids. The recombinant CpDHS protein was purified to homogeneity and used to probe the enzyme’s mechanism, structure, and inhibition profile in a series of kinetic experiments. Sequence analysis and structural modeling of CpDHS were performed to probe differences with respect to the DHS of other species. Unlike Leishmania, Trypanosomes and Entamoeba, Cryptosporidium contains only a single gene for DHS. Phylogenetic analysis shows that CpDHS is more closely related to apicomplexan DHS than kinetoplastid DHS. Important residues that are essential for the functioning of the enzyme including NAD+ binding residues, spermidine binding residues and the active site lysine are conserved between CpDHS and human DHS. N1-guanyl-1.7-diaminoheptane (GC7), a potent inhibitor of DHS caused an effective inhibition of infection and growth of C. parvum in HCT-8 cells. PMID:24893338

Mittal, Nimisha; Morada, Marie; Tripathi, Pankaj; Gowri, V.S.; Mandal, Swati; Quirch, Alison; Park, Myung Hee; Yarlett, Nigel; Madhubala, Rentala

2014-01-01

15

Cryptosporidium parvum has an active hypusine biosynthesis pathway.  

PubMed

The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum causes severe enteric infection and diarrheal disease with substantial morbidity and mortality in untreated AIDS patients and children in developing or resource-limited countries. No fully effective treatment is available. Hypusination of eIF5A is an important post-translational modification essential for cell proliferation. This modification occurs in a two step process catalyzed by deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) followed by deoxyhypusine hydroxylase. An ORF of 1086bp was identified in the C. parvum (Cp) genome which encodes for a putative polypeptide of 362 amino acids. The recombinant CpDHS protein was purified to homogeneity and used to probe the enzyme's mechanism, structure, and inhibition profile in a series of kinetic experiments. Sequence analysis and structural modeling of CpDHS were performed to probe differences with respect to the DHS of other species. Unlike Leishmania, Trypanosomes and Entamoeba, Cryptosporidium contains only a single gene for DHS. Phylogenetic analysis shows that CpDHS is more closely related to apicomplexan DHS than kinetoplastid DHS. Important residues that are essential for the functioning of the enzyme including NAD(+) binding residues, spermidine binding residues and the active site lysine are conserved between CpDHS and human DHS. N(1)-guanyl-1,7-diaminoheptane (GC7), a potent inhibitor of DHS caused an effective inhibition of infection and growth of C. parvum in HCT-8 cells. PMID:24893338

Mittal, Nimisha; Morada, Marie; Tripathi, Pankaj; Gowri, V S; Mandal, Swati; Quirch, Alison; Park, Myung Hee; Yarlett, Nigel; Madhubala, Rentala

2014-06-01

16

The spermidine analogue GC7 (N1-guanyl-1,7-diamineoheptane) induces autophagy through a mechanism not involving the hypusination of eIF5A.  

PubMed

The exogenous administration of spermidine promotes longevity in many model organisms. It has been proposed that this anti-age activity of spermidine is related to this polyamine's ability to promote autophagy. Since spermidine is the substrate for the eIF5A post-translational modification by hypusination, we asked ourselves whether mature eIF5A may represent the link between spermidine and autophagy induction. To test this hypothesis, we inhibited the conversion of native eIF5A by a pharmacological approach, using the N1-guanyl-1,7-diamineoheptane (GC7), a spermidine analogue which competitively and reversibly inhibits deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS). In addition, we also employed genetic approaches by ablating both the eIF5A protein itself and DHS, the rate limiting enzyme catalyzing the conversion of lysine to hypusine. Collectively the data presented in this study demonstrate that the mature eIF5A (hypusinated form) is not involved in the autophagic pathway and that the inhibitor of DHS, GC7, produces off-target effect(s) resulting in marked induction of basal autophagy. These data are relevant in light of the fact that GC7 is considered a potent and selective inhibitor of DHS and is a potential candidate drug for cancer, diabetes and HIV therapy. PMID:25218134

Oliverio, Serafina; Corazzari, Marco; Sestito, Claudia; Piredda, Lucia; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Piacentini, Mauro

2014-12-01

17

Hypusine-containing proteins and their modifying enzymes  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study is to purify and characterize this protein and to investigate general properties of its modifying enzymes. I developed a simple four-step procedure for purifying the hyp-18K protein. This procedure resulted in an 800-fold purification of the radio-labeled protein from NB-15 mouse neuroblastoma cells. Two hypusine-containing proteins with an apparent molecular weight of 18 kDa and 20 kDa were also identified by metabolic labeling in chick embryo fibroblasts. The hyp-18K in both NB cells and chick embryo fibroblastes exhibited two isoforms: acidic form (hyp-18K{sup a}) and basic form (hyp-18K{sup b}). I also purified both hyp-20K and hyp-18K isoforms from chick embryos to homogeneity. V8 protease peptide map analysis indicated that hyp-18K{sup b} isolated from chick embryos was identical, while hyp-18K{sup a} and hyp-20K were similar, to elF-4D. The chick embryo hyp-18K{sup b}, but not hyp-18K{sup a}, co-migrated with elF-4D. When NB cell lysates were incubated with ({sup 3}H)spermidine at pH 9.5, only hyp-18K{sup b} was labeled. Lysates, labeled at pH 9.5 and then adjusted to pH 7.2, gave both hyp-18K{sup a} and hyp-18K{sup b}. These data provided evidence that hyp-18K{sup a} is derived from hyp-18K{sup b}.

Dou, Q.

1988-01-01

18

Unique translational modification of an invertebrate neuropeptide: a phosphorylated member of the adipokinetic hormone peptide family  

PubMed Central

Separation of an extract of corpora cardiaca from the protea beetle, Trichostetha fascicularis, by single-step RP (reverse-phase)-HPLC and monitoring of tryptophan fluorescence resulted in two distinctive peaks, the material of which mobilized proline and carbohydrates in a bioassay performed using the beetle. Material from one of these peaks was; however, inactive in the classical bioassays of locusts and cockroaches that are used for detecting peptides belonging to the AKH (adipokinetic hormone) family. After enzymatically deblocking the N-terminal pyroglutamic acid (pGlu) residue in the peptide material and sequencing by Edman degradation, a partial sequence was obtained: (pGlu)-Ile-Asn-Met-Thr-Xaa-Gly-Trp. The complete sequence was deduced from ESI-MSn (electrospray ionization multi-stage-MS); position six was identified as a phosphothreonine residue and the C-terminus is amidated. The peptide, code-named Trifa-CC, was chemically synthesized and used in confirmatory experiments to show that the primary structure had been correctly assigned. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a phosphorylated invertebrate neuropeptide. Synthetic Trifa-CC co-elutes with the natural peptide, found in the gland of the protea beetle, after RP-HPLC. Moreover, the natural peptide can be dephosphorylated by alkaline phosphatase and the product of that reaction has the same retention time as a synthetic nonphosphorylated octapeptide which has the same sequence as Trifa-CC. Finally, synthetic Trifa-CC has hypertrehalosaemic and hyperprolinaemic biological activity in the protea beetle, but even high concentrations of synthetic Trifa-CC are inactive in locusts and cockroaches. Hence, the correct peptide structure has been assigned. Trifa-CC of the protea beetle is an unusual member of the AKH family that is unique in its post-translational modification. Since it increases the concentration of carbohydrates and proline in the haemolymph when injected into the protea beetle, and since these substrates are also used during flight, we hypothesize that Trifa-CC controls the mobilization of these metabolites in the protea beetle. PMID:16271039

2005-01-01

19

De novo sequencing of unique sequence tags for discovery of post-translational modifications of proteins  

SciTech Connect

De novo sequencing has a promise to discover the protein post-translation modifications; however, such approach is still in their infancy and not widely applied for proteomics practices due to its limited reliability. In this work, we describe a de novo sequencing approach for discovery of protein modifications through identification of the UStags (Anal. Chem. 2008, 80, 1871-1882). The de novo information was obtained from Fourier-transform tandem mass spectrometry for peptides and polypeptides in a yeast lysate, and the de novo sequences obtained were filtered to define a more limited set of UStags. The DNA-predicted database protein sequences were then compared to the UStags, and the differences observed across or in the UStags (i.e., the UStags’ prefix and suffix sequences and the UStags themselves) were used to infer the possible sequence modifications. With this de novo-UStag approach, we uncovered some unexpected variances of yeast protein sequences due to amino acid mutations and/or multiple modifications to the predicted protein sequences. Random matching of the de novo sequences to the predicted sequences were examined with use of two random (false) databases, and ~3% false discovery rates were estimated for the de novo-UStag approach. The factors affecting the reliability (e.g., existence of de novo sequencing noise residues and redundant sequences) and the sensitivity are described. The de novo-UStag complements the UStag method previously reported by enabling discovery of new protein modifications.

Shen, Yufeng; Tolic, Nikola; Hixson, Kim K.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

2008-10-15

20

G-rich VEGF aptamer with locked and unlocked nucleic acid modifications exhibits a unique G-quadruplex fold  

PubMed Central

The formation of a single G-quadruplex structure adopted by a promising 25 nt G-rich vascular endothelial growth factor aptamer in a K+ rich environment was facilitated by locked nucleic acid modifications. An unprecedented all parallel-stranded monomeric G-quadruplex with three G-quartet planes exhibits several unique structural features. Five consecutive guanine residues are all involved in G-quartet formation and occupy positions in adjacent DNA strands, which are bridged with a no-residue propeller-type loop. A two-residue D-shaped loop facilitates inclusion of an isolated guanine residue into the vacant spot within the G-quartet. The remaining two G-rich tracts of three residues each adopt parallel orientation and are linked with edgewise and propeller loops. Both 5? with 3 nt and 3? with 4 nt overhangs display well-defined conformations, with latter adopting a basket handle topology. Locked residues contribute to thermal stabilization of the adopted structure and formation of structurally pre-organized intermediates that facilitate folding into a single G-quadruplex. Understanding the impact of chemical modifications on folding, thermal stability and structural polymorphism of G-quadruplexes provides means for the improvement of vascular endothelial growth factor aptamers and advances our insights into driving nucleic acid structure by locking or unlocking the conformation of sugar moieties of nucleotides in general. PMID:23935071

Marusic, Maja; Veedu, Rakesh N.; Wengel, Jesper; Plavec, Janez

2013-01-01

21

Probing the unique dehydration-induced structural modifications in cancer cell DNA using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Conformation-induced formation of a series of unique Raman marker bands in cancer cell DNA, upon dehydration, have been probed for the first time with the use of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). These bands are capable of distinguishing cancer cell DNA from healthy cell DNA. For this simple and label-free DNA detection approach, we used conventional spherical silver nanoparticles, at a high concentration, without any aggregating agents, which gave highly reproducible SERS spectra of DNA separated from various human cells irrespective of their highly complex compositions and sequences. The observed phenomenon is attributed to the change in the chemical environment due to the presence of nucleobase lesions in cancer cell DNA and subsequent variation in the nearby electronic cloud during the dehydration-driven conformational changes. Detailed analysis of the SERS spectra gave important insight about the lesion-induced structural modifications upon dehydration in the cancer cell DNA. These results have widespread implications in cancer diagnostics, where SERS provides vital information about the DNA modifications in the cancer cells. PMID:23470053

Panikkanvalappil, Sajanlal R; Mackey, Megan A; El-Sayed, Mostafa A

2013-03-27

22

G-rich VEGF aptamer with locked and unlocked nucleic acid modifications exhibits a unique G-quadruplex fold.  

PubMed

The formation of a single G-quadruplex structure adopted by a promising 25 nt G-rich vascular endothelial growth factor aptamer in a K(+) rich environment was facilitated by locked nucleic acid modifications. An unprecedented all parallel-stranded monomeric G-quadruplex with three G-quartet planes exhibits several unique structural features. Five consecutive guanine residues are all involved in G-quartet formation and occupy positions in adjacent DNA strands, which are bridged with a no-residue propeller-type loop. A two-residue D-shaped loop facilitates inclusion of an isolated guanine residue into the vacant spot within the G-quartet. The remaining two G-rich tracts of three residues each adopt parallel orientation and are linked with edgewise and propeller loops. Both 5' with 3 nt and 3' with 4 nt overhangs display well-defined conformations, with latter adopting a basket handle topology. Locked residues contribute to thermal stabilization of the adopted structure and formation of structurally pre-organized intermediates that facilitate folding into a single G-quadruplex. Understanding the impact of chemical modifications on folding, thermal stability and structural polymorphism of G-quadruplexes provides means for the improvement of vascular endothelial growth factor aptamers and advances our insights into driving nucleic acid structure by locking or unlocking the conformation of sugar moieties of nucleotides in general. PMID:23935071

Maruši?, Maja; Veedu, Rakesh N; Wengel, Jesper; Plavec, Janez

2013-11-01

23

Modification of NASA Langley 8 foot high temperature tunnel to provide a unique national research facility for hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A planned modification of the NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel to make it a unique national research facility for hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems is described, and some of the ongoing supporting research for that modification is discussed. The modification involves: (1) the addition of an oxygen-enrichment system which will allow the methane-air combustion-heated test stream to simulate air for propulsion testing; and (2) supplemental nozzles to expand the test simulation capability from the current nominal Mach number to 7.0 include Mach numbers 3.0, 4.5, and 5.0. Detailed design of the modifications is currently underway and the modified facility is scheduled to be available for tests of large scale propulsion systems by mid 1988.

Kelly, H. N.; Wieting, A. R.

1984-01-01

24

Megalin in normal tissues and carcinoma cells carries oligo/poly alpha2,8 deaminoneuraminic acid as a unique posttranslational modification.  

PubMed

In rat kidney, megalin, a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene family, is the sole glycoprotein which carries oligo/poly alpha2,8 deaminoneuraminic acid (KDN) as a posttranslational modification. We have investigated immunoprecipitated megalin from rat brain, lung and placenta, mouse yolk sac carcinoma and megalin synthesizing carcinoma cell lines, for presence of this unique glycan structure. Our immunoblot analysis revealed the presence of oligo/poly alpha2,8 KDN on megalin in all the studied normal tissues and carcinoma cells. Furthermore, it is demonstrated to be part of oligosaccharides O-glycosidically linked to megalin. PMID:10596892

Ziak, M; Meier, M; Roth, J

1999-03-01

25

Cofactor Biosynthesis through Protein Post-Translational Modification  

PubMed Central

Post-translational modifications of amino acids can be used to generate novel cofactors capable of chemistries inaccessible to conventional amino acid side chains. The biosynthesis of these sites often requires one or more enzyme or protein accessory factors, the functions of which are quite diverse and often difficult to isolate in cases where multiple enzymes are involved. Herein is described the current knowledge of the biosynthesis of urease and nitrile hydratase metal centers, pyrroloquinoline quinone, hypusine, and tryptophan tryptophylquinone cofactors along with the most recent work elucidating the functions of individual accessory factors in these systems. These examples showcase the breadth and diversity of this continually expanding field. PMID:22387133

Yukl, Erik T.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

2012-01-01

26

Genetic modification and genetic determinism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and

David B. Resnik; Daniel B. Vorhaus

2006-01-01

27

Predicting the pathway involved in post-translational modification of Elongation factor P in a subset of bacterial species  

PubMed Central

Background The bacterial elongation factor P (EF-P) is strictly conserved in bacteria and essential for protein synthesis. It is homologous to the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). A highly conserved eIF5A lysine is modified into an unusual amino acid derived from spermidine, hypusine. Hypusine is absolutely required for eIF5A's role in translation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The homologous lysine of EF-P is also modified to a spermidine derivative in Escherichia coli. However, the biosynthesis pathway of this modification in the bacterial EF-P is yet to be elucidated. Presentation of the Hypothesis Here we propose a potential mechanism for the post-translational modification of EF-P. By using comparative genomic methods based on physical clustering and phylogenetic pattern analysis, we identified two protein families of unknown function, encoded by yjeA and yjeK genes in E. coli, as candidates for this missing pathway. Based on the analysis of the structural and biochemical properties of both protein families, we propose two potential mechanisms for the modification of EF-P. Testing the hypothesis This hypothesis could be tested genetically by constructing a bacterial strain with a tagged efp gene. The tag would allow the purification of EF-P by affinity chromatography and the analysis of the purified protein by mass spectrometry. yjeA or yjeK could then be deleted in the efp tagged strain and the EF-P protein purified from each mutant analyzed by mass spectrometry for the presence or the absence of the modification. This hypothesis can also be tested by purifying the different components (YjeK, YjeA and EF-P) and reconstituting the pathway in vitro. Implication of the hypothesis The requirement for a fully modified EF-P for protein synthesis in certain bacteria implies the presence of specific post-translational modification mechanism in these organisms. All of the 725 bacterial genomes analyzed, possess an efp gene but only 200 (28%) possess both yjeA and yjeK genes. In the other organisms, EF-P may be modified by another pathway or the translation machinery must have adapted to the lack of EF-P modification. Our hypotheses, if confirmed, will lead to the discovery of a new post-translational modification pathway. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Céline Brochier-Armanet, Igor B. Zhulin and Mikhail Gelfand. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' reports section. PMID:20070887

2010-01-01

28

Tattoos and piercings: Bodily expressions of uniqueness?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aimed to investigate the motivations underlying the body modification practices of tattooing and piercing. There were 80 participants recruited from an Australian music store, who provided descriptions of their tattoos and piercings and completed measures of need for uniqueness, appearance investment and distinctive appearance investment. It was found that tattooed individuals scored significantly higher on need for uniqueness

Marika Tiggemann; Louise A. Hopkins

2011-01-01

29

Genetic modification and genetic determinism  

PubMed Central

In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions. PMID:16800884

Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B

2006-01-01

30

Tattoos and piercings: bodily expressions of uniqueness?  

PubMed

The study aimed to investigate the motivations underlying the body modification practices of tattooing and piercing. There were 80 participants recruited from an Australian music store, who provided descriptions of their tattoos and piercings and completed measures of need for uniqueness, appearance investment and distinctive appearance investment. It was found that tattooed individuals scored significantly higher on need for uniqueness than non-tattooed individuals. Further, individuals with conventional ear piercings scored significantly lower on need for uniqueness than individuals with no piercings or with facial and body piercings. Neither appearance investment nor distinctive appearance investment differed significantly among tattoo or piercing status groups. Strength of identification with music was significantly correlated with number of tattoos, but not number of piercings. It was concluded that tattooing, but not body piercing, represents a bodily expression of uniqueness. PMID:21561820

Tiggemann, Marika; Hopkins, Louise A

2011-06-01

31

Molecular modeling of the human eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) based on spectroscopic and computational analyses  

SciTech Connect

The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is a protein ubiquitously present in archaea and eukarya, which undergoes a unique two-step post-translational modification called hypusination. Several studies have shown that hypusination is essential for a variety of functional roles for eIF5A, including cell proliferation and synthesis of proteins involved in cell cycle control. Up to now neither a totally selective inhibitor of hypusination nor an inhibitor capable of directly binding to eIF5A has been reported in the literature. The discovery of such an inhibitor might be achieved by computer-aided drug design based on the 3D structure of the human eIF5A. In this study, we present a molecular model for the human eIF5A protein based on the crystal structure of the eIF5A from Leishmania brasiliensis, and compare the modeled conformation of the loop bearing the hypusination site with circular dichroism data obtained with a synthetic peptide of this loop. Furthermore, analysis of amino acid variability between different human eIF5A isoforms revealed peculiar structural characteristics that are of functional relevance.

Costa-Neto, Claudio M. [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, 14049-900 Ribeirao Preto (Brazil)]. E-mail: claudio@fmrp.usp.br; Parreiras-e-Silva, Lucas T. [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, 14049-900 Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Ruller, Roberto [Department of Chemistry, FFCLRP, University of Sao Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Oliveira, Eduardo B. [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, 14049-900 Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Miranda, Antonio [Department of Biophysics, Escola Paulista de Medicina, UNIFESP, 04023-062 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Oliveira, Laerte [Department of Biophysics, Escola Paulista de Medicina, UNIFESP, 04023-062 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ward, Richard J. [Department of Chemistry, FFCLRP, University of Sao Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto (Brazil)

2006-09-01

32

eIF5A interacts functionally with eEF2  

Microsoft Academic Search

eIF5A is highly conserved from archaea to mammals, essential for cell viability and the only protein known to contain the\\u000a essential amino acid residue hypusine, generated by a unique posttranslational modification. eIF5A was originally identified\\u000a as a translation initiation factor due to its ability to stimulate the formation of the first peptide bond. However, recent\\u000a studies have shown that depletion

Camila A. O. Dias; Ana Paula Borges Gregio; Danuza Rossi; Fábio Carrilho Galvão; Tatiana F. Watanabe; Myung Hee Park; Sandro R. Valentini; Cleslei F. Zanelli

33

Unique Access to Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the many learning opportunities that broadcast technology students at Ladue Horton Watkins High School in St. Louis, Missouri, experience because of their unique access to technology and methods of learning. Through scaffolding, stepladder techniques, and trial by fire, students learn to produce multiple television programs,…

Goble, Don

2009-01-01

34

Genetic modification in floriculture.  

PubMed

Micro-propagation, embryo rescue, mutagenesis via chemical or irradiation means and in vitro inter-specific hybridisation methods have been used by breeders in the floriculture industry for many years. In the past 20 years these enabling technologies have been supplemented by genetic modification methods. Though many genes of potential utility to the floricultural industry have been identified, and much has been learnt of the genetic factors and molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypes of great importance to the industry, there are only flower colour modified varieties of carnation and rose in the marketplace. To a large extent this is due to unique financial barriers to market entry for genetically modified varieties of flower crops, including use of technology fees and costs of regulatory approval. PMID:20882313

Chandler, Stephen F; Brugliera, Filippa

2011-02-01

35

Identification of a substrate site for transglutaminases on the human protein synthesis initiation factor 5A.  

PubMed

Protein synthesis initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) from human erythrocytes was found to be a substrate for both plasma transglutaminase (Factor XIIIa) and guinea pig liver transglutaminase (GPLTG). When purified eIF-5A was incubated with GPLTG or Factor XIIIa in the presence of succinylated beta-casein, a covalent complex was identified. By isolating and analysing the product of the transglutaminases (TGases) reaction, the site of modification on eIF-5A has been identified as the unique amino acid hypusine. The complex beta-casein.eIF-5A was enzymatically digested with proteinases and the predicted covalent cross-link of gamma-glutamyl-omega-hypusine was isolated from the digests by ion-exchange chromatography and purified by reversed-phase h.p.l.c. Acid hydrolysis of the purified dipeptide yielded equimolar amounts of hypusine and glutamic acid. Furthermore, fast atom bombardment m.s. analysis confirmed the isomer assignment to be gamma-glutamyl-omega-hypusine. These data indicate that hypusine-50 of the eIF-5A chain functions as acyl acceptor substrate for TGases, and reveal that eIF-5A may be cross-linked to intracellular proteins by TGases. Because the precise function of eIF-5A is still unknown, our results appear particularly stimulating in the light of the recent finding of a new biological role for this protein as a cellular factor binding specifically to the human immunodeficiency virus-1 Rev activation domain [Ruhl, Himmelspach, Bahr, Hammerschmid, Jaksche, Wolff, Auschauer, Farrington, Probst, Bevec and Hauber (1993) J. Cell Biol. 123, 1309-1320]. PMID:7848270

Beninati, S; Nicolini, L; Jakus, J; Passeggio, A; Abbruzzese, A

1995-02-01

36

NASA's unique networking environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Networking is an infrastructure technology; it is a tool for NASA to support its space and aeronautics missions. Some of NASA's networking problems are shared by the commercial and/or military communities, and can be solved by working with these communities. However, some of NASA's networking problems are unique and will not be addressed by these other communities. Individual characteristics of NASA's space-mission networking enviroment are examined, the combination of all these characteristics that distinguish NASA's networking systems from either commercial or military systems is explained, and some research areas that are important for NASA to pursue are outlined.

Johnson, Marjory J.

1988-01-01

37

Modifications to the translational apparatus which affect the regulation of protein synthesis in sea urchin embryos  

SciTech Connect

Protein synthesis can be regulated at a number of cellular levels. I have examined how modifications to specific components of the protein synthetic machinery are involved in regulating the efficiency of initiation of translation during early sea urchin embryogenesis. It is demonstrated that Ca{sup 2+} concentrations exceeding 500 uM cause the inhibition of protein synthesis in cell-free translation lysates prepared from sea urchin embryos. Specific changes in the state of phosphorylation of at least 8 proteins occur during this Ca{sup 2+}-mediated repression of translation. Analysis of these proteins has indicated that, unlike mammalian systems, there is no detectable level of Ca{sup 2+}-dependent phosphorylation of the {alpha}subunit eIF-2. Two of the proteins which do become phosphorylated in response to Ca{sup 2+} are calmodulin and an isoelectric form of sea urchin eIF-4D. In addition, 2 proteins which share similarities with kinases involved in the regulation of protein synthesis in mammalian cells, also become phosphorylated. I have investigated the consequences of changes in eIF-4D during sea urchin embryogenesis because it has been proposed that a polyamine-mediated conversion of lysine to hypusine in this factor may enhance translational activity. It is demonstrated that ({sup 3}H) spermidine-derived radioactivity is incorporated into a number of proteins when sea urchin embryos are labeled in vivo, and that the pattern of individual proteins that become labeled changes over the course of the first 30 hr of development.

Scalise, F.W.

1988-01-01

38

Is Life Unique?  

PubMed Central

Is life physicochemically unique? No. Is life unique? Yes. Life manifests innumerable formalisms that cannot be generated or explained by physicodynamics alone. Life pursues thousands of biofunctional goals, not the least of which is staying alive. Neither physicodynamics, nor evolution, pursue goals. Life is largely directed by linear digital programming and by the Prescriptive Information (PI) instantiated particularly into physicodynamically indeterminate nucleotide sequencing. Epigenomic controls only compound the sophistication of these formalisms. Life employs representationalism through the use of symbol systems. Life manifests autonomy, homeostasis far from equilibrium in the harshest of environments, positive and negative feedback mechanisms, prevention and correction of its own errors, and organization of its components into Sustained Functional Systems (SFS). Chance and necessity—heat agitation and the cause-and-effect determinism of nature’s orderliness—cannot spawn formalisms such as mathematics, language, symbol systems, coding, decoding, logic, organization (not to be confused with mere self-ordering), integration of circuits, computational success, and the pursuit of functionality. All of these characteristics of life are formal, not physical. PMID:25382119

Abel, David L.

2011-01-01

39

Tracking unique objects.  

PubMed

Is content addressable in the representation that subserves performance in multiple-object-tracking (MOT) experiments? We devised an MOT variant that featured unique, nameable objects (cartoon animals) as stimuli. There were two possible response modes: standard, in which observers were asked to report the locations of all target items, and specific, in which observers had to report the location of a particular object (e.g., "Where is the zebra?"). A measure of capacity derived from accuracy allowed for comparisons of the results between conditions. We found that capacity in the specific condition (1.4 to 2.6 items across several experiments) was always reliably lower than capacity in the standard condition (2.3 to 3.4 items). Observers could locate specific objects, indicating a content-addressable representation. However, capacity differences between conditions, as well as differing responses to the experimental manipulations, suggest that there may be two separate systems involved in tracking, one carrying only positional information, and one carrying identity information as well. PMID:17557588

Horowitz, Todd S; Klieger, Sarah B; Fencsik, David E; Yang, Kevin K; Alvarez, George A; Wolfe, Jeremy M

2007-02-01

40

Plasma-surface modification of biomaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma-surface modification (PSM) is an effective and economical surface treatment technique for many materials and of growing interests in biomedical engineering. This article reviews the various common plasma techniques and experimental methods as applied to biomedical materials research, such as plasma sputtering and etching, plasma implantation, plasma deposition, plasma polymerization, laser plasma deposition, plasma spraying, and so on. The unique

P. K. Chu; J. Y. Chen; L. P. Wang; N. Huang

2002-01-01

41

Assessment of the uniqueness of human dentition.  

PubMed

Comparing ante-mortem and post-mortem dental characteristics has been a reliable, accurate and quick human identification method. This is based on the assumption that each individual's set of teeth is unique; however, there is little evidence to support this assumption. This research aimed to determine the uniqueness of basic dental features in a cohort of multinational dental patients. Dental charts were retrieved from the archives of the College of Dentistry at the University of Sharjah. Dental patterns were coded into letters representing basic dental characteristics, and entered into a computer program that was written specifically for analysing the results of this research. Two thousand dental charts were included in this research; the average age of the sample was 31.9 years (11-87 years). The male:female ratio was 1.4:1 from 55 nationalities. One thousand one hundred and fifty-nine dental charts (57.95%) had absolutely unique dental patterns. The remaining charts (n=841 [42.05%]) were found to have identical patterns with others, the most common of which was 'all virgin' teeth (n=482 [24.1%]). Introducing a single dental modification dropped this percentage to 1.05%. This percentage was further narrowed down to 0.7% when the gender variable was introduced to the comparison. The results of this research support the assumption that dental characteristics show a diversity that is useful for human identification, even when those characteristics are recorded in their simplest forms. PMID:24776439

Madi, Heba Allah; Swaid, Salam; Al-Amad, Suhail

2013-12-01

42

Behavior Modification is not...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identified are misconceptions of behavior modification procedures according to which behavior modification is connected mistakenly with noncontingent reinforcement, partial change of a teacher's behavior, decelerations of inappropriate behaviors only, dependency producing technology, teacher dominated activity, a single type of classroom…

Tawney, James W.; And Others

1973-01-01

43

Uniqueness Theorem for Black Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We shall review the current status of uniqueness theorem for black objects in higher dimensional spacetime. At the beginning we consider static charged asymptotically flat spacelike hypersurface with compact interior with both degenerate and non-degenerate components of the event horizon in n-dimensional spacetime. We gave some remarks concerning partial results in proving uniqueness of stationary axisymmetric multidimensional solutions and winding numbers which can uniquely characterize the topology and symmetry structure of black objects.

Rogatko, Marek

2010-06-01

44

Is covariant star product unique?  

E-print Network

We give a nontechnical introduction to the problem of non-uniqueness of star products and describe a covariant resolution of this problem. Some implications (e.g., for noncommutative gravity) and further prospects are discussed.

Dmitri Vassilevich

2011-01-24

45

Modifications of mitosis  

SciTech Connect

Chapter 15, discusses modifications of mitosis, including endoreduplication, polyteny, endomitosis, C-mitosis, restitution, amitosis and multipolar mitoses. Apart from multipolar mitosis, all other mitotic modifications are characterized by an absent or defective spindle, and in most cases these result in the duplication of the chromosome number. 29 refs., 4 figs.

NONE

1993-12-31

46

Histone onco-modifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-translational modification of histones provides an important regulatory platform for processes such as gene expression, DNA replication and repair, chromosome condensation and segregation and apoptosis. Disruption of these processes has been linked to the multistep process of carcinogenesis. We review the aberrant covalent histone modifications observed in cancer, and discuss how these epigenetic changes, caused by alterations in histone-modifying enzymes,

J Füllgrabe; E Kavanagh; B Joseph

2011-01-01

47

Reproductive cloning combined with genetic modification.  

PubMed

Although there is widespread opposition to reproductive cloning, some have argued that its use by infertile couples to have genetically related children would be ethically justifiable. Others have suggested that lesbian or gay couples might wish to use cloning to have genetically related children. Most of the main objections to human reproductive cloning are based on the child's lack of unique nuclear DNA. In the future, it may be possible safely to create children using cloning combined with genetic modifications, so that they have unique nuclear DNA. The genetic modifications could be aimed at giving such children genetic characteristics of both members of the couple concerned. Thus, cloning combined with genetic modification could be appealing to infertile, lesbian, or gay couples who seek genetically related children who have genetic characteristics of both members. In such scenarios, the various objections to human reproductive cloning that are based on the lack of genetic uniqueness would no longer be applicable. The author argues that it would be ethically justifiable for such couples to create children in this manner, assuming these techniques could be used safely. PMID:16269564

Strong, C

2005-11-01

48

Vance Tartar: a unique biologist.  

PubMed

Vance Tartar (1911-1991) has made major discoveries concerning morphogenesis, patterning, and nucleocytoplasmic relations in the giant ciliate Stentor coeruleus, mostly by means of hand-grafting using glass microneedles. This article provides a chronological account of the major events of Vance Tartar's life, a brief description of some of his major scientific achievements, and a discussion of his distinctive personality and multifaceted interests. It concludes with a consideration of how his unique style of life and work contributed to his equally unique scientific contributions. PMID:8457795

Frankel, J; Whiteley, A H

1993-01-01

49

Unique Approaches to Water Resources  

E-print Network

with a fresh perspective on our next generation of leaders and renewed hope for the future of Florida's water of and access to global environmental resources are reaching a crisis point. Historical threats such as waterUnique Approaches to Water Resources Education in Florida Watershed Journal Executive Committee

Central Florida, University of

50

Rufus Choate: A Unique Orator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rufus Choate, a Massachusetts lawyer and orator, has been described as a "unique and romantic phenomenon" in America's history. Born in 1799 in Essex, Massachusetts, Choate graduated from Dartmouth College and attended Harvard Law School. Choate's goal was to be the top in his profession. Daniel Webster was Choate's hero. Choate became well…

Markham, Reed

51

Tyrosine Modifications in Aging  

E-print Network

must continue, especially given the expanding list of known modifications. Emerging approaches, such as genetic and metabolic incorporation of unnatural amino acids, hold promise for additional focused studies of this kind. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17...

Feeney, Maria B.; Schö neich, Christian

2012-12-01

52

Notes on Behavior Modification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews three topics featured in his first Behavior Modification column: pupil management, social validation, and nondiscriminatory testing. Two new topics are also discussed: data and decisions, and program evaluation. (Author)

Lovitt, Thomas C.

1981-01-01

53

Surface modification and characterization Collaborative Research Center at ORNL  

SciTech Connect

The Surface Modification and Characterization Collaborative Research Center (SMAC/CRC) is a unique facility for the alteration and characterization of the near-surface properties of materials. The SMAC/CRC facility is equipped with particle accelerators and high-powered lasers which can be used to improve the physical, electrical, and/or chemical properties of solids and to create unique new materials not possible to obtain with conventional ''equilibrium'' processing techniques. Surface modification is achieved using such techniques as ion implantation doping, ion beam mixing, laser mixing, ion deposition, and laser annealing.

Not Available

1986-01-01

54

Tyrosine Modifications in Aging  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: The understanding of physiological and pathological processes involving protein oxidation, particularly under conditions of aging and oxidative stress, can be aided by proteomic identification of proteins that accumulate oxidative post-translational modifications only if these detected modifications are connected to functional consequences. The modification of tyrosine (Tyr) residues can elicit significant changes in protein structure and function, which, in some cases, may contribute to biological aging and age-related pathologies, such as atherosclerosis, neurodegeneration, and cataracts. Recent Advances: Studies characterizing proteins in which Tyr has been modified to 3-nitrotyrosine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, 3,3?-dityrosine and other cross-links, or 3-chlorotyrosine are reviewed, with an emphasis on structural and functional consequences. Critical Issues: Distinguishing between inconsequential modifications and functionally significant ones requires careful biochemical and biophysical analysis of target proteins, as well as innovative methods for isolating the effects of the multiple modifications that often occur under oxidizing conditions. Future Directions: The labor-intensive task of isolating and characterizing individual modified proteins must continue, especially given the expanding list of known modifications. Emerging approaches, such as genetic and metabolic incorporation of unnatural amino acids, hold promise for additional focused studies of this kind. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 1571–1579. PMID:22424390

Feeney, Maria B.

2012-01-01

55

Human Rights and Behavior Modification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)

Roos, Philip

1974-01-01

56

Unique children in unique places: innovative pediatric community clinical.  

PubMed

Pediatric nursing is a specialization that requires a particular set of skills and abilities. Most nurses seldom get the chance to interact with families who have children living with exceptionalities unless they choose to work in tertiary settings dealing exclusively with children. This article explores how one school of nursing in Canada offers its students two unique learning opportunities where they get the chance to work with children who have special needs in an interdisciplinary community-based setting. Shared statements from parents and students highlight the benefits to all those involved. PMID:22055378

Harrison, Suzanne; Laforest, Marie-Eve

2011-12-01

57

Inorganic Surface Modification of Nonwoven Polymeric Substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, atomic layer deposition (ALD), a vapor phase inorganic thin film deposition technique, is used to modify the surface of a range of industrially relevant polymers to enhance surface properties or impart additional functionalities. Several unique demonstrations of polymer surface modification are presented including uniform nanomaterial photodeposition to the surface of nonowoven fabrics and the first application of photocatalytic thin film coated nonwovens for advanced filtration of heavy metals from solution. Recent advances in polymer synthesis and processing technologies have resulted in the production of novel polymer systems with unique chemistries and sub-micron scale dimensions. As a result, advanced fiber systems have received much attention for potential use in a wide range of industrially and medically important applications such as advanced and selective filtration, catalysis, flexible electronics, and tissue engineering. However, tailoring the surface properties of the polymer is still needed in order to realize the full range of advanced applications, which can be difficult given the high complexity and non-uniformity of nonwoven polymeric structures. Uniform and controllable inorganic surface modification of nonwovens allows the introduction or modification of many crucial polymer properties with a wide range of application methods.

Halbur, Jonathan Chandler

58

Modifications of gravity.  

PubMed

General relativity (GR) is a phenomenologically successful theory that rests on firm foundations, but has not been tested on cosmological scales. The deep mystery of dark energy (and possibly even the requirement of cold dark matter (CDM)) has increased the need for testing modifications to GR, as the inference of such otherwise undetected fluids depends crucially on the theory of gravity. Here, I discuss a general scheme for constructing consistent and covariant modifications to the Einstein equations. This framework is such that there is a clear connection between the modification and the underlying field content that produces it. I argue that this is mandatory for distinguishing modifications of gravity from conventional fluids. I give a non-trivial example, a simple metric-based modification of the fluctuation equations for which the background is exact ?CDM, but differs from it in the perturbations. I show how this can be generalized and solved in terms of two arbitrary functions. Finally, I discuss future prospects and directions of research. PMID:22084286

Skordis, Constantinos

2011-12-28

59

Social Aspects of Weather Modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description of the social context and citizen response to three weather modification projects provides an introduction to the discussion of a variety of social and economic issues related to planned weather modification. Various interest groups have markedly different perspectives on weather modification. Most persons subject to the consequences of weather modification have no opportunity to participate in the associated

J. Eugene Haas

1973-01-01

60

Some Uniqueness Results for PARAFAC2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some uniqueness properties are presented for the PARAFAC2 model for covariance matrices, focusing on uniqueness in the rank two case of PARAFAC2. PARAFAC2 is shown to be usually unique with four matrices, but not unique with three unless a certain additional assumption is introduced. (SLD)

ten Berge, Jos M. F.; Kiers, Henk A. L.

1996-01-01

61

Selective chemical protein modification.  

PubMed

Chemical modification of proteins is an important tool for probing natural systems, creating therapeutic conjugates and generating novel protein constructs. Site-selective reactions require exquisite control over both chemo- and regioselectivity, under ambient, aqueous conditions. There are now various methods for achieving selective modification of both natural and unnatural amino acids--each with merits and limitations--providing a 'toolkit' that until 20 years ago was largely limited to reactions at nucleophilic cysteine and lysine residues. If applied in a biologically benign manner, this chemistry could form the basis of true Synthetic Biology. PMID:25190082

Spicer, Christopher D; Davis, Benjamin G

2014-01-01

62

Evaluating plant modifications against industry operating experience  

SciTech Connect

To avoid repeating problems of the past, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) excepts nuclear utilities to examine previous industry experience when considering plant design changes and modifications. Many systems have been proposed for categorizing previous industry experience, with emphasis on root cause analysis. If the root causes of previous industry events or problems were standardized, they would be useful in warning other plants of similar or related problems. It is difficult, however, to standardize root cause analysis methods and terminology in a way that makes experience data easily applied across different plants. In addition, identifying a root cause of a previous event only goes halfway in answering concerns about a plant modification. The modification must also be evaluated to determine if the root cause is of concern. This paper presents a unique solution to these problems by using an interdisciplinary approach to developing industry-standard root causes and by using expert system terminology to evaluate a plant modification against these root causes.

Swisshelm, J.D.; Riley, J.H.; Pabst, L.F.

1989-01-01

63

Surface modification of silica nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface modification of nanosized silica particles by polymer grafting is gaining attention. This can be attributed to the fact that it provides a unique opportunity to engineer the interfacial properties of these modified particles; at the same time the mechanical and thermal properties of the polymers can be improved. Controlled free radical polymerization is a versatile technique which affords control over molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, architecture and functionalities of the resulting polymer. Three commonly used controlled free radical polymerizations include nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP), atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and reversible addition fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization. ATRP and RAFT polymerization were explored in order to modify the silica surface with well-defined polymer brushes. A novel click-functionalized RAFT chain transfer agent (RAFT CTA) was synthesized which opened up the possibility of using RAFT polymerization and click chemistry together in surface modification. Using this RAFT CTA, the surface of silica nanoparticles was modified with polystyrene and polyacrylamide brushes via the "grafting to" approach. Both tethered polystyrene and polyacrylamide chains were found in the brush regime. The combination of ATRP and click chemistry was also explored for surface modification. A combination of RAFT polymerization and click chemistry was also studied to modify the surface via the "grafting from" approach. Our strategy included the (1) "grafting from" approach for brush formation (2) facile click reaction to immobilize the RAFT agent (3) synthesis of R-supported chain transfer agent and (4) use of the more active trithiocarbonate RAFT agent. Grafting density obtained by this method was significantly higher than reported values in the literature. Polystyrene (PS) grafted silica nanoparticles were also prepared by a tandem process that simultaneously employs reversible addition fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization and click chemistry. The click reaction doesn't interfere with RAFT polymerization. With a suitable choice of a Cu(I) catalyst, it is possible to perform both RAFT polymerization and click chemistry together. In a single pot procedure, azide-modified silica, an alkyne-functionalized RAFT agent and styrene were combined to produce the desired product. As deduced by thermal gravimetric and elemental analysis, the grafting density of PS on the silica in the tandem process was intermediate between the "grafting to" and "grafting from" techniques. Relative rates of RAFT polymerization and click reaction were altered to control grafting density. ATRP was also used to modify the surface of silica nanoparticles via the "grafting from" approach. The surfaces of silica with homopolymers and diblock copolymers brushes were modified using surface initiated ATRP. The polymer grafted silica particles were characterized by FT-IR, TGA, XPS and elemental analysis.

Ranjan, Rajesh

64

Noncovalent Chemical Modification of Graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low dimensional carbon allotropes presently provide an unparalleled platform to explore novel electronic properties, and with tremendous progress may one day supplant entrenched materials within the semiconductor industry. In order for graphene to continue on its extraordinary scientific and technological trajectories, many hurdles must be overcome such as reliable bandgap engineering, advances in processability, removal or mitigation of defects and so on. Noncovalent chemical modification of graphene offers a pathway to address many of these concerns and furthermore provides an opportunity to graft new functionality onto this unique material. In this work, the effects of noncovalent modification of graphene by simple polyaromatic molecules - rubrene and tetracene - are investigated. By exploiting ?-? interactions between the two highly conjugated systems, a simple approach to functionalize graphene devices has been developed. Optical and electron-beam lithography are used to fabricate graphene field effect transistors, which can be subsequently modified either in their entirety or in a site specific manner. In order to better understand the resulting graphene/rubrene structure, a suite of analytical tools has been employed. Raman spectroscopy and microscopy confirm the presence of the rubrene and spatially correlate observed electronic changes with surface modification while polarized Raman spectroscopy is used to investigate any long range order of rubrene on the graphene surface. Photoluminescence measurements show that rubrene emission is not quenched, and spectral analysis offers insight into rubrene film characteristics. Atomic force microscopy provides detailed information as to film thickness, and suggests that rubrene film morphology is largely disordered. Due to the simplicity of this functionalization procedure, a rubrene-based motif could be widely expanded allowing researchers to explore grafting new chemical moieties onto graphene and enabling new device opportunities. Transport measurements reveal the effects of rubrene on the graphene electronic properties. Modified devices display increased conductivity, a substantial shift in Dirac point and a moderate decrease in carrier mobility, all of which are consistent with an electronic doping mechanism whereby the rubrene acts as a hole dopant. Preliminary photoresponse measurements suggest that this graphene-molecular hybrid could act as a potential photodetector.

Bobak, Julia

65

Synthesis and chemical modification of carbon nanostructures for materials applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation explores the structure, chemical reactivities, electromagnetic response, and materials properties of various carbon nanostructures, including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), graphite, and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). Efficient production and modification of these unique structures, each with their own distinct properties, will make them more accessible for applications in electronics, materials, and biology. A method is reported

Amanda Lynn Higginbotham

2009-01-01

66

Benign Weather Modification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Weather modification is a technology once embraced by the U.S. military as a tool to help both wartime and peacetime missions. However, interest in the ability to modify weather has waned over recent years and is now nearly non-existent. This study examin...

B. E. Coble

1996-01-01

67

Benign Weather Modification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Weather modification is a technology once embraced by the United States (US) military as a tool to help both wartime and peacetime missions. However, interest in the ability to modify weather has waned over recent years and is now nearly nonexistent. This...

B. B. Coble

1997-01-01

68

The RNA modification database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RNA modification database provides a com- prehensive listing of post-transcriptionally modified nucleosides from RNA and is maintained as an updated version of the initial printed report. Informa- tion provided includes: type(s) of RNA in which found and phylogenetic distribution; common chemical names and symbols; Chemical Abstracts registry numbers and index names; chemical structures; initial literature citations for structural characterization

Pamela F. Crain; James A. Mccloskey

1996-01-01

69

Soviet ionospheric modification research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soviet published literature in ionospheric modification research by high-power radio waves is assessed, including an evaluation of its impact on and applications to future remote-sensing and telecommunications systems. This assessment is organized to place equal emphasis on basic research activities, designed to investigate both the natural geophysical environment and fundamental plasma physics; advanced research programs, such as those studying artificial

L. M. Duncan; H. C. Carlson; F. T. Djuth; J. A. Fejer; N. C. Gerson; T. Hagfors; D. B. Newman Jr.; R. L. Showen

1988-01-01

70

Chemical modification of biocatalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although several powerful methods exist for the redesign of enzyme structure and function these are typically limited to the 20 most abundant proteinogenic amino acids. The use of chemical modification overcomes this limitation to allow virtually unlimited alteration of amino acid sidechain structures. If heterogeneous mixtures of enzyme products are to be avoided, however, the required chemistry should be efficient,

Benjamin G Davis

2003-01-01

71

Personalizing Behavior Modification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Process reinforcement is proposed as a reinforcement method that is more comfortable, personal, comprehensive, and interactive than traditional behavior modification. Process reinforcement strengthens desired behaviors by engaging learners in a one-on-one examination of how they achieved correct responses and by practicing comfortable eye contact…

White, Debra G.; And Others

1987-01-01

72

The Probabilities of Unique Events  

PubMed Central

Many theorists argue that the probabilities of unique events, even real possibilities such as President Obama's re-election, are meaningless. As a consequence, psychologists have seldom investigated them. We propose a new theory (implemented in a computer program) in which such estimates depend on an intuitive non-numerical system capable only of simple procedures, and a deliberative system that maps intuitions into numbers. The theory predicts that estimates of the probabilities of conjunctions should often tend to split the difference between the probabilities of the two conjuncts. We report two experiments showing that individuals commit such violations of the probability calculus, and corroborating other predictions of the theory, e.g., individuals err in the same way even when they make non-numerical verbal estimates, such as that an event is highly improbable. PMID:23056224

Khemlani, Sangeet S.; Lotstein, Max; Johnson-Laird, Phil

2012-01-01

73

A unique nasopharynx brachytherapy technique  

SciTech Connect

To deliver a curative dose of radiation therapy to the nasopharynx using either external beam radiotherapy or conventional brachytherapy, it is often necessary to expose a large volume of normal tissue. Tolerance of normal tissue also limits the dose of radiation given for salvage therapy in failed nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A unique brachytherapy technique with associated treatment planning is presented as an alternative method of treatment. This technique combines a single linear cesium-137 source inserted in the nasopharynx via a modified cuffed endotracheal tube, in conjunction with a plaque of iridium-192 ribbons applied in the form of a modified upper denture appliance. This method allows additional treatment to the primary area while neither exposing more normal tissue than necessary nor exceeding tolerance doses to surrounding structures.

Wolf, C.D.; Giri, P.G.; Cytacki, E.P. (Univ. of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City (USA))

1990-01-01

74

Unique features of space reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space reactors are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K.

Buden, David

75

ASPOD modifications of 1993-1994  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ASPOD, Autonomous Space Processors for Orbital Debris, provides a unique way of collecting the space debris that has built up over the past 37 years. For the past several years, ASPOD has gone through several different modifications. This year's concentrations were on the solar cutting array, the solar tracker, the earth based main frame/tilt table, the controls for the two robotic arms, and accurate autocad drawings of ASPOD. This final report contains the reports written by the students who worked on the ASPOD project this year.

Jackson, Jennifer J. (editor); Fogarty, Paul W.; Muller, Matthew; Martucci, Thomas A., III; Williams, Daniel; Rowney, David A.

1994-01-01

76

Posttranslational Protein Modification in Archaea  

PubMed Central

One of the first hurdles to be negotiated in the postgenomic era involves the description of the entire protein content of the cell, the proteome. Such efforts are presently complicated by the various posttranslational modifications that proteins can experience, including glycosylation, lipid attachment, phosphorylation, methylation, disulfide bond formation, and proteolytic cleavage. Whereas these and other posttranslational protein modifications have been well characterized in Eucarya and Bacteria, posttranslational modification in Archaea has received far less attention. Although archaeal proteins can undergo posttranslational modifications reminiscent of what their eucaryal and bacterial counterparts experience, examination of archaeal posttranslational modification often reveals aspects not previously observed in the other two domains of life. In some cases, posttranslational modification allows a protein to survive the extreme conditions often encountered by Archaea. The various posttranslational modifications experienced by archaeal proteins, the molecular steps leading to these modifications, and the role played by posttranslational modification in Archaea form the focus of this review. PMID:16148304

Eichler, Jerry; Adams, Michael W. W.

2005-01-01

77

Constant hue loci of unique and binary balanced hues at 10, 100, and 1000 Td.  

PubMed

Constant hue loci for unique red, yellow, green, and blue and the loci of four binary balanced hues (e.g., equally reddish and yellowish) were measured at 10, 100, and 1000 Td for two observers. Wavelengths of the unique hues were not invariant from 10 to 1000 Td. In Judd's modification of the 1931 CIE chromaticity diagram, only the unique yellow loci at 10 and 1000 Td plotted as straight lines. The other constant hue loci were curved, and all the constant hue loci changed with retinal illuminance. PMID:3598757

Ayama, M; Nakatsue, T; Kaiser, P K

1987-06-01

78

Microparticle accelerator of unique design.  

PubMed

A microparticle accelator of unique design, which produces high-velocity, micrometer-sized projectiles of any cohesive material, is described. In the source, an electrodynamic levitator, single particles are charged by ion bombardment in high vacuum. The vertical accelerator has four drift tubes, each initially at a high negative voltage. After injection of the projectile, each tube is grounded in turn at a time determined by the voltage and charge/mass ratio to give four acceleration stages with a total voltage equivalent to about 1.7 MV. The delay times may be set manually or controlled automatically by the particle's charge/mass ratio measured in the source by the operator just before ejection. At the entrance to the accelerator, the particle generates a signal that initiates the timing sequence. In the target chamber, detectors record the passage of the particle and provide information on charge, velocity, and position. Trajectories usually pass within a 1-mm-radius circle 1 m below the fourth drift tube. Velocities between 0.5 and 15 km/s have been attained with projectiles of various materials and shapes for cratering studies and calibration of micrometeoroid detectors. About 20 projectiles per day can be accelerated. PMID:18698928

Vedder, J F

1978-01-01

79

Genetic modification in floriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro-propagation, embryo rescue, mutagenesis via chemical or irradiation means and in vitro inter-specific hybridisation\\u000a methods have been used by breeders in the floriculture industry for many years. In the past 20 years these enabling technologies\\u000a have been supplemented by genetic modification methods. Though many genes of potential utility to the floricultural industry\\u000a have been identified, and much has been learnt of

Stephen F. Chandler; Filippa Brugliera

2011-01-01

80

Weather Modification: Finding Common Ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and operational approaches to weather modification expressed in the National Research Council's 2003 report on ``Critical Issues in Weather Modification Research'' and in the Weather Modification Association's response to that report form the basis for this discussion. There is agreement that advances in the past few decades over a broad front of understanding physical processes and in technology have

Michael Garstang; Roelof Bruintjes; Robert Serafin; Harold Orville; Bruce Boe; William Cotton; Joseph Warburton

2005-01-01

81

Perception of human body modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enhancement of physical attractiveness through body modifications, such as tattoos is evident in a wide range of cultures and has recently become popular also in Westernized societies. Evolutionary psychologists have suggested that these invasive body modifications could possibly act as handicap signals in sexual selection. However, knowledge about the actual signalling quality of body modification and its perception is

Silke Wohlrab; Bernhard Fink; Peter M. Kappeler; Gayle Brewer

2009-01-01

82

Modification of hippocampal circuitry by adult neurogenesis  

PubMed Central

The adult hippocampus is one of the primary neural structures involved in memory formation. In addition to synapse-specific modifications thought to encode information at the sub-cellular level, changes in the intrahippocampal neuro-populational activity and dynamics at the circuit-level may contribute substantively to the functional capacity of this region. Within the hippocampus, the dentate gyrus has the potential to make a preferential contribution to neural circuit modification owing to the continuous addition of new granule cell population. The integration of newborn neurons into pre-existing circuitry is hypothesized to deliver a unique processing capacity, as opposed to merely replacing dying granule cells. Recent studies have begun to assess the impact of hippocampal neurogenesis by examining the extent to which adult-born neurons participate in hippocampal networks, including when newborn neurons become engaged in ongoing network activity and how they modulate circuit dynamics via their unique intrinsic physiological properties. Understanding the contributions of adult neurogenesis to hippocampal function will provide new insight into the fundamental aspects of brain plasticity, which can be used to guide therapeutic interventions to replace neural populations damaged by disease or injury. PMID:22354697

Song, Juan; Christian, Kimberly; Ming, Guo-li; Song, Hongjun

2013-01-01

83

China: a unique urbanization model.  

PubMed

This article examines China's unique urbanization patterns, as well as the policies and measures designed to restrain urban growth, which have helped avoid the urban disasters associated with other developing countries. The study relies primarily on data gathered from censuses of 1953, 1964, and 1982, as well as a survey conducted in 1987 and other sources. Urbanization at a notable scale in China started quite late, 30 years after it began in other developing countries. But in recent years, China has caught up and surpassed developing countries in the level of urbanization. Accounting for only 11.2% of the total population in 1950, China's urban population increased to 36.6% by 1985 and to 46.6% by 1987. The authors have found a correlation between the levels of urbanization and the political climate in China. While the Great Leap Forward (1958-60) gave rise to rapid urbanization, the Cultural Revolution of the late 1960s returned many people to the countryside. From 1985-87, China's total urban population increased from 384.5 million to 503.9 million, a remarkable growth due primarily to changes in the criteria for town establishment. This new criteria advances the policy of increasing the development of small cities and town, an effort to avoid the problems associated with massive urban centers in other developing countries -- squalor, unemployment, diseases, etc. Using tough measures to ensure controlled growth, the government requires each household to have permanent registration booklet, which serves to anchor people to either urban or rural areas. Evidence shows that the policies have been successful in maintaining orderly growth in the cities. While Shanghai's population has only grown by 1 million since 1953, the growth has taken place in many medium and small-sized cities. PMID:12283668

Ebanks, G E; Cheng, C

1990-09-01

84

Unique immunologic patterns in fibromyalgia  

PubMed Central

Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a clinical syndrome characterized by chronic pain and allodynia. The diagnosis of FM has been one of exclusion as a test to confirm the diagnosis is lacking. Recent data highlight the role of the immune system in FM. Aberrant expressions of immune mediators, such as cytokines, have been linked to the pathogenesis and traits of FM. We therefore determined whether cytokine production by immune cells is altered in FM patients by comparing the cellular responses to mitogenic activators of stimulated blood mononuclear cells of a large number of patients with FM to those of healthy matched individuals. Methods Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected from 110 patients with the clinical diagnosis of FM and 91 healthy donors. Parallel samples of PBMC were cultured overnight in medium alone or in the presence of mitogenic activators; PHA or PMA in combination with ionomycin. The cytokine concentrations of IFN-?, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MIP-1? , MCP-1, and MIP1-? in plasma as well as in cultured supernatants were determined using a multiplex immunoassay using bead array technology. Results Cytokine levels of stimulated PBMC cultures of healthy control subjects were significantly increased as compared to matched non-stimulated PBMC cultures. In contrast, the concentrations of most cytokines were lower in stimulated samples from patients with FM compared to controls. The decreases of cytokine concentrations in patients samples ranged from 1.5-fold for MIP-1? to 10.2-fold for IL-6 in PHA challenges. In PMA challenges, we observed 1.8 to 4-fold decreases in the concentrations of cytokines in patient samples. Conclusion The cytokine responses to mitogenic activators of PBMC isolated from patients with FM were significantly lower than those of healthy individuals, implying that cell-mediated immunity is impaired in FM patients. This novel cytokine assay reveals unique and valuable immunologic traits, which, when combined with clinical patterns, can offer a diagnostic methodology in FM. PMID:23245186

2012-01-01

85

Electrochemical phenomena provide unique methods for materials synthesis and surface modification. Within this framework, the group  

E-print Network

of Nanostructures Nanoporous metals, semiconductors and oxides are synthesized electrochemically and investigated (metal oxides or compound semiconductors) materials is being pursued to develop electrochemical sensors to tailor to specification materials and components for a variety of devices, focusing on micro/nano

Acton, Scott

86

Drosophila Follistatin exhibits unique structural modifications and interacts with several TGF-beta family members.  

PubMed

Follistatin (FS) is one of several secreted proteins that modulate the activity of TGF-beta family members during development. The structural and functional analysis of Drosophila Follistatin (dFS) reveals important differences between dFS and its vertebrate orthologues: it is larger, more positively charged, and proteolytically processed. dFS primarily inhibits signaling of Drosophila Activin (dACT) but can also inhibit other ligands like Decapentaplegic (DPP). In contrast, the presence of dFS enhances signaling of the Activin-like protein Dawdle (DAW), indicating that dFS exhibits a dual function in promoting and inhibiting signaling of TGF-beta ligands. In addition, FS proteins may also function in facilitating ligand diffusion. We find that mutants of daw are rescued in significant numbers by expression of vertebrate FS proteins. Since two PiggyBac insertions in dfs are not lethal, it appears that the function of dFS is non-essential or functionally redundant. PMID:18077144

Bickel, Daniela; Shah, Ripal; Gesualdi, Scott C; Haerry, Theodor E

2008-01-01

87

Drosophila Follistatin Exhibits Unique Structural Modifications and Interacts with Several TGF-Beta Family Members  

PubMed Central

Follistatin (FS) is one of several secreted proteins that modulate the activity of TGF-? family members during development. The structural and functional analysis of Drosophila Follistatin (dFS) reveals important differences between dFS and its vertebrate orthologues: it is larger, more positively charged, and proteolytically processed. dFS primarily inhibits signaling of Drosophila Activin (dACT) but can also inhibit other ligands like Decapentaplegic (DPP). In contrast, the presence of dFS enhances signaling of the Activin-like protein Dawdle (DAW), indicating that dFS exhibits a dual function in facilitating and inhibiting signaling of TGF-? ligands. In addition, FS proteins may also function in facilitating ligand diffusion. We find that mutants of daw are rescued in significant numbers by expression of vertebrate FS proteins. Since two PiggyBac insertions in dfs are not lethal, it appears that the function of dFS is non-essential or functionally redundant. PMID:18077144

Bickel, Daniela; Shah, Ripal; Gesualdi, Scott C.; Haerry, Theodor E.

2008-01-01

88

[Chemical modification of heparin].  

PubMed

Heparin was modified at carboxyl groups by reaction with several pharmacologically important amino-containing compounds in aqueous medium in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide. In dependence on the nature of the amine and the ratio of reagents, conjugates containing 36-100% amide and 0-25% isoureidocarbonyl groups were synthesized. Isoureidoarylamide groups are present, along with amide moieties, in the products of heparin modification by hydroxyl-containing aromatic amines. The conjugate of heparin with p-aminobenzoic acid contained oligomeric arylamide. PMID:17042270

Ponedel'kina, I Iu; Odinokova, V N; Lukina, E S; Tiumkina, T V; Khalilov, L M; Dzhemilev, U M

2006-01-01

89

Solitons and ionospheric modification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of Langmuir soliton formation and collapse during ionospheric modification is investigated. Parameters characterizing former facilities, existing facilities, and planned facilities are considered, using a combination of analytical and numerical techniques. At a spatial location corresponding to the exact classical reflection point of the modifier wave, the Langmuir wave evolution is found to be dominated by modulational instability followed by soliton formation and three-dimensional collapse. The earth's magnetic field is found to affect the shape of the collapsing soliton. These results provide an alternative explanation for some recent observations.

Sheerin, J. P.; Nicholson, D. R.; Payne, G. L.; Hansen, P. J.; Weatherall, J. C.; Goldman, M. V.

1982-01-01

90

HMG Modifications and Nuclear Function  

PubMed Central

High mobility group (HMG) proteins assume important roles in regulating chromatin dynamics, transcriptional activities of genes and other cellular processes. Post-translational modifications of HMG proteins can alter their interactions with DNA and proteins, and consequently, affect their biological activities. Although the mechanisms through which these modifications are involved in regulating biological processes in different cellular contexts are not fully understood, new insights into these modification “codes” have emerged from the increasing appreciation of the functions of these proteins. In this review, we focus on the chemical modifications of mammalian HMG proteins and highlight their roles in nuclear functions. PMID:20123066

Zhang, Qingchun; Wang, Yinsheng

2009-01-01

91

Teaching and Learning with Individually Unique Exercises  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes the pedagogical benefits of giving students individually unique homework exercises from an exercise template. Evidence from a test of this approach shows statistically significant improvements in subsequent exam performance by students receiving unique problems compared with students who received traditional…

Joerding, Wayne

2010-01-01

92

Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

Lynch, Mark A. M.

2012-01-01

93

Phase aspect of nonlinear modifications of the Schroedinger equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this dissertation was to examine a relatively new class of nonlinear modifications of the Schrödinger equation, the phase modifications of this equation, i.e., the modifications in which the phase of the quantum-mechanical wave function plays a relevant dynamical role. By introducing a class of modifications singled out by the fact that their quantum mechanical energy coincides with the energy defined within the Lagrangian field-theoretical framework, we showed that there exist modifications of the Schrödinger equation that preserve more of the physically relevant properties of this equation than other such constructions. For the modifications that stem from a local Lagrangian, a necessary condition to belong to this class is the homogeneity property. The most interesting in this class is the simplest minimal phase extension that has a number of attractive properties. In addition to the unique definition of the energy functional, the time-reversal as well as Galilean invariance, and the weak separability of one of its multi-particle extensions, it also preserves the stationary states of the linear theory. Because of a great number of features of the Schrödinger equation that it preserves, this modification is finer, subtler than any other modification in its class of fundamental generalizations of this equation proposed so far. Using this modification as an example, we demonstrated that the homogeneity of a nonlinear modification of the Schrödinger equation does not automatically guarantee its weak separability. We argued that this modification can be thought of as the simplest in its own class a model of quantum mechanics of extended particles, which indeed seems to be corraborated by the solutions we found. This modification can be considered a natural generalization of the Bohmian formulation of quantum mechanics which employs the phase contribution to the quantum potential on an equal footing with the amplitude of the wave function and introduces a ``quantum'' current into the continuity equation. Its solitonic solution can be viewed as perhaps the physically most plausible realization of ``de Broglie's dream'' of quantum particle proposed in the literature.

Puszkarz, Waldemar

1999-07-01

94

Surface modification of cellulose nanocrystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical modification of cellulose nanocrystals is an increasingly popular topic in the literature. This review analyses the type of cellulose nanocrystal modification reactions that have been published in the literature thus far and looks at the steps that have been taken towards analysing the products of the nanocrystal modifications. The main categories of reactions carried out on cellulose nanocrystals are oxidations, esterifications, amidations, carbamations and etherifications. More recently nucleophilic substitutions have been used to introduce more complex functionality to cellulose nanocrystals. Multi-step modifications are also considered. This review emphasizes quantification of modification at the nanocrystal surface in terms of degree of substitution and the validity of conclusions drawn from different analysis techniques in this area. The mechanisms of the modification reactions are presented and considered with respect to the effect on the outcome of the reactions. While great strides have been made in the quality of analytical data published in the field of cellulose nanocrystal modification, there is still vast scope for improvement, both in data quality and the quality of analysis of data. Given the difficulty of surface analysis, cross-checking of results from different analysis techniques is fundamental for the development of reliable cellulose nanocrystal modification techniques.

Eyley, Samuel; Thielemans, Wim

2014-06-01

95

Surface modification of cellulose nanocrystals.  

PubMed

Chemical modification of cellulose nanocrystals is an increasingly popular topic in the literature. This review analyses the type of cellulose nanocrystal modification reactions that have been published in the literature thus far and looks at the steps that have been taken towards analysing the products of the nanocrystal modifications. The main categories of reactions carried out on cellulose nanocrystals are oxidations, esterifications, amidations, carbamations and etherifications. More recently nucleophilic substitutions have been used to introduce more complex functionality to cellulose nanocrystals. Multi-step modifications are also considered. This review emphasizes quantification of modification at the nanocrystal surface in terms of degree of substitution and the validity of conclusions drawn from different analysis techniques in this area. The mechanisms of the modification reactions are presented and considered with respect to the effect on the outcome of the reactions. While great strides have been made in the quality of analytical data published in the field of cellulose nanocrystal modification, there is still vast scope for improvement, both in data quality and the quality of analysis of data. Given the difficulty of surface analysis, cross-checking of results from different analysis techniques is fundamental for the development of reliable cellulose nanocrystal modification techniques. PMID:24937092

Eyley, Samuel; Thielemans, Wim

2014-07-21

96

Body modification and suicidal behavior.  

PubMed

In a large sample of individuals who belong to a website for body modification, having body modifications (e.g., piercings, tattoos, scarification and surgical procedures) was associated with a higher incidence of prior suicidality (i.e., suicidal ideation and attempted suicide). However, controls for self-reported depression weakened the strength of these associations. PMID:16572532

Hicinbothem, Julie; Gonsalves, Sonia; Lester, David

2006-05-01

97

Body Modification and Suicidal Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a large sample of individuals who belong to a website for body modification, having body modifications (e.g., piercings, tattoos, scarification and surgical procedures) was associated with a higher incidence of prior suicidality (i.e., suicidal ideation and attempted suicide). However, controls for self-reported depression weakened the strength…

Hicinbothem, Julie; Gonsalves, Sonia; Lester, David

2006-01-01

98

Structural modifications of nucleosides in ionic liquids  

PubMed Central

Nucleoside chemistry represents an important research area for drug discovery, as many nucleoside analogs are prominent drugs and have been widely applied for cancer and viral chemotherapy. However, the synthesis of modified nucleosides presents a major challenge, which is further aggravated by poor solubility of these compounds in common organic solvents. Most of the currently available methods for nucleoside modification employ toxic high boiling solvents; require long reaction time and tedious workup methods. As such, there is constant effort to develop process chemistry in alternative medium to limit the use of organic solvents that are hazardous to the environment and can be deleterious to human health. One such approach is to use ionic liquids, which are ‘designer materials’ with unique and tunable physico-chemical properties. Studies have shown that methodologies using ionic liquids are highly efficient and convenient for the synthesis of nucleoside analogs, as demonstrated by the preparation of pharmaceutically important anti-viral drugs. This article summarizes recent efforts on nucleoside modification using ionic liquids. PMID:20178825

Kumar, Vineet; Parmar, Virinder S.; Malhotra, Sanjay V.

2011-01-01

99

Pumpkin eIF5A isoforms interact with components of the translational machinery in the cucurbit sieve tube system.  

PubMed

In yeast, eIF5A, in combination with eEF2, functions at the translation step, during the protein elongation cycle. This result is of significance with respect to functioning of the enucleate sieve tube system, as eIF5A was recently detected in Cucurbita maxima (pumpkin) phloem sap. In the present study, we further characterized four CmeIF5A isoforms, encoding three proteins, all of which were present in the phloem sap. Although hypusination of CmeIF5A was not necessary for entry into the sieve elements, this unique post-translational modification was necessary for RNA binding. The two enzymes required for hypusination were detected in pumpkin phloem sap, where presumably this modification takes place. A combination of gel-filtration chromatography and protein overlay assays demonstrated that, as in yeast, CmeIF5A interacts with phloem proteins, like eEF2, known to be involved in protein synthesis. These findings are discussed in terms of a potential role for eIF5A in regulating protein synthesis within the enucleate sieve tube system of the angiosperms. PMID:20807213

Ma, Yi; Miura, Eriko; Ham, Byung-Kook; Cheng, Hao-Wen; Lee, Young-Jin; Lucas, William J

2010-11-01

100

Unique Challenges of Managing Inductive Knowledge  

E-print Network

1 p 1 Abstract Unique Challenges of Managing Inductive Knowledge produc� ing statistical significance inductive bias David Jensen Executive Summary Statistical Significance knowledge dis� covery Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Intelligent Data Analysis et al. Tools for inducing knowledge from

Jensen, David

101

International Corporate Leadership A uniquely integrated approach  

E-print Network

International Corporate Leadership Programme A uniquely integrated approach The summer work The International Corporate Leadership Programme (ICLP) provides companies with top quality engineering students. International Corporate Leadership Programme `Graduates ready for business' Integrated with degree Mentored

Berzins, M.

102

Approximate Uniqueness Estimates for Singular Correlation Matrices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The residual variance is often used as an approximation to the uniqueness in factor analysis. An upper bound approximation to the residual variance is presented for the case when the correlation matrix is singular. (Author/JKS)

Finkbeiner, C. T.; Tucker, L. R.

1982-01-01

103

Heart Failure: Unique to Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

Heart Failure Unique to Older Adults This section provides information to help older adults and their caregivers ... or maintain quality of life. Urinary Incontinence and Heart Failure If you have heart failure, you may ...

104

Module Four - The Uniqueness of the Nanoscale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module covers the unique attributes of the nano-scale and some examples of these unique attributes, including small size, high surface to volume ratio, surface forces in relation to bulk forces, quantum mechanical effects, and wave properties of light. This module is from the Nanotechnology Applications and Career Knowledge (NACK), a National ATE Center. This site requires a free log-in to access.

2009-10-06

105

Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness  

PubMed Central

Darwin's claim ‘that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind’ is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference in cognitive capabilities and/or mechanisms between adult humans and other animals. Dual-process theories for some cognitive domains propose that adult human cognition shares simple basic processes with that of other animals while additionally including slower-developing and more explicit uniquely human processes. These theories are consistent with a modular account of cognition and the ‘core knowledge’ account of children's cognitive development. A complementary proposal is that human infants have unique social and/or cognitive adaptations for uniquely human learning. A view of human cognitive architecture as a mosaic of unique and species-general modular and domain-general processes together with a focus on uniquely human developmental mechanisms is consistent with modern evolutionary-developmental biology and suggests new questions for comparative research. PMID:22927578

Shettleworth, Sara J.

2012-01-01

106

Lake Erie gas production posed unique problems  

SciTech Connect

Thick, soft bottom sediments plus the presence of H/sub 2/S, CO/sub 2/ and hydrates required application of special gas production techniques. Wellheads needed modification, flexible flowline connections were used and potential dangers from sour gas were handled with inhibitors and a safety shut-down system.

Sangster, R.B.

1981-09-01

107

Chatting histone modifications in mammals  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic chromatin can be highly dynamic and can continuously exchange between an open transcriptionally active conformation and a compacted silenced one. Post-translational modifications of histones have a pivotal role in regulating chromatin states, thus influencing all chromatin dependent processes. Methylation is currently one of the best characterized histone modification and occurs on arginine and lysine residues. Histone methylation can regulate other modifications (e.g. acetylation, phosphorylation and ubiquitination) in order to define a precise functional chromatin environment. In this review we focus on histone methylation and demethylation, as well as on the enzymes responsible for setting these marks. In particular we are describing novel concepts on the interdependence of histone modifications marks and discussing the molecular mechanisms governing this cross-talks. PMID:21266346

Izzo, Annalisa

2010-01-01

108

Ioninduced modification of graphite coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burnished graphite powders and physical vapor-deposition (PVD) coatings of layered crystalline materials such as MoSx have often been used as solid lubricants. This letter will report on a novel ion-induced modification of a graphite-powder coating on a silicon surface. Even at very low ion doses, the bombardment results in structural modifications observed as a considerable reduction in x rays reflected

B. K. Gupta; J. Janting; U. M. Jensen; G. N. Pedersen

1992-01-01

109

Epigenetic Modifications and Diabetic Retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Diabetic retinopathy remains one of the most debilitating chronic complications, but despite extensive research in the field, the exact mechanism(s) responsible for how retina is damaged in diabetes remains ambiguous. Many metabolic pathways have been implicated in its development, and genes associated with these pathways are altered. Diabetic environment also facilitates epigenetics modifications, which can alter the gene expression without permanent changes in DNA sequence. The role of epigenetics in diabetic retinopathy is now an emerging area, and recent work has shown that genes encoding mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Sod2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are epigenetically modified, activates of epigenetic modification enzymes, histone lysine demethylase 1 (LSD1), and DNA methyltransferase are increased, and the micro RNAs responsible for regulating nuclear transcriptional factor and VEGF are upregulated. With the growing evidence of epigenetic modifications in diabetic retinopathy, better understanding of these modifications has potential to identify novel targets to inhibit this devastating disease. Fortunately, the inhibitors and mimics targeted towards histone modification, DNA methylation, and miRNAs are now being tried for cancer and other chronic diseases, and better understanding of the role of epigenetics in diabetic retinopathy will open the door for their possible use in combating this blinding disease. PMID:24286082

Kowluru, Renu A.; Santos, Julia M.; Mishra, Manish

2013-01-01

110

Epigenetic modifications and diabetic retinopathy.  

PubMed

Diabetic retinopathy remains one of the most debilitating chronic complications, but despite extensive research in the field, the exact mechanism(s) responsible for how retina is damaged in diabetes remains ambiguous. Many metabolic pathways have been implicated in its development, and genes associated with these pathways are altered. Diabetic environment also facilitates epigenetics modifications, which can alter the gene expression without permanent changes in DNA sequence. The role of epigenetics in diabetic retinopathy is now an emerging area, and recent work has shown that genes encoding mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Sod2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are epigenetically modified, activates of epigenetic modification enzymes, histone lysine demethylase 1 (LSD1), and DNA methyltransferase are increased, and the micro RNAs responsible for regulating nuclear transcriptional factor and VEGF are upregulated. With the growing evidence of epigenetic modifications in diabetic retinopathy, better understanding of these modifications has potential to identify novel targets to inhibit this devastating disease. Fortunately, the inhibitors and mimics targeted towards histone modification, DNA methylation, and miRNAs are now being tried for cancer and other chronic diseases, and better understanding of the role of epigenetics in diabetic retinopathy will open the door for their possible use in combating this blinding disease. PMID:24286082

Kowluru, Renu A; Santos, Julia M; Mishra, Manish

2013-01-01

111

Uniqueness and Reference Immutability for Safe Parallelism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key challenge for concurrent programming is that side-effects (memory operations) in one thread can affect the behavior of another thread. In this paper, we present a type system to restrict the updates to memory to prevent these unintended side-effects. We provide a novel combination of immutable and unique (isolated) types that ensures safe parallelism (race freedom and deterministic execution).

Colin S. Gordon; Matthew J. Parkinson; Jared Parsons; Aleks Bromfield; Joe Duffy

2012-01-01

112

Some Unique Causes of Black Suicide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aspects of suicide unique to blacks are: cultural expectations for males, which include repression of feelings and strict obedience to parents and elders; difficulty identifying with their race; gangs and drug abuse; poverty; and racism. These factors can cause depression, a known factor in suicidal behavior. (Author/ABB)

Spaights, Ernest; Simpson, Gloria

1986-01-01

113

User applications unique to mobile satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

As AMSC enters the market with its mobile satellite services, it faces a sophisticated user group that has already experimented with a wide range of communications services, including cellular radio and Ku-band satellite messaging. AMSC's challenge is to define applications unique to the capabilities of its dedicated L band satellite and consistent with the provisions outlined in its FCC license.

David Castiel

1990-01-01

114

A unique ALCAPA variant in a neonate.  

PubMed

Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital anomaly present in approximately one in 300,000 live births. Here, we present a unique ALCAPA variant identified in a neonate. The left anterior descending artery originated posterolaterally on the main pulmonary artery, and the circumflex originated separately from the distal right pulmonary artery. PMID:23480565

Smith, Deane E; Adams, Robert; Argilla, Michael; Phoon, Colin K L; Chun, Anne J L; Bendel, Marci; Mosca, Ralph S

2013-05-01

115

Unique Challenges in Teaching Undergraduate Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines and discusses four unique and major challenges facing the undergraduate statistics instructor. These are motivating students to study material they think is uninteresting, handling mathematics anxiety, dealing with performance extremes, and making the learning memorable. Offers solutions for each challenge. (MJP)

Conners, Frances A.; Mccown, Steven M.; Roskos-Ewoldsen, Beverly

1998-01-01

116

Is There a Unique Black Personality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews research from the 1940's, 1950's and 1960's on the effects of discrimination on blacks. Data from these studies indicate that adverse cultural restrictions have fostered a unique and distinctive black personality. Among traits identified are: a negative or inferior self-image, pessimism about the future, attachment to the…

Mosby, Doris P.

117

Evaluating Student Teams Developing Unique Industry Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real industry projects and teamwork can have a great impact on student learning and commitment, but provision of these features also produces significant challenges for academic assessment. This paper describes an approach to evaluate teams and individuals who develop unique industry projects. The paper documents several years of experimentation with different approaches, including both failures and refinements to successful approaches.

Nicole Clark

2005-01-01

118

Unique Similarity of Faunal Communities across  

E-print Network

recognized as important fea- tures in landscape ecology. Yet changes in the community structure of soil, Antarctica). We also examined substrate (that is, soil and sediment) properties, including mois- ture in species occurrence in both soils and sediments may be unique to Antarctica. This finding might result from

Wall, Diana

119

A Graduation Stole Uniquely Designed for Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to student requests, and to help celebrate the graduation of our physics majors, we have designed a graduation stole uniquely befitting physics. The design incorporates the four visible spectral lines of hydrogen--the Balmer series. Since the 2002 debut of the design, all our graduates have proudly worn their physics graduation stoles…

Day, Lawrence H.

2009-01-01

120

Urban Atmospheres captures a unique, synergistic moment  

E-print Network

Urban Atmospheres captures a unique, synergistic moment ­ expanding urban populations, rapid of wireless technologies across our grow- ing urban landscapes. The United Nations recently re- ported that 48 percent of the world's population current live in urban areas and that this number is expected to exceed

Paulos, Eric

121

Laser modification of polyamide fabrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for the modification of the properties of polyamide fabric, based on exposure to the output from a CO 2 laser, has been investigated. It was found that, after laser modification of polyamide fabric, the dyeability of fabric was increased significantly, while the bursting strength was decreased. The reasons for this drastic increase in dyeability of polyamide fabrics have been analyzed with the help of FTIR and iodine sorption methods, revealing a relationship with a decrease in the crystallinity of the polyamide. It was observed that, as the laser modification of the fabric was carried out with low intensity, the concentration of free amino groups, which are necessary during dyeing with acid and reactive dyes, increased.

Bahtiyari, M. ?.

2011-02-01

122

Surface modification for corrosion resistance  

SciTech Connect

The raw gas environments that arise from coal gasification have chemical compositions that are low in pO{sub 2} and moderate-to-high in pS{sub 2}. Metallic materials for service in such an environment undergo predominantly sulfidation attack at temperatures of 400 to 700{degree}C. Modification of alloy compositions in bulk can alter the scaling processes and lead to improvements in corrosion resistance, but the benefits can only be attained at temperatures much higher than the service temperatures of the components. Modification of surfaces of structural components by several of the coating techniques examined in this study showed substantial benefit in corrosion resistance when tested in simulated coal gasification environments. The paper presents several examples of surface modification and their corrosion performance.

Natesan, K.

1993-06-01

123

Mapping chromatin modifications in nanochannels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNA and chromatin are elongated to a fixed fraction of their contour length when introduced into quasi-1d nanochannels. Because single molecules are analyzed, their hold great potential for the analysis for the genetic analysis of material from single cells. In this study, we have reconstituted chromatin with histones from a variety of sources, and mapped the modification profile of the chromatin. We monitored methylation and acetylation patterns of the histone tail protein residues using fluorescently labelled antibodies. Using those, we distinguished chromatin reconstituted from chicken erythrocytes, calf thymus, and HeLa cells. We discuss prospects for profiling histone modifications for whole chromosomes from single cells.

Lim, Shuang Fang; Karpusenko, Alena; Riehn, Robert

2013-03-01

124

17 CFR 45.5 - Unique swap identifiers.  

...facility or designated contract market shall create and transmit a unique swap identifier...participant, the reporting counterparty shall create and transmit a unique swap identifier...economic terms data is reported shall create and transmit a unique swap...

2014-04-01

125

17 CFR 45.5 - Unique swap identifiers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...facility or designated contract market shall create and transmit a unique swap identifier...participant, the reporting counterparty shall create and transmit a unique swap identifier...economic terms data is reported shall create and transmit a unique swap...

2012-04-01

126

17 CFR 45.5 - Unique swap identifiers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...facility or designated contract market shall create and transmit a unique swap identifier...participant, the reporting counterparty shall create and transmit a unique swap identifier...economic terms data is reported shall create and transmit a unique swap...

2013-04-01

127

User applications unique to mobile satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As AMSC enters the market with its mobile satellite services, it faces a sophisticated user group that has already experimented with a wide range of communications services, including cellular radio and Ku-band satellite messaging. AMSC's challenge is to define applications unique to the capabilities of its dedicated L band satellite and consistent with the provisions outlined in its FCC license. Through a carefully researched approach to its three main markets (aeronautical, land mobile, and maritime) AMSC is discovering a wellspring of interest in corporate and general aviation, trucking companies, pipeline monitoring and control companies, maritime management firms, telecommunications companies, and government agencies. A general overview is provided of AMSC's FCC license and corporate history, and the specific applications unique to each user group is discussed.

Castiel, David

128

User applications unique to mobile satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As AMSC enters the market with its mobile satellite services, it faces a sophisticated user group that has already experimented with a wide range of communications services, including cellular radio and Ku-band satellite messaging. AMSC's challenge is to define applications unique to the capabilities of its dedicated L band satellite and consistent with the provisions outlined in its FCC license. Through a carefully researched approach to its three main markets (aeronautical, land mobile, and maritime) AMSC is discovering a wellspring of interest in corporate and general aviation, trucking companies, pipeline monitoring and control companies, maritime management firms, telecommunications companies, and government agencies. A general overview is provided of AMSC's FCC license and corporate history, and the specific applications unique to each user group is discussed.

Castiel, David

1990-01-01

129

Searching for a Unique Style in Soccer  

E-print Network

Is it possible to have a unique, recognizable style in soccer nowadays? We address this question by proposing a method to quantify the motif characteristics of soccer teams based on their pass networks. We introduce the the concept of "flow motifs" to characterize the statistically significant pass sequence patterns. It extends the idea of the network motifs, highly significant subgraphs that usually consists of three or four nodes. The analysis of the motifs in the pass networks allows us to compare and differentiate the styles of different teams. Although most teams tend to apply homogenous style, surprisingly, a unique strategy of soccer exists. Specifically, FC Barcelona's famous tiki-taka does not consist of uncountable random passes but rather has a precise, finely constructed structure.

Gyarmati, Laszlo; Rodriguez, Pablo

2014-01-01

130

Unique continuation from infinity for linear waves  

E-print Network

We prove various uniqueness results from null infinity, for linear waves on asymptotically flat space-times. Assuming vanishing of the solution to infinite order on suitable parts of future and past null infinities, we derive that the solution must vanish in an open set in the interior. We find that the parts of infinity where we must impose a vanishing condition depend strongly on the background geometry. In particular, for backgrounds with positive mass (such as Schwarzschild or Kerr), the required assumptions are much weaker than the ones in the Minkowski space-time. The results are nearly optimal in many respects. They can be considered analogues of uniqueness from infinity results for second order elliptic operators. This work is partly motivated by questions in general relativity.

Spyros Alexakis; Volker Schlue; Arick Shao

2013-12-06

131

Assessing non-uniqueness: An algebraic approach  

SciTech Connect

Geophysical inverse problems are endowed with a rich mathematical structure. When discretized, most differential and integral equations of interest are algebraic (polynomial) in form. Techniques from algebraic geometry and computational algebra provide a means to address questions of existence and uniqueness for both linear and non-linear inverse problem. In a sense, the methods extend ideas which have proven fruitful in treating linear inverse problems.

Vasco, Don W.

2002-09-16

132

Essay: The End of Black Hole Uniqueness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Are higher-dimensional black holes uniquely determined by their mass and spin? Do non-spherical black holes exist in higher dimensions? This essay explains how the answers to these questions have been supplied by the discovery of a new five-dimensional black hole solution. The existence of this solution implies that five-dimensional black holes exhibit much richer dynamics than their four-dimensional counterparts.

Emparan, Roberto; Reall, Harvey S.

2002-12-01

133

Behavior Modification: The Human Effort.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To present the ideas and research of outstanding behaviorists which is directly related to the education of children, the authors tried to include a diverse group of educational situations. Two articles give an overview of behavior modification, while five educational applications are discussed. They concern learning problems, language…

Bradfield, Robert H., Ed.

134

Field Experimentation in Weather Modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather modification provides a fertile field for interaction and collaboration between meteorologists and statisticians. Cloud seeding experiments, including Project Whitetop, provide a background for illustrating some of the statistical issues in meteorological field experimentation and for exposing some of the difficulties that can arise when meteorologists and statisticians look at the same experiments from different points of view. Several specific

Roscoe R. Braham Jr

1979-01-01

135

Organisational Change: Deliberation and Modification  

E-print Network

For an information-agent-based system to support virtual (In- ternet-supported) organisations, changesOrganisational Change: Deliberation and Modification Catholijn M. Jonker1 , Martijn C. Schut1 in environmental conditions often demand changes in organisational behaviour, i.e., organisational changes

Treur, Jan

136

Problem solving and behavior modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selectively reviewed problem-solving theory and research for possible applications in behavior modification. Problem solving was defined as a behavioral process which (a) makes available a variety of response alternatives for dealing with a problematic situation, and (b) increases the probability of selecting the most effective response from among these alternatives. 5 stages of problem solving were identified: (a) general orientation

Thomas J. DZurilla; Marvin R. Goldfried

1971-01-01

137

A modification of Hutchinson's equation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new mathematical object is introduced, namely, a scalar nonlinear delay differential-difference equation is considered that is a modification of Hutchinson's equation, which is well known in ecology. The existence and stability of its relaxation self-oscillations are analyzed.

Kolesov, A. Yu.; Mishchenko, E. F.; Rozov, N. Kh.

2010-12-01

138

Demonstrating Allotropic Modifications of Sulfur.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how a common demonstration that consists of slowly heating sulfur powder in a test tube to illustrate sulfur's allotropic modifications can convince students of conclusions about the moon Io which they often find surprising. Describes the demonstration in full. (Author/MM)

McCarty, Jillian L.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

2002-01-01

139

Plasma surface modification of polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thin plasma polymerization films are discussed from the viewpoint of simplicity in production stages. The application of selective, absorbent films and films used in selective permeability was tested. The types of surface modification of polymers discussed are: (1) plasma etching, (2) surface coating by plasma polymerized thin films, and (3) plasma activation surface graft polymerization.

Hirotsu, T.

1980-01-01

140

Epigenetic modifications and human disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epigenetics is one of the most rapidly expanding fields in biology. The recent characterization of a human DNA methylome at single nucleotide resolution, the discovery of the CpG island shores, the finding of new histone variants and modifications, and the unveiling of genome-wide nucleosome positioning maps highlight the accelerating speed of discovery over the past two years. Increasing interest in

Anna Portela; Manel Esteller

2010-01-01

141

Cochlear Implantation in Unique Pediatric Populations  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Over the last decade, the selection criteria for cochlear implantation have expanded to include children with special auditory, otologic, and medical problems. Included within this expanded group of candidates are those children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder, cochleovestibular malformations, cochlear nerve deficiency, associated syndromes, as well as multiple medical and developmental disorders. Definitive indications for cochlear implantation in these unique pediatric populations are in evolution. This review will provide an overview of managing and habilitating hearing loss within these populations with specific focus on cochlear implantation as a treatment option. Recent findings Cochlear implants have been successfully implanted in children within unique populations with variable results. Evaluation for cochlear implant candidacy includes the core components of a full medical, audiologic, and speech and language evaluations. When considering candidacy in these children, additional aspects to consider include disorder specific surgical considerations and child/care-giver counseling regarding reasonable post-implantation outcome expectations. Summary Cochlear implantations are accepted as the standard of care for improving hearing and speech development in children with severe to profound hearing loss. However, children with sensorineural hearing loss who meet established audiologic criteria for cochlear implantation may have unique audiologic, medical, and anatomic characteristics that necessitate special consideration regarding cochlear implantation candidacy and outcome. Individualized pre-operative candidacy and counseling, surgical evaluation, and reasonable post-operative outcome expectations should be taken into account in the management of these children. PMID:23128686

Hang, Anna X.; Kim, Grace G.; Zdanski, Carlton J.

2012-01-01

142

The Modification of Biocellular Chemical Reactions by Environmental Physicochemicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental risk factors affect human biological system to different extent from modification of biochemical reaction to cellular catastrophe. There are considerable public concerns about electromagnetic fields and endocrine disruptors. Their risk assessments have not been fully achieved because of their scientific uncertainty: electromagnetic fields just modify the bioreaction in the restricted cells and endocrine disruptors are quite unique in that their expression is dependent on the exposure periods throughout a life. Thus, we here describe their molecular characterization to establish the new risk assessments for environmental physicochemicals.

Ishido, M.

143

Unique properties of Drosophila spermatocyte primary cilia  

PubMed Central

Summary The primary cilium is an essential organelle required for animal development and adult homeostasis that is found on most animal cells. The primary cilium contains a microtubule-based axoneme cytoskeleton that typically grows from the mother centriole in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle as a membrane-bound compartment that protrudes from the cell surface. A unique system of bidirectional transport, intraflagellar transport (IFT), maintains the structure and function of cilia. While the axoneme is dynamic, growing and shrinking at its tip, at the same time it is very stable to the effects of microtubule-targeting drugs. The primary cilia found on Drosophila spermatocytes diverge from the general rules of primary cilium biology in several respects. Among these unique attributes, spermatocyte cilia assemble from all four centrioles in an IFT-independent manner in G2 phase, and persist continuously through two cell divisions. Here, we show that Drosophila spermatocyte primary cilia are extremely sensitive to microtubule-targeting drugs, unlike their mammalian counterparts. Spermatocyte cilia and their axonemes fail to assemble or be maintained upon nocodazole treatment, while centriole replication appears unperturbed. On the other hand, paclitaxel (Taxol), a microtubule-stabilizing drug, disrupted transition zone assembly and anchoring to the plasma membrane while causing spermatocyte primary cilia to grow extensively long during the assembly/elongation phase, but did not overtly affect the centrioles. However, once assembled to their mature length, spermatocyte cilia appeared unaffected by Taxol. The effects of these drugs on axoneme dynamics further demonstrate that spermatocyte primary cilia are endowed with unique assembly properties. PMID:24244850

Riparbelli, Maria Giovanna; Cabrera, Oscar A.; Callaini, Giuliano; Megraw, Timothy L.

2013-01-01

144

Unique phenolic carboxylic acids from Sanguisorba minor.  

PubMed

The unique phenolic carboxylic acids, 4,8-dimethoxy-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-5,6-dicarboxylic acid and 2-(4-carboxy-3-methoxystyryl)-2-methoxysuccinic acid were isolated and identified from the whole Sanguisorba minor plant. The known phenolics, gallic acid; ellagic acid; quercetin-3-O-(6"-galloylglucose); beta-glucogallin; 2,3-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-(alpha/beta)-glucose; 1-galloyl-2,3-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-alpha-glucose together with its beta-isomer were also characterized. Structures were established by conventional methods of analysis and confirmed by NMR and ESI-MS spectral analysis. PMID:12770593

Ayoub, Nahla A

2003-06-01

145

Medium Modification of Vector Mesons  

SciTech Connect

The theory of the strong interaction, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), has been remarkably successful in describing high-energy and short-distance-scale experiments involving quarks and gluons. However, applying QCD to low energy and large-distance scale experiments has been a major challenge. Various QCD-inspired models predict a partial restoration of chiral symmetry in nuclear matter with modifications of the properties of hadrons from their free-space values. Measurable changes such as a shift in mass and/or a change of width are predicted at normal nuclear density. Photoproduction of vector mesons off nuclei have been performed at different laboratories. The properties of the ?, ? and ? mesons are investigated either directly by measuring their mass spectra or indirectly through transparency ratios. The latest results regarding medium modifications of the vector mesons in the nuclear medium will be discussed.

Chaden Djalali, Michael Paolone, Dennis Weygand, Michael H. Wood, Rakhsha Nasseripour

2011-03-01

146

Cradle modification for hydraulic ram  

SciTech Connect

The analysis of the cradle hydraulic system considers stress, weld strength, and hydraulic forces required to lift and support the cradle/pump assembly. The stress and weld strength of the cradle modifications is evaluated to ensure that they meet the requirements of the American Institute for Steel Construction (AISC 1989). The hydraulic forces are evaluated to ensure that the hydraulic system is capable of rotating the cradle and pump assembly to the vertical position (between 70{degrees} and 90{degrees}).

Koons, B.M.

1995-03-02

147

Weather Modification Information for the Minnesota Legislature.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the 1977 session of the Minnesota Legislature, a bill regulating weather modification was passed. In the course of deliberation over weather modification legislation, several legislators requested information and analysis from the Science and Techn...

1977-01-01

148

Weather Modification as a Weapon of War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The basic question addressed in this paper is whether or not weather modification can be used as a weapon of war. Possible tactical and strategic uses of weather modification were examined. The national security implications and arguments for and against ...

P. L. Blackburn

1975-01-01

149

21 CFR 352.77 - Test modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...require modification of the testing procedures in this subpart. In addition, alternative methods (including automated or in vitro procedures) employing the same basic procedures as those described in this subpart may be used. Any proposed modification...

2010-04-01

150

40 CFR 72.81 - Permit modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...81 Permit modifications. (a) Permit revisions that shall follow the permit modification procedures are: (1) Relaxation of an excess emission offset requirement after approval of the offset plan by the Administrator; (2)...

2010-07-01

151

40 CFR 72.81 - Permit modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...81 Permit modifications. (a) Permit revisions that shall follow the permit modification procedures are: (1) Relaxation of an excess emission offset requirement after approval of the offset plan by the Administrator; (2)...

2012-07-01

152

40 CFR 72.81 - Permit modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...81 Permit modifications. (a) Permit revisions that shall follow the permit modification procedures are: (1) Relaxation of an excess emission offset requirement after approval of the offset plan by the Administrator; (2)...

2011-07-01

153

40 CFR 72.81 - Permit modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...81 Permit modifications. (a) Permit revisions that shall follow the permit modification procedures are: (1) Relaxation of an excess emission offset requirement after approval of the offset plan by the Administrator; (2)...

2013-07-01

154

29 CFR 1926.1434 - Equipment modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1434 Equipment modifications. (a) Modifications or additions which...

2013-07-01

155

29 CFR 1926.1434 - Equipment modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1434 Equipment modifications. (a) Modifications or additions which...

2011-07-01

156

29 CFR 1926.1434 - Equipment modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1434 Equipment modifications. (a) Modifications or additions which...

2012-07-01

157

29 CFR 1926.1434 - Equipment modifications.  

...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Cranes and Derricks in Construction § 1926.1434 Equipment modifications. (a) Modifications or additions which...

2014-07-01

158

Materials modification by electronic excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electronic excitation by lasers or electron beams can modify the properties of materials. The changes are not just due to heat, nor do they result from the well-known collision dynamics of much radiation damage. Everyday examples of modification by electronic excitation include photography, and photochromics (such as sunglasses) which change colour. In the last few years it has become clear that excitation can offer novel types of modification, with better-controlled changes. The field has evolved through a mix of basic science, of new laser and electron beam tools, and of new needs from microelectronics, photonics and nanotechnology. Underlying this development are some common themes which integrate the basic science and its applications. These include especially the ideas of energy localisation and charge localisation. There are detailed comparisons of experiment and theory for halides, but there is a wealth of information for other materials. From this, we identify ways to connect understanding to technological needs, like selective removal of material, controlled changes, altering the balance between process steps, and possibilities of quantum control. The field is reviewed in full in our recent book [N. Itoh, A.M. Stoneham, Materials Modification by Electronic Excitation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000].

Stoneham, A. M.; Itoh, Noriaki

2000-12-01

159

Event Segmentation Ability Uniquely Predicts Event Memory  

PubMed Central

Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79 years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. PMID:23942350

Sargent, Jesse Q.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Hambrick, David Z.; Zacks, Rose T.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Bailey, Heather R.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Beck, Taylor M.

2013-01-01

160

Beryllium - A Unique Material in Nuclear Applications  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium, due to its unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section characteristics, has been used successfully as a neutron reflector for three generations of nuclear test reactors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the largest test reactor in the world, has utilized five successive beryllium neutron reflectors and is scheduled for continued operation with a sixth beryllium reflector. A high radiation environment in a test reactor produces radiation damage and other changes in beryllium. These changes necessitate safety analysis of the beryllium, methods to predict performance, and appropriate surveillances. Other nuclear applications also utilize beryllium. Beryllium, given its unique atomic, physical, and chemical characteristics, is widely used as a “window” for x-rays and gamma rays. Beryllium, intimately mixed with high-energy alpha radiation emitters has been successfully used to produce neutron sources. This paper addresses operational experience and methodologies associated with the use of beryllium in nuclear test reactors and in “windows” for x-rays and gamma rays. Other nuclear applications utilizing beryllium are also discussed.

T., A. Tomberlin

2004-11-01

161

Astronomy Outreach for Large and Unique Audiences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this session, we discuss different approaches to reaching large audiences. In addition to star parties and astronomy events, the audiences for some of the events include music concerts or festivals, sick children and their families, minority communities, American Indian reservations, and tourist sites such as the National Mall. The goal is to bring science directly to the public—to people who attend astronomy events and to people who do not come to star parties, science museums, or science festivals. These programs allow the entire community to participate in astronomy activities to enhance the public appreciation of science. These programs attract large enthusiastic crowds often with young children participating in these family learning experiences. The public will become more informed, educated, and inspired about astronomy and will also be provided with information that will allow them to continue to learn after this outreach activity. Large and unique audiences often have common problems, and their solutions and the lessons learned will be presented. Interaction with the participants in this session will provide important community feedback used to improve astronomy outreach for large and unique audiences. New ways to expand astronomy outreach to new large audiences will be discussed.

Lubowich, D.; Sparks, R. T.; Pompea, S. M.; Kendall, J. S.; Dugan, C.

2013-04-01

162

What motivates nonconformity? Uniqueness seeking blocks majority influence.  

PubMed

A high need for uniqueness undermines majority influence. Need for uniqueness (a) is a psychological state in which individuals feel indistinguishable from others and (b) motivates compensatory acts to reestablish a sense of uniqueness. Three studies demonstrate that a strive for uniqueness motivates individuals to resist majority influence. In Study 1, the need for uniqueness was measured, and it was found that individuals high in need for uniqueness yielded less to majority influence than those low in need for uniqueness. In Study 2, participants who received personality feedback undermining their feeling of uniqueness agreed less with a majority (vs. minority) position. Study 3 replicated this effect and additionally demonstrated the motivational nature of the assumed mechanism: An alternative means that allowed participants to regain a feeling of uniqueness canceled out the effect of high need for uniqueness on majority influence. PMID:19098256

Imhoff, Roland; Erb, Hans-Peter

2009-03-01

163

The Public Decides about Weather Modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planned weather modification is a potentially significant phenomenon being introduced in many area of this and other countries. Evidence is beginning to accumulate suggesting that where organized resistance persists over a period of time, weather modification efforts are in fact halted. The paper briefly outlines the history of weather modification in the United States; research findings on the social aspects

Barbara C. Farhar

1977-01-01

164

Modification No. M509 Supplemental Agreement to  

E-print Network

as a "gate," in that a final Grade of C (1.8) or above is required; there will be no fee if either.S. Department of Energy and Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC ATTACHMENT J.12 APPENDIX L COMPUTATION OF FEE FY Modification No. M509 Modification No. M509 ­ Fee determined and annotated to Appendix L Modification No. M422

165

Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

1985-09-01

166

Mushrooms—Biologically Distinct and Nutritionally Unique  

PubMed Central

Mushrooms are fungi, biologically distinct from plant- and animal-derived foods (fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy, protein [meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, and seeds]) that comprise the US Department of Agriculture food patterns operationalized by consumer-focused MyPlate messages. Although mushrooms provide nutrients found in these food groups, they also have a unique nutrient profile. Classified into food grouping systems by their use as a vegetable, mushrooms’ increasing use in main entrées in plant-based diets is growing, supporting consumers’ efforts to follow dietary guidance recommendations. Mushrooms’ nutrient and culinary characteristics suggest it may be time to reevaluate food groupings and health benefits in the context of 3 separate food kingdoms: plants/botany, animals/zoology, and fungi/mycology.

Jo Feeney, Mary; Miller, Amy Myrdal; Roupas, Peter

2014-01-01

167

Unique topological characterization of braided magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a topological flux function to quantify the topology of magnetic braids: non-zero, line-tied magnetic fields whose field lines all connect between two boundaries. This scalar function is an ideal invariant defined on a cross-section of the magnetic field, and measures the average poloidal magnetic flux around any given field line, or the average pairwise crossing number between a given field line and all others. Moreover, its integral over the cross-section yields the relative magnetic helicity. Using the fact that the flux function is also an action in the Hamiltonian formulation of the field line equations, we prove that it uniquely characterizes the field line mapping and hence the magnetic topology.

Yeates, A. R. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Hornig, G. [Division of Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom)

2013-01-15

168

Lupus Erythematosus Tumidus: A Unique Disease Entity  

PubMed Central

Lupus erythematosus tumidus (LET) is a photosensitive skin disease characterized by succulent, edematous, and non-scarring plaques. Histologic features include perivascular and periadnexal lymphocytic infiltration and interstitial mucin deposition. Despite being first described in 1909, there are few case reports in the current literature describing this disease and even fewer that discuss treatment. We describe a case of a 22-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and secondary class V lupus nephritis. She was referred to Dermatology for an intermittent pruritic facial eruption that was clinically and histologically consistent with LET. There is much controversy in literature as to whether or not LET is a unique variant of cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Interestingly, the mainstay of treatment for LET, in the limited case reports and series that exist, is with antimalarial drugs, which our patient had already been taking for SLE. This case exemplifies the need for complete disease characterization, evidence-based treatment, and a multidisciplinary approach.

Fernelius, Colby; Roberts, Jefferson; Denunzio, Troy; Arora, Navin S

2014-01-01

169

Chromatin modification and remodeling during early seed development.  

PubMed

Seed development starts at double fertilization when two sperms fuse with a female gamete, the egg and central cell, giving rise to the embryo and endosperm, respectively. Uniting two parental genomes into one, unique, zygotic genome is certainly the first event requiring large-scale chromatin modifications and remodeling. Although little is known about the molecular mechanisms, recent progress was made allowing live imaging of parental chromatin dynamics at fertilization. Further growth and patterning processes will shape the future plant seedling and its surrounding nurse tissue. Studies over the last decade identified key chromatin modifiers involved in these processes. However, the dynamics of these modifications mediated, in particular, by the Polycomb group complexes only start to be understood. The precise molecular mechanisms altering chromatin state in relation to early seed development remains difficult to address because of the relative inaccessibility of the fertilization products. Nonetheless, with the emergence of in vivo imaging techniques, laser-capture dissection, and genome-wide chromatin modification profiling, the future promises new, exciting discoveries. PMID:18029170

Baroux, Célia; Pien, Stéphane; Grossniklaus, Ueli

2007-12-01

170

Surface modifications of influenza proteins upon virus inactivation by ?-propiolactone.  

PubMed

Inactivation of intact influenza viruses using formaldehyde or ?-propiolactone (BPL) is essential for vaccine production and safety. The extent of chemical modifications of such reagents on viral proteins needs to be extensively investigated to better control the reactions and quality of vaccines. We have evaluated the effect of BPL inactivation on two candidate re-assortant vaccines (NIBRG-121xp and NYMC-X181A) derived from A/California/07/2009 pandemic influenza viruses using high-resolution FT-ICR MS-based proteomic approaches. We report here an ultra performance LC MS/MS method for determining full-length protein sequences of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase through protein delipidation, various enzymatic digestions, and subsequent mass spectrometric analyses of the proteolytic peptides. We also demonstrate the ability to reliably identify hundreds of unique sites modified by propiolactone on the surface of glycoprotein antigens. The location of these modifications correlated with changes to protein folding, conformation, and stability, but demonstrated no effect on protein disulfide linkages. In some cases, these modifications resulted in suppression of protein function, an effect that correlated with the degree of change of the modified amino acids' side chain length and polarity. PMID:24123778

She, Yi-Min; Cheng, Keding; Farnsworth, Aaron; Li, Xuguang; Cyr, Terry D

2013-12-01

171

Key advances in the chemical modification of nanocelluloses.  

PubMed

Nanocelluloses, including nanocrystalline cellulose, nanofibrillated cellulose and bacterial cellulose nanofibers, have become fascinating building blocks for the design of new biomaterials. Derived from the must abundant and renewable biopolymer, they are drawing a tremendous level of attention, which certainly will continue to grow in the future driven by the sustainability trend. This growing interest is related to their unsurpassed quintessential physical and chemical properties. Yet, owing to their hydrophilic nature, their utilization is restricted to applications involving hydrophilic or polar media, which limits their exploitation. With the presence of a large number of chemical functionalities within their structure, these building blocks provide a unique platform for significant surface modification through various chemistries. These chemical modifications are prerequisite, sometimes unavoidable, to adapt the interfacial properties of nanocellulose substrates or adjust their hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance. Therefore, various chemistries have been developed aiming to surface-modify these nano-sized substrates in order to confer to them specific properties, extending therefore their use to highly sophisticated applications. This review collocates current knowledge in the research and development of nanocelluloses and emphasizes more particularly on the chemical modification routes developed so far for their functionalization. PMID:24316693

Habibi, Youssef

2014-03-01

172

Proteome-wide Identification of SUMO2 Modification Sites  

PubMed Central

Post-translational modification with small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) alters the function of proteins involved in diverse cellular processes. SUMO-specific enzymes conjugate SUMOs to lysine residues in target proteins. Although proteomic studies have identified hundreds of sumoylated substrates, methods to identify the modified lysines on a proteomic scale are lacking. We developed a method that enabled proteome-wide identification of sumoylated lysines that involves the expression of polyhistidine (6His)-tagged SUMO2 with Thr90 mutated to Lys. Endoproteinase cleavage with Lys-C of 6His-SUMO2T90K modifed proteins from human cell lysates produced a diGly remnant on SUMO2T90K conjugated lysines enabling immunoprecipitation of SUMO2T90K modified peptides and producing a unique mass-to-charge signature. Mass spectrometry analysis of SUMO enriched peptides revealed over 1,000 sumoylated lysines in 539 proteins, including many functionally related proteins involved in cell cycle, transcription, and DNA repair. Not only can this strategy be used to study the dynamics of sumoylation and potential other similar posttranslational modifications, but also, these data provide an unprecedented resource for future research on the role of sumoylation in cellular physiology and disease. PMID:24782567

Jaffray, Ellis G.; Ibrahim, Adel F. M.; Tatham, Michael H.; Hay, Ronald T.

2014-01-01

173

A unique device for controlled electrospinning.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to develop a system for controlled electrospinning of fibro-porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications and to use this system to assess mesh architecture sensitivity to manufacturing parameters. The intent was to achieve scaffolds with well-controlled fiber diameters and inter-fiber spacing. To accomplish these objectives, a custom, closed-loop controlled, electrospinning system was built. The system was unique in that it had a collection surface that was independent of the electrodes. The system allowed independent manipulation and analysis of a number of manufacturing parameters: distance between the electrodes, distance from the nozzle to the collection surface, applied voltage, temperature of the melt, collection surface dielectric strength, and collection surface area. Morphological analysis of fabricated meshes showed that all test parameters significantly affected fiber diameter and inter-fiber spacing. Further, contrary to what is generally accepted in the electrospinning literature, voltage and temperature (inversely related to viscosity) were not the most significant parameters. Features of the collection surface, including dielectric strength and surface area, were more significant. This dominance is, in part, a reflection of the unique electrospinning system used. The collection surface, which was not connected to either of the electrodes, substantially altered the electric field between the electrodes. Using the developed controlled electrospinning system, thermoplastic polyurethane meshes with fiber diameters ranging from 5 to 18 microm with variability less than 1.8% were made; inter-fiber spacing ranged from 4 to 90 microm with variability less than 20.2%. The system has potential use in biomedical applications where meshes with controlled fiber diameter and inter-fiber spacing are of interest. PMID:16604530

Mitchell, S B; Sanders, J E

2006-07-01

174

Materials Modification in Nanotechnology: Oxidation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint created and presented by the Nanotechnology Applications and Career Knowledge (NACK) Center introduces students to oxidation. It goes over the various types of oxide â native, gate, field, etc. It discusses dry vs. wet oxidation, high pressure oxidation, chemical vapor deposition and has a section on modifying dielectric constant. This is a great resource for any classroom looking at nanofabrication modifications. This and all other valuable resources from the NACK Center require a fast, easy, free log-in.

2010-03-22

175

Might "Unique" Factors Be "Common"? On the Possibility of Indeterminate Common-Unique Covariances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper shows that the usual factor analytic structured data dispersion matrix lambda psi lambda' + delta can readily arise from a set of scores y = lambda eta + epsilon, shere the "common" (eta) and "unique" (epsilon) factors have nonzero covariance: gamma = Cov epsilon,eta) is not equal to 0. Implications of this finding are discussed…

Grayson, Dave

2006-01-01

176

The rural market: a unique communication medium.  

PubMed

In January 1990, the Health Secretary asked the Technologies for Primary Health Care (PRITECH) project to facilitate access to the many small villages with 500 people in Mexico since PRITECH had assisted the diarrhea disease control program. 1st PRITECH had Ministry of Health staff train trainers which would eventually spread the information to the rural areas. This strategy was effective only for those people who did not live in remote areas. The same reasons for remote people being at high risk of disease also limited this strategy: isolation, lack of education, limited diets, lack of access to services, and limited fluency in Spanish. PRITECH hired a local consulting organization, CICLOPE, to develop a new strategy. CICLOPE limited its activities to the states of Hidalgo and Vera Cruz for 8 months. 1st CICLOPE staff provided proper diarrhea management training including emphasis on oral rehydration therapy (ORT) to rural health auxiliaries. They used a gourd painted to look like an infant with holes and other modifications to depict the workings and results of diarrheal dehydration. The staff then sent the auxiliaries to their own communities to use the gourd dolls to teach mothers about ORT and correct diarrhea management. The staff conducted follow-up activities to monitor the auxiliaries' progress. This training approach allowed the auxiliaries to realize the abilities of the mothers and their active role in learning. The auxiliaries conducted the training at markets where women living in remote areas came weekly. The local radio announced market day events in which the auxiliaries participated and aired dramas about diarrhea management. CICLOPE staff and the auxiliaries sat up a booth at these markets to promote proper diarrhea management. They used a flip chart, comic books, a lottery game, and entertainment to impart education messages. PMID:12285444

Spain, P

1992-01-01

177

Sheathless Capillary Electrophoresis-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Top-Down Characterization of Pyrococcus furiosus Proteins on a Proteome Scale.  

PubMed

Intact protein analysis via top-down mass spectrometry (MS) provides the unique capability of fully characterizing protein isoforms and combinatorial post-translational modifications (PTMs) compared to the bottom-up MS approach. Front-end protein separation poses a challenge for analyzing complex mixtures of intact proteins on a proteomic scale. Here we applied capillary electrophoresis (CE) through a sheathless capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization (CESI) interface coupled to an Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer to profile the proteome from Pyrococcus furiosus. CESI-top-down MS analysis of Pyrococcus furiosus cell lysate identified 134 proteins and 291 proteoforms with a total sample consumption of 270 ng in 120 min of total analysis time. Truncations and various PTMs were detected, including acetylation, disulfide bonds, oxidation, glycosylation, and hypusine. This is the largest scale analysis of intact proteins by CE-top-down MS to date. PMID:25346219

Han, Xuemei; Wang, Yueju; Aslanian, Aaron; Bern, Marshall; Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Yates, John R

2014-11-18

178

Focal adhesion size uniquely predicts cell migration  

PubMed Central

Focal adhesions are large protein complexes organized at the basal surface of cells, which physically connect the extracellular matrix to the cytoskeleton and have long been speculated to mediate cell migration. However, whether clustering of these molecular components into focal adhesions is actually required for these proteins to regulate cell motility is unclear. Here we use quantitative microscopy to characterize descriptors of focal adhesion and cell motility for mouse embryonic fibroblasts and human fibrosarcoma cells, across a wide range of matrix compliance and following genetic manipulations of focal adhesion proteins (vinculin, talin, zyxin, FAK, and paxilin). This analysis reveals a tight, biphasic gaussian relationship between mean size of focal adhesions (not their number, surface density, or shape) and cell speed. The predictive power of this relationship is comprehensively validated by disrupting nonfocal adhesion proteins (?-actinin, F-actin, and myosin II) and subcellular organelles (mitochondria, nuclear DNA, etc.) not known to affect either focal adhesions or cell migration. This study suggests that the mean size of focal adhesions robustly and precisely predicts cell speed independently of focal adhesion surface density and molecular composition.—Kim, D.-H., Wirtz, D. Focal adhesion size uniquely predicts cell migration. PMID:23254340

Kim, Dong-Hwee; Wirtz, Denis

2013-01-01

179

Biomechanics of the unique pterosaur pteroid  

PubMed Central

Pterosaurs, flying reptiles from the Mesozoic, had wing membranes that were supported by their arm bones and a super-elongate fourth finger. Associated with the wing, pterosaurs also possessed a unique wrist bone—the pteroid—that functioned to support the forward part of the membrane in front of the leading edge, the propatagium. Pteroid shape varies across pterosaurs and reconstructions of its orientation vary (projecting anteriorly to the wing leading edge or medially, lying alongside it) and imply differences in the way that pterosaurs controlled their wings. Here we show, using biomechanical analysis and considerations of aerodynamic efficiency of a representative ornithocheirid pterosaur, that an anteriorly orientated pteroid is highly unlikely. Unless these pterosaurs only flew steadily and had very low body masses, their pteroids would have been likely to break if orientated anteriorly; the degree of movement required for a forward orientation would have introduced extreme membrane strains and required impractical tensioning in the propatagium membrane. This result can be generalized for other pterodactyloid pterosaurs because the resultant geometry of an anteriorly orientated pteroid would have reduced the aerodynamic performance of all wings and required the same impractical properties in the propatagium membrane. We demonstrate quantitatively that the more traditional reconstruction of a medially orientated pteroid was much more stable both structurally and aerodynamically, reflecting likely life position. PMID:20007183

Palmer, Colin; Dyke, Gareth J.

2010-01-01

180

Unique animal prenyltransferase with monoterpene synthase activity.  

PubMed

Monoterpenes are structurally diverse natural compounds that play an essential role in the chemical ecology of a wide array of organisms. A key enzyme in monoterpene biosynthesis is geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS). GPPS is an isoprenyl diphosphate synthase that catalyzes a single electrophilic condensation reaction between dimethylallyl diphosphate (C(5)) and isopentenyl diphosphate (C(5)) to produce geranyl diphosphate (GDP; C(10)). GDP is the universal precursor to all monoterpenes. Subsequently, monoterpene synthases are responsible for the transformation of GDP to a variety of acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic monoterpene products. In pheromone-producing male Ips pini bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), the acyclic monoterpene myrcene is required for the production of the major aggregation pheromone component, ipsdienol. Here, we report monoterpene synthase activity associated with GPPS of I. pini. Enzyme assays were performed on recombinant GPPS to determine the presence of monoterpene synthase activity, and the reaction products were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The functionally expressed recombinant enzyme produced both GDP and myrcene, making GPPS of I. pini a bifunctional enzyme. This unique insect isoprenyl diphosphate synthase possesses the functional plasticity that is characteristic of terpene biosynthetic enzymes of plants, contributing toward the current understanding of product specificity of the isoprenoid pathway. PMID:19277597

Gilg, Anna B; Tittiger, Claus; Blomquist, Gary J

2009-06-01

181

Unique animal prenyltransferase with monoterpene synthase activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monoterpenes are structurally diverse natural compounds that play an essential role in the chemical ecology of a wide array of organisms. A key enzyme in monoterpene biosynthesis is geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS). GPPS is an isoprenyl diphosphate synthase that catalyzes a single electrophilic condensation reaction between dimethylallyl diphosphate (C5) and isopentenyl diphosphate (C5) to produce geranyl diphosphate (GDP; C10). GDP is the universal precursor to all monoterpenes. Subsequently, monoterpene synthases are responsible for the transformation of GDP to a variety of acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic monoterpene products. In pheromone-producing male Ips pini bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), the acyclic monoterpene myrcene is required for the production of the major aggregation pheromone component, ipsdienol. Here, we report monoterpene synthase activity associated with GPPS of I. pini. Enzyme assays were performed on recombinant GPPS to determine the presence of monoterpene synthase activity, and the reaction products were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The functionally expressed recombinant enzyme produced both GDP and myrcene, making GPPS of I. pini a bifunctional enzyme. This unique insect isoprenyl diphosphate synthase possesses the functional plasticity that is characteristic of terpene biosynthetic enzymes of plants, contributing toward the current understanding of product specificity of the isoprenoid pathway.

Gilg, Anna B.; Tittiger, Claus; Blomquist, Gary J.

2009-06-01

182

Unique Properties of Reversibly Associating Polymer Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reversibly associating functional groups offer the polymer physicist with a new tool to develop stimuli-responsive polymers. Our focus has been to attach reversibly associating groups onto rubbery network polymers. Free radical copolymerization was used to synthesize a series of crosslinked poly(n-butylacrylate)s containing quadruple H-bonding ureidopyrimidinone (UPy) side-groups. Resulting elastomeric networks contain both covalent and dynamic non-covalent crosslinks, and this unique architecture is shown to affect viscoelastic behavior and mass-transport properties. Shape-memory effects are studied quantitatively using thermomechanical techniques. Experiments show how reversible interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, are capable of stabilizing mechanically strained states. Unlike conventional shape-memory polymers, these dynamic networks lack a well-defined shape recovery temperature. Instead, their shape recovery rate depends on temperature. To further study the dynamics and temperature dependence of mechanical relaxation, isothermal creep experiments and dynamic mechanical analysis were performed. Creep data, acquired at several different temperatures, are fit to a simple viscoelastic model. Fit viscosities exhibit Arrhenius-like temperature dependence with activation energies of ˜90 kJ/mol, which is in rough agreement with H-bond dissociation barriers. Molecular transport through dynamic networks is studied using gravimetric sorption and dye-diffusion techniques. Diffusion depends on temperature, network architecture, solute size, and the interaction between the solute and the network. Membranes with high temperature-sensitive diffusion properties may be useful in applications such as transdermal drug delivery, microfluidics, or liquid chemical separation processes.

Anthamatten, Mitchell

2008-03-01

183

Unique Ganglioside Recognition Strategies for Clostridial Neurotoxins  

SciTech Connect

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and tetanus neurotoxin are the causative agents of the paralytic diseases botulism and tetanus, respectively. The potency of the clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs) relies primarily on their highly specific binding to nerve terminals and cleavage of SNARE proteins. Although individual CNTs utilize distinct proteins for entry, they share common ganglioside co-receptors. Here, we report the crystal structure of the BoNT/F receptor-binding domain in complex with the sugar moiety of ganglioside GD1a. GD1a binds in a shallow groove formed by the conserved peptide motif E ... H ... SXWY ... G, with additional stabilizing interactions provided by two arginine residues. Comparative analysis of BoNT/F with other CNTs revealed several differences in the interactions of each toxin with ganglioside. Notably, exchange of BoNT/F His-1241 with the corresponding lysine residue of BoNT/E resulted in increased affinity for GD1a and conferred the ability to bind ganglioside GM1a. Conversely, BoNT/E was not able to bind GM1a, demonstrating a discrete mechanism of ganglioside recognition. These findings provide a structural basis for ganglioside binding among the CNTs and show that individual toxins utilize unique ganglioside recognition strategies.

Benson, Marc A.; Fu, Zhuji; Kim, Jung-Ja P.; Baldwin, Michael R. (MCW); (UMC)

2012-03-15

184

Are lampbrush chromosomes unique to meiotic cells?  

PubMed Central

Lampbrush chromosomes (LBCs) are transcriptionally active chromosomes found in the germinal vesicle (GV) of large oocytes of many vertebrate and invertebrate animals and also in the giant single-celled alga Acetabularia. These cells are all in prophase of the first meiotic division. Nevertheless, many meiotic cells do not develop LBCs, arguing that LBCs are not an essential feature of meiosis. LBCs probably represent the most active transcriptional state that can be attained by cells that must give rise to diploid progeny. Polyploidy permits cells to reach higher rates of transcription per nucleus but precludes a return to diploidy. In this sense LBCs represent a relatively inefficient transcriptional compromise employed by large meiotic cells. These considerations help to explain why transcriptionally active GVs develop LBCs, but they do not explain why LBCs have never been seen in somatic cells, diploid or otherwise. If LBCs are truly limited to germ cells, then some of their unusual features may reflect reprogramming of the genome. If this is the case, LBCs provide unique opportunities to study reprogramming at the level of the individual transcription unit. PMID:23263880

Gall, Joseph G.

2012-01-01

185

Deviance or uniqueness, harmony or conformity? A cultural analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uniqueness has positive connotations of freedom and independence in American culture, whereas conformity has positive connotations of connectedness and harmony in East Asian culture. The present research examined how these cultural values and individual preferences for uniqueness and conformity influence each other. In Studies 1 and 2, East Asian and European American preferences for uniqueness were measured using abstract figures.

Heejung Kim; Hazel Rose Markus

1999-01-01

186

Deviance or Uniqueness, Harmony or Conformity?: A Cultural Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uniqueness has positive connotations of freedom and independence in American culture, whereas conformity has positive connotations of connectedness and harmony in East Asian culture. The present research examined how these cultural values and individual preferences for uniqueness and conformity influence each other. In Studies 1 and 2, East Asian and European American preferences for uniqueness were measured using abstract figures.

Heejung Kim; Hazel Rose Markus

1999-01-01

187

Four decades of black hole uniqueness D. C. Robinson  

E-print Network

Four decades of black hole uniqueness theorems D. C. Robinson Mathematics Department King's College It is approaching forty years since Werner Israel announced the first black hole uniqueness theorem at a meeting years into uniqueness theorems for equilibrium black holes is surveyed. Results obtained from the 1960s

Bushnell, Colin J.

188

Evolution of a Unique Systems Engineering Capability  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a science-based, applied engineering laboratory dedicated to supporting U.S. Department of Energy missions in nuclear and energy research, science, and national security. The INL’s Systems Engineering organization supports all of the various programs under this wide array of missions. As with any multifaceted organization, strategic planning is essential to establishing a consistent culture and a value discipline throughout all levels of the enterprise. While an organization can pursue operational excellence, product leadership or customer intimacy, it is extremely difficult to excel or achieve best-in-class at all three. In fact, trying to do so has resulted in the demise of a number of organizations given the very intricate balancing act that is necessary. The INL’s Systems Engineering Department has chosen to focus on customer intimacy where the customer’s needs are first and foremost and a more total solution is the goal. Frequently a total solution requires the employment of specialized tools to manage system complexity. However, it is only after understanding customer needs that tool selection and use would be pursued. This results in using both commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) tools and, in some cases, requires internal development of specialized tools. This paper describes how a unique systems engineering capability, through the development of customized tools, evolved as a result of this customer-focused culture. It also addresses the need for a common information model or analysis framework and presents an overview of the tools developed to manage and display relationships between entities, support trade studies through the application of utility theory, and facilitate the development of a technology roadmap to manage system risk and uncertainty.

Robert M. Caliva; James A. Murphy; Kyle B. Oswald

2011-06-01

189

Behavior modification in physical therapy.  

PubMed

Behavioral techniques reported to improve ambulation skills among physically handicapped persons include both reward and desensitization procedures. This report describes the application of other behavior modification principles to two patients who resisted physical therapy (PT) designed to educate them in the use of orthopedic assistive devices. Peer modeling was used with case 1, a 2 1/2-year-old girl with complete L4 spina bifida who cried frequently when wearing her brace, and refused to walk except with much assistance. Case 2 was a 21-year-old hemiplegic man seen two years after a severe head injury. Initially, severe tantrum behavior accompanied all demands placed on him. Treatment involved a combination of contingent music for being quiet and contingent aversive auditory feedback for yelling. In both cases clinically significant behavioral changes were observed. Results are discussed with respect to the cost effectiveness of behavioral interventions and the interdisciplinary coordination of rehabilitation team members. PMID:3882077

Gouvier, W D; Richards, J S; Blanton, P D; Janert, K; Rosen, L A; Drabman, R S

1985-02-01

190

Laser surface modification of PEEK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) is a synthetic thermoplastic polymer with excellent mechanical and chemical properties, which make it attractive for the field of reconstructive surgery. Nevertheless, this material has a poor interfacial biocompatibility due to its large chemical stability which induces poor adhesive bonding properties. The possibilities of enhancing the PEEK adhesive properties by laser treatments have been explored in the past. This paper presents a systematic approach to discern the role of laser irradiation wavelength on the surface modification of PEEK under three laser wavelengths (? = 1064, 532, and 355 nm) with the aim to determine the most adequate processing conditions to increase the roughness and wettability, the main parameters affecting cell adhesion characteristics of implants. Overall results show that the ultraviolet (? = 355 nm) laser radiation is the most suitable one to enhance surface wettability of PEEK.

Riveiro, A.; Soto, R.; Comesaña, R.; Boutinguiza, M.; del Val, J.; Quintero, F.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

2012-09-01

191

75 FR 41530 - Petitions for Modification; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) published a document in the Federal Register of June 17, 2010, concerning petitions for modification of existing safety standards. The document contains an under II. Petitions for Modification, Modification Request, paragraph 2. Docket Numbers: M-2010-024-C, M-2010-025-C, M-2010-026-C, M-2010- 027-C, and M-2010-028-C. Petitioners: Panther......

2010-07-16

192

7 CFR 623.14 - Easement modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...modifications. 623.14 Section 623.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS...

2012-01-01

193

7 CFR 623.14 - Easement modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...modifications. 623.14 Section 623.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS...

2011-01-01

194

7 CFR 623.14 - Easement modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...modifications. 623.14 Section 623.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS...

2010-01-01

195

7 CFR 623.14 - Easement modifications.  

...modifications. 623.14 Section 623.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS...

2014-01-01

196

7 CFR 623.14 - Easement modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...modifications. 623.14 Section 623.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS...

2013-01-01

197

Thiol dioxygenases: unique families of cupin proteins.  

PubMed

Proteins in the cupin superfamily have a wide range of biological functions in archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes. Although proteins in the cupin superfamily show very low overall sequence similarity, they all contain two short but partially conserved cupin sequence motifs separated by a less conserved intermotif region that varies both in length and amino acid sequence. Furthermore, these proteins all share a common architecture described as a six-stranded ?-barrel core, and this canonical cupin or "jelly roll" ?-barrel is formed with cupin motif 1, the intermotif region, and cupin motif 2 each forming two of the core six ?-strands in the folded protein structure. The recently obtained crystal structures of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), with contains conserved cupin motifs, show that it has the predicted canonical cupin ?-barrel fold. Although there had been no reports of CDO activity in prokaryotes, we identified a number of bacterial cupin proteins of unknown function that share low similarity with mammalian CDO and that conserve many residues in the active-site pocket of CDO. Putative bacterial CDOs predicted to have CDO activity were shown to have similar substrate specificity and kinetic parameters as eukaryotic CDOs. Information gleaned from crystal structures of mammalian CDO along with sequence information for homologs shown to have CDO activity facilitated the identification of a CDO family fingerprint motif. One key feature of the CDO fingerprint motif is that the canonical metal-binding glutamate residue in cupin motif 1 is replaced by a cysteine (in mammalian CDOs) or by a glycine (bacterial CDOs). The recent report that some putative bacterial CDO homologs are actually 3-mercaptopropionate dioxygenases suggests that the CDO family may include proteins with specificities for other thiol substrates. A paralog of CDO in mammals was also identified and shown to be the other mammalian thiol dioxygenase, cysteamine dioxygenase (ADO). A tentative fingerprint motif for ADOs, or DUF1637 family members, is proposed. In ADOs, the conserved glutamate residue in cupin motif 1 is replaced by either glycine or valine. Both ADOs and CDOs appear to represent unique clades within the cupin superfamily. PMID:20195658

Stipanuk, Martha H; Simmons, Chad R; Karplus, P Andrew; Dominy, John E

2011-06-01

198

Unique Challenges Testing SDRs for Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the approach used by the Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed team to qualify three Software Defined Radios (SDR) for operation in space and the characterization of the platform to enable upgrades on-orbit. The three SDRs represent a significant portion of the new technologies being studied on board the SCAN Testbed, which is operating on an external truss on the International Space Station (ISS). The SCaN Testbed provides experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms and applications for communication, networking, and navigation concepts and advance the understanding of developing and operating SDRs in space. Qualifying a Software Defined Radio for the space environment requires additional consideration versus a hardware radio. Tests that incorporate characterization of the platform to provide information necessary for future waveforms, which might exercise extended capabilities of the hardware, are needed. The development life cycle for the radio follows the software development life cycle, where changes can be incorporated at various stages of development and test. It also enables flexibility to be added with minor additional effort. Although this provides tremendous advantages, managing the complexity inherent in a software implementation requires a testing beyond the traditional hardware radio test plan. Due to schedule and resource limitations and parallel development activities, the subsystem testing of the SDRs at the vendor sites was primarily limited to typical fixed transceiver type of testing. NASA's Glenn Research Center (GRC) was responsible for the integration and testing of the SDRs into the SCaN Testbed system and conducting the investigation of the SDR to advance the technology to be accepted by missions. This paper will describe the unique tests that were conducted at both the subsystem and system level, including environmental testing, and present results. For example, test waveforms were developed to measure the gain of the transmit system across the tunable frequency band. These were used during thermal vacuum testing to enable characterization of the integrated system in the wide operational temperature range of space. Receive power indicators were used for Electromagnetic Interference tests (EMI) to understand the platform's susceptibility to external interferers independent of the waveform. Additional approaches and lessons learned during the SCaN Testbed subsystem and system level testing will be discussed that may help future SDR integrators.

Johnson, Sandra; Chelmins, David; Downey, Joseph; Nappier, Jennifer

2013-01-01

199

Conformation Effects of Base Modification on the Anticodon Stem-loop of Bacillus subtilis tRNATyr  

PubMed Central

tRNA molecules contain 93 chemically unique nucleotide base modifications that expand the chemical and biophysical diversity of RNA and contribute to the overall fitness of the cell. Nucleotide modifications of tRNA confer fidelity and efficiency to translation and are important in tRNA-dependent RNA-mediated regulatory processes. The three-dimensional structure of the anticodon is crucial to tRNA-mRNA specificity and the diverse modifications of nucleotide bases in the anticodon region modulate this specificity. We have determined the solution structures and thermodynamic properties of B. subtilis tRNATyr anticodon arms containing the natural base modifications N6-dimethylallyl adenine (i6A37) and pseudouridine (?39). UV melting and differential scanning calorimetry indicate the modifications stabilize the stem and may enhance base stacking in the loop. The i6A37 modification disrupts the hydrogen bond network of the unmodified anticodon loop including a C32-A38+ base pair and an A37-U33 base-base interaction. Although the i6A37 modification increases the dynamic nature of the loop nucleotides, metal ion coordination re-establishes conformational homogeneity. Interestingly, the i6A37 modification and Mg2+ are sufficient to promote the U-turn fold of the anticodon loop of E. coli tRNAPhe, but these elements do not result in this signature feature of the anticodon loop in tRNATyr. PMID:21782828

Denmon, Andria P.; Wang, Jiachen; Nikonowicz, Edward P.

2011-01-01

200

High-Throughput Liquid-Liquid Fractionation of Multiple Protein Post-Translational Modifications*  

PubMed Central

Post-translational protein modifications have contributed significantly to the identification of macromolecular biomarkers of biological processes. We have modified a 2-dimensional HPLC system (Beckman Coulter PF2D ProteomeLab) to create proteome maps of post-translational protein modifications. This system resolves complex protein mixtures by anion exchange chromatofocusing in the first dimension and hydrophobicity (reverse phase chromatography) in the second dimension. The simultaneous identification of multiple protein modifications, accomplished by incorporating a photo diode array (PDA) detector into the PF2D system, facilitates the simultaneous production of three dimensional proteome maps and visualization of both unmodified and post-translationally modified (PTM) proteins at their signature wavelengths within the proteome. We describe procedures for the simultaneous resolution of proteome maps, the identification of proteins modified by nitration, carbonylation, and phosphorylation, and proteins with unique spectra such as the heme containing proteins. PMID:19099502

DeFord, James H.; Nuss, Jonathan E.; Amaning, James; English, Robert D.; Tjernlund, Don; Papaconstantinou, John

2009-01-01

201

Upconversion Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Surface Modification, and Biological Applications  

PubMed Central

New generation fluorophores, also termed upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), have the ability to convert near infrared radiations with lower energy into visible radiations with higher energy via a non-linear optical process. Recently, these UCNPs have evolved as alternative fluorescent labels to traditional fluorophores, showing great potential for imaging and biodetection assays in both in vitro and in vivo applications. UCNPs exhibit unique luminescent properties, including high penetration depth into tissues, low background signals, large Stokes shifts, sharp emission bands, and high resistance to photo-bleaching, making UCNPs an attractive alternative source for overcoming current limitations in traditional fluorescent probes. In this review, we discuss the recent progress in the synthesis and surface modification of rare earth doped UCNPs with a specific focus on their biological applications. PMID:21419877

Wang, Meng; Abbineni, Gopal; Clevenger, April; Mao, Chuanbin; Xu, Shukun

2011-01-01

202

Regulation of microtubule motors by tubulin isotypes and posttranslational modifications  

PubMed Central

The ‘tubulin-code’ hypothesis proposes that different tubulin genes or posttranslational modifications (PTMs), which mainly confer variation in the carboxy-terminal tail (CTT), result in unique interactions with microtubule-associated proteins for specific cellular functions. However, the inability to isolate distinct and homogenous tubulin species has hindered biochemical testing of this hypothesis. Here, we have engineered 25 ?/? tubulin heterodimers with distinct CTTs and PTMs and tested their interactions with four different molecular motors using single molecule assays. Our results show that tubulin isotypes and PTMs can govern motor velocity, processivity and microtubule depolymerization rates, with substantial changes conferred by even single amino acid variation. Revealing the importance and specificity of PTMs, we show that kinesin-1 motility on neuronal ?-tubulin (TUBB3) is increased by polyglutamylation and that robust kinesin-2 motility requires detyrosination of ?-tubulin. Our results also show that different molecular motors recognize distinctive tubulin “signatures”, which supports the premise of tubulin-code hypothesis. PMID:24633327

Sirajuddin, Minhajuddin; Rice, Luke M.; Vale, Ronald D.

2014-01-01

203

Memory recall and modifications by activating neurons with elevated CREB.  

PubMed

Memory is supported by a specific ensemble of neurons distributed in the brain that form a unique memory trace. We previously showed that neurons in the lateral amygdala expressing elevated levels of cAMP response-element binding protein are preferentially recruited into fear memory traces and are necessary for the expression of those memories. However, it is unknown whether artificially activating just these selected neurons in the absence of behavioral cues is sufficient to recall that fear memory. Using an ectopic rat vanilloid receptor TRPV1 and capsaicin system, we found that activating this specific ensemble of neurons was sufficient to recall established fear memory. Furthermore, this neuronal activation induced a reconsolidation-like reorganization process, or strengthening of the fear memory. Thus, our findings establish a direct link between the activation of specific ensemble of neurons in the lateral amygdala and the recall of fear memory and its subsequent modifications. PMID:24212670

Kim, Jieun; Kwon, Jeong-Tae; Kim, Hyung-Su; Josselyn, Sheena A; Han, Jin-Hee

2014-01-01

204

Accidental and planned weather modification in illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather modification, both planned by humans and accidentally produced by humans, is the focus of an Illinois study. Populations in Illinois and the Midwest are living in a climate that is now modified inadvertently from its natural state. State atmospheric scientists have tackled weather modification through a series of interrelated studies, experimental design studies, experimental field studies to verify changes

1977-01-01

205

Proteomic analysis of post-translational modifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-translational modifications modulate the activity of most eukaryote proteins. Analysis of these modifications presents formidable challenges but their determination generates indispensable insight into biological function. Strategies developed to characterize individual proteins are now systematically applied to protein populations. The combination of function- or structure-based purification of modified 'subproteomes', such as phosphorylated proteins or modified membrane proteins, with mass spectrometry is

Matthias Mann; Ole N. Jensen

2003-01-01

206

Surface Modification with Self-Assembled Monolayer &  

E-print Network

, Absorption - Surface (Gold & Glass (Silicon Wafer), Plastics) of the substrate - Silane (Glass) - Amine (Gold1 1 / 40 Surface Modification with Self-Assembled Monolayer & Polymer Brush for Biotechnology Surface Modification with Self-Assembled Monolayer & Polymer Brush for Biotechnology 2 / 40 linear star

Hong, Deog Ki

207

Behavior Modification: Answers to Some Ethical Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with several of the commonly stated ethical issues in behavior modification: (1) the dichotomy between symptoms and underlying causes; (2) symptom substitution; (3 certain behavior modification techniques such as electric shock, physical restraint, and deprivation; (4) the counselor-client relationship; and (5) principles of…

Cooke, Thomas P.; Cooke, Sharon

1974-01-01

208

Surface Modification of Clays and Related Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review analyzes various ways by which the surfaces of clay particles and related minerals can be non?covalently modified, as well as some of the analytical approaches with which these surface modifications can be measured and quantified. Among the principal methods of modification of the surface properties of clays and other metal oxide surfaces is treatment with cationic surfactants comprising

C. J. van Oss; R. F. Giese

2003-01-01

209

UAE Teachers' Awareness & Perceptions of Testing Modifications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objectives of this study were threefold: (a) to determine whether the United Arab Emirates (UAE) general and special education teachers were making any specific testing modifications for students with disabilities; (b) to survey UAE general and special education teachers' perceptions of testing modifications in terms of their usefulness,…

Elhoweris, Hala; Alsheikh, Negmeldin

2010-01-01

210

7 CFR 1467.13 - Modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.13 Modifications...modification will not adversely affect the wetland functions and values for which the easement...restoration of other lands that provide greater wetland functions and values at no...

2013-01-01

211

7 CFR 1467.13 - Modifications.  

...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.13 Modifications...modification will not adversely affect the wetland functions and values for which the easement...restoration of other lands that provide greater wetland functions and values at no...

2014-01-01

212

7 CFR 1467.13 - Modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.13 Modifications...modification will not adversely affect the wetland functions and values for which the easement...restoration of other lands that provide greater wetland functions and values at no...

2011-01-01

213

7 CFR 1467.13 - Modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.13 Modifications...modification will not adversely affect the wetland functions and values for which the easement...restoration of other lands that provide greater wetland functions and values at no...

2012-01-01

214

7 CFR 1467.13 - Modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.13 Modifications...modification will not adversely affect the wetland functions and values for which the easement...restoration of other lands that provide greater wetland functions and values at no...

2010-01-01

215

Shape Modification by Beam Model in FEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shape modification and deformation play an important role in the filed of geometry modeling, computer graphics, conceptual design and so on. A novel physically based shape modification approach is presented in this article, with beam model in finite element method (FEM). By means of interactively creating a beam with circle cross section based on pre-defined local coordinate system, the primitive

Wang Zhiguo; Wang Xiaoping; Bao Yidong; Zhou Laishui

2010-01-01

216

Enzymatic modification of flaxseed fibers.  

PubMed

Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) fibers were modified by oxidoreductive and cellulolytic enzymes. The lignin amount and intrinsic plant peroxidase activity was evaluated by histochemical and spectrophotometric assays. Peroxidase activity was not found from bast fibers. The flaxseed fibers were further separated and treated with laccase to conjugate the model compounds, that is, the hydrophobic gallate molecules on fiber surfaces. Laccase was able to slowly oxidize fiber-conjugated phenolics, but no fundamental changes in fiber cell surface structure or notable coupling of the applied hydrophobic gallate molecules onto the fibers occurred, as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The reactivity of the mature fibers was further investigated using cellulolytic enzymes. Cellobiohydrolase (CBH) and endoglucanase (EG)-rich enzyme preparations were applied to reach a hydrolysis degree of 1-6% (of the fiber dry matter) using a standard enzyme dosage. The CBH mixture altered the fiber surface morphology distinctly, and SEM images illustrated fibers in which the cellulose fibrils seemed to be loosened and partially hydrolyzed. In contrast, the effect of the EG-rich preparation without CBH activity was notable on the fiber surface, polishing the surfaces. The cellulolytic treatments were potentially interesting for specific enzymatic modifications of flax fiber surfaces, whereas the approach to use oxidoreductive enzyme treatments on mature linseed fibers offered little potential, obviously due to the low lignin content of the fibers. PMID:23098092

Maijala, Pekka; Mäkinen, Marliina; Galkin, Sari; Fagerstedt, Kurt; Härkäsalmi, Tiina; Viikari, Liisa

2012-11-01

217

ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brightest X-ray Cluster Acts as Strong Gravitational Lens Based on exciting new data obtained with the ROSAT X-ray satellite and a ground-based telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, a team of European astronomers [2] has just discovered a very distant cluster of galaxies with unique properties. It emits the strongest X-ray emission of any cluster ever observed by ROSAT and is accompanied by two extraordinarily luminous arcs that represent the gravitationally deflected images of even more distant objects. The combination of these unusual characteristics makes this cluster, now known as RXJ1347.5-1145, a most interesting object for further cosmological studies. DISCOVERY AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS This strange cluster of galaxies was discovered during the All Sky Survey with the ROSAT X-ray satellite as a moderately intense X-ray source in the constellation of Virgo. It could not be identified with any already known object and additional ground-based observations were therefore soon after performed with the Max-Planck-Society/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla observatory in Chile. These observations took place within a large--scale redshift survey of X-ray clusters of galaxies detected by the ROSAT All Sky Survey, a so-called ``ESO Key Programme'' led by astronomers from the Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera. The main aim of this programme is to identify cluster X-ray sources, to determine the distance to the X-ray emitting clusters and to investigate their overall properties. These observations permitted to measure the redshift of the RXJ1347.5-1145 cluster as z = 0.45, i.e. it moves away from us with a velocity (about 106,000 km/sec) equal to about one-third of the velocity of light. This is an effect of the general expansion of the universe and it allows to determine the distance as about 5,000 million light-years (assuming a Hubble constant of 75 km/sec/Mpc). In other words, we see these galaxies as they were 5,000 million years ago. Knowing the intensity of the X-ray emission as measured by ROSAT and also the distance, the astronomers were then able to estimate the total X-ray energy emitted by this cluster. It was found to be extremely high [3], in fact higher than that of any other cluster ever observed by ROSAT. It amounts to no less than 1.5 million million times the total energy emitted by the Sun. It is believed that this strong X-ray emission originates in a hot gas located between the galaxies in the cluster. The high temperature indicates that the components of the gas move very rapidly; this is related to the strong gravitational field within the cluster. THE GRAVITATIONAL ARCS To their great surprise and delight, the astronomers also discovered two bright arcs, 5 - 6 arcseconds long and symmetrically placed about 35 arcseconds to the North-East and South-West of the brightest galaxies in the cluster (see the photo). They were detected on exposures of only 3 minutes duration with the 2.2-metre telescope and are among the brightest such arcs ever found. At the indicated distance, the arcs are situated at a projected distance of about 500,000 light-years from the centre of the cluster. It is an interesting possibility that the two arcs may in fact be two images of the same, very distant galaxy, that is situated far beyond RXJ1347.5-1145 and whose light has been bent and split by this cluster's strong gravitational field. This strange phenomenon was first discovered in the late 1970's and is referred to as gravitational lensing. Quite a few examples are now known, in most cases in the form of double or multiple images of quasars. About three dozen cases involve well visible galaxy clusters and elongated arcs, but few, if any, of these arcs are as bright as those seen in the present cluster. This particular arc configuration enables a very accurate determination of the total mass of the cluster, once the distance of the background galaxy has been measured (by obtaining spectra of the arcs and measuring their redshift). The masses of galaxy clus

1995-06-01

218

Covariance Modifications to Subspace Bases  

SciTech Connect

Adaptive signal processing algorithms that rely upon representations of signal and noise subspaces often require updates to those representations when new data become available. Subspace representations frequently are estimated from available data with singular value (SVD) decompositions. Subspace updates require modifications to these decompositions. Updates can be performed inexpensively provided they are low-rank. A substantial literature on SVD updates exists, frequently focusing on rank-1 updates (see e.g. [Karasalo, 1986; Comon and Golub, 1990, Badeau, 2004]). In these methods, data matrices are modified by addition or deletion of a row or column, or data covariance matrices are modified by addition of the outer product of a new vector. A recent paper by Brand [2006] provides a general and efficient method for arbitrary rank updates to an SVD. The purpose of this note is to describe a closely-related method for applications where right singular vectors are not required. This note also describes the SVD updates to a particular scenario of interest in seismic array signal processing. The particular application involve updating the wideband subspace representation used in seismic subspace detectors [Harris, 2006]. These subspace detectors generalize waveform correlation algorithms to detect signals that lie in a subspace of waveforms of dimension d {ge} 1. They potentially are of interest because they extend the range of waveform variation over which these sensitive detectors apply. Subspace detectors operate by projecting waveform data from a detection window into a subspace specified by a collection of orthonormal waveform basis vectors (referred to as the template). Subspace templates are constructed from a suite of normalized, aligned master event waveforms that may be acquired by a single sensor, a three-component sensor, an array of such sensors or a sensor network. The template design process entails constructing a data matrix whose columns contain the master event waveform data, then performing a singular value decomposition on the data matrix to extract an orthonormal basis for the waveform suite. The template typically is comprised of a subset of the left singular vectors corresponding to the larger singular values. The application involves updating a subspace template when new data become available, i.e. when new defining events are detected for a particular source. It often is the case that the waveforms corresponding to a particular source drift over time [Harris, 2001]. The Green's functions describing propagation can be altered because of changes in the source region. For example, if the source is a mine, signals from explosions may change gradually as a pit is extended (the source moves) or the scattering topography is altered by excavation. This motivates a tracking adjustment to a subspace representation. This note also comments on SVD updates for a related problem. In realistic pipeline operations it often is the case that data from one or more channels of an array are unusable (dead channels, channels with prolific dropouts, etc.). In such cases it is desirable to modify an array subspace template to operate on data only from the remaining usable channels. Furthermore, it is desirable to modify the templates directly without recourse to the original data matrix. Usually the template design process is separate from the application of the template in a detector to a continuous data stream. Consequently, the original data matrix may not be available for template modification at detector run time.

Harris, D B

2008-11-19

219

Histone h4 modification during mouse spermatogenesis.  

PubMed

The core histone is composed of four proteins (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Investigation of the modification patterns of histones is critical to understanding their roles in biological processes. Although histone modification is observed in multiple cells and tissues, little is known about its function in spermatogenesis. We focused on the modification patterns of histone H4 during murine spermatogenesis. We demonstrated that the individual N-terminal sites of H4 show different modification patterns during the differentiation of male germ cells. The methylation pattern varied depending on the residues that were mono-, di-, or tri-methylated. All the H4 modifications were high during the meiotic prophase, suggesting that histone H4 modification plays an important role during this stage of spermatogenesis. Elongating spermatids showed increased acetylation of histone H4, which may be associated with a histone-to-protamine substitution. Our results provide further insight into the specific relationship between histone H4 modification and gene expression during spermatogenesis, which could help to elucidate the epigenetic disorders underlying male infertility. PMID:25087733

Shirakata, Yoshiki; Hiradate, Yuuki; Inoue, Hiroki; Sato, Eimei; Tanemura, Kentaro

2014-10-23

220

Oscillations with uniquely long periods in a microfluidic bubble generator  

E-print Network

and space is still limited2,3,7 . Spatiotemporal dynamics may underlie phenomena as varied as weather8 and modification. The system comprises coupled microfluidic flow-focusing devices. A single flow-focusing device14

Prentiss, Mara

221

Harmonic maps and uniqueness of axisymmetric monopole solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The uniqueness of axisymmetric monopole solutions to the Bogomolny equations is studied. The generalized Green identity for harmonic maps is used to prove that the Prasad-Sommerfield solution is the unique axisymmetric one-monopole solution. The multimonopole solutions are also discussed.

Mazur, P. O.; Richter, E.

1985-01-01

222

UNIQUENESS IN INVERSE OBSTACLE SCATTERING FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES  

E-print Network

UNIQUENESS IN INVERSE OBSTACLE SCATTERING FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES Rainer Kress Institut f-harmonic electromagnetic waves. We will concentrate on uniqueness issues, i.e., we will investigate under what conditions to Potthast. THE INVERSE OBSTACLE SCATTERING PROBLEM The propagation of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves

Kress, Rainer

223

The cone inputs to the unique-hue mechanisms.  

PubMed

Our aim was to characterise the chromatic mechanisms that yield the four unique hues: red, green, yellow and blue. We measured the null planes for all four unique hues and report the following two main results. (1) We confirm that three chromatic mechanisms are required to account for the four unique hues. These three chromatic mechanisms do not coincide with the chromatic tuning found in parvocellular LGN neurones, i.e., neurones tuned to L-M and S-(L+M); these subcortical chromatic mechanisms are hence not the neural substrate of the perceptual unique hues and further higher-order colour mechanisms need to be postulated. Our results are consistent with the idea that the two higher-order colour mechanisms that yield unique red and unique green respectively combine the incremental and decremental responses of the subcortical chromatic mechanisms with different weights. In contrast, unique yellow and unique blue can be explained by postulating a single higher-order chromatic mechanism that combines the incremental and decremental subcortical chromatic responses with similar weights. (2) The variability between observers is small when expressed in terms of perceptual errors, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the colour vision system in adult humans is able to recalibrate itself based on prior visual experience. PMID:16087209

Wuerger, Sophie M; Atkinson, Philip; Cropper, Simon

2005-11-01

224

47 CFR 73.875 - Modification of transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Modification of transmission systems. 73.875 Section 73...LPFM) § 73.875 Modification of transmission systems. The following procedures...modifications of authorized broadcast transmission system facilities. (a) The...

2012-10-01

225

47 CFR 73.875 - Modification of transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Modification of transmission systems. 73.875 Section 73...LPFM) § 73.875 Modification of transmission systems. The following procedures...modifications of authorized broadcast transmission system facilities. (a) The...

2010-10-01

226

47 CFR 73.875 - Modification of transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Modification of transmission systems. 73.875 Section 73...LPFM) § 73.875 Modification of transmission systems. The following procedures...modifications of authorized broadcast transmission system facilities. (a) The...

2011-10-01

227

Phosphorylation of unique domains of Src family kinases  

PubMed Central

Members of the Src family of kinases (SFKs) are non-receptor tyrosine kinases involved in numerous signal transduction pathways. The catalytic, SH3 and SH2 domains are attached to the membrane-anchoring SH4 domain through the intrinsically disordered “Unique” domains, which exhibit strong sequence divergence among SFK members. In the last decade, structural and biochemical studies have begun to uncover the crucial role of the Unique domain in the regulation of SFK activity. This mini-review discusses what is known about the phosphorylation events taking place on the SFK Unique domains, and their biological relevance. The modulation by phosphorylation of biologically relevant inter- and intra- molecular interactions of Src, as well as the existence of complex phosphorylation/dephosphorylation patterns observed for the Unique domain of Src, reinforces the important functional role of the Unique domain in the regulation mechanisms of the Src kinases and, in a wider context, of intrinsically disordered regions in cellular processes. PMID:25071818

Amata, Irene; Maffei, Mariano; Pons, Miquel

2014-01-01

228

Post-Translational Modifications of TRP Channels  

PubMed Central

Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels constitute an ancient family of cation channels that have been found in many eukaryotic organisms from yeast to human. TRP channels exert a multitude of physiological functions ranging from Ca2+ homeostasis in the kidney to pain reception and vision. These channels are activated by a wide range of stimuli and undergo covalent post-translational modifications that affect and modulate their subcellular targeting, their biophysical properties, or channel gating. These modifications include N-linked glycosylation, protein phosphorylation, and covalent attachment of chemicals that reversibly bind to specific cysteine residues. The latter modification represents an unusual activation mechanism of ligand-gated ion channels that is in contrast to the lock-and-key paradigm of receptor activation by its agonists. In this review, we summarize the post-translational modifications identified on TRP channels and, when available, explain their physiological role. PMID:24717323

Voolstra, Olaf; Huber, Armin

2014-01-01

229

Particle Distribution Modification by Low Amplitude Modes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Modification of a high energy particle distribution by a spectrum of low amplitude modes is investigated using a guiding center code. Only through resonance are modes effective in modifying the distribution. Diagnostics are used to illustrate the mode-par...

M. A. Van Zeeland, N. Gorelenkov, R. B. White, W. W. Heidbrink

2009-01-01

230

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT WASTE WATER TREATMENT MODIFICATIONS  

E-print Network

.4 Land Use, Demography, and Environmental Justice..........................................39 5ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT MODIFICATIONS FOR IMPROVED EFFLUENT COMPLIANCE ................................................. 22 5.0 AFFECTED ENVIRONMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS..................................22 5.1 Site

Ohta, Shigemi

231

Histone Modifications and Nuclear Architecture: A Review  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic modifications, such as acetylation, phosphorylation, methylation, ubiquitination, and ADP ribosylation, of the highly conserved core histones, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4, influence the genetic potential of DNA. The enormous regulatory potential of histone modification is illustrated in the vast array of epigenetic markers found throughout the genome. More than the other types of histone modification, acetylation and methylation of specific lysine residues on N-terminal histone tails are fundamental for the formation of chromatin domains, such as euchromatin, and facultative and constitutive heterochromatin. In addition, the modification of histones can cause a region of chromatin to undergo nuclear compartmentalization and, as such, specific epigenetic markers are non-randomly distributed within interphase nuclei. In this review, we summarize the principles behind epigenetic compartmentalization and the functional consequences of chromatin arrangement within interphase nuclei. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:711–721, 2008) PMID:18474937

Bartova, Eva; Krejci, Jana; Harnicarova, Andrea; Galiova, Gabriela; Kozubek, Stanislav

2008-01-01

232

25 CFR 134.7 - Modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ACTIVITIES PARTIAL PAYMENT CONSTRUCTION CHARGES ON INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 134.7 Modifications. The act of July 1, 1932 (47 Stat. 564; 25 U.S.C. 386a), cancelled all irrigation assessments for construction costs against lands in Indian...

2012-04-01

233

25 CFR 134.7 - Modifications.  

...ACTIVITIES PARTIAL PAYMENT CONSTRUCTION CHARGES ON INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 134.7 Modifications. The act of July 1, 1932 (47 Stat. 564; 25 U.S.C. 386a), cancelled all irrigation assessments for construction costs against lands in Indian...

2014-04-01

234

25 CFR 134.7 - Modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ACTIVITIES PARTIAL PAYMENT CONSTRUCTION CHARGES ON INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 134.7 Modifications. The act of July 1, 1932 (47 Stat. 564; 25 U.S.C. 386a), cancelled all irrigation assessments for construction costs against lands in Indian...

2011-04-01

235

25 CFR 134.7 - Modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ACTIVITIES PARTIAL PAYMENT CONSTRUCTION CHARGES ON INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 134.7 Modifications. The act of July 1, 1932 (47 Stat. 564; 25 U.S.C. 386a), cancelled all irrigation assessments for construction costs against lands in Indian...

2010-04-01

236

25 CFR 134.7 - Modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ACTIVITIES PARTIAL PAYMENT CONSTRUCTION CHARGES ON INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 134.7 Modifications. The act of July 1, 1932 (47 Stat. 564; 25 U.S.C. 386a), cancelled all irrigation assessments for construction costs against lands in Indian...

2013-04-01

237

Examples of Process Modifications that Reduce Waste  

E-print Network

The ideal approach to reducing or eliminating waste products is to avoid making them in the first place. This article will examine numerous process modifications that have accomplished that goal. We'll look at changes to raw materials, reactors...

Nelson, K. E.

238

Sustainable environmental nanotechnology using nanoparticle surface modification.  

EPA Science Inventory

Reactive nanomaterials used for environmental remediation require surface modification to make them mobile in the subsurface. Nanomaterials released into the environment inadvertently without an engineered surface coating will acquire one (e.g. adsorption of natural organic matt...

239

40 CFR 58.14 - System modification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...final plan and schedule with respect to the SLAMS network are subject to the approval...agency from making modifications to the SLAMS network for reasons other than those...appropriate, local agency requests for SLAMS monitor station discontinuation,...

2013-07-01

240

40 CFR 58.14 - System modification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...final plan and schedule with respect to the SLAMS network are subject to the approval...agency from making modifications to the SLAMS network for reasons other than those...appropriate, local agency requests for SLAMS monitor station discontinuation,...

2012-07-01

241

21 CFR 331.21 - Test modifications.  

...Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Testing Procedures § 331.21 Test modifications....

2014-04-01

242

21 CFR 331.21 - Test modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Testing Procedures § 331.21 Test modifications....

2013-04-01

243

21 CFR 331.21 - Test modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Testing Procedures § 331.21 Test modifications....

2010-04-01

244

21 CFR 331.21 - Test modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Testing Procedures § 331.21 Test modifications....

2011-04-01

245

21 CFR 331.21 - Test modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ANTACID PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) HUMAN USE Testing Procedures § 331.21 Test modifications....

2012-04-01

246

Surface and interface modification science and technology.  

SciTech Connect

Surface modification of solids is of scientific and technological interest due to its significant benefits in a wide variety of applications. Various coatings applications such as corrosion protection and electrical insulators and conductors are required for proper engineering design based on geometrical relationships between interfaces and on thermodynamic/kinetic considerations for the development of surface modifications. This paper will explore three basic examples: the proton conductor BaCeO{sub 3}, high-temperature protective coatings, and epitaxial relationships between interfaces.

Park, J.-H.

1999-07-19

247

Surface layer modification of ion bombarded HDPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Press-moulded, high density polyethylene (HDPE) samples were subjected to ion bombardment and effects of the modification studied. He+ ions of energy 100 keV or Ar+ ions of energy 130 keV were applied in the range of dose 1–30×1015\\/cm2 or 1–100×1014\\/cm2, respectively. This paper has been focused on structural changes of the surface layer. The consequences of the modification were studied

D. Bielinski; P. Lipinski; L. Slusarski; J. Grams; T. Paryjczak; J. Jagielski; A. Turos; N. K. Madi

2004-01-01

248

Nanoscale Materials Modification for Device Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter considers device applications of ion beams that involve nanoscale modification of materials. It is necessarily\\u000a selective and does not include broad classes of applications such as ion beam assisted deposition of thin films or tribological\\u000a modification of surfaces for improved wear, corrosion resistance or biocompatibility. Instead it aims to illustrate the diversity\\u000a of ion beam applications by providing

Robert G. Elliman

249

Establishment of Histone Modifications after Chromatin Assembly  

PubMed Central

Every cell has to duplicate its entire genome during S-phase of the cell cycle. After replication, the newly synthesized DNA is rapidly assembled into chromatin. The newly assembled chromatin ‘matures’ and adopts a variety of different conformations. This differential packaging of DNA plays an important role for the maintenance of gene expression patterns and has to be reliably copied in each cell division. Posttranslational histone modifications are prime candidates for the regulation of the chromatin structure. In order to understand the maintenance of chromatin structures, it is crucial to understand the replication of histone modification patterns. To study the kinetics of histone modifications in vivo, we have pulse-labeled synchronized cells with an isotopically labeled arginine (15N4) that is 4 Da heavier than the naturally occurring 14N4 isoform. As most of the histone synthesis is coupled with replication, the cells were arrested at the G1/S boundary, released into S-phase and simultaneously incubated in the medium containing heavy arginine, thus labeling all newly synthesized proteins. This method allows a comparison of modification patterns on parental versus newly deposited histones. Experiments using various pulse/chase times show that particular modifications have considerably different kinetics until they have acquired a modification pattern indistinguishable from the parental histones. PMID:19541851

Scharf, Annette N. D.; Barth, Teresa K.; Imhof, Axel

2009-01-01

250

20 CFR 410.515 - Modification of benefit amounts; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Modification of benefit amounts; general...515 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Payment of Benefits § 410.515 Modification of benefit amounts; general...amount of monthly benefits as computed...

2010-04-01

251

48 CFR 243.205-70 - Pricing of contract modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT MODIFICATIONS Change Orders 243.205-70 Pricing of contract modifications. Use the clause at...

2010-10-01

252

Disease modification in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related, progressive, multisystem neurodegenerative disorder resulting in significant morbidity and mortality, as well as a growing social and financial burden in an aging population. The hallmark of PD is loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta, leading to bradykinesia, rigidity and tremor. Current pharmacological treatment is therefore centred upon dopamine replacement to alleviate symptoms. However, two major problems complicate this approach: (i) motor symptoms continue to progress, requiring increasing doses of medication, which result in both short-term adverse effects and intermediate- to long-term motor complications; (ii) dopamine replacement does little to treat non-dopaminergic motor and non-motor symptoms, which are an important source of morbidity, including dementia, sleep disturbances, depression, orthostatic hypotension, and postural instability leading to falls. It is critical, therefore, to develop a broader and more fundamental therapeutic approach to PD, and major research efforts have focused upon developing neuroprotective interventions. Despite many encouraging preclinical data suggesting the possibility of addressing the underlying pathophysiology by slowing cell loss, efforts to translate this into the clinical realm have largely proved disappointing in the past. Barriers to finding neuroprotective or disease-modifying drugs in PD include a lack of validated biomarkers of progression, which hampers clinical trial design and interpretation; difficulties separating symptomatic and neuroprotective effects of candidate neuroprotective therapies; and possibly fundamental flaws in some of the basic preclinical models and testing. However, three recent clinical trials have used a novel delayed-start design in an attempt to overcome some of these roadblocks. While not examining markers of cell loss and function, which would determine neuroprotective effects, this trial design pragmatically tests whether earlier versus later intervention is beneficial. If positive (i.e. if an earlier intervention proves more effective), this demonstrates disease modification, which could result from neuroprotection or from other mechanisms. This strategy therefore provides a first step towards supporting neuroprotection in PD. Of the three delayed-start design clinical trials, two have investigated early versus later start of rasagiline, a specific irreversible monoamine oxidase B inhibitor. Each trial has supported, although not proven, disease-modifying effects. A third delayed-start-design clinical trial examining potential disease-modifying effects of pramipexole has unfortunately reportedly been negative according to preliminary presentations. The suggestion that rasagiline is disease modifying is made all the more compelling by in vitro and PD animal-model studies in which rasagiline was shown to have neuroprotective effects. In this review, we examine efforts to demonstrate neuroprotection in PD to date, describe ongoing neuroprotection trials, and critically discuss the results of the most recent delayed-start clinical trials that test possible disease-modifying activities of rasagiline and pramipexole in PD. PMID:21812497

Henchcliffe, Claire; Severt, W Lawrence

2011-08-01

253

Guide to good practices for operations aspects of unique processes  

SciTech Connect

This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Operations Aspects of Facility Chemistry and Unique Processes, Chapter XIII of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing employee training and facility management programs. Contractors are advised to adopt procedures that meet the intent of DOE Order 5480.19. Operations Aspects of Unique Processes is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for all personnel to coordinate interrelated activities affecting unique processes.

NONE

1998-12-01

254

On Time Delay Margin Estimation for Adaptive Control and Optimal Control Modification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents methods for estimating time delay margin for adaptive control of input delay systems with almost linear structured uncertainty. The bounded linear stability analysis method seeks to represent an adaptive law by a locally bounded linear approximation within a small time window. The time delay margin of this input delay system represents a local stability measure and is computed analytically by three methods: Pade approximation, Lyapunov-Krasovskii method, and the matrix measure method. These methods are applied to the standard model-reference adaptive control, s-modification adaptive law, and optimal control modification adaptive law. The windowing analysis results in non-unique estimates of the time delay margin since it is dependent on the length of a time window and parameters which vary from one time window to the next. The optimal control modification adaptive law overcomes this limitation in that, as the adaptive gain tends to infinity and if the matched uncertainty is linear, then the closed-loop input delay system tends to a LTI system. A lower bound of the time delay margin of this system can then be estimated uniquely without the need for the windowing analysis. Simulation results demonstrates the feasibility of the bounded linear stability method for time delay margin estimation.

Nguyen, Nhan T.

2011-01-01

255

221. View entering smart view. Note the unique snake rail ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

221. View entering smart view. Note the unique snake rail fence. The pond was a manipulated landscape element. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

256

Unique-sample selection via near-infrared spectral subtraction  

SciTech Connect

A method is described and tested for improving the training sample set in near-infrared diffuse-reflectance analysis (NIRA). Utilizing linear algebra techniques similar to spectral subtraction, this method selects the most spectrally unique samples from those in a larger pool. Upon being analyzed, these spectrally unique samples are found to have a significantly larger variation in their chemical compositions than the pool of samples from which they were selected. When the spectrally unique samples are incorporated into a NIRA training set, the resulting calibration is improved in two ways: first, the larger variations in sample composition help to make a NIRA calibration more robust and less subject to unexpected variations in the sample matrix; second, use of the spectrally unique samples reduces the time and effort involved in developing a NIRA method of analysis. 13 references, 2 figures, 7 tables.

Honigs, D.E.; Hieftje, G.M.; Mark, H.L.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

1985-10-01

257

Unique Energy Management Training Offers Certification and Energy Savings  

E-print Network

The Northwest Energy Education Institute1 (NEEI) has developed and presents a very unique energy efficiency training and certification program. Modeled after a similar course once offered in New Zealand, NEEI offers a two-week energy management...

Ebbage, R.

2004-01-01

258

Unique University and Utility Team Reduces Energy and Pollutants  

E-print Network

In 1992 the Center for Energy Systems Research of the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences and the Arizona State University (ASU) Facilities Management Department formed a unique Demand Side Management (DSM) team dedicated to reducing energy...

Smith, K. L.; Traill, D. A.; Sears, R. L.; Spielman, M.

259

Midwest Motor Systems Consortium- A Unique Business Partnership  

E-print Network

The Midwest Motor Systems Consortium is a creative, new business partnership of motor systems users, suppliers, and other interested parties. It is unique in that it brings together all of the stakeholders in the motor systems market-with buyers...

Hackner, R.; Cockrill, C.

260

Unique in the Crowd: The privacy bounds of human mobility  

PubMed Central

We study fifteen months of human mobility data for one and a half million individuals and find that human mobility traces are highly unique. In fact, in a dataset where the location of an individual is specified hourly, and with a spatial resolution equal to that given by the carrier's antennas, four spatio-temporal points are enough to uniquely identify 95% of the individuals. We coarsen the data spatially and temporally to find a formula for the uniqueness of human mobility traces given their resolution and the available outside information. This formula shows that the uniqueness of mobility traces decays approximately as the 1/10 power of their resolution. Hence, even coarse datasets provide little anonymity. These findings represent fundamental constraints to an individual's privacy and have important implications for the design of frameworks and institutions dedicated to protect the privacy of individuals. PMID:23524645

de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Hidalgo, Cesar A.; Verleysen, Michel; Blondel, Vincent D.

2013-01-01

261

New Guidelines for Reducing Stroke Risks Unique to Women  

MedlinePLUS

... HeartNews Making News on Heart.org Learn More New guidelines for reducing stroke risks unique to women ... Bushnell, M.D., M.H.S., author of the new scientific statement published in the American Heart Association ...

262

The Unique Derivative Expansion for Thermal Effective Actions  

E-print Network

I show that there is a unique and well behaved derivative expansion of an effective action at finite temperature. The result is true for all formalisms including the popular Closed Time Path and Imaginary Time methods.

T. S. Evans

1998-08-21

263

Practical relevance of pattern uniqueness in forensic science.  

PubMed

Uniqueness being unprovable, it has recently been argued that individualization in forensic science is irrelevant and, probability, as applied for DNA profiles, should be applied for all identifications. Critiques against uniqueness have omitted physical matching, a realistic and tangible individualization that supports uniqueness. Describing case examples illustrating pattern matches including physical matching, it is indicated that individualizations are practically relevant for forensic science as they establish facts on a definitive basis providing firm leads benefitting criminal investigation. As a tenet of forensic identification, uniqueness forms a fundamental paradigm relevant for individualization. Evidence on the indeterministic and stochastic causal pathways of characteristics in patterns available in the related fields of science sufficiently supports the proposition of uniqueness. Characteristics involved in physical matching and matching achieved in patterned evidence existing in the state of nature are not events amenable for counting; instead these are ensemble of visible units occupying the entire pattern area stretching the probability of re-occurrence of a verisimilitude pattern into infinity offering epistemic support to uniqueness. Observational methods are as respectable as instrumental or statistical methods since they are capable of generating results that are tangible and obviously valid as in physical matching. Applying the probabilistic interpretation used for DNA profiles to the other patterns would be unbefitting since these two are disparate, the causal pathways of the events, the loci, in the manipulated DNA profiles being determinable. While uniqueness enables individualizations, it does not vouch for eliminating errors. Instead of dismissing uniqueness and individualization, accepting errors as human or system failures and seeking remedial measures would benefit forensic science practice and criminal investigation. PMID:23849815

Jayaprakash, Paul T

2013-09-10

264

Morphological Awareness Uniquely Predicts Young Children's Chinese Character Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two unique measures of morphological awareness, along with other reading-related tasks, were orally administered to 100 kindergarten and 100 2nd-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. These morphological awareness tasks were developed on the basis of 2 special properties of Chinese: (a) the relatively large number of homophones requires speakers to distinguish unique meanings in syllables with identical sounds, and (b) complex

Catherine McBride-Chang; Hua Shu; Aibao Zhou; Chun Pong Wat; Richard K. Wagner

2003-01-01

265

Low Grade Heat Recovery- A Unique Approach at Polysar Limited  

E-print Network

LOW GRADE HEAT RECOVERY A UNIQUE APPROACH AT POLYSAR LIMITED Steve S. F. Shyr Process Engineer, Energy Control Group Polysar Limited Samia, Ontario, Canada ABSTRACf An innovative energy conservation project involving one of the largest... known plate heat exchangers in Canada saves energy for Polysar Limited. This unique retrofit proj~t has not only increased the recovery of low grade heat but also Integrated and optimized the operation of two dif~erent .w~ter treatment facilities...

Shyr, S.

266

Denture identification using unique identification authority of India barcode  

PubMed Central

Over the years, various denture marking systems have been reported in the literature for personal identification. They have been broadly divided into surface marking and inclusion methods. In this technique, patient's unique identification number and barcode printed in the patient's Aadhaar card issued by Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) are used as denture markers. This article describes a simple, quick, and economical method for identification of individual. PMID:23960418

Mahoorkar, Sudhindra; Jain, Anoop

2013-01-01

267

Covalent Modification Cycles through the Spatial Prism  

PubMed Central

Covalent modification cycles are basic units and building blocks of posttranslational modification and cellular signal transduction. We systematically explore different spatial aspects of signal transduction in covalent modification cycles by starting with a basic temporal cycle as a reference and focusing on steady-state signal transduction. We consider, in turn, the effect of diffusion on spatial signal transduction, spatial analogs of ultrasensitive behavior, and the interplay between enzyme localization and substrate diffusion. Our analysis reveals the need to explicitly account for kinetics and diffusional transport (and localization) of enzymes, substrates, and complexes. It demonstrates a complex and subtle interplay between spatial heterogeneity, diffusion, and localization. Overall, examining the spatial dimension of covalent modification reveals that 1), there are important differences between spatial and temporal signal transduction even in this cycle; and 2), spatial aspects may play a substantial role in affecting and distorting information transfer in modules/networks that are usually studied in purely temporal terms. This has important implications for the systematic understanding of signaling in covalent modification cycles, pathways, and networks in multiple cellular contexts. PMID:24094413

Alam-Nazki, Aiman; Krishnan, J.

2013-01-01

268

Genetic Variation Stimulated by Epigenetic Modification W. Jason Cummings1  

E-print Network

Genetic Variation Stimulated by Epigenetic Modification W. Jason Cummings1 , David W. Bednarski1 modification can stimulate genetic variation. The evidence that distinct activating modifications can promote: Cummings WJ, Bednarski DW, Maizels N (2007) Genetic Variation Stimulated by Epigenetic Modification. PLo

Maizels, Nancy

269

Linking the genetic architecture of cytosine modifications with human complex traits.  

PubMed

Interindividual variation in cytosine modifications could contribute to heterogeneity in disease risks and other complex traits. We assessed the genetic architecture of cytosine modifications at 283 540 CpG sites in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from independent samples of European and African descent. Our study suggests that cytosine modification variation was primarily controlled in local by single major modification quantitative trait locus (mQTL) and additional minor loci. Local genetic epistasis was detectable for a small proportion of CpG sites, which were enriched by more than 9-fold for CpG sites mapped to population-specific mQTL. Genetically dependent CpG sites whose modification levels negatively (repressive sites) or positively (facilitative sites) correlated with gene expression levels significantly co-localized with transcription factor binding, with the repressive sites predominantly associated with active promoters whereas the facilitative sites rarely at active promoters. Genetically independent repressive or facilitative sites preferentially modulated gene expression variation by influencing local chromatin accessibility, with the facilitative sites primarily antagonizing H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 deposition. In comparison with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), mQTL detected from LCLs were enriched in associations for a broader range of disease categories including chronic inflammatory, autoimmune and psychiatric disorders, suggesting that cytosine modification variation, while possesses a degree of cell linage specificity, is more stably inherited over development than gene expression variation. About 11% of unique single-nucleotide polymorphisms reported in the Genome-Wide Association Study Catalog were annotated, 78% as mQTL and 31% as eQTL in LCLs, which covered 37% of the investigated diseases/traits and provided insights to the biological mechanisms. PMID:24943591

Zhang, Xu; Moen, Erika L; Liu, Cong; Mu, Wenbo; Gamazon, Eric R; Delaney, Shannon M; Wing, Claudia; Godley, Lucy A; Dolan, M Eileen; Zhang, Wei

2014-11-15

270

Hypusine-containing protein eIF5A promotes translation elongation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Translation elongation factors facilitate protein synthesis by the ribosome. Previous studies identified two universally conserved translation elongation factors, EF-Tu in bacteria (known as eEF1A in eukaryotes) and EF-G (eEF2), which deliver aminoacyl-tRNAs to the ribosome and promote ribosomal translocation, respectively. The factor eIF5A (encoded by HYP2 and ANB1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae), the sole protein in eukaryotes and archaea to contain

Preeti Saini; Daniel E. Eyler; Rachel Green; Thomas E. Dever

2009-01-01

271

Body modifications, sexual activity, and religious practices.  

PubMed

Relations among body modifications (i.e., tattoos and piercings), sexual activity, and religious practices and beliefs were examined. In previous studies, Koch and colleagues found the type of body modification seemed to interact with sex to predict sexual activity; but only weak, negative correlations were found between tattoos and religious beliefs and practices. In a sample of 236 students (M age=20.1 yr.) from a small Catholic liberal arts college, numbers of tattoos and sexual partners were correlated statistically significantly. Other results differed by t sex: men with piercings were more likely to have had premarital intercourse, and women who had had premarital intercourse had more piercings than women who had not. There were no statistically significant correlations among body modifications and religious variables. PMID:20524547

Rivardo, Mark G; Keelan, Colleen M

2010-04-01

272

Identification and interrogation of combinatorial histone modifications  

PubMed Central

Histone proteins are dynamically modified to mediate a variety of cellular processes including gene transcription, DNA damage repair, and apoptosis. Regulation of these processes occurs through the recruitment of non-histone proteins to chromatin by specific combinations of histone post-translational modifications (PTMs). Mass spectrometry has emerged as an essential tool to discover and quantify histone PTMs both within and between samples in an unbiased manner. Developments in mass spectrometry that allow for characterization of large histone peptides or intact protein has made it possible to determine which modifications occur simultaneously on a single histone polypeptide. A variety of techniques from biochemistry, biophysics, and chemical biology have been employed to determine the biological relevance of discovered combinatorial codes. This review first describes advancements in the field of mass spectrometry that have facilitated histone PTM analysis and then covers notable approaches to probe the biological relevance of these modifications in their nucleosomal context. PMID:24391660

Karch, Kelly R.; DeNizio, Jamie E.; Black, Ben E.; Garcia, Benjamin A.

2013-01-01

273

Hypertension improvement through healthy lifestyle modifications.  

PubMed

Hypertension is the major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and renal disease. This disease has a disproportionate effect on African Americans when compared to other races. The purpose of this project was to examine the effectiveness of healthy lifestyle modifications on blood pressure control among hypertensive African American adults. Thirty-six individuals participated in the 12-week project, with a 67% retention rate. Weekly sessions included interactive educational and walking components. Initial and final BMI measurements were recorded. Participants completed health risk assessments; pre and post questionnaires; and, daily logs ofblood pressure measurement, dietary consumption, and physical activity levels. Data were collected from the logs, BMI measurements, and questionnaires. Overall, the results revealed that participants experienced an increase in healthy lifestyle modification adoption resulting in blood pressure control improvement. Implementation of healthy lifestyle modifications is crucial in providing quality patient care to hypertensive individuals. PMID:21675668

Rigsby, Brenda D

2011-01-01

274

Uncoupling Transcription from Covalent Histone Modification  

PubMed Central

It is widely accepted that transcriptional regulation of eukaryotic genes is intimately coupled to covalent modifications of the underlying chromatin template, and in certain cases the functional consequences of these modifications have been characterized. Here we present evidence that gene activation in the silent heterochromatin of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can occur in the context of little, if any, covalent histone modification. Using a SIR-regulated heat shock-inducible transgene, hsp82-2001, and a natural drug-inducible subtelomeric gene, YFR057w, as models we demonstrate that substantial transcriptional induction (>200-fold) can occur in the context of restricted histone loss and negligible levels of H3K4 trimethylation, H3K36 trimethylation and H3K79 dimethylation, modifications commonly linked to transcription initiation and elongation. Heterochromatic gene activation can also occur with minimal H3 and H4 lysine acetylation and without replacement of H2A with the transcription-linked variant H2A.Z. Importantly, absence of histone modification does not stem from reduced transcriptional output, since hsp82-?TATA, a euchromatic promoter mutant lacking a TATA box and with threefold lower induced transcription than heterochromatic hsp82-2001, is strongly hyperacetylated in response to heat shock. Consistent with negligible H3K79 dimethylation, dot1? cells lacking H3K79 methylase activity show unimpeded occupancy of RNA polymerase II within activated heterochromatic promoter and coding regions. Our results indicate that large increases in transcription can be observed in the virtual absence of histone modifications often thought necessary for gene activation. PMID:24722509

Gross, David S.

2014-01-01

275

A amphoteric copolymer profile modification agent  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a new gel profile modification agent prepared by an amphoteric copolymer (FT-213) and a novel crosslinking agent (BY), and introduces the preparations of the amphoteric polymer, the crosslinking agent and the profile modification agent, the action mechanism, the test conditions and the evaluations of the performance of the agent. The 45 well treatments in oilfields demonstrate that the agent can be prepared conveniently, the agent has better compatibility and application performances, and the treatment life is longer with the use of the agent. 80,000 tons incremental oil and 60,000 m{sup 3} decreasing water production have been achieved.

Wang HongGuan; Yu LianCheng; Tian HongKun [Scientific Research Inst. of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing (China)

1995-11-01

276

Meteorological satellites in support of weather modification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the past several years, many weather modification programs have been incorporating meteorological satellite data into both the operations and the analysis phase of these projects. This has occurred because of the advancement of the satellite as a mesoscale measurement platform, both temporally and spatially, and as the availability of high quality data has increased. This paper surveys the applications of meteorological satellite data to both summer and winter weather modification programs. A description of the types of observations needed by the programs is given, and an assessment of how accurately satellites can determine these necessary parameters is made.

Reynolds, D. W.; Vonder Haar, T. H.; Grant, L. O.

1978-01-01

277

Modifications of Hadrons in the Nuclear Medium  

SciTech Connect

The high-energy and short-distances regime of the strong interaction is successfully described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) involving quark and gluon degrees of freedom. In the low-energy and large-distances regime, QCD-inspired effective models are needed to describe the observed phenomena. These models predict a modification of the properties of hadrons in nuclear matter from their free-space values. A review of the theoretical and experimental approach to the in-medium modifications of light hadrons will be given.

Djalali, Chaden [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

2010-08-04

278

Epigenetic Modifications in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Aberrant epigenetic modifications are well-recognized drivers for oncogenesis. Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is no exception and serves as a model toward the significant impact these heritable alterations can have in leukemogenesis. In this brief review, we will focus on the main aspects of epigenetics, which control leukemogenesis in pediatric ALL, mainly DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA alterations. As we continue to gain better understanding of the driving mechanisms for pediatric ALL at both diagnosis and relapse, therapeutic interventions directed toward these pathways and mechanisms can be harnessed and introduced into clinical trials for pediatric ALL. PMID:24860797

Burke, Michael J.; Bhatla, Teena

2014-01-01

279

NASTRAN modifications for recovering strains and curvatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modifications to the NASTRAN structural analysis computer program are described. The modifications allow the recovery of strain and curvature data for the general two-dimensional elements, in addition to the usual stress data. Option features allow the transformation of the strain/curvature (or stress) data to a common coordinate system and representation at the grid points of the structural model rather than at the conventional element center locations. Usage information is provided which will allow present users of NASTRAN to easily utilize the new capability.

Hennrich, C. W.

1975-01-01

280

Surface modification to prevent oxide scale spallation  

DOEpatents

A surface modification to prevent oxide scale spallation is disclosed. The surface modification includes a ferritic stainless steel substrate having a modified surface. A cross-section of the modified surface exhibits a periodic morphology. The periodic morphology does not exceed a critical buckling length, which is equivalent to the length of a wave attribute observed in the cross section periodic morphology. The modified surface can be created using at least one of the following processes: shot peening, surface blasting and surface grinding. A coating can be applied to the modified surface.

Stephens, Elizabeth V; Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning; Stevenson, Jeffry W; Surdoval, Wayne; Khaleel, Mohammad A

2013-07-16

281

BuD, a helix-loop-helix DNA-binding domain for genome modification.  

PubMed

DNA editing offers new possibilities in synthetic biology and biomedicine for modulation or modification of cellular functions to organisms. However, inaccuracy in this process may lead to genome damage. To address this important problem, a strategy allowing specific gene modification has been achieved through the addition, removal or exchange of DNA sequences using customized proteins and the endogenous DNA-repair machinery. Therefore, the engineering of specific protein-DNA interactions in protein scaffolds is key to providing `toolkits' for precise genome modification or regulation of gene expression. In a search for putative DNA-binding domains, BurrH, a protein that recognizes a 19?bp DNA target, was identified. Here, its apo and DNA-bound crystal structures are reported, revealing a central region containing 19 repeats of a helix-loop-helix modular domain (BurrH domain; BuD), which identifies the DNA target by a single residue-to-nucleotide code, thus facilitating its redesign for gene targeting. New DNA-binding specificities have been engineered in this template, showing that BuD-derived nucleases (BuDNs) induce high levels of gene targeting in a locus of the human haemoglobin ? (HBB) gene close to mutations responsible for sickle-cell anaemia. Hence, the unique combination of high efficiency and specificity of the BuD arrays can push forward diverse genome-modification approaches for cell or organism redesign, opening new avenues for gene editing. PMID:25004980

Stella, Stefano; Molina, Rafael; López-Méndez, Blanca; Juillerat, Alexandre; Bertonati, Claudia; Daboussi, Fayza; Campos-Olivas, Ramon; Duchateau, Phillippe; Montoya, Guillermo

2014-07-01

282

BuD, a helix-loop-helix DNA-binding domain for genome modification  

PubMed Central

DNA editing offers new possibilities in synthetic biology and biomedicine for modulation or modification of cellular functions to organisms. However, inaccuracy in this process may lead to genome damage. To address this important problem, a strategy allowing specific gene modification has been achieved through the addition, removal or exchange of DNA sequences using customized proteins and the endogenous DNA-repair machinery. Therefore, the engineering of specific protein–DNA interactions in protein scaffolds is key to providing ‘toolkits’ for precise genome modification or regulation of gene expression. In a search for putative DNA-binding domains, BurrH, a protein that recognizes a 19?bp DNA target, was identified. Here, its apo and DNA-bound crystal structures are reported, revealing a central region containing 19 repeats of a helix–loop–helix modular domain (BurrH domain; BuD), which identifies the DNA target by a single residue-to-nucleotide code, thus facilitating its redesign for gene targeting. New DNA-binding specificities have been engineered in this template, showing that BuD-derived nucleases (BuDNs) induce high levels of gene targeting in a locus of the human haemoglobin ? (HBB) gene close to mutations responsible for sickle-cell anaemia. Hence, the unique combination of high efficiency and specificity of the BuD arrays can push forward diverse genome-modification approaches for cell or organism redesign, opening new avenues for gene editing. PMID:25004980

Stella, Stefano; Molina, Rafael; Lopez-Mendez, Blanca; Juillerat, Alexandre; Bertonati, Claudia; Daboussi, Fayza; Campos-Olivas, Ramon; Duchateau, Phillippe; Montoya, Guillermo

2014-01-01

283

Uniqueness of Quantum States Compatible with Given Measurement Results  

E-print Network

We discuss the uniqueness of quantum states compatible with given results for measuring a set of observables. For a given pure state, we consider two different types of uniqueness: (1) no other pure state is compatible with the same measurement results and (2) no other state, pure or mixed, is compatible with the same measurement results. For case (1), it is known that for a d-dimensional Hilbert space, there exists a set of 4d-5 observables that uniquely determines any pure state. We show that for case (2), 5d-7 observables suffice to uniquely determine any pure state. Thus there is a gap between the results for (1) and (2), and we give some examples to illustrate this. The case of observables corresponding to reduced density matrices (RDMs) of a multipartite system is also discussed, where we improve known bounds on local dimensions for case (2) in which almost all pure states are uniquely determined by their RDMs. We further discuss circumstances where (1) can imply (2). We use convexity of the numerical range of operators to show that when only two observables are measured, (1) always implies (2). More generally, if there is a compact group of symmetries of the state space which has the span of the observables measured as the set of fixed points, then (1) implies (2). We analyze the possible dimensions for the span of such observables. Our results extend naturally to the case of low rank quantum states.

Jianxin Chen; Hillary Dawkins; Zhengfeng Ji; Nathaniel Johnston; David Kribs; Frederic Shultz; Bei Zeng

2012-12-14

284

A Suggested Modification to Maslow's Need Hierarchy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since its development, Maslow's need hierarchy has been criticized and applauded. This investigation was undertaken to explore a modification of the upper levels of the need hierarchy based upon the application of power, competition, and achievement to self, as well as the concept of "other directed." (Author)

Groves, David L.; And Others

1975-01-01

285

Material processing: AI-MSG modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This specification establishes fabrication processing requirements such as cleaning, welding, brazing, and post-weld heat treating for the modification of the Atomics International (AI) Modular Steam Generator (MSG) for use in the Large Leak Test Rig (LLTR) for the study of sodium-water reactions.

C. C. Woolsey; A. Carnazzola

1973-01-01

286

Prespective from a weather modification experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides some views on the statistical design and analysis of weather modification experiments. Perspectives were developed from experience with analyses of the Santa Barbara Phase I experiment summarized in Section 2, Randomization analvses are reported and compared with previously published parametric analyses. The parametric significance levels of tests for a cloud seeding effect agree well with the significance

Ralph A. Bradley; Elton Scott

1980-01-01

287

Modification ofregional groundwater regimes by land reclamation  

E-print Network

Modification ofregional groundwater regimes by land reclamation Jiu Jimmy Jiao Department ofEarth Sciences, The University ofHong Kong, P. R. China Abstract JJ.Jiao Land reclamation has played a significant role in the urban development process in many coastal areas in the world. While reclamation

Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

288

Modifications and tests of MWPC Mu0  

SciTech Connect

E711 MWPC DC5 is on long term loan to E672 from the FNAL physics department. It was received at Indiana University (Bloomington) in May 1988. This paper is a summary of the testing and modifications that were done on this chamber. The chamber is now referred to as Mu0. 11 figs.

Crittenden, R.; Lui, R.; Smith, P.; Welch, K.; Krider, J.

1989-04-01

289

WEATHER MODIFICATION BY AIRCRAFT CLOUD SEEDING  

E-print Network

WEATHER MODIFICATION BY AIRCRAFT CLOUD SEEDING BERYULEV G.P. Head, Department of Cloud;#12; Precipitation Enhancement An aircraft cloud seeding by iceforming or hygroscopic agents is a basis of atmosphere and clouds necessary for decision making, fulfillment of seeding and assessment

Vali, Gabor

290

Body Modification Sites and Abuse History  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-reported experience of physical, sexual, and mental abuse and general emotional abandonment was significantly associated with a variety of piercings, tattoos, and scarifications in a sample of 4,700 members of an online body-modification site. More significant associations were found for the women in the sample than for the men. Possible clinical implications of the results are discussed.

Charles M. Liu; David Lester

2012-01-01

291

Chemical Modification of Nanotubes for Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the production of mesoscopically-engineered materials based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), monitoring the stages of chemical modification will be an important step in the fabrication of usable composite materials. In our research program we developed tools for studying high-temperature composites with a long-term goal of having such instrumentation available for SWNT composite analyses.

Samulski, Edward T.

2003-01-01

292

Cognitive Behavior Modification Newsletter, Number 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter, focusing on literature and research on cognitive behavior modification (CBM), reviews articles and research on CBM with children. Works on retarded children, deaf children and children with learning disabilities are presented, with critical analyses. A parallel section on CBM with adults follows. Problem areas of phobias, anxiety,…

Meichenbaum, Donald

293

Energy conservation through process modification and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of the second law of thermodynamics for identification of energy conservation opportunities in process plants is briefly reviewed. Energy conservation by process modification and control in process and petrochemical plants is presented via examples. Also, a generalized algorithm, minimizing incremental cost, for load allocation to multiple units (functionally similar, e.g., boilers, process heaters, pumps, compressors, etc.) operating in parallel

S. C. Agarwal; M. A. Keyes

1981-01-01

294

How to Train Supervisors in Behavior Modification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a guide for training supervisors in the theory and application of behavior modification using material that has been implemented successfully for many years in companies throughout the country. Procedures for organizing and conducting training sessions in a supervisor training program are presented. The manual, one of four prepared to aid…

Arkin, Ronald; And Others

295

Behavior Modification of Retarded Preschool Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study of behavior modification two Down's syndrome preschool children, the first a 5-year-old boy with autistic behavior patterns and the second a 4-year-old girl whose behavior problem was to reject other children, were examined. The first S was engaged in ball catching activities with a teacher with positive reinforcement (playing the S's…

Yamaguchi, Kaoru

1977-01-01

296

APPLICATION OF COMBUSTION MODIFICATIONS OF INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a field test program to evaluate the effect of minor combustion modifications on pollutant emissions from a variety of industrial combustion equipment types. Tested were 22 units, including refinery process heaters; clay and cement kilns; steel and alu...

297

Oxidative Modifications of Mitochondria Complex II  

PubMed Central

Summary Increased superoxide (O2•?) and nitric oxide (NO) production is a key mechanism of mitochondrial dysfunction in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. In the complex II, oxidative impairment, decreased protein S-glutathionylation, and increased protein tyrosine nitration at the 70 kDa subunit occurs in the post-ischemic myocardium (1–3). To gain the deeper insights into ROS–mediated oxidative modifications relevant in myocardial infarction, isolated complex II is subjected to in vitro oxidative modifications with GSSG (to induce cystine S-glutathionylation) or OONO? (to induce tyrosine nitration). Here, we describe the protocol to characterize the specific oxidative modifications at the 70 kDa subunit by nano-LC/MS/MS analysis. We further demonstrate the cellular oxidative modification with protein nitration/S-glutathionylation with immunofluorescence microscopy using the antibodies against 3-nitrotyrosine/glutathione and complex II 70 kDa polypeptide (AbGSC90) in myocytes under conditions of oxidative stress. PMID:23606255

Zhang, Liwen; Kang, Patrick T.; Chen, Chwen-Lih; Green-Church, Kari B.; Chen, Yeong-Renn

2013-01-01

298

75 FR 16186 - Petitions for Modification  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CFR 75.1101-1(b) (Deluge-type water spray systems). Modification Request: The petitioner...eliminate the use of blow-off dust covers for the spray nozzles of a deluge-type water spray system. As an alternative to using the...

2010-03-31

299

DNA-catalyzed lysine side chain modification.  

PubMed

Catalyzing the covalent modification of aliphatic amino groups, such as the lysine (Lys) side chain, by nucleic acids has been challenging to achieve. Such catalysis will be valuable, for example, for the practical preparation of Lys-modified proteins. We previously reported the DNA-catalyzed modification of the tyrosine and serine hydroxy side chains, but Lys modification has been elusive. Herein, we show that increasing the reactivity of the electrophilic reaction partner by using 5'-phosphorimidazolide (5'-Imp) rather than 5'-triphosphate (5'-ppp) enables the DNA-catalyzed modification of Lys in a DNA-anchored peptide substrate. The DNA-catalyzed reaction of Lys with 5'-Imp is observed in an architecture in which the nucleophile and electrophile are not preorganized. In contrast, previous efforts showed that catalysis was not observed when Lys and 5'-ppp were used in a preorganized arrangement. Therefore, substrate reactivity is more important than preorganization in this context. These findings will assist ongoing efforts to identify DNA catalysts for reactions of protein substrates at lysine side chains. PMID:24981820

Brandsen, Benjamin M; Velez, Tania E; Sachdeva, Amit; Ibrahim, Nora A; Silverman, Scott K

2014-08-18

300

Modifications to the Flexible Spacecraft Dynamics Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modifications to existing subroutines are briefly described and a detailed description of new subroutines is given. The capability to simulate the Dynamics Explorer-B control system new developed and the formulation for this addition is given. The program variables in new labelled COMMON blocks are described in detail and the modified input and output for the d Flexible Spacecraft Dynamics Program is described.

1980-01-01

301

Properties of Statistical Equilibrium Equations: Positivity and Uniqueness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While linear statistical equilibrium equations play an important role in the description of nonequilibrium processes in astrophysics, some of their basic mathematical properties, such as uniqueness and positivity, have not been fully explored. In this paper these properties are related to concepts of connectivity from the theory of continuous-time Markov chains. For the irreducible case (in which every state is connected to every other state, either directly or through intermediate states), the solution is shown to be positive and unique when one positive normalization condition is provided. It is then shown how a general linear statistical equilibrium problem can be reduced by dividing the system into inessential and essential states and then partitioning the latter into separate irreducible subproblems. It is shown that: (1) The inessential states all have zero populations. If a positive normalization condition is imposed separately on each irreducible subproblem, then (2) the essential states all have positive populations and (3) the overall solution is unique.

Rybicki, George B.

1997-04-01

302

Unique stalked crinoids from Upper Cretaceous of Mississippi  

E-print Network

Chalk of northeastern Mississippi. The fossils come from beds of Maastrichtian age near the summit of the Upper Cretaceous section in this region. They are readily identified as unique representatives of the widely distributed family Bourgueticrinidae...—unique in that they are the only yet-discovered fossils belonging to this group from any part of the world in which long pinnulate arms are attached to the dorsal cups. Also, proximal-intermediate and distal regions of the column are shown to be markedly dissimilar, the former...

Moore, R. C.

1967-05-19

303

High-coverage proteome analysis reveals the first insight of protein modification systems in the pathogenic spirochete Leptospira interrogans.  

PubMed

Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira that infects humans and a wide range of animals. By combining computational prediction and high-accuracy tandem mass spectra, we revised the genome annotation of Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai, a free-living pathogenic spirochete responsible for leptospirosis, providing substantial peptide evidence for novel genes and new gene boundaries. Subsequently, we presented a high-coverage proteome analysis of protein expression and multiple posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Approximately 64.3% of the predicted L. interrogans proteins were cataloged by detecting 2 540 proteins. Meanwhile, a profile of multiple PTMs was concurrently established, containing in total 32 phosphorylated, 46 acetylated and 155 methylated proteins. The PTM systems in the serovar Lai show unique features. Unique eukaryotic-like features of L. interrogans protein modifications were demonstrated in both phosphorylation and arginine methylation. This systematic analysis provides not only comprehensive information of high-coverage protein expression and multiple modifications in prokaryotes but also a view suggesting that the evolutionarily primitive L. interrogans shares significant similarities in protein modification systems with eukaryotes. PMID:19918266

Cao, Xing-Jun; Dai, Jie; Xu, Hao; Nie, Song; Chang, Xiao; Hu, Bao-Yu; Sheng, Quan-Hu; Wang, Lian-Shui; Ning, Zhi-Bin; Li, Yi-Xue; Guo, Xiao-Kui; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Zeng, Rong

2010-02-01

304

Increased Levels of a Unique Post-translationally Modified ?IVb-Tubulin Isotype in Liver Cancer†  

PubMed Central

Identifying changes at the molecular level during the development of hepatocellular carcinoma is important for the detection and treatment of the disease. The characteristic structural reorganization of preneoplastic cells may involve changes in the microtubule cytoskeleton. Microtubules are dynamic protein polymers that play an essential role in cell division, maintenance of cell shape, vesicle transport, and motility. They are comprised of multiple isotypes of ?- and ?-tubulin. Changes in the levels of these isotypes may not only affect microtubule stability and sensitivity to drugs, but may also affect interactions with endogenous proteins. We employed a rat liver cancer model that progresses through similar stages as human liver cancer, including metastasis to the lung, in order to identify changes in the tubulin cytoskeleton during carcinogenesis. Tubulin isotypes in both liver and lung tissue were purified and subsequently separated by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis. The C-terminal isotype-defining region from each tubulin was obtained by cyanogen bromide cleavage and identified by mass spectrometry. A novel post-translational modification of ?IVb-tubulin was identified wherein two hydrophobic residues are proteolyzed from the C-terminus, thus exposing a charged glutamic acid residue. The unique form of ?IVb-tubulin was quantified in the liver tissue of all carcinoma stages and found to be approximately three-fold more abundant in nodular and tumor tissue than in control tissue. This form was also found to be increased in lung tissue with liver metastasis. This modification alters the C-terminal domain of one of the most abundant ?-tubulin isotypes in the liver and therefore may affect the interactions of microtubules with endogenous proteins. PMID:18570381

Miller, Leah M.; Menthena, Anuradha; Chatterjee, Champak; Verdier-Pinard, Pascal; Novikoff, Phyllis M.; Horwitz, Susan Band; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue

2008-01-01

305

[Study on esterified modification of anthocyanins by FTIR].  

PubMed

Anthocyanins are relatively abundant in vegetables and fruits, which have potential positive health effects. The role of anthocyanins as food coloring agents becomes very important because they can provide attractive bright color of many food products. Nevertheless, the instability of natural anthocyanins was a big obstacle for its usage in food as colorants. The stability of the red radish anthocyanins is significantly improved by modified esterification of the colorant. Usually, the red radish anthocyanins was composed of several components of similar structures. The major methods for determining the structures of anthocyanin colorants involve chromatographic techniques such as TLC, HPLC and HPLC-MS, which are very useful in separation and identification of the components of anthocyanins However, compared to the spectroscopic method, the chromatographic methods are usually complicated and time-consuming during separation and analysis. In the present paper, the authors seek to establish a new, rapid and economic method for the analysis of structural change before and after esterified modification of anthcyanins in view of unique macro-fingerprint characteristics of infrared spectroscopy, which could reflect the whole change of complicated mixture system. The anthocyanins from red radish was esterification-modified by reacting with succinic anhydride, and the natural and modified anthocyanins were detected by FTIR The results showed that carbonyl of succinic anhydride was connected with the hydroxyl in glucosyl rings of anthocyanins to form new esterified anthocyanins, which are more stable than the natural one and present attractive bright color as usual. PMID:20302076

Lu, Xiao-rui; Lu, Jin-li; Wu, Yan-wen; Ouyang, Jie; Sun, Su-qin

2010-01-01

306

The Effects of Uniqueness-Relevant Feedback and Strength of Need for Uniqueness on the Social Behaviors and Perceptions of Individual Group Discussants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uniqueness theory suggests that individuals are most comfortable with the thought that they are moderately different or unique from others. To test whether individuals with a high need for uniqueness are perceived as being different from those with a low need for uniqueness, 144 college students participated in a two-part study. In part one,…

Case, Thomas L.; Rosen, Sidney

307

Modification-specific proteomics: Strategies for characterization of post-translational modifications using enrichment techniques  

PubMed Central

More than 300 different types of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) have been described, many of which are known to have pivotal roles in cellular physiology and disease. Nevertheless, only a handful of PTMs have been extensively investigated at the proteome level. Knowledge of protein substrates and their PTM sites is key to dissection of PTM-mediated cellular processes. The past several years have seen a tremendous progress in developing MS-based proteomics technologies for global PTM analysis, including numerous studies of yeast and other microbes. Modification-specific enrichment techniques combined with advanced MS/MS methods and computational data analysis have revealed a surprisingly large extent of PTMs in proteins, including multi-site, cooperative modifications in individual proteins. We review some of the current strategies employed for enrichment and detection of PTMs in modification-specific proteomics. PMID:19743430

Zhao, Yingming; Jensen, Ole N.

2010-01-01

308

30 CFR 18.81 - Field modification of approved (permissible) equipment; application for approval of modification...  

...PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field Modifications of Approved Machines, and Permits To Use Experimental Equipment § 18.81...

2014-07-01

309

30 CFR 18.81 - Field modification of approved (permissible) equipment; application for approval of modification...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof...Components, Field Modifications of Approved Machines, and Permits To Use Experimental...

2011-07-01

310

30 CFR 18.81 - Field modification of approved (permissible) equipment; application for approval of modification...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof...Components, Field Modifications of Approved Machines, and Permits To Use Experimental...

2013-07-01

311

30 CFR 18.81 - Field modification of approved (permissible) equipment; application for approval of modification...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof...Components, Field Modifications of Approved Machines, and Permits To Use Experimental...

2012-07-01

312

30 CFR 18.81 - Field modification of approved (permissible) equipment; application for approval of modification...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof...Components, Field Modifications of Approved Machines, and Permits To Use Experimental...

2010-07-01

313

Effect of site-specific modification on restriction endonucleases and DNA modification methyltransferases.  

PubMed Central

Restriction endonucleases have site-specific interactions with DNA that can often be inhibited by site-specific DNA methylation and other site-specific DNA modifications. However, such inhibition cannot generally be predicted. The empirically acquired data on these effects are tabulated for over 320 restriction endonucleases. In addition, a table of known site-specific DNA modification methyltransferases and their specificities is presented along with EMBL database accession numbers for cloned genes. PMID:7937074

McClelland, M; Nelson, M; Raschke, E

1994-01-01

314

Unique fusiform alumina nanotubes fabricated by combined anodization.  

PubMed

Alumina nanotubes (ANTs) with unique fusiform morphologies were synthesized via a simple electrochemical route; the fluctuation of the electronic current density during the anodization process is considered to be the main reason for the formation of such new alumina nanostructures. PMID:21218215

Yi, Li; Zhiyuan, Ling; Xing, Hu; Yisen, Liu; Yi, Chang

2011-02-21

315

private investment cooperation. The book's uniqueness lies in achieving mean-  

E-print Network

private investment cooperation. The book's uniqueness lies in achieving mean- ingful neighborhood for man- aging irreplaceable urban resources. Readers expecting innovative solu- tions for planning, and whether such precise quantification is in fact the missing ele- ment in our search for a more environ

Handy, Susan L.

316

Countering Identity Theft Through Digital Uniqueness, Location Cross-Checking,  

E-print Network

Countering Identity Theft Through Digital Uniqueness, Location Cross-Checking, and Funneling C. van Stubblebine Research Labs, Madison, NJ, USA Abstract. One of today's fastest growing crimes is identity theft theft. To address the problem of identity theft and the use of stolen or forged credentials, we propose

Van Oorschot, Paul

317

Behaviour and communication change in reducing HIV: is Uganda unique?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clearest example of declines in HIV prevalence and changes in sexual behaviour comes from Uganda. Are there lessons to learn for other countries or is Uganda unique? In this paper, we assess the epidemiological and behavioural data on Uganda comparatively to other African countries and then analyse data from other populations where HIV has declined. In Uganda, HIV prevalence

Daniel Low-Beer; Rand L Stoneburner

2003-01-01

318

What Is Valuable and Unique about the Educational Psychologist?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a small-scale piece of research identifying which aspects of the EP role are considered valuable by SENCos and by EPs themselves. In addition, both groups were asked to identify whether they felt these aspects were uniquely offered by EPs or whether other professionals offered similar or identical services. The differences…

Ashton, Rebecca; Roberts, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

319

SET THEORY AND UNIQUENESS FOR TRIGONOMETRIC SERIES Alexander S. Kechris*  

E-print Network

logic was Stelios' first love, and he originally went to the University of Chicago to study this field skeptically, why he was so interested in this problem. Erd¨os replied that if this problem was good enough for Dirichlet and Gauss, it was good enough for him. To paraphrase Erd¨os, if the problems of uniqueness

Simon, Barry

320

Mystic Chords of Memory: Cultivating America's Unique Form of Patriotism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the history of U.S. patriotism, asserting that anchored though it is to a set of ideas, there are unique challenges to educating patriots. Suggests the importance of telling the nation's stories through civics education. Explains that patriotism is cultivated when students learn about democratic values, people and events shaping the…

Berns, Walter

2002-01-01

321

Unique Sensor Plane Maps Invisible Toxins for First Responders  

ScienceCinema

A unique airborne emergency response tool, ASPECT is a Los Alamos/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency project that can put chemical and radiological mapping tools in the air over an accident scene. The name ASPECT is an acronym for Airborne Spectral Phot

None

2010-01-08

322

Moffitt Cancer Center researchers identify unique immune gene signature  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at Moffitt Cancer Center have discovered a unique immune gene signature that can predict the presence of microscopic lymph node-like structures in metastatic melanoma. The presence of these immune structures, the researchers said, appears to be associated with better survival and may indicate the possibility of selecting patients for immunotherapy based solely on the immune-related makeup of their tumors.

323

RESEARCH ARTICLES Unique, Shared, and Redundant Roles for the Arabidopsis  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLES Unique, Shared, and Redundant Roles for the Arabidopsis SWI/SNF Chromatin for patterning and differentiation in multicellular eukaryotes. SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling ATPases and exogenous cues. In contrast with their metazoan orthologs, null mutants in two Arabidopsis thaliana SWI/SNF

Plotkin, Joshua B.

324

EXISTENCE, UNIQUENESS, AND ASYMPTOTIC STABILITY OF TRAVELING WAVES  

E-print Network

, the author thanks Professors J. B. McLeod and P. W. Bates for numerous fruitful communications. Partially. Reaction--Diffusion. In their classical paper [12], Fife and McLeod proved the global exponential stability Network. In [10], Ermentrout and McLeod studied, among other things, the existence and uniqueness

325

Community Forums: A Unique Approach to Community Service-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The service-learning movement has been criticized for not listening to the voices of community partners. Using Bourdieu's framework that equally values formal and practical knowledge, we evaluated a Manitoba college's service-learning program that focused on an issue of community concern. The program was uniquely designed to prioritize the voice…

Steiner, Sherrie; Warkentin, Buetta; Smith, Michael

2011-01-01

326

Physical layer design issues unique to cognitive radio systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive radio systems offer the opportunity to improve spectrum utilization by detecting unoccupied spectrum bands and adapting the transmission to those bands while avoiding the interference to primary users. This novel approach to spectrum access introduces unique functions at the physical layer: reliable detection of primary users and adaptive transmission over a wide bandwidth. In this paper, we address design

Danijela Cabric; R. W. Brodersen

2005-01-01

327

Industrial restructuring as class restructuring: Production decentralization and local uniqueness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Massey D. (1983) Industrial restructuring as class restructuring: production decentralization and local uniqueness, Reg. Studies17, 73–89. Industrial change is also a process of social change. This article examines the impact on two very different kinds of area of the entry of new forms of economic activity. It points out that, although in each case the new industry was the same

Doreen Massey

1983-01-01

328

CAR2 Displays Unique Ligand Binding and RXR Heterodimerization Characteristics  

E-print Network

CAR2 Displays Unique Ligand Binding and RXR Heterodimerization Characteristics Scott S. Auerbach ABSTRACT: The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR; NR1I3) regulates the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Alternative splicing of the human CAR gene yields an array of mRNAs that encode

Omiecinski, Curtis

329

Suillusin, a unique benzofuran from the mushroom Suillus granulatus.  

PubMed

A unique benzofuran named suillusin was isolated from the methanolic extract of the fruiting body of the mushroom Suillus granulatus. Its structure was assigned on the basis of various spectroscopic analyses as a highly substituted novel 1H-cyclopenta[b]benzofuran (1). Suillusin is suggested to be biogenerated from polyporic acid. PMID:11575963

Yun, B S; Kang, H C; Koshino, H; Yu, S H; Yoo, I D

2001-09-01

330

Uniqueness of two phaseless inverse acoustics problems in 3-d  

E-print Network

Uniqueness is proven for two 3-d inverse problems of the determination of the spatially distributed sound speed in the frequency dependent acoustic PDE. The main new point is the assumption that only the modulus of the scattered complex valued wave field is measured on a certain set.

Michael V. Klibanov

2013-03-29

331

Canadian Gas Treating Solvent Quality Control - Unique Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unusual gas compositions, harsh weather conditions, and remote producing locations have posed significant problems for the Canadian Gas Treating Industry. A few amine types, including DEA, MDEA, and Sulfinol-D™ are widely used in Canadian gas treating facilities. Process conditions cause these amines to degrade over time, with each amine type producing a unique set of degradation products. The most common

Steve Carlson; Steve Canter; Jim Jenkins

332

CRYSTAL DISSOLUTION AND PRECIPITATION IN POROUS -CONTRACTION AND UNIQUENESS  

E-print Network

) solutions. 1. Introduction. Crystal dissolution and precipitation is an important process arisingCRYSTAL DISSOLUTION AND PRECIPITATION IN POROUS MEDIA: L1 -CONTRACTION AND UNIQUENESS T. L. van of the pore-scale model for crystal dissolution and precipitation in porous media proposed in [C. J. van Duijn

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

333

Pesticide Labeling: Unique Product Labeling1 Frederick M. Fishel2  

E-print Network

PI-110 Pesticide Labeling: Unique Product Labeling1 Frederick M. Fishel2 1. This document is PI-110, professor, Agronomy Department, and Director, Pesticide Information Office; Florida Cooperative Extension not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition. Use pesticides safely

Watson, Craig A.

334

Shared and Unique Patterns of Embryo Development in Extremophile Poeciliids  

E-print Network

Shared and Unique Patterns of Embryo Development in Extremophile Poeciliids Ru¨ diger Riesch1 in surface mollies, it increased in both types of extremophile mollies, and eye growth was arrested in mid Patterns of Embryo Development in Extremophile Poeciliids. PLoS ONE 6(11): e27377. doi:10.1371/journal

Schlupp, Ingo

335

UNIQUENESS FOR AN ELLIPTIC INVERSE PROBLEM IAN KNOWLES  

E-print Network

(x) w(x, t)] + R(x, t).(1.5) Here w represents the piezometric head, p the hydraulic conductivity (or,q,f, is considered. Key words. uniqueness, elliptic inverse problem, parameter estimation, aquifer AMS subject sometimes, for a two-dimensional aquifer, the transmissivity), R 0 the recharge, and the func- tion S 0

Knowles, Ian W.

336

The Globally Uniquely Solvable Property of Second-Order Cone ...  

E-print Network

Apr 20, 2010 ... Recent years have witnessed impressive developments on extending LCP(M ... Euclidean Jordan algebra, the authors discovered that the linear ..... that is, for all q ? Rn, SOL(M, Kn,q) is nonempty and has a unique element.

2010-04-20

337

Modal Ranking: A Uniquely Robust Voting Rule Ioannis Caragiannis  

E-print Network

be aggregated. From this viewpoint, Condorcet and, more elo- quently, Young (1988), argued that a voting ruleModal Ranking: A Uniquely Robust Voting Rule Ioannis Caragiannis University of Patras caragian nkshah@cs.cmu.edu Abstract Motivated by applications to crowdsourcing, we study voting rules that output

Procaccia, Ariel

338

Modal Ranking: A Uniquely Robust Voting Rule Ioannis Caragiannis  

E-print Network

be aggregated. From this viewpoint, Condorcet and, more eloquently, Young (1988), argued that a voting ruleModal Ranking: A Uniquely Robust Voting Rule Ioannis Caragiannis University of Patras caragian nkshah@cs.cmu.edu Abstract Motivated by applications to crowdsourcing, we study voting rules that output

Procaccia, Ariel

339

Unique Outcome Expectations as a Training and Pedagogical Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The learning of the relations between discriminative stimuli, choice actions, and their outcomes can be characterized as conditional discriminative choice learning. Research shows that the technique of presenting unique outcomes for specific cued choices leads to faster and more accurate learning of such relations and has great potential to be…

Mok, Leh Woon; Estevez, Angeles F.; Overmier, J. Bruce

2010-01-01

340

Cancer Cell Dissecting the Unique Role of the Retinoblastoma  

E-print Network

Cancer Cell Article Dissecting the Unique Role of the Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor during-cycle control. However, cancer-associated mutations are almost exclusively found in RB, implying that RB has for cancer development; hence, the roles and regulation of RB have been intensively studied (reviewed

341

Unique Relations of Age and Delinquency with Cognitive Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context processing has significant empirical support as an explanation of age- and psychopathology-related deficiencies in cognitive control. We examined whether context processing generalizes to younger individuals who are in trouble with the law. We tested whether age and delinquency might have unique relations to context processing skills in…

Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; DeCoster, Jamie

2012-01-01

342

Unique Factorization in Cyclotomic Integers of Degree Seven  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a survey of some basic results in algebraic number theory and applies this material to prove that the cyclotomic integers generated by a seventh root of unity are a unique factorization domain. Part of the proof uses the computer algebra system Maple to find and verify factorizations. The proofs use a combination of historic…

Duckworth, W. Ethan

2008-01-01

343

Salad Bowl--All Together, All Unique, All Special.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pluralism has become the word for this decade. America is no longer a melting pot, but a salad bowl where each person can retain his/her own uniqueness culturally. In a truly inclusive community, no one is exclusive or excluded. The legislature of South Dakota has mandated that all future teachers, as well as those teachers wishing to remain…

Mattson, Donald L.; Richardson, Maurine

344

Wood of Giant Sequoia: Properties and Unique Characteristics1  

E-print Network

Wood of Giant Sequoia: Properties and Unique Characteristics1 Douglas D. Piirto2 Abstract: Wood tree species. Wood properties such as specific gravity, various mechanical properties, extractive be considered for planting stock in managed production forests to increase future supplies of wood having

Standiford, Richard B.

345

General uniqueness and monotone iterative technique for fractional differential equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the general existence and uniqueness result is proved which exhibits the idea of comparison principle. This result is also valid for fractional differential equations in a Banach space. The well-known monotone iterative technique is then extended for fractional differential equations which provides computable monotone sequences that converge to the extremal solutions in a sector generated by upper

V. Lakshmikantham; A. S. Vatsala

2008-01-01

346

Laboratory and Human Exposure Evaluation of Unique Sunscreen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synapsis-A screening test was developed for efficacy of SUNSCREEN FORMULATIONS which was based on ULTRAVIOLET analysis of alcohol extracts taken from skin treated with sunscreen. This type of analysis showed the superior retention of some unique sun- screen formulations in tests where the subject's forearms were subjected to water sprays and also in swimming tests wherein the formulation was applied

A. F. STEINHAUER

347

COMPUTED PROTONATION PROPERTIES: UNIQUE CAPABILITIES FOR PROTEIN FUNCTIONAL SITE PREDICTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction of protein functional sites from 3D structure is an important problcm, particularly as structural genomics projects produce hundreds of structurcs of unknown function, including novel folds and the structures of orphan sequences. The present paper shows how computed protonation properties provide unique and powerful capabilities for the prediction of catalytic sites from the 3D structure alone. Thesc protonation properties

LEONEL F. MURGA; YING WEI; MARY JO ONDRECHEN

348

A description of unique fluorescent yellow pigments in penguin feathers  

E-print Network

A description of unique fluorescent yellow pigments in penguin feathers Kevin J. McGraw1 *, Matthew 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand 4 Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, Centre National de la bird feathers--carotenoids, melanins, porphyrins, psittacofulvins, and iron oxides (Hill and Mc

McGraw, Kevin J.

349

Existence and uniqueness for spherically symmetric linear transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this note is to establish an existence and uniqueness theorem for the spherically and azimuthally symmetric steady-state linear transport equation. The methods used are similar to those of Olhoeft for bounded three-dimensional geometry and of Nelson for linear transport in a slab. Our basic result contains the corollary that, for very general scattering laws, nonmultiplying transport of

Paul Nelson; John M. Paulling

1982-01-01

350

FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Uniqueness of static black holes without analyticity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the hypothesis of analyticity in the uniqueness theory of vacuum, or electrovacuum, static black holes is not needed. More generally, we show that prehorizons covering a closed set cannot occur in well-behaved domains of outer communications.

Chru?ciel, Piotr T.; Galloway, Gregory J.

2010-08-01

351

Tonic Immobility Does Not Uniquely Predict Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tonic immobility (TI) is an involuntary state of temporary motor inhibition believed to occur in response to events that provoke extreme fear and the perception of inescapability. Human TI has been documented in a range of traumatic events and several researchers have reported associations between TI and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS); however, it remains unclear if TI is a unique

Murray P. Abrams; R. Nicholas Carleton; Gordon J. G. Asmundson

2012-01-01

352

Unique ER Cistromes Control Cell Type-Specific Gene Regulation  

E-print Network

Unique ER Cistromes Control Cell Type-Specific Gene Regulation Susan A. Krum, Gustavo A. Miranda breast cancer cell line with that of the osteoblast-like cell line U2OS-ER by expression microarrays. We-specific E2 regulation of gene expression in MCF7 and U2OS- ER cells, we compared the ER binding sites on DNA

Brown, Myles

353

Generalized Uniqueness Theorem for Ordinary Differential Equations in Banach Spaces  

PubMed Central

We consider nonlinear ordinary differential equations in Banach spaces. Uniqueness criterion for the Cauchy problem is given when any of the standard dissipative-type conditions does apply. A similar scalar result has been studied by Majorana (1991). Useful examples of reflexive Banach spaces whose positive cones have empty interior has been given as well. PMID:24683325

Hassan, Ezzat R.; Alhuthali, M. Sh.; Al-Ghanmi, M. M.

2014-01-01

354

Generalized uniqueness theorem for ordinary differential equations in Banach spaces.  

PubMed

We consider nonlinear ordinary differential equations in Banach spaces. Uniqueness criterion for the Cauchy problem is given when any of the standard dissipative-type conditions does apply. A similar scalar result has been studied by Majorana (1991). Useful examples of reflexive Banach spaces whose positive cones have empty interior has been given as well. PMID:24683325

Hassan, Ezzat R; Alhuthali, M Sh; Al-Ghanmi, M M

2014-01-01

355

Genome analysis of the platypus reveals unique signatures of evolution  

E-print Network

ARTICLES Genome analysis of the platypus reveals unique signatures of evolution A list of authors and their affiliations appears at the end of the paper We present a draft genome sequence of the platypus. For example, platypuses have a coat of fur adapted to an aquatic lifestyle; platypus females lactate, yet lay

Ray, David

356

Discovery of GW870086: a potent anti-inflammatory steroid with a unique pharmacological profile  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Glucocorticoids are highly effective therapies for a range of inflammatory diseases. Advances in the understanding of the diverse molecular mechanisms underpinning glucocorticoid action suggest that anti-inflammatory molecules with reduced side effect liabilities can be discovered. Here we set out to explore whether modification of the 17? position of the steroid nucleus could generate molecules with a unique pharmacological profile and to determine whether such molecules would retain anti-inflammatory activity. Experimental Approach The pharmacological properties of GW870086 were compared with fluticasone propionate (FP) using a range of cellular and in vivo model systems, including extensive gene expression profiling. Key Results GW870086 repressed inflammatory cytokine release from lung epithelial cells in a similar manner to FP but antagonized the effect of dexamethasone on MMTV-driven reporter gene transactivation. GW870086 had a strong effect on the expression of some glucocorticoid-regulated genes (such as PTGS2), while having minimal impact on the expression of other known target genes (such as SGK). GW870086 retained the ability to strengthen tight junctions in epithelial cell culture but, unlike FP, was unable to protect the culture from elastase-mediated damage. In murine models of irritant-induced contact dermatitis and ovalbumin-induced allergic inflammation, GW870086 showed comparable anti-inflammatory efficacy to FP. Conclusion and Implications GW870086 is a potent anti-inflammatory compound with a unique ability to regulate only a subset of those genes that are normally affected by classical glucocorticoids. It has the potential to become a new topical steroid with a different safety profile to existing therapies. PMID:23639214

Uings, I J; Needham, D; Matthews, J; Haase, M; Austin, R; Angell, D; Leavens, K; Holt, J; Biggadike, K; Farrow, S N

2013-01-01

357

Ion-induced modification of graphite coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Burnished graphite powders and physical vapor-deposition (PVD) coatings of layered crystalline materials such as MoSx have often been used as solid lubricants. This letter will report on a novel ion-induced modification of a graphite-powder coating on a silicon surface. Even at very low ion doses, the bombardment results in structural modifications observed as a considerable reduction in x rays reflected from the (002) sliding planes, which indicates an amorphization process. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies have confirmed almost complete amorphization with 200 keV Ar ions at 1016 ions cm-2. A commercial scanning tunneling microscope (STM) was used as an advanced profilometer to study ion-induced changes in the surface morphology at the powder surface. The mechanical properties of the combined graphite-coating/silicon system were studied by nanoindentation technique, and the perspectives in ion-beam burnishing of graphite coatings will be discussed.

Gupta, B. K.; Janting, J.; Jensen, U. M.; Pedersen, G. N.; Sørensen, G.

1992-09-01

358

Postsynthetic modification of metal-organic frameworks.  

PubMed

The modification of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in a postsynthetic scheme is discussed in this critical review. In this approach, the MOF is assembled and then modified with chemical reagents with preservation of the lattice structure. Recent findings show amide couplings, isocyanate condensations, 'click' chemistry, and other reactions are suitable for postsynthetic modification (PSM). In addition, a number of MOFs, from IRMOF-3 to ZIF-90, are amenable to PSM. The generality of PSM, in both scope of chemical reactions and range of suitable MOFs, clearly indicates that the approach is broadly applicable. Indeed, the rapid increase in reports on PSM demonstrates this methodology will play an increasingly important role in the development of MOFs for the foreseeable future (117 references). PMID:19384440

Wang, Zhenqiang; Cohen, Seth M

2009-05-01

359

Chitosan Modification and Pharmaceutical/Biomedical Applications  

PubMed Central

Chitosan has received much attention as a functional biopolymer for diverse applications, especially in pharmaceutics and medicine. Our recent efforts focused on the chemical and biological modification of chitosan in order to increase its solubility in aqueous solutions and absorbability in the in vivo system, thus for a better use of chitosan. This review summarizes chitosan modification and its pharmaceutical/biomedical applications based on our achievements as well as the domestic and overseas developments: (1) enzymatic preparation of low molecular weight chitosans/chitooligosaccharides with their hypocholesterolemic and immuno-modulating effects; (2) the effects of chitin, chitosan and their derivatives on blood hemostasis; and (3) synthesis of a non-toxic ion ligand—D-Glucosaminic acid from Oxidation of D-Glucosamine for cancer and diabetes therapy. PMID:20714418

Zhang, Jiali; Xia, Wenshui; Liu, Ping; Cheng, Qinyuan; Tahirou, Talba; Gu, Wenxiu; Li, Bo

2010-01-01

360

Tissue modification with feedback: the smart scalpel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While feedback control is widespread throughout many engineering fields, there are almost no examples of surgical instruments that utilize a real-time detection and intervention strategy. This concept of closed loop feedback can be applied to the development of autonomous or semi- autonomous minimally invasive robotic surgical systems for efficient excision or modification of diseased tissue. Spatially localized regions of the tissue are first probed to distinguish pathological from healthy tissue based on differences in histochemical and morphological properties. Energy is directed to only the diseased tissue, minimizing collateral damage by leaving the adjacent healthy tissue intact. Continuous monitoring determines treatment effectiveness and, if needed, enables real-time treatment modifications to produce optimal therapeutic outcomes. The present embodiment of this general concept is a microsurgical instrument we call the Smart Scalpel, designed to treat skin angiodysplasias such as port wine stains. Other potential Smart Scalpel applications include psoriasis treatment and early skin cancer detection and intervention.

Sebern, Elizabeth L.; Brenan, Colin J. H.; Anderson, R. Rox; Hunter, Ian W.

1998-10-01

361

Adaptive Control with Reference Model Modification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a modification of the conventional model reference adaptive control (MRAC) architecture in order to improve transient performance of the input and output signals of uncertain systems. A simple modification of the reference model is proposed by feeding back the tracking error signal. It is shown that the proposed approach guarantees tracking of the given reference command and the reference control signal (one that would be designed if the system were known) not only asymptotically but also in transient. Moreover, it prevents generation of high frequency oscillations, which are unavoidable in conventional MRAC systems for large adaptation rates. The provided design guideline makes it possible to track a reference commands of any magnitude from any initial position without re-tuning. The benefits of the method are demonstrated with a simulation example

Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

2012-01-01

362

Effectiveness of decanter modifications on organic removal  

SciTech Connect

A series of runs were planned in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF) at the Savannah River Plant to determine the effectiveness of equipment and process modifications on the PHEF decanter organic removal efficiency. Runs 54-59 were planned to test the effectiveness of spray recirculation, a new decanter, heated organic recirculation and aqueous drawoff on organic removal efficiency in the revised HAN flowsheet. Runs 60-63 were planned to provide a comparison of the original and new decanter designs on organic removal efficiency in the late wash flowsheet without organic recirculation. Operational problems were experienced in both the PHEF and IDMS pilot facilities because of the production of high boiling organics and the low organic removal efficiency of the PHEF decanters. To prevent these problems in the DWPF Salt and Chemical Cells, modifications were proposed to the decanter and flowsheet to maximize the organic removal efficiency and minimize production of high boiling organics.

Lambert, D.P.

1992-08-20

363

Histone modifications: implications in renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

In 2012, an estimated 64,770 men and women were diagnosed with malignancy of the kidney and renal pelvis, of which 13,570 succumbed to their disease. Common genetic aberrations in renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) include loss of function of the VHL gene in clear-cell RCC, overexpression of the c-MET gene in papillary RCC type I, deficiency in the FH gene in papillary RCC type II and loss of heterozygozity of the BHD gene in chromophobe RCC. Recent studies illustrate epigenetic silencing of VHL, as well as alterations in histone modifications and their governing enzymes. The possibility of reversing these epigenetic marks has resulted in efforts to target these changes by utilizing inhibitors of HDACs, DNA methyltransferases and, recently, histone methyltransferases in preclinical and clinical studies. This article focuses on potential therapeutic interventions, and the implications of histone modifications and related enzyme alterations in RCC. PMID:23895657

Ramakrishnan, Swathi; Ellis, Leigh; Pili, Roberto

2013-01-01

364

Effective Theories and Modifications of Gravity  

E-print Network

We live at a time of contradictory messages about how successfully we understand gravity. General Relativity seems to work very well in the Earth's immediate neighborhood, but arguments abound that it needs modification at very small and/or very large distances. This essay tries to put this discussion into the broader context of similar situations in other areas of physics, and summarizes some of the lessons which our good understanding of gravity in the solar system has for proponents for its modification over very long and very short distances. The main message is that effective theories, in the technical sense of `effective', provide the natural language for testing proposals, and so are also effective in the colloquial sense.

C. P. Burgess

2009-12-21

365

Optical Marking of Alcohol Induced Hemoglobin Modification  

E-print Network

It has been shown that conformational modifications of Hb induced by ethanol consumption can be visualized in optical spectra studying oxygenation kinetics of hemoglobin or mixing hemoglobin with Cibacron blue dye. Better dye affinity of blood proteins extracted from alcoholised rats with respect to those from non-alcoholised ones confirms that ethanol and its metabolites induce structural pathologies in blood protein molecules. The detected changes for the case of the posterity of intoxicated animals may be explained as a post-translation modification, as well as a disturbance of the structure and function of tissue cellular gene mechanism for the blood creation. It is established that alcohol intake during first four months leads to the decrease of fractional weight of oxyhemoglobin and to the increase of methemoglobin amount in blood. Further alcohol consumption is accompanied by recovering of the normal level of hemoglobin derivatives in blood. Normalization of the fractional weight of hemoglobin derivati...

Vlokh, R; Moroz, O; Nastishin, Yu; Dudok, K; Dudok, T; Grinchishin, N; Nechiporenko, I; Hul, A

2007-01-01

366

Genome-Wide Analysis of Epigenetic Modifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In plants and animals, gene expression can be altered by changes that do not alter the sequence of nucleotides in DNA but\\u000a rather modify the chemical structure of either the DNA or the histones that interact with the DNA. These so-called epigenetic\\u000a modifications are not transient, but persist through cell divisions. Rapidly advancing technologies, such as next-generation\\u000a DNA sequencing, have

Shoudan Liang

2009-01-01

367

Manganese induced modifications in yttria stabilized zirconia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the role of manganese oxide on the crystallographic and morphological modifications of cubic 8 mol. % yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ). X-ray diffraction studies indicate that manganese dissolution leads to partial transformation of cubic YSZ into the tetragonal polymorph along with contraction of the unit cell. Evolution of an undulated surface with 2-15 nm roughness has been observed using electron and atomic force microscopies.

Mahapatra, Manoj K.; Singh, Prabhakar; Misture, Scott T.

2012-09-01

368

The RNA Modification Database: 1999 update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RNA Modification Database (http:\\/\\/medlib.med. utah.edu\\/RNAmods\\/ ) provides a comprehensive list- ing of naturally modified nucleosides in RNA. Each file includes: chemical structure; common name and symbol; type(s) of RNA in which found and correspon- ding phylogenetic distribution; Chemical Abstracts registry number and index name; and initial literature citations for structure characterization and chemical synthesis. New features include capability to

Jef Rozenski; Pamela F. Crain; James A. Mccloskey

1999-01-01

369

Regioselective chemical modification of monoclonal antibodies  

DOEpatents

A method of selectively modifying an immunoglobulin having at least one Fab region and at least one Fc region, each region having an isoelectric point wherein said isoelectric point of the Fab fragment of said immunoglobulin is different than the isoelectric point of the Fc fragment of the immunoglobulin, said method comprising modification of the immunoglobulin at a pH between the respective isoelectric points of the Fab and Fc fragments of the immunoglobulin.

Ranadive, Girish (Pittsburgh, PA); Rosenzweig, Howard S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Epperly, Michael (Pittsburgh, PA); Bloomer, William (Pittsburgh, PA)

1993-01-01

370

Regioselective chemical modification of monoclonal antibodies  

DOEpatents

A method is presented of selectively modifying an immunoglobulin having at least one Fab region and at least one Fc region. Each region has an isoelectric point where the isoelectric point of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin is different from the isoelectric point of the Fc fragment of the immunoglobulin. The method comprises of a modification of the immunoglobulin at a pH between the respective isoelectric points of the Fab and Fc fragments of the immunoglobulin.

Ranadive, G.; Rozenzweig, H.S.; Epperly, M.; Bloomer, W.

1993-05-04

371

Energy conservation through process modification and control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of the second law of thermodynamics for identification of energy conservation opportunities in process plants is briefly reviewed. Energy conservation by process modification and control in process and petrochemical plants is presented via examples. Also, a generalized algorithm, minimizing incremental cost, for load allocation to multiple units (functionally similar, e.g., boilers, process heaters, pumps, compressors, etc.) operating in parallel has been developed.

Agarwal, S. C.; Keyes, M. A.

1981-01-01

372

A Modification of Karmarkar's Linear Programming Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a modification of Karmarkar's linear programming algorithm. Our algorithm uses a recentered projected gradient\\u000a approach thereby obviatinga priori knowledge of the optimal objective function value. Assuming primal and dual nondegeneracy, we prove that our algorithm converges.\\u000a We present computational comparisons between our algorithm and the revised simplex method. For small, dense constraint matrices\\u000a we saw little difference between

Robert J. Vanderbei; Marc S. Meketon; Barry A. Freedman

1986-01-01

373

Amino group modification of (Na + +K + )ATPase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of three amino group reagents on the activity of (Na++K+)-ATPase3 and its component K+-stimulatedp-nitrophenylphosphatase activity from rabbit kidney outer medulla have been studied. All three reagents cause inactivation of the enzyme. Modification of amino groups with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid yields kinetics of inactivation of both activities, which depend on the type and concentration of the ligands present. In

J. J. H. H. M. De Pont; S. E. Emst-De Vries; S. L. Bonting

1984-01-01

374

Deciphering Post-translational Modification Codes  

PubMed Central

Post-translational modifications (PTMs) occur on nearly all proteins. Many domains within proteins are modified on multiple amino acid sidechains by diverse enzymes to create a myriad of possible protein species. How these combinations of PTMs lead to distinct biological outcomes is only beginning to be understood. This manuscript highlights several examples of combinatorial PTMs in proteins, and describes recent technological developments, which are driving our ability to understand how PTM patterns may “code” for biological outcomes. PMID:23402885

Lothrop, Adam P.; Torres, Matthew P.; Fuchs, Stephen M.

2014-01-01

375

43 CFR 3932.20 - Lease modification land availability criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MANAGEMENT OF OIL SHALE EXPLORATION AND LEASES Lease Modifications and Readjustments § 3932.20 Lease modification land availability...

2013-10-01

376

40 CFR 239.12 - Modifications of state programs.  

...2014-07-01 false Modifications of state programs. 239.12 Section 239.12 Protection...WASTES REQUIREMENTS FOR STATE PERMIT PROGRAM DETERMINATION OF ADEQUACY Adequacy... § 239.12 Modifications of state programs. (a) Approved state permit...

2014-07-01

377

Evolutionary modification of development in mammalian teeth: Quantifying gene  

E-print Network

Evolutionary modification of development in mammalian teeth: Quantifying gene expression patterns Geographic Information Systems. We investi- gated how genetic markers for epithelial signaling centers known, usually involve little initial modification of morphology. One system that offers promise for linking

Jernvall, Jukka

378

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Histone modification pattern evolution after yeast  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Histone modification pattern evolution after yeast gene duplication for evolutionary innovations. Many studies evidenced that genetic regulatory network evolved rapidly shortly after gene duplication. In this study, we conducted detailed analyses on yeast histone modification (HM

Gu, Xun

379

14 CFR 151.99 - Modifications of programming standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Modifications of programming standards. 151.99 Section 151...AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.99 Modifications of programming standards. The Director,...

2012-01-01

380

14 CFR 151.99 - Modifications of programming standards.  

...2014-01-01 false Modifications of programming standards. 151.99 Section 151...AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.99 Modifications of programming standards. The Director,...

2014-01-01

381

14 CFR 151.99 - Modifications of programming standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Modifications of programming standards. 151.99 Section 151...AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.99 Modifications of programming standards. The Director,...

2011-01-01

382

14 CFR 151.99 - Modifications of programming standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Modifications of programming standards. 151.99 Section 151...AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.99 Modifications of programming standards. The Director,...

2013-01-01

383

47 CFR 74.751 - Modification of transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Modification of transmission systems. 74.751...751 Modification of transmission systems. (a...either mechanical or electrical, may be made...in a change in the electrical characteristics or...pattern, antenna gain, transmission line loss...

2012-10-01

384

47 CFR 74.751 - Modification of transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Modification of transmission systems. 74.751...751 Modification of transmission systems. (a...either mechanical or electrical, may be made...in a change in the electrical characteristics or...pattern, antenna gain, transmission line loss...

2013-10-01

385

47 CFR 74.751 - Modification of transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Modification of transmission systems. 74.751...751 Modification of transmission systems. (a...either mechanical or electrical, may be made...in a change in the electrical characteristics or...pattern, antenna gain, transmission line loss...

2010-10-01

386

47 CFR 74.751 - Modification of transmission systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Modification of transmission systems. 74.751...751 Modification of transmission systems. (a...either mechanical or electrical, may be made...in a change in the electrical characteristics or...pattern, antenna gain, transmission line loss...

2011-10-01

387

43 CFR 3932.10 - Lease size modification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MANAGEMENT OF OIL SHALE EXPLORATION AND LEASES Lease Modifications and Readjustments § 3932.10 Lease size modification....

2012-10-01

388

43 CFR 3932.10 - Lease size modification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) MANAGEMENT OF OIL SHALE EXPLORATION AND LEASES Lease Modifications and Readjustments § 3932.10 Lease size modification....

2011-10-01

389

76 FR 51878 - Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1545-BK14 Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts; Correction AGENCY: Internal...a transfer or assignment of certain derivative contracts does not result in an exchange...1001-4T Modifications of certain derivative contracts...

2011-08-19

390

14 CFR 151.99 - Modifications of programming standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Modifications of programming standards. 151.99 Section 151...AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.99 Modifications of programming standards. The Director,...

2010-01-01

391

21 CFR 640.74 - Modification of Source Plasma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Modification of Source Plasma. 640.74 Section 640.74 Food and...FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.74 Modification of Source Plasma. (a) Upon approval by the...

2010-04-01

392

21 CFR 640.74 - Modification of Source Plasma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Modification of Source Plasma. 640.74 Section 640.74 Food and...FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.74 Modification of Source Plasma. (a) Upon approval by the...

2013-04-01

393

21 CFR 640.74 - Modification of Source Plasma.  

...2014-04-01 false Modification of Source Plasma. 640.74 Section 640.74 Food and...FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.74 Modification of Source Plasma. (a) Upon approval by the...

2014-04-01

394

Particle distribution modification by low amplitude modes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modification of a high energy particle distribution by a spectrum of low amplitude modes is investigated using a guiding center code. Only through resonance are modes effective in modifying the distribution. Diagnostics are used to illustrate the mode-particle interaction and to find which effects are relevant in producing significant resonance, including kinetic Poincaré plots and plots showing those orbits with time averaged mode-particle energy transfer. Effects of pitch angle scattering and drag are studied, as well as plasma rotation and time dependence of the equilibrium and mode frequencies. A specific example of changes observed in a DIII-D deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude experimentally validated Toroidal Alfvèn eigenmodes and reversed shear Alfvèn eigenmodes is examined in detail. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam profile modification, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold.

White, R. B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

2010-04-01

395

Electrostatic Surface Modifications to Improve Gene Delivery  

PubMed Central

Importance of the field Gene therapy has the potential to treat a wide variety of diseases including genetic diseases and cancer. Areas covered in this review This review introduces biomaterials used for gene delivery and then focuses on the use of electrostatic surface modifications to improve gene delivery materials. These modifications have been used to stabilize therapeutics in vivo, add cell-specific targeting ligands, and promote controlled release. Coatings of nanoparticles and microparticles as well as non-particulate surface coatings are covered in this review. Electrostatic principles are crucial for the development of multilayer delivery structures fabricated by the layer-by-layer method. What the reader will gain The reader will gain knowledge about the composition of biomaterials used for surface modifications and how these coatings and multilayers can be utilized to improve spatial control and efficiency of delivery. Examples are shown for the delivery of nucleic acids, including DNA and siRNA, to in vitro and in vivo systems. Take home message The versatile and powerful approach of electrostatic coatings and multilayers will lead to the development of enhanced gene therapies. PMID:20201712

Shmueli, Ron B.; Anderson, Daniel G.

2010-01-01

396

Status of lifestyle modifications in hypertension.  

PubMed

Hypertension is essentially the elevation of arterial blood pressure beyond an arbitrary cut off point, though the dividing line between normal and elevated BP is lacking. Hypertension can be classified into primary, essential or idiopathic hypertension on one hand, and secondary one due to some disease itself. In treating hypertension, antihypertensives have their role, but attention may be directed towards some lifestyle modifications. As regarding dietary interventions, calorie restriction may influence the minimisation of BP. Body weight reduction, less alcohol consumption, salt restriction, potassium and calcium supplementation can enhance the process of lowering BP. The role of magnesium in hypertension is debatable. Serum cholesterol level is commonly elevated in hypertensive patients and its reduction reduces the risk of non-fatal coronary events. Diet rich in plant fibres either alone or with a low fat, low sodium could lower the BP by about 5 mm Hg in hypertensives. The omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids found in highest concentrations in cold water fishes have a modest antihypertensive effect. Caffeine contained in two cups of coffee may raise the BP by 5 mm Hg in infrequent users but in habitual users, caffeine has no role. Deficiency of vitamin C might lead to hypertension. As regarding behavioural changes, stopping smoking, regular physical exercise, relaxation therapies like yoga, etc, have definite beneficial effect on hypertensives. The antihypertensive effect of lifestyle modifications may obviate drug therapy. For this one or more of the lifestyle modifications should be tried initially in all hypertensive patients. PMID:12018559

Chhabra, M K; Lal, A; Sharma, K K

2001-09-01

397

Restriction-Modification Systems as Minimal Forms of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Arestriction (R) endonuclease recognizes a specific DNAsequence and introduces a double-strand break (Fig. 1A). A cognate modification (M) enzyme methylates the same sequence and thereby protects it from cleavage. Together, these two\\u000a enzymes form a restriction-modification system. The genes encoding the restriction endonuclease and the cognate modification\\u000a enzyme are often tightly linked and can be termed a restriction-modification gene complex.

I. Kobayashi

398

75 FR 69864 - Modification of Class B Airspace; Charlotte, NC  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...08-AWA-1] RIN 2120-AA66 Modification of Class B Airspace; Charlotte...would cause the loss of, or modification to, an approved Aerobatic...at the Charlotte Airport; weather conditions, which determine...departure procedures. The modifications to the Charlotte Class...

2010-11-16

399

Ecological Effects of Weather Modification: A Problem Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication reviews the potential hazards to the environment of weather modification techniques as they eventually become capable of producing large scale weather pattern modifications. Such weather modifications could result in ecological changes which would generally require several years to be fully evident, including the alteration of…

Cooper, Charles F.; Jolly, William C.

400

Covalent modifications of histones during development and disease pathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Covalent modifications of histones are central to the regulation of chromatin dynamics, and, therefore, many biological processes involving chromatin, such as replication, repair, transcription and genome stability, are regulated by chromatin and its modifications. In this review, we discuss the biochemical, molecular and genetic properties of the enzymatic machinery involved in four different types of histone modification: acetylation, ubiquitination, phosphorylation

Sukesh R Bhaumik; Edwin Smith; Ali Shilatifard

2007-01-01

401

A modification method on runner blades in a Bulb turbine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a modification method of the runner blades in a Bulb turbine is proposed, in which the main scale of the runner is maintained. In the modification method the runner blade is expressed by a gather of coordinate points. In order to make the modification simple and efficient, one of the coordinate is fixed and only the angles

W. Yang; Y. Wu; S. Liu

2010-01-01

402

Development and application of FI catalysts for olefin polymerization: unique catalysis and distinctive polymer formation.  

PubMed

Catalysts contribute to the efficient production of chemicals and materials in almost all processes in the chemical industry. The polyolefin industry is one prominent example of the importance of catalysts. The discovery of Ziegler-Natta catalysts in the 1950s resulted in the production of high-density polyethylenes (PEs) and isotactic polypropylenes (iPPs). Since then, further catalyst development has led to the production of a new series of polyolefins, including linear low-density PEs, amorphous ethylene/1-butene copolymers, ethylene/propylene/diene elastomers, and syndiotactic PPs (sPPs). Polyolefins are now the most important and the most produced synthetic polymers. This Account describes a family of next-generation olefin polymerization catalysts (FI catalysts) that are currently being used in the commercial production of value-added olefin-based materials. An FI catalyst is a heteroatom-coordinated early transition metal complex that combines a pair of nonsymmetric phenoxy-imine [O(-), N] chelating ligands with a group 4 transition metal. The catalytically active species derived from FI catalysts is highly electrophilic and can assume up to five isomeric structures based on the coordination of the phenoxy-imine ligand. In addition, the accessibility of the ligands of the FI catalysts and their amenability to modification offers an opportunity for the design of diverse catalytic structures. FI catalysts exhibit many unique chemical characteristics: precise control over chain transfers (including highly controlled living ethylene and propylene polymerizations), extremely high selectivity for ethylene, high functional group tolerance, MAO- and borate-free polymerization catalysis, significant morphology polymer formation, controlled multimodal behavior, high incorporation ability for higher alpha-olefins and norbornene, and highly syndiospecific and isospecific polymerizations of both propylene and styrene. These reactions also occur with very high catalyst efficiency. The reaction products include a wide variety of unique olefin-based materials, many of which were previously unavailable via other means of polymerization. We have produced selective vinyl- and Al-terminated PEs, ultrahigh molecular weight linear PEs, regio- and stereoirregular high molecular weight poly(higher alpha-olefin)s, ethylene- and propylene-based telechelic polymers, a wide array of polyolefinic block copolymers from ethylene, propylene, and higher alpha-olefins, and ultrafine noncoherent PE particles. FI catalysts are important from the organometallic, catalytic, and polymer science points of view, and the chemical industry is now using them for the production of value-added olefin-based materials. We anticipate that future research on FI catalysts will produce additional olefin-based materials with unique architectures and material properties and will offer scientists the chance to further study olefin polymerization catalysis and related reaction mechanisms. PMID:19588950

Makio, Haruyuki; Fujita, Terunori

2009-10-20

403

Beagle 2 and NASA's Mars 2003 Orbiter: A Unique Exobiology Opportunity with an Orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the exploration strategy for Mars undergoing reexamination, the opportunity exists for the incorporation of the 60 kg Beagle 2 lander, developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission, with NASA's Mars 2003 orbiter derived from the Mars Global Orbiter. The combination of Beagle 2 with a Mars orbiter would result in a unique mission which could obtain information on Mars' life, climate and resources both from orbit as well as on the surface of the planet. Beagle 2 has been developed in the LJK for ESA as a low-cost opportunity to study the exobiology of Mars and the spacecraft is in its final stages of manufacture. Only limited modifications to the Beagle 2 package would be required for inclusion on NASA's Mars 2003 orbiter. With the ESA Mars Express mission launch in 2003 and a potential NASA Mars orbiter in 2003, both Beagle 2 landers on Mars would offer a low-cost, decreased risk and increased science return opportunity for the exploration of Mars at two distinct geologically interesting sites.

Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Thatcher, John; Westall, Frances

2000-01-01

404

Role of H164 in a unique dye-decolorizing heme peroxidase DyP.  

PubMed

The expression system of a unique dye-decolorizing peroxidase DyP in Escherichia coli has been constructed. The molecular mass of the expressed DyP (eDyP) is 47kDa, indicating no any modification with saccharides. The characteristics of eDyP were almost the same as those of native DyP from a fungus Thanatephorus cucumeris Dec 1 and recombinant DyP with Aspergillus oryzae except thermostability. As H164 was suggested to be the proximal histidine based on the preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of DyP, the site-directed mutations H164A and H166A (residue near H164) were introduced into the gene encoding DyP. The specific activity and RZ value of the purified H164A were 1.52U/mg and 0.11, respectively, which were 99.8% and 95% lower than those of eDyP, respectively. On the contrary, those of H166A were not different from those of eDyP. Therefore, H164 was confirmed to be the proximal histidine. PMID:15313183

Sugano, Yasushi; Ishii, Yosuke; Shoda, Makoto

2004-09-10

405

21 CFR 830.310 - Information required for unique device identification.  

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES UNIQUE DEVICE IDENTIFICATION Global Unique Device Identification Database § 830.310 Information required for unique device identification. The contact for device identification...

2014-04-01

406

21 CFR 830.320 - Submission of unique device identification information.  

...DEVICE IDENTIFICATION Global Unique Device Identification Database § 830.320 Submission of unique device identification...electronically to FDA's Global Unique Device Identification Database (GUDID) in a format that we can process, review, and...

2014-04-01

407

21 CFR 830.350 - Correction of information submitted to the Global Unique Device Identification Database.  

...the Global Unique Device Identification Database. 830.350 Section 830.350 Food... Global Unique Device Identification Database § 830.350 Correction of information...the Global Unique Device Identification Database. (a) If FDA becomes aware...

2014-04-01

408

21 CFR 830.330 - Times for submission of unique device identification information.  

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES UNIQUE DEVICE IDENTIFICATION Global Unique Device Identification Database § 830.330 Times for submission of unique device identification information. (a) The labeler shall submit to...

2014-04-01

409

Salient Region Detection by UFO: Uniqueness, Focusness and Objectness Peng Jiang 1  

E-print Network

Salient Region Detection by UFO: Uniqueness, Focusness and Objectness Peng Jiang 1 Haibin Ling 2 three important visual cues namely uniqueness, focusness and objectness (UFO). In particular, uniqueness, named UFO saliency, which

Ling, Haibin

410

77 FR 57055 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Unique Device Identification...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Unique Device Identification System; Extension of Comment Period...proposed rule, Unique Device Identification System, that appeared in the Federal...regulations for Unique Device Identification System. The Agency has...

2012-09-17

411

Unique, icy gathering system will serve Norman Wells  

SciTech Connect

One of the more unique communities on the Mackenzie River is Norman Wells, ca 90 miles south of the Arctic Circle and 450 air miles south of the Beaufort Sea. For over 50 yr, Norman Wells has been a major supplier of petroleum products to the Mackenzie Valley. The most unique aspect of Norman Wells is that it is underlain by a large reservoir of oil. Fifty wells in the area produce over 3000 bbl of light crude daily, which is refined locally. Esso Resources Canada Ltd. now is developing the field and expanding production. New facilities will include 151 new wells for producing oil and injecting water, 6 artificial islands in the 3-mile wide river to accommodate gathering points, and a new central processing facility. The crude oil to be produced will be transported by Interprovincial Pipeline (NW) Ltd. from Norman Wells to Zama, Alta.

Hale, D.

1983-09-01

412

WURCS: the Web3 unique representation of carbohydrate structures.  

PubMed

In recent years, the Semantic Web has become the focus of life science database development as a means to link life science data in an effective and efficient manner. In order for carbohydrate data to be applied to this new technology, there are two requirements for carbohydrate data representations: (1) a linear notation which can be used as a URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) if needed and (2) a unique notation such that any published glycan structure can be represented distinctively. This latter requirement includes the possible representation of nonstandard monosaccharide units as a part of the glycan structure, as well as compositions, repeating units, and ambiguous structures where linkages/linkage positions are unidentified. Therefore, we have developed the Web3 Unique Representation of Carbohydrate Structures (WURCS) as a new linear notation for representing carbohydrates for the Semantic Web. PMID:24897372

Tanaka, Kenichi; Aoki-Kinoshita, Kiyoko F; Kotera, Masaaki; Sawaki, Hiromichi; Tsuchiya, Shinichiro; Fujita, Noriaki; Shikanai, Toshihide; Kato, Masaki; Kawano, Shin; Yamada, Issaku; Narimatsu, Hisashi

2014-06-23

413

Unique research challenges for high-speed civil transports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Market growth and technological advances are expected to lead to a generation of long-range transports that cruise at supersonic or even hypersonic speeds. Current NASA/industry studies will define the market windows in terms of time frame, Mach number, and technology requirements for these aircraft. Initial results indicate that, for the years 2000 to 2020, economically attractive vehicles could have a cruise speed up to Mach 6. The resulting research challenges are unique. They must be met with technologies that will produce commercially successful and environmentally compatible vehicles where none have existed. Several important areas of research were identified for the high-speed civil transports. Among these are sonic boom, takeoff noise, thermal management, lightweight structures with long life, unique propulsion concepts, unconventional fuels, and supersonic laminar flow.

Jackson, Charlie M., Jr.; Morris, E. K., Jr.

1988-01-01

414

Unique and conserved features of floral evocation in legumes.  

PubMed

Legumes, with their unique ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, play a vital role in ensuring future food security and mitigating the effects of climate change because they use less fossil energy and produce less greenhouse gases compared with N-fertilized systems. Grain legumes are second only to cereal crops as a source of human and animal food, and they contribute approximately one third of the protein consumed by the human population. The productivity of seed crops, such as grain legumes, is dependent on flowering. Despite the genetic variation and importance of flowering in legume production, studies of the molecular pathways that control flowering in legumes are limited. Recent advances in genomics have revealed that legume flowering pathways are divergent from those of such model species as Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we discuss the current understanding of flowering time regulation in legumes and highlight the unique and conserved features of floral evocation in legumes. PMID:24930396

Liew, Lim Chee; Singh, Mohan B; Bhalla, Prem L

2014-08-01

415

Uniqueness of Black Holes with Bubbles in Minimal Supergravity  

E-print Network

We generalise uniqueness theorems for non-extremal black holes with three mutually independent Killing vector fields in five-dimensional minimal supergravity in order to account for the existence of non-trivial 2-cycles in the domain of outer communication. The black hole space-times we consider may contain multiple disconnected horizons and be asymptotically flat or asymptotically Kaluza-Klein. We show that in order to uniquely specify the black hole space-time, besides providing its domain structure and a set of asymptotic and local charges, it is necessary to measure the magnetic fluxes that support the 2-cycles as well as fluxes in the two semi-infinite rotation planes of the domain diagram.

Armas, Jay

2014-01-01

416

Chemical characterization of a unique chondrite - Allan Hills 85085  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Allan Hills 85085 is a new and very important addition to the growing list of unique carbonaceous chondrites because of its unique chemical and mineralogical properties. This chemical study provides more precise data on the major, minor, and trace element characteristics of ALH85085. ALH85085 has compositional, petrological, and isotopic affinities to AL Rais and Renazzo, and to Bencubbin-Weatherford. The similarities to Al Rais and Renazzo suggest similar formation locations and thermal processing, possibly in the vicinity of CI chondrites. Petrologic, compositional and isotopic studies indicate that the components that control the abundance of the various refractory and volatile elements were not allowed to equilibrate with the nebula as conditions changed, explaining the inconsistencies in the classification of these meteorites using known taxonomic parameters.

Gosselin, D. C.; Laul, J. C.

1990-06-01

417

Discovery and characterization of a unique mycobacterial heme acquisition system  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis must import iron from its host for survival, and its siderophore-dependent iron acquisition pathways are well established. Here we demonstrate a newly characterized pathway, whereby M. tuberculosis can use free heme and heme from hemoglobin as an iron source. Significantly, we identified the genomic region, Rv0202c–Rv0207c, responsible for the passage of heme iron across the mycobacterial membrane. Key players of this heme uptake system were characterized including a secreted protein and two transmembrane proteins, all three specific to mycobacteria. Furthermore, the crystal structure of the key heme carrier protein Rv0203 was found to have a unique fold. The discovery of a unique mycobacterial heme acquisition pathway opens new avenues of exploration into mycobacterial therapeutics. PMID:21383189

Harmston, Christine A.; Owens, Cedric P.; Chim, Nicholas; Morse, Robert P.; McMath, Lisa M.; Iniguez, Angelina; Kimmey, Jacqueline M.; Sawaya, Michael R.; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Horwitz, Marcus A.; Goulding, Celia W.

2011-01-01

418

New unique ECAP system with ultrasound and backpressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is about the conception, design and realization of a new unique ECAP system with application of back-pressure and intensive ultrasound energy. 3D finite element calculations were used for finding the best construction configurations. The new unique ECAP equipment is used for deforming metallic samples with dimensions of 12x12x100 mm to obtain homogenous deformation in the whole specimen. The basic technical parameters of the equipment are: angle of channel intersection ? = 90°, rounding angle ? = 0°, die heating system up to 400°C, punch heating system up to 300°C, computer controlled back pressure up to 1400 MPa, Emerson Branson ultrasonic energy system up to 4kW, longitudinal ultrasound amplitude up to 30 pm, water cooling system, flexible die geometry (channel inner radius can be changed), adaptive computer drive and control.

Doni?, T.; Martikán, M.; Hadzima, B.

2014-08-01

419

Baltic Seashore as a Unique Habitat For Insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Baltic seashore is one of important sites of insect biodiversity in Lithuania. Seashore habitats, such as dunes, dry grasslands, sand heaths, are unique and unstable. Research on insect fauna was carried out in seashore habitats of the Curonian Spit and Klaip?da–Šventoji zone in 1974–2004. The whole list embraced more than 2,000 species of insects. 90% of them were common

Povilas Ivinskis; Jolanta Rimšait?

2005-01-01

420

A unique multipurpose damping circuit for shunt capacitor bank switching  

SciTech Connect

Considerations on disturbances related to Shunt Capacitor Bank (SCB) switching are summarized and a unique damping circuit able to cope with all of them is proposed. This damping circuit consists of a reactor in parallel with a resistor which is in series with a Metal Oxide Varistor (MOV), the latter being used to switch on the resistor only during transients. The design parameter of this damping circuit are described and the main tests performed are presented.

Sabot, A.; Morin, C.; Guillaume, C.; Pons, A. (Electricite de France, Les Renardieres (France). Les Renardieres Lab.); Taisne, J.P. (Electricite de France, Les Renardieres (France). Transmission Division); Pizzo, G.L.; Morf, H.U. (Haefely S.A., Saint Louis (France))

1993-07-01

421

The Mysteries of Diamonds: Bizarre History, Amazing Properties, Unique Applications  

SciTech Connect

Diamonds have been a prized material throughout history. They are scarce and beautiful, wars have been fought over them, and they remain today a symbol of wealth and power. Diamonds also have exceptional physical properties which can lead to unique applications in science. There are now techniques to artificially synthesize diamonds of extraordinarily high quality. In this talk, Professor Kagan will discuss the history of diamonds, their bizarre properties, and their manufacture and use for 21st century science.

Kagan, Harris (Ohio State University) [Ohio State University

2008-06-24

422

Cavernous hemangioma-like Kaposi sarcoma: a unique histopathologic variant.  

PubMed

Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is an angiolymphatic neoplasm with multifactorial etiology. Clinically, KS has been divided into 4 distinct types and 3 well-defined histologic stages. Rare reports in the literature have characterized additional unique histopathologic variants. The authors report a case of KS, confirmed with human herpesvirus type 8 and D2-40 staining, which resembled a cavernous hemangioma on histopathology. PMID:24803066

Sutton, Angela M; Tarbox, Michelle; Burkemper, Nicole M

2014-05-01

423

Black hole uniqueness theorems in higher dimensional spacetimes  

E-print Network

We review uniqueness theorems as well as other general results about higher dimensional black hole spacetimes. This includes in particular theorems about the topology of higher dimensional spacetimes, theorems about their symmetries (rigidity theorem), and the classification of supersymmetric black holes. We outline the basic ideas underlying the proofs of these statements, and we also indicate ways to generalize some of these results to more general contexts, such as more complicated theories.

Stefan Hollands; Akihiro Ishibashi

2012-06-06

424

Human lung expresses unique gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase transcripts.  

PubMed Central

gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase (EC 2.3.2.2, gamma GT) is a membrane-bound ectoenzyme that plays an important role in the metabolism of glutathione. It is composed of two subunits, both of which are encoded by a common mRNA. We examined the expression of gamma GT in human lung tissue by Northern blot analysis and screening a cDNA library made from human lung poly(A)+ RNA. Our results show that there are two gamma GT mRNA populations in human lung tissue. We define these as group I (2.4 kb) and group II (approximately 1.2 kb) transcripts. In the present communication, we characterize the unique lung transcript. Sequence analysis of representative clones shows that group I transcripts are virtually identical to those previously isolated from liver and placenta but possess a unique 5' untranslated region. In marked contrast, group II transcripts appear to be human-lung-specific. Group II transcripts appear on Northern blots probed with full-length or 3'-biased gamma GT cDNA. Sequence analysis of group II clones shows them to be homologous with group I clones in the region that encodes the reading frame for the light chain; however, they possess a series of unique 5' untranslated regions, which suggests that they arise from lung-specific message processing. Additionally, approximately 50% of the isolated group II clones contain 34 nt substitutions compared with the "wild-type" gamma GT transcripts. These data indicate that human lung expresses unique gamma GT transcripts of unknown function as well as the classical form. The abundant group II transcripts may encode part of a heterodimer related to gamma GT or represent processed lung-specific pseudogenes. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7689219

Wetmore, L A; Gerard, C; Drazen, J M

1993-01-01

425

On symmetry and non-uniqueness in exact topology optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to initiate an exchange of ideas on symmetry and non-uniqueness in topology optimization. These\\u000a concepts are discussed in the context of 2D trusses and grillages, but could be extended to other structures and design constraints,\\u000a including 3D problems and numerical solutions. The treatment of the subject is pitched at the background of engineering researchers,

George I. N. Rozvany

2011-01-01

426

Existence and uniqueness theorems for the algebraic Riccati equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necessary and sufficient conditions for existence and uniqueness of hermitian solutions of the algebraic n×n matrix Riccati equation(D?0,C=C,(A, D) controllable) are obtained. The conditions are formulated in terms of the spectral structure of a certain 2n × 2n matrix. A description is also given of the set of solutions in a geometrical language of invariant subspaces which are neutral with

P. LANCASTER; L. RODMAN

1980-01-01

427

The skeleton as a unique environment for breast cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone is a favored location for several cancer metastases especially breast, prostate and myeloma. This review evaluates various\\u000a properties of the skeleton that contribute to its successful colonization by breast cancer cells. The first consideration\\u000a is the unique aspects of the vasculature of metaphyseal bone, which may account for the initial lodging of breast cancer cells\\u000a in specific regions of

Andrea M. Mastro; Carol V. Gay; Danny R. Welch

2003-01-01

428

Novel electron devices based on the unique properties of diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An account is given of the unique design principles that apply to such electron devices as metal-insulator-metal photodetectors, cascade and virtual-contact FETs, and high-electron-mobility transistors. It is noted that while diamond is a high-power, high-temperature, or extremely HF amplifier, it cannot accomplish all three functions simultaneously. Attention is given to the significance of diamond's heat-dissipation capabilities.

Yoder, M. N.

429

Unique symbol for marking and tracking very small semiconductor products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of tracking very small semiconductor products with a bar code is easily overcome by the use of the matrix symbol, which is a unique two-dimensional symbol that is the most space efficient method of packing binary data. It is both machine written and machine read to provide the utmost in accuracy and repeatability. The number of data cells can either be expanded or contracted to handle the required information and in addition can contain parity and error correcting codes. Semiconductor chips, wafers, substrates, modules and even masks can all be laser marked with this symbol and quickly read at any later stage of the manufacturing process. This unique symbol is computer generated by a software algorithm which creates the data cells and data frame which are laser etched on the product. On-line product identification yields immediate benefits in manufacturing such as inventory control, proper mating of parts, proper selection of test programs, quality control, etc. Use of a very small unique machine readable symbol now permits these benefits to be extended to miniature parts in an automated high speed manufacturing line.

Martin, James P.

1991-12-01

430

Potential unique causes of burnout for chiropractic professionals  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this narrative review is to discuss the potential for burnout in chiropractic practitioners. This discussion is grounded in the job demands-resource model, the conservation of resources model, the unique profession-specific stressors experienced by chiropractors, and information from similar health care professions. Methods A search using both the indexed (PubMed and PsychLit) and nonindexed psychosocial literature was used. Other resources included the Cochrane Library, articles from governing bodies of the chiropractic profession, trade magazines, and research conferences and symposium proceedings. Articles were analyzed following the grounded theory principles: open coding and memos for conceptual labeling, axial coding and memos for category building, and selective coding for model building. Results Potential stressors unique to doctors of chiropractic include factors associated with physical workload, role stress, and mental and emotional demands. Conclusions There are unique chiropractic-specific occupational characteristics that possibly contribute to burnout in the chiropractic professionals. These findings emphasize the need for assessing and measuring burnout and attrition within the chiropractic profession. PMID:22693483

Williams, Shawn

2011-01-01

431

Synthetic biology of cyanobacteria: unique challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed

Photosynthetic organisms, and especially cyanobacteria, hold great promise as sources of renewably-produced fuels, bulk and specialty chemicals, and nutritional products. Synthetic biology tools can help unlock cyanobacteria's potential for these functions, but unfortunately tool development for these organisms has lagged behind that for S. cerevisiae and E. coli. While these organisms may in many cases be more difficult to work with as "chassis" strains for synthetic biology than certain heterotrophs, the unique advantages of autotrophs in biotechnology applications as well as the scientific importance of improved understanding of photosynthesis warrant the development of these systems into something akin to a "green E. coli." In this review, we highlight unique challenges and opportunities for development of synthetic biology approaches in cyanobacteria. We review classical and recently developed methods for constructing targeted mutants in various cyanobacterial strains, and offer perspective on what genetic tools might most greatly expand the ability to engineer new functions in such strains. Similarly, we review what genetic parts are most needed for the development of cyanobacterial synthetic biology. Finally, we highlight recent methods to construct genome-scale models of cyanobacterial metabolism and to use those models to measure properties of autotrophic metabolism. Throughout this paper, we discuss some of the unique challenges of a diurnal, autotrophic lifestyle along with how the development of synthetic biology and biotechnology in cyanobacteria must fit within those constraints. PMID:24009604

Berla, Bertram M; Saha, Rajib; Immethun, Cheryl M; Maranas, Costas D; Moon, Tae Seok; Pakrasi, Himadri B

2013-01-01

432

Nucleic acid modifications in bacterial pathogens - impact on pathogenesis, diagnosis, and therapy  

E-print Network

Nucleic acids are subject to extensive chemical modification by all organisms. These modifications display incredible structural diversity, and some are essential for survival. Intriguingly, several of these modifications ...

Russell, Brandon S. (Brandon Skylar)

2014-01-01

433

A Giant Chelonioid Turtle from the Late Cretaceous of Morocco with a Suction Feeding Apparatus Unique among Tetrapods  

PubMed Central

Background Secondary adaptation to aquatic life occurred independently in several amniote lineages, including reptiles during the Mesozoic and mammals during the Cenozoic. These evolutionary shifts to aquatic environments imply major morphological modifications, especially of the feeding apparatus. Mesozoic (250–65 Myr) marine reptiles, such as ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs, mosasaurid squamates, crocodiles, and turtles, exhibit a wide range of adaptations to aquatic feeding and a broad overlap of their tooth morphospaces with those of Cenozoic marine mammals. However, despite these multiple feeding behavior convergences, suction feeding, though being a common feeding strategy in aquatic vertebrates and in marine mammals in particular, has been extremely rarely reported for Mesozoic marine reptiles. Principal Findings A relative of fossil protostegid and dermochelyoid sea turtles, Ocepechelon bouyai gen. et sp. nov. is a new giant chelonioid from the Late Maastrichtian (67 Myr) of Morocco exhibiting remarkable adaptations to marine life (among others, very dorsally and posteriorly located nostrils). The 70-cm-long skull of Ocepechelon not only makes it one of the largest marine turtles ever described, but also deviates significantly from typical turtle cranial morphology. It shares unique convergences with both syngnathid fishes (unique long tubular bony snout ending in a rounded and anteriorly directed mouth) and beaked whales (large size and elongated edentulous jaws). This striking anatomy suggests extreme adaptation for suction feeding unmatched among known turtles. Conclusion/Significance The feeding apparatus of Ocepechelon, a bony pipette-like snout, is unique among tetrapods. This new taxon exemplifies the successful systematic and ecological diversification of chelonioid turtles during the Late Cretaceous. This new evidence for a unique trophic specialization in turtles, along with the abundant marine vertebrate faunas associated to Ocepechelon in the Late Maastrichtian phosphatic beds of Morocco, further supports the hypothesis that marine life was, at least locally, very diversified just prior to the Cretaceous/Palaeogene (K/Pg) biotic crisis. PMID:23874378

Bardet, Nathalie; Jalil, Nour-Eddine; de Lapparent de Broin, France; Germain, Damien; Lambert, Olivier; Amaghzaz, Mbarek

2013-01-01

434

Modifications of Glycans: Biological Significance and Therapeutic Opportunities  

PubMed Central

Carbohydrates play a central role in a wide range of biological processes. As with nucleic acids and proteins, modifications of specific sites within the glycan chain can modulate a carbohydrate’s overall biological function. For example, acylation, methylation, sulfation, epimerization, and phosphorylation can occur at various positions within a carbohydrate to modulate bioactivity. Therefore, there is significant interest in identifying discrete carbohydrate modifications and understanding their biological effects. Additionally, enzymes that catalyze those modifications and proteins that bind modified glycans provide numerous targets for therapeutic intervention. This review will focus on modifications of glycans that occur after the oligomer/polymer has been assembled, generally referred to as postglycosylational modifications. PMID:22195988

Muthana, Saddam M.; Campbell, Christopher; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C.

2012-01-01

435

Sleep Modifications in Acute Transient Global Amnesia  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a temporary memory loss characterized by an abrupt onset of antero-grade and retrograde amnesia, totally reversible. Since sleep plays a major role in memory consolidation, and in the storage of memory-related traces into the brain cortex, the aims of the present study were: (1) to evaluate changes in sleep macro-structure in TGA; (2) to assess modifications in sleep micro-structure in TGA, with particular reference to the arousal EEG and to cyclic alternating pattern (CAP); (3) to compare sleep parameters in TGA patients with a control group of patients with acute ischemic events (“minor stroke” or transient ischemic attack [TIA]) clinically and neuroradiologically “similar” to the TGA. Methods: TGA group: 17 patients, (8 men and 9 women, 60.2 ± 12.5 years). Stroke or TIA (SoT) group: 17 patients hospitalized in the Stroke Unit for recent onset of minor stroke or TIA with hemispheric localization; healthy controls (HC) group: 17 healthy volunteers, matched for age and sex. Patients and controls underwent full-night polysomnography. Results: In the multivariate analysis (conditions TGA, SoT, and HC) a significant effect of the condition was observed for sleep efficiency index, number of awakenings longer 1 min, REM latency, CAP time, and CAP rate. TGA and SoT differed only for CAP time and CAP rate, which were lower in the TGA group. Conclusions: Microstructural modification associated with TGA could be consequent to: (1) hippocampal dysfunction and memory impairment; (2) impairment of arousal-related structures (in particular, cholinergic pathways); (3) emotional distress. Citation: Della Marca G; Mazza M; Losurdo A; Testani E; Broccolini A; Frisullo G; Marano G; Morosetti R; Pilato F; Profice P; Vollono C; Di Lazzaro V. Sleep modifications in acute transient global amnesia. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(9):921-927. PMID:23997704

Della Marca, Giacomo; Mazza, Marianna; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Frisullo, Giovanni; Marano, Giuseppe; Morosetti, Roberta; Pilato, Fabio; Profice, Paolo; Vollono, Catello; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

436

A new topological approach to the L ? -uniqueness of operators and the L 1 -uniqueness of Fokker–Planck equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usual semigroups of kernels on a Polish space E are in general not strongly continuous on L?(E,?) with respect to the norm topology. We introduce a new topology on L?(E,?) such that they become C0-semigroups for which we can establish a simplified Hille–Yosida theorem. The new topology will allow us to introduce the uniqueness of pre-generator on L?(E,?) which

Liming Wu; Yiping Zhang

2006-01-01

437

Materials Modification in Nanotechnology: Advanced Etch Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint created and presented by the Nanotechnology Applications and Career Knowledge (NACK) Center discusses etch systems. The presentation provides descriptions and examples of nine different system classifications, including Horizontal Plate RIE, Parallel Plate Etch, Microwave Etch, Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Etch, Hexode RIE, MERIE, Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Etch, Ion Beam Etch, and Advanced Strip and Passivation (ASP). This presentation also has a cluster tools section, explaining their function and configuration. This is a great resource for any classroom looking at nanofabrication modifications. This and all other valuable resources from the NACK Center require a fast, easy, free log-in.

2010-03-17

438

Methylation - an uncommon modification of glycans*  

PubMed Central

A methyl group on a sugar residue is a rarely reported event. Until now this kind of modification has been found in the kingdom of animals only in worms and molluscs, whereas it is more frequently present in some species of bacteria, fungi, algae and plants, but not in mammals. The monosaccharides involved as well as the positions of the methyl groups on the sugar vary with the species. Methylation seems to play a role in some recognition events but details are still unknown. This review summarises the current knowledge on methylation of sugars in all kinds of organism. PMID:22944672

Staudacher, Erika

2013-01-01

439

Laser micromachining and modification of bioabsorbable polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research the influence of laser micromachining on physicochemical properties of bioabsorbable polymer was investigated. Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA), commonly used for manufacturing non-permanent biomedical devices, was irradiated with varying fluences by CO2 laser and by KrF excimer laser. To evaluate modification of the material, several analytical techniques were used: ATR (attenuated total reflection), XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and DSC (differential scanning calorimetry). We found that the laser-affected material has lower glass transition (Tg) and melting (Tm) temperatures. CO2 and KrF excimer lasers can be successfully used for cutting and drilling of polylactide.

Stepak, Bogusz D.; Anto?czak, Arkadiusz J.; Kozio?, Pawe? E.; Szustakiewicz, Konrad; Abramski, Krzysztof M.

2014-03-01

440

Covalent modification of proteins by cocaine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cocaine covalently modifies proteins through a reaction in which the methyl ester of cocaine acylates the -amino group of lysine residues. This reaction is highly specific in vitro, because no other amino acid reacts with cocaine, and only cocaine's methyl ester reacts with the lysine side chain. Covalently modified proteins were present in the plasma of rats and human subjects chronically exposed to cocaine. Modified endogenous proteins are immunogenic, and specific antibodies were elicited in mouse and detected in the plasma of human subjects. Covalent modification of proteins could explain cocaine's autoimmune effects and provide a new biochemical approach to cocaine's long-term actions.

Deng, Shi-Xian; Bharat, Narine; Fischman, Marian C.; Landry, Donald W.

2002-03-01

441

Medium modifications of nucleon electromagnetic form factors  

E-print Network

We use the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model as an effective quark theory to investigate the medium modifications of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors. By using the equation of state of nuclear matter derived in this model, we discuss the results based on the naive quark-scalar diquark picture, the effects of finite diquark size, and the meson cloud around the constituent quarks. We apply this description to the longitudinal response function for quasielastic electron scattering. RPA correlations, based on the nucleon-nucleon interaction derived in the same model, are also taken into account in the calculation of the response function.

T. Horikawa; W. Bentz

2005-06-08

442

Structural Mapping of Post-translational Modifications in Human Interleukin-24  

PubMed Central

Human interleukin-24 (IL-24) is unique among the IL-10 superfamily as there is considerable evidence that it possesses multiple anti-cancer properties, including direct tumor cell cytotoxicity, helper T cell (TH1) immune stimulation, and anti-angiogenic activities. The primary sequence of human IL-24 differs from homologous cytokines, because it possesses three consensus N-linked glycosylation sites and the potential for a single disulfide bond. To address the significance of these modifications in human IL-24, we analyzed the relationship between post-translational modifications and the cytokine activity of the human IL-24 protein. In contrast to related interleukins, we identified a relationship between net glycosylation, protein solubility, and cytokine activity. In addition, abrogation of the two cysteine residues by mutagenesis dramatically altered the ability of IL-24 to secrete from host cells and resulted in the concomitant loss of IL-24 activity. We conclude that, unlike other IL-10 family members, human IL-24 must be glycosylated to maintain solubility and bioavailability. Further, a single, unique disulfide bond is required for secretion and activity. These structure-function relationships show that, although IL-24 is a member of the IL-19 subfamily of IL-10-like cytokines by sequence similarity, its surface properties and its distinctive disulfide arrangement make it unique. These observations could explain the novel biological activities measured of this cytokine. Understanding the structural basis of IL-24 activity will be important in the interpretation of the function of this cytokine and in the development of scale-up strategies for biophysical and clinical applications. PMID:19734147

Fuson, Kerry L.; Zheng, Mingzhong; Craxton, Molly; Pataer, Abujiang; Ramesh, Rajagopal; Chada, Sunil; Sutton, R. Bryan

2009-01-01

443

Enhanced Detection of Multiply Phosphorylated Peptides and Identification of Their Sites of Modification  

PubMed Central

Phosphorylation is an important post-transla-tional modification that rapidly mediates many cellular events. A key to understanding the dynamics of the phosphoproteome is localization of the modification site(s), primarily determined using LC-MS/MS. A major technical challenge to analysis is the formation of phosphopeptide–metal ion complexes during LC which hampers phosphopeptide detection. We have devised a strategy that enhances analysis of phosphopeptides, especially multiply phosphorylated peptides. It involves treatment of the LC system with EDTA and 2D-RP/RP-nanoUPLC-MS/MS (high pH/low pH) analysis. A standard triphosphorylated peptide that could not be detected with 1D-RP-nanoUPLC-MS/MS, even if the column was treated with EDTA-Na2 or if 25 mM EDTA-Na2 was added to the sample, was detectable at less than 100 fmol using EDTA-2D-RP/RP-nanoUPLC-MS/MS. Digests of ?-casein and ?-casein were analyzed by EDTA-1D-RP-nanoUPLC, 2D-RP/RP-nanoUPLC, and EDTA-2D-RP/RP-nanoUPLC to compare their performance in phosphopeptide analysis. With the first two approaches, no tri-and tetraphosphopeptides were identified in either ?- or ?-casein sample. With the EDTA-2D-RP/RP approach, 13 mono-, 6 di-, and 3 triphosphopeptides were identified in the ?-casein sample, while 19 mono-, 8 di-, 4 tri-, and 3 tetraphosphopeptides were identified in the ?-casein sample. Using EDTA-2D-RP/RP-nanoUPLC-MS/MS to examine 500 ?g of a human foreskin fibroblast cell lysate a total of 1,944 unique phosphopeptides from 1,087 unique phosphoproteins were identified, and 2,164 unique phosphorylation sites were confidently localized (Ascore ?20). Of these sites 79% were mono-, 20% di-, and ?1% were tri- and tetraphosphopeptides, and 78 novel phosphorylation sites in human proteins were identified. PMID:23889490

Fleitz, Antoine; Nieves, Edward; Madrid-Aliste, Carlos; Fentress, Sarah J.; Sibley, L. David; Weiss, Louis M.; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue; Che, Fa-Yun

2013-01-01

444

Unique Structural Characteristics of the Rabbit Prion Protein*  

PubMed Central

Rabbits are one of the few mammalian species that appear to be resistant to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies due to the structural characteristics of the rabbit prion protein (RaPrPC) itself. Here, we determined the solution structures of the recombinant protein RaPrPC-(91–228) and its S173N variant and detected the backbone dynamics of their structured C-terminal domains-(121–228). In contrast to many other mammalian PrPCs, loop 165–172, which connects ?-sheet-2 and ?-helix-2, is well-defined in RaPrPC. For the first time, order parameters S2 are obtained for residues in this loop region, indicating that loop 165–172 of RaPrPC is highly ordered. Compared with the wild-type RaPrPC, less hydrogen bonds form in the S173N variant. The NMR dynamics analysis reveals a distinct increase in the structural flexibility of loop 165–172 and helix-3 after the S173N substitution, implying that the S173N substitution disturbs the long range interaction of loop 165–172 with helix-3, which further leads to a marked decrease in the global conformational stability. Significantly, RaPrPC possesses a unique charge distribution, carrying a continuous area of positive charges on the surface, which is distinguished from other PrPCs. The S173N substitution causes visible changes of the charge distribution around the recognition sites for the hypothetical protein X. Our results suggest that the ordered loop 165–172 and its interaction with helix-3, together with the unique distribution of surface electrostatic potential, significantly contribute to the unique structural characteristics of RaPrPC. PMID:20639199

Wen, Yi; Li, Jun; Yao, Wenming; Xiong, Minqian; Hong, Jing; Peng, Yu; Xiao, Gengfu; Lin, Donghai

2010-01-01

445

The NEDD8 modification pathway in plants  

PubMed Central

NEDD8, in plants and yeasts also known as RELATED TO UBIQUITIN (RUB), is an evolutionarily conserved 76 amino acid protein highly related to ubiquitin. Like ubiquitin, NEDD8 can be conjugated to and deconjugated from target proteins, but unlike ubiquitin, NEDD8 has not been reported to form chains similar to the different polymeric ubiquitin chains that have a role in a diverse set of cellular processes. NEDD8-modification is best known as a post-translational modification of the cullin subunits of cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases. In this context, structural analyses have revealed that neddylation induces a conformation change of the cullin that brings the ubiquitylation substrates into proximity of the interacting E2 conjugating enzyme. In turn, NEDD8 deconjugation destabilizes the cullin RING ligase complex allowing for the exchange of substrate recognition subunits via the exchange factor CAND1. In plants, components of the neddylation and deneddylation pathway were identified based on mutants with defects in auxin and light responses and the characterization of these mutants has been instrumental for the elucidation of the neddylation pathway. More recently, there has been evidence from animal and plant systems that NEDD8 conjugation may also regulate the behavior or fate of non-cullin substrates in a number of ways. Here, the current knowledge on NEDD8 processing, conjugation and deconjugation is presented, where applicable, in the context of specific signaling pathways from plants. PMID:24711811

Mergner, Julia; Schwechheimer, Claus

2014-01-01

446

Excimer laser surface modification: Process and properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface modification can improve materials for structural, tribological, and corrosion applications. Excimer laser light has been shown to provide a rapid means of modifying surfaces through heat treating, surface zone refining, and mixing. Laser pulses at modest power levels can easily melt the surfaces of many materials. Mixing within the molten layer or with the gas ambient may occur, if thermodynamically allowed, followed by rapid solidification. The high temperatures allow the system to overcome kinetic barriers found in some ion mixing experiments. Alternatively, surface zone refinement may result from repeated melting-solidification cycles. Ultraviolet laser light couples energy efficiently to the surface of metallic and ceramic materials. The nature of the modification that follows depends on the properties of the surface and substrate materials. Alloying from both gas and predeposited layer sources has been observed in metals, semiconductors, and ceramics as has surface enrichment of Cr by zone refinement of stainless steel. Rapid solidification after melting often results in the formation of nonequilibrium phases, including amorphous materials. Improved surface properties, including tribology and corrosion resistance, are observed in these materials.

Jervis, T. R.; Nastasi, M.; Hirvonen, J. P.

1992-11-01

447

Studing cranial vault modifications in ancient Mesoamerica.  

PubMed

The artificial modification of infant cranial vaults through massages or by means of constriction and compression devices constitutes a readily visible, permanent body modification that has been employed cross-culturally to express identity, ethnicity, beauty, status and gender. For those ancient societies that staged head shaping, these cultural correlates may be ascertained by examining cranial shapes together with other data sets from the archaeological record. Studies of skulls modified for cultural reasons also provide important clues for understanding principles in neural growth and physiopathological variation in cranial expansion. This paper focuses on head shaping techniques in Mesoamerica, where the practice was deeply rooted and widespread before the European conquest. It provides a comprehensive review of the Mesoamericanistic research on shaping techniques, implements and taxonomies. An up-dated, interdisciplinary examination of the physiological implications and the cultural meanings of artificially produced head shapes in different times and culture areas within Mesoamerica leads to a discussion of the scope, caveats, and future directions involved in this kind of research in the region and beyond. PMID:22781584

Tiesler, Vera

2012-01-01

448

78 FR 57156 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Modifications...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...electronic submission of modifications for FSS contracts managed by GSA. Under the modifications...submission of modifications, and only applies to FSS contracts managed by GSA. The alternate...modification submission process for both FSS contractors and contracting officers....

2013-09-17

449

78 FR 18285 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Modifications...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Modifications (Multiple Award Schedule) clause...Modifications, in all correspondence related to this collection...243-72 Modifications (Multiple Award Schedules...B. Discussion and Analysis A notice for this...Modifications'' in all correspondence. Dated: March...

2013-03-26

450

77 FR 74631 - General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation: Modifications (Multiple Award Schedules...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...clause Modifications (Multiple Award Schedule). DATES...Modifications, in all correspondence related to this collection...243-72; Modifications (Multiple Award Schedules). Under...Modifications'' in all correspondence. Dated: December 10,...

2012-12-17

451

The unique sound of the Uni-Vibe pedal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A short paper covering optics and music: the Uni-Vibe, which is responsible for the unique sound of Hendrix' Woodstock performance, is one of many phasing devices based on photo conductive cells used as variable resistors. However, its sound is well distinguishable from other phasers. In the paper we shall discuss the basic properties and try to qualify and quantify the effect on the spectra of certain chords. The present paper is a side effect of the musical interests of the authors and is triggered by the announcement of the Novel Systems Session including the topics 'Optics and Music' and Historical Devices.

Hahlweg, Cornelius; Rothe, Hendrik

2012-10-01

452

Some Unique Constants Associated with Extremal Black Holes  

E-print Network

In recent papers we had developed a unified picture of black hole entropy and curvature which was shown to lead to Hawking radiation. It was shown that for any black hole mass, holography implies a phase space of just one quantum associated with the interior of the black hole. Here we study extremal rotating and charged black holes and obtain unique values for ratios of angular momentum to entropy, charge to entropy, etc. It turns out that these ratios can be expressed in terms of fundamental constants in nature, having analogies with other physical systems, like in condensed matter physics.

C. Sivaram; Kenath Arun

2012-02-04

453

A Unique Dermoscopy Pattern of Solitary Cutaneous Reticulohistiocytosis  

PubMed Central

Histiocytosis represents a group of rare disorders characterized by nonneoplastic proliferation of histiocytes and solitary cutaneous reticulohistiocytosis (SCR) is a form of non-Langerhans histiocytosis. SCR consists of small papule, usually single, varying in color from yellow to brownish-red, more frequent in young adults, and uncommon in childhood. We report a case of SCR in an 11-year-old child and emphasize a unique dermoscopy pattern of this lesion and its correlation with clinical and histopathological aspects in the diagnosis. PMID:23476822

Nogueira, Letycia Lopes Chagas; Chaves, Gabriel Monteiro de Castro; Muniz, Mariana Daflon Vinhosa; Timbo, Renata Pinto Fernandes; Sasse, Mariana Martins; Meotti, Carolina Degen

2013-01-01

454

A Spectroscopically Unique Main Belt Asteroid: 10537 (1991 RY16)  

E-print Network

We present visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra and interpreted surface mineralogy for asteroid 10537 (1991 RY16). The spectrum of this object is without precedent amongst the Main Belt asteroids. A unique absorption band centered at 0.63 microns could be attributed to one of several mineralogies. Pronounced 1- and 2-micron absorption bands suggest that the composition of 10537 is a mixture of pyroxenes and olivine and that it originated from a parent body that was partially or fully differentiated. The closest available analog is the large Main Belt asteroid 349 Dembowska but 10537 may be an isolated fragment from a completely eroded parent body.

Nicholas A. Moskovitz; Samuel Lawrence; Robert Jedicke; Mark Willman; Nader Haghighipour; Schelte J. Bus; Eric Gaidos

2008-06-13

455

Unique mechanism of chance fracture in a young adult male.  

PubMed

Since the first description of the Chance fracture in 1948, there have been few case reports of unique mechanisms causing this classical flexion-extension injury to the spine in motor vehicle accidents, sports injury, and falls. To our knowledge, this injury has not been reported from a fall with the mechanistic forces acting laterally on the spine and with spinal support in place. We present a 21-year-old male who slid down a flight of stairs onto his side wearing a heavy mountaineering style backpack, subsequently sustaining a Chance fracture of his first lumbar vertebrae. PMID:23599852

Birch, Aaron; Walsh, Ryan; Devita, Diane

2013-03-01

456

Space Station Freedom: a unique laboratory for gravitational biology research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The advent of Space Station Freedom (SSF) will provide a permanent laboratory in space with unparalleled opportunities to perform biological research. As with any spacecraft there will also be limitations. It is our intent to describe this space laboratory and present a picture of how scientists will conduct research in this unique environment we call space. SSF is an international venture which will continue to serve as a model for other peaceful international efforts. It is hoped that as the human race moves out from this planet back to the moon and then on to Mars that SSF can serve as a successful example of how things can and should be done.

Phillips, R. W.; Cowing, K. L.

1993-01-01

457

Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility - A unique facility with new capabilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF), formerly called the Landing Loads Track, is described. The paper gives a historical overview of the original NASA Langley Research Center Landing Loads Track and discusses the unique features of this national test facility. Comparisons are made between the original track characteristics and the new capabilities of the Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility following the recently completed facility update. Details of the new propulsion and arresting gear systems are presented along with the novel features of the new high-speed carriage. The data acquisition system is described and the paper concludes with a review of future test programs.

Davis, P. A.; Stubbs, S. M.; Tanner, J. A.

1985-01-01

458

Quota methods for congressional apportionment are still non-unique  

PubMed Central

Balinski and Young described a “quota method” for congressional apportionment and recommended it as “the only method satisfying three essential axioms” [Balinski, M. L. & Young, H. P. (1974) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 71, 4602-4606]. This paper points out and repairs a slight defect in one of those axioms, producing a quota method slightly different from that described previously. It also presents an alternative to the “consistency” axiom of the paper and describes the “dual quota” method, uniquely satisfying the alternative axioms (which have exactly as much justification as the originals). PMID:16592547

Mayberry, John P.

1978-01-01

459

The hair color-highlighting burn: a unique burn injury.  

PubMed

A unique, preventable, 2.8 x 3.7-cm, full-thickness scalp burn resulted after a woman underwent a professional color-highlighting procedure at a hair salon. The burn appeared to result from scalp contact with aluminum foil that had been overheated by a hair dryer during the procedure. The wound required debridement and skin grafting and 3 subsequent serial excisions to eliminate the resulting area of burn scar alopecia. The preventive aspects of this injury are discussed. PMID:10752740

Peters, W

2000-01-01

460

Eubacterial rhodopsins - unique photosensors and diverse ion pumps.  

PubMed

Since the discovery of proteorhodopsins, the ubiquitous marine light-driven proton pumps of eubacteria, a large number of other eubacterial rhodopsins with diverse structures and functions have been characterized. Here, we review the body of knowledge accumulated on the four major groups of eubacterial rhodopsins, with the focus on their biophysical characterization. We discuss advances and controversies on the unique eubacterial sensory rhodopsins (as represented by Anabaena sensory rhodopsin), proton-pumping proteorhodopsins and xanthorhodopsins, as well as novel non-proton ion pumps. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Retinal Proteins - You can teach an old dog new tricks. PMID:23748216

Brown, Leonid S

2014-05-01

461

Copernicus crater central peak - Lunar mountain of unique composition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Olivine is identified as the major mafic mineral in a central peak of Copernicus crater. Information on the mineral assemblages of such unsampled lunar surface material is provided by near infrared reflectance spectra (0.7 to 2.5 micrometers) obtained with earth-based telescopes. The composition of the deep-seated material comprising the Copernicus central peak is unique among measured areas. Other lunar terra areas and the wall of Copernicus exhibit spectral characteristics of mineral assemblages comparable to the feldspathic breccias returned by the Apollo missions, with low-calcium orthopyroxene being the major mafic mineral.

Pieters, C. M.

1982-01-01

462

A unique exercise facility for simulating orbital extravehicular activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique exercise facility has been developed and used to simulate orbital extravehicular activity (EVA). The device incorporates an arm ergometer into a mechanism which places the subject in the zero-g neutral body posture. The intent of this configuration is to elicit muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses similar to those observed during orbital EVA. Experiments done with this facility will help characterize the astronaut's dynamic heat balance during EVA and will eventually lead to the development of an automated thermal control system which would more effectively maintain thermal comfort.

Williamson, Rebecca C.; Sharer, Peter J.; Webbon, Bruce W.

463

Formation of unique trimer of nitric oxide on Cu(111)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report that NO molecules unexpectedly prefer a trimeric configuration on Cu(111). We used scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) at 6 K, and confirmed that the NO molecule is bonded to the face-centered-cubic hollow site in an upright configuration. The individual NO molecule is imaged as a ring protrusion, which is characteristic of the doubly degenerate 2?* orbital. A triangular trimer is thermodynamically more favorable than the monomer and dimer, and its bonding structure was characterized by STM manipulation. This unique behavior of NO on Cu(111) is ascribed to the threefold symmetry of the surface, facilitating effective mixing of the 2?* orbitals in a triangular configuration.

Shiotari, A.; Hatta, S.; Okuyama, H.; Aruga, T.

2014-10-01

464

Apparatus for controlling system state based on unique identifiers  

DOEpatents

An apparatus allows workers to assert and release control over the energization of a system. The apparatus does not require the workers to carry any additional paraphernalia, and is not be easily defeated by other workers. Users asserting and releasing control present tokens uniquely identifying each user to a reader, and the apparatus prevents transition of the system to an undesired state until an appropriate number of users are currently asserting control. For example, a dangerous manufacturing robot can be prevented from energizing until all the users that have asserted control when entering the robot's controlled space have subsequently released control when leaving the robot's controlled space.

Drotning, William D. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

465

On the uniqueness of flow in a recent tsunami model  

E-print Network

We give an elementary proof of uniqueness for the integral curve starting from the vertical axis in the phase-plane analysis of the recent model [A. Constantin, R.S. Johnson, Propagation of very long water waves, with vorticity, over variable depth, with applications to tsunamis, Fluid Dynam. Res. 40 (2008), 175--211]. Our technique can be applied easily in circumstances where the reparametrization device from [A. Constantin, A dynamical systems approach towards isolated vorticity regions for tsunami background states, Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. doi: 10.1007/s00205-010-0347-1] might lead to some serious difficulties.

Octavian G. Mustafa

2011-03-12

466

Thematic review series: Lipid Posttranslational Modifications. CAAX modification and membrane targeting of Ras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteins that terminate with a consensus sequence known as CAAX undergo a series of posttranslational modi- fications that include polyisoprenylation, endoproteolysis, and carboxyl methylation. These modifications render other- wise hydrophilic proteins hydrophobic at their C termini such that they associate with membranes. Whereas prenyla- tion occurs in the cytosol, postprenylation processing is ac- complished on the cytoplasmic surface of the

Latasha P. Wright; Mark R. Philips

2006-01-01

467

Unique Genotypic Differences Discovered among Indigenous Bangladeshi Rice Landraces  

PubMed Central

Bangladesh is a reservoir of diverse rice germplasm and is home to many landraces with unique, important traits. Molecular characterization of these landraces is of value for their identification, preservation, and potential use in breeding programs. Thirty-eight rice landraces from different regions of Bangladesh including some high yielding BRRI varieties were analyzed by 34 polymorphic microsatellite markers yielding a total of 258 reproducible alleles. The analysis could locate 34 unique identifiers for 21 genotypes, making the latter potentially amenable to identity verification. An identity map for these genotypes was constructed with all the 12 chromosomes of the rice genome. Polymorphism information content (PIC) scores of the 34 SSR markers were 0.098 to 0.89 where on average 7.5 alleles were observed. A dendogram constructed using UPGMA clustered the varieties into two major groups and five subgroups. In some cases, the clustering matched with properties like aromaticity, stickiness, salt tolerance, and photoperiod insensitivity. The results will help breeders to work towards the proper utilization of these landraces for parental selection and linkage map construction for discovery of useful alleles. PMID:25301195

Elias, Sabrina M.; Haque, Taslima; Mahbub Hasan, A. K. M.; Seraj, Zeba I.

2014-01-01

468

Design, characterization and control of the Unique Mobility Corporation robot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space and mass are at a premium on any space mission, and thus any machinery designed for space use should be lightweight and compact, without sacrificing strength. It is for this reason that NASA/LeRC contracted Unique Mobility Corporation to exploit their novel actuator designs to build a robot that would advance the present state of technology with respect to these requirements. Custom-designed motors are the key feature of this robot. They are compact, high-performance dc brushless servo motors with a high pole count and low inductance, thus permitting high torque generation and rapid phase commutation. Using a custom-designed digital signal processor-based controller board, the pulse width modulation power amplifiers regulate the fast dynamics of the motor currents. In addition, the programmable digital signal processor (DSP) controller permits implementation of nonlinear compensation algorithms to account for motoring vs. regeneration, torque ripple, and back-EMF. As a result, the motors produce a high torque relative to their size and weight, and can do so with good torque regulation and acceptably high velocity saturation limits. This paper presents the Unique Mobility Corporation robot prototype: its actuators, its kinematic design, its control system, and its experimental characterization. Performance results, including saturation torques, saturation velocities and tracking accuracy tests are included.

Velasco, Virgilio B., Jr.; Newman, Wyatt S.; Steinetz, Bruce; Kopf, Carlo; Malik, John

1994-01-01

469

Can cosmological observations uniquely determine the nature of dark energy?  

SciTech Connect

The observational effect of all minimally coupled scalar field models of dark energy can be determined by the behavior of the following two parameters: (1) equation of state parameter w, which relates dark energy pressure to its energy density, and (2) effective speed of sound c{sub e}{sup 2}, which relates dark energy pressure fluctuation to its density fluctuation. In this paper we show that these two parameters do not uniquely determine the form of a scalar field dark energy Lagrangian even after taking into account the perturbation in the scalar field. We present this result by showing that two different forms of scalar field Lagrangian can lead to the same values for these paired parameters. It is well known that from the background evolution the Lagrangian of the scalar field dark energy cannot be uniquely determined. The two models of dark energy presented in this paper are indistinguishable from the evolution of background as well as from the evolution of perturbations from a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric.

Unnikrishnan, Sanil [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

2008-09-15

470

The adult Dipteran crop: a unique and overlooked organ.  

PubMed

The diverticulated crop is a unique and overlooked foregut organ in the Diptera that affects many physiological and behavioral functions. Historically, the crop was viewed simply as a reservoir for excess nutrients. The crop lobes and crop duct form an elaborate sphincter and pump system that moves stored nutrients to the crop lobes, oral cavity, and the midgut. The storage capacity of the crop lobes is significant when filled maximally and supplies sufficient carbohydrates to sustain prolonged activity and flight, and adequate protein and lipids to facilitate reproductive events. Crop emptying is under complex neuroendocrine and neural control and may be influenced by multiple neuromessengers, such as serotonin and dromyosuppressin. The crop lobes also serve as a site for the initial mixing of enzymes from the salivary glands and antimicrobials from the labellar glands with ingested food. These food-processing functions are associated with behaviors unique to dipterans, such as regurgitation (or bubbling), nuptial gift giving, and substrate droplet deposition or trap-lining. PMID:23317042

Stoffolano, John G; Haselton, Aaron T

2013-01-01

471

[Reactance proneness, collectivism, uniqueness, and resistance to persuasion].  

PubMed

This study examined the reliability and validity of Japanese psychological reactance scales. A total of 167 undergraduates completed a questionnaire of Therapeutic Reactance Scale (TRS), the Hong Reactance Scale (HRS), the Uniqueness Scale, and the Collectivism Scale. They also received messages involving three persuasion situations that were either high or low in terms of threat, and were asked to describe their reactions to them. The author categorized the reactions into three: acceptance, indirect resistance, and direct resistance. Reliabilities of the reactance scales were satisfactory. Their scores positively correlated with uniqueness scores, and negatively with collectivism scores. Those high on reactance proneness were less persuaded in two of the three situations. But in the third, an HRS by threat interaction was observed, indicating that only those who were high on reactance proneness under the high-threat condition showed resistance to persuasion. These results suggest that the Japanese versions of reactance scale were reliable and valid. However, the assertiveness aspect of TRS may not be appropriate for the definition of reactance. The influence of culture on psychological reactance was also discussed. PMID:12516187

Imajo, Shuzo

2002-10-01

472

The Mossy Fiber Bouton: the “Common” or the “Unique” Synapse?  

PubMed Central

Synapses are the key elements for signal processing and plasticity in the brain. They are composed of nearly the same structural subelements, an apposition zone including a pre- and postsynaptic density, a cleft and a pool of vesicles. It is, however, their actual composition that determines their different behavior in synaptic transmission and plasticity. Here, we describe and discuss the structural factors underlying the unique functional properties of the hippocampal mossy fiber (MF) synapse. Two membrane specializations, active zones (AZs; transmitter release sites), and puncta adherentia (PA), putative adhesion complexes were found. On average, individual boutons had ?20 AZs with a mean surface area of 0.1??m2 and a short distance of 0.45??m between individual AZs. Mossy fiber boutons (MFBs) and their target structures were isolated from each other by astrocytes, but fine glial processes never reached the AZs. Therefore, two structural factors are likely to promote synaptic cross-talk: the short distance and the absence of fine glial processes between individual AZs. Thus, synaptic crosstalk may contribute to the high efficacy of hippocampal MF synapses. On average, an adult bouton contained ?16,000 synaptic vesicles; ?600 vesicles were located within 60?nm from the AZ, ?4000 between 60?nm and 200?nm, and the remaining beyond 200?nm, suggesting large readily releasable, recycling, and reserve pools. Thus, the size of the three pools together with the number and distribution of AZs underlie the unique extent of synaptic efficacy and plasticity of the hippocampal MF synapse. PMID:21423488

Rollenhagen, Astrid; Lübke, Joachim H. R.

2010-01-01

473

Creativity and technical innovation: spatial ability's unique role.  

PubMed

In the late 1970s, 563 intellectually talented 13-year-olds (identified by the SAT as in the top 0.5% of ability) were assessed on spatial ability. More than 30 years later, the present study evaluated whether spatial ability provided incremental validity (beyond the SAT's mathematical and verbal reasoning subtests) for differentially predicting which of these individuals had patents and three classes of refereed publications. A two-step discriminant-function analysis revealed that the SAT subtests jointly accounted for 10.8% of the variance among these outcomes (p < .01); when spatial ability was added, an additional 7.6% was accounted for--a statistically significant increase (p < .01). The findings indicate that spatial ability has a unique role in the development of creativity, beyond the roles played by the abilities traditionally measured in educational selection, counseling, and industrial-organizational psychology. Spatial ability plays a key and unique role in structuring many important psychological phenomena and should be examined more broadly across the applied and basic psychological sciences. PMID:23846718

Kell, Harrison J; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P; Steiger, James H

2013-09-01

474

Unique Construction and Social Experiences in Residential Remediation Sites - 13423  

SciTech Connect

Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc., (Sevenson) has performed several radiological remediation projects located in residential urban areas. Over the course of these projects, there has been a wide variety of experiences encountered from construction related issues to unique social situations. Some of the construction related issues included the remediation of interior basements where contaminated material was located under the footers of the structure or was used in the mortar between cinder block or field stone foundations. Other issues included site security, maintaining furnaces or other utilities, underpinning, backfilling and restoration. In addition to the radiological hazards associated with this work there were occupational safety and industrial hygiene issues that had to be addressed to ensure the safety and health of neighboring properties and residents. The unique social situations at these job sites have included arson, theft/stolen property, assault/battery, prostitution, execution of arrest warrants for residents, discovery of drugs and paraphernalia, blood borne pathogens, and unexploded ordnance. Some of these situations have become a sort of comical urban legend throughout the organization. One situation had historical significance, involving the demolition of a house to save a tree older than the Declaration of Independence. All of these projects typically involve the excavation of early 20. century items such as advertisement signs, various old bottles (milk, Listerine, perfume, whisky) and other miscellaneous common trash items. (authors)

Jung, Paul; Scarborough, Rebecca [Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc. 2749 Lockport Road, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States)] [Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc. 2749 Lockport Road, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States)

2013-07-01

475

Rationality, irrationality and escalating behavior in lowest unique bid auctions.  

PubMed

Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions--lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of "bid space". The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets. PMID:22279553

Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea; Amaral, Luís A N

2012-01-01

476

Unique disease heritage of the Dutch-German Mennonite population.  

PubMed

The Dutch-German Mennonites are a religious isolate with foundational roots in the 16th century. A tradition of endogamy, large families, detailed genealogical records, and a unique disease history all contribute to making this a valuable population for genetic studies. Such studies in the Dutch-German Mennonite population have already contributed to the identification of the causative genes in several conditions such as the incomplete form of X-linked congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB2; previously iCSNB) and hypophosphatasia (HOPS), as well as the discovery of founder mutations within established disease genes (MYBPC1, CYP17alpha). The Dutch-German Mennonite population provides a strong resource for gene discovery and could lead to the identification of additional disease genes with relevance to the general population. In addition, further research developments should enhance delivery of clinical genetic services to this unique community. In the current review we discuss 31 genetic conditions, including 17 with identified gene mutations, within the Dutch-German Mennonite population. PMID:18348259

Orton, Noelle C; Innes, A Micheil; Chudley, Albert E; Bech-Hansen, N Torben

2008-04-15

477

Unique Properties of Lunar Impact Glass: Nanophase Metallic Fe Synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Lunar regolith contains important materials that can be used for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) on the Moon, thereby providing for substantial economic savings for development of a manned base. However, virtually all activities on the Moon will be affected by the deleterious effects of the adhering, abrasive, and pervasive nature of lunar dust (<20 {micro}m portion of regolith, which constitutes {approx}20 wt% of the soil). In addition, the major impact-produced glass in the lunar soil, especially agglutinitic glass (60-80 vol% of the dust), contains unique nanometer-sized metallic Fe (np-Fe{sup 0}), which may pose severe pulmonary problems for humans. The presence of the np-Fe0 imparts considerable magnetic susceptibility to the fine portion of the lunar soil, and dust mitigation techniques can be designed using these magnetic properties. The limited availability of Apollo lunar soils for ISRU research has made it necessary to produce materials that simulate this unique np-Fe{sup 0} property, for testing different dust mitigation methods using electromagnetic fields, and for toxicity studies of human respiratory and pulmonary systems, and for microwave treatment of lunar soil to produce paved roads, etc. A method for synthesizing np-Fe{sup 0} in an amorphous silica matrix is presented here. This type of specific simulant can be used as an additive to other existing lunar soil simulants.

Liu, Yang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Taylor, Lawrence A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Thompson, James R [ORNL; Schnare, Darren W. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Park, Jae-Sung [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2007-01-01

478

Deep, diverse and definitely different: unique attributes of the world's largest ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deep sea, the largest biome on Earth, has a series of characteristics that make this environment both distinct from other marine and land ecosystems and unique for the entire planet. This review describes these patterns and processes, from geological settings to biological processes, biodiversity and biogeographical patterns. It concludes with a brief discussion of current threats from anthropogenic activities to deep-sea habitats and their fauna. Investigations of deep-sea habitats and their fauna began in the late 19th Century. In the intervening years, technological developments and stimulating discoveries have promoted deep-sea research and changed our way of understanding life on the planet. Nevertheless, the deep sea is still mostly unknown and current discovery rates of both habitats and species remain high. The geological, physical and geochemical settings of the deep-sea floor and the water column form a series of different habitats with unique characteristics that support specific faunal communities. Since 1840, 27 new habitats/ecosystems have been discovered from the shelf break to the deep trenches and discoveries of new habitats are still happening in the early 21st Century. However, for most of these habitats, the global area covered is unknown or has been only very roughly estimated; an even smaller - indeed, minimal - proportion has actually been sampled and investigated. We currently perceive most of the deep-sea ecosystems as heterotrophic, depending ultimately on the flux on organic matter produced in the overlying surface ocean through photosynthesis. The resulting strong food limitation, thus, shapes deep-sea biota and communities, with exceptions only in reducing ecosystems such as inter alia hydrothermal vents or cold seeps, where chemoautolithotrophic bacteria play the role of primary producers fuelled by chemical energy sources rather than sunlight. Other ecosystems, such as seamounts, canyons or cold-water corals have an increased productivity through specific physical processes, such as topographic modification of currents and enhanced transport of particles and detrital matter. Because of its unique abiotic attributes, the deep sea hosts a specialized fauna. Although there are no phyla unique to deep waters, at lower taxonomic levels the composition of the fauna is distinct from that found in the upper ocean. Amongst other characteristic patterns, deep-sea species may exhibit either gigantism or dwarfism, related to the decrease in food availability with depth. Food limitation on the seafloor and water column is also reflected in the trophic structure of deep-sea communities, which are adapted to low energy availability. In most of the heterotrophic deep-sea settings, the dominant megafauna is composed of detritivores, while filter feeders are abundant in habitats with hard substrata (e.g. mid-ocean ridges, seamounts, canyon walls and coral reefs) and chemoautotrophy through symbiotic relationships is dominant in reducing habitats. Deep-sea biodiversity is among of the highest on the planet, mainly composed of macro and meiofauna, with high evenness. This is true for most of the continental margins and abyssal plains with hot spots of diversity such as seamounts or cold-water corals. However, in some ecosystems with particularly "extreme" physicochemical processes (e.g. hydrothermal vents), biodiversity is low but abundance and biomass are high and the communities are dominated by a few species. Two large-scale diversity patterns have been discussed for deep-sea benthic communities. First, a unimodal relationship between diversity and depth is observed, with a peak at intermediate depths (2000-3000 m), although this is not universal and particular abiotic processes can modify the trend. Secondly, a poleward trend of decreasing diversity has been discussed, but this remains controversial and studies with larger and more robust datasets are needed. Because of the paucity in our knowledge of habitat coverage and species composition, biogeographic studies are mostly based on regional

Ramirez-Llodra, E.; Brandt, A.; Danovaro, R.; Escobar, E.; German, C. R.; Levin, L. A.; Martinez Arbizu, P.; Menot, L.; Buhl-Mortensen, P.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Smith, C. R.; Tittensor, D. P.; Tyler, P. A.; Vanreusel, A.; Vecchione, M.

2010-04-01

479

Deep, diverse and definitely different: unique attributes of the world's largest ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deep sea, the largest biome on Earth, has a series of characteristics that make this environment both distinct from other marine and land ecosystems and unique for the entire planet. This review describes these patterns and processes, from geological settings to biological processes, biodiversity and biogeographical patterns. It concludes with a brief discussion of current threats from anthropogenic activities to deep-sea habitats and their fauna. Investigations of deep-sea habitats and their fauna began in the late 19th century. In the intervening years, technological developments and stimulating discoveries have promoted deep-sea research and changed our way of understanding life on the planet. Nevertheless, the deep sea is still mostly unknown and current discovery rates of both habitats and species remain high. The geological, physical and geochemical settings of the deep-sea floor and the water column form a series of different habitats with unique characteristics that support specific faunal communities. Since 1840, 28 new habitats/ecosystems have been discovered from the shelf break to the deep trenches and discoveries of new habitats are still happening in the early 21st century. However, for most of these habitats the global area covered is unknown or has been only very roughly estimated; an even smaller - indeed, minimal - proportion has actually been sampled and investigated. We currently perceive most of the deep-sea ecosystems as heterotrophic, depending ultimately on the flux on organic matter produced in the overlying surface ocean through photosynthesis. The resulting strong food limitation thus shapes deep-sea biota and communities, with exceptions only in reducing ecosystems such as inter alia hydrothermal vents or cold seeps. Here, chemoautolithotrophic bacteria play the role of primary producers fuelled by chemical energy sources rather than sunlight. Other ecosystems, such as seamounts, canyons or cold-water corals have an increased productivity through specific physical processes, such as topographic modification of currents and enhanced transport of particles and detrital matter. Because of its unique abiotic attributes, the deep sea hosts a specialized fauna. Although there are no phyla unique to deep waters, at lower taxonomic levels the composition of the fauna is distinct from that found in the upper ocean. Amongst other characteristic patterns, deep-sea species may exhibit either gigantism or dwarfism, related to the decrease in food availability with depth. Food limitation on the seafloor and water column is also reflected in the trophic structure of heterotrophic deep-sea communities, which are adapted to low energy availability. In most of these heterotrophic habitats, the dominant megafauna is composed of detritivores, while filter feeders are abundant in habitats with hard substrata (e.g. mid-ocean ridges, seamounts, canyon walls and coral reefs). Chemoautotrophy through symbiotic relationships is dominant in reducing habitats. Deep-sea biodiversity is among of the highest on the planet, mainly composed of macro and meiofauna, with high evenness. This is true for most of the continental margins and abyssal plains with hot spots of diversity such as seamounts or cold-water corals. However, in some ecosystems with particularly "extreme" physicochemical processes (e.g. hydrothermal vents), biodiversity is low but abundance and biomass are high and the communities are dominated by a few species. Two large-scale diversity patterns have been discussed for deep-sea benthic communities. First, a unimodal relationship between diversity and depth is observed, with a peak at intermediate depths (2000-3000 m), although this is not universal and particular abiotic processes can modify the trend. Secondly, a poleward trend of decreasing diversity has been discussed, but this remains controversial and studies with larger and more robust data sets are needed. Because of the paucity in our knowledge of habitat coverage and species composition, biogeographic studies are mostly based on region

Ramirez-Llodra, E.; Brandt, A.; Danovaro, R.; de Mol, B.; Escobar, E.; German, C. R.; Levin, L. A.; Martinez Arbizu, P.; Menot, L.; Buhl-Mortensen, P.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Smith, C. R.; Tittensor, D. P.; Tyler, P. A.; Vanreusel, A.; Vecchione, M.

2010-09-01

480

Profile modification to minimize spur gear dynamic loading  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical computer simulation program for dynamic modeling of low-contact-ratio spur gear systems is presented. The procedure computes the static transmission error of the gears operating under load and uses a fast Fourier transform to generate the frequency spectrum of the static transmission error at various tooth profile modifications. The dynamic loading response of an unmodified (perfect involute) gear pair was compared with that of gears with various profile modifications. Correlations were found between various profile modifications and the resulting dynamic loads. An effective error, obtained from frequency domain analysis of the static transmission error of the gears, gave a very good indication of the optimum profile modification to reduce gear dynamic loading. Design curves generated by dynamic simulation at various profile modifications are given for gear systems operated at various loads. Optimum profile modifications can be determined from these design curves for improved gear design.

Lin, H. H.; Townsend, D. P.; Oswald, F. B.

1989-01-01

481

Genome modification by CRISPR/Cas9.  

PubMed

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein (Cas)9-mediated genome modification enables us to edit the genomes of a variety of organisms rapidly and efficiently. The advantages of the CRISPR-Cas9 system have made it an increasingly popular genetic engineering tool for biological and therapeutic applications. Moreover, CRISPR-Cas9 has been employed to recruit functional domains that repress/activate gene expression or label specific genomic loci in living cells or organisms, in order to explore developmental mechanisms, gene expression regulation, and animal behavior. One major concern about this system is its specificity; although CRISPR-Cas9-mediated off-target mutation has been broadly studied, more efforts are required to further improve the specificity of CRISPR-Cas9. We will also discuss the potential applications of CRISPR-Cas9. PMID:25315507

Ma, Yuanwu; Zhang, Lianfeng; Huang, Xingxu

2014-12-01

482

TALEN utilization in rice genome modifications.  

PubMed

Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), the newly developed and powerful genetic tools for precise genome editing, are fusion proteins of TAL effectors as DNA binding domains and the cleavage domain of FokI endonuclease. As a pair, the central repeat regions of TALENs determine the DNA binding specificity for the two sub-target sites; and the dimeric non-specific FokI cleavage domains cause a DNA double strand break (DSB) between the bound sequences. In vivo, cells repair the DSBs through either non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway or homologous recombination (HR) pathway. Various methods have been developed for easy and fast assembly of TALEN genes for their utilization in a variety of eukaryotic cells or organisms. Here we present a TALEN-based rice genome modification protocol including constructing modularly assembled TALENs, rice transformation, and mutant screening. PMID:24680698

Li, Ting; Liu, Bo; Chen, Chih Ying; Yang, Bing

2014-08-15

483

Gas release and conductivity modification studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The behavior of gas clouds produced by releases from orbital velocity in either a point release or venting mode is described by the modification of snowplow equations valid in an intermediate altitude regime. Quantitative estimates are produced for the time dependence of the radius of the cloud, the average internal energy, the translational velocity, and the distance traveled. The dependence of these quantities on the assumed density profile, the internal energy of the gas, and the ratio of specific heats is examined. The new feature is the inclusion of the effect of the large orbital velocity. The resulting gas cloud models are used to calculate the characteristics of the field line integrated Pedersen conductivity enhancements that would be produced by the release of barium thermite at orbital velocity in either the point release or venting modes as a function of release altitude and chemical payload weight.

Linson, L. M.; Baxter, D. C.

1979-01-01

484

Cell Signalling Through Covalent Modification and Allostery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorylation plays essential roles in nearly every aspect of cell life. Protein kinases catalyze the transfer of the ?-phosphate of ATP to a serine, threonine or tyrosine residue in protein substrates. This covalent modification allows activation or inhibition of enzyme activity, creates recognition sites for other proteins and promotes order/disorder or disorder/order transitions. These properties regulate ­signalling pathways and cellular processes that mediate metabolism, transcription, cell cycle progression, differentiation, cytoskeleton arrangement and cell movement, apoptosis, intercellular communication, and neuronal and immunological functions. In this lecture I shall review the structural consequences of protein phosphorylation using our work on glycogen phosphorylase and the cell cycle cyclin dependent protein kinases as illustrations. Regulation of protein phosphorylation may be disrupted in the diseased state and protein kinases have become high profile targets for drug development. To date there are 11 compounds that have been approved for clinical use in the treatment of cancer.

Johnson, Louise N.

485

Bt toxin modification for enhanced efficacy.  

PubMed

Insect-specific toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provide a valuable resource for pest suppression. Here we review the different strategies that have been employed to enhance toxicity against specific target species including those that have evolved resistance to Bt, or to modify the host range of Bt crystal (Cry) and cytolytic (Cyt) toxins. These strategies include toxin truncation, modification of protease cleavage sites, domain swapping, site-directed mutagenesis, peptide addition, and phage display screens for mutated toxins with enhanced activity. Toxin optimization provides a useful approach to extend the utility of these proteins for suppression of pests that exhibit low susceptibility to native Bt toxins, and to overcome field resistance. PMID:25340556

Deist, Benjamin R; Rausch, Michael A; Fernandez-Luna, Maria Teresa; Adang, Michael J; Bonning, Bryony C

2014-10-01

486

Dynamics of inherently bounded histone modification domains  

PubMed Central

A central goal of chromatin biology is to reveal how posttranslational histone marks modulate gene expression; however, relatively little is known about the spatial or temporal dynamics of these marks. We previously showed that a dynamic model of histone mark nucleation, propagation, and turnover fits the mean enrichment profiles from 99% of noncentromeric histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) domains in mouse embryonic stem cells without the need for boundary or insulator elements. Here we report the full details of this “inherently bounded” model of histone modification dynamics and describe several dynamic features of the model using H3K9me3 as a paradigm. By analyzing the kinetic and structural constraints that drive formation of inherently bounded domains, we find that such domains are optimized when the rates of marking and turnover are comparable. Additionally, we find that to establish such domains, propagation of the histone marks must occur primarily through local contacts. PMID:22847427

Hodges, Courtney; Crabtree, Gerald R.

2012-01-01

487

Bt Toxin Modification for Enhanced Efficacy  

PubMed Central

Insect-specific toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provide a valuable resource for pest suppression. Here we review the different strategies that have been employed to enhance toxicity against specific target species including those that have evolved resistance to Bt, or to modify the host range of Bt crystal (Cry) and cytolytic (Cyt) toxins. These strategies include toxin truncation, modification of protease cleavage sites, domain swapping, site-directed mutagenesis, peptide addition, and phage display screens for mutated toxins with enhanced activity. Toxin optimization provides a useful approach to extend the utility of these proteins for suppression of pests that exhibit low susceptibility to native Bt toxins, and to overcome field resistance. PMID:25340556

Deist, Benjamin R.; Rausch, Michael A.; Fernandez-Luna, Maria Teresa; Adang, Michael J.; Bonning, Bryony C.

2014-01-01

488

Post-translational Modification and Quality Control  

PubMed Central

Protein quality control (PQC) functions to minimize the level and toxicity of misfolded proteins in the cell. PQC is performed by intricate collaboration among chaperones and target protein degradation. The latter is carried out primarily by the ubiquitin-proteasome system and perhaps autophagy. Terminally misfolded proteins that are not timely removed tend to form aggregates. Their clearance requires macroautophagy. Macroautophagy serves in intracellular quality control also by selectively segregating defective organelles (e.g., mitochondria) and targeting them for degradation by the lysosome. Inadequate PQC is observed in a large subset of failing human hearts with a variety of etiologies and its pathogenic role has been experimentally demonstrated. Multiple post-translational modifications (PTMs) can occur to substrate proteins and/or PQC machineries, promoting or hindering the removal of the misfolded proteins. This article highlights recent advances in PTMs-mediated regulation of intracellular quality control mechanisms and its known involvement in cardiac pathology. PMID:23329792

Wang, Xuejun; Pattison, J. Scott; Su, Huabo

2013-01-01

489

Detection of PCNA modifications in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

PCNA modifications by members of the ubiquitin family are associated with a range of different transactions during replication of damaged and undamaged DNA. This chapter describes detailed protocols for the detection and isolation of ubiquitin and SUMO conjugates of PCNA from total budding yeast cell lysates, using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography under denaturing conditions. We describe approaches based on the purification of PCNA itself and on the isolation of total ubiquitin or SUMO conjugates. The chapter covers the construction of the appropriate strains, methods for the detection of modified PCNA, and the use of various DNA-damaging agents as well as mutants of PCNA and relevant conjugation enzymes to examine the cellular response to replication stress. PMID:22941627

Davies, Adelina A; Ulrich, Helle D

2012-01-01

490

Improving risk factor modification: a global approach.  

PubMed

Despite recent advances in treating cardiovascular disease, many of the predisposing risk factors for heart disease are increasing in prevalence, raising concern that heart disease rates may rise in the years to come. When faced with the range of risk factors such as obesity, smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes, the clinician needs to address all components. After assessing an individual patient's global risk, the clinician should use a comprehensive risk-modifying strategy that incorporates therapeutic lifestyle changes and pharmacologic therapy. Key elements of lifestyle changes are individualized treatment plans and frequent follow-up, whereas approaches to improve medical therapy include using structured programs to increase awareness and implementation of risk-reducing medications. Improving risk factor modification requires a global approach, not only in addressing the spectrum of risk factors, but also in using the full range of strategies available to clinicians. PMID:19863873

Muchiteni, Tshaka; Borden, William B

2009-11-01

491

Biomolecular Modification of Inorganic Crystal Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fascinating shapes and hierarchical designs of biomineralized structures are an inspiration to materials scientists because of the potential they suggest for biomolecular control over materials synthesis. Conversely, the failure to prevent or limit tissue mineralization in the vascular, skeletal, and urinary systems is a common source of disease. Understanding the mechanisms by which organisms direct or limit crystallization has long been a central challenge to the biomineralization community. One prevailing view is that mineral-associated macromolecules are responsible for either inhibiting crystallization or initiating and stabilizing non-equilibrium crystal polymorphs and morphologies through interactions between anionic moieties and cations in solution or at mineralizing surfaces. In particular, biomolecules that present carboxyl groups to the growing crystal have been implicated as primary modulators of growth. Here we review the results from a combination of in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and molecular modeling (MM) studies to investigate the effect of specific interactions between carboxylate-rich biomolecules and atomic steps on crystal surfaces during the growth of carbonates, oxalates and phosphates of calcium. Specifically, we how the growth kinetics and morphology depend on the concentration of additives that include citrate, simple amino acids, synthetic Asp-rich polypeptides, and naturally occurring Asp-rich proteins found in both functional and pathological mineral tissues. The results reveal a consistent picture of shape modification in which stereochemical matching of modifiers to specific atomic steps drives shape modification. Inhibition and other changes in growth kinetics are shown to be due to a range of mechanisms that depend on chemistry and molecular size. Some effects are well described by classic crystal growth theories, but others, such as step acceleration due to peptide charge and hydrophylicity, were previously unrealized. Finally, we show that the molecular scale observations are well correlated with macroscopic growth rate data.

De Yoreo, James J.

2007-06-01

492

Modifications in vertical scar breast reduction.  

PubMed

The use of vertical-scar breast reduction techniques is only slowly increasing, even though they have been advocated by Lassus and Lejour and are requested by patients. Possible reasons why surgeons are reluctant to use these techniques are that they are said to be more difficult to learn, they require considerable experience and intuition, and their applicability is confined to small breasts. Several surgeons have developed modifications, combining vertical-scar breast reduction techniques with details of the familiar inverted-T-scar technique. We present a procedure involving two further modifications of the vertical-scar breast reduction technique: first, a standardised, geometrical preoperative drawing from our superior-pedicle T technique, with the aim of establishing a reproducible method of reduction requiring no particular intuitive touch, and, second, the addition of a periareolar skin resection, to give the breast the desired round shape. Between September 1998 and December 1999 we used this technique in a prospective series of 52 patients. The median resection weight was 450 g. The maximal postoperative follow-up was 15 months. There were no acute postoperative complications necessitating reoperation. The late complication rate was within the expected range for such procedures (seven patients, 13.5%) and included vertical-scar widening, areolar distortion, residual wrinkles due to incomplete shrinkage of the undermined skin in the inferior pole and asymmetry of the breast. This procedure enables us to offer patients with moderate to marked hypertrophy a reproducible versatile vertical breast reduction technique. The technique is easy to teach and easy to learn, especially for those who are familiar with the superior pedicle inverted-T-scar technique. PMID:11355991

Beer, G M; Morgenthaler, W; Spicher, I; Meyer, V E

2001-06-01

493

RESEARCH ARTICLES Dynamic Landscapes of Four Histone Modifications during  

E-print Network

, we analyzed the effects of light on four histone modifications (acetylation and trimethylation potentially contribute to light regulation of the gibberellin metabolism. Thus, this work provides a dynamic

Deng, Xing-Wang

494

Body Modification: psychologische Aspekte von Piercings und anderen Körperveränderungen.  

E-print Network

??„Body Modification“ wurde zum Szenenwort für zahlreiche, teilweise konsternierende Praktiken wie Tätowierung, Piercing, Branding, Scarification, Implants, Sewings oder Amputationen. Doch kaum eine dieser Techniken ist… (more)

Kälin, R

2008-01-01

495

Unique nanopore pattern formation by focused ion beam guided anodization.  

PubMed

The fabrication of ordered porous templates in large areas with sophisticated patterns beyond mono-sized pores in hexagonal packing remains a great technical challenge. Conventional anodization cannot overcome this limitation and a new approach needs to be sought. This study is focused on designing pore patterns in square and hexagonal arrangements via focused ion beam lithography with varying interpore distances in order to form organized pore arrays with more sophisticated patterns. The results demonstrate that the small pores from the anodization can be meshed with the larger pores from the focused ion beam lithography and unique, complicated nanopore patterns can be created. Large pore patterns that cross the grain boundaries are also made possible with the guidance of the pores from focused ion beam lithography. A fundamental pore pattern formation mechanism is proposed. PMID:20823502

Tian, Zhi-Peng; Lu, Kathy; Chen, Bo

2010-10-01

496

Deriving a unique reference frame for GPS measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two strategies for deriving a unique reference frame for GPS (Global Positioning System) measurements are discussed. The first strategy utilizes the precise relative positions which have been predetermined by VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) to fix the frame orientation and the absolute scaling, while the offset from the geocenter is determined from GPS measurements. Three different cases are presented under this strategy. The second strategy establishes a reference frame by holding only the longitudinal of one of the tracking sites fixed. The absolute scaling is determined by the adopted gravitational constant (GM) of the earth; and the latitude is inferred from the time signature of the earth's rotation in the GPS measurements. The coordinate system thus defined will be a geocentric earth fixed coordinate system. A covariance analysis shows that geometric positioning to an accuracy of a few centimeters can be achieved with just one day of precise GPS pseudorange and carrier phase data.

Malla, Rajendra P.; Wu, Sien-Chong

1988-01-01

497

The Cuban Rafter Phenomenon: A Unique Sea Exodus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing on the talents of three local scholars in and around Miami, this interactive and informative website offers an unique perspective into the experience of the thousands of citizens who left Cuba in small boats, homemade rafts and other such crafts during the raft crisis of 1994. The broader theme of the site is the general post-1959 migration of Cubans to America, which has been the subject of much scrutiny by policy-makers and scholars. Beginning with an interactive map, visitors can get a sense of the route these people have taken over the years, in and around such places as Key West, Havana, and the Caymans. The other documents on the site include photographs of the rafters' experience, timelines of key events, and information from a 2004 conference held on the subject. The site is further enhanced by a number of dramatic video clips and the availability of the material in Spanish.

498

On the uniqueness of the Standard Model of particle physics  

E-print Network

The running strong coupling $\\alpha(Q)_s$ and the gluon propagator from QCD have been compared to similar quantities in the quanton model, a generalisation of QED with massless fermions (quantons) and scalar coupling of boson fields. In the latter model a series of bound states (which can be related to different flavours) have been obtained. Assuming a weighting of their momentum distributions with the average momentum $\\tilde Q_i$ of each state, a running of the coupling $\\alpha(Q)$ is obtained, which is in quantitative agreement with $\\alpha_s(Q)$ from QCD. Also with a similar weighting the gluon propagator from lattice QCD simulations is well described. This indicates clearly that QCD and thus the Standard Model is not a unique description of fundamental interactions. Different from the Standard Model, the quanton model is simple and yields bound states with correct masses. This may indicate that this model yields a more realistic description of fundamental forces.

H. P. Morsch

2011-11-09

499

The unique paradigm of spirochete motility and chemotaxis  

PubMed Central

Spirochete motility is enigmatic: It differs from the motility of most other bacteria in that the entire bacterium is involved in translocation in the absence of external appendages. Using the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) as a model system, we explore the current research on spirochete motility and chemotaxis. Bb has periplasmic flagella (PFs) subterminally attached to each end of the protoplasmic cell cylinder, and surrounding the cell is an outer membrane. These internal helically shaped PFs allow the spirochete to swim by generating backward-moving waves by rotation. Exciting advances using cryoelectron microscopy tomography are presented with respect to in situ analysis of cell, PF, and motor structure. In addition, advances in the dynamics of motility, chemotaxis, gene regulation, and the role of motility and chemotaxis in the life cycle of Bb are summarized. The results indicate that the motility paradigms of flagellated bacteria do not apply to these unique bacteria. PMID:22994496

Charon, Nyles W.; Cockburn, Andrew; Li, Chunhao; Liu, Jun; Miller, Kelly A.; Miller, Michael R.; Motaleb, Md.; Wolgemuth, Charles W.

2013-01-01

500

Experimental investigation of a unique airbreathing pulsed laser propulsion concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigations were conducted into unique methods of converting pulsed laser energy into propulsive thrust across a flat impulse surface under atmospheric conditions. The propulsion experiments were performed with a 1-micron neodymium-glass laser at the Space Plasma Branch of the Naval Research Laboratory. Laser-induced impulse was measured dynamically by ballistic pendulums and statically using piezoelectric pressure transducers on a stationary impulse surface. The principal goal was to explore methods for increasing the impulse coupling performance of airbreathing laser-propulsion engines. A magnetohydrodynamic thrust augmentation effect was discovered when a tesla-level magnetic field was applied perpendicular to the impulse surface. The impulse coupling coefficient performance doubled and continued to improve with increasing laser-pulse energies. The resultant performance of 180 to 200 N-s/MJ was found to be comparable to that of the earliest afterburning turbojets.

Myrabo, L. N.; Nagamatsu, H. T.; Manka, C.; Lyons, P. W.; Jones, R. A.

1991-01-01