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Sample records for unique hypusine modification

  1. Protein-protein-interaction network organization of the hypusine modification system.

    PubMed

    Sievert, Henning; Venz, Simone; Platas-Barradas, Oscar; Dhople, Vishnu M; Schaletzky, Martin; Nagel, Claus-Henning; Braig, Melanie; Preukschas, Michael; Pällmann, Nora; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Brümmendorf, Tim H; Pörtner, Ralf; Walther, Reinhard; Duncan, Kent E; Hauber, Joachim; Balabanov, Stefan

    2012-11-01

    Hypusine modification of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) represents a unique and highly specific post-translational modification with regulatory functions in cancer, diabetes, and infectious diseases. However, the specific cellular pathways that are influenced by the hypusine modification remain largely unknown. To globally characterize eIF-5A and hypusine-dependent pathways, we used an approach that combines large-scale bioreactor cell culture with tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry: "bioreactor-TAP-MS/MS." By applying this approach systematically to all four components of the hypusine modification system (eIF-5A1, eIF-5A2, DHS, and DOHH), we identified 248 interacting proteins as components of the cellular hypusine network, with diverse functions including regulation of translation, mRNA processing, DNA replication, and cell cycle regulation. Network analysis of this data set enabled us to provide a comprehensive overview of the protein-protein interaction landscape of the hypusine modification system. In addition, we validated the interaction of eIF-5A with some of the newly identified associated proteins in more detail. Our analysis has revealed numerous novel interactions, and thus provides a valuable resource for understanding how this crucial homeostatic signaling pathway affects different cellular functions. PMID:22888148

  2. Biological Relevance and Therapeutic Potential of the Hypusine Modification System.

    PubMed

    Pällmann, Nora; Braig, Melanie; Sievert, Henning; Preukschas, Michael; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Schweizer, Michaela; Nagel, Claus Henning; Neumann, Melanie; Wild, Peter; Haralambieva, Eugenia; Hagel, Christian; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Hauber, Joachim; Balabanov, Stefan

    2015-07-24

    Hypusine modification of the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) is emerging as a crucial regulator in cancer, infections, and inflammation. Although its contribution in translational regulation of proline repeat-rich proteins has been sufficiently demonstrated, its biological role in higher eukaryotes remains poorly understood. To establish the hypusine modification system as a novel platform for therapeutic strategies, we aimed to investigate its functional relevance in mammals by generating and using a range of new knock-out mouse models for the hypusine-modifying enzymes deoxyhypusine synthase and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase as well as for the cancer-related isoform eIF-5A2. We discovered that homozygous depletion of deoxyhypusine synthase and/or deoxyhypusine hydroxylase causes lethality in adult mice with different penetrance compared with haploinsufficiency. Network-based bioinformatic analysis of proline repeat-rich proteins, which are putative eIF-5A targets, revealed that these proteins are organized in highly connected protein-protein interaction networks. Hypusine-dependent translational control of essential proteins (hubs) and protein complexes inside these networks might explain the lethal phenotype observed after deletion of hypusine-modifying enzymes. Remarkably, our results also demonstrate that the cancer-associated isoform eIF-5A2 is dispensable for normal development and viability. Together, our results provide the first genetic evidence that the hypusine modification in eIF-5A is crucial for homeostasis in mammals. Moreover, these findings highlight functional diversity of the hypusine system compared with lower eukaryotes and indicate eIF-5A2 as a valuable and safe target for therapeutic intervention in cancer. PMID:26037925

  3. The effect of hypusine modification on the intracellular localization of eIF5A

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung Bum; Park, Jong Hwan; Kaevel, Joern; Sramkova, Monika; Weigert, Roberto; Park, Myung Hee

    2009-06-12

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is a highly conserved protein essential for eukaryotic cell proliferation and is the only protein containing hypusine, [N{sup {epsilon}}-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)lysine]. eIF5A is activated by the post-translational synthesis of hypusine. eIF5A also undergoes an acetylation at specific Lys residue(s). In this study, we have investigated the effect of hypusine modification and acetylation on the subcellular localization of eIF5A. Immunocytochemical analyses showed differences in the distribution of non-hypusinated eIF5A precursor and the hypusine-containing mature eIF5A. While the precursor is found in both cytoplasm and nucleus, the hypusinated eIF5A is primarily localized in cytoplasm. eIF5A mutant proteins, defective in hypusine modification (K50A, K50R) were localized in a similar manner to the eIF5A precursor, whereas hypusine-modified mutant proteins (K47A, K47R, K68A) were localized mainly in the cytoplasm. These findings provide strong evidence that the hypusine modification of eIF5A dictates its localization in the cytoplasmic compartment where it is required for protein synthesis.

  4. A unique modification of the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A shows the presence of the complete hypusine pathway in Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Bhavna; Kumar, Ravi Ranjan; Tyagi, Nidhi; Subramanian, Gowri; Srinivasan, N; Park, Myung Hee; Madhubala, Rentala

    2012-01-01

    Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH) catalyzes the final step in the post-translational synthesis of an unusual amino acid hypusine (N(€)-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl) lysine), which is present on only one cellular protein, eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). We present here the molecular and structural basis of the function of DOHH from the protozoan parasite, Leishmania donovani, which causes visceral leishmaniasis. The L. donovani DOHH gene is 981 bp and encodes a putative polypeptide of 326 amino acids. DOHH is a HEAT-repeat protein with eight tandem repeats of α-helical pairs. Four conserved histidine-glutamate sequences have been identified that may act as metal coordination sites. A ~42 kDa recombinant protein with a His-tag was obtained by heterologous expression of DOHH in Escherichia coli. Purified recombinant DOHH effectively catalyzed the hydroxylation of the intermediate, eIF5A-deoxyhypusine (eIF5A-Dhp), in vitro. L. donovani DOHH (LdDOHH) showed ~40.6% sequence identity with its human homolog. The alignment of L. donovani DOHH with the human homolog shows that there are two significant insertions in the former, corresponding to the alignment positions 159-162 (four amino acid residues) and 174-183 (ten amino acid residues) which are present in the variable loop connecting the N- and C-terminal halves of the protein, the latter being present near the substrate binding site. Deletion of the ten-amino-acid-long insertion decreased LdDOHH activity to 14% of the wild type recombinant LdDOHH. Metal chelators like ciclopirox olamine (CPX) and mimosine significantly inhibited the growth of L. donovani and DOHH activity in vitro. These inhibitors were more effective against the parasite enzyme than the human enzyme. This report, for the first time, confirms the presence of a complete hypusine pathway in a kinetoplastid unlike eubacteria and archaea. The structural differences between the L. donovani DOHH and the human homolog may be exploited for structure based design of selective inhibitors against the parasite. PMID:22438895

  5. Posttranslational hypusination of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor-5A regulates Fusarium graminearum virulence.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Rocha, Ana Lilia; Woriedh, Mayada; Chemnitz, Jan; Willingmann, Peter; Kröger, Cathrin; Hadeler, Birgit; Hauber, Joachim; Schäfer, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    Activation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF5A requires a posttranslational modification, forming the unique amino acid hypusine. This activation is mediated by two enzymes, deoxyhypusine synthase, DHS, and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase, DOHH. The impact of this enzymatic complex on the life cycle of a fungal pathogen is unknown. Plant pathogenic ascomycetes possess a single copy of the eIF5A activated by hypusination. We evaluated the importance of imbalances in eIF5A hypusination in Fusarium graminearum, a devastating fungal pathogen of cereals. Overexpression of DHS leads to increased virulence in wheat, elevated production of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol, more infection structures, faster wheat tissue invasion in plants and increases vegetatively produced conidia. In contrast, overexpression of DOHH completely prevents infection structure formation, pathogenicity in wheat and maize, leads to overproduction of ROS, reduced DON production and increased sexual reproduction. Simultaneous overexpression of both genes restores wild type-like phenotypes. Analysis of eIF5A posttranslational modification displayed strongly increased hypusinated eIF5A in DOHH overexpression mutant in comparison to wild type, and the DHS overexpression mutants. These are the first results pointing to different functions of differently modified eIF5A. PMID:27098988

  6. Posttranslational hypusination of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor-5A regulates Fusarium graminearum virulence

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Rocha, Ana Lilia; Woriedh, Mayada; Chemnitz, Jan; Willingmann, Peter; Kröger, Cathrin; Hadeler, Birgit; Hauber, Joachim; Schäfer, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    Activation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF5A requires a posttranslational modification, forming the unique amino acid hypusine. This activation is mediated by two enzymes, deoxyhypusine synthase, DHS, and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase, DOHH. The impact of this enzymatic complex on the life cycle of a fungal pathogen is unknown. Plant pathogenic ascomycetes possess a single copy of the eIF5A activated by hypusination. We evaluated the importance of imbalances in eIF5A hypusination in Fusarium graminearum, a devastating fungal pathogen of cereals. Overexpression of DHS leads to increased virulence in wheat, elevated production of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol, more infection structures, faster wheat tissue invasion in plants and increases vegetatively produced conidia. In contrast, overexpression of DOHH completely prevents infection structure formation, pathogenicity in wheat and maize, leads to overproduction of ROS, reduced DON production and increased sexual reproduction. Simultaneous overexpression of both genes restores wild type-like phenotypes. Analysis of eIF5A posttranslational modification displayed strongly increased hypusinated eIF5A in DOHH overexpression mutant in comparison to wild type, and the DHS overexpression mutants. These are the first results pointing to different functions of differently modified eIF5A. PMID:27098988

  7. Structural Analysis and Optimization of Context-Independent Anti-Hypusine Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Qianting; He, Meng; Song, Aimin; Deshayes, Kurt; Dixit, Vishva M; Carter, Paul J

    2016-02-13

    Context-independent anti-hypusine antibodies that bind to the post-translational modification (PTM), hypusine, with minimal dependence on flanking amino acid sequences, were identified. The antibodies bind to both hypusine and deoxyhypusine or selectively to hypusine but not to deoxyhypusine. Phage display was used to further enhance the affinity of the antibodies. Affinity maturation of these anti-hypusine antibodies improved their performance in affinity capture of the only currently known hypusinated protein, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A. These anti-hypusine antibodies may have utility in the identification of novel hypusinated proteins. Crystal structures of the corresponding Fab fragments were determined in complex with hypusine- or deoxyhypusine-containing peptides. The hypusine or deoxyhypusine moiety was found to reside in a deep pocket formed between VH and VL domains of the Fab fragments. Interaction between the antibodies and hypusine includes an extensive hydrogen bond network. These are, to our knowledge, the first reported structures of context-independent anti-PTM antibodies in complex with the corresponding PTM. PMID:26778617

  8. Biochemical quantitation of the eIF5A hypusination in Arabidopsis thaliana uncovers ABA-dependent regulation

    PubMed Central

    Belda-Palazón, Borja; Nohales, María A.; Rambla, José L.; Aceña, José L.; Delgado, Oscar; Fustero, Santos; Martínez, M. Carmen; Granell, Antonio; Carbonell, Juan; Ferrando, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic translation elongation factor eIF5A is the only protein known to contain the unusual amino acid hypusine which is essential for its biological activity. This post-translational modification is achieved by the sequential action of the enzymes deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH). The crucial molecular function of eIF5A during translation has been recently elucidated in yeast and it is expected to be fully conserved in every eukaryotic cell, however the functional description of this pathway in plants is still sparse. The genetic approaches with transgenic plants for either eIF5A overexpression or antisense have revealed some activities related to the control of cell death processes but the molecular details remain to be characterized. One important aspect of fully understanding this pathway is the biochemical description of the hypusine modification system. Here we have used recombinant eIF5A proteins either modified by hypusination or non-modified to establish a bi-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-E) profile for the three eIF5A protein isoforms and their hypusinated or unmodified proteoforms present in Arabidopsis thaliana. The combined use of the recombinant 2D-E profile together with 2D-E/western blot analysis from whole plant extracts has provided a quantitative approach to measure the hypusination status of eIF5A. We have used this information to demonstrate that treatment with the hormone abscisic acid produces an alteration of the hypusine modification system in Arabidopsis thaliana. Overall this study presents the first biochemical description of the post-translational modification of eIF5A by hypusination which will be functionally relevant for future studies related to the characterization of this pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:24904603

  9. Inactivation of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) by specific acetylation of its hypusine residue by spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase 1 (SSAT1)

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Seung Bum; PARK, Jong Hwan; FOLK, J.E.; DECK, Jason A.; PEGG, Anthony E.; SOKABE, Masaaki; FRASER, Christopher S.; PARK, Myung Hee

    2010-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is the only cellular protein containing hypusine, [Nε-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)lysine]. eIF5A is activated by the posttranslational synthesis of hypusine and the hypusine modification is essential for cell proliferation. In this study, we report selective acetylation of the hypusine and/or deoxyhypusine residue of eIF5A by a key polyamine catabolic enzyme, spermidine/spermine- N1-acetyltransferase 1 (SSAT1). This enzyme normally catalyzes the N1-acetylation of spermine and spermidine to form acetyl-derivatives, which in turn are degraded to lower polyamines. Although SSAT1 has been reported to exert other effects in cells by its interaction with other cellular proteins, eIF5A is the first target protein specifically acetylated by SSAT1. Hypusine or deoxyhypusine, as the free amino acid, does not act as a substrate for SSAT1, suggesting a macromolecular interaction between eIF5A and SSAT1. Indeed, the binding of eIF5A and SSAT1 was confirmed by pull-down assays. The effect of the acetylation of hypusine on eIF5A activity was assessed by comparison of acetylated vs non-acetylated bovine testis eIF5A in the methionyl-puromycin synthesis assay. The loss of eIF5A activity by this SSAT1-mediated acetylation confirms the strict structural requirement for the hypusine side chain and suggests a possible regulation of eIF5A by hypusine acetylation/deacetylation. PMID:20942800

  10. Cryptosporidium parvum has an active hypusine biosynthesis pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Nimisha; Morada, Marie; Tripathi, Pankaj; Gowri, V.S.; Mandal, Swati; Quirch, Alison; Park, Myung Hee; Yarlett, Nigel; Madhubala, Rentala

    2014-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum causes severe enteric infection and diarrheal disease with substantial morbidity and mortality in untreated AIDS patients and children in developing or resource-limited countries. No fully effective treatment is available. Hypusination of eIF5A is an important post-translational modification essential for cell proliferation. This modification occurs in a two step process catalyzed by deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) followed by deoxyhypusine hydroxylase. An ORF of 1086 bp was identified in the C. parvum (Cp) genome which encodes for a putative polypeptide of 362 amino acids. The recombinant CpDHS protein was purified to homogeneity and used to probe the enzyme’s mechanism, structure, and inhibition profile in a series of kinetic experiments. Sequence analysis and structural modeling of CpDHS were performed to probe differences with respect to the DHS of other species. Unlike Leishmania, Trypanosomes and Entamoeba, Cryptosporidium contains only a single gene for DHS. Phylogenetic analysis shows that CpDHS is more closely related to apicomplexan DHS than kinetoplastid DHS. Important residues that are essential for the functioning of the enzyme including NAD+ binding residues, spermidine binding residues and the active site lysine are conserved between CpDHS and human DHS. N1-guanyl-1.7-diaminoheptane (GC7), a potent inhibitor of DHS caused an effective inhibition of infection and growth of C. parvum in HCT-8 cells. PMID:24893338

  11. The hypusine-containing translation factor eIF5A

    PubMed Central

    Dever, Thomas E.; Gutierrez, Erik; Shin, Byung-Sik

    2014-01-01

    In addition to the small and large ribosomal subunits, aminoacyl-tRNAs, and an mRNA, cellular protein synthesis is dependent on translation factors. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) and its bacterial ortholog elongation factor P (EF-P) were initially characterized based on their ability to stimulate methionyl-puromycin (Met-Pmn) synthesis, a model assay for protein synthesis; however, the function of these factors in cellular protein synthesis has been difficult to resolve. Interestingly, a conserved lysine residue in eIF5A is post-translationally modified to hypusine and the corresponding lysine residue in EF-P from at least some bacteria is modified by the addition of a βlysine moiety. In this review, we provide a summary of recent data that have identified a novel role for the translation factor eIF5A and its hypusine modification in the elongation phase of protein synthesis and more specifically in stimulating the production of proteins containing runs of consecutive proline residues. PMID:25029904

  12. A tumour suppressor network relying on the polyaminehypusine axis

    PubMed Central

    Scuoppo, Claudio; Miething, Cornelius; Lindqvist, Lisa; Reyes, Jos; Ruse, Cristian; Appelmann, Iris; Yoon, Seungtai; Krasnitz, Alexander; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Pappin, Darryl; Pelletier, Jerry; Lowe, Scott W.

    2012-01-01

    Tumour suppressor genes encode a broad class of molecules whose mutational attenuation contributes to malignant progression. In the canonical situation, the tumour suppressor is completely inactivated through a two-hit process involving a point mutation in one allele and chromosomal deletion of the other1. Here, to identify tumour suppressor genes in lymphoma, we screen a short hairpin RNA library targeting genes deleted in human lymphomas. We functionally identify those genes whose suppression promotes tumorigenesis in a mouse lymphoma model. Of the nine tumour suppressors we identified, eight correspond to genes occurring in three physically linked clusters, suggesting that the common occurrence of large chromosomal deletions in human tumours reflects selective pressure to attenuate multiple genes. Among the new tumour suppressors are adenosylmethionine decarboxylase 1 (AMD1) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A), two genes associated with hypusine, a unique amino acid produced as a product of polyamine metabolism through a highly conserved pathway2. Through a secondary screen surveying the impact of all polyamine enzymes on tumorigenesis, we establish the polyaminehypusine axis as a new tumour suppressor network regulating apoptosis. Unexpectedly, heterozygous deletions encompassing AMD1 and eIF5A often occur together in human lymphomas and co-suppression of both genes promotes lymphomagenesis in mice. Thus, some tumour suppressor functions can be disabled through a two-step process targeting different genes acting in the same pathway. PMID:22722845

  13. Development of orthogonally protected hypusine for solid-phase peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Song, Aimin; Tom, Jeffrey; Yu, Zhiyong; Pham, Victoria; Tan, Dajin; Zhang, Dengxiong; Fang, Guoyong; Yu, Tao; Deshayes, Kurt

    2015-04-01

    An orthogonally protected hypusine reagent was developed for solid-phase synthesis of hypusinated peptides using the Fmoc/t-Bu protection strategy. The reagent was synthesized in an overall yield of 27% after seven steps from Cbz-Lys-OBzl and (R)-3-hydroxypyrrolidin-2-one. The side-chain protecting groups (Boc and t-Bu) are fully compatible with standard Fmoc chemistry and can be readily removed during the peptide cleavage step. The utility of the reagent was demonstrated by solid-phase synthesis of hypusinated peptides. PMID:25769022

  14. Ambient response of a unique performance-based design building with dynamic response modification features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, Mehmet; Huang, Moh; Shakal, Antony; Hooper, John; Klemencic, Ron

    2012-01-01

    A 64-story, performance-based design building with reinforced concrete core shear-walls and unique dynamic response modification features (tuned liquid sloshing dampers and buckling-restrained braces) has been instrumented with a monitoring array of 72 channels of accelerometers. Ambient vibration data recorded are analyzed to identify modes and associated frequencies and damping. The low-amplitude dynamic characteristics are considerably different than those computed from design analyses, but serve as a baseline against which to compare with future strong shaking responses. Such studies help to improve our understanding of the effectiveness of the added features to the building and help improve designs in the future.

  15. Unique translational modification of an invertebrate neuropeptide: a phosphorylated member of the adipokinetic hormone peptide family

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Separation of an extract of corpora cardiaca from the protea beetle, Trichostetha fascicularis, by single-step RP (reverse-phase)-HPLC and monitoring of tryptophan fluorescence resulted in two distinctive peaks, the material of which mobilized proline and carbohydrates in a bioassay performed using the beetle. Material from one of these peaks was; however, inactive in the classical bioassays of locusts and cockroaches that are used for detecting peptides belonging to the AKH (adipokinetic hormone) family. After enzymatically deblocking the N-terminal pyroglutamic acid (pGlu) residue in the peptide material and sequencing by Edman degradation, a partial sequence was obtained: (pGlu)-Ile-Asn-Met-Thr-Xaa-Gly-Trp. The complete sequence was deduced from ESI-MSn (electrospray ionization multi-stage-MS); position six was identified as a phosphothreonine residue and the C-terminus is amidated. The peptide, code-named Trifa-CC, was chemically synthesized and used in confirmatory experiments to show that the primary structure had been correctly assigned. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a phosphorylated invertebrate neuropeptide. Synthetic Trifa-CC co-elutes with the natural peptide, found in the gland of the protea beetle, after RP-HPLC. Moreover, the natural peptide can be dephosphorylated by alkaline phosphatase and the product of that reaction has the same retention time as a synthetic nonphosphorylated octapeptide which has the same sequence as Trifa-CC. Finally, synthetic Trifa-CC has hypertrehalosaemic and hyperprolinaemic biological activity in the protea beetle, but even high concentrations of synthetic Trifa-CC are inactive in locusts and cockroaches. Hence, the correct peptide structure has been assigned. Trifa-CC of the protea beetle is an unusual member of the AKH family that is unique in its post-translational modification. Since it increases the concentration of carbohydrates and proline in the haemolymph when injected into the protea beetle, and since these substrates are also used during flight, we hypothesize that Trifa-CC controls the mobilization of these metabolites in the protea beetle. PMID:16271039

  16. Unique translational modification of an invertebrate neuropeptide: a phosphorylated member of the adipokinetic hormone peptide family.

    PubMed

    Gäde, Gerd; Simek, Petr; Clark, Kevin D; Auerswald, Lutz

    2006-02-01

    Separation of an extract of corpora cardiaca from the protea beetle, Trichostetha fascicularis, by single-step RP (reverse-phase)-HPLC and monitoring of tryptophan fluorescence resulted in two distinctive peaks, the material of which mobilized proline and carbohydrates in a bioassay performed using the beetle. Material from one of these peaks was; however, inactive in the classical bioassays of locusts and cockroaches that are used for detecting peptides belonging to the AKH (adipokinetic hormone) family. After enzymatically deblocking the N-terminal pyroglutamic acid (pGlu) residue in the peptide material and sequencing by Edman degradation, a partial sequence was obtained: (pGlu)-Ile-Asn-Met-Thr-Xaa-Gly-Trp. The complete sequence was deduced from ESI-MS(n) (electrospray ionization multi-stage-MS); position six was identified as a phosphothreonine residue and the C-terminus is amidated. The peptide, code-named Trifa-CC, was chemically synthesized and used in confirmatory experiments to show that the primary structure had been correctly assigned. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a phosphorylated invertebrate neuropeptide. Synthetic Trifa-CC co-elutes with the natural peptide, found in the gland of the protea beetle, after RP-HPLC. Moreover, the natural peptide can be dephosphorylated by alkaline phosphatase and the product of that reaction has the same retention time as a synthetic nonphosphorylated octapeptide which has the same sequence as Trifa-CC. Finally, synthetic Trifa-CC has hypertrehalosaemic and hyperprolinaemic biological activity in the protea beetle, but even high concentrations of synthetic Trifa-CC are inactive in locusts and cockroaches. Hence, the correct peptide structure has been assigned. Trifa-CC of the protea beetle is an unusual member of the AKH family that is unique in its post-translational modification. Since it increases the concentration of carbohydrates and proline in the haemolymph when injected into the protea beetle, and since these substrates are also used during flight, we hypothesize that Trifa-CC controls the mobilization of these metabolites in the protea beetle. PMID:16271039

  17. De novo sequencing of unique sequence tags for discovery of post-translational modifications of proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yufeng; Tolic, Nikola; Hixson, Kim K.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-10-15

    De novo sequencing has a promise to discover the protein post-translation modifications; however, such approach is still in their infancy and not widely applied for proteomics practices due to its limited reliability. In this work, we describe a de novo sequencing approach for discovery of protein modifications through identification of the UStags (Anal. Chem. 2008, 80, 1871-1882). The de novo information was obtained from Fourier-transform tandem mass spectrometry for peptides and polypeptides in a yeast lysate, and the de novo sequences obtained were filtered to define a more limited set of UStags. The DNA-predicted database protein sequences were then compared to the UStags, and the differences observed across or in the UStags (i.e., the UStags’ prefix and suffix sequences and the UStags themselves) were used to infer the possible sequence modifications. With this de novo-UStag approach, we uncovered some unexpected variances of yeast protein sequences due to amino acid mutations and/or multiple modifications to the predicted protein sequences. Random matching of the de novo sequences to the predicted sequences were examined with use of two random (false) databases, and ~3% false discovery rates were estimated for the de novo-UStag approach. The factors affecting the reliability (e.g., existence of de novo sequencing noise residues and redundant sequences) and the sensitivity are described. The de novo-UStag complements the UStag method previously reported by enabling discovery of new protein modifications.

  18. Unique Structural Modifications Are Present in the Lipopolysaccharide from Colistin-Resistant Strains of Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Mark R.; Casella, Leila G.; Jones, Jace W.; Adams, Mark D.; Zurawski, Daniel V.; Hazlett, Karsten R. O.; Doi, Yohei

    2013-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe infections, including hospital-acquired pneumonia, wound infections, and sepsis. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains are prevalent, further complicating patient treatment. Due to the increase in MDR strains, the cationic antimicrobial peptide colistin has been used to treat A. baumannii infections. Colistin-resistant strains of A. baumannii with alterations to the lipid A component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been reported; specifically, the lipid A structure was shown to be hepta-acylated with a phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) modification present on one of the terminal phosphate residues. Using a tandem mass spectrometry platform, we provide definitive evidence that the lipid A isolated from colistin-resistant A. baumannii MAC204 LPS contains a novel structure corresponding to a diphosphoryl hepta-acylated lipid A structure with both pEtN and galactosamine (GalN) modifications. To correlate our structural studies with clinically relevant samples, we characterized colistin-susceptible and -resistant isolates obtained from patients. These results demonstrated that the clinical colistin-resistant isolate had the same pEtN and GalN modifications as those seen in the laboratory-adapted A. baumannii strain MAC204. In summary, this work has shown complete structure characterization including the accurate assignment of acylation, phosphorylation, and glycosylation of lipid A from A. baumannii, which are important for resistance to colistin. PMID:23877686

  19. Transcriptomic sequencing reveals a set of unique genes activated by butyrate-induced histone modification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butyrate is a nutritional element with strong epigenetic regulatory activity as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs). Based on the analysis of differentially expressed genes induced by butyrate in the bovine epithelial cell using deep RNA-sequencing technology (RNA-seq), a set of unique gen...

  20. Transcriptomic Sequencing Reveals a Set of Unique Genes Activated by Butyrate-Induced Histone Modification

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cong-Jun; Li, Robert W.; Baldwin, Ransom L.; Blomberg, Le Ann; Wu, Sitao; Li, Weizhong

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate is a nutritional element with strong epigenetic regulatory activity as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Based on the analysis of differentially expressed genes in the bovine epithelial cells using RNA sequencing technology, a set of unique genes that are activated only after butyrate treatment were revealed. A complementary bioinformatics analysis of the functional category, pathway, and integrated network, using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis, indicated that these genes activated by butyrate treatment are related to major cellular functions, including cell morphological changes, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Our results offered insight into the butyrate-induced transcriptomic changes and will accelerate our discerning of the molecular fundamentals of epigenomic regulation. PMID:26819550

  1. Transcriptomic Sequencing Reveals a Set of Unique Genes Activated by Butyrate-Induced Histone Modification.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong-Jun; Li, Robert W; Baldwin, Ransom L; Blomberg, Le Ann; Wu, Sitao; Li, Weizhong

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate is a nutritional element with strong epigenetic regulatory activity as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Based on the analysis of differentially expressed genes in the bovine epithelial cells using RNA sequencing technology, a set of unique genes that are activated only after butyrate treatment were revealed. A complementary bioinformatics analysis of the functional category, pathway, and integrated network, using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis, indicated that these genes activated by butyrate treatment are related to major cellular functions, including cell morphological changes, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Our results offered insight into the butyrate-induced transcriptomic changes and will accelerate our discerning of the molecular fundamentals of epigenomic regulation. PMID:26819550

  2. G-rich VEGF aptamer with locked and unlocked nucleic acid modifications exhibits a unique G-quadruplex fold

    PubMed Central

    Marušič, Maja; Veedu, Rakesh N.; Wengel, Jesper; Plavec, Janez

    2013-01-01

    The formation of a single G-quadruplex structure adopted by a promising 25 nt G-rich vascular endothelial growth factor aptamer in a K+ rich environment was facilitated by locked nucleic acid modifications. An unprecedented all parallel-stranded monomeric G-quadruplex with three G-quartet planes exhibits several unique structural features. Five consecutive guanine residues are all involved in G-quartet formation and occupy positions in adjacent DNA strands, which are bridged with a no-residue propeller-type loop. A two-residue D-shaped loop facilitates inclusion of an isolated guanine residue into the vacant spot within the G-quartet. The remaining two G-rich tracts of three residues each adopt parallel orientation and are linked with edgewise and propeller loops. Both 5′ with 3 nt and 3′ with 4 nt overhangs display well-defined conformations, with latter adopting a basket handle topology. Locked residues contribute to thermal stabilization of the adopted structure and formation of structurally pre-organized intermediates that facilitate folding into a single G-quadruplex. Understanding the impact of chemical modifications on folding, thermal stability and structural polymorphism of G-quadruplexes provides means for the improvement of vascular endothelial growth factor aptamers and advances our insights into driving nucleic acid structure by locking or unlocking the conformation of sugar moieties of nucleotides in general. PMID:23935071

  3. A unique microwave effect on the microstructural modification of Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts for steam reforming of methanol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Rong; Wang, Lu-Cun; Cao, Yong; Dai, Wei-Lin; He, He-Yong; Fan, Kang-Nian

    2005-08-28

    A short time (3-10 min) of microwave irradiation on the CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 oxide precursor can result in a unique tailored microstructural modification on the catalyst, leading to a significantly enhanced performance for H2 production from steam reforming of methanol. PMID:16091814

  4. Modification of NASA Langley 8 foot high temperature tunnel to provide a unique national research facility for hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, H. N.; Wieting, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A planned modification of the NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel to make it a unique national research facility for hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems is described, and some of the ongoing supporting research for that modification is discussed. The modification involves: (1) the addition of an oxygen-enrichment system which will allow the methane-air combustion-heated test stream to simulate air for propulsion testing; and (2) supplemental nozzles to expand the test simulation capability from the current nominal Mach number to 7.0 include Mach numbers 3.0, 4.5, and 5.0. Detailed design of the modifications is currently underway and the modified facility is scheduled to be available for tests of large scale propulsion systems by mid 1988.

  5. Modification of NASA Langley 8 Foot High Temperature Tunnel to provide a unique national research facility for hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, H. N.; Wieting, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A planned modification of the NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel to make it a unique national research facility for hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems is described, and some of the ongoing supporting research for that modification is discussed. The modification involves: (1) the addition of an oxygen-enrichment system which will allow the methane-air combustion-heated test stream to simulate air for propulsion testing; and (2) supplemental nozzles to expand the test simulation capability from the current nominal Mach number to 7.0 include Mach numbers 3.0, 4.5, and 5.0. Detailed design of the modifications is currently underway and the modified facility is scheduled to be available for tests of large scale propulsion systems by mid 1988.

  6. Insights into the Activity and Substrate Binding of Xylella fastidiosa Polygalacturonase by Modification of a Unique QMK Amino Acid Motif Using Protein Chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Jeremy G.; Lincoln, James E.; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C.

    2015-01-01

    Polygalacturonases (EC 3.2.1.15) catalyze the random hydrolysis of 1, 4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. Xylella fastidiosa possesses a single polygalacturonase gene, pglA (PD1485), and X. fastidiosa mutants deficient in the production of polygalacturonase are non-pathogenic and show a compromised ability to systemically infect grapevines. These results suggested that grapevines expressing sufficient amounts of an inhibitor of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase might be protected from disease. Previous work in our laboratory and others have tried without success to produce soluble active X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase for use in inhibition assays. In this study, we created two enzymatically active X. fastidiosa / A. vitis polygalacturonase chimeras, AX1A and AX2A to explore the functionality of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase in vitro. The AX1A chimera was constructed to specifically test if recombinant chimeric protein, produced in Escherichia coli, is soluble and if the X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase catalytic amino acids are able to hydrolyze polygalacturonic acid. The AX2A chimera was constructed to evaluate the ability of a unique QMK motif of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase, most polygalacturonases have a R(I/L)K motif, to bind to and allow the hydrolysis of polygalacturonic acid. Furthermore, the AX2A chimera was also used to explore what effect modification of the QMK motif of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase to a conserved RIK motif has on enzymatic activity. These experiments showed that both the AX1A and AX2A polygalacturonase chimeras were soluble and able to hydrolyze the polygalacturonic acid substrate. Additionally, the modification of the QMK motif to the conserved RIK motif eliminated hydrolytic activity, suggesting that the QMK motif is important for the activity of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase. This result suggests X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase may preferentially hydrolyze a different pectic substrate or, alternatively, it has a different mechanism of substrate binding than other polygalacturonases characterized to date. PMID:26571265

  7. Insights into the Activity and Substrate Binding of Xylella fastidiosa Polygalacturonase by Modification of a Unique QMK Amino Acid Motif Using Protein Chimeras.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jeremy G; Lincoln, James E; Kirkpatrick, Bruce C

    2015-01-01

    Polygalacturonases (EC 3.2.1.15) catalyze the random hydrolysis of 1, 4-alpha-D-galactosiduronic linkages in pectate and other galacturonans. Xylella fastidiosa possesses a single polygalacturonase gene, pglA (PD1485), and X. fastidiosa mutants deficient in the production of polygalacturonase are non-pathogenic and show a compromised ability to systemically infect grapevines. These results suggested that grapevines expressing sufficient amounts of an inhibitor of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase might be protected from disease. Previous work in our laboratory and others have tried without success to produce soluble active X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase for use in inhibition assays. In this study, we created two enzymatically active X. fastidiosa / A. vitis polygalacturonase chimeras, AX1A and AX2A to explore the functionality of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase in vitro. The AX1A chimera was constructed to specifically test if recombinant chimeric protein, produced in Escherichia coli, is soluble and if the X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase catalytic amino acids are able to hydrolyze polygalacturonic acid. The AX2A chimera was constructed to evaluate the ability of a unique QMK motif of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase, most polygalacturonases have a R(I/L)K motif, to bind to and allow the hydrolysis of polygalacturonic acid. Furthermore, the AX2A chimera was also used to explore what effect modification of the QMK motif of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase to a conserved RIK motif has on enzymatic activity. These experiments showed that both the AX1A and AX2A polygalacturonase chimeras were soluble and able to hydrolyze the polygalacturonic acid substrate. Additionally, the modification of the QMK motif to the conserved RIK motif eliminated hydrolytic activity, suggesting that the QMK motif is important for the activity of X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase. This result suggests X. fastidiosa polygalacturonase may preferentially hydrolyze a different pectic substrate or, alternatively, it has a different mechanism of substrate binding than other polygalacturonases characterized to date. PMID:26571265

  8. A rapid and robust assay for the determination of the amino acid hypusine as a possible biomarker for a high-throughput screening of antimalarials and for the diagnosis and therapy of different diseases.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Annette; Khomutov, Alex R; Simonian, Alina; Agostinelli, Enzo

    2012-05-01

    Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) has recently been identified as a biomarker of prognostic significance and therapeutic potential for the treatment in hepatocellular carcinoma. This prompted us to establish a rapid and robust assay to determine deoxyhypusine and hypusine formed with the purified enzymes deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH) from Plasmodium to develop a rapid screening assay for antimalarial drugs. The peptide hydrolysate obtained from hypusinylated eIF5A was analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with retention times for deoxyhypusine of 7.44 min and for hypusine of 7.30 min, respectively. The limit of detection for both compounds was 0.144 ng/μl. Determination of the specific activity of Plasmodium DOHH resulted in a twofold higher specific activity than its human counterpart. Following the iron-complexing strategy of the ferrous iron which is present in the active site of Plasmodium DOHH, a series of iron chelating compounds was tested. 2,2'-Dipyridyl and mimosine abolished DOHH activity completely while 4-oxo-piperidine-carboxylates i.e. the nitrophenylether JK8-2 and EHW 437, the oxime ether of the piperidine aldehyde, showed no inhibition although they were highly active in in vitro cultures of Plasmodium and in vivo in a rodent mouse model. The method allows a high-throughput screening (HPTS) of antimalarial drugs and the evaluation of eIF5A as a biomarker. PMID:21360085

  9. The Drosophila deoxyhypusine hydroxylase homologue nero and its target eIF5A are required for cell growth and the regulation of autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Prajal H.; Costa-Mattioli, Mauro; Schulze, Karen L.

    2009-01-01

    Hypusination is a unique posttranslational modification by which lysine is transformed into the atypical amino acid hypusine. eIF5A (eukaryotic initiation factor 5A) is the only known protein to contain hypusine. In this study, we describe the identification and characterization of nero, the Drosophila melanogaster deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH) homologue. nero mutations affect cell and organ size, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, and autophagy. Knockdown of the hypusination target eIF5A via RNA interference causes phenotypes similar to nero mutations. However, loss of nero appears to cause milder phenotypes than loss of eIF5A. This is partially explained through a potential compensatory mechanism by which nero mutant cells up-regulate eIF5A levels. The failure of eIF5A up-regulation to rescue nero mutant phenotypes suggests that hypusination is required for eIF5A function. Furthermore, expression of enzymatically impaired forms of DOHH fails to rescue nero clones, indicating that hypusination activity is important for nero function. Our data also indicate that nero and eIF5A are required for cell growth and affect autophagy and protein synthesis. PMID:19546244

  10. Genetic modification and genetic determinism.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2006-01-01

    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions. PMID:16800884

  11. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2006-01-01

    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions. PMID:16800884

  12. Behavior modification.

    PubMed

    Pelham, W E; Fabiano, G A

    2000-07-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic and substantially impairing disorder. This means that treatment must also be chronic and substantial. Behavior Modification, and in many cases, the combination of behavior modification and stimulant medication, is a valid, useful treatment for reducing the pervasive impairment experienced by children with ADHD. Based on the research evidence reviewed, behavior modification should be the first line of treatment for children with ADHD. PMID:10944662

  13. Tattoos and piercings: bodily expressions of uniqueness?

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Marika; Hopkins, Louise A

    2011-06-01

    The study aimed to investigate the motivations underlying the body modification practices of tattooing and piercing. There were 80 participants recruited from an Australian music store, who provided descriptions of their tattoos and piercings and completed measures of need for uniqueness, appearance investment and distinctive appearance investment. It was found that tattooed individuals scored significantly higher on need for uniqueness than non-tattooed individuals. Further, individuals with conventional ear piercings scored significantly lower on need for uniqueness than individuals with no piercings or with facial and body piercings. Neither appearance investment nor distinctive appearance investment differed significantly among tattoo or piercing status groups. Strength of identification with music was significantly correlated with number of tattoos, but not number of piercings. It was concluded that tattooing, but not body piercing, represents a bodily expression of uniqueness. PMID:21561820

  14. Ubiquitin modifications.

    PubMed

    Swatek, Kirby N; Komander, David

    2016-04-01

    Protein ubiquitination is a dynamic multifaceted post-translational modification involved in nearly all aspects of eukaryotic biology. Once attached to a substrate, the 76-amino acid protein ubiquitin is subjected to further modifications, creating a multitude of distinct signals with distinct cellular outcomes, referred to as the 'ubiquitin code'. Ubiquitin can be ubiquitinated on seven lysine (Lys) residues or on the N-terminus, leading to polyubiquitin chains that can encompass complex topologies. Alternatively or in addition, ubiquitin Lys residues can be modified by ubiquitin-like molecules (such as SUMO or NEDD8). Finally, ubiquitin can also be acetylated on Lys, or phosphorylated on Ser, Thr or Tyr residues, and each modification has the potential to dramatically alter the signaling outcome. While the number of distinctly modified ubiquitin species in cells is mind-boggling, much progress has been made to characterize the roles of distinct ubiquitin modifications, and many enzymes and receptors have been identified that create, recognize or remove these ubiquitin modifications. We here provide an overview of the various ubiquitin modifications present in cells, and highlight recent progress on ubiquitin chain biology. We then discuss the recent findings in the field of ubiquitin acetylation and phosphorylation, with a focus on Ser65-phosphorylation and its role in mitophagy and Parkin activation. PMID:27012465

  15. Ubiquitin modifications

    PubMed Central

    Swatek, Kirby N; Komander, David

    2016-01-01

    Protein ubiquitination is a dynamic multifaceted post-translational modification involved in nearly all aspects of eukaryotic biology. Once attached to a substrate, the 76-amino acid protein ubiquitin is subjected to further modifications, creating a multitude of distinct signals with distinct cellular outcomes, referred to as the 'ubiquitin code'. Ubiquitin can be ubiquitinated on seven lysine (Lys) residues or on the N-terminus, leading to polyubiquitin chains that can encompass complex topologies. Alternatively or in addition, ubiquitin Lys residues can be modified by ubiquitin-like molecules (such as SUMO or NEDD8). Finally, ubiquitin can also be acetylated on Lys, or phosphorylated on Ser, Thr or Tyr residues, and each modification has the potential to dramatically alter the signaling outcome. While the number of distinctly modified ubiquitin species in cells is mind-boggling, much progress has been made to characterize the roles of distinct ubiquitin modifications, and many enzymes and receptors have been identified that create, recognize or remove these ubiquitin modifications. We here provide an overview of the various ubiquitin modifications present in cells, and highlight recent progress on ubiquitin chain biology. We then discuss the recent findings in the field of ubiquitin acetylation and phosphorylation, with a focus on Ser65-phosphorylation and its role in mitophagy and Parkin activation. PMID:27012465

  16. Molecular modeling of the human eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) based on spectroscopic and computational analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Costa-Neto, Claudio M. . E-mail: claudio@fmrp.usp.br; Parreiras-e-Silva, Lucas T.; Ruller, Roberto; Oliveira, Eduardo B.; Miranda, Antonio; Oliveira, Laerte; Ward, Richard J.

    2006-09-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is a protein ubiquitously present in archaea and eukarya, which undergoes a unique two-step post-translational modification called hypusination. Several studies have shown that hypusination is essential for a variety of functional roles for eIF5A, including cell proliferation and synthesis of proteins involved in cell cycle control. Up to now neither a totally selective inhibitor of hypusination nor an inhibitor capable of directly binding to eIF5A has been reported in the literature. The discovery of such an inhibitor might be achieved by computer-aided drug design based on the 3D structure of the human eIF5A. In this study, we present a molecular model for the human eIF5A protein based on the crystal structure of the eIF5A from Leishmania brasiliensis, and compare the modeled conformation of the loop bearing the hypusination site with circular dichroism data obtained with a synthetic peptide of this loop. Furthermore, analysis of amino acid variability between different human eIF5A isoforms revealed peculiar structural characteristics that are of functional relevance.

  17. GR uniqueness and deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, Kirill

    2015-10-01

    In the metric formulation gravitons are described with the parity symmetric S + 2 ⊗ S - 2 representation of Lorentz group. General Relativity is then the unique theory of interacting gravitons with second order field equations. We show that if a chiral S + 3 ⊗ S - representation is used instead, the uniqueness is lost, and there is an infinite-parametric family of theories of interacting gravitons with second order field equations. We use the language of graviton scattering amplitudes, and show how the uniqueness of GR is avoided using simple dimensional analysis. The resulting distinct from GR gravity theories are all parity asymmetric, but share the GR MHV amplitudes. They have new all same helicity graviton scattering amplitudes at every graviton order. The amplitudes with at least one graviton of opposite helicity continue to be determinable by the BCFW recursion.

  18. Unique Graviton Exchange Signatures at Linear Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2002-09-06

    Many types of new physics can lead to contact interaction-like modifications in e{sup +}e{sup -} processes below direct production threshold. We examine the possibility of uniquely identifying the effects of graviton exchange from amongst this large set of models by using the moments of the angular distribution of the final state particles. In the case of e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} f{bar f}(W{sup +}W{sup -}) we demonstrate that this technique allows for the unique identification of the graviton exchange signature at the 5{sigma} level for mass scales as high as 6(2.5){radical}s.

  19. Unique Access to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Don

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the many learning opportunities that broadcast technology students at Ladue Horton Watkins High School in St. Louis, Missouri, experience because of their unique access to technology and methods of learning. Through scaffolding, stepladder techniques, and trial by fire, students learn to produce multiple television programs,

  20. Akhenaten, a unique pharaoh.

    PubMed

    Retief, François Pieter; Cilliers, Louise

    2011-09-01

    Akhenaten was a unique pharaoh in more ways than one. He initiated a major socio-religious revolution that had vast consequences for his country, and possessed a strikingly abnormal physiognomy that was of note in his time and has interested historians up to the present era. In this study, we attempt to identify the developmental disorder responsible for his eunuchoid appearance. PMID:21920162

  1. Unique Access to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Don

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the many learning opportunities that broadcast technology students at Ladue Horton Watkins High School in St. Louis, Missouri, experience because of their unique access to technology and methods of learning. Through scaffolding, stepladder techniques, and trial by fire, students learn to produce multiple television programs,…

  2. [Lifestyle modifications].

    PubMed

    Kawano, Yuhei

    2015-11-01

    Lifestyle modifications are important in the prevention and treatment of hypertension. The Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension (JSH2014) recommend salt reduction (< 6 g/day), increased intake of vegetables/fruit and fish (fish oil), reduced intake of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids, weight loss (body mass index < 25kg/m2), exercise (≥ 30 min/day), reduction of alcohol intake (≤ 20-30 mL/day in men, ≤ 10-20 mL/day in women as ethanol), and quitting smoking. These lifestyle modifications are capable of reducing blood pressure and ameliorating other cardiovascular risk factors. However, the reduction in blood pressure is mild to moderate and the adherence to lifestyle modifications has been still suboptimal. PMID:26619658

  3. Chemical Protein Modification through Cysteine.

    PubMed

    Gunnoo, Smita B; Madder, Annemieke

    2016-04-01

    The modification of proteins with non-protein entities is important for a wealth of applications, and methods for chemically modifying proteins attract considerable attention. Generally, modification is desired at a single site to maintain homogeneity and to minimise loss of function. Though protein modification can be achieved by targeting some natural amino acid side chains, this often leads to ill-defined and randomly modified proteins. Amongst the natural amino acids, cysteine combines advantageous properties contributing to its suitability for site-selective modification, including a unique nucleophilicity, and a low natural abundance-both allowing chemo- and regioselectivity. Native cysteine residues can be targeted, or Cys can be introduced at a desired site in a protein by means of reliable genetic engineering techniques. This review on chemical protein modification through cysteine should appeal to those interested in modifying proteins for a range of applications. PMID:26789551

  4. Cellular Dynamics of RNA Modification

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Chengqi; Pan, Tao

    2011-01-01

    Conspectus Decades of research have identified over 100 types of ribonucleosides that are post-transcriptionally modified. Many modified nucleosides are conserved in bacteria, archeae and eukaryotes, while some modified nucleosides are unique to each branch of life. However, the cellular and functional dynamics of RNA modifications remains largely unexplored, mostly due to the lack of functional hypotheses and experimental methods for quantification and large scale analysis. Just as many well characterized protein and DNA modifications, many RNA modifications are not essential for life. Instead, increasingly more evidence indicates that RNA modifications can play regulatory roles in cells, especially in response to stress conditions. In this Account, we review some known examples of RNA modifications that are dynamically controlled in cells and introduce some contemporary technologies and methods that enhance the studies of cellular dynamics of RNA modifications. Examples of RNA modifications discussed in this Account include (Figure 1): (1) 4-thio uridine (s4U) which can act as a cellular sensor of near UV-light; (2) queuosine (Q) which is a potential biomarker for malignancy; (3) N6-methyl adenine (m6A) which is the prevalent modification in eukaryotic mRNAs; and (4) pseudouridine (ψ) which are inducible by nutrient deprivation. Two recent technical advances that stimulated the studies of cellular dynamics of modified ribonucleosides are also described. First, a genome-wide method combines primer extension and microarray to study N1-methyl adenine (m1A) hypomodification in human tRNA. Second, a quantitative mass spectrometric method investigates dynamic changes of a wide range of tRNA modifications under stress conditions in yeast. In addition, we discuss potential mechanisms that control dynamic regulation of RNA modifications, and hypotheses for discovering potential RNA de-modification enzymes. We conclude the Account by highlighting the need to develop new tools and to generate additional hypotheses for modification function in order to drive this emerging field to the next level. PMID:21615108

  5. PDV modifications.

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, Daniel H., III

    2010-09-01

    External modifications can transform a conventional photonic doppler velocimetry (PDV) system to other useful configurations - Non-standard probes and Frequency-conversion measurements. This approach is easier than supporting every conceivable measurement in the core PDV design. Circulator specifications may be important - -30 dB isolation (common) probably not be enough, -50 dB isolation is available, and some bench testing may be needed.

  6. Is Life Unique?

    PubMed Central

    Abel, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Is life physicochemically unique? No. Is life unique? Yes. Life manifests innumerable formalisms that cannot be generated or explained by physicodynamics alone. Life pursues thousands of biofunctional goals, not the least of which is staying alive. Neither physicodynamics, nor evolution, pursue goals. Life is largely directed by linear digital programming and by the Prescriptive Information (PI) instantiated particularly into physicodynamically indeterminate nucleotide sequencing. Epigenomic controls only compound the sophistication of these formalisms. Life employs representationalism through the use of symbol systems. Life manifests autonomy, homeostasis far from equilibrium in the harshest of environments, positive and negative feedback mechanisms, prevention and correction of its own errors, and organization of its components into Sustained Functional Systems (SFS). Chance and necessity—heat agitation and the cause-and-effect determinism of nature’s orderliness—cannot spawn formalisms such as mathematics, language, symbol systems, coding, decoding, logic, organization (not to be confused with mere self-ordering), integration of circuits, computational success, and the pursuit of functionality. All of these characteristics of life are formal, not physical. PMID:25382119

  7. Modifications to the translational apparatus which affect the regulation of protein synthesis in sea urchin embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Scalise, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Protein synthesis can be regulated at a number of cellular levels. I have examined how modifications to specific components of the protein synthetic machinery are involved in regulating the efficiency of initiation of translation during early sea urchin embryogenesis. It is demonstrated that Ca{sup 2+} concentrations exceeding 500 uM cause the inhibition of protein synthesis in cell-free translation lysates prepared from sea urchin embryos. Specific changes in the state of phosphorylation of at least 8 proteins occur during this Ca{sup 2+}-mediated repression of translation. Analysis of these proteins has indicated that, unlike mammalian systems, there is no detectable level of Ca{sup 2+}-dependent phosphorylation of the {alpha}subunit eIF-2. Two of the proteins which do become phosphorylated in response to Ca{sup 2+} are calmodulin and an isoelectric form of sea urchin eIF-4D. In addition, 2 proteins which share similarities with kinases involved in the regulation of protein synthesis in mammalian cells, also become phosphorylated. I have investigated the consequences of changes in eIF-4D during sea urchin embryogenesis because it has been proposed that a polyamine-mediated conversion of lysine to hypusine in this factor may enhance translational activity. It is demonstrated that ({sup 3}H) spermidine-derived radioactivity is incorporated into a number of proteins when sea urchin embryos are labeled in vivo, and that the pattern of individual proteins that become labeled changes over the course of the first 30 hr of development.

  8. Confabulators mistake multiplicity for uniqueness.

    PubMed

    Serra, Mara; La Corte, Valentina; Migliaccio, Raffaella; Brazzarola, Marta; Zannoni, Ilaria; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Dalla Barba, Gianfranco

    2014-09-01

    Some patients with organic amnesia show confabulation, the production of statements and actions unintentionally incongruous to the subject's history, present and future situation. It has been shown that confabulators tend to report as unique and specific personal memories, events or actions that belong to their habits and routines (Habits Confabulations). We consider that habits and routines can be characterized by multiplicity, as opposed to uniqueness. This paper examines this phenomenon whereby confabulators mistake multiplicity, i.e., repeated events, for uniqueness, i.e., events that occurred in a unique and specific temporo-spatial context. In order to measure the ability to discriminate unique from repeated events we used four runs of a recognition memory task, in which some items were seen only once at study, whereas others were seen four times. Confabulators, but not non-confabulating amnesiacs (NCA), considered repeated items as unique, thus mistaking multiplicity for uniqueness. This phenomenon has been observed clinically but our study is the first to demonstrate it experimentally. We suggest that a crucial mechanism involved in the production of confabulations is thus the confusion between unique and repeated events. PMID:25080079

  9. mission de photons uniques par un atome unique pig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darqui, B.; Beugnon, J.; Jones, M. P. A.; Dingjan, J.; Sortais, Y.; Browaeys, A.; Messin, G.; Grangier, P.

    2006-10-01

    En illuminant un atome unique pig dans une pince optique de taille micromtrique l'aide d'impulsions lumineuses rsonantes d'une dure de 4?ns, nous avons ralis une source efficace de photons uniques dclenchs, de polarisation bien dfinie. Nous avons mesur la fonction d'autocorrlation temporelle en intensit qui met en vidence un dgroupement de photons presque parfait. Une telle source de photons uniques de haut flux possde des applications potentielles pour le traitement de l'information quantique.

  10. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Falls Prevention Foot Problems Glaucoma High Blood Pressure Managing Multiple Health ... Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults This section provides information to help older adults and their caregivers consider ...

  11. Uniqueness of place: uniqueness of models. The FLEX modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenicia, F.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Wrede, S.; Schoups, G.; Pfister, L.

    2009-04-01

    The current practice in hydrological modelling is to make use of model structures that are fixed and a-priori defined. However, for a model to reflect uniqueness of place while maintaining parsimony, it is necessary to be flexible in its architecture. We have developed a new approach for the development and testing of hydrological models, named the FLEX approach. This approach allows the formulation of alternative model structures that vary in configuration and complexity, and uses an objective method for testing and comparing model performance. We have tested this approach on three headwater catchments in Luxembourg with marked differences in hydrological response, where we have generated 15 alternative model structures. Each of the three catchments is best represented by a different model architecture. Our results clearly show that uniqueness of place necessarily leads to uniqueness of models.

  12. Behavior Modification is not...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tawney, James W.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Identified are misconceptions of behavior modification procedures according to which behavior modification is connected mistakenly with noncontingent reinforcement, partial change of a teacher's behavior, decelerations of inappropriate behaviors only, dependency producing technology, teacher dominated activity, a single type of classroom…

  13. Germline Modification and Engineering in Avian Species.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong Jo; Lee, Hyung Chul; Han, Jae Yong

    2015-09-01

    Production of genome-edited animals using germline-competent cells and genetic modification tools has provided opportunities for investigation of biological mechanisms in various organisms. The recently reported programmed genome editing technology that can induce gene modification at a target locus in an efficient and precise manner facilitates establishment of animal models. In this regard, the demand for genome-edited avian species, which are some of the most suitable model animals due to their unique embryonic development, has also increased. Furthermore, germline chimera production through long-term culture of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) has facilitated research on production of genome-edited chickens. Thus, use of avian germline modification is promising for development of novel avian models for research of disease control and various biological mechanisms. Here, we discuss recent progress in genome modification technology in avian species and its applications and future strategies. PMID:26333275

  14. Germline Modification and Engineering in Avian Species

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong Jo; Lee, Hyung Chul; Han, Jae Yong

    2015-01-01

    Production of genome-edited animals using germline-competent cells and genetic modification tools has provided opportunities for investigation of biological mechanisms in various organisms. The recently reported programmed genome editing technology that can induce gene modification at a target locus in an efficient and precise manner facilitates establishment of animal models. In this regard, the demand for genome-edited avian species, which are some of the most suitable model animals due to their unique embryonic development, has also increased. Furthermore, germline chimera production through long-term culture of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) has facilitated research on production of genome-edited chickens. Thus, use of avian germline modification is promising for development of novel avian models for research of disease control and various biological mechanisms. Here, we discuss recent progress in genome modification technology in avian species and its applications and future strategies. PMID:26333275

  15. Chromatin modifications, epigenetics, and how protozoan parasites regulate their lives

    PubMed Central

    Croken, Matthew M.; Nardelli, Sheila C.; Kim, Kami

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin structure plays a vital role in epigenetic regulation of protozoan parasite gene expression. Epigenetic gene regulation impacts parasite virulence, differentiation and cell cycle control. Recent work in many laboratories has elucidated the functions of histone modifying proteins that regulate parasite gene expression by chemical modification of constituent nucleosomes. A major focus of investigation has been characterizing post-translational modifications (PTM) of histones and identifying the enzymes that are responsible. Despite conserved features and specificity common to all eukaryotes, parasite enzymes involved in chromatin modification have unique functions that regulate unique aspects of parasite biology. PMID:22480826

  16. The ethics of molecular memory modification.

    PubMed

    Hui, Katrina; Fisher, Carl E

    2015-07-01

    Novel molecular interventions have recently shown the potential to erase, enhance and alter specific long-term memories. Unique features of this form of memory modification call for a close examination of its possible applications. While there have been discussions of the ethics of memory modification in the literature, molecular memory modification (MMM) can provide special insights. Previously raised ethical concerns regarding memory enhancement, such as safety issues, the 'duty to remember', selfhood and personal identity, require re-evaluation in light of MMM. As a technology that exploits the brain's updating processes, MMM helps correct the common misconception that memory is a static entity by demonstrating how memory is plastic and subject to revision even in the absence of external manipulation. Furthermore, while putatively safer than other speculative technologies because of its high specificity, MMM raises notable safety issues, including potential insidious effects on the agent's emotions and personal identity. Nonetheless, MMM possesses characteristics of a more permissible form of modification, not only because it is theoretically safer, but because its unique mechanism of action requires a heightened level of cooperation from the agent. Discussions of memory modification must consider the specific mechanisms of action, which can alter the weight and relevance of various ethical concerns. MMM also highlights the need for conceptual accuracy regarding the term 'enhancement'; this umbrella term will have to be differentiated as new technologies are applied to a widening array of purposes. PMID:25552663

  17. Shell develops unique anode system

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.

    1983-02-01

    This article reports on how additional cathodic protection requirements on Shell Offshore Inc.'s Cognac platform in the Gulf of Mexico have led to the development of a unique anode carrying member for deepwater anode placement. The need for additional anodes was determined after extensive monitoring indicated a reduction of corrosion protection below 300 ft. at Cognac, especially in the well conductor bays. Each anode carrying member is between 75 to 90 ft. long with a 0.375-in. pipe wall and an OD of 18 in. The member is lowered to a depth of about 90 ft. before a diver is required for hookup.

  18. The Probabilities of Unique Events

    PubMed Central

    Khemlani, Sangeet S.; Lotstein, Max; Johnson-Laird, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Many theorists argue that the probabilities of unique events, even real possibilities such as President Obama's re-election, are meaningless. As a consequence, psychologists have seldom investigated them. We propose a new theory (implemented in a computer program) in which such estimates depend on an intuitive non-numerical system capable only of simple procedures, and a deliberative system that maps intuitions into numbers. The theory predicts that estimates of the probabilities of conjunctions should often tend to split the difference between the probabilities of the two conjuncts. We report two experiments showing that individuals commit such violations of the probability calculus, and corroborating other predictions of the theory, e.g., individuals err in the same way even when they make non-numerical verbal estimates, such as that an event is highly improbable. PMID:23056224

  19. Some Uniqueness Results for PARAFAC2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ten Berge, Jos M. F.; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    1996-01-01

    Some uniqueness properties are presented for the PARAFAC2 model for covariance matrices, focusing on uniqueness in the rank two case of PARAFAC2. PARAFAC2 is shown to be usually unique with four matrices, but not unique with three unless a certain additional assumption is introduced. (SLD)

  20. Permit application modifications

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils.

  1. Modifications of mitosis

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 15, discusses modifications of mitosis, including endoreduplication, polyteny, endomitosis, C-mitosis, restitution, amitosis and multipolar mitoses. Apart from multipolar mitosis, all other mitotic modifications are characterized by an absent or defective spindle, and in most cases these result in the duplication of the chromosome number. 29 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Respiratory infections unique to Asia.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Kenneth W; File, Thomas M

    2008-11-01

    Asia is a highly heterogeneous region with vastly different cultures, social constitutions and populations affected by a wide spectrum of respiratory diseases caused by tropical pathogens. Asian patients with community-acquired pneumonia differ from their Western counterparts in microbiological aetiology, in particular the prominence of Gram-negative organisms, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Burkholderia pseudomallei and Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, the differences in socioeconomic and health-care infrastructures limit the usefulness of Western management guidelines for pneumonia in Asia. The importance of emerging infectious diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian influenza infection remain as close concerns for practising respirologists in Asia. Specific infections such as melioidosis, dengue haemorrhagic fever, scrub typhus, leptospirosis, salmonellosis, penicilliosis marneffei, malaria, amoebiasis, paragonimiasis, strongyloidiasis, gnathostomiasis, trinchinellosis, schistosomiasis and echinococcosis occur commonly in Asia and manifest with a prominent respiratory component. Pulmonary eosinophilia, endemic in parts of Asia, could occur with a wide range of tropical infections. Tropical eosinophilia is believed to be a hyper-sensitivity reaction to degenerating microfilariae trapped in the lungs. This article attempts to address the key respiratory issues in these respiratory infections unique to Asia and highlight the important diagnostic and management issues faced by practising respirologists. PMID:18945321

  3. Symbols are not uniquely human.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sidarta; Loula, Angelo; de Araújo, Ivan; Gudwin, Ricardo; Queiroz, João

    2007-01-01

    Modern semiotics is a branch of logics that formally defines symbol-based communication. In recent years, the semiotic classification of signs has been invoked to support the notion that symbols are uniquely human. Here we show that alarm-calls such as those used by African vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), logically satisfy the semiotic definition of symbol. We also show that the acquisition of vocal symbols in vervet monkeys can be successfully simulated by a computer program based on minimal semiotic and neurobiological constraints. The simulations indicate that learning depends on the tutor-predator ratio, and that apprentice-generated auditory mistakes in vocal symbol interpretation have little effect on the learning rates of apprentices (up to 80% of mistakes are tolerated). In contrast, just 10% of apprentice-generated visual mistakes in predator identification will prevent any vocal symbol to be correctly associated with a predator call in a stable manner. Tutor unreliability was also deleterious to vocal symbol learning: a mere 5% of "lying" tutors were able to completely disrupt symbol learning, invariably leading to the acquisition of incorrect associations by apprentices. Our investigation corroborates the existence of vocal symbols in a non-human species, and indicates that symbolic competence emerges spontaneously from classical associative learning mechanisms when the conditioned stimuli are self-generated, arbitrary and socially efficacious. We propose that more exclusive properties of human language, such as syntax, may derive from the evolution of higher-order domains for neural association, more removed from both the sensory input and the motor output, able to support the gradual complexification of grammatical categories into syntax. PMID:17101209

  4. Enzymatic modification of schizophyllan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An enzymatic method was developed for the progressive modification of the polysaccharide schizophyllan. Fungal strains Hypocrea nigricans NRRL 62555, Penicillium crustosum NRRL 62558, and Penicillium simplicissimum NRRL 62550 were previously identified as novel sources of ß-endoglucanase with specif...

  5. Histone Modifications and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Audia, James E; Campbell, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARYHistone posttranslational modifications represent a versatile set of epigenetic marks involved not only in dynamic cellular processes, such as transcription and DNA repair, but also in the stable maintenance of repressive chromatin. In this article, we review many of the key and newly identified histone modifications known to be deregulated in cancer and how this impacts function. The latter part of the article addresses the challenges and current status of the epigenetic drug development process as it applies to cancer therapeutics. PMID:27037415

  6. Surface modification of solids

    SciTech Connect

    Appleton, B.R.

    1984-05-01

    The use of ion beam and pulsed laser processing is reviewed for the near-surface modification of a wide range of materials. The techniques of ion implantation doping, ion beam and laser mixing, and pulsed-laser annealing are stressed with particular emphasis on the nonequilibrium aspects of these processing techniques and on new materials properties which can result. Examples are presented illustrating the utility of these techniques for fundamental materials research as well as practical surface modifications.

  7. Tyrosine Modifications in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, Maria B.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The understanding of physiological and pathological processes involving protein oxidation, particularly under conditions of aging and oxidative stress, can be aided by proteomic identification of proteins that accumulate oxidative post-translational modifications only if these detected modifications are connected to functional consequences. The modification of tyrosine (Tyr) residues can elicit significant changes in protein structure and function, which, in some cases, may contribute to biological aging and age-related pathologies, such as atherosclerosis, neurodegeneration, and cataracts. Recent Advances: Studies characterizing proteins in which Tyr has been modified to 3-nitrotyrosine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, 3,3′-dityrosine and other cross-links, or 3-chlorotyrosine are reviewed, with an emphasis on structural and functional consequences. Critical Issues: Distinguishing between inconsequential modifications and functionally significant ones requires careful biochemical and biophysical analysis of target proteins, as well as innovative methods for isolating the effects of the multiple modifications that often occur under oxidizing conditions. Future Directions: The labor-intensive task of isolating and characterizing individual modified proteins must continue, especially given the expanding list of known modifications. Emerging approaches, such as genetic and metabolic incorporation of unnatural amino acids, hold promise for additional focused studies of this kind. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 1571–1579. PMID:22424390

  8. Chemical modification of silicene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rong; Xu, Ming-Sheng; Pi, Xiao-Dong

    2015-08-01

    Silicene is a two-dimensional (2D) material, which is composed of a single layer of silicon atoms with sp2-sp3 mixed hybridization. The sp2-sp3 mixed hybridization renders silicene excellent reactive ability, facilitating the chemical modification of silicene. It has been demonstrated that chemical modification effectively enables the tuning of the properties of silicene. We now review all kinds of chemical modification methods for silicene, including hydrogenation, halogenation, organic surface modification, oxidation, doping and formation of 2D hybrids. The effects of these chemical modification methods on the geometrical, electronic, optical, and magnetic properties of silicene are discussed. The potential applications of chemically modified silicene in a variety of fields such as electronics, optoelectronics, and magnetoelectronics are introduced. We finally envision future work on the chemical modification of silicene for further advancing the development of silicene. Project supported by the National Basic Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB632101), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61222404 and 61474097), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. 2014XZZX003-09).

  9. Enzymatic modifications of exopolysaccharides enhance bacterial persistence

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, Gregory B.; Marmont, Lindsey S.; Howell, P. Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms are surface-attached communities of bacterial cells embedded in a self-produced matrix that are found ubiquitously in nature. The biofilm matrix is composed of various extracellular polymeric substances, which confer advantages to the encapsulated bacteria by protecting them from eradication. The matrix composition varies between species and is dependent on the environmental niche that the bacteria inhabit. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) play a variety of important roles in biofilm formation in numerous bacterial species. The ability of bacteria to thrive in a broad range of environmental settings is reflected in part by the structural diversity of the EPS produced both within individual bacterial strains as well as by different species. This variability is achieved through polymerization of distinct sugar moieties into homo- or hetero-polymers, as well as post-polymerization modification of the polysaccharide. Specific enzymes that are unique to the production of each polymer can transfer or remove non-carbohydrate moieties, or in other cases, epimerize the sugar units. These modifications alter the physicochemical properties of the polymer, which in turn can affect bacterial pathogenicity, virulence, and environmental adaptability. Herein, we review the diversity of modifications that the EPS alginate, the Pel polysaccharide, Vibrio polysaccharide, cepacian, glycosaminoglycans, and poly-N-acetyl-glucosamine undergo during biosynthesis. These are EPS produced by human pathogenic bacteria for which studies have begun to unravel the effect modifications have on their physicochemical and biological properties. The biological advantages these polymer modifications confer to the bacteria that produce them will be discussed. The expanding list of identified modifications will allow future efforts to focus on linking these modifications to specific biosynthetic genes and biofilm phenotypes. PMID:26029200

  10. Human Rights and Behavior Modification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roos, Philip

    1974-01-01

    Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)

  11. Surface modification and characterization Collaborative Research Center at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The Surface Modification and Characterization Collaborative Research Center (SMAC/CRC) is a unique facility for the alteration and characterization of the near-surface properties of materials. The SMAC/CRC facility is equipped with particle accelerators and high-powered lasers which can be used to improve the physical, electrical, and/or chemical properties of solids and to create unique new materials not possible to obtain with conventional ''equilibrium'' processing techniques. Surface modification is achieved using such techniques as ion implantation doping, ion beam mixing, laser mixing, ion deposition, and laser annealing.

  12. Modifications of gravity.

    PubMed

    Skordis, Constantinos

    2011-12-28

    General relativity (GR) is a phenomenologically successful theory that rests on firm foundations, but has not been tested on cosmological scales. The deep mystery of dark energy (and possibly even the requirement of cold dark matter (CDM)) has increased the need for testing modifications to GR, as the inference of such otherwise undetected fluids depends crucially on the theory of gravity. Here, I discuss a general scheme for constructing consistent and covariant modifications to the Einstein equations. This framework is such that there is a clear connection between the modification and the underlying field content that produces it. I argue that this is mandatory for distinguishing modifications of gravity from conventional fluids. I give a non-trivial example, a simple metric-based modification of the fluctuation equations for which the background is exact ΛCDM, but differs from it in the perturbations. I show how this can be generalized and solved in terms of two arbitrary functions. Finally, I discuss future prospects and directions of research. PMID:22084286

  13. Inorganic Surface Modification of Nonwoven Polymeric Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbur, Jonathan Chandler

    In this study, atomic layer deposition (ALD), a vapor phase inorganic thin film deposition technique, is used to modify the surface of a range of industrially relevant polymers to enhance surface properties or impart additional functionalities. Several unique demonstrations of polymer surface modification are presented including uniform nanomaterial photodeposition to the surface of nonowoven fabrics and the first application of photocatalytic thin film coated nonwovens for advanced filtration of heavy metals from solution. Recent advances in polymer synthesis and processing technologies have resulted in the production of novel polymer systems with unique chemistries and sub-micron scale dimensions. As a result, advanced fiber systems have received much attention for potential use in a wide range of industrially and medically important applications such as advanced and selective filtration, catalysis, flexible electronics, and tissue engineering. However, tailoring the surface properties of the polymer is still needed in order to realize the full range of advanced applications, which can be difficult given the high complexity and non-uniformity of nonwoven polymeric structures. Uniform and controllable inorganic surface modification of nonwovens allows the introduction or modification of many crucial polymer properties with a wide range of application methods.

  14. Unique modification of adenine in genomic DNA of the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium sp. strain NIBB 1067.

    PubMed Central

    Zehr, J P; Ohki, K; Fujita, Y; Landry, D

    1991-01-01

    The genomic DNA of the marine nonheterocystous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium sp. strain NIBB 1067 was found to be highly resistant to DNA restriction endonucleases. The DNA was digested extensively by the restriction enzyme DpnI, which requires adenine methylation for activity. The DNA composition, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was found to be 69% AT. Surprisingly, it was found that a modified adenine which was not methylated at the usual N6 position was present and made up 4.7 mol% of the nucleosides in Trichodesmium DNA (15 mol% of deoxyadenosine). In order for adenine residues to be modified at this many positions, there must be many modifying enzymes or at least one of the modifying enzymes must have a degenerate recognition site. The reason(s) for this extensive methylation has not yet been determined but may have implications for the ecological success of this microorganism in nature. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:1657876

  15. Drosophila Follistatin Exhibits Unique Structural Modifications and Interacts with Several TGF-Beta Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Bickel, Daniela; Shah, Ripal; Gesualdi, Scott C.; Haerry, Theodor E.

    2008-01-01

    Follistatin (FS) is one of several secreted proteins that modulate the activity of TGF-β family members during development. The structural and functional analysis of Drosophila Follistatin (dFS) reveals important differences between dFS and its vertebrate orthologues: it is larger, more positively charged, and proteolytically processed. dFS primarily inhibits signaling of Drosophila Activin (dACT) but can also inhibit other ligands like Decapentaplegic (DPP). In contrast, the presence of dFS enhances signaling of the Activin-like protein Dawdle (DAW), indicating that dFS exhibits a dual function in facilitating and inhibiting signaling of TGF-β ligands. In addition, FS proteins may also function in facilitating ligand diffusion. We find that mutants of daw are rescued in significant numbers by expression of vertebrate FS proteins. Since two PiggyBac insertions in dfs are not lethal, it appears that the function of dFS is non-essential or functionally redundant. PMID:18077144

  16. Utilization of waste tires employing novel surface-modification technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B.D. )

    1989-01-01

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is developing unique technology for the recycle of scrap tires. The approach involves surface-modification of ground tire rubber particles to facilitate their incorporation into novel composites. This form of recycling represents the highest value-added and greatest energy conservation potential of all tire recycle technologies. Furthermore, it is environmentally innocuous. Research and development of this unique technology is partially funded through a cost-shared contract with the US Department of Energy. 4 figs.

  17. Structural modification utilizing beam elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, K. B.; Mitchell, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    A method for analyzing the effects of sophisticated beam-type structural modifications to a structure with a known modal database is presented. The modification technique integrates the dual modal space modification method with the transfer matrix method to perform general beam modifications. Consideration is given to two examples: one demonstrates the performance of the modification scheme when a severe structural change is made, while the other demonstrates a change to a complex structure.

  18. Biblical behavior modification.

    PubMed

    Lasure, L C; Mikulas, W L

    1996-07-01

    Although we may have formalized and systematized the field of behavior modification in the last few decades, people around the world have been using behavioral change strategies throughout history. Premack's (1965) theory of reinforcement is often called "Grandma's rule" because grandmothers have long been using it (e.g. You must finish your vegetables before you may go out and play). Franks (1969, p. 4), in one of the first behavioral texts, gave historical examples from China, Turkey, France, and Italy. Knapp and Shodahl (1974) showed how Benjamin Franklin used behavior modification. And de Silva (1984, 1985) gave examples of behavior modification by the Buddha and other early Buddhists. Conspicuously absent from our literature are examples from the Judeo-Christian tradition. In this paper, we provide a number of behavior modification examples from the Bible (New International Version). Footnotes provide references for many more examples. In the discussion, we explore implications for education and therapy. Examples are grouped by the following categories: operant conditioning, respondent conditioning, modeling, and cognitive interventions. However, the Biblical examples, like contemporary case studies, do not always fall neatly into discrete categories. They often are a combination, particularly operant and respondent conditioning interweaving. PMID:8826763

  19. THE MODIFICATION OF STUTTERING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUTTEN, EUGENE J.; SHOEMAKER, DONALD J.

    INTENDED FOR BOTH THE COLLEGE STUDENT AND THE PROFESSIONAL SPEECH PATHOLOGIST, THE BOOK PRESENTS CURRENT LEARNING THEORIES CONCERNING STUTTERING, DATA IMPORTANT TO THE THEORIES, AND A 2-PROCESS THEORY OF LEARNING FOR THEORETICAL INTEGRATION OF THE DATA ON STUTTERING AND FOR THERAPEUTIC MODIFICATION. INFORMATION PRESENTED ABOUT BEHAVIORISTIC…

  20. Diet Modification for Hyperlipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Heather D.; Piotrowski, Pamela

    1992-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor associated with cardiovascular disease. Dietary modification is effective in achieving and maintaining improved serum lipid levels. Nutritional care provided by a dietitian includes individual dietary and lifestyle assessment, formulating an appropriate dietary regimen, education, and follow-up assessments. PMID:21221406

  1. Posttranslational Protein Modification in Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Eichler, Jerry; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2005-01-01

    One of the first hurdles to be negotiated in the postgenomic era involves the description of the entire protein content of the cell, the proteome. Such efforts are presently complicated by the various posttranslational modifications that proteins can experience, including glycosylation, lipid attachment, phosphorylation, methylation, disulfide bond formation, and proteolytic cleavage. Whereas these and other posttranslational protein modifications have been well characterized in Eucarya and Bacteria, posttranslational modification in Archaea has received far less attention. Although archaeal proteins can undergo posttranslational modifications reminiscent of what their eucaryal and bacterial counterparts experience, examination of archaeal posttranslational modification often reveals aspects not previously observed in the other two domains of life. In some cases, posttranslational modification allows a protein to survive the extreme conditions often encountered by Archaea. The various posttranslational modifications experienced by archaeal proteins, the molecular steps leading to these modifications, and the role played by posttranslational modification in Archaea form the focus of this review. PMID:16148304

  2. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs

  3. Some Graphs Containing Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, two classes of graphs of arbitrary order are described which contain unique Hamiltonian cycles. All the graphs have mean vertex degree greater than one quarter the order of the graph. The Hamiltonian cycles are detailed, their uniqueness proved and simple rules for the construction of the adjacency matrix of the graphs are given.

  4. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  5. Teaching and Learning with Individually Unique Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joerding, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the pedagogical benefits of giving students individually unique homework exercises from an exercise template. Evidence from a test of this approach shows statistically significant improvements in subsequent exam performance by students receiving unique problems compared with students who received traditional…

  6. ASPOD modifications of 1993-1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Jennifer J. (Editor); Fogarty, Paul W.; Muller, Matthew; Martucci, Thomas A., III; Williams, Daniel; Rowney, David A.

    1994-01-01

    ASPOD, Autonomous Space Processors for Orbital Debris, provides a unique way of collecting the space debris that has built up over the past 37 years. For the past several years, ASPOD has gone through several different modifications. This year's concentrations were on the solar cutting array, the solar tracker, the earth based main frame/tilt table, the controls for the two robotic arms, and accurate autocad drawings of ASPOD. This final report contains the reports written by the students who worked on the ASPOD project this year.

  7. Clinical risk modification.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J

    Claims for compensation in cases of clinical negligence have risen dramatically in recent years. The implementation of the NHS reforms, with greater clarity of roles and responsibilities and the emphasis on devolving decision-making as close to the patient as possible, is meant to affect the entire performance of healthcare delivery. For most senior managers and clinicians, the environment in which they operate has grown increasingly turbulent and complex. Both purchasers and providers of health care want the best and most effective and efficient care. The cost and quality of care are components in determining the value of health care delivered, and both are elements of healthcare risk. To begin to manage these elements of risk, the process of healthcare risk modification can be applied. Healthcare risk modification provides the best service for patients through obtaining a synergy between risk management, quality and the law. PMID:9370571

  8. Are Scattering Properties of Networks Uniquely Connected to Their Shapes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hul, Oleh; Ławniczak, Michał; Bauch, Szymon; Sawicki, Adam; Kuś, Marek; Sirko, Leszek

    Are scattering properties of networks uniquely connected to their shapes? This is a modification of the famous question of Mark Kac "Can one hear the shape of a drum: revisited. which can be asked in the case of scattering systems such as quantum graphs and microwave networks. We present the experimental approach to this problem (Hul et al., Phys Rev Lett 109:040402, 2012). Our experimental results indicate a negative answer to the above question. To demonstrate this we constructed a pair of isospectral microwave networks consisting of vertices connected by microwave coaxial cables and extended them to scattering systems by connecting leads to infinity to form isoscattering networks. We show that the amplitudes and phases of the determinants of the scattering matrices of such networks are the same within the experimental uncertainties. Additionally, we demonstrate that the scattering matrices of the networks are conjugated by the transplantation relation. The experimental results are in perfect agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  9. In vitro and in vivo modifications of recombinant and human IgG antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongcheng; Ponniah, Gomathinayagam; Zhang, Hui-Min; Nowak, Christine; Neill, Alyssa; Gonzalez-Lopez, Nidia; Patel, Rekha; Cheng, Guilong; Kita, Adriana Z; Andrien, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Tremendous knowledge has been gained in the understanding of various modifications of IgG antibodies, driven mainly by the fact that antibodies are one of the most important groups of therapeutic molecules and because of the development of advanced analytical techniques. Recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics expressed in mammalian cell lines and endogenous IgG molecules secreted by B cells in the human body share some modifications, but each have some unique modifications. Modifications that are common to recombinant mAb and endogenous IgG molecules are considered to pose a lower risk of immunogenicity. On the other hand, modifications that are unique to recombinant mAbs could potentially pose higher risk. The focus of this review is the comparison of frequently observed modifications of recombinant monoclonal antibodies to those of endogenous IgG molecules. PMID:25517300

  10. In vitro and in vivo modifications of recombinant and human IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongcheng; Ponniah, Gomathinayagam; Zhang, Hui-Min; Nowak, Christine; Neill, Alyssa; Gonzalez-Lopez, Nidia; Patel, Rekha; Cheng, Guilong; Kita, Adriana Z; Andrien, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Tremendous knowledge has been gained in the understanding of various modifications of IgG antibodies, driven mainly by the fact that antibodies are one of the most important groups of therapeutic molecules and because of the development of advanced analytical techniques. Recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics expressed in mammalian cell lines and endogenous IgG molecules secreted by B cells in the human body share some modifications, but each have some unique modifications. Modifications that are common to recombinant mAb and endogenous IgG molecules are considered to pose a lower risk of immunogenicity. On the other hand, modifications that are unique to recombinant mAbs could potentially pose higher risk. The focus of this review is the comparison of frequently observed modifications of recombinant monoclonal antibodies to those of endogenous IgG molecules. PMID:25517300

  11. Unique Biosignatures in Caves of All Lithologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boston, P. J.; Schubert, K. E.; Gomez, E.; Conrad, P. G.

    2015-10-01

    Unique maze-like microbial communities on cave surfaces on all lithologies all over the world are an excellent candidate biosignatures for life detection missions into caves and other extraterrestrial environments.

  12. Heart Failure: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Heart Failure Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... or maintain quality of life. Urinary Incontinence and Heart Failure If you have heart failure, you may experience ...

  13. Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness

    PubMed Central

    Shettleworth, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Darwin's claim ‘that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind’ is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference in cognitive capabilities and/or mechanisms between adult humans and other animals. Dual-process theories for some cognitive domains propose that adult human cognition shares simple basic processes with that of other animals while additionally including slower-developing and more explicit uniquely human processes. These theories are consistent with a modular account of cognition and the ‘core knowledge’ account of children's cognitive development. A complementary proposal is that human infants have unique social and/or cognitive adaptations for uniquely human learning. A view of human cognitive architecture as a mosaic of unique and species-general modular and domain-general processes together with a focus on uniquely human developmental mechanisms is consistent with modern evolutionary-developmental biology and suggests new questions for comparative research. PMID:22927578

  14. Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness.

    PubMed

    Shettleworth, Sara J

    2012-10-01

    Darwin's claim 'that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind' is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference in cognitive capabilities and/or mechanisms between adult humans and other animals. Dual-process theories for some cognitive domains propose that adult human cognition shares simple basic processes with that of other animals while additionally including slower-developing and more explicit uniquely human processes. These theories are consistent with a modular account of cognition and the 'core knowledge' account of children's cognitive development. A complementary proposal is that human infants have unique social and/or cognitive adaptations for uniquely human learning. A view of human cognitive architecture as a mosaic of unique and species-general modular and domain-general processes together with a focus on uniquely human developmental mechanisms is consistent with modern evolutionary-developmental biology and suggests new questions for comparative research. PMID:22927578

  15. Chromaticity of unique white in illumination mode.

    PubMed

    Smet, Kevin A G; Deconinck, Geert; Hanselaer, Peter

    2015-05-18

    The chromaticity of unique white viewed in illumination mode and under dark adapted conditions was investigated for 3 luminance levels (200, 1000 and 2000 cd/m2) using a unique white setting method. Unique white was found to encompass a rather large region in color space located slightly below the blackbody locus and centered around a CCT of 6600 K. Luminance level was found to have no significant effect on the mean unique white chromaticity. The high and low end points of the CIE class A and B white regions respectively under- and overestimate the chromaticity region perceived as white. Agreement along the Duv direction was quite good. However, another Duv related limit associated with white lighting (|Duv|≤5.4e-3) was found to be on the small side, especially for chromaticity values below the blackbody locus. The results for unique white viewed in illumination mode were compared to those reported for object mode presentation. Overall they were very comparable, although a statistical analysis does show a (just) significant effect of stimulus presentation mode for high (il)luminance levels. However, no such effect could be established at the individual observer level. Therefore, it was concluded that unique white chromaticity is essentially the same for both illumination and object mode stimulus presentation, at least under dark adapted viewing conditions. PMID:26074504

  16. Solitons and ionospheric modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheerin, J. P.; Nicholson, D. R.; Payne, G. L.; Hansen, P. J.; Weatherall, J. C.; Goldman, M. V.

    1982-01-01

    The possibility of Langmuir soliton formation and collapse during ionospheric modification is investigated. Parameters characterizing former facilities, existing facilities, and planned facilities are considered, using a combination of analytical and numerical techniques. At a spatial location corresponding to the exact classical reflection point of the modifier wave, the Langmuir wave evolution is found to be dominated by modulational instability followed by soliton formation and three-dimensional collapse. The earth's magnetic field is found to affect the shape of the collapsing soliton. These results provide an alternative explanation for some recent observations.

  17. Integrated Microfluidics for Protein Modification Discovery.

    PubMed

    Noach-Hirsh, Meirav; Nevenzal, Hadas; Glick, Yair; Chorni, Evelin; Avrahami, Dorit; Barbiro-Michaely, Efrat; Gerber, Doron; Tzur, Amit

    2015-10-01

    Protein post-translational modifications mediate dynamic cellular processes with broad implications in human disease pathogenesis. There is a large demand for high-throughput technologies supporting post-translational modifications research, and both mass spectrometry and protein arrays have been successfully utilized for this purpose. Protein arrays override the major limitation of target protein abundance inherently associated with MS analysis. This technology, however, is typically restricted to pre-purified proteins spotted in a fixed composition on chips with limited life-time and functionality. In addition, the chips are expensive and designed for a single use, making complex experiments cost-prohibitive. Combining microfluidics with in situ protein expression from a cDNA microarray addressed these limitations. Based on this approach, we introduce a modular integrated microfluidic platform for multiple post-translational modifications analysis of freshly synthesized protein arrays (IMPA). The system's potency, specificity and flexibility are demonstrated for tyrosine phosphorylation and ubiquitination in quasicellular environments. Unlimited by design and protein composition, and relying on minute amounts of biological material and cost-effective technology, this unique approach is applicable for a broad range of basic, biomedical and biomarker research. PMID:26276765

  18. Unique Gene-Silencing and Structural Properties of 2;#8242;-Fluoro-Modified siRNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Manoharan, Muthiah; Akinc, Akin; Pandey, Rajendra K.; Qin, June; Hadwiger, Philipp; John, Matthias; Mills, Kathy; Charisse, Klaus; Maier, Martin A.; Nechev, Lubomir; Greene, Emily M.; Pallan, Pradeep S.; Rozners, Eriks; Rajeev, Kallanthottathil G.; Egli, Martin

    2015-10-15

    With little or no negative impact on the activity of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), regardless of the number of modifications or the positions within the strand, the 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro (2'-F) modification is unique. Furthermore, the 2'-F-modified siRNA (see crystal structure) was thermodynamically more stable and more nuclease-resistant than the parent siRNA, and produced no immunostimulatory response.

  19. Chromaticity of unique white in object mode.

    PubMed

    Kevin, A G Smet; Geert, Deconinck; Peter, Hanselaer

    2014-10-20

    The chromaticity of unique white viewed in object mode and under dark adapted conditions was investigated for 3 luminance levels (200, 1000 and 2000 cd/m(2)) using two experimental methods: unique white setting and rating. The results of the two methods were found to agree well. Both showed quite large observer variation and an apparent shift of the average unique white (across observers) towards colder correlated color temperatures as the stimulus luminance was dropped from 2000 cd/m(2) to 200 cd/m(2), although no such trend was observable at the individual observer level. Unique white was shown to encompass a region in color space, mostly located below the blackbody locus at around 6000 K. The low and high color temperature ends of the CIE class A and B white regions tend to respectively over- and slightly underestimate the size of the chromaticity area perceived as white by the dark adapted average observer. However, the agreement along a direction approximately perpendicular to the blackbody locus was quite good. Finally, the unique white ratings were modeled by a bivariate Gaussian function, resulting in a simple empirical metric to predict the degree of neutrality of any object stimulus viewed under dark adapted conditions. PMID:25401616

  20. Relationship between uniqueness and competition ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ai-Fen; Xu, Xiu-Lian; He, Da-Ren

    2010-03-01

    In our previous paper (Feng A X, Xu X L, He D R 2009 Chin. Phys. Lett. 26 058901) we proposed quantitative definitions of uniqueness and competition ability. Their trivial linear relationship was analytically discussed. In this letter, we present analytical discussion on the more interesting anomalous cases. The analytical result shows that, instead of the trivial linear relationship, the relationship between uniqueness and competition ability obeys a power law. The competition between Beijing restaurants is taken as an example. The empirical investigation results show a strong support to the analytical conclusion.

  1. Structural Modification of Nanocrystalline Ceria using Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanwen; Edmondson, Philip D; Varga, Tamas; Moll, Sandra; Namavar, Fereydoon; Weber, William J

    2011-01-01

    Exceptional size-dependent electronic-ionic conductivity of nanostructured ceria can significantly alter materials properties in chemical, physical, electronic and optical applications. Using energetic ions, we have demonstrated effective modification of interface volume and grain size in nanocrystalline ceria from a few nm up to ~ 25 nm, which is the critical region for controlling size-dependent material property. The unique self-healing response of radiation damage at grain boundaries is applied to control the grain size at nanoscale as a function of ion dose and irradiation temperature. Structural modification by energetic ions is proposed to achieve disirable electronic-ionic conductivity.

  2. Unique hues as revealed by unique-hue selecting versus partial hue-matching.

    PubMed

    Logvinenko, Alexander D; Geithner, Coryn

    2015-04-01

    Unique hues are usually defined as those that cannot be introspectively reduced to any other hue. According to a major dogma of color science, there are four unique hues: yellow, blue, red, and green. Yet only 55 of the 173 inexperienced observers who participated in our experiment selected exactly four Munsell papers that, according to their judgment, had a unique hue. The number of papers selected by the rest of the observers varied from zero to nine. We believe that such variability of unique hue selection is due to the ambiguity of the introspective criteria for hue uniqueness. Along with the traditional technique of unique hue selection, an alternative method based on partial hue-matching has also been used to establish the nomenclature of unique hues. The partial hue-matching method is based on observer judgments concerning the presence of a common hue in a pair of colors. Observers are not supposed to name (or make any other judgments of) this common hue. Without presupposing their number, the unique hues are derived from the observer's responses to a sample of color pairs. The results obtained by this new method generally support the classical notion of four unique hues. PMID:23471743

  3. Photons uniques indiscernables partir d'une bote quantique unique dans un cristal photonique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, S.; Varoutsis, S.; Le Gratiet, L.; Lematre, A.; Sagnes, I.; Raineri, F.; Levenson, A.; Robert-Philip, I.; Abram, I.

    2006-10-01

    Nous avons dvelopp et caractris une source de photons uniques base sur l'mission spontane d'une bote quantique unique insre dans une cavit bande interdite photonique bidimensionnelle. Ce systme nous a d'abord permis de produire des photons uniques, puis des photons uniques indiscernables avec une indiscernabilit suprieure 70%. L'observation de l'indiscernabilit des photons, impossible sans un raccourcissement important de la dure de vie, met en vidence un effet Purcell suprieur 25 dans ce systme.

  4. (-)-Botryodiplodin, A Unique Ribose Analog Toxin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many toxins owe their mechanisms of action to being structural analogs of essential metabolites, messengers or structural components. Examples range from tubo-curare to penicillin. Ribose plays a unique role in the metabolism of living organisms, whether prokaryotes or eukaryotes. It and its deri...

  5. Unique Discovery Aspects of Utilizing Botanical Sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of a long tradition of use in humans, botanicals have many unique advantages to offer as sources of natural products with pharmaceutical influence, especially in terms of opportunities for the development of diverse botanical products. This chapter outlines their use in screening programs, ...

  6. The Unique American Vision of Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Mehmet Ali; Debelak, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The present article scrutinizes "the unique American vision of childhood" (UAVC) as a phenomenon undermining high academic expectations and good work ethics, and in turn, contributing to the generally low academic achievement of U.S. students compared to their counterparts in other advanced countries. It starts with a definition of UAVC, followed…

  7. Using Quantum Confinement to Uniquely Identify Devices

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J.; Bagci, I. E.; Zawawi, M. A. M.; Sexton, J.; Hulbert, N.; Noori, Y. J.; Young, M. P.; Woodhead, C. S.; Missous, M.; Migliorato, M. A.; Roedig, U.; Young, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Modern technology unintentionally provides resources that enable the trust of everyday interactions to be undermined. Some authentication schemes address this issue using devices that give a unique output in response to a challenge. These signatures are generated by hard-to-predict physical responses derived from structural characteristics, which lend themselves to two different architectures, known as unique objects (UNOs) and physically unclonable functions (PUFs). The classical design of UNOs and PUFs limits their size and, in some cases, their security. Here we show that quantum confinement lends itself to the provision of unique identities at the nanoscale, by using fluctuations in tunnelling measurements through quantum wells in resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs). This provides an uncomplicated measurement of identity without conventional resource limitations whilst providing robust security. The confined energy levels are highly sensitive to the specific nanostructure within each RTD, resulting in a distinct tunnelling spectrum for every device, as they contain a unique and unpredictable structure that is presently impossible to clone. This new class of authentication device operates with minimal resources in simple electronic structures above room temperature. PMID:26553435

  8. Static black hole uniqueness and Penrose inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, Ryosuke; Shiromizu, Tetsuya; Ohashi, Seiju

    2010-02-15

    Under certain conditions, we offer a new way to prove the uniqueness of the static black hole in higher dimensional asymptotically flat spacetimes. In the proof, the Penrose inequality plays a key role in higher dimensions as well as four dimensions.

  9. Unique rig fulfills unusual mobility requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    This article describes a unique rig designed by SEDCO FOREX operating in the Paris basin of France. Built to drill clusters of wells from a single pad, Rig 47 significantly reduces the time needed to move from well to well on a pad and from location to location.

  10. Using Quantum Confinement to Uniquely Identify Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J.; Bagci, I. E.; Zawawi, M. A. M.; Sexton, J.; Hulbert, N.; Noori, Y. J.; Young, M. P.; Woodhead, C. S.; Missous, M.; Migliorato, M. A.; Roedig, U.; Young, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    Modern technology unintentionally provides resources that enable the trust of everyday interactions to be undermined. Some authentication schemes address this issue using devices that give a unique output in response to a challenge. These signatures are generated by hard-to-predict physical responses derived from structural characteristics, which lend themselves to two different architectures, known as unique objects (UNOs) and physically unclonable functions (PUFs). The classical design of UNOs and PUFs limits their size and, in some cases, their security. Here we show that quantum confinement lends itself to the provision of unique identities at the nanoscale, by using fluctuations in tunnelling measurements through quantum wells in resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs). This provides an uncomplicated measurement of identity without conventional resource limitations whilst providing robust security. The confined energy levels are highly sensitive to the specific nanostructure within each RTD, resulting in a distinct tunnelling spectrum for every device, as they contain a unique and unpredictable structure that is presently impossible to clone. This new class of authentication device operates with minimal resources in simple electronic structures above room temperature.

  11. Tulane Student Designs Unique Learning Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1977

    1977-01-01

    A Louisiana architect has created plans for a unique supplementary learning environment consisting of five circular buildings featuring a planetarium, an indoor display of small animals in their native habitat, an indoor pond, a library, a media center, and an auditorium. (Author/MLF)

  12. The Uniqueness of Speech among Motor Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Ray

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers evidence that the speech muscles are unique in their genetic, developmental, functional and phenotypical properties. The literature was reviewed using PubMed, ScienceDirect, ComDisDome and other literature-retrieval systems to identify studies reporting on the craniofacial and laryngeal muscles. Particular emphasis was given…

  13. Art Libraries: Creating Access to Unique Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falls, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Art libraries face similar issues to other types of libraries during the digital transition but have unique twists driven by the needs of their collections. Art library information seekers may possess a sense of what an art library is: a library, set apart, to support the study of art and art history. For art libraries, it is the collection,

  14. Unique Challenges in Teaching Undergraduate Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, Frances A.; Mccown, Steven M.; Roskos-Ewoldsen, Beverly

    1998-01-01

    Outlines and discusses four unique and major challenges facing the undergraduate statistics instructor. These are motivating students to study material they think is uninteresting, handling mathematics anxiety, dealing with performance extremes, and making the learning memorable. Offers solutions for each challenge. (MJP)

  15. Art Libraries: Creating Access to Unique Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falls, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Art libraries face similar issues to other types of libraries during the digital transition but have unique twists driven by the needs of their collections. Art library information seekers may possess a sense of what an art library is: a library, set apart, to support the study of art and art history. For art libraries, it is the collection,…

  16. Esperanto: A Unique Model for General Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dulichenko, Aleksandr D.

    1988-01-01

    Esperanto presents a unique model for linguistic research by allowing the study of language development from project to fully functioning language. Esperanto provides insight into the growth of polysemy and redundancy, as well as into language universals and the phenomenon of social control. (Author/CB)

  17. Using Quantum Confinement to Uniquely Identify Devices.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J; Bagci, I E; Zawawi, M A M; Sexton, J; Hulbert, N; Noori, Y J; Young, M P; Woodhead, C S; Missous, M; Migliorato, M A; Roedig, U; Young, R J

    2015-01-01

    Modern technology unintentionally provides resources that enable the trust of everyday interactions to be undermined. Some authentication schemes address this issue using devices that give a unique output in response to a challenge. These signatures are generated by hard-to-predict physical responses derived from structural characteristics, which lend themselves to two different architectures, known as unique objects (UNOs) and physically unclonable functions (PUFs). The classical design of UNOs and PUFs limits their size and, in some cases, their security. Here we show that quantum confinement lends itself to the provision of unique identities at the nanoscale, by using fluctuations in tunnelling measurements through quantum wells in resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs). This provides an uncomplicated measurement of identity without conventional resource limitations whilst providing robust security. The confined energy levels are highly sensitive to the specific nanostructure within each RTD, resulting in a distinct tunnelling spectrum for every device, as they contain a unique and unpredictable structure that is presently impossible to clone. This new class of authentication device operates with minimal resources in simple electronic structures above room temperature. PMID:26553435

  18. The Uniqueness of Speech among Motor Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Ray

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers evidence that the speech muscles are unique in their genetic, developmental, functional and phenotypical properties. The literature was reviewed using PubMed, ScienceDirect, ComDisDome and other literature-retrieval systems to identify studies reporting on the craniofacial and laryngeal muscles. Particular emphasis was given

  19. Some Unique Causes of Black Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaights, Ernest; Simpson, Gloria

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of suicide unique to blacks are: cultural expectations for males, which include repression of feelings and strict obedience to parents and elders; difficulty identifying with their race; gangs and drug abuse; poverty; and racism. These factors can cause depression, a known factor in suicidal behavior. (Author/ABB)

  20. A Graduation Stole Uniquely Designed for Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Lawrence H.

    2009-01-01

    In response to student requests, and to help celebrate the graduation of our physics majors, we have designed a graduation stole uniquely befitting physics. The design incorporates the four visible spectral lines of hydrogen--the Balmer series. Since the 2002 debut of the design, all our graduates have proudly worn their physics graduation stoles…

  1. LCA – Unique and Controversial Case Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This session will focus on case studies and applications that have a unique or controversial aspect. Some of the most recent topics that seem to have significant interest include: LCA-based product declarations, LCA-based standards, LCA-based labels, alternative energy, agricul...

  2. Author Identification, Idiolect, and Linguistic Uniqueness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulthard, Malcolm

    2004-01-01

    For forty years linguists have talked about idiolect and the uniqueness of individual utterances. This article explores how far these two concepts can be used to answer certain questions about the authorship of written documents--for instance how similar can two student essays be before one begins to suspect plagiarism? The article examines two…

  3. Public perceptions of hurricane modification.

    PubMed

    Klima, Kelly; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Morgan, M Granger; Grossmann, Iris

    2012-07-01

    If hurricane modification were to become a feasible strategy for potentially reducing hurricane damages, it would likely generate public discourse about whether to support its implementation. To facilitate an informed and constructive discourse, policymakers need to understand how people perceive hurricane modification. Here, we examine Florida residents' perceptions of hurricane modification techniques that aim to alter path and wind speed. Following the mental models approach, we conducted a survey study about public perceptions of hurricane modification that was guided by formative interviews on the topic. We report a set of four primary findings. First, hurricane modification was perceived as a relatively ineffective strategy for damage reduction, compared to other strategies for damage reduction. Second, hurricane modification was expected to lead to changes in projected hurricane path, but not necessarily to the successful reduction of projected hurricane strength. Third, more anger was evoked when a hurricane was described as having changed from the initially forecasted path or strength after an attempted modification. Fourth, unlike what we expected, participants who more strongly agreed with statements that recognized the uncertainty inherent in forecasts reported more rather than less anger at scientists across hurricane modification scenarios. If the efficacy of intensity-reduction techniques can be increased, people may be willing to support hurricane modification. However, such an effort would need to be combined with open and honest communications to members of the general public. PMID:22050325

  4. Synthetic Proteins and Peptides for the Direct Interrogation of α-Synuclein Posttranslational Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Matthew R.; Abeywardana, Tharindumala; Marotta, Nicholas P.

    2015-01-01

    α-Synuclein is the aggregation-prone protein associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and related neurodegenerative diseases. Complicating both its biological functions and toxic aggregation are a variety of posttranslational modifications. These modifications have the potential to either positively or negatively affect α-synuclein aggregation, raising the possibility that the enzymes that add or remove these modifications could be therapeutic targets in PD. Synthetic protein chemistry is uniquely positioned to generate site-specifically and homogeneously modified proteins for biochemical study. Here, we review the application of synthetic peptides and proteins towards understanding the effects of α-synuclein posttranslational modifications. PMID:26120904

  5. Surface Modification of Intraocular Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qi; Cheng, George Pak-Man; Chiu, Kin; Wang, Gui-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This paper aimed to review the current literature on the surface modification of intraocular lenses (IOLs). Data Sources: All articles about surface modification of IOLs published up to 2015 were identified through a literature search on both PubMed and ScienceDirect. Study Selection: The articles on the surface modification of IOLs were included, but those on design modification and surface coating were excluded. Results: Technology of surface modification included plasma, ion beam, layer-by-layer self-assembly, ultraviolet radiation, and ozone. The main molecules introduced into IOLs surface were poly (ethylene glycol), polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine, TiO2, heparin, F-heparin, titanium, titanium nitride, vinyl pyrrolidone, and inhibitors of cytokines. The surface modification either resulted in a more hydrophobic lens, a more hydrophilic lens, or a lens with a hydrophilic anterior and hydrophobic posterior surface. Advances in research regarding surface modification of IOLs had led to a better biocompatibility in both in vitro and animal experiments. Conclusion: The surface modification is an efficient, convenient, economic and promising method to improve the biocompatibility of IOLs. PMID:26830993

  6. Body Modification and Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicinbothem, Julie; Gonsalves, Sonia; Lester, David

    2006-01-01

    In a large sample of individuals who belong to a website for body modification, having body modifications (e.g., piercings, tattoos, scarification and surgical procedures) was associated with a higher incidence of prior suicidality (i.e., suicidal ideation and attempted suicide). However, controls for self-reported depression weakened the strength

  7. Body Modification and Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicinbothem, Julie; Gonsalves, Sonia; Lester, David

    2006-01-01

    In a large sample of individuals who belong to a website for body modification, having body modifications (e.g., piercings, tattoos, scarification and surgical procedures) was associated with a higher incidence of prior suicidality (i.e., suicidal ideation and attempted suicide). However, controls for self-reported depression weakened the strength…

  8. Reading: A Behavior Modification Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edlund, Calvin V.

    This report provides illustrations of practical applications of behavior modification to a variety of reading skills and is intended to be directly implemented in any classroom where reading is taught. The initial chapter is a brief orientation to behavior modification. It stresses that the trainer must answer the question of what behavior is to…

  9. Surface modification of cellulose nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyley, Samuel; Thielemans, Wim

    2014-06-01

    Chemical modification of cellulose nanocrystals is an increasingly popular topic in the literature. This review analyses the type of cellulose nanocrystal modification reactions that have been published in the literature thus far and looks at the steps that have been taken towards analysing the products of the nanocrystal modifications. The main categories of reactions carried out on cellulose nanocrystals are oxidations, esterifications, amidations, carbamations and etherifications. More recently nucleophilic substitutions have been used to introduce more complex functionality to cellulose nanocrystals. Multi-step modifications are also considered. This review emphasizes quantification of modification at the nanocrystal surface in terms of degree of substitution and the validity of conclusions drawn from different analysis techniques in this area. The mechanisms of the modification reactions are presented and considered with respect to the effect on the outcome of the reactions. While great strides have been made in the quality of analytical data published in the field of cellulose nanocrystal modification, there is still vast scope for improvement, both in data quality and the quality of analysis of data. Given the difficulty of surface analysis, cross-checking of results from different analysis techniques is fundamental for the development of reliable cellulose nanocrystal modification techniques.

  10. User applications unique to mobile satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castiel, David

    1990-01-01

    As AMSC enters the market with its mobile satellite services, it faces a sophisticated user group that has already experimented with a wide range of communications services, including cellular radio and Ku-band satellite messaging. AMSC's challenge is to define applications unique to the capabilities of its dedicated L band satellite and consistent with the provisions outlined in its FCC license. Through a carefully researched approach to its three main markets (aeronautical, land mobile, and maritime) AMSC is discovering a wellspring of interest in corporate and general aviation, trucking companies, pipeline monitoring and control companies, maritime management firms, telecommunications companies, and government agencies. A general overview is provided of AMSC's FCC license and corporate history, and the specific applications unique to each user group is discussed.

  11. Is mankind unique in the Galaxy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. R.; Bond, A.

    1984-10-01

    There is a relation between questions regarding the uniqueness of mankind in the Galaxy and the 'Fermi Paradox'. It has appeared to Fermi that the eventual controlled command of astronomical quantities of energy, and the ability for mankind to head out into the universe was only a matter of time. On the other hand, he reasoned that a large number of sites for intelligence should have developed in the Galaxy a long time ago. He expected that such civilizations in colonizing the Galaxy would come in contact with the earth, and yet, there is no evidence regarding such contacts. Many aspects of the Fermi Paradox have been debated. The present investigation represents an attempt to further contribute to that debate by exploring some of the arguments prompted by the Paradox. It is concluded that all of the arguments have only one self-consistent resolution. According to this resolution, mankind is unique in the Galaxy.

  12. Metalworking Techniques Unlock a Unique Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Approached by West Hartford, Connecticut-based Abbot Ball Company, Glenn Research Center agreed to test an intriguing alloy called Nitinol 60 that had been largely unused for a half century. Using powdered metallurgy, the partners developed a method for manufacturing and working with the material, which Abbott Ball has now commercialized. Nitinol 60 provides a unique combination of qualities that make it an excellent material for ball bearings, among other applications.

  13. Lightning injuries. A unique treatment challenge.

    PubMed

    Ghezzi, K T

    1989-06-01

    Care of victims of lightning injury is a unique challenge rarely encountered in most clinical practices. Victims may present without signs or symptoms or, conversely, may present in cardiac arrest. Many have chronic, debilitating sequelae. Physicians caring for these patients either in the field or in the emergency department should be prepared to institute aggressive management techniques. An understanding of lightning physics and injury patterns prevents costly and inappropriate diagnostic tests and treatment. PMID:2726639

  14. Unique nature of hydroplant complicates design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This article describes the unique nature of the Niagara Power Project as it affected upgrading of the Robert Moses powerplant and operation of the powerplant and pumped storage facility. To be taken into account are the variable flow of the Niagara River, treaties regarding division of river flow between Canada and USA and maintenance of river flow over the falls, and the level of Lake Erie.

  15. Assessing non-uniqueness: An algebraic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Vasco, Don W.

    2002-09-16

    Geophysical inverse problems are endowed with a rich mathematical structure. When discretized, most differential and integral equations of interest are algebraic (polynomial) in form. Techniques from algebraic geometry and computational algebra provide a means to address questions of existence and uniqueness for both linear and non-linear inverse problem. In a sense, the methods extend ideas which have proven fruitful in treating linear inverse problems.

  16. Unique Aspects of Herbal Whole System Research

    PubMed Central

    Zick, Suzanna M.; Schwabl, Herbert; Flower, Andrew; Lac, Dip; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Hirschkorn, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Whole systems of healthcare offer unique methodological and theoretical challenges for researchers. Herbalism has its own set of methodological and philosophical research issues, which are beyond those presented for whole system research, in general. Methods An International Society for Complementary Medicine Research (ISCMR) workshop was presented on, “Challenges in Herbal Whole Systems Research”. Starting from a definition of herbalism the most important challenges to herbal whole system research (HWSR) were elicited with inputs from both the workshop presenters and the audience. Results Five major challenges unique to herbal whole systems research were identified: (1) Defining herbalists and herbalism; (2) role of natural products industry in herbal research; (3) designing placebos and delivering active herbal treatments as are given by herbalists; (4) researching the herb as a living entity; and (5) designing trials to investigate and develop multi-component herbal therapies. Conclusions To design studies of herbalism requires unique methods and theoretical frameworks. Solutions to these methodological challenges need to be addressed to conduct research that examines herbal systems of medicine versus conducting trials on individual herbs given out of their original therapeutic context. PMID:19272580

  17. Unique characteristics of informal hospice cancer caregiving

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Karla T.; Pike, Kenneth C.; Demiris, George; Oliver, Debra Parker

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe the unique characteristics of informal hospice cancer caregiving. Methods Researchers conducted a secondary analysis of data drawn from a randomized clinical trial of an informal hospice caregiving intervention (N=348). Demographic characteristics and measures of the informal caregiving experience of hospice patients and their informal caregivers were compared based on the patients diagnosis using chi-square tests for association of categorical variables and t tests for continuous variables. Results Informal caregivers of cancer patients differed from their non-cancer counterparts in a number of respects including patient age, caregiver age, patient residence, relationship between patient and caregiver, amount and duration of care provided, likelihood to incur out-of-pocket expenses related to patient care, caregiver problem-solving style, and impact on caregiver daily schedule. There were no statistically significant differences between cancer and non-cancer caregivers in terms of gender, race, employment status, anxiety, and quality of life. Conclusions While cancer and non-cancer caregivers are similar in many respects, a number of unique features characterize the informal hospice cancer caregiving experience. Attention to these unique features will allow hospice providers to tailor supportive care interventions to better address cancer caregivers needs. PMID:25547480

  18. Cochlear Implantation in Unique Pediatric Populations

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Anna X.; Kim, Grace G.; Zdanski, Carlton J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Over the last decade, the selection criteria for cochlear implantation have expanded to include children with special auditory, otologic, and medical problems. Included within this expanded group of candidates are those children with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder, cochleovestibular malformations, cochlear nerve deficiency, associated syndromes, as well as multiple medical and developmental disorders. Definitive indications for cochlear implantation in these unique pediatric populations are in evolution. This review will provide an overview of managing and habilitating hearing loss within these populations with specific focus on cochlear implantation as a treatment option. Recent findings Cochlear implants have been successfully implanted in children within unique populations with variable results. Evaluation for cochlear implant candidacy includes the core components of a full medical, audiologic, and speech and language evaluations. When considering candidacy in these children, additional aspects to consider include disorder specific surgical considerations and child/care-giver counseling regarding reasonable post-implantation outcome expectations. Summary Cochlear implantations are accepted as the standard of care for improving hearing and speech development in children with severe to profound hearing loss. However, children with sensorineural hearing loss who meet established audiologic criteria for cochlear implantation may have unique audiologic, medical, and anatomic characteristics that necessitate special consideration regarding cochlear implantation candidacy and outcome. Individualized pre-operative candidacy and counseling, surgical evaluation, and reasonable post-operative outcome expectations should be taken into account in the management of these children. PMID:23128686

  19. Autoantibodies to posttranslational modifications in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Burska, Agata N; Hunt, Laura; Boissinot, Marjorie; Strollo, Rocky; Ryan, Brent J; Vital, Ed; Nissim, Ahuva; Winyard, Paul G; Emery, Paul; Ponchel, Frederique

    2014-01-01

    Autoantibodies have been associated with human pathologies for a long time, particularly with autoimmune diseases (AIDs). Rheumatoid factor (RF) is known since the late 1930s to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The discovery of anticitrullinated protein antibodies in the last century has changed this and other posttranslational modifications (PTM) relevant to RA have since been described. Such PTM introduce neoepitopes in proteins that can generate novel autoantibody specificities. The recent recognition of these novel specificities in RA provides a unique opportunity to understand human B-cell development in vivo. In this paper, we will review the three of the main classes of PTMs already associated with RA: citrullination, carbamylation, and oxidation. With the advancement of research methodologies it should be expected that other autoantibodies against PTM proteins could be discovered in patients with autoimmune diseases. Many of such autoantibodies may provide significant biomarker potential. PMID:24782594

  20. Autoantibodies to Posttranslational Modifications in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Burska, Agata N.; Hunt, Laura; Strollo, Rocky; Ryan, Brent J.; Vital, Ed; Nissim, Ahuva; Winyard, Paul G.; Emery, Paul; Ponchel, Frederique

    2014-01-01

    Autoantibodies have been associated with human pathologies for a long time, particularly with autoimmune diseases (AIDs). Rheumatoid factor (RF) is known since the late 1930s to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The discovery of anticitrullinated protein antibodies in the last century has changed this and other posttranslational modifications (PTM) relevant to RA have since been described. Such PTM introduce neoepitopes in proteins that can generate novel autoantibody specificities. The recent recognition of these novel specificities in RA provides a unique opportunity to understand human B-cell development in vivo. In this paper, we will review the three of the main classes of PTMs already associated with RA: citrullination, carbamylation, and oxidation. With the advancement of research methodologies it should be expected that other autoantibodies against PTM proteins could be discovered in patients with autoimmune diseases. Many of such autoantibodies may provide significant biomarker potential. PMID:24782594

  1. A Unique Origin for Mojave Crater?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahnle, K.; Colaprete, A.

    2004-12-01

    Williams et al (LPSC 2004; see also Kerr, Science vol. 304, 196 ) recently reported the discovery of a spectacularly eroded, apparently water-carved impact crater on Mars. The ~60 km diameter crater, dubbed "Mojave Crater" for the resemblance of its alluvial fans to alluvial fans seen on Earth, is located on Xanthe Terra, Mars. The crater is rated as late Hesperian or Amazonian, meaning that the impact took place some time in the past 3.5 billion years; there is some evidence that it is not extraordinarily young. Yet the crater seems unique for its size. This crater, and to present knowledge this crater alone, is the obvious source of its own precipitation. Impact by a live, ice-rich comet may provide a unique origin for this unique crater. Impacts by live comets are surprisingly rare in the inner solar system. To make a 60 km crater on Mars requires either a ~6 km diameter nearly isotropic comet (NIC), or an ~10 km diameter Jupiter-family comet (JFC). NICs strike Mars about 3 times in 10 billion if they pass its orbit. The latter happens about 6 times per decade for NICs bigger than 6 km, so that at current rates a NIC makes a 60 km crater on Mars about once every 5 billion years. The typical Mars-crossing JFCs actually hits Mars at a rate of about 8e-11 per comet per year. There are currently 3 known Mars-crossing JFCs that may be big enough to make 60 km craters on Mars (the nearly extinct P/28 Neujmin 1, P/10 Tempel 2, and perhaps P/49 Arend-Rigaux). The rate is about once per 4 billion years. Thus we expect on the order of one 60 km martian impact crater in the past 3.5 Gyr made by a comet. There would be on the order of ten 30 km craters. Preliminary GCM simulations of comet impacts indicate that, while very large impact events generate global climate effects that can lead to precipitation in topographically favored locations anywhere on Mars, on the scale of 60 km craters the impact-generated rainfall becomes localized, such that, to first approximation, a uniquely wet impact might be expected to create uniquely heavy local precipitation on scales comparable to the impact crater.

  2. Structural Modification of Nanocrystalline Ceria by Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanwen; Edmondson, Philip D.; Varga, Tamas; Moll, Sandra J.; Namavar, Fereydoon; Lan, Chune; Weber, William J.

    2011-05-25

    Using energetic ions, we have demonstrated effective modification of grain size in nanocrystalline ceria in the critical region for controlling exceptional size-dependent electronicionic conductivity. The grain size increases and follows an exponential law as a function of ion fluence that increases with temperature, while the cubic phase is stable under the irradiation. The unique self-healing response of radiation damage at grain boundaries is utilized to control the grain size at the nanoscale.

  3. Exciton Brightening in Monolayer Phosphorene via Dimensionality Modification.

    PubMed

    Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Myint, Ye Win; Pei, Jiajie; Yan, Han; Wang, Fan; Lu, Yuerui

    2016-05-01

    Exciton brightening in monolayer phosphorene is achieved via the dimensionality modification of excitons from quasi-1D to 0D. The luminescence quantum yield of 0D-like excitons is >33.6 times larger than that of quasi-1D free excitons. 2D phosphorene with quasi-1D free excitons and 0D-like excitons provides a unique platform to investigate the fundamental phenomena in the ideal 2D-1D-0D hybrid system. PMID:26990082

  4. Surface modification of bioceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monkawa, Akira

    Hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HAp] is a major inorganic component of bone and teeth tissues and has the excellent biocompatibility and high osteoconductivity. The interactions between HAp and protein or cell have been studied. The HAp related bioceramics such as bone substitute, coating substance of metal implants, inorganic-polymer composites, and cell culture. We described two methods; (1) surface modification of HAp using organosilane; (2) fabrication of HAp ultra-thin layer on gold surface for protein adsorption analyzed with QCM-D technique. The interfacial interaction between collagen and HAp in a nano-region was controlled by depositing the organosilane of n-octadecyltrimethoxysilane (ODS: -CH3) or aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS: -NH2) with a chemical vapor deposition method. The morphologies of collagen adsorbed on the surfaces of HAp and HAp deposited with APTS were similar, however that of the surface with ODS was apparently different, due to the hydrophobic interaction between the organic head group of -CH3 and residual groups of collagen. We present a method for coating gold quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) sensor with ultra-thin layer of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals evenly covering and tightly bound to the surface. The hydroxyapatite sensor operated in liquid with high stability and sensitivity. The in-situ adsorption mechanism and conformational change of fibrinogen on gold, titanium and hydroxyapatite surfaces were investigated by QCM-D technique and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The study indicates that the hydroxyapatite sensor is applicable for qualitative and conformational analysis of protein adsorption.

  5. A neuronal morphologic type unique to humans and great apes

    PubMed Central

    Nimchinsky, Esther A.; Gilissen, Emmanuel; Allman, John M.; Perl, Daniel P.; Erwin, Joseph M.; Hof, Patrick R.

    1999-01-01

    We report the existence and distribution of an unusual type of projection neuron, a large, spindle-shaped cell, in layer Vb of the anterior cingulate cortex of pongids and hominids. These spindle cells were not observed in any other primate species or any other mammalian taxa, and their volume was correlated with brain volume residuals, a measure of encephalization in higher primates. These observations are of particular interest when considering primate neocortical evolution, as they reveal possible adaptive changes and functional modifications over the last 15–20 million years in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region that plays a major role in the regulation of many aspects of autonomic function and of certain cognitive processes. That in humans these unique neurons have been shown previously to be severely affected in the degenerative process of Alzheimer’s disease suggests that some of the differential neuronal susceptibility that occurs in the human brain in the course of age-related dementing illnesses may have appeared only recently during primate evolution. PMID:10220455

  6. Unique biochemical and mineral composition of whale ear bones.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sora L; Thewissen, J G M; Churchill, Morgan M; Suydam, Robert S; Ketten, Darlene R; Clementz, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cetaceans are obligate aquatic mammals derived from terrestrial artiodactyls. The defining characteristic of cetaceans is a thick and dense lip (pachyosteosclerotic involucrum) of an ear bone (the tympanic). This unique feature is absent in modern terrestrial artiodactyls and is suggested to be important in underwater hearing. Here, we investigate the mineralogical and biochemical properties of the involucrum, as these may hold clues to the aquatic adaptations of cetaceans. We compared bioapatites (enamel, dentine, cementum, and skeletal bone) of cetaceans with those of terrestrial artiodactyls and pachyosteosclerotic ribs of manatees (Sirenia). We investigated organic, carbonate, and mineral composition as well as crystal size and crystallinity index. In all studied variables, bioapatites of the cetacean involucrum were intermediate in composition and structure between those of tooth enamel on the one hand and those of dentine, cementum, and skeletal bone on the other. We also studied the amino acid composition of the cetacean involucrum relative to that of other skeletal bone. The central involucrum had low glycine and hydroxyproline concentrations but high concentrations of nonessential amino acids, unlike most bone samples but similar to the tympanic of hippos and the (pachyosteosclerotic) ribs of manatees. These amino acid results are evidence of rapid bone development. We hypothesize that the mineralogical and amino acid composition of cetacean bullae differs from that of other bone because of (1) functional modifications for underwater sound reception and (2) structural adaptations related to rapid ossification. PMID:24940922

  7. Structure of the hypusinylated eukaryotic translation factor eIF-5A bound to the ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Christian; Becker, Thomas; Heuer, André; Braunger, Katharina; Shanmuganathan, Vivekanandan; Pech, Markus; Berninghausen, Otto; Wilson, Daniel N.; Beckmann, Roland

    2016-01-01

    During protein synthesis, ribosomes become stalled on polyproline-containing sequences, unless they are rescued in archaea and eukaryotes by the initiation factor 5A (a/eIF-5A) and in bacteria by the homologous protein EF-P. While a structure of EF-P bound to the 70S ribosome exists, structural insight into eIF-5A on the 80S ribosome has been lacking. Here we present a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction of eIF-5A bound to the yeast 80S ribosome at 3.9 Å resolution. The structure reveals that the unique and functionally essential post-translational hypusine modification reaches toward the peptidyltransferase center of the ribosome, where the hypusine moiety contacts A76 of the CCA-end of the P-site tRNA. These findings would support a model whereby eIF-5A stimulates peptide bond formation on polyproline-stalled ribosomes by stabilizing and orienting the CCA-end of the P-tRNA, rather than by directly contributing to the catalysis. PMID:26715760

  8. Unique properties of Drosophila spermatocyte primary cilia

    PubMed Central

    Riparbelli, Maria Giovanna; Cabrera, Oscar A.; Callaini, Giuliano; Megraw, Timothy L.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The primary cilium is an essential organelle required for animal development and adult homeostasis that is found on most animal cells. The primary cilium contains a microtubule-based axoneme cytoskeleton that typically grows from the mother centriole in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle as a membrane-bound compartment that protrudes from the cell surface. A unique system of bidirectional transport, intraflagellar transport (IFT), maintains the structure and function of cilia. While the axoneme is dynamic, growing and shrinking at its tip, at the same time it is very stable to the effects of microtubule-targeting drugs. The primary cilia found on Drosophila spermatocytes diverge from the general rules of primary cilium biology in several respects. Among these unique attributes, spermatocyte cilia assemble from all four centrioles in an IFT-independent manner in G2 phase, and persist continuously through two cell divisions. Here, we show that Drosophila spermatocyte primary cilia are extremely sensitive to microtubule-targeting drugs, unlike their mammalian counterparts. Spermatocyte cilia and their axonemes fail to assemble or be maintained upon nocodazole treatment, while centriole replication appears unperturbed. On the other hand, paclitaxel (Taxol), a microtubule-stabilizing drug, disrupted transition zone assembly and anchoring to the plasma membrane while causing spermatocyte primary cilia to grow extensively long during the assembly/elongation phase, but did not overtly affect the centrioles. However, once assembled to their mature length, spermatocyte cilia appeared unaffected by Taxol. The effects of these drugs on axoneme dynamics further demonstrate that spermatocyte primary cilia are endowed with unique assembly properties. PMID:24244850

  9. Antarctic marine flora: uniquely devoid of kelps.

    PubMed

    Moe, R L; Silva, P C

    1977-06-10

    The discovery of embryonic stages of the common large Antarctic brown seaweed Himantothallus has led to the conclusion that this plant, hitherto assigned equivocally to the Laminariales (kelps), is a member of the Desmarestiales. Moreover, field study of a large sample of Himantothallus and two other enigmatic brown algae, Phyllogigas and Phaeoglossum, has led to the merger of these three genera with the recognition of a single species, Himantothallus grandifolius. The correct placement of these kelp-like algae underscores the uniqueness of the Antarctic marine flora as the only cold-water flora without kelps. PMID:17787089

  10. Ziprasidone: a novel psychotropic with unique properties.

    PubMed

    Ballas, Christos; Yang, Calvin; O'Reardon, John; Ballas, Paul; Baldassano, Claudia

    2004-03-01

    Ziprasidone (Geodon) is a relatively new atypical antipsychotic medication with a unique pharmacological profile. It is indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia, but has also often been used off-label for other uses. This review summarizes its important properties, specifically the pharmacodynamic parameters, receptor-binding profile and relevance to clinical outcomes, side effects, and potential for drug-drug interactions and established clinical indications. Novel therapeutic applications and relevant clinical trials or reports are also examined. The authors review the current market and speculate on likely changes in 5 years. PMID:15853558

  11. The uniqueness theorem for entanglement measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donald, Matthew J.; Horodecki, Michał; Rudolph, Oliver

    2002-09-01

    We explore and develop the mathematics of the theory of entanglement measures. After a careful review and analysis of definitions, of preliminary results, and of connections between conditions on entanglement measures, we prove a sharpened version of a uniqueness theorem which gives necessary and sufficient conditions for an entanglement measure to coincide with the reduced von Neumann entropy on pure states. We also prove several versions of a theorem on extreme entanglement measures in the case of mixed states. We analyze properties of the asymptotic regularization of entanglement measures proving, for example, convexity for the entanglement cost and for the regularized relative entropy of entangle ment.

  12. Unique features of animal mitochondrial translation systems

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kimitsuna

    2010-01-01

    In animal mitochondria, several codons are non-universal and their meanings differ depending on the species. In addition, the tRNA structures that decipher codons are sometimes unusually truncated. These features seem to be related to the shortening of mitochondrial (mt) genomes, which occurred during the evolution of mitochondria. These organelles probably originated from the endosymbiosis of an aerobic eubacterium into an ancestral eukaryote. It is plausible that these events brought about the various characteristic features of animal mt translation systems, such as genetic code variations, unusually truncated tRNA and rRNA structures, unilateral tRNA recognition mechanisms by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, elongation factors and ribosomes, and compensation for RNA deficits by enlarged proteins. In this article, we discuss molecular mechanisms for these phenomena. Finally, we describe human mt diseases that are caused by modification defects in mt tRNAs. PMID:20075606

  13. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  14. Event Segmentation Ability Uniquely Predicts Event Memory

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, Jesse Q.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Hambrick, David Z.; Zacks, Rose T.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Bailey, Heather R.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Beck, Taylor M.

    2013-01-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79 years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. PMID:23942350

  15. What makes Xanthomonas albilineans unique amongst xanthomonads?

    PubMed Central

    Pieretti, Isabelle; Pesic, Alexander; Petras, Daniel; Royer, Monique; Süssmuth, Roderich D.; Cociancich, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Xanthomonas albilineans causes leaf scald, a lethal disease of sugarcane. Compared to other species of Xanthomonas, X. albilineans exhibits distinctive pathogenic mechanisms, ecology and taxonomy. Its genome, which has experienced significant erosion, has unique genomic features. It lacks two loci required for pathogenicity in other plant pathogenic species of Xanthomonas: the xanthan gum biosynthesis and the Hrp-T3SS (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity-type three secretion system) gene clusters. Instead, X. albilineans harbors in its genome an SPI-1 (Salmonella pathogenicity island-1) T3SS gene cluster usually found in animal pathogens. X. albilineans produces a potent DNA gyrase inhibitor called albicidin, which blocks chloroplast differentiation, resulting in the characteristic white foliar stripe symptoms. The antibacterial activity of albicidin also confers on X. albilineans a competitive advantage against rival bacteria during sugarcane colonization. Recent chemical studies have uncovered the unique structure of albicidin and allowed us to partially elucidate its fascinating biosynthesis apparatus, which involves an enigmatic hybrid PKS/NRPS (polyketide synthase/non-ribosomal peptide synthetase) machinery. PMID:25964795

  16. Astronomy Outreach for Large and Unique Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, D.; Sparks, R. T.; Pompea, S. M.; Kendall, J. S.; Dugan, C.

    2013-04-01

    In this session, we discuss different approaches to reaching large audiences. In addition to star parties and astronomy events, the audiences for some of the events include music concerts or festivals, sick children and their families, minority communities, American Indian reservations, and tourist sites such as the National Mall. The goal is to bring science directly to the public—to people who attend astronomy events and to people who do not come to star parties, science museums, or science festivals. These programs allow the entire community to participate in astronomy activities to enhance the public appreciation of science. These programs attract large enthusiastic crowds often with young children participating in these family learning experiences. The public will become more informed, educated, and inspired about astronomy and will also be provided with information that will allow them to continue to learn after this outreach activity. Large and unique audiences often have common problems, and their solutions and the lessons learned will be presented. Interaction with the participants in this session will provide important community feedback used to improve astronomy outreach for large and unique audiences. New ways to expand astronomy outreach to new large audiences will be discussed.

  17. Beryllium - A Unique Material in Nuclear Applications

    SciTech Connect

    T., A. Tomberlin

    2004-11-01

    Beryllium, due to its unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section characteristics, has been used successfully as a neutron reflector for three generations of nuclear test reactors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the largest test reactor in the world, has utilized five successive beryllium neutron reflectors and is scheduled for continued operation with a sixth beryllium reflector. A high radiation environment in a test reactor produces radiation damage and other changes in beryllium. These changes necessitate safety analysis of the beryllium, methods to predict performance, and appropriate surveillances. Other nuclear applications also utilize beryllium. Beryllium, given its unique atomic, physical, and chemical characteristics, is widely used as a “window” for x-rays and gamma rays. Beryllium, intimately mixed with high-energy alpha radiation emitters has been successfully used to produce neutron sources. This paper addresses operational experience and methodologies associated with the use of beryllium in nuclear test reactors and in “windows” for x-rays and gamma rays. Other nuclear applications utilizing beryllium are also discussed.

  18. 75 FR 34486 - Petitions for Modification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Safety and Health Administration Petitions for Modification AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of petitions for modification of existing mandatory safety standards... application, processing, and disposition of petitions for modification. This notice is a summary of...

  19. Detecting histone modifications in plants.

    PubMed

    Song, Jie; Rutjens, Bas; Dean, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Histone modifications play an essential role in chromatin-associated processes including gene regulation and epigenetic inheritance. It is therefore very important to quantitatively analyze histone modifications at both the single gene and whole genome level. Here, we describe a robust chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) method for Arabidopsis, which could be adapted for other plant species. This method is compatible with multiple downstream applications including qPCR, tilling arrays, and high-throughput sequencing. PMID:24478014

  20. Modifications improve waterflood performance model

    SciTech Connect

    El-Banbi, A.H.; Abdel Wally, A.; Abd-el Fattah, K.A.; Sayyouh, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    Modifications to the Craig-Geffen-Morse (CGM) waterflooding model improve reservoir performance predictions and allow for the inclusion of pressure drop variations with time. The modified model was validated against numerical simulation results. The paper describes the CGM model, the hypothetical data set, the simulation technique, comparisons between the CGM model and the simulation, and modifications to the CGM model relating to pressure drop variation and water production.

  1. Electrochemical probing into cytochrome c modification with homocysteine-thiolactone.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Zhu, Wei; Liu, Tao; Yang, Jinghua; Li, Genxi

    2010-05-01

    Homocysteine thiolactone modification is a unique process of posttranslational protein modification as well as a significant clinical indicator of cardiovascular and neurovascular diseases, so we report a new method in this paper to sensitively monitor such a modification using horse heart cytochrome c as a model protein. After the modification has been confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy and ESI-MS, N-linked cytochrome c is then covalently assembled onto the surface of a gold electrode via the resulted homocysteine thiol group, thus electrochemical techniques, especially differential pulse voltammetry, have been employed and proven to provide an efficient way to probe into the modification of the protein. While the immobilized protein can exhibit well-defined voltammetric response, the signal of the modified cytochrome c is positively correlated to the concentration of homocysteine-thiolactone. The detectable electrochemical signal can be attained with the minimum concentration of 5 x 10(-5) M homocysteine-thiolactone. Furthermore, screening of N-homocysteinylation inhibitors can be also feasible since the electrochemical waves linearly decrease with the concentration of an inhibitor pyridoxal 5-phosphate. The limit of detection for the inhibitors can be about 1 x 10(-5) M. PMID:20213169

  2. The analysis of histone modifications.

    PubMed

    Villar-Garea, Ana; Imhof, Axel

    2006-12-01

    The biological function of many proteins is often regulated through posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Frequently different modifications influence each other and lead to an intricate network of interdependent modification patterns that affect protein-protein interactions, enzymatic activities and sub-cellular localizations. One of the best-studied class of proteins that is affected by PTMs and combinations thereof are the histone molecules. Histones are very abundant, small basic proteins that package DNA in the eukaryotic nucleus to form chromatin. The four core-histones are densely modified within their first 20-40 N-terminal amino acids, which are highly evolutionary conserved despite playing no structural role. The modifications are thought to constitute a histone code that is used by the cell to encrypt various chromatin conformations and gene expression states. The analysis of modified histones can be used as a model to dissect complex modification patterns and to investigate their molecular functions. Here we review techniques that have been used to decipher complex histone modification patterns and discuss the implication of these findings for chromatin structure and function. PMID:17015046

  3. Data Analysis Strategies for Protein Modification Identification.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based proteomics provides a powerful tool for large-scale analysis of protein modifications. Statistical and computational analysis of mass spectrometry data is a key step in protein modification identification. This chapter presents common and advanced data analysis strategies for modification identification, including variable modification search, unrestrictive approaches for modification discovery, false discovery rate estimation and control methods, and tools for modification site localization. PMID:26519183

  4. The core and unique proteins of haloarchaea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since the first genome of a halophilic archaeon was sequenced in 2000, biologists have been advancing the understanding of genomic characteristics that allow for survival in the harsh natural environments of these organisms. An increase in protein acidity and GC-bias in the genome have been implicated as factors in tolerance to extreme salinity, desiccation, and high solar radiation. However, few previous attempts have been made to identify novel genes that would permit survival in such extreme conditions. Results With the recent release of several new complete haloarchaeal genome sequences, we have conducted a comprehensive comparative genomic analysis focusing on the identification of unique haloarchaeal conserved proteins that likely play key roles in environmental adaptation. Using bioinformatic methods, we have clustered 31,312 predicted proteins from nine haloarchaeal genomes into 4,455 haloarchaeal orthologous groups (HOGs). We assigned likely functions by association with established COG and KOG databases in NCBI. After identifying homologs in four additional haloarchaeal genomes, we determined that there were 784 core haloarchaeal protein clusters (cHOGs), of which 83 clusters were found primarily in haloarchaea. Further analysis found that 55 clusters were truly unique (tucHOGs) to haloarchaea and qualify as signature proteins while 28 were nearly unique (nucHOGs), the vast majority of which were coded for on the haloarchaeal chromosomes. Of the signature proteins, only one example with any predicted function, Ral, involved in desiccation/radiation tolerance in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, was identified. Among the core clusters, 33% was predicted to function in metabolism, 25% in information transfer and storage, 10% in cell processes and signaling, and 22% belong to poorly characterized or general function groups. Conclusion Our studies have established conserved groups of nearly 800 protein clusters present in all haloarchaea, with a subset of 55 which are predicted to be accessory proteins that may be critical or essential for success in an extreme environment. These studies support core and signature genes and proteins as valuable concepts for understanding phylogenetic and phenotypic characteristics of coherent groups of organisms. PMID:22272718

  5. ARAC: A unique command and control resource

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, M.M.; Baskett, R.L.; Ellis, J.S.

    1996-04-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a centralized federal facility designed to provide real-time, world-wide support to military and civilian command and control centers by predicting the impacts of inadvertent or intentional releases of nuclear, biological, or chemical materials into the atmosphere. ARAC is a complete response system consisting of highly trained and experienced personnel, continually updated computer models, redundant data collection systems, and centralized and remote computer systems. With over 20 years of experience responding to domestic and international incidents, strong linkages with the Department of Defense, and the ability to conduct classified operations, ARAC is a unique command and control resource.

  6. Unique material challenges in photovoltaic concentrator modules

    SciTech Connect

    Beavis, L.C.

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic concentrators operate in a unique environment of high light flux, high temperatures, and large variations in temperature and humidity. The stability of various polymethyl/methacrylate (PMMA) lens formulations to solar environmental exposure has been determined to be variable. The PMMA seems to be unaffected mechanically by the loss or absence of screening agents. Cells exposed to the moist environments become coated with interconnect corrosion products. A clear Dow Corning encapsulant has proven to be durable and capable of protecting cells in this environment. Solder bonds degrade due to temperature cycling and tin diffusion into copper. Finally, a new means of making an electrically insulated low thermal resistance path between the photovoltaic cell and heatsink is described.

  7. Unique material challenges in photovoltaic concentrator modules

    SciTech Connect

    Beavis, L.C.

    1984-05-01

    Photovoltaic concentrators operate in a unique environment of high light flux, high temperatures, and large variations in temperature and humidity. The stability of various polymethyl/methacrylate (PMMA) lens formulations to solar environmental exposure has been determined to be variable. The PMMA seems to be unaffected mechanically by the loss or absence of screening agents. Cells exposed to the moist environments become coated with interconnect corrosion products. A clear Dow Corning encapsulant has proven to be durable and capable of protecting cells in this environment. Solder bonds degrade due to temperature cycling and tin diffusion into copper. Finally, a new means of making an electrically insulated low thermal resistance path between the photvoltaic cell and heatsink is described.

  8. Unique Imaging Features of Spinal Neurenteric Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyoung-Seok; Park, Sang-Min; Kim, Gang-Un; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old male presented with acutely progressed paraplegia. His magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated two well-demarcated components with opposite signals in one cystic lesion between the T1- and T2-weighted images at the T1 spine level. The patient showed immediately improved neurological symptoms after surgical intervention and the histopathological exam was compatible with a neurenteric cyst. On operation, two different viscous drainages from the cyst were confirmed. A unique similarity of image findings was found from a review of the pertinent literature. The common findings of spinal neurenteric cyst include an isointense or mildly hyperintense signal relative to cerebrospinal fluid for both T1- and T2-weighted images. However, albeit rarer, the signals of some part of the cyst could change into brightly hyperintensity on T1-weighted images and hypointensity on T2-weighted images due to the differing sedimentation of the more viscous contents in the cyst. PMID:26640637

  9. Unique biology of gliomas: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Stacey; Sontheimer, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Gliomas are terrifying primary brain tumors for which patient outlook remains bleak. Recent research provides novel insights into the unique biology of gliomas. For example, these tumors exhibit an unexpected pluripotency that enables them to grow their own vasculature. They have an unusual ability to navigate tortuous extracellular pathways as they invade, and they use neurotransmitters to inflict damage and create room for growth. Here, we review studies that illustrate the importance of considering interactions of gliomas with their native brain environment. Such studies suggest that gliomas constitute a neurodegenerative disease caused by the malignant growth of brain support cells. The chosen examples illustrate how targeted research into the biology of gliomas is yielding new and much needed therapeutic approaches to this challenging nervous system disease. PMID:22683220

  10. The unique ethics of sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rob

    2004-04-01

    The ethical code by which physicians traditionally conduct themselves is based on the relationship between the physician and the patient: both work toward the goal of improving or maintaining health. Constraints on this relationship may be behaviors of patient choice (tobacco use, excessive alcohol use, sedentary behavior, and so on). The athlete-physician relationship is ethically different. Influences such as the physician's employer, the athlete's desire to play with pain and injury, and the economic consequences of playing or not complicate medical decisions. This perspective suggests something different and even unique about the ethics of the sports medicine practitioner. This article explores the differences fostering the ethical tight ropes that sports physicians walk in their sports medicine practices. PMID:15183565

  11. A unique element resembling a processed pseudogene.

    PubMed

    Robins, A J; Wang, S W; Smith, T F; Wells, J R

    1986-01-01

    We describe a unique DNA element with structural features of a processed pseudogene but with important differences. It is located within an 8.4-kilobase pair region of chicken DNA containing five histone genes, but it is not related to these genes. The presence of terminal repeats, an open reading frame (and stop codon), polyadenylation/processing signal, and a poly(A) rich region about 20 bases 3' to this, together with a lack of 5' promoter motifs all suggest a processed pseudogene. However, no parent gene can be detected in the genome by Southern blotting experiments and, in addition, codon boundary values and mid-base correlations are not consistent with a protein coding region of a eukaryotic gene. The element was detected in DNA from different chickens and in peafowl, but not in quail, pheasant, or turkey. PMID:3941070

  12. Mushrooms—Biologically Distinct and Nutritionally Unique

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Miller, Amy Myrdal; Roupas, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms are fungi, biologically distinct from plant- and animal-derived foods (fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy, protein [meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, and seeds]) that comprise the US Department of Agriculture food patterns operationalized by consumer-focused MyPlate messages. Although mushrooms provide nutrients found in these food groups, they also have a unique nutrient profile. Classified into food grouping systems by their use as a vegetable, mushrooms’ increasing use in main entrées in plant-based diets is growing, supporting consumers’ efforts to follow dietary guidance recommendations. Mushrooms’ nutrient and culinary characteristics suggest it may be time to reevaluate food groupings and health benefits in the context of 3 separate food kingdoms: plants/botany, animals/zoology, and fungi/mycology. PMID:25435595

  13. Hausdorff dimension of unique beta expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Derong; Li, Wenxia

    2015-01-01

    Given an integer N ? 2 and a real number ? > 1, let ??, N be the set of all x=\\sumi=1^? {d_i}/{?^i} with di ? {0, 1, , N - 1} for all i ? 1. The infinite sequence (di) is called a ?-expansion of x. Let U?,N be the set of all x's in ??,N which have unique ?-expansions. We give explicit formula of the Hausdorff dimension of U?,N for ? in any admissible interval [?L, ?U], where ?L is a purely Parry number while ?U is a transcendental number whose quasi-greedy expansion of 1 is related to the classical Thue-Morse sequence. This allows us to calculate the Hausdorff dimension of U?,N for almost every ? > 1. In particular, this improves the main results of Gbor Kalls (1999, 2001). Moreover, we find that the dimension function f(?) = dimHU?,N fluctuates frequently for ? ? (1, N).

  14. Hue discrimination, unique hues and naming.

    PubMed

    Bachy, Romain; Dias, Jérôme; Alleysson, David; Bonnardel, Valérie

    2012-02-01

    The hue discrimination curve (HDC) that characterizes performances over the entire hue circle was determined by using sinusoidally modulated spectral power distributions of 1.5 c/300 nm with fixed amplitude and twelve reference phases. To investigate relationship between hue discrimination and appearance, observers further performed a free color naming and unique hue tasks. The HDC consistently displayed two minima and two maxima; discrimination is optimal at the yellow/orange and blue/magenta boundaries and pessimal in green and in the extra-spectral magenta colors. A linear model based on Müller zone theory correctly predicts a periodical profile but with a phase-opponency (minima/maxima at 180° apart) which is inconsistent with the empirical HDC's profile. PMID:22330406

  15. Unique metabolites protect earthworms against plant polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Liebeke, Manuel; Strittmatter, Nicole; Fearn, Sarah; Morgan, A. John; Kille, Peter; Fuchser, Jens; Wallis, David; Palchykov, Vitalii; Robertson, Jeremy; Lahive, Elma; Spurgeon, David J.; McPhail, David; Takáts, Zoltán; Bundy, Jacob G.

    2015-01-01

    All higher plants produce polyphenols, for defence against above-ground herbivory. These polyphenols also influence the soil micro- and macro-fauna that break down plant leaf litter. Polyphenols therefore indirectly affect the fluxes of soil nutrients and, ultimately, carbon turnover and ecosystem functioning in soils. It is unknown how earthworms, the major component of animal biomass in many soils, cope with high-polyphenol diets. Here, we show that earthworms possess a class of unique surface-active metabolites in their gut, which we term ‘drilodefensins'. These compounds counteract the inhibitory effects of polyphenols on earthworm gut enzymes, and high-polyphenol diets increase drilodefensin concentrations in both laboratory and field populations. This shows that drilodefensins protect earthworms from the harmful effects of ingested polyphenols. We have identified the key mechanism for adaptation to a dietary challenge in an animal group that has a major role in organic matter recycling in soils worldwide. PMID:26241769

  16. Abell 2146: A unique bullet cluster system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Lindsay; White, Jacob; Canning, Rebecca; Russell, Helen; Coleman, Joseph

    2014-03-01

    Abell 2146 is a unique post-merger cluster system, where two clusters have merged about 0.2 Gyr ago. Such systems provide a direct test of dark matter, and our understanding of gravity on large scales. Massive objects in the universe distort space-time and act as gravitational lenses, and we harness this property in our study of the system. We report on our campaign to better understand the dynamics of this system, using spectroscopic data, primarily from the Gemini telescope. This data allows us to determine redshifts for galaxies in the field, and so identify and study cluster members. We also discuss our gravitational lensing analysis of Hubble Space Telescope data, which reveals numerous strongly lensed arcs. This is compared with Chandra X-ray images, which map the distribution and properties of the hot gas in the system.

  17. Split liver transplantation: What’s unique?

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Aparna R

    2015-01-01

    The intraoperative management of split liver transplantation (SLT) has some unique features as compared to routine whole liver transplantations. Only the liver has this special ability to regenerate that confers benefits in survival and quality of life for two instead of one by splitting livers. Primary graft dysfunction may result from small for size syndrome. Graft weight to recipient body weight ratio is significant for both trisegmental and hemiliver grafts. Intraoperative surgical techniques aim to reduce portal hyperperfusion and decrease venous portal pressure. Ischemic preconditioning can be instituted to protect against ischemic reperfusion injury which impacts graft regeneration. Advancement of the technique of SLT is essential as use of split cadaveric grafts expands the donor pool and potentially has an excellent future. PMID:26421261

  18. Unique metabolites protect earthworms against plant polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Liebeke, Manuel; Strittmatter, Nicole; Fearn, Sarah; Morgan, A John; Kille, Peter; Fuchser, Jens; Wallis, David; Palchykov, Vitalii; Robertson, Jeremy; Lahive, Elma; Spurgeon, David J; McPhail, David; Takáts, Zoltán; Bundy, Jacob G

    2015-01-01

    All higher plants produce polyphenols, for defence against above-ground herbivory. These polyphenols also influence the soil micro- and macro-fauna that break down plant leaf litter. Polyphenols therefore indirectly affect the fluxes of soil nutrients and, ultimately, carbon turnover and ecosystem functioning in soils. It is unknown how earthworms, the major component of animal biomass in many soils, cope with high-polyphenol diets. Here, we show that earthworms possess a class of unique surface-active metabolites in their gut, which we term 'drilodefensins'. These compounds counteract the inhibitory effects of polyphenols on earthworm gut enzymes, and high-polyphenol diets increase drilodefensin concentrations in both laboratory and field populations. This shows that drilodefensins protect earthworms from the harmful effects of ingested polyphenols. We have identified the key mechanism for adaptation to a dietary challenge in an animal group that has a major role in organic matter recycling in soils worldwide. PMID:26241769

  19. Uniqueness properties of the Kerr metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mars, Marc

    2000-08-01

    We obtain a geometrical condition on vacuum, stationary, asymptotically flat spacetimes which is necessary and sufficient for the spacetime to be locally isometric to Kerr. Namely, we prove a theorem stating that an asymptotically flat, stationary, vacuum spacetime such that the so-called Killing form is an eigenvector of the self-dual Weyl tensor must be locally isometric to Kerr. Asymptotic flatness is a fundamental hypothesis of the theorem, as we demonstrate by writing down the family of metrics obtained when this requirement is dropped. This result indicates why the Kerr metric plays such an important role in general relativity. It may also be of interest in order to extend the uniqueness theorems of black holes to the non-connected and to the non-analytic case.

  20. The Uniqueness Space for SPIRIT and SPECS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisawitz, D.; Mather, J. C.; Moseley, S. H., Jr.; Danchi, W.; Dwek, E.; Gezari, D.; Pedelty, J.; Silverberg, R.; Staguhn, J.; Yorke, H.; Zhang, X.

    1999-12-01

    The far IR/submillimeter region is unique in the electromagnetic spectrum in its potential for vast increases in sensitivity and angular resolution, and, as a result, information vital to our understanding of the evolution of structure in the universe. Because galaxy formation and significant evolution are believed to occur at redshifts z < 4, this spectral window will contain their thermal dust emission and energetically important interstellar gas cooling line emission. The Space Infrared Interferometry Trailblazer (SPIRIT) and the Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS) are proposed space-based cryogenic imaging and spectral Michelson interferometers that operate in the wavelength range 40 - 500 μ m. SPIRIT would be built on a deployable, rotating boom, giving access to baseline lengths of 30 m and shorter. At the corresponding angular resolution (1.8 arcsec at 250 μ m), it is estimated from galaxy count models fitted to IRAS, ISO, and JCMT/SCUBA observations that SPIRIT would break the confusion barrier, enabling measurements of the spectra of individual high-z galaxies. SPIRIT could be operating before 2010, setting the stage for SPECS in the 2013 - 2020 time frame. Using multiple spacecraft, SPECS will achieve maximum baseline lengths of about 1 km and attain Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) and Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA)-class angular resolution (50 mas at 250 μ m). SPECS would have the ability to probe dust-enshrouded star forming regions and measure physical conditions in galaxies going back to the epoch of their formation. A typical SPECS observation will be as information rich as the Hubble Deep Field in the spatial domain. With its simultaneous spectral resolution of 10,000, its discovery space will be huge. The scientific uniqueness of SPIRIT and SPECS is discussed, and the measurement capabilities currently envisioned for these instruments are compared with those of the complementary next-generation instruments NGST and ALMA.

  1. The unique inner landscape of the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalasiewicz, Jan

    2013-04-01

    A characteristic aspect of the Anthropocene is the suite of novel changes made to the surface and subsurface of the Earth by human action, both on land and, increasingly, on and below the sea floor. Geologically, these geomorphological phenomena include features that relate to both lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic classification, the latter resulting from considering human constructions and modifications as a form of trace fossil system, albeit one that is of unprecedentedly large scale. As regards the potential formalizing of the Anthropocene, one question to be pursued relates to the chronostratigraphic definition of the phenomena involved: that is, given that many of these transformations are diachronous on human timescales, can an Anthropocene Series, with a synchronous time boundary, be characterized and mapped across the Earth's surface? Efforts to answer this question should help in the understanding of the Anthropocene within its geological context, and also in exploring the stratigraphic relation between time and rock generally at very fine stratigraphic timescales. Zalasiewicz, J., Williams M, Fortey, R.A., Smith, A.G., Barry, T.L. Coe, A.L., Bown, P.R., Gale, A., Gibbard, P.L., Gregory, F.J., Hounslow, M.W., Kerr, A.C., Pearson, P., Knox, R., Powell, J., Waters, C., Marshall, J., Oates, M., Rawson, P. & Stone, P. 2011. Stratigraphy of the Anthropocene. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A369, 1036-1055.

  2. 45 CFR 162.605 - Standard unique employer identifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard unique employer identifier. 162.605... RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Standard Unique Employer Identifier § 162.605 Standard unique employer identifier. The Secretary adopts the EIN as the standard unique employer...

  3. Surface modification by molecular ions

    SciTech Connect

    Hanley, L.; Schultz, D. G.; Ada, E. T.

    1999-06-10

    There are several advantages in using molecular ions for surface modification. The modification can be confined to the uppermost layer of the surface, the molecular character of the ion can be imparted to the surface, and sputter yields are often higher. These effects are demonstrated by the use of mass selected ion beams incident on well characterized surfaces. Energy transfer is examined by detecting the masses and energies of ions scattered off surfaces and performing molecular dynamics simulations. Surface modification is followed by chemical analysis with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and surface mass spectrometry. TRIDYN monte carlo simulations are used to support some of the modification experiments. Energy transfer is examined for Si(CD{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup +} scattered off clean and hexanethiolate covered Au(111). Adsorbate desorption cross sections and substrate damage depths for NH{sub 3}/CO/Ni(111) are compared for 10-1000 eV isobaric atomic and polyatomic ions, Xe{sup +} and SF{sub 5}{sup +}. The surface chemical modification of polystyrene thin films by 10-100 eV SF{sub 5}{sup +} and C{sub 3}F{sub 5}{sup +} ions is also examined.

  4. Alpbach Summer School - a unique learning experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, K.; Aulinas, J.; Clifford, D.; Krejci, D.; Topham, R.

    2011-12-01

    The Alpbach Summer School is a ten-day program that provides a unique opportunity for young european science and engineering students, both undergraduate and graduate, to learn how to approach the entire design process of a space mission. The theme of the 2010 Summer School was "New Space Missions to Understand Climate Change", a current, challenging, very broad and complex topic. The program was established more than 35 years ago and is organised in two interrelated parts: a series of lectures held by renowned experts in the field (in the case of this specific year, climate change and space engineering experts) that provides a technical and scientific background for the workshops that follow, the core of the Summer School. For the workshops the students are split into four international, interdisciplinary teams of about 15 students. In 2010 every team had to complete a number of tasks, four in total: (1) identify climate change research gaps and design a space mission that has not yet been flown or proposed, (2) define the science objectives and requirements of the mission, (3) design a spacecraft that meets the mission requirements, which includes spacecraft design and construction, payload definition, orbit calculations, but also the satellite launch, operation and mission costs and (4) write up a short mission proposal and present the results to an expert review panel. Achieving these tasks in only a few days in a multicultural, interdisciplinary team represents a major challenge for all participants and provides an excellent practical learning experience. Over the course of the program, students do not just learn facts about climate change and space engineering, but scientists also learn from engineers and engineers from scientists. The participants have to deepen their knowledge in an often unfamiliar field, develop organisational and team-work skills and work under pressure. Moreover, teams are supported by team and roving tutors and get the opportunity to meet and learn from international experts. This presentation will provide an overview of the Alpbach Summer School program from a student's perspective. The different stages of this unique and enriching experience will be covered. Special attention will be paid to the workshops, which, as mentioned above, are the core of the Alpbach Summer School. During these intense workshops, participants work towards the proposed goals resulting in the design proposal of a space mission. The Alpbach Summer School is organised by FFG and co-sponsored by ESA, ISSI and the national space authorities of ESA member and cooperating states.

  5. The rural market: a unique communication medium.

    PubMed

    Spain, P

    1992-01-01

    In January 1990, the Health Secretary asked the Technologies for Primary Health Care (PRITECH) project to facilitate access to the many small villages with 500 people in Mexico since PRITECH had assisted the diarrhea disease control program. 1st PRITECH had Ministry of Health staff train trainers which would eventually spread the information to the rural areas. This strategy was effective only for those people who did not live in remote areas. The same reasons for remote people being at high risk of disease also limited this strategy: isolation, lack of education, limited diets, lack of access to services, and limited fluency in Spanish. PRITECH hired a local consulting organization, CICLOPE, to develop a new strategy. CICLOPE limited its activities to the states of Hidalgo and Vera Cruz for 8 months. 1st CICLOPE staff provided proper diarrhea management training including emphasis on oral rehydration therapy (ORT) to rural health auxiliaries. They used a gourd painted to look like an infant with holes and other modifications to depict the workings and results of diarrheal dehydration. The staff then sent the auxiliaries to their own communities to use the gourd dolls to teach mothers about ORT and correct diarrhea management. The staff conducted follow-up activities to monitor the auxiliaries' progress. This training approach allowed the auxiliaries to realize the abilities of the mothers and their active role in learning. The auxiliaries conducted the training at markets where women living in remote areas came weekly. The local radio announced market day events in which the auxiliaries participated and aired dramas about diarrhea management. CICLOPE staff and the auxiliaries sat up a booth at these markets to promote proper diarrhea management. They used a flip chart, comic books, a lottery game, and entertainment to impart education messages. PMID:12285444

  6. Might "Unique" Factors Be "Common"? On the Possibility of Indeterminate Common-Unique Covariances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Dave

    2006-01-01

    The present paper shows that the usual factor analytic structured data dispersion matrix lambda psi lambda' + delta can readily arise from a set of scores y = lambda eta + epsilon, shere the "common" (eta) and "unique" (epsilon) factors have nonzero covariance: gamma = Cov epsilon,eta) is not equal to 0. Implications of this finding are discussed…

  7. Unique features in the ARIES glovebox line

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, H.E.; Brown, W.G.; Flamm, B.; James, C.A.; Laskie, R.; Nelson, T.O.; Wedman, D.E.

    1998-12-31

    A series of unique features have been incorporated into the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, TA-55 Plutonium Facility. The features enhance the material handling in the process of the dismantlement of nuclear weapon primaries in the glovebox line. Incorporated into these features are the various plutonium process module`s different ventilation zone requirements that the material handling systems must meet. These features include a conveyor system that consists of a remotely controlled cart that transverses the length of the conveyor glovebox, can be operated from a remote location and can deliver process components to the entrance of any selected module glovebox. Within the modules there exists linear motion material handling systems with lifting hoist, which are controlled via an Allen Bradley control panel or local control panels. To remove the packaged products from the hot process line, the package is processed through an air lock/electrolytic decontamination process that removes the radioactive contamination from the outside of the package container and allows the package to be removed from the process line.

  8. Lunar granites with unique ternary feldspars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, G.; Stoeser, D. B.; Marvin, U. B.; Bower, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    An unusually high concentration of granitic fragments, with textures ranging from holocrystalline to glassy, occurs throughout Boulder 1, a complex breccia of highland rocks from Apollo 17, Station 2. Among the minerals included in the granites are enigmatic K-Ca-rich feldspars that fall in the forbidden region of the ternary diagram. The great variability in chemistry and texture is probably the result of impact degradation and melting of a granitic source-rock. Studies of the breccia matrix suggest that this original granitic source-rock may have contained more pyroxenes and phosphates than most of the present clasts contain. Petrographic observations on Apollo 15 KREEP basalts indicate that granitic liquids may be produced by differentiation without immiscibility, and the association of the granites with KREEP-rich fragments in the boulder suggests that the granites represent a residual liquid from the plutonic fractional crystallization of a KREEP-rich magma. Boulder 1 is unique among Apollo 17 samples in its silica-KREEP-rich composition. We conclude that the boulder represents a source-rock unlike the bedrock of South Massif.

  9. Biomechanics of the unique pterosaur pteroid.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Colin; Dyke, Gareth J

    2010-04-01

    Pterosaurs, flying reptiles from the Mesozoic, had wing membranes that were supported by their arm bones and a super-elongate fourth finger. Associated with the wing, pterosaurs also possessed a unique wrist bone--the pteroid--that functioned to support the forward part of the membrane in front of the leading edge, the propatagium. Pteroid shape varies across pterosaurs and reconstructions of its orientation vary (projecting anteriorly to the wing leading edge or medially, lying alongside it) and imply differences in the way that pterosaurs controlled their wings. Here we show, using biomechanical analysis and considerations of aerodynamic efficiency of a representative ornithocheirid pterosaur, that an anteriorly orientated pteroid is highly unlikely. Unless these pterosaurs only flew steadily and had very low body masses, their pteroids would have been likely to break if orientated anteriorly; the degree of movement required for a forward orientation would have introduced extreme membrane strains and required impractical tensioning in the propatagium membrane. This result can be generalized for other pterodactyloid pterosaurs because the resultant geometry of an anteriorly orientated pteroid would have reduced the aerodynamic performance of all wings and required the same impractical properties in the propatagium membrane. We demonstrate quantitatively that the more traditional reconstruction of a medially orientated pteroid was much more stable both structurally and aerodynamically, reflecting likely life position. PMID:20007183

  10. The placenta harbors a unique microbiome.

    PubMed

    Aagaard, Kjersti; Ma, Jun; Antony, Kathleen M; Ganu, Radhika; Petrosino, Joseph; Versalovic, James

    2014-05-21

    Humans and their microbiomes have coevolved as a physiologic community composed of distinct body site niches with metabolic and antigenic diversity. The placental microbiome has not been robustly interrogated, despite recent demonstrations of intracellular bacteria with diverse metabolic and immune regulatory functions. A population-based cohort of placental specimens collected under sterile conditions from 320 subjects with extensive clinical data was established for comparative 16S ribosomal DNA-based and whole-genome shotgun (WGS) metagenomic studies. Identified taxa and their gene carriage patterns were compared to other human body site niches, including the oral, skin, airway (nasal), vaginal, and gut microbiomes from nonpregnant controls. We characterized a unique placental microbiome niche, composed of nonpathogenic commensal microbiota from the Firmicutes, Tenericutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Fusobacteria phyla. In aggregate, the placental microbiome profiles were most akin (Bray-Curtis dissimilarity <0.3) to the human oral microbiome. 16S-based operational taxonomic unit analyses revealed associations of the placental microbiome with a remote history of antenatal infection (permutational multivariate analysis of variance, P = 0.006), such as urinary tract infection in the first trimester, as well as with preterm birth <37 weeks (P = 0.001). PMID:24848255

  11. Unique Ganglioside Recognition Strategies for Clostridial Neurotoxins

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Marc A.; Fu, Zhuji; Kim, Jung-Ja P.; Baldwin, Michael R.

    2012-03-15

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and tetanus neurotoxin are the causative agents of the paralytic diseases botulism and tetanus, respectively. The potency of the clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs) relies primarily on their highly specific binding to nerve terminals and cleavage of SNARE proteins. Although individual CNTs utilize distinct proteins for entry, they share common ganglioside co-receptors. Here, we report the crystal structure of the BoNT/F receptor-binding domain in complex with the sugar moiety of ganglioside GD1a. GD1a binds in a shallow groove formed by the conserved peptide motif E ... H ... SXWY ... G, with additional stabilizing interactions provided by two arginine residues. Comparative analysis of BoNT/F with other CNTs revealed several differences in the interactions of each toxin with ganglioside. Notably, exchange of BoNT/F His-1241 with the corresponding lysine residue of BoNT/E resulted in increased affinity for GD1a and conferred the ability to bind ganglioside GM1a. Conversely, BoNT/E was not able to bind GM1a, demonstrating a discrete mechanism of ganglioside recognition. These findings provide a structural basis for ganglioside binding among the CNTs and show that individual toxins utilize unique ganglioside recognition strategies.

  12. Arachnoiditis ossificans and syringomyelia: A unique presentation

    PubMed Central

    Opalak, Charles F.; Opalak, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Arachnoiditis ossificans (AO) is a rare disorder that was differentiated from leptomeningeal calcification by Kaufman and Dunsmore in 1971. It generally presents with progressive lower extremity myelopathy. Though the underlying etiology has yet to be fully described, it has been associated with various predisposing factors including vascular malformations, previous intradural surgery, myelograms, and adhesive arachnoiditis. Associated conditions include syringomyelia and arachnoid cyst. The preferred diagnostic method is noncontrast computed tomography (CT). Surgical intervention is still controversial and can include decompression and duroplasty or durotomy. Case Description: The authors report the case of a 62-year-old male with a history of paraplegia who presented with a urinary tract infection and dysautonomia. His past surgical history was notable for a C4–C6 anterior fusion and an intrathecal phenol injection for spasticity. A magnetic resonance image (MR) also demonstrated a T6-conus syringx. At surgery, there was significant ossification of the arachnoid/dura, which was removed. After a drain was placed in the syrinx, there was a significant neurologic improvement. Conclusion: This case demonstrates a unique presentation of AO and highlights the need for CT imaging when a noncommunicating syringx is identified. In addition, surgical decompression can achieve good results when AO is associated with concurrent compressive lesions. PMID:26693389

  13. Evidence for the uniqueness of eidetic imagery.

    PubMed

    Miller, S; Peacock, R

    1982-12-01

    This research examined the performance of eidetic subjects, classified by the standard self-report criteria, on a set of objective and subjective measures. Eidetic subjects were statistically superior to controls on an 'accuracy of report' test and a superimposition task, but these differences were not so large as to provide compelling evidence for the uniqueness of eidetic imagery. Further experiments investigated the effects of stimulus manipulations--type of interference and level of illumination--on, respectively, visual retention and duration of phenomenal image. The pattern of effects differed markedly between eidetic subjects and a control group matched on a measure of capacity for visual memory. These findings provide converging evidence for a qualitative distinction between eidetic imagery and visual memory that does not rely on differences in storage capacity. Eidetic imagery appears to be a long-lasting, percept-like experience which varies considerably in clarity and definition; its duration is critically dependent on level of illumination and its contents are easily disrupted by after-coming visual stimuli. PMID:7167317

  14. Efficient Nonnegative Tucker Decompositions: Algorithms and Uniqueness.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoxu; Cichocki, Andrzej; Zhao, Qibin; Xie, Shengli

    2015-12-01

    Nonnegative Tucker decomposition (NTD) is a powerful tool for the extraction of nonnegative parts-based and physically meaningful latent components from high-dimensional tensor data while preserving the natural multilinear structure of data. However, as the data tensor often has multiple modes and is large scale, the existing NTD algorithms suffer from a very high computational complexity in terms of both storage and computation time, which has been one major obstacle for practical applications of NTD. To overcome these disadvantages, we show how low (multilinear) rank approximation (LRA) of tensors is able to significantly simplify the computation of the gradients of the cost function, upon which a family of efficient first-order NTD algorithms are developed. Besides dramatically reducing the storage complexity and running time, the new algorithms are quite flexible and robust to noise, because any well-established LRA approaches can be applied. We also show how nonnegativity incorporating sparsity substantially improves the uniqueness property and partially alleviates the curse of dimensionality of the Tucker decompositions. Simulation results on synthetic and real-world data justify the validity and high efficiency of the proposed NTD algorithms. PMID:26390455

  15. Unique features of trabectedin mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Annette K; Galmarini, Carlos M; D'Incalci, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Trabectedin (Yondelis(®), ET-743) is a marine-derived natural product that was initially isolated from the marine ascidian Ecteinascidia turbinata and is currently prepared synthetically. Trabectedin is used as a single agent for the treatment of patients with soft tissue sarcoma after failure of doxorubicin or ifosfamide or who are unsuited to receive these agents, and in patients with relapsed, platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin. Trabectedin presents a complex mechanism of action affecting key cell biology processes in tumor cells as well as in the tumor microenvironment. The inhibition of trans-activated transcription and the interaction with DNA repair proteins appear as a hallmark of the antiproliferative activity of trabectedin. Inhibition of active transcription is achieved by an initial direct mechanism that involves interaction with RNA polymerase II, thereby inducing its ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome. This subsequently modulates the production of cytokines and chemokines by tumor and tumor-associated macrophages. Another interesting effect on activated transcription is mediated by the displacement of oncogenic transcription factors from their target promoters, thereby affecting oncogenic signaling addiction. In addition, it is well established that DNA repair systems including transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair and homologous recombination play a role in the antitumor activity of trabectedin. Ongoing studies are currently addressing how to exploit these unique mechanistic features of trabectedin to combine this agent either with immunological or microenvironmental modulators or with classical chemotherapeutic agents in a more rational manner. PMID:26666647

  16. Clinical EPR: unique opportunities and some challenges.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Harold M; Williams, Benjamin B; Zaki, Bassem I; Hartford, Alan C; Jarvis, Lesley A; Chen, Eunice Y; Comi, Richard J; Ernstoff, Marc S; Hou, Huagang; Khan, Nadeem; Swarts, Steven G; Flood, Ann B; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2014-02-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been well established as a viable technique for measurement of free radicals and oxygen in biological systems, from in vitro cellular systems to in vivo small animal models of disease. However, the use of EPR in human subjects in the clinical setting, although attractive for a variety of important applications such as oxygen measurement, is challenged with several factors including the need for instrumentation customized for human subjects, probe, and regulatory constraints. This article describes the rationale and development of the first clinical EPR systems for two important clinical applications, namely, measurement of tissue oxygen (oximetry) and radiation dose (dosimetry) in humans. The clinical spectrometers operate at 1.2 GHz frequency and use surface-loop resonators capable of providing topical measurements up to 1 cm depth in tissues. Tissue pO2 measurements can be carried out noninvasively and repeatedly after placement of an oxygen-sensitive paramagnetic material (currently India ink) at the site of interest. Our EPR dosimetry system is capable of measuring radiation-induced free radicals in the tooth of irradiated human subjects to determine the exposure dose. These developments offer potential opportunities for clinical dosimetry and oximetry, which include guiding therapy for individual patients with tumors or vascular disease by monitoring of tissue oxygenation. Further work is in progress to translate this unique technology to routine clinical practice. PMID:24439333

  17. Playing TETris with DNA modifications

    PubMed Central

    Delatte, Benjamin; Deplus, Rachel; Fuks, François

    2014-01-01

    Methylation of the fifth carbon of cytosine was the first epigenetic modification to be discovered in DNA. Recently, three new DNA modifications have come to light: hydroxymethylcytosine, formylcytosine, and carboxylcytosine, all generated by oxidation of methylcytosine by Ten Eleven Translocation (TET) enzymes. These modifications can initiate full DNA demethylation, but they are also likely to participate, like methylcytosine, in epigenetic signalling per se. A scenario is emerging in which coordinated regulation at multiple levels governs the participation of TETs in a wide range of physiological functions, sometimes via a mechanism unrelated to their enzymatic activity. Although still under construction, a sophisticated picture is rapidly forming where, according to the function to be performed, TETs ensure epigenetic marking to create specific landscapes, and whose improper build-up can lead to diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24825349

  18. Laser modification of polyamide fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahtiyari, M. İ.

    2011-02-01

    A new method for the modification of the properties of polyamide fabric, based on exposure to the output from a CO 2 laser, has been investigated. It was found that, after laser modification of polyamide fabric, the dyeability of fabric was increased significantly, while the bursting strength was decreased. The reasons for this drastic increase in dyeability of polyamide fabrics have been analyzed with the help of FTIR and iodine sorption methods, revealing a relationship with a decrease in the crystallinity of the polyamide. It was observed that, as the laser modification of the fabric was carried out with low intensity, the concentration of free amino groups, which are necessary during dyeing with acid and reactive dyes, increased.

  19. 14 CFR 1274.938 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modifications. 1274.938 Section 1274.938... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.938 Modifications. Modifications July 2002 During... agreement. Any changes to this agreement will be accomplished by a written bilateral modification....

  20. 21 CFR 331.21 - Test modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Test modifications. 331.21 Section 331.21 Food and... modifications. The formulation or mode of administration of certain products may require a modification of the... modification and the data to support it shall be submitted as a petition under the rules established in §...

  1. 14 CFR 1274.802 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modifications. 1274.802 Section 1274.802... FIRMS Post-Award/Administrative Requirements § 1274.802 Modifications. Modifications to the cooperative agreement in particular, modifications that affect funding, milestone payments, program schedule...

  2. Polymer surface modification by plasmas and photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C.-M.; Ko, T.-M.; Hiraoka, H.

    1996-05-01

    Polymers have been applied successfully in fields such as adhesion, biomaterials, protective coatings, friction and wear, composites, microelectronic devices, and thin-film technology. In general, special surface properties with regard to chemical composition, hydrophilicity, roughness, crystallinity, conductivity, lubricity, and cross-linking density are required for the success of these applications. Polymers very often do not possess the surface properties needed for these applications. However, they have excellent bulk physical and chemical properties, are inexpensive, and are easy to process. For these reasons, surface modification techniques which can transform these inexpensive materials into highly valuable finished products have become an important part of the plastics and many other industries. In recent years, many advances have been made in developing surface treatments to alter the chemical and physical properties of polymer surfaces without affecting bulk properties. Common surface modification techniques include treatments by flame, corona, plasmas, photons, electron beams, ion beams, X-rays, and γ-rays. Plasma treatment is probably the most versatile surface treatment technique. Different types of gases such as argon, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, carbon dioxide, and water can produce the unique surface properties required by various applications. For example, oxygen-plasma treatment can increase the surface energy of polymers, whereas fluorine-plasma treatment can decrease the surface energy and improve the chemical inertness. Cross-linking at a polymer surface can be introduced by an inert-gas plasma. Modification by plasma treatment is usually confined to the top several hundred ångströms and does not affect the bulk properties. The main disadvantage of this technique is that it requires a vacuum system, which increases the cost of operation. Thin polymer films with unique chemical and physical properties are produced by plasma polymerization. This technology is still in its infancy, and the plasma chemical process is not fully understood. The films are prepared by vapor phase deposition and can be formed on practically any substrate with good adhesion between the film and the substrate. These films, which are usually highly cross-linked and pinhole-free, have very good barrier properties. Such films find great potential in biomaterial applications and in the microelectronics industry. Very high-power microwave-driven mercury lamps are available, and they are used in UV-hardening of photoresist patterns for image stabilization at high temperatures. Other applications of UV irradiation include surface photo-oxidation, increase of hydrophilicity, and photocuring of paintings. Pulsed UV-lasers are used in surface modification in many areas. Pulsed UV-laser irradiation can produce submicron periodic linear and dot patterns on polymer surfaces without photomask. These interference patterns can be used to increase surface roughness of inert polymers for improved adhesion. These images can also be transferred to silicon surfaces by reactive ion etching. Pulsed laser beams can be applied to inert polymer surfaces for increased hydrophilicity and wettability. Polymer surfaces treated by pulsed UV-laser irradiation can be positively or negatively charged to enhance chemical reactivity and processability. Pulsed UV-laser exposures with high fluence give rise to photoablation with a clean wall profile. There are many other practical applications of laser photoablation, including via-hole fabrication, and diamond-film deposition. The present review discusses all these current applications, especially in the biomedical and microelectronics areas.

  3. Microbial profile modification with spores

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, J.H.; Chambers, K.T.; Lee, H.O.

    1996-08-01

    To overcome the shortcomings of conventional, near-wellbore profile modification methods, a microbial profile modification (MPM) method with spores was investigated. A halotolerant, spore-forming mesophile was isolated and characterized. These biopolymer-producing spores propagate easily in Berea cores with permeabilities more than about 500 md. With a specifically formulated nutrient package, they are readily germinated and produce biofilm, which reduces the permeability of the rock. The depth of penetration and the degree of permeability reduction can be controlled by varying injection schemes.

  4. Lourdes: A uniquely Catholic approach to medicine.

    PubMed

    Dichoso, Travis Jon

    2015-02-01

    As an American medical student, I spent the summer break between my first and second year in Lourdes, France, the site where the Immaculate Conception appeared eighteen times to St. Bernadette in 1858 as proclaimed approved by the Catholic Church and whose water is associated with over seven thousand unexplained cures. During this time I volunteered with St. Joseph's Service and Poste Secour, followed several medical teams taking care of large pilgrim groups, and shadowed Dr. Alessandro de Franciscis the president of Le Bureau des Constations Mdicales, the office in Lourdes charged with investigating claims of miracles. Through my experiences, I found the mission of medicine in Lourdes to be twofold: to provide the critical care needed to give sick persons the chance to transform their experience of disease through their faith; and secondly, through the efforts of the Medical Bureau, to be an instrument by which we can comprehend the wonders of the work of God. I conclude that this twofold mission should inform the work of every Catholic in health care or research, and Lourdes provides the venue par excellence to cultivate this mission. Lay Summary: Lourdes is a pilgrimage site in southern France that has been associated with medical miracles for the past 150 years. The site is unique in that throughout its history, physicians, of any or no faith, have been invited to participate in the proceedings of the investigations of each claimed cure. The investigations have formalized into a process handled by the Lourdes Medical Bureau and the Lourdes International Medical Association. Travis Dichoso, an American medical student, writes about his experiences as part of this process. PMID:25698838

  5. Evolution of a Unique Systems Engineering Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Robert M. Caliva; James A. Murphy; Kyle B. Oswald

    2011-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a science-based, applied engineering laboratory dedicated to supporting U.S. Department of Energy missions in nuclear and energy research, science, and national security. The INL’s Systems Engineering organization supports all of the various programs under this wide array of missions. As with any multifaceted organization, strategic planning is essential to establishing a consistent culture and a value discipline throughout all levels of the enterprise. While an organization can pursue operational excellence, product leadership or customer intimacy, it is extremely difficult to excel or achieve best-in-class at all three. In fact, trying to do so has resulted in the demise of a number of organizations given the very intricate balancing act that is necessary. The INL’s Systems Engineering Department has chosen to focus on customer intimacy where the customer’s needs are first and foremost and a more total solution is the goal. Frequently a total solution requires the employment of specialized tools to manage system complexity. However, it is only after understanding customer needs that tool selection and use would be pursued. This results in using both commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) tools and, in some cases, requires internal development of specialized tools. This paper describes how a unique systems engineering capability, through the development of customized tools, evolved as a result of this customer-focused culture. It also addresses the need for a common information model or analysis framework and presents an overview of the tools developed to manage and display relationships between entities, support trade studies through the application of utility theory, and facilitate the development of a technology roadmap to manage system risk and uncertainty.

  6. Lourdes: A uniquely Catholic approach to medicine

    PubMed Central

    Dichoso, Travis Jon

    2015-01-01

    As an American medical student, I spent the summer break between my first and second year in Lourdes, France, the site where the Immaculate Conception appeared eighteen times to St. Bernadette in 1858 as proclaimed approved by the Catholic Church and whose water is associated with over seven thousand unexplained cures. During this time I volunteered with St. Joseph's Service and Poste Secour, followed several medical teams taking care of large pilgrim groups, and shadowed Dr. Alessandro de Franciscis the president of Le Bureau des Constations Médicales, the office in Lourdes charged with investigating claims of miracles. Through my experiences, I found the mission of medicine in Lourdes to be twofold: to provide the critical care needed to give sick persons the chance to transform their experience of disease through their faith; and secondly, through the efforts of the Medical Bureau, to be an instrument by which we can comprehend the wonders of the work of God. I conclude that this twofold mission should inform the work of every Catholic in health care or research, and Lourdes provides the venue par excellence to cultivate this mission. Lay Summary: Lourdes is a pilgrimage site in southern France that has been associated with medical miracles for the past 150 years. The site is unique in that throughout its history, physicians, of any or no faith, have been invited to participate in the proceedings of the investigations of each claimed cure. The investigations have formalized into a process handled by the Lourdes Medical Bureau and the Lourdes International Medical Association. Travis Dichoso, an American medical student, writes about his experiences as part of this process. PMID:25698838

  7. Exploiting Unique Structural and Functional Properties of Malarial Glycolytic Enzymes for Antimalarial Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Neyaz, Md. Kausar; Ikramul Hasan, Syed

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic enzymes have been known to carry out a variety of functions besides their normal housekeeping roles known as “moonlighting functions.” These functionalities arise from structural changes induced by posttranslational modifications and/or binding of interacting proteins. Glycolysis is the sole source of energy generation for malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, hence a potential pathway for therapeutic intervention. Crystal structures of several P. falciparum glycolytic enzymes have been solved, revealing that they exhibit unique structural differences from the respective host enzymes, which could be exploited for their selective targeting. In addition, these enzymes carry out many parasite-specific functions, which could be of potential interest to control parasite development and transmission. This review focuses on the moonlighting functions of P. falciparum glycolytic enzymes and unique structural differences and functional features of the parasite enzymes, which could be exploited for therapeutic and transmission blocking interventions against malaria. PMID:25580350

  8. Behaviour modification in hyperactive children.

    PubMed

    Weeks, A; Laver-Bradbury, C

    Behaviour problems in pre-school children can be significantly improved by professionals experienced in child behaviour modification techniques. Reported disobedience, temper tantrums and poor concentration in hyperactive children aged three to three-and-a-half years improved significantly in a treatment group, following eight home visits by research health visitors working in a child and family guidance service. PMID:9418516

  9. Behavior Modification in Group Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fo, Walter S. O.; Robinson, Craig

    This paper is a systematic attempt to apply the principles and techniques of behavior modification to process and outcome in group therapy. The framework is derived from learning theory, and is aimed at providing a conceptual model for the understanding and practice of group therapy in which symptom redress is the primary goal. A number of…

  10. Demonstrating Allotropic Modifications of Sulfur.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Jillian L.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

    2002-01-01

    Shows how a common demonstration that consists of slowly heating sulfur powder in a test tube to illustrate sulfur's allotropic modifications can convince students of conclusions about the moon Io which they often find surprising. Describes the demonstration in full. (Author/MM)

  11. What's Wrong With Behavior Modification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidin, Richard R., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    This article considers some of the parameters, issues, and problems which must be evaluated before and during the application of behavior modification techniques. Among the topics discussed are: selecting the right teacher, training the teacher, reinforcing the teacher, ineffective, or inappropriate reinforcement, the attitude of the school…

  12. Changing Attitudes Through Behavior Modification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whipple, W. Scott

    This article describes the philosophy and methods used by the staff at the Granite Alternative School in changing student attitudes through behavior modification. The students involved all have a failure syndrome or low self-image, and are dropouts from traditional high schools. Among the techniques used are: (1) reinforcing good behavior (praise…

  13. Plasma surface modification of polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirotsu, T.

    1980-01-01

    Thin plasma polymerization films are discussed from the viewpoint of simplicity in production stages. The application of selective, absorbent films and films used in selective permeability was tested. The types of surface modification of polymers discussed are: (1) plasma etching, (2) surface coating by plasma polymerized thin films, and (3) plasma activation surface graft polymerization.

  14. MODIFICATION OF CC WHITEFLY TRAPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modifications of CC whitefly traps are in progress to improve their potential for adult whitefly control in greenhouses. Adult catches in the modified CC traps have been increased by 50% by coating trap tops with Tanglefoot and removing the deflector plates. In laboratory studies, installation of ...

  15. Chemical modification of semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finklea, H. O.

    1981-01-01

    Results of research on the chemical modification of TiO2 powders in the gas phase and the examination of the modified powders by infrared absorption spectroscopy are comprehensively summarized. The range of information obtainable by IR spectroscopy of chemically modified semiconductors, and a definition of the optimum reaction conditions for synthesizing a monolayer of methylsilanes using vapor phase reaction conditions were considered.

  16. Unique geologic insights from "non-unique" gravity and magnetic interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, R.W.; Blakely, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Interpretation of gravity and magnetic anomalies is mathematically non-unique because multiple theoretical solutions are always possible. The rigorous mathematical label of "nonuniqueness" can lead to the erroneous impression that no single interpretation is better in a geologic sense than any other. The purpose of this article is to present a practical perspective on the theoretical non-uniqueness of potential-field interpretation in geology. There are multiple ways to approach and constrain potential-field studies to produce significant, robust, and definitive results. The "non-uniqueness" of potential-field studies is closely related to the more general topic of scientific uncertainty in the Earth sciences and beyond. Nearly all results in the Earth sciences are subject to significant uncertainty because problems are generally addressed with incomplete and imprecise data. The increasing need to combine results from multiple disciplines into integrated solutions in order to address complex global issues requires special attention to the appreciation and communication of uncertainty in geologic interpretation.

  17. Unique sextuple system: 65 Ursae Majoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasche, P.; Uhl?, R.; lechta, M.; Wolf, M.; Harmanec, P.; Nemravov, J. A.; Kor?kov, D.

    2012-06-01

    Context. The study of stellar multiple systems provides us with important information about the stellar formation processes and can help us to estimate the multiplicity fraction in the Galaxy. 65 UMa belongs to a rather small group of stellar systems of higher multiplicity, whose inner and outer orbits are well-known. This allows us to study the long-term stability and evolution of the orbits in these systems. Aims: We obtained new photometric and spectroscopic data that when combined with interferometric data enables us to analyze the system 65 UMa and determine its basic physical properties. Methods: We perform a combined analysis of the light and radial velocity curves, as well as the period variation by studying the times of the minima and the interferometric orbit. A disentangling technique is used to perform the spectra decomposition. This combined approach allows us to study the long-term period changes in the system for the first time, identifying the period variation due to the motion on the visual orbit, in addition to some short-term modulation. Results: We find that the system contains one more component, hence we tread it as a sextuple hierarchical system. The most inner pair of components consists of an eclipsing binary orbiting around a barycenter on a circular orbit, both components being almost identical of spectral type about A7. This pair orbits on an eccentric orbit around a barycenter, and the third component orbits with a period of about 640 days. This motion is reflected in the period variation in the minima times of the eclipsing pair, as well as in the radial velocities of the primary, secondary, and tertiary components. Moreover, this system orbits around a barycenter with the distant component resolved interferometrically, whose period is of about 118 years. Two more distant components (4'' and 63'') are also probably gravitationally bound to the system. The nodal period of the eclipsing-pair orbit is on the order of only a few centuries, which makes this system even more interesting for a future prospective detection of changing the depths of minima. Conclusions: We identify a unique solution of the system 65 UMa, decomposing the individual components and even shifting the system to higher multiplicity. The study of this kind of multiple can help us to understand the origin of stellar systems. Besides 65 UMa, only another 11 sextuple systems have been studied. Reduced photometric and spectroscopic data, and Tables A.1-A.4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/542/A78

  18. Unique Challenges Testing SDRs for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sandra; Chelmins, David; Downey, Joseph; Nappier, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the approach used by the Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed team to qualify three Software Defined Radios (SDR) for operation in space and the characterization of the platform to enable upgrades on-orbit. The three SDRs represent a significant portion of the new technologies being studied on board the SCAN Testbed, which is operating on an external truss on the International Space Station (ISS). The SCaN Testbed provides experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms and applications for communication, networking, and navigation concepts and advance the understanding of developing and operating SDRs in space. Qualifying a Software Defined Radio for the space environment requires additional consideration versus a hardware radio. Tests that incorporate characterization of the platform to provide information necessary for future waveforms, which might exercise extended capabilities of the hardware, are needed. The development life cycle for the radio follows the software development life cycle, where changes can be incorporated at various stages of development and test. It also enables flexibility to be added with minor additional effort. Although this provides tremendous advantages, managing the complexity inherent in a software implementation requires a testing beyond the traditional hardware radio test plan. Due to schedule and resource limitations and parallel development activities, the subsystem testing of the SDRs at the vendor sites was primarily limited to typical fixed transceiver type of testing. NASA's Glenn Research Center (GRC) was responsible for the integration and testing of the SDRs into the SCaN Testbed system and conducting the investigation of the SDR to advance the technology to be accepted by missions. This paper will describe the unique tests that were conducted at both the subsystem and system level, including environmental testing, and present results. For example, test waveforms were developed to measure the gain of the transmit system across the tunable frequency band. These were used during thermal vacuum testing to enable characterization of the integrated system in the wide operational temperature range of space. Receive power indicators were used for Electromagnetic Interference tests (EMI) to understand the platform's susceptibility to external interferers independent of the waveform. Additional approaches and lessons learned during the SCaN Testbed subsystem and system level testing will be discussed that may help future SDR integrators.

  19. Unitary Evolution as a Uniqueness Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortez, J.; Mena Marugán, G. A.; Olmedo, J.; Velhinho, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the process of quantizing field theories is plagued with ambiguities. First, there is ambiguity in the choice of basic variables describing the system. Second, once a choice of field variables has been made, there is ambiguity concerning the selection of a quantum representation of the corresponding canonical commutation relations. The natural strategy to remove these ambiguities is to demand positivity of energy and to invoke symmetries, namely by requiring that classical symmetries become unitarily implemented in the quantum realm. The success of this strategy depends, however, on the existence of a sufficiently large group of symmetries, usually including time-translation invariance. These criteria are therefore generally insufficient in non-stationary situations, as is typical for free fields in curved spacetimes. Recently, the criterion of unitary implementation of the dynamics has been proposed in order to select a unique quantization in the context of manifestly non-stationary systems. Specifically, the unitarity criterion, together with the requirement of invariance under spatial symmetries, has been successfully employed to remove the ambiguities in the quantization of linearly polarized Gowdy models as well as in the quantization of a scalar field with time varying mass, propagating in a static background whose spatial topology is either of a d-sphere (with d = 1, 2, 3) or a three torus. Following Ref. 3, we will see here that the symmetry and unitarity criteria allows for a complete removal of the ambiguities in the quantization of scalar fields propagating in static spacetimes with compact spatial sections, obeying field equations with an explicitly time-dependent mass, of the form ddot φ - Δ φ + s(t)φ = 0 . These results apply in particular to free fields in spacetimes which, like e.g. in the closed FRW models, are conformal to a static spacetime, by means of an exclusively time-dependent conformal factor. In fact, in such cases the free field equation can be mapped to an equation of the above type, via a suitable scaling of the field...

  20. Unique Challenges Testing SDRs for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelmins, David; Downey, Joseph A.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Nappier, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the approach used by the Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed team to qualify three Software Defined Radios (SDR) for operation in space and the characterization of the platform to enable upgrades on-orbit. The three SDRs represent a significant portion of the new technologies being studied on board the SCAN Testbed, which is operating on an external truss on the International Space Station (ISS). The SCaN Testbed provides experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms and applications for communication, networking, and navigation concepts and advance the understanding of developing and operating SDRs in space. Qualifying a Software Defined Radio for the space environment requires additional consideration versus a hardware radio. Tests that incorporate characterization of the platform to provide information necessary for future waveforms, which might exercise extended capabilities of the hardware, are needed. The development life cycle for the radio follows the software development life cycle, where changes can be incorporated at various stages of development and test. It also enables flexibility to be added with minor additional effort. Although this provides tremendous advantages, managing the complexity inherent in a software implementation requires a testing beyond the traditional hardware radio test plan. Due to schedule and resource limitations and parallel development activities, the subsystem testing of the SDRs at the vendor sites was primarily limited to typical fixed transceiver type of testing. NASA s Glenn Research Center (GRC) was responsible for the integration and testing of the SDRs into the SCaN Testbed system and conducting the investigation of the SDR to advance the technology to be accepted by missions. This paper will describe the unique tests that were conducted at both the subsystem and system level, including environmental testing, and present results. For example, test waveforms were developed to measure the gain of the transmit system across the tunable frequency band. These were used during thermal vacuum testing to enable characterization of the integrated system in the wide operational temperature range of space. Receive power indicators were used for Electromagnetic Interference tests (EMI) to understand the platform s susceptibility to external interferers independent of the waveform. Additional approaches and lessons learned during the SCaN Testbed subsystem and system level testing will be discussed that may help future SDR integrators

  1. Structural modification of nanocrystalline ceria by ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanwen; Edmondson, Philip D.; Varga, Tamas; Moll, Sandra; Namavar, Fereydoon; Lan, Chune; Weber, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Exceptional size-dependent electronic–ionic conductivity of nanostructured ceria can significantly alter materials properties in chemical, physical, electronic and optical applications. Using energetic ions, we have demonstrated effective modification of interface volume and grain size in nanocrystalline ceria from a few nm up to ~25 nm, which is the critical region for controlling size-dependent material property. The grain size increases and follows an exponential law as a function of ion fluence that increases with temperature, while the cubic phase is stable under the irradiation. The unique self-healing response of radiation damage at grain boundaries is utilized to control the grain size at the nanoscale. Structural modification by energetic ions is proposed to achieve desirable electronic–ionic conductivity.

  2. Structural characteristics, dispersion, and modification of fibrous brucite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xi; Chuan, Xiu-yun

    2014-01-01

    Fibrous brucite has very unique structure and physical properties. Brucite fibers were exfoliated into single nanofibers by using dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) as a dispersant through mechanical agitation and ultrasonic dispersion; and then, the nanofibers were modified by stearic acid and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (γ-APS) compound modification agent. The nanofibers were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermal gravimetric analysis. It is found that AOT has good effect on the dispersion. The single fiber has a consistent morphology, and fibrous brucite is dispersed and modified without destroying the crystal structure. Infrared and thermal analysis shows that the surface modification of fibrous brucite is achieved by forming chemical bonds between the coupling agent and magnesium hydroxide.

  3. Change detection on a hunch: pre-attentive vision allows "sensing" of unique feature changes.

    PubMed

    Ball, Felix; Busch, Niko A

    2015-11-01

    Studies on change detection and change blindness have investigated the nature of visual representations by testing the conditions under which observers are able to detect when an object in a complex scene changes from one moment to the next. Several authors have proposed that change detection can occur without identification of the changing object, but the perceptual processes underlying this phenomenon are currently unknown. We hypothesized that change detection without localization or identification occurs when the change happens outside the focus of attention. Such changes would usually go entirely unnoticed, unless the change brings about a modification of one of the feature maps representing the scene. Thus, the appearance or disappearance of a unique feature might be registered even in the absence of focused attention and without feature binding, allowing for change detection, but not localization or identification. We tested this hypothesis in three experiments, in which changes either involved colors that were already present elsewhere in the display or entirely unique colors. Observers detected whether any change had occurred and then localized or identified the change. Change detection without localization occurred almost exclusively when changes involved a unique color. Moreover, change detection without localization for unique feature changes was independent of the number of objects in the display and independent of change identification. These findings suggest that pre-attentive registration of a change on a feature map can give rise to a conscious experience even when feature binding has failed: that something has changed without knowing what or where. PMID:26353860

  4. Two Galaxies for a Unique Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-04-01

    To celebrate the 100 Hours of Astronomy, ESO is sharing two stunning images of unusual galaxies, both belonging to the Sculptor group of galaxies. The images, obtained at two of ESO's observatories at La Silla and Paranal in Chile, illustrate the beauty of astronomy. ESO PR Photo 14a/09 Irregular Galaxy NGC 55 ESO PR Photo 14b/09 Spiral Galaxy NGC 7793 As part of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 Cornerstone project, 100 Hours of Astronomy, the ambitious "Around the World in 80 Telescopes" event is a unique live webcast over 24 hours, following night and day around the globe to some of the most advanced observatories on and off the planet. To provide a long-lasting memory of this amazing world tour, observatories worldwide are revealing wonderful, and previously unseen, astronomical images. For its part, ESO is releasing outstanding pictures of two galaxies, observed with telescopes at the La Silla and Paranal observatories. The first of these depicts the irregular galaxy NGC 55, a member of the prominent Sculptor group of galaxies in the southern constellation of Sculptor. The galaxy is about 70 000 light-years across, that is, a little bit smaller than our own Milky Way. NGC 55 actually resembles more our galactic neighbour, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), although the LMC is seen face-on, whilst NGC 55 is edge-on. By studying about 20 planetary nebulae in this image, a team of astronomers found that NGC 55 is located about 7.5 million light-years away. They also found that the galaxy might be forming a bound pair with the gorgeous spiral galaxy NGC 300 . Planetary nebulae are the final blooming of Sun-like stars before their retirement as white dwarfs. This striking image of NGC 55, obtained with the Wide Field Imager on the 2.2-metre MPG/ESO telescope at La Silla, is dusted with a flurry of reddish nebulae, created by young, hot massive stars. Some of the more extended ones are not unlike those seen in the LMC, such as the Tarantula Nebula. The quality of the image is clearly demonstrated by the remarkable number of background galaxies seen, as well as the huge numbers of individual stars that can be counted within NGC 55. The second image shows another galaxy belonging to the Sculptor group. This is NGC 7793, which has a chaotic spiral structure, unlike the class of grand-design spiral galaxies to which our Milky Way belongs. The image shows how difficult it is to identify any particular spiral arm in these chaotic structures, although it is possible to guess at a general rotating pattern. NGC 7793 is located slightly further away than NGC 55, about 12.5 million light-years from us, and is about half the size of NGC 55. NGC 7793 was observed with one of the workhorses of the ESO Paranal Observatory, the FORS instrument, attached to the Very Large Telescope.

  5. The Potential and Uniqueness of Virtual Environments for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Leslie A.

    2008-01-01

    Virtual environments (VEs) are growing in popularity among educators and have unique potential for online learning. This paper describes the unique characteristics of VEs that make them an effective venue for online learning due to increased environmental presence. Unique characteristics of VEs include nature of visual stimuli, control of the…

  6. Unique Surface Modification of Silica Nanoparticles with Polyethylenimine (PEI) for siRNA Delivery Using Cerium Cation Coordination Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kapilov-Buchman, Yekaterina; Lellouche, Emmanuel; Michaeli, Shulamit; Lellouche, Jean-Paul

    2015-05-20

    The discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) as a naturally occurring mechanism for gene knockdown has attracted considerable attention toward the use of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) for therapeutic purposes. The main obstacles of harnessing siRNAs as drugs are their inefficient delivery to cells and off-target effect making clinical applications very challenging. The positively charged, branched 25 kDa polyethylenimine (b-PEI) polymer is widely regarded as one of the most efficient nonviral commercially available transfection agents. However, it has also been shown that 25 kDa b-PEI is highly cytotoxic and can readily lead to cell death. In this specific context, this study presents the preparation and characterization of innovative 25 kDa b-PEI-decorated polycationic silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) for cellular siRNA delivery and subsequent gene silencing. A new method of b-PEI attachment onto the SiO2 NP surface has been developed that makes use of cerium(III) cations (Ce(3+)), a lanthanide group element, as an effective noncovalent inorganic linker between both polyNH2-SiO2 nanoparticle (SPA NPs) surface and polycationic 25 kDa b-PEI polymer. Two resulting novel SPA-Ce-PEI NPs consist of similar amounts of b-PEI, while possessing different amounts of Ce(3+). Various analytical techniques (TEM, DLS, ζ potential, ICP-AES, and TGA) have been used to deeply characterize NPs physicochemical qualities. The observed results of Ce(3+)-dependent gene silencing and cytotoxic activities led us to conclusions about the role of Ce(3+)-N bonding during the chemical attachment of the 25 kDa b-PEI shell onto the NP surface. PMID:25830668

  7. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-06-01

    Brightest X-ray Cluster Acts as Strong Gravitational Lens Based on exciting new data obtained with the ROSAT X-ray satellite and a ground-based telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, a team of European astronomers [2] has just discovered a very distant cluster of galaxies with unique properties. It emits the strongest X-ray emission of any cluster ever observed by ROSAT and is accompanied by two extraordinarily luminous arcs that represent the gravitationally deflected images of even more distant objects. The combination of these unusual characteristics makes this cluster, now known as RXJ1347.5-1145, a most interesting object for further cosmological studies. DISCOVERY AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS This strange cluster of galaxies was discovered during the All Sky Survey with the ROSAT X-ray satellite as a moderately intense X-ray source in the constellation of Virgo. It could not be identified with any already known object and additional ground-based observations were therefore soon after performed with the Max-Planck-Society/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla observatory in Chile. These observations took place within a large--scale redshift survey of X-ray clusters of galaxies detected by the ROSAT All Sky Survey, a so-called ``ESO Key Programme'' led by astronomers from the Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera. The main aim of this programme is to identify cluster X-ray sources, to determine the distance to the X-ray emitting clusters and to investigate their overall properties. These observations permitted to measure the redshift of the RXJ1347.5-1145 cluster as z = 0.45, i.e. it moves away from us with a velocity (about 106,000 km/sec) equal to about one-third of the velocity of light. This is an effect of the general expansion of the universe and it allows to determine the distance as about 5,000 million light-years (assuming a Hubble constant of 75 km/sec/Mpc). In other words, we see these galaxies as they were 5,000 million years ago. Knowing the intensity of the X-ray emission as measured by ROSAT and also the distance, the astronomers were then able to estimate the total X-ray energy emitted by this cluster. It was found to be extremely high [3], in fact higher than that of any other cluster ever observed by ROSAT. It amounts to no less than 1.5 million million times the total energy emitted by the Sun. It is believed that this strong X-ray emission originates in a hot gas located between the galaxies in the cluster. The high temperature indicates that the components of the gas move very rapidly; this is related to the strong gravitational field within the cluster. THE GRAVITATIONAL ARCS To their great surprise and delight, the astronomers also discovered two bright arcs, 5 - 6 arcseconds long and symmetrically placed about 35 arcseconds to the North-East and South-West of the brightest galaxies in the cluster (see the photo). They were detected on exposures of only 3 minutes duration with the 2.2-metre telescope and are among the brightest such arcs ever found. At the indicated distance, the arcs are situated at a projected distance of about 500,000 light-years from the centre of the cluster. It is an interesting possibility that the two arcs may in fact be two images of the same, very distant galaxy, that is situated far beyond RXJ1347.5-1145 and whose light has been bent and split by this cluster's strong gravitational field. This strange phenomenon was first discovered in the late 1970's and is referred to as gravitational lensing. Quite a few examples are now known, in most cases in the form of double or multiple images of quasars. About three dozen cases involve well visible galaxy clusters and elongated arcs, but few, if any, of these arcs are as bright as those seen in the present cluster. This particular arc configuration enables a very accurate determination of the total mass of the cluster, once the distance of the background galaxy has been measured (by obtaining spectra of the arcs and measuring their redshift). The masses of galaxy clusters are important for the determination, for instance of the mean density and distribution of matter in the universe. This is because these clusters are the most massive, clearly defined objects known and as such trace these parameters in the universe on very large scales. Another possibility to derive the cluster mass is offered by X-ray observations, because the distribution of the hot, X-ray emitting gas traces the gravitational field of the cluster. Recently, in some clusters there has been a discrepancy between the mass determined in this way and that found from gravitational lensing effects. The team of astronomers now hopes that follow-up X-ray observations of RXJ1347.5-1145 will help to solve this puzzle. Moreover, the combination of extremely high X-ray brightness and the possibility to perform a rather accurate mass determination by the gravitational lensing effect makes this particular cluster a truly unique object. In view of the exceptional X-ray brightness, a very high mass is expected. The exact determination will be possible, as soon as spectra have been obtained of the two arcs. Contrary to what is the case in other clusters, this will not be so difficult, due to their unusual brightness and their ideal geometrical configuration. [1] This is a joint Press Release of ESO and the Max-Planck-Society. It is accompanied by a B/W photo. [2] The investigation described in this Press Release is the subject of a Letter to the Editor which will soon appear in the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics, with the following authors: Sabine Schindler (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching, Germany), Hans Boehringer, Doris M. Neumann and Ulrich G. Briel (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany), Luigi Guzzo (Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Merate, Italy), Guido Chincarini (Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Merate, and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano, Italy), Harald Ebeling (Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge, U.K.), Chris A. Collins (School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, John-Moores University, Liverpool, U.K.), Sabrina De Grandi (Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano, Italy), Peter Shaver (ESO, Garching, Germany) and Giampaolo Vettolani (Istituto di Radioastronomia del CNR, Bologna, Italy). [3] The total X-ray energy emitted by RXJ1347.5-1145 is (6.2 +-0.6) 10^45 erg s-1 in the range 0.1--2.4 keV. ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.hq.eso.org/) and on CompuServe (space science and astronomy area, GO SPACE)

  8. The Modification of Biocellular Chemical Reactions by Environmental Physicochemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishido, M.

    Environmental risk factors affect human biological system to different extent from modification of biochemical reaction to cellular catastrophe. There are considerable public concerns about electromagnetic fields and endocrine disruptors. Their risk assessments have not been fully achieved because of their scientific uncertainty: electromagnetic fields just modify the bioreaction in the restricted cells and endocrine disruptors are quite unique in that their expression is dependent on the exposure periods throughout a life. Thus, we here describe their molecular characterization to establish the new risk assessments for environmental physicochemicals.

  9. Plasma technologies application for building materials surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volokitin, G. G.; Skripnikova, N. K.; Volokitin, O. G.; Shehovtzov, V. V.; Luchkin, A. G.; Kashapov, N. F.

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature arc plasma was used to process building surface materials, such as silicate brick, sand lime brick, concrete and wood. It was shown that building surface materials modification with low temperature plasma positively affects frost resistance, water permeability and chemical resistance with high adhesion strength. Short time plasma processing is rather economical than traditional processing thermic methods. Plasma processing makes wood surface uniquely waterproof and gives high operational properties, dimensional and geometrical stability. It also increases compression resistance and decreases inner tensions level in material.

  10. Biological roles of the O-methyl phosphoramidate capsule modification in Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of this organism is required for persistence and disease. C. jejuni produces over 47 different capsular structures, including a unique O-methyl phosphoramidate (MeOPN) modification pre...

  11. Optimization of Process Conditions for Enzymatic Modification of Alternan using Dextranase from Chaetomium erraticum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternan is a unique branched glucan with alternating a-(1 ' 6) and a-(1 ' 3) backbone linkages. We previously described the modification of alternan to a reduced molecular weight form using dextranase from Penicillium sp. The solution viscosity properties of this modified alternan resemble those ...

  12. Dramatic colour changes in a bird of paradise caused by uniquely structured breast feather barbules.

    PubMed

    Stavenga, Doekele G; Leertouwer, Hein L; Marshall, N Justin; Osorio, Daniel

    2011-07-22

    The breast-plate plumage of male Lawes' parotia (Parotia lawesii) produces dramatic colour changes when this bird of paradise displays on its forest-floor lek. We show that this effect is achieved not solely by the iridescence--that is an angular-dependent spectral shift of the reflected light--which is inherent in structural coloration, but is based on a unique anatomical modification of the breast-feather barbule. The barbules have a segmental structure, and in common with many other iridescent feathers, they contain stacked melanin rodlets surrounded by a keratin film. The unique property of the parotia barbules is their boomerang-like cross section. This allows each barbule to work as three coloured mirrors: a yellow-orange reflector in the plane of the feather, and two symmetrically positioned bluish reflectors at respective angles of about 30°. Movement during the parotia's courtship displays thereby achieves much larger and more abrupt colour changes than is possible with ordinary iridescent plumage. To our knowledge, this is the first example of multiple thin film or multi-layer reflectors incorporated in a single structure (engineered or biological). It nicely illustrates how subtle modification of the basic feather structure can achieve novel visual effects. The fact that the parotia's breast feathers seem to be specifically adapted to give much stronger colour changes than normal structural coloration implies that colour change is important in their courtship display. PMID:21159676

  13. Dramatic colour changes in a bird of paradise caused by uniquely structured breast feather barbules

    PubMed Central

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Leertouwer, Hein L.; Marshall, N. Justin; Osorio, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The breast-plate plumage of male Lawes' parotia (Parotia lawesii) produces dramatic colour changes when this bird of paradise displays on its forest-floor lek. We show that this effect is achieved not solely by the iridescence—that is an angular-dependent spectral shift of the reflected light—which is inherent in structural coloration, but is based on a unique anatomical modification of the breast-feather barbule. The barbules have a segmental structure, and in common with many other iridescent feathers, they contain stacked melanin rodlets surrounded by a keratin film. The unique property of the parotia barbules is their boomerang-like cross section. This allows each barbule to work as three coloured mirrors: a yellow-orange reflector in the plane of the feather, and two symmetrically positioned bluish reflectors at respective angles of about 30°. Movement during the parotia's courtship displays thereby achieves much larger and more abrupt colour changes than is possible with ordinary iridescent plumage. To our knowledge, this is the first example of multiple thin film or multi-layer reflectors incorporated in a single structure (engineered or biological). It nicely illustrates how subtle modification of the basic feather structure can achieve novel visual effects. The fact that the parotia's breast feathers seem to be specifically adapted to give much stronger colour changes than normal structural coloration implies that colour change is important in their courtship display. PMID:21159676

  14. Medium Modification of Vector Mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Chaden Djalali, Michael Paolone, Dennis Weygand, Michael H. Wood, Rakhsha Nasseripour

    2011-03-01

    The theory of the strong interaction, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), has been remarkably successful in describing high-energy and short-distance-scale experiments involving quarks and gluons. However, applying QCD to low energy and large-distance scale experiments has been a major challenge. Various QCD-inspired models predict a partial restoration of chiral symmetry in nuclear matter with modifications of the properties of hadrons from their free-space values. Measurable changes such as a shift in mass and/or a change of width are predicted at normal nuclear density. Photoproduction of vector mesons off nuclei have been performed at different laboratories. The properties of the ρ, ω and φ mesons are investigated either directly by measuring their mass spectra or indirectly through transparency ratios. The latest results regarding medium modifications of the vector mesons in the nuclear medium will be discussed.

  15. HHMD: the human histone modification database

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Lv, Jie; Liu, Hongbo; Zhu, Jiang; Su, Jianzhong; Wu, Qiong; Qi, Yunfeng; Wang, Fang; Li, Xia

    2010-01-01

    Histone modifications play important roles in chromatin remodeling, gene transcriptional regulation, stem cell maintenance and differentiation. Alterations in histone modifications may be linked to human diseases especially cancer. Histone modifications including methylation, acetylation and ubiquitylation probed by ChIP-seq, ChIP-chip and qChIP have become widely available. Mining and integration of histone modification data can be beneficial to novel biological discoveries. There has been no comprehensive data repository that is exclusive for human histone modifications. Therefore, we developed a relatively comprehensive database for human histone modifications. Human Histone Modification Database (HHMD, http://bioinfo.hrbmu.edu.cn/hhmd) focuses on the storage and integration of histone modification datasets that were obtained from laboratory experiments. The latest release of HHMD incorporates 43 location-specific histone modifications in human. To facilitate data extraction, flexible search options are built in HHMD. It can be searched by histone modification, gene ID, functional categories, chromosome location and cancer name. HHMD also includes a user-friendly visualization tool named HisModView, by which genome-wide histone modification map can be shown. HisModView facilitates the acquisition and visualization of histone modifications. The database also has manually curated information of histone modification dysregulation in nine human cancers. PMID:19892823

  16. Modification of Heister Jaw Opener.

    PubMed

    Dengra, Seema; Tiwari, Vaibhav; Sharma, Nidhi

    2016-03-01

    Heister introduced a mouth gag of incentric pattern which is still being used. Heister jaw opener has narrow blades which rest on the occlusal surface of molar teeth. The force of mouth gag is not equally distributed on all the teeth, therefore there is great risk of tooth avulsion in periodontally compromised dentition and fracture of tooth while using standard Heister appliance. To overcome this modification of Heister mouth gag is done. PMID:26929566

  17. Colloidal stability by surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana Vnt; Karakoti, A. S.; Seal, Sudipta

    2005-12-01

    The study of colloids is important in the design of materials for uses ranging from pot making to petroleum refining. This review presents the reasons for instability and different methods for attaining stability in various systems of interest. in this context, both steric and electrostatic stabilization are discussed. Also discussed are surface modification in core-shell technology and the importance of surfactants in emulsions.

  18. Cradle modification for hydraulic ram

    SciTech Connect

    Koons, B.M.

    1995-03-02

    The analysis of the cradle hydraulic system considers stress, weld strength, and hydraulic forces required to lift and support the cradle/pump assembly. The stress and weld strength of the cradle modifications is evaluated to ensure that they meet the requirements of the American Institute for Steel Construction (AISC 1989). The hydraulic forces are evaluated to ensure that the hydraulic system is capable of rotating the cradle and pump assembly to the vertical position (between 70{degrees} and 90{degrees}).

  19. [Advances in genetic modification technologies].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baixue; Sun, Qixin; Li, Haifeng

    2015-08-01

    Genetic modification technology is a new molecular tool for targeted genome modification. It includes zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) technology, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) technology and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) (CRISPR-Cas) nucleases technology. All of these nucleases create DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) at chromosomal targeted sites and induce cell endogenous mechanisms that are primarily repaired by the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR) pathway, resulting in targeted endogenous gene knock-out or exogenous gene insertion. In recent years, genetic modification technologies have been successfully applied to bacteria, yeast, human cells, fruit fly, zebra fish, mouse, rat, livestock, cynomolgus monkey, Arabidopsis, rice, tobacco, maize, sorghum, wheat, barley and other organisms, showing its enormous advantage in gene editing field. Especially, the newly developed CRISPR-Cas9 system arose more attention because of its low cost, high effectiveness, simplicity and easiness. We reviewed the principles and the latest research progress of these three technologies, as well as prospect of future research and applications. PMID:26762038

  20. Protein Modification by Adenine Propenal

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Base propenals are products of the reaction of DNA with oxidants such as peroxynitrite and bleomycin. The most reactive base propenal, adenine propenal, is mutagenic in Escherichia coli and reacts with DNA to form covalent adducts; however, the reaction of adenine propenal with protein has not yet been investigated. A survey of the reaction of adenine propenal with amino acids revealed that lysine and cysteine form adducts, whereas histidine and arginine do not. Nε-Oxopropenyllysine, a lysine–lysine cross-link, and S-oxopropenyl cysteine are the major products. Comprehensive profiling of the reaction of adenine propenal with human serum albumin and the DNA repair protein, XPA, revealed that the only stable adduct is Nε-oxopropenyllysine. The most reactive sites for modification in human albumin are K190 and K351. Three sites of modification of XPA are in the DNA-binding domain, and two sites are subject to regulatory acetylation. Modification by adenine propenal dramatically reduces XPA’s ability to bind to a DNA substrate. PMID:25211669

  1. Epigenetic Modifications in Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Ingrid A.; Charchar, Fadi J.

    2016-01-01

    Essential hypertension (EH) is a complex, polygenic condition with no single causative agent. Despite advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of EH, hypertension remains one of the world’s leading public health problems. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that epigenetic modifications are as important as genetic predisposition in the development of EH. Indeed, a complex and interactive genetic and environmental system exists to determine an individual’s risk of EH. Epigenetics refers to all heritable changes to the regulation of gene expression as well as chromatin remodelling, without involvement of nucleotide sequence changes. Epigenetic modification is recognized as an essential process in biology, but is now being investigated for its role in the development of specific pathologic conditions, including EH. Epigenetic research will provide insights into the pathogenesis of blood pressure regulation that cannot be explained by classic Mendelian inheritance. This review concentrates on epigenetic modifications to DNA structure, including the influence of non-coding RNAs on hypertension development. PMID:27023534

  2. Implementing a QA program for plant modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, D.R.

    1985-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of the quality assurance (QA) program within the modification process at Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation. The modification process includes design, procurement, installation, transition to operations, and closeout. Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation operates one nuclear power plant, a 610-MW General Electric (GE) boiling water reactor, and has another under construction, a 1080-MW GE reactor planned for commercial operation in October 1986. Niagara Mohawk has achieved a marked improvement in the implementation of its nuclear modifications. Modifications are now generally completed within budget and either on schedule or ahead of schedule. An example (the recirculation pipe replacement modification) is discussed and illustrates the increased QA attention to major modifications. This modification was a success from both Niagara Mohawk's point of view and also from our contractor's point of view. The implementation of the quality plan was a positive factor in the success of this modification.

  3. DNA modifications: Another stable base in DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazauskas, Pijus; Kriaucionis, Skirmantas

    2014-12-01

    Oxidation of 5-methylcytosine has been proposed to mediate active and passive DNA demethylation. Tracking the history of DNA modifications has now provided the first solid evidence that 5-hydroxymethylcytosine is a stable epigenetic modification.

  4. 77 FR 73054 - Petition for Modification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration Petition for Modification AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: This notice amends a petition for modification published...

  5. Modification of Alternan by Dextranase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternan is a unique glucan with a backbone structure of alternating alpha-(1=-6) and alpha-(1=-3) linkages. Previously, we isolated strains of Penicillium sp. that modify native, high molecular weight alternan in a novel bioconversion process to a lower molecular weight form with solution viscosit...

  6. 40 CFR 72.81 - Permit modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permit modifications. 72.81 Section 72.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Permit Revisions § 72.81 Permit modifications. (a) Permit revisions that shall follow the permit modification procedures are:...

  7. 49 CFR 22.59 - Loan modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Loan modifications. 22.59 Section 22.59 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SHORT-TERM LENDING PROGRAM (STLP) Loan Administration § 22.59 Loan modifications. Any modification to the terms of the DOT OSDBU guarantee agreement...

  8. 49 CFR 22.59 - Loan modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loan modifications. 22.59 Section 22.59 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SHORT-TERM LENDING PROGRAM (STLP) Loan Administration § 22.59 Loan modifications. Any modification to the terms of the DOT OSDBU guarantee agreement...

  9. Modification Of Gear Teeth To Reduce Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Dennis P.; Oswald, Fred B.; Lin, Hsiang Hsi

    1990-01-01

    Computer simulations yield data useful in designing for low noise. Effects of modifications in shape of gear teeth upon static transmission error and dynamic loading of gears now analyzed systematically. Design curves generated by conducting numerical simulations of dynamic effects at successive incremental modifications of gear systems operated at various applied loads. Modifications that result in minimum dynamic effect determined from design curves.

  10. 49 CFR 22.59 - Loan modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Loan modifications. 22.59 Section 22.59 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SHORT-TERM LENDING PROGRAM (STLP) Loan Administration § 22.59 Loan modifications. Any modification to the terms of the DOT OSDBU guarantee agreement...

  11. 49 CFR 22.59 - Loan modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Loan modifications. 22.59 Section 22.59 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SHORT-TERM LENDING PROGRAM (STLP) Loan Administration § 22.59 Loan modifications. Any modification to the terms of the DOT OSDBU guarantee agreement...

  12. Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

  13. 14 CFR 1274.802 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Modifications. 1274.802 Section 1274.802 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Post-Award/Administrative Requirements § 1274.802 Modifications. Modifications to the cooperative agreement in particular,...

  14. 24 CFR 203.616 - Mortgage modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage modification. 203.616... Mortgage modification. The mortgagee may modify a mortgage for the purpose of changing the amortization... notify HUD of such modification in a format prescribed by HUD within 30 days of the execution of...

  15. 7 CFR 987.35 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modifications. 987.35 Section 987.35 Agriculture... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Marketing Policy § 987.35 Modifications. In the event... along with the data which it considered in connection with such modification....

  16. 40 CFR 60.304 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modifications. 60.304 Section 60.304... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Grain Elevators § 60.304 Modifications. (a... modification of any existing facility: (1) The addition of gravity loadout spouts to existing grain storage...

  17. 30 CFR 44.53 - Amended modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amended modification. 44.53 Section 44.53... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS RULES OF PRACTICE FOR PETITIONS FOR MODIFICATION OF MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS Effect of Initial Decision § 44.53 Amended modification. (a) The Administrator may propose to revise...

  18. 75 FR 22846 - Petition for Modification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... Safety and Health Administration Petition for Modification AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of petition for modification of existing mandatory safety standard... application, processing, and disposition of petitions for modification. This notice is a summary of a...

  19. 7 CFR 633.10 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modifications. 633.10 Section 633.10 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.10 Modifications. The NRCS may approve modifications to the agreement or associated conservation plan after consultation with the Conservation...

  20. 30 CFR 282.25 - Plan modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plan modification. 282.25 Section 282.25... § 282.25 Plan modification. Approved Delineation, Testing, and Mining Plans may be modified upon the... lessee shall submit a detailed, written statement of the proposed modifications, potential, impacts,...

  1. 40 CFR 60.397 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modifications. 60.397 Section 60.397... Coating Operations § 60.397 Modifications. The following physical or operational changes are not, by themselves, considered modifications of existing facilities: (a) Changes as a result of model...

  2. 7 CFR 993.52 - Modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modification. 993.52 Section 993.52 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Grade and Size Regulations § 993.52 Modification. Minimum standards, pack... such modification would tend to effectuate the declared policy of the act. Effective Date Note: At...

  3. 45 CFR 160.104 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modifications. 160.104 Section 160.104 Public... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 160.104 Modifications. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the Secretary may adopt a modification to a standard or...

  4. 48 CFR 342.7102 - Contract modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract modifications... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Administrative Actions for Cost Overruns 342.7102 Contract modifications. (a) Modifications to contracts containing the Limitation of Cost clause shall include either— (1)...

  5. 14 CFR 420.47 - License modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false License modification. 420.47 Section 420.47... modification. (a) Upon application or upon its own initiative, the FAA may modify a license to operate a launch... operate a launch site has been issued, a licensee shall apply to the FAA for modification of its...

  6. 40 CFR 147.2927 - Permit modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permit modification. 147.2927 Section...-Class II Wells § 147.2927 Permit modification. (a) Permits may be modified for the following causes only (with the exceptions listed in paragraph (b) of this section regarding minor modifications): (1)...

  7. 48 CFR 204.7106 - Contract modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract modifications... 204.7106 Contract modifications. (a) If new items are added, assign new contract line or subline item..., and 204.7105. (b) Modifications to existing contract line items or exhibit line items. (1) If...

  8. All about that fat: Lipid modification of proteins in Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Tirado, Felipe H.; Doering, Tamara L.

    2016-01-01

    Lipid modification of proteins is a widespread, essential process whereby fatty acids, cholesterol, isoprenoids, phospholipids, or glycosylphospholipids are attached to polypeptides. These hydrophobic groups may affect protein structure, function, localization, and/or stability; as a consequence such modifications play critical regulatory roles in cellular systems. Recent advances in chemical biology and proteomics have allowed the profiling of modified proteins, enabling dissection of the functional consequences of lipid addition. The enzymes that mediate lipid modification are specific for both the lipid and protein substrates, and are conserved from fungi to humans. In this article we review these enzymes, their substrates, and the processes involved in eukaryotic lipid modification of proteins. We further focus on its occurrence in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, highlighting unique features that are both relevant for the biology of the organism and potentially important in the search for new therapies. PMID:26920881

  9. All about that fat: Lipid modification of proteins in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Tirado, Felipe H; Doering, Tamara L

    2016-03-01

    Lipid modification of proteins is a widespread, essential process whereby fatty acids, cholesterol, isoprenoids, phospholipids, or glycosylphospholipids are attached to polypeptides. These hydrophobic groups may affect protein structure, function, localization, and/or stability; as a consequence such modifications play critical regulatory roles in cellular systems. Recent advances in chemical biology and proteomics have allowed the profiling of modified proteins, enabling dissection of the functional consequences of lipid addition. The enzymes that mediate lipid modification are specific for both the lipid and protein substrates, and are conserved from fungi to humans. In this article we review these enzymes, their substrates, and the processes involved in eukaryotic lipid modification of proteins. We further focus on its occurrence in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, highlighting unique features that are both relevant for the biology of the organism and potentially important in the search for new therapies. PMID:26920881

  10. Modification of Nanostructures via Laser Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzel, Louis Avery

    Modification of nanostructures via laser processing is of great interest for a wide range of applications such as aerospace and the storage of nuclear waste. The primary goal of this dissertation is to improve the understanding of nanostructures through two primary routes: the modification of aerogels and pulsed laser ablation in ethanol. A new class of materials, patterned aerogels, was fabricated by photopolymerizing selected regions of homogeneous aerogel monoliths using visible light. The characterization and fabrication of functionally graded, cellular and compositionally anisotropic aerogels and ceramics is discussed. Visible light was utilized due to it's minimal absorption and scattering by organic molecules and oxide nanoparticles within wet gels. This allowed for the fabrication of deeply penetrating, well resolved patterns. Similarly, nanoporous monoliths with a typical aerogel core and a mechanically robust exterior ceramic layer were synthesized from silica aerogels cross-linked with polyacrylonitrile. Simple variations of the exposure geometry allowed fabrication of a wide variety of anisotropic materials without requiring layering or bonding. Nanoparticle solutions were prepared by laser ablation of metal foils (Fe and Mo) in ethanol. Ablation of Fe generated Fe3O4 and Fe3C nanoparticles which were superparamagnetic with a saturation magnetization Ms = 124 emu/g. Zero field cooled (ZFC) measurements collected at an applied field of 50 Oe displayed a maximum magnetic susceptibility at 120 K with a broad distribution. Field cooled (FC) measurements showed a thermal hysteresis indicative of temperature dependent magnetic viscosity. Pulsed laser ablation of a Mo foil in ethanol generated inhomogeneous nanoparticles where Mo and MoC coexisted within the same aggregate. Formation of these unique nanoparticles is likely due to phase separation that occurs when a high temperature carbide phase cools after the laser pulse terminates. Similarly, magnetic nanoparticle suspensions were generated by pulsed laser ablation of Fe and Mo in ethanol. The formation of several carbide phases with no discernable alloy formation was seen. A decrease in magnetization with a decrease in Fe concentration was seen which was reconciled with the decreased Fe content in the system. However, at Fe concentrations below ˜ 40%, an increase in Ms and Hc was observed which was reconciled with the disappearance of the epsilon--Fe 3C. TEM analysis showed the formation of core-shell nanoparticles and Energy Filtered TEM showed the distribution of Fe-based nanoparticles in the suspensions.

  11. Modification of Nanostructures via Laser Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzel, Louis Avery

    Modification of nanostructures via laser processing is of great interest for a wide range of applications such as aerospace and the storage of nuclear waste. The primary goal of this dissertation is to improve the understanding of nanostructures through two primary routes: the modification of aerogels and pulsed laser ablation in ethanol. A new class of materials, patterned aerogels, was fabricated by photopolymerizing selected regions of homogeneous aerogel monoliths using visible light. The characterization and fabrication of functionally graded, cellular and compositionally anisotropic aerogels and ceramics is discussed. Visible light was utilized due to it's minimal absorption and scattering by organic molecules and oxide nanoparticles within wet gels. This allowed for the fabrication of deeply penetrating, well resolved patterns. Similarly, nanoporous monoliths with a typical aerogel core and a mechanically robust exterior ceramic layer were synthesized from silica aerogels cross-linked with polyacrylonitrile. Simple variations of the exposure geometry allowed fabrication of a wide variety of anisotropic materials without requiring layering or bonding. Nanoparticle solutions were prepared by laser ablation of metal foils (Fe and Mo) in ethanol. Ablation of Fe generated Fe3O4 and Fe3C nanoparticles which were superparamagnetic with a saturation magnetization Ms = 124 emu/g. Zero field cooled (ZFC) measurements collected at an applied field of 50 Oe displayed a maximum magnetic susceptibility at 120 K with a broad distribution. Field cooled (FC) measurements showed a thermal hysteresis indicative of temperature dependent magnetic viscosity. Pulsed laser ablation of a Mo foil in ethanol generated inhomogeneous nanoparticles where Mo and MoC coexisted within the same aggregate. Formation of these unique nanoparticles is likely due to phase separation that occurs when a high temperature carbide phase cools after the laser pulse terminates. Similarly, magnetic nanoparticle suspensions were generated by pulsed laser ablation of Fe and Mo in ethanol. The formation of several carbide phases with no discernable alloy formation was seen. A decrease in magnetization with a decrease in Fe concentration was seen which was reconciled with the decreased Fe content in the system. However, at Fe concentrations below ˜ 40%, an increase in Ms and Hc was observed which was reconciled with the disappearance of the epsilon--Fe3C. TEM analysis showed the formation of core-shell nanoparticles and Energy Filtered TEM showed the distribution of Fe-based nanoparticles in the suspensions.

  12. Piperine: bioactivities and structural modifications.

    PubMed

    Qu, Huan; Lv, Min; Xu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Piperine is a simple alkaloid isolated from the seeds of Piper nigrum. Piperine and its derivatives exhibited a wide range of biological properties such as antitumor activity, antioxidant activity, antiinflammatory activity, antimycobacterial activity, insecticidal activity, etc. Although five excellent reviews have recently been described by Srinivasan in 2007, Mao in 2011, Butt in 2013, and Meghwal in 2013, respectively, their topics were mainly focused on the biological effects. Therefore, in the present review, the progress in the structural modifications on the aliphatic chain and the amide moiety of piperine was reported. Meanwhile, the biological activities and structure-activity relationship of piperine and its derivatives were also described. PMID:25553428

  13. Mesoatrial shunt: a prosthesis modification.

    PubMed

    Cameron, J L; Kadir, S; Pierce, W S

    1984-07-01

    The mesoatrial shunt is the indicated treatment in the Budd-Chiari syndrome when the inferior vena cava is occluded and not usable for the standard portasystemic shunts. As the mesoatrial shunt courses from the abdomen into the right side of the chest, it passes posterior to the xiphoid and sternum and frequently is compressed at this point. A prosthesis modification is reported whereby an exterior silicone rubber cuff is bonded to the Dacron or Gortex graft at the point at which it passes posterior to the sternum. This obviates the possibility of graft compression and should increase long-term patency. PMID:6234672

  14. Death, autoantigen modifications, and tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Utz,, Paul J; Gensler, Timothy J; Anderson, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Autoantibodies present in the serum of patients with a variety of inflammatory diseases have proven useful as diagnostic markers and as probes with which to elucidate biochemical and signaling pathways. The mechanisms governing the generation of autoantibodies remain elusive, constituting a critical missing link in our understanding of rheumatologic illnesses. Several lines of experimentation in recent years have strongly implicated events surrounding cell death in this process. This review will address the potential role played by death-specific modifications of autoantigens in bypassing tolerance to highly conserved autoantigens, including nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins. PMID:11094420

  15. Chromatin modifications in DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Ashby J; Shen, Xuetong

    2006-01-01

    A requirement of nuclear processes that use DNA as a substrate is the manipulation of chromatin in which the DNA is packaged. Chromatin modifications cause alterations of histones and DNA, and result in a permissive chromatin environment for these nuclear processes. Recent advances in the fields of DNA repair and chromatin reveal that both histone modifications and chromatin-remodeling complexes are essential for the repair of DNA lesions, such as DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). In particular, chromatin-modifying complexes, such as the INO80, SWR1, RSC, and SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes and the NuA4 and Tip60 histone acetyltransferase complexes are implicated in DNA repair. The activity of these chromatin-modifying complexes influences the efficiency of the DNA repair process, which ultimately affects genome integrity and carcinogenesis. Thus, the process of DNA repair requires the cooperative activities of evolutionarily conserved chromatin-modifying complexes that facilitate the dynamic chromatin alterations needed during repair of DNA damage. PMID:16909893

  16. 45 CFR 162.506 - Standard unique health plan identifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard unique health plan identifier. 162.506 Section 162.506 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Standard Unique Health Identifier for Health Plans §...

  17. 12 CFR 34.105 - Use of unique identifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of unique identifier. 34.105 Section 34.105 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Registration of Residential Mortgage Loan Originators § 34.105 Use of unique identifier. (a)...

  18. 12 CFR 34.105 - Use of unique identifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of unique identifier. 34.105 Section 34.105 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Registration of Residential Mortgage Loan Originators § 34.105 Use of unique identifier. (a)...

  19. 12 CFR 34.105 - Use of unique identifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of unique identifier. 34.105 Section 34.105 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Registration of Residential Mortgage Loan Originators § 34.105 Use of unique identifier. (a)...

  20. 12 CFR 34.105 - Use of unique identifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of unique identifier. 34.105 Section 34.105 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Registration of Residential Mortgage Loan Originators § 34.105 Use of unique identifier. (a)...

  1. 12 CFR 610.105 - Use of unique identifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of unique identifier. 610.105 Section 610.105 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM REGISTRATION OF MORTGAGE LOAN ORIGINATORS § 610.105 Use of unique identifier. (a) The Farm Credit System institution shall make the...

  2. 12 CFR 610.105 - Use of unique identifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of unique identifier. 610.105 Section 610.105 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM REGISTRATION OF MORTGAGE LOAN ORIGINATORS § 610.105 Use of unique identifier. (a) The Farm Credit System institution shall make the...

  3. 12 CFR 610.105 - Use of unique identifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of unique identifier. 610.105 Section 610.105 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM REGISTRATION OF MORTGAGE LOAN ORIGINATORS § 610.105 Use of unique identifier. (a) The Farm Credit System institution shall make the...

  4. 13 CFR 120.344 - Unique requirements of the EWCP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unique requirements of the EWCP. 120.344 Section 120.344 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Special Purpose Loans Export Working Capital Program (ewcp) 120.344 Unique requirements of the EWCP....

  5. Review of Rule Modification in Sport

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Jose L.; Argudo, Francisco M.; Alonso, Jose I.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this qualitative review was to analyze the state of the bibliography about rule modification in sport. In the literature reviewed, there are few studies of rule modification and related aspects. Most studies omit mentioning the purpose of the modifications, but they do refer to the goals of their analysis (improving players' performance, attracting spectators and athletes, attending to commercial pressure, adapting the sport to children’s needs and interests, preventing injuries). Eighty percent of the studies did not report the outcome of the previous modifications they analyzed. More than half of the studies (60%) achieved the proposed goals. Nearly two-thirds (63.83%) analyzed the effect of rule modification on game actions occurring during the game or through a test. Most of the studies (91.5%) did not consult the participants. Three-fourths of the studies (74.46%) examined the effect of rule modification without any knowledge of a previous analysis or without any previous analysis, and 74.47% studied rule modification related to internal logic. Modifications to be introduced in a sport should be analyzed through a reflective process before their final introduction. The following points should be considered: establishing goals, respecting the basic rules without modifying them, becoming familiar with players’ and coaches’ opinions, determining the effect of the modification on a wide spectrum of variables, elaborating useful proposals for the organizations that are responsible for competitions, using more than one type of data, modifying the internal logic and, preferably, the functional rules, and following some basic stages to consolidate rule modification. Key points Rule modification involves processes that seek change in the game conditions with a certain goal in mind. The rules related to internal logic model the game actions that are characteristic of a sport. Functional rules facilitate achieving the goals. There are few valid research studies on which to base the modifications. Modifications in a sport should be validated after a reflective process before they are introduced. PMID:24149289

  6. Salience of unique hues and implications for color theory.

    PubMed

    Wool, Lauren E; Komban, Stanley J; Kremkow, Jens; Jansen, Michael; Li, Xiaobing; Alonso, Jose-Manuel; Zaidi, Qasim

    2015-01-01

    The unique hues--blue, green, yellow, red--form the fundamental dimensions of opponent-color theories, are considered universal across languages, and provide useful mental representations for structuring color percepts. However, there is no neural evidence for them from neurophysiology or low-level psychophysics. Tapping a higher prelinguistic perceptual level, we tested whether unique hues are particularly salient in search tasks. We found no advantage for unique hues over their nonunique complementary colors. However, yellowish targets were detected faster, more accurately, and with fewer saccades than their complementary bluish targets (including unique blue), while reddish-greenish pairs were not significantly different in salience. Similarly, local field potentials in primate V1 exhibited larger amplitudes and shorter latencies for yellowish versus bluish stimuli, whereas this effect was weaker for reddish versus greenish stimuli. Consequently, color salience is affected more by early neural response asymmetries than by any possible mental or neural representation of unique hues. PMID:25761328

  7. Salience of unique hues and implications for color theory

    PubMed Central

    Wool, Lauren E.; Komban, Stanley J.; Kremkow, Jens; Jansen, Michael; Li, Xiaobing; Alonso, Jose-Manuel; Zaidi, Qasim

    2015-01-01

    The unique hues—blue, green, yellow, red—form the fundamental dimensions of opponent-color theories, are considered universal across languages, and provide useful mental representations for structuring color percepts. However, there is no neural evidence for them from neurophysiology or low-level psychophysics. Tapping a higher prelinguistic perceptual level, we tested whether unique hues are particularly salient in search tasks. We found no advantage for unique hues over their nonunique complementary colors. However, yellowish targets were detected faster, more accurately, and with fewer saccades than their complementary bluish targets (including unique blue), while reddish-greenish pairs were not significantly different in salience. Similarly, local field potentials in primate V1 exhibited larger amplitudes and shorter latencies for yellowish versus bluish stimuli, whereas this effect was weaker for reddish versus greenish stimuli. Consequently, color salience is affected more by early neural response asymmetries than by any possible mental or neural representation of unique hues. PMID:25761328

  8. Black-hole uniqueness theorems in Euclidean quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Lapedes, A.S.

    1980-10-15

    The Euclidean section of the classical Lorentzian black-hole solutions has been used in approximating the functional integral in the Euclidean path-integral approach to quantum gravity. In this paper the claim that classical black-hole uniqueness theorems apply to the Euclidean section is disproved. In particular, it is shown that although a Euclidean version of Israel's theorem does provide a type of uniqueness theorem for the Euclidean Schwarzschild solution, a Euclidean version of Robinson's theorem does not allow one to form conclusions about the uniqueness of the Euclidean Kerr solution. Despite the failure of uniqueness theorems, ''no-hair'' theorems are shown to exist. Implications are discussed. A precise mathematical statement of the Euclidean black-hole uniqueness conjecture is made and the proof, left as an unsolved problem in Riemannian geometry.

  9. The partial retro-inverso modification: a road traveled together.

    PubMed

    Chorev, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In the mid-1970s, Dr. Murray Goodman was interested in a reversed peptide bond as a surrogate to understand the functional role of the amide bond in aspartame, a dipeptide sweetener. Very soon, realizing the breath and potential of this modification, Murray expanded this activity into a full program and I was fortunate to be part of it. Together we formulated new concepts such as the partially modified retro-inverso and end-group modified retro-inverso transformations, tested hypotheses, generated novel nomenclature, developed synthetic routes, characterized the preferred conformations of the unique building blocks employed in this modification, the gem-diaminoalkyl and the C2-substituted malonyl residues, and studied the biological activity of retro-inverso isomers of bioactive peptides. In the early 1980s several laboratories initiated extensive research targeted at the retro-inverso modification. The revival of this field led to new applications, new methods of synthesis, and new insights on the conformational and topological properties of the retro-inverso modification. Among the fields that embraced the retro-inverso concept were immunology as pertains to subjects such as synthetic vaccines, immunomodulators, and diagnostic tools, and drug delivery field as pertains to targeted and nontargeted cell permeation vectors loaded with bioactive cargo. Doctor Murray Goodman's sudden death leaves behind not only family, friends, and colleagues, but also an impressive record of scientific achievements among which is the revival of the modern era of the retro-inverso transformation. Murray's numerous contributions, excellent leadership, enthusiastic promotion, and outstanding teachings in this field will carry and illuminate his memory far into the future. PMID:15729688

  10. Modification of mainframe BOAST II

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, J.M.; Morton, D.J.; Schenewerk, P.A.; Bourgoyne, A.T.; Kimbrell, W.C.; Dorroh, J.R.

    1998-07-01

    BOAST II is a black-oil, applied-simulation tool used routinely for performing evaluation and design work in modern petroleum reservoir engineering. Personnel from the Louisiana State University Computer Science Department worked on modifying the mainframe version of this program through the simulation of two-phase flow of slightly compressible fluids in a three-dimensional porous medium. This included the construction of a FORTRAN program that uses 3-D finite elements to approximate the governing equations. The existing finite element code was adapted so that virtually any size of element could easily be incorporated into the solution scheme. This gave increased flexibility and made it possible to utilize mesh refinement techniques. Modifications to the mainframe version also involved the development and integration of radial grid systems suitable for the investigations proposed in the project.

  11. Experimental modification of attribution processes.

    PubMed

    Peters, Kelly D; Constans, Joseph I; Mathews, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    Attributional style is hypothesized to be a causative factor in depression vulnerability; however, no studies to date have examined whether manipulation of attributional style influences depressed mood. The purpose of this study was to determine whether computer-based cognitive bias modification (CBM) procedures could modify attributional style and influence stress vulnerability. Participants were provided with multiple training trials that were intended to promote the use of either a positive or a negative attributional style. Compared with individuals in the negative attributional style condition, individuals in the positive attributional style condition showed decreased tendency to make self-deficient causal attributions for poor performance on a difficult anagram test. Furthermore, individuals in the positive attributional style condition reported less depressed mood in response to this academic stressor. These results suggest that attributional style is not invariable and can potentially be modified with CBM approaches. PMID:21319929

  12. Paper surface modification by lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zekou, E.; Kotsifaki, D. G.; Serafetinides, A. A.

    2010-10-01

    Lasers can provide a precious tool to conservation process due to their accuracy and the controlled energy they deliver, especially to fragile organic material such as paper. The current study concerns laser modification such as paper cleaning, initially of test papers artificially soiled and then of an original book of the early 20th Century. The test objects were A4 copier paper, newspaper, and paper Whatman No.1056. During the experiments, ink of a pen, pencil and ink from a stamp was mechanically employed on each paper surface. Laser cleaning was applied using a Q-switched Nd:YAG operating at 532 nm and CO2 laser at 10.6 μm for various fluences. The experimental results were presented by using optical microscopy. Eventually, laser cleaning of ink was performed to a book of 1934, by choosing the best conditions and parameters from cleaning the test samples, like Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm.

  13. 75 FR 41530 - Petitions for Modification; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ...The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) published a document in the Federal Register of June 17, 2010, concerning petitions for modification of existing safety standards. The document contains an under II. Petitions for Modification, Modification Request, paragraph 2. Docket Numbers: M-2010-024-C, M-2010-025-C, M-2010-026-C, M-2010- 027-C, and M-2010-028-C. Petitioners:......

  14. On the Development of a Unique Arc Jet Test Apparatus for Control Surface Seal Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Robbie, Malcolm; Baker, Gus; Erker, Arthur

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn has developed a unique test apparatus capable of evaluating control surface seal and flap designs under simulated reentry heating conditions in NASA Johnson's arc jet test facility. The test apparatus is capable of testing a variety of seal designs with a variety of control surface materials and designs using modular components. The flap angle can be varied during testing, allowing modification of the seal environment while testing is in progress. The flap angle is varied using an innovative transmission system which limits heat transfer from the hot flap structure to the motor, all while keeping the components properly aligned regardless of thermal expansion. A combination of active and passive cooling is employed to prevent thermal damage to the test fixture while still obtaining the target seal temperature.

  15. Changes in unique hues induced by chromatic surrounds.

    PubMed

    Klauke, Susanne; Wachtler, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    A chromatic surround can have a strong influence on the perceived hue of a stimulus. We investigated whether chromatic induction has similar effects on the perception of colors that appear pure and unmixed (unique red, green, blue, and yellow) as on other colors. Subjects performed unique hue settings of stimuli in isoluminant surrounds of different chromaticities. Compared with the settings in a neutral gray surround, unique hue settings altered systematically with chromatic surrounds. The amount of induced hue shift depended on the difference between stimulus and surround hues, and was similar for unique hue settings as for settings of nonunique hues. Intraindividual variability in unique hue settings was roughly twice as high as for settings obtained in asymmetric matching experiments, which may reflect the presence of a reference stimulus in the matching task. Variabilities were also larger with chromatic surrounds than with neutral gray surrounds, for both unique hue settings and matching of nonunique hues. The results suggest that the neural representations underlying unique hue percepts are influenced by the same neural processing mechanisms as the percepts of other colors. PMID:26974931

  16. Epigenetic Modifications and Plant Hormone Action.

    PubMed

    Yamamuro, Chizuko; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Yang, Zhenbiao

    2016-01-01

    The action of phytohormones in plants requires the spatiotemporal regulation of their accumulation and responses at various levels. Recent studies reveal an emerging relationship between the function of phytohormones and epigenetic modifications. In particular, evidence suggests that auxin biosynthesis, transport, and signal transduction is modulated by microRNAs and epigenetic factors such as histone modification, chromatin remodeling, and DNA methylation. Furthermore, some phytohormones have been shown to affect epigenetic modifications. These findings are shedding light on the mode of action of phytohormones and are opening up a new avenue of research on phytohormones as well as on the mechanisms regulating epigenetic modifications. PMID:26520015

  17. On the unique reconstruction of induced spherical magnetizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhards, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Recovering spherical magnetizations m from magnetic field data in the exterior is a highly non-unique problem. A spherical Hardy-Hodge decomposition supplies information on what contributions of the magnetization m are recoverable but it does not supply geophysically suitable constraints on m that would guarantee uniqueness for the entire magnetization. In this paper, we focus on the case of induced spherical magnetizations and show that uniqueness is guaranteed if one assumes that the magnetization is compactly supported on the sphere. The results are based on ideas presented in (Baratchart et al 2013 Inverse Problems 29 015004) for the planar setting.

  18. Diagnosis and management of obstetrical complications unique to multiple gestations.

    PubMed

    Graham, George M; Gaddipati, Sreedhar

    2005-10-01

    Obstetrical complications unique to multiple gestations pose a number of unique challenges. The presence of more than one fetus complicates the diagnosis and management of a pregnancy when one fetus has a structural or chromosomal abnormality, intrauterine demise, preterm premature rupture of the membranes, or delivers prematurely. Similarly, the diagnosis and management of monoamniotic twins and conjoined twins is challenging. These obstetrical complications that are unique to multiple gestations require thorough counseling of the expectant parents, as well as care by physicians with expertise in the management of multiple gestations. PMID:16360487

  19. Medium-range restriction maps of five chromosomes of Leishmania infantum and localization of size-variable regions

    SciTech Connect

    Ravel, C.; Wincker, P.; Blaineau, C.

    1996-08-01

    This report describes the localization of the gene coding for human deoxyhypusine synthase (DHPS) to human chromosome 19p13.11-p13.12 using fluorescence in situ hybridization and somatic cell hybridization analysis. DHPS plays a vital role in the modification of hypusine. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Lantibiotics: biosynthesis and biological activities of uniquely modified peptides from gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sahl, H G; Bierbaum, G

    1998-01-01

    A plethora of novel gene-encoded antimicrobial peptides from animals, plants and bacteria has been described during the last decade. Many of the bacterial peptides possess modified building blocks such as thioethers and thiazoles or unsaturated and stereoinverted amino acids, which are unique among ribosomally made peptides. Genetic and biochemical studies of many of these peptides, mostly the so-called lantibiotics, have revealed the degree to which cells are capable of transforming peptides by posttranslational modification. The biosynthesis follows a general scheme: Precursor peptides are first modified and then proteolytically activated; the latter may occur prior to, concomitantly with or after export from the cell. The genes for the biosynthetic machinery are organized in clusters and include information for the antibiotic prepeptide, the modification enzymes and accessory functions such as dedicated proteases and ABC transporters as well as immunity factors and regulatory proteins. These fundamental aspects are discussed along with the biotechnological potential of the peptides and of the biosynthesis enzymes, which could be used for construction of novel, peptide-based biomedical effector molecules. PMID:9891793

  1. 221. View entering smart view. Note the unique snake rail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    221. View entering smart view. Note the unique snake rail fence. The pond was a manipulated landscape element. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  2. Uniqueness in inverse boundary value problems for fractional diffusion equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiyuan; Imanuvilov, Oleg Yu; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    We consider an inverse boundary value problem for diffusion equations with multiple fractional time derivatives. We prove the uniqueness in determining the number of fractional time-derivative terms, the orders of the derivatives and spatially varying coefficients.

  3. Comparison of Bacillus monooxygenase genes for unique fatty acid production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews Bacillus genes encoding monooxygenase enzymes producing unique fatty acid metabolites. Specifically, it examines standard monooxygenase electron transfer schemes and related domain structures of these fused domain enzymes on route to understanding the observed oxygenase activiti...

  4. Unique-sample selection via near-infrared spectral subtraction

    SciTech Connect

    Honigs, D.E.; Hieftje, G.M.; Mark, H.L.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1985-10-01

    A method is described and tested for improving the training sample set in near-infrared diffuse-reflectance analysis (NIRA). Utilizing linear algebra techniques similar to spectral subtraction, this method selects the most spectrally unique samples from those in a larger pool. Upon being analyzed, these spectrally unique samples are found to have a significantly larger variation in their chemical compositions than the pool of samples from which they were selected. When the spectrally unique samples are incorporated into a NIRA training set, the resulting calibration is improved in two ways: first, the larger variations in sample composition help to make a NIRA calibration more robust and less subject to unexpected variations in the sample matrix; second, use of the spectrally unique samples reduces the time and effort involved in developing a NIRA method of analysis. 13 references, 2 figures, 7 tables.

  5. Unique in the Crowd: The privacy bounds of human mobility

    PubMed Central

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Hidalgo, César A.; Verleysen, Michel; Blondel, Vincent D.

    2013-01-01

    We study fifteen months of human mobility data for one and a half million individuals and find that human mobility traces are highly unique. In fact, in a dataset where the location of an individual is specified hourly, and with a spatial resolution equal to that given by the carrier's antennas, four spatio-temporal points are enough to uniquely identify 95% of the individuals. We coarsen the data spatially and temporally to find a formula for the uniqueness of human mobility traces given their resolution and the available outside information. This formula shows that the uniqueness of mobility traces decays approximately as the 1/10 power of their resolution. Hence, even coarse datasets provide little anonymity. These findings represent fundamental constraints to an individual's privacy and have important implications for the design of frameworks and institutions dedicated to protect the privacy of individuals. PMID:23524645

  6. Uniqueness in the forensic identification sciences--fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Page, Mark; Taylor, Jane; Blenkin, Matt

    2011-03-20

    Fingerprint analysts, firearms and toolmark examiners, and forensic odontologists often rely on the uniqueness proposition in order to support their theory of identification. However, much of the literature claiming to have proven uniqueness in the forensic identification sciences is methodologically weak, and suffers flaws that negate any such conclusion being drawn. The finding of uniqueness in any study appears to be an overstatement of the significance of its results, and in several instances, this claim is made despite contrary data being presented. The mathematical and philosophical viewpoint regarding this topic is that obtaining definitive proof of uniqueness is considered impossible by modern scientific methods. More importantly, there appears to be no logical reason to pursue such research, as commentators have established that uniqueness is not the essential requirement for forming forensic conclusions. The courts have also accepted this in several recent cases in the United States, and have dismissed the concept of uniqueness as irrelevant to the more fundamental question of the reliability of the forensic analysis. PMID:20832209

  7. Infections associated with body modification.

    PubMed

    Wong, Samson Sai-Yin; Wong, Sally Cheuk-Ying; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-12-01

    Although exact statistics are lacking, body modifications for cosmetic purposes are performed in many countries. The commonest forms include tattooing, body piercing, and breast and facial augmentation using implants or injectable fillers. Liposuction and, to a lesser extent, mesotherapy are also practiced in many countries. Infective complications of these procedures include local infections, transmission of bloodborne pathogens (viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus), and distant infections such as infective endocarditis. Presence of foreign bodies, long healing time of piercing wounds, and poor compliance with infection control practices of some practitioners all predispose the recipients to infections. Apart from the endogenous microbial flora of the skin and mucosae, atypical mycobacteria, especially the rapid growers, have emerged as some of the most important pathogens in such settings. Outbreaks of infection are commonly reported. We hereby review the current knowledge of the topic with specific focus on infections associated with tattooing, body piercing, breast augmentation, mesotherapy, liposuction, and tissue filler injections. Greater awareness among consumers and health-care professionals, as well as more stringent regulations by the health authorities, is essential to minimize the health risks arising from these procedures. PMID:23265745

  8. Epigenetic Modifications during Angiosperm Gametogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Migicovsky, Zo; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Angiosperms do not contain a distinct germline, but rather develop gametes from gametophyte initials that undergo cell division. These gametes contain cells that give rise to an endosperm and the embryo. DNA methylation is decreased in the vegetative nucleus (VN) and central cell nuclei (CCN) resulting in expression of transposable elements (TEs). It is thought that the siRNAs produced in response to TE expression are able to travel to the sperm cells and egg cells (EC) from VN and CCN, respectively, in order to enforce silencing there. Demethylation during gametogenesis helps ensure that even newly integrated TEs are expressed and therefore silenced by the resulting siRNA production. A final form of epigenetic control is modification of histones, which includes accumulation of the H3 variant HTR10 in mature sperm that is then completely replaced following fertilization. In females, the histone isoforms present in the EC and CCN differ, potentially helping to differentiate the two components during gametogenesis. PMID:22645573

  9. Using the Modification Index and Standardized Expected Parameter Change for Model Modification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Tiffany A.

    2012-01-01

    Model modification is oftentimes conducted after discovering a badly fitting structural equation model. During the modification process, the modification index (MI) and the standardized expected parameter change (SEPC) are 2 statistics that may be used to aid in the selection of parameters to add to a model to improve the fit. The purpose of this…

  10. 7 CFR 763.19 - Contract modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contract modification. 763.19 Section 763.19... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS LAND CONTRACT GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 763.19 Contract modification. (a) The seller and buyer may modify the land contract to lower the interest rate and corresponding amortized...

  11. 40 CFR 60.304 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modifications. 60.304 Section 60.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Grain Elevators § 60.304 Modifications....

  12. 40 CFR 60.304 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modifications. 60.304 Section 60.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Grain Elevators § 60.304 Modifications....

  13. 30 CFR 44.53 - Amended modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amended modification. 44.53 Section 44.53 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FILING AND OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS RULES OF PRACTICE FOR PETITIONS FOR MODIFICATION OF MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS Effect of Initial Decision § 44.53...

  14. 30 CFR 44.53 - Amended modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amended modification. 44.53 Section 44.53 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FILING AND OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS RULES OF PRACTICE FOR PETITIONS FOR MODIFICATION OF MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS Effect of Initial Decision § 44.53...

  15. 30 CFR 44.53 - Amended modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amended modification. 44.53 Section 44.53 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FILING AND OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS RULES OF PRACTICE FOR PETITIONS FOR MODIFICATION OF MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS Effect of Initial Decision § 44.53...

  16. 30 CFR 44.53 - Amended modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amended modification. 44.53 Section 44.53 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FILING AND OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS RULES OF PRACTICE FOR PETITIONS FOR MODIFICATION OF MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS Effect of Initial Decision § 44.53...

  17. Behavior Modification: A Practical Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteet, James A.

    This teachers guide in behavior modification is divided into five chapters. Chapter one, "Describing Behavior," presents methods for specifying behaviors in precise wording, labeling behavior, and deciding on the target behavior (behavior designated for modification). Chapter two, "Measuring Behavior," describes and illustrates by means of graphs

  18. The Modification of Compounds by Attributive Adjectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the modification of nominal compounds by attributive adjectives in English. It draws on a distinction between compound-external (i.e. syntactic) and compound-internal (i.e. morphological) modification. An analysis is presented of more than 1000 pertinent cases, which are roughly equally divided into two-, three- and four-noun

  19. 7 CFR 636.10 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modifications. 636.10 Section 636.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVES PROGRAM § 636.10 Modifications. (a)...

  20. 7 CFR 636.10 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Modifications. 636.10 Section 636.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.10 Modifications. (a)...

  1. 7 CFR 636.10 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Modifications. 636.10 Section 636.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.10 Modifications. (a)...

  2. 7 CFR 636.10 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Modifications. 636.10 Section 636.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.10 Modifications. (a)...

  3. 7 CFR 636.10 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Modifications. 636.10 Section 636.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.10 Modifications. (a)...

  4. 75 FR 12793 - Petitions for Modification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ...Section 101(c) of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 and 30 CFR Part 44 govern the application, processing, and disposition of petitions for modification. This notice is a summary of petitions for modification filed by the parties listed below to modify the application of existing mandatory safety standards published in Title 30 of the Code of Federal...

  5. 40 CFR 58.14 - System modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false System modification. 58.14 Section 58.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Monitoring Network § 58.14 System modification. (a) The State, or...

  6. 40 CFR 58.14 - System modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false System modification. 58.14 Section 58.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Monitoring Network § 58.14 System modification. (a) The State, or...

  7. 40 CFR 58.14 - System modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false System modification. 58.14 Section 58.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Monitoring Network § 58.14 System modification. (a) The State, or...

  8. Modification of integrated partial payload lifting assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groah, Melodie; Haddock, Michael; Woodworth, Warren

    1986-01-01

    The Integrated Partial Payload Lifting Assembly (IPPLA) is currently used to transport and load experimental payloads into the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. It is unable to carry the astronaut/passenger tunnel without a structural modification. The purpose of this design is to create a removalbe modification that will allow the IPPLA to lift and carry the passenger tunnel. Modifications evaluated were full-length insert beams which would extend through the existing strongback arms. These beam proposals were eliminated because of high cost and weight. Other proposals evaluated were attachments of cantilever beams to the existing strongback areas. The cantilever proposals reduced cost and weight compared to the full-length modifications. A third method evaluated was to simply make modifications to one side of the IPPLA therefore reducing the materials of the cantilever proposals by 40 percent. The design of the modification selected was completed with two channel beams jointly welded to a centered steel plate. The extension arm modification is inserted into the existing strongback channel beams and bolted into place. Two extension arms are added to one side of the IPPLA to provide the extra length needed to accommodate the passenger tunnel. The center counterbalance will then be offset about 20 inches to center gravity and therefore maintain horizontal status. The extension arm modification was selected because of minimum cost, low weight, and minimal installation time.

  9. Characterization of Surface Modification of Polyethersulfone Membrane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface modification of polyethersulfone (PES) membrane surface using UV/ozone-treated grafting and interfacial polymerization on membrane surface was investigated in order to improve the resistance of membrane surface to protein adsorption. These methods of surface modification were compared in te...

  10. Modifications Of Hydrostatic-Bearing Computer Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbs, Robert I., Jr.; Beatty, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Several modifications made to enhance utility of HBEAR, computer program for analysis and design of hydrostatic bearings. Modifications make program applicable to more realistic cases and reduce time and effort necessary to arrive at a suitable design. Uses search technique to iterate on size of orifice to obtain required pressure ratio.

  11. 7 CFR 1467.13 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.13 Modifications. (a... the program so long as the modification will not adversely affect the wetland functions and values for... of other lands that provide greater wetland functions and values at no additional cost to...

  12. 14 CFR 1274.802 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Modifications. 1274.802 Section 1274.802 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL... agreement in particular, modifications that affect funding, milestone payments, program schedule...

  13. 14 CFR 1274.802 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Modifications. 1274.802 Section 1274.802 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL... agreement in particular, modifications that affect funding, milestone payments, program schedule...

  14. 14 CFR 1274.802 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Modifications. 1274.802 Section 1274.802 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL... agreement in particular, modifications that affect funding, milestone payments, program schedule...

  15. 7 CFR 1467.13 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modifications. 1467.13 Section 1467.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.13 Modifications....

  16. The Modification of Compounds by Attributive Adjectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the modification of nominal compounds by attributive adjectives in English. It draws on a distinction between compound-external (i.e. syntactic) and compound-internal (i.e. morphological) modification. An analysis is presented of more than 1000 pertinent cases, which are roughly equally divided into two-, three- and four-noun…

  17. 7 CFR 993.400 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modifications. 993.400 Section 993.400 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Undersized Prune Regulation § 993.400 Modifications. Pursuant to the authority in § 993.52, the provisions...

  18. 46 CFR 309.7 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modifications. 309.7 Section 309.7 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS VALUES FOR WAR RISK INSURANCE § 309.7 Modifications. The Maritime Administration reserves the right to exempt any vessel from the scope of this...

  19. 40 CFR 35.6750 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrative Requirements for Cooperative Agreements § 35.6750 Modifications. The recipient must comply with the requirements regarding changes to the Cooperative Agreement described in 40 CFR 31.30. ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modifications. 35.6750 Section...

  20. 75 FR 27004 - Petitions for Modification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ..., MSHA I.D. No. 15-02263). MSHA published the notice in the Federal Register on December 21, 2009 (74 FR... Safety and Health Administration Petitions for Modification This notice amends the petition for modification submitted by Lone Mountain Processing, Inc., on July 15, 2009, (Docket Number M-2009-024- C)....

  1. 24 CFR 203.342 - Mortgage modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage modification. 203.342 Section 203.342 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Mortgage modification. If a mortgage is recast pursuant to § 203.616, the principal amount of the...

  2. 7 CFR 1410.33 - Contract modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract modifications. 1410.33 Section 1410.33 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... modifications. (a) As agreed between CCC and the participant, a CRP contract may be modified in order to:...

  3. UAE Teachers' Awareness & Perceptions of Testing Modifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elhoweris, Hala; Alsheikh, Negmeldin

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were threefold: (a) to determine whether the United Arab Emirates (UAE) general and special education teachers were making any specific testing modifications for students with disabilities; (b) to survey UAE general and special education teachers' perceptions of testing modifications in terms of their usefulness,…

  4. 39 CFR 3020.91 - Modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modification. 3020.91 Section 3020.91 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL PRODUCT LISTS Requests Initiated by the Postal Service to Change the Mail Classification Schedule § 3020.91 Modification. The Postal Service shall...

  5. 40 CFR 58.14 - System modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false System modification. 58.14 Section 58...) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Monitoring Network § 58.14 System modification. (a) The State, or where... contingency measure to be triggered by an air quality concentration and the monitor to be discontinued is...

  6. 75 FR 12796 - Petitions for Modification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ...Section 101(c) of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 and 30 CFR Part 44 govern the application, processing, and disposition of petitions for modification. This notice is a summary of petitions for modification filed by the parties listed below to modify the application of existing mandatory safety standards published in Title 30 of the Code of Federal...

  7. Emerging roles of RNA modifications in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Marbaniang, Carmelita Nora; Vogel, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    RNA modifications are known to abound in stable tRNA and rRNA, where they cluster around functionally important regions. However, RNA-seq based techniques profiling entire transcriptomes are now uncovering an abundance of modified ribonucleotides in mRNAs and noncoding RNAs, too. While most of the recent progress in understanding the regulatory influence of these new RNA modifications stems from eukaryotes, there is growing evidence in bacteria for modified nucleotides beyond the stable RNA species, including modifications of small regulatory RNAs. Given their small genome size, good genetic tractability, and ample knowledge of modification enzymes, bacteria offer excellent model systems to decipher cellular functions of RNA modifications in many diverse physiological contexts. This review highlights how new global approaches combining classic analysis with new sequencing techniques may usher in an era of bacterial epitranscriptomics. PMID:26803287

  8. Absolute quantitation of protein posttranslational modification isoform.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhu; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has been widely applied in characterization and quantification of proteins from complex biological samples. Because the numbers of absolute amounts of proteins are needed in construction of mathematical models for molecular systems of various biological phenotypes and phenomena, a number of quantitative proteomic methods have been adopted to measure absolute quantities of proteins using mass spectrometry. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with internal peptide standards, i.e., the stable isotope-coded peptide dilution series, which was originated from the field of analytical chemistry, becomes a widely applied method in absolute quantitative proteomics research. This approach provides more and more absolute protein quantitation results of high confidence. As quantitative study of posttranslational modification (PTM) that modulates the biological activity of proteins is crucial for biological science and each isoform may contribute a unique biological function, degradation, and/or subcellular location, the absolute quantitation of protein PTM isoforms has become more relevant to its biological significance. In order to obtain the absolute cellular amount of a PTM isoform of a protein accurately, impacts of protein fractionation, protein enrichment, and proteolytic digestion yield should be taken into consideration and those effects before differentially stable isotope-coded PTM peptide standards are spiked into sample peptides have to be corrected. Assisted with stable isotope-labeled peptide standards, the absolute quantitation of isoforms of posttranslationally modified protein (AQUIP) method takes all these factors into account and determines the absolute amount of a protein PTM isoform from the absolute amount of the protein of interest and the PTM occupancy at the site of the protein. The absolute amount of the protein of interest is inferred by quantifying both the absolute amounts of a few PTM-site-independent peptides in the total cellular protein and their peptide yields. The PTM occupancy determination is achieved by measuring the absolute amounts of both PTM and non-PTM peptides from the highly purified protein sample expressed in transgenic organisms or directly isolated from an organism using affinity purification. The absolute amount of each PTM isoform in the total cellular protein extract is finally calculated from these two variables. Following this approach, the ion intensities given by mass spectrometers are used to calculated the peptide amounts, from which the amounts of protein isoforms are then deduced. In this chapter, we describe the principles underlying the experimental design and procedures used in AQUIP method. This quantitation method basically employs stable isotope-labeled peptide standards and affinity purification from a tagged recombinant protein of interest. Other quantitation strategies and purification techniques related to this method are also discussed. PMID:25930697

  9. On the Cauchy Problem for the Homogeneous Boltzmann-Nordheim Equation for Bosons: Local Existence, Uniqueness and Creation of Moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briant, Marc; Einav, Amit

    2016-04-01

    The Boltzmann-Nordheim equation is a modification of the Boltzmann equation, based on physical considerations, that describes the dynamics of the distribution of particles in a quantum gas composed of bosons or fermions. In this work we investigate the Cauchy theory of the spatially homogeneous Boltzmann-Nordheim equation for bosons, in dimension d≥slant 3 . We show existence and uniqueness locally in time for any initial data in L^∞ (1+| v| ^s) with finite mass and energy, for a suitable s, as well as the instantaneous creation of moments of all order.

  10. On the Cauchy Problem for the Homogeneous Boltzmann-Nordheim Equation for Bosons: Local Existence, Uniqueness and Creation of Moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briant, Marc; Einav, Amit

    2016-06-01

    The Boltzmann-Nordheim equation is a modification of the Boltzmann equation, based on physical considerations, that describes the dynamics of the distribution of particles in a quantum gas composed of bosons or fermions. In this work we investigate the Cauchy theory of the spatially homogeneous Boltzmann-Nordheim equation for bosons, in dimension d≥slant 3. We show existence and uniqueness locally in time for any initial data in L^∞ (1+| v| ^s) with finite mass and energy, for a suitable s, as well as the instantaneous creation of moments of all order.

  11. Chemical Reporter for Visualizing Metabolic Cross-Talk between Carbohydrate Metabolism and Protein Modification

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic chemical reporters have been largely used to study posttranslational modifications. Generally, it was assumed that these reporters entered one biosynthetic pathway, resulting in labeling of one type of modification. However, because they are metabolized by cells before their addition onto proteins, metabolic chemical reporters potentially provide a unique opportunity to read-out on both modifications of interest and cellular metabolism. We report here the development of a metabolic chemical reporter 1-deoxy-N-pentynyl glucosamine (1-deoxy-GlcNAlk). This small-molecule cannot be incorporated into glycans; however, treatment of mammalian cells results in labeling of a variety proteins and enables their visualization and identification. Competition of this labeling with sodium acetate and an acetyltransferase inhibitor suggests that 1-deoxy-GlcNAlk can enter the protein acetylation pathway. These results demonstrate that metabolic chemical reporters have the potential to isolate and potentially discover cross-talk between metabolic pathways in living cells. PMID:25062036

  12. Covariance Modifications to Subspace Bases

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D B

    2008-11-19

    Adaptive signal processing algorithms that rely upon representations of signal and noise subspaces often require updates to those representations when new data become available. Subspace representations frequently are estimated from available data with singular value (SVD) decompositions. Subspace updates require modifications to these decompositions. Updates can be performed inexpensively provided they are low-rank. A substantial literature on SVD updates exists, frequently focusing on rank-1 updates (see e.g. [Karasalo, 1986; Comon and Golub, 1990, Badeau, 2004]). In these methods, data matrices are modified by addition or deletion of a row or column, or data covariance matrices are modified by addition of the outer product of a new vector. A recent paper by Brand [2006] provides a general and efficient method for arbitrary rank updates to an SVD. The purpose of this note is to describe a closely-related method for applications where right singular vectors are not required. This note also describes the SVD updates to a particular scenario of interest in seismic array signal processing. The particular application involve updating the wideband subspace representation used in seismic subspace detectors [Harris, 2006]. These subspace detectors generalize waveform correlation algorithms to detect signals that lie in a subspace of waveforms of dimension d {ge} 1. They potentially are of interest because they extend the range of waveform variation over which these sensitive detectors apply. Subspace detectors operate by projecting waveform data from a detection window into a subspace specified by a collection of orthonormal waveform basis vectors (referred to as the template). Subspace templates are constructed from a suite of normalized, aligned master event waveforms that may be acquired by a single sensor, a three-component sensor, an array of such sensors or a sensor network. The template design process entails constructing a data matrix whose columns contain the master event waveform data, then performing a singular value decomposition on the data matrix to extract an orthonormal basis for the waveform suite. The template typically is comprised of a subset of the left singular vectors corresponding to the larger singular values. The application involves updating a subspace template when new data become available, i.e. when new defining events are detected for a particular source. It often is the case that the waveforms corresponding to a particular source drift over time [Harris, 2001]. The Green's functions describing propagation can be altered because of changes in the source region. For example, if the source is a mine, signals from explosions may change gradually as a pit is extended (the source moves) or the scattering topography is altered by excavation. This motivates a tracking adjustment to a subspace representation. This note also comments on SVD updates for a related problem. In realistic pipeline operations it often is the case that data from one or more channels of an array are unusable (dead channels, channels with prolific dropouts, etc.). In such cases it is desirable to modify an array subspace template to operate on data only from the remaining usable channels. Furthermore, it is desirable to modify the templates directly without recourse to the original data matrix. Usually the template design process is separate from the application of the template in a detector to a continuous data stream. Consequently, the original data matrix may not be available for template modification at detector run time.

  13. Surface modifications of dental implants.

    PubMed

    Stanford, C M

    2008-06-01

    Dental implant surface technologies have been evolving rapidly to enhance a more rapid bone formation on their surface and hold a potential to increase the predictability of expedited implant therapy. While implant outcomes have become highly predictable, there are sites and conditions that result in elevated implant loss. This paper reviews the impact of macro-retentive features which includes approaches to surface oxide modification, thread design, press-fit and sintered-bead technologies to increase predictability of outcomes. Implant designs that lead to controlled lateral compression of the bone can improve primary stability as long as the stress does not exceed the localized yield strength of the cortical bone. Some implant designs have reduced crestal bone loss by use of multiple cutting threads that are closely spaced, smoothed on the tip but designed to create a hoop-stress stability of the implant as it is completely seated in the osteotomy. Following the placement of the implant, there is a predictable sequence of bone turnover and replacement at the interface that allows the newly formed bone to adapt to microscopic roughness on the implant surface, and on some surfaces, a nanotopography (<10(-9) m scale) that has been shown to preferably influence the formation of bone. Newly emerging studies show that bone cells are exquisitely sensitive to these topographical features and will upregulate the expression of bone related genes for new bone formation when grown on these surfaces. We live in an exciting time of rapid changes in the modalities we can offer patients for tooth replacement therapy. Given this, it is our responsibility to be critical when claims are made, incorporate into our practice what is proven and worthwhile, and to continue to support and provide the best patient care possible. PMID:18498581

  14. Novel modification of voice prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Al Kadah, Basel; Papaspyrou, George; Schneider, Mathias; Schick, Bernhard

    2016-03-01

    The undesired dilatation of the tracheooesophageal shunt after surgical implantation of voice prosthesis is a typical complication of this procedure. Temporary removal of the prosthesis and reinsertion after a short period of time is a first-line therapeutical option aiming shrinkage of the shunt. Failure of this measure generally is an indication of revision surgery. We present first experiences treating leakage problems with novel modified voice prosthesis without surgical intervention in specified cases. 11 patients (1 female, 10 male) aging between 51 and 71 years were presented with shunt leakage between 11/2008 and 11/2012 in the ENT-Department of the University Hospital of Homburg/Saar after a custom built voice prosthesis had been used initially successfully. A "Provox 2"(®) voice prosthesis was modified with two discs made of silicone each on the tracheal and oesophageal side and additionally reinforcing the diameter of the prosthesis by a silicone tube. The modified prosthesis was inserted in a retrograde way under general anesthesia, analogical to the approach used with the "Provox 1"(®)-prosthesis. The period of observation ranged between 12 and 48 months. As a measure of control swallowing of methylene blue was used. In all cases leakage suspended. Durability of the modified prosthesis ranged between 2 and 6 months. Neither the patients' complained about, nor did the physicians notice subjectively an impairment of the voice quality. Modifications of "Provox 2"(®)-prosthesis should be regarded in individual cases and constitute a reasonable alternative to revision surgery. A surgical approach is more intricate and costly, more taxing for the patient and susceptible to failure. We regard the necessity of general anesthesia for the insertion of the modified prosthesis as a disadvantage. PMID:26463715

  15. Surface modification of semiconductor photoelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Guijarro, Néstor; Prévot, Mathieu S; Sivula, Kevin

    2015-06-28

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells have emerged as promising devices that afford the direct conversion of solar energy into electric power and/or chemical fuels. Apart from the obvious importance of the bulk properties of semiconductor materials employed as photoelectrodes, the semiconductor-liquid interface has proven to strongly govern surface-related processes, i.e. the stability, charge separation/recombination and catalytic activity. Because of this, numerous surface treatments have been reported in an effort to tailor the physicochemical properties of the semiconductor-liquid interface, and in turn, the overall PEC response. In this Perspective article we provide a brief conceptual overview of these surface engineering treatments, connecting the particular effects on the interfacial energetics with the respective consequences on the performance. The beneficial effects that arise from surface treatment are categorized as (i) the protection of the surface against photocorrosion, (ii) the passivation of deleterious surface states, (iii) the modification of the band edge positions or band bending, and (iv) the selective extraction of carriers and improved catalytic activity. State-of-the-art surface treatments such as the adsorption of organic molecules or ions, the deposition of semiconductor overlayers and metal nanoparticles or etching procedures are exemplified and described with respect to the observed beneficial effects. A common emerging theme from recent work is that one single surface treatment can lead to multiple distinct effects. Overall, we suggest that surface engineering holds the key for effectively managing the intrinsic common defects of native semiconductor photoelectrodes regardless of their nature, leading to improved light harvesting efficiency. PMID:26030025

  16. Conformation Effects of Base Modification on the Anticodon Stem-loop of Bacillus subtilis tRNATyr

    PubMed Central

    Denmon, Andria P.; Wang, Jiachen; Nikonowicz, Edward P.

    2011-01-01

    tRNA molecules contain 93 chemically unique nucleotide base modifications that expand the chemical and biophysical diversity of RNA and contribute to the overall fitness of the cell. Nucleotide modifications of tRNA confer fidelity and efficiency to translation and are important in tRNA-dependent RNA-mediated regulatory processes. The three-dimensional structure of the anticodon is crucial to tRNA-mRNA specificity and the diverse modifications of nucleotide bases in the anticodon region modulate this specificity. We have determined the solution structures and thermodynamic properties of B. subtilis tRNATyr anticodon arms containing the natural base modifications N6-dimethylallyl adenine (i6A37) and pseudouridine (ψ39). UV melting and differential scanning calorimetry indicate the modifications stabilize the stem and may enhance base stacking in the loop. The i6A37 modification disrupts the hydrogen bond network of the unmodified anticodon loop including a C32-A38+ base pair and an A37-U33 base-base interaction. Although the i6A37 modification increases the dynamic nature of the loop nucleotides, metal ion coordination re-establishes conformational homogeneity. Interestingly, the i6A37 modification and Mg2+ are sufficient to promote the U-turn fold of the anticodon loop of E. coli tRNAPhe, but these elements do not result in this signature feature of the anticodon loop in tRNATyr. PMID:21782828

  17. Rapid End-Group Modification of Polysaccharides for Biomaterial Applications in Regenerative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Bondalapati, Somasekhar; Ruvinov, Emil; Kryukov, Olga; Cohen, Smadar; Brik, Ashraf

    2014-09-15

    Polysaccharides have emerged as important functional materials because of their unique properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and availability of reactive sites for chemical modifications to optimize their properties. The overwhelming majority of the methods to modify polysaccharides employ random chemical modifications, which often improve certain properties while compromising others. On the other hand, the employed methods for selective modifications often require excess of coupling partners, long reaction times and are limited in their scope and wide applicability. To circumvent these drawbacks, aniline-catalyzed oxime formation is developed for selective modification of a variety of polysaccharides through their reducing end. Notably, it is found that for efficient oxime formation, different conditions are required depending on the composition of the specific polysaccharide. It is also shown how our strategy can be applied to improve the physical and functional properties of alginate hydrogels, which are widely used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. While the randomly and selectively modified alginate exhibits similar viscoelastic properties, the latter forms significantly more stable hydrogel and superior cell adhesive and functional properties. Our results show that the developed conjugation reaction is robust and should open new opportunities for preparing polysaccharide-based functional materials with unique properties. PMID:25220432

  18. Modification of palm oil by chemical and enzyme catalyzed interesterification.

    PubMed

    Krishna De, Bijay; Dahyabhai Patel, Jignesh

    2010-01-01

    In a unique attempt modification of only palm oil has been investigated. Triacylglycerols of palm oil has been randomized by chemical and biochemical means. Chemical randomization was carried out using sodium methoxide (NaOMe: 0.4 to 0.6 %, w/w) whereas the biochemical modifications were performed using five different commercial lipases from Amano Enzymes. It was observed that after chemical randomization (for 15 minutes at 90 degrees C) using sodium methoxide (0.5 %, w/w) catalyst the melting point of refined palm oil has risen from 32.0 degrees C to 40.1 degrees C. Chemical treatments for 15 minutes at 60 degrees C in miscella phase (60 %, w/v oil in hexane) using 0.5 %, w/v sodium methoxide resulted increase in melting point from 32.0 degrees C to 42.0 degrees C. After enzymatic treatment using lipases it was observed that the melting point may rise from 32.0 degrees C to 38.5 degrees C (in 15 minutes at 45.0 degrees C). All the five enzymes were found to be active in respect of randomization capacity and active at very low concentration 0.004 to 0.010 % (w/w). PMID:20484834

  19. Magnetic perturbations as a viable tool for edge turbulence modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianello, N.; Rea, C.; Agostini, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Ciaccio, G.; De Masi, G.; Martines, E.; Mazzi, A.; Momo, B.; Spizzo, G.; Scarin, P.; Spolaore, M.; Zanca, P.; Zuin, M.; Carraro, L.; Innocente, P.; Marrelli, L.; Puiatti, M. E.; Terranova, D.

    2015-01-01

    A complete description of the effects of magnetic perturbation on the edge region of RFX-mod is here reported. The flexibility of the RFX-mod device [1] allows for the operation of the machine both as a reversed field pinch (RFP, with maximum current 2 MA) and as a low-current, circular ohmic tokamak (Ip,max = 0.15 MA). The present paper summarizes the most recent results obtained in both configurations with either spontaneous or induced edge radial magnetic perturbation. Emphasis will be devoted to the experimental characterization of the edge flow, focusing on the phase relation between flow and perturbed magnetic field. These informations are provided for natural and stimulated helical discharges in RFPs, and for tokamak safely operated, thanks to the unique RFX-mod MHD control system, in a wide range of edge safety factor 1.9 ≲ q(a) ⩽ 3.4 with externally imposed helical boundary. For the first time a detailed comparison between this phenomenology in tokamaks and RFPs will be presented, providing experimental measurement of the streamline of E × B flow around the magnetic perturbation and of the density modulation which exhibits the same periodicity of the perturbation. Strong new indication of the modification of the small scale turbulence in presence of magnetic perturbation is reported: this modification is deeply connected to the variation of turbulence induced particle transport.

  20. Harnessing Redox Cross-Reactivity To Profile Distinct Cysteine Modifications.

    PubMed

    Majmudar, Jaimeen D; Konopko, Aaron M; Labby, Kristin J; Tom, Christopher T M B; Crellin, John E; Prakash, Ashesh; Martin, Brent R

    2016-02-17

    Cysteine S-nitrosation and S-sulfination are naturally occurring post-translational modifications (PTMs) on proteins induced by physiological signals and redox stress. Here we demonstrate that sulfinic acids and nitrosothiols react to form a stable thiosulfonate bond, and leverage this reactivity using sulfinate-linked probes to enrich and annotate hundreds of endogenous S-nitrosated proteins. In physiological buffers, sulfinic acids do not react with iodoacetamide or disulfides, enabling selective alkylation of free thiols and site-specific analysis of S-nitrosation. In parallel, S-nitrosothiol-linked probes enable enrichment and detection of endogenous S-sulfinated proteins, confirming that a single sulfinic acid can react with a nitrosothiol to form a thiosulfonate linkage. Using this approach, we find that hydrogen peroxide addition increases S-sulfination of human DJ-1 (PARK7) at Cys106, whereas Cys46 and Cys53 are fully oxidized to sulfonic acids. Comparative gel-based analysis of different mouse tissues reveals distinct profiles for both S-nitrosation and S-sulfination. Quantitative proteomic analysis demonstrates that both S-nitrosation and S-sulfination are widespread, yet exhibit enhanced occupancy on select proteins, including thioredoxin, peroxiredoxins, and other validated redox active proteins. Overall, we present a direct, bidirectional method to profile select redox cysteine modifications based on the unique nucleophilicity of sulfinic acids. PMID:26780921

  1. Modification Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was originally designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage. Modifications to the S-IC Test Stand began in 1975 to accommodate space shuttle external tank testing. This photo depicts the continuation of the modification process as of July 14, 1975. The flame deflector originally used to provide water to the 5 F-1 engines of the S-IC stage during testing has been removed.

  2. Modification Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was originally designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage. Modifications to the S-IC Test Stand began in 1975 to accommodate space shuttle external tank testing. This photo, taken from the roof of the block house on October 14, 1975, provides an overall view of the stand during the modification process.

  3. Modification Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was originally designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage. Modifications to the S-IC Test Stand began in 1975 to accommodate space shuttle external tank testing. This view looks toward fuel storage bottles during the modification process.

  4. Discovery of cell-type specific regulatory elements in the human genome using differential chromatin modification analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Shihua; Zhang, Xiang-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Chromatin modifications have been comprehensively illustrated to play important roles in gene regulation and cell diversity in recent years. Given the rapid accumulation of genome-wide chromatin modification maps across multiple cell types, there is an urgent need for computational methods to analyze multiple maps to reveal combinatorial modification patterns and define functional DNA elements, especially those are specific to cell types or tissues. In this current study, we developed a computational method using differential chromatin modification analysis (dCMA) to identify cell-type-specific genomic regions with distinctive chromatin modifications. We then apply this method to a public data set with modification profiles of nine marks for nine cell types to evaluate its effectiveness. We found cell-type-specific elements unique to each cell type investigated. These unique features show significant cell-type-specific biological relevance and tend to be located within functional regulatory elements. These results demonstrate the power of a differential comparative epigenomic strategy in deciphering the human genome and characterizing cell specificity. PMID:23945931

  5. 48 CFR 43.103 - Types of contract modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... modifications. 43.103 Section 43.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT MODIFICATIONS General 43.103 Types of contract modifications. Contract modifications are of the following types: (a) Bilateral. A bilateral modification (supplemental agreement) is...

  6. Uniqueness of photon spheres in electro-vacuum spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cederbaum, Carla; Galloway, Gregory J.

    2016-04-01

    In a recent paper (Cederbaum C and Galloway G J 2015 Commun. Analysis Geom. at press), the authors established the uniqueness of photon spheres in static vacuum asymptotically flat spacetimes by adapting Bunting and Masood-ul-Alam’s proof of static vacuum black hole uniqueness. Here, we establish uniqueness of suitably defined sub-extremal photon spheres in static electro-vacuum asymptotically flat spacetimes by adapting the argument of Masood-ul-Alam (1992 Class. Quantum Grav. 9 L53-5). As a consequence of our result, we can rule out the existence of electrostatic configurations involving multiple ‘very compact’ electrically charged bodies and sub-extremal black holes.

  7. Unique Features of a Highly Pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni Strain†

    PubMed Central

    Hofreuter, Dirk; Tsai, Jennifer; Watson, Robert O.; Novik, Veronica; Altman, Bill; Benitez, Michelle; Clark, Christina; Perbost, Clotilde; Jarvie, Thomas; Du, Lei; Galán, Jorge E.

    2006-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a major human enteric pathogen, exhibits significant strain-to-strain differences which result in differences in pathogenic potential. C. jejuni 81-176 is a highly virulent strain that exhibits unique pathogenic features and is used by many research laboratories. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of its genome and compared it to the genomes of other sequenced C. jejuni strains. We identified a number of unique genetic features which may confer specific metabolic and pathogenic properties on this strain. We have also identified regions of the C. jejuni genome that are hot spots for the integration of horizontally acquired genetic material. This information should help the understanding of the pathogenesis of C. jejuni and, in particular, the unique features of this highly pathogenic strain. PMID:16861657

  8. DNA modifications in the mammalian brain

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jaehoon; Ming, Guo-li; Song, Hongjun

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is a crucial epigenetic mark in mammalian development, genomic imprinting, X-inactivation, chromosomal stability and suppressing parasitic DNA elements. DNA methylation in neurons has also been suggested to play important roles for mammalian neuronal functions, and learning and memory. In this review, we first summarize recent discoveries and fundamental principles of DNA modifications in the general epigenetics field. We then describe the profiles of different DNA modifications in the mammalian brain genome. Finally, we discuss roles of DNA modifications in mammalian brain development and function. PMID:25135973

  9. Physical modification of polyetheretherketone for orthopedic implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Ya-Wei; Zhang, Li-Nan; Hou, Zeng-Tao; Ye, Xin; Gu, Hong-Sheng; Yan, Guo-Ping; Shang, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is regarded as one of the most potential candidates for replacing current implant applications. To obtain good bone-implant interfaces, many modification methods have been developed to enable PEEK and PEEK-based composites from bio-inert to bioactive. Among them, physical methods have aroused significant attention and been widely used to modify PEEK for orthopedic implants. This review summarizes current physical modification techniques of PEEK for orthopedic applications, which include composite strategies, surface coating methods and irradiation treatments. The positive consequences of those modification methods will encourage continuing investigations and stimulate the wide range of applications of PEEK-based implants in orthopedics.

  10. TRP channel activation by reversible covalent modification.

    PubMed

    Hinman, Andrew; Chuang, Huai-Hu; Bautista, Diana M; Julius, David

    2006-12-19

    Allyl isothiocyanate, the pungent principle of wasabi and other mustard oils, produces pain by activating TRPA1, an excitatory ion channel on sensory nerve endings. Isothiocyanates are membrane-permeable electrophiles that form adducts with thiols and primary amines, suggesting that covalent modification, rather than classical lock-and-key binding, accounts for their agonist properties. Indeed, we show that thiol reactive compounds of diverse structure activate TRPA1 in a manner that relies on covalent modification of cysteine residues within the cytoplasmic N terminus of the channel. These findings suggest an unusual paradigm whereby natural products activate a receptor through direct, reversible, and covalent protein modification. PMID:17164327

  11. VDAC proteomics: post-translation modifications

    PubMed Central

    Kerner, Janos; Lee, Kwangwon; Tandler, Bernard; Hoppel, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-dependent anion channels are abundant mitochondrial outer membrane proteins expressed in three isoforms, VDAC1-3, and are considered as “mitochondrial gatekeepers”. Most tissues express all three isoforms. The functions of VDACs are several-fold, ranging from metabolite and energy exchange to apoptosis. Some of these functions depend on or are affected by interaction with other proteins in the cytosol and intermembrane space. Furthermore, the function of VDACs, as well as their interaction with other proteins, is affected by posttranslational modification, mainly phosphorylation. This review summarizes recent findings on posttranslational modification of VDACs and discusses the physiological outcome of these modifications. PMID:22120575

  12. Regulation of Alternative Splicing by Histone Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Luco, Reini F.; Pan, Qun; Tominaga, Kaoru; Blencowe, Benjamin J.; Pereira-Smith, Olivia M.; Misteli, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA is a prominent mechanism to generate protein diversity, yet its regulation is poorly understood. We demonstrated a direct role for histone modifications in alternative splicing. We found distinctive histone modification signatures that correlate with the splicing outcome in a set of human genes, and modulation of histone modifications causes splice site switching. Histone marks affect splicing outcome by influencing the recruitment of splicing regulators via a chromatin-binding protein. These results outline an adaptor system for the reading of histone marks by the pre-mRNA splicing machinery. PMID:20133523

  13. Fetal alcohol syndrome and secondary schizophrenia: a unique neuropathologic study.

    PubMed

    Stoos, Catherine; Nelsen, Laura; Schissler, Kathryn A; Elliott, Amy J; Kinney, Hannah C

    2015-04-01

    We report the unique neuropathologic study of an adult brain of a patient with fetal alcohol syndrome who developed the well-recognized complication of schizophrenia in adolescence. The major finding was asymmetric formation of the lateral temporal lobes, with marked enlargement of the right superior temporal gyrus, suggesting that alcohol is preferentially toxic to temporal lobe patterning during gestation. Critical maturational changes unique to adolescence can unmask psychotic symptomatology mediated by temporal lobe pathology that has been clinically dormant since birth. Elucidating the neuropathologic basis of the secondary psychiatric disorders in fetal alcohol syndrome can help provide insight into their putative developmental origins. PMID:24563476

  14. Symptomatic plantar fibroma with a unique sonographic appearance.

    PubMed

    Haun, Daniel W; Cho, John C S; Kettner, Norman W

    2012-02-01

    We present a case of a solitary plantar fibroma with unique sonographic features with MRI and pathologic correlation. A 25-year-old woman presented with a left foot mass that interfered with her gait. Sonography demonstrated a well-circumscribed, 32 mm × 27 mm × 14 mm subcutaneous mass with heterogeneous echogenicity. Unique sonographic characteristics included posterior acoustic enhancement, cystic components, and mild intratumoral hypervascularity. MRI confirmed the sonographic findings. Surgical excision was performed without complication. A pathologic diagnosis of fibroma with myxoid degeneration and cyst formation was made. PMID:21656782

  15. 40 CFR 72.81 - Permit modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compliance deadline extension; and (5) Changes in a thermal energy plan that result in any addition or... replacement of thermal energy. (c)(1) Permit modifications shall follow the permit issuance requirements...

  16. 40 CFR 72.81 - Permit modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compliance deadline extension; and (5) Changes in a thermal energy plan that result in any addition or... replacement of thermal energy. (c)(1) Permit modifications shall follow the permit issuance requirements...

  17. 40 CFR 72.81 - Permit modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compliance deadline extension; and (5) Changes in a thermal energy plan that result in any addition or... replacement of thermal energy. (c)(1) Permit modifications shall follow the permit issuance requirements...

  18. 30 CFR 582.25 - Plan modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... change, the lessee shall submit a detailed, written statement of the proposed modifications, potential impacts, and the justification for the proposed changes. Revision of an approved plan whether initiated...

  19. 30 CFR 582.25 - Plan modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... change, the lessee shall submit a detailed, written statement of the proposed modifications, potential impacts, and the justification for the proposed changes. Revision of an approved plan whether initiated...

  20. 30 CFR 582.25 - Plan modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... change, the lessee shall submit a detailed, written statement of the proposed modifications, potential impacts, and the justification for the proposed changes. Revision of an approved plan whether initiated...

  1. Sustainable environmental nanotechnology using nanoparticle surface modification.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reactive nanomaterials used for environmental remediation require surface modification to make them mobile in the subsurface. Nanomaterials released into the environment inadvertently without an engineered surface coating will acquire one (e.g. adsorption of natural organic matt...

  2. 40 CFR 58.14 - System modification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Monitoring Network § 58.14 System modification. (a) The State, or where appropriate local, agency shall develop and implement a plan and schedule to modify the ambient air...

  3. Post-Translational Modifications of TRP Channels

    PubMed Central

    Voolstra, Olaf; Huber, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels constitute an ancient family of cation channels that have been found in many eukaryotic organisms from yeast to human. TRP channels exert a multitude of physiological functions ranging from Ca2+ homeostasis in the kidney to pain reception and vision. These channels are activated by a wide range of stimuli and undergo covalent post-translational modifications that affect and modulate their subcellular targeting, their biophysical properties, or channel gating. These modifications include N-linked glycosylation, protein phosphorylation, and covalent attachment of chemicals that reversibly bind to specific cysteine residues. The latter modification represents an unusual activation mechanism of ligand-gated ion channels that is in contrast to the lock-and-key paradigm of receptor activation by its agonists. In this review, we summarize the post-translational modifications identified on TRP channels and, when available, explain their physiological role. PMID:24717323

  4. 25 CFR 134.7 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 134.7 Modifications. The act of July 1, 1932 (47 Stat. 564; 25 U.S.C. 386a), cancelled all irrigation assessments for construction costs against lands in Indian ownership which...

  5. 25 CFR 134.7 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 134.7 Modifications. The act of July 1, 1932 (47 Stat. 564; 25 U.S.C. 386a), cancelled all irrigation assessments for construction costs against lands in Indian ownership which...

  6. A-1 modification work under way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Phil Schemanski of Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne removes equipment inside the thrust drum on the A-1 Test Stand as part of a comprehensive modification project to prepare for testing the new J-2X engine.

  7. Histone modifications in DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lin-Lin; Shen, Changchun; Zhu, Wei-Guo

    2016-03-01

    DNA damage is a relatively common event in eukaryotic cell and may lead to genetic mutation and even cancer. DNA damage induces cellular responses that enable the cell either to repair the damaged DNA or cope with the damage in an appropriate way. Histone proteins are also the fundamental building blocks of eukaryotic chromatin besides DNA, and many types of post-translational modifications often occur on tails of histones. Although the function of these modifications has remained elusive, there is ever-growing studies suggest that histone modifications play vital roles in several chromatin-based processes, such as DNA damage response. In this review, we will discuss the main histone modifications, and their functions in DNA damage response. PMID:26825946

  8. 48 CFR 204.7007 - Order of application for modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... numeric order of the modifications to a contract is not the order in which the changes to the contract... modifications will be applied in numeric order, followed by contract administration office modifications in numeric order....

  9. 48 CFR 204.7007 - Order of application for modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... numeric order of the modifications to a contract is not the order in which the changes to the contract... modifications will be applied in numeric order, followed by contract administration office modifications in numeric order....

  10. 47 CFR 25.118 - Modifications not requiring prior authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....118 Modifications not requiring prior authorization. (a) Earth station license modifications, notification required. Authorized earth station operators may make the following modifications to their... of part 1, subpart Y of this chapter: (1) Licensees may make changes to their authorized...

  11. 47 CFR 25.118 - Modifications not requiring prior authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....118 Modifications not requiring prior authorization. (a) Earth station license modifications, notification required. Authorized earth station operators may make the following modifications to their... of part 1, subpart Y of this chapter: (1) Licensees may make changes to their authorized...

  12. Cone photoreceptor sensitivities and unique hue chromatic responses: correlation and causation imply the physiological basis of unique hues.

    PubMed

    Pridmore, Ralph W

    2013-01-01

    This paper relates major functions at the start and end of the color vision process. The process starts with three cone photoreceptors transducing light into electrical responses. Cone sensitivities were once expected to be Red Green Blue color matching functions (to mix colors) but microspectrometry proved otherwise: they instead peak in yellowish, greenish, and blueish hues. These physiological functions are an enigma, unmatched with any set of psychophysical (behavioral) functions. The end-result of the visual process is color sensation, whose essential percepts are unique (or pure) hues red, yellow, green, blue. Unique hues cannot be described by other hues, but can describe all other hues, e.g., that hue is reddish-blue. They are carried by four opponent chromatic response curves but the literature does not specify whether each curve represents a range of hues or only one hue (a unique) over its wavelength range. Here the latter is demonstrated, confirming that opponent chromatic responses define, and may be termed, unique hue chromatic responses. These psychophysical functions also are an enigma, unmatched with any physiological functions or basis. Here both enigmas are solved by demonstrating the three cone sensitivity curves and the three spectral chromatic response curves are almost identical sets (Pearson correlation coefficients r from 0.95-1.0) in peak wavelengths, curve shapes, math functions, and curve crossover wavelengths, though previously unrecognized due to presentation of curves in different formats, e.g., log, linear. (Red chromatic response curve is largely nonspectral and thus derives from two cones.) Close correlation combined with deterministic causation implies cones are the physiological basis of unique hues. This match of three physiological and three psychophysical functions is unique in color vision. PMID:24204755

  13. Project ESURG (Exemplary Systems Unique for Rural Gifted): Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jan; Dutton, Suzann

    The curriculum guide for Project ESURG (Exemplary Systems Unique for Rural Gifted) provides sample curriculum units appropriate for intellectually gifted students in elementary and junior high schools in rural areas. Underlying principles of the units include providing opportunities for creative expression, critical thinking, self assessment, and…

  14. Anisotropic uniqueness classes for a degenerate parabolic equation

    SciTech Connect

    Vil'danova, V F; Mukminov, F Kh

    2013-11-30

    Anisotropic uniqueness classes of Tacklind type are identified for a degenerate linear parabolic equation of the second order in an unbounded domain. The Cauchy problem and mixed problems with boundary conditions of the first and third type are considered. Bibliography: 18 titles.

  15. What Is Valuable and Unique about the Educational Psychologist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Rebecca; Roberts, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a small-scale piece of research identifying which aspects of the EP role are considered valuable by SENCos and by EPs themselves. In addition, both groups were asked to identify whether they felt these aspects were uniquely offered by EPs or whether other professionals offered similar or identical services. The differences

  16. Unique Sensor Plane Maps Invisible Toxins for First Responders

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-30

    A unique airborne emergency response tool, ASPECT is a Los Alamos/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency project that can put chemical and radiological mapping tools in the air over an accident scene. The name ASPECT is an acronym for Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology.

  17. 76 FR 39234 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Unique Procurement Instrument Identifier

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    .... Background DoD, GSA, and NASA published a proposed rule in the Federal Register at 75 FR 50731 on August 17... Federal Acquisition Regulation; Unique Procurement Instrument Identifier AGENCIES: Department of Defense...). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: DoD, GSA, and NASA are issuing a final rule amending the Federal...

  18. SAFETY TESTING OF 2-ALKYLCYCLOBYTANONES- UNIQUE RADIOLYTIC PRODUCTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Treatment of foods containing fatty acids, including meat and poultry, with ionizing radiation can lead to the formation of a class of chemicals called 2-alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) that are unique to irradiated foods. The major 2-ACB formed in irradiated meat is 2 dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB), wh...

  19. Parenting in the Workplace: Examining a Unique Infant Care Option.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secret, Mary; Sprang, Ginny; Bradford, Judith

    1998-01-01

    Describes a unique, employer-based infant care program that allows parents to care for their babies in the workplace, and reports on the response of coworkers to this arrangement. Results indicate that parenting babies in the workplace has little, if any, perceived negative effect on the work life of other employees. (Author/GCP)

  20. Gandhi's Nonviolent Rhetorical Perspective: A Unique Strategy for Peace Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bode, Robert Allen

    Analysis of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's philosophy and rhetoric during a particular campaign for social change will show that his strategies for social change, commonly referred to as "Satyagraha," are rooted in a unique rhetorical perspective. Gandhi repeatedly warned against the use of violent speech and acts, and he has prescribed and…

  1. FRESIP project observations of cataclysmic variables: A unique opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Steve B.

    1994-01-01

    FRESIP Project observations of cataclysmic variables would provide unique data sets. In the study of known cataclysmic variables they would provide extended, well sampled temporal photometric information and in addition, they would provide a large area deep survey; obtaining a complete magnitude limited sample of the galaxy in the volume cone defined by the FRESIP field of view.

  2. Females with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Unique Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Darcy; And Others

    This paper offers profiles of females with behavioral/emotional disorders and suggests that these young women have unique needs. The paper discusses selected characteristics and assessment considerations and offers recommendations that will facilitate more responsive social, correctional, and educational programming. Characteristics of these young…

  3. 46. KILN ROOM, SOUTH END OF THE EAST WING. UNIQUE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. KILN ROOM, SOUTH END OF THE EAST WING. UNIQUE ELECTRIC KILN, MANUFACTURED BY HED INDUSTRIES IN RINGOES, NJ. INSTALLED IN 1986. USED FOR GLAZE FIRING. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  4. Unique Outcome Expectations as a Training and Pedagogical Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Leh Woon; Estevez, Angeles F.; Overmier, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The learning of the relations between discriminative stimuli, choice actions, and their outcomes can be characterized as conditional discriminative choice learning. Research shows that the technique of presenting unique outcomes for specific cued choices leads to faster and more accurate learning of such relations and has great potential to be…

  5. Non-uniqueness in spin-DFT on small lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, Carsten A.

    2004-03-01

    In non-magnetic systems, the electronic ground-state densities are uniquely determined by the external potentials. In the presence of magnetic fields (coupling to the spins only), the mapping between densities and magnetizations, n(r) and m(r), and potentials and magnetic fields, v(r) and B(r), is no longer unique, as was recognized long ago [1] and discussed in more detail recently [2,3]. This has practical consequences e.g. for the spin gaps of half-metallic ferromagnets. This talk discusses non-uniqueness in spin-DFT for two non-interacting electrons on small lattices with arbitrary potentials and magnetic fields. These model systems have the advantage that the (n,m) and (v,B) parameter spaces can be systematically explored. Different types of non-uniqueness are discovered: some were previously predicted [2,3], others are new and specific to lattices. [1] U. von Barth and L. Hedin, J. Phys. C 5, 1629 (1972) [2] H. Eschrig and W.E. Pickett, Solid State Commun. 118, 123 (2001) [3] K. Capelle and G. Vignale, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5546 (2001)

  6. Is Self-Assessment in Religious Education Unique?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Val; Fancourt, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the question: is self-assessment in religious education unique? It first presents an overview of some challenges for assessment from subject differences, and then reviews the generic literature on self-assessment. It builds on earlier empirical research on self-assessment in religious education, carried out in an English state…

  7. Across the Nation: Unique Delivery and Inventive Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fick, Jill; McKeown, Patricia; Whiteside, Ann B.; Paneitz, Becky; Flemming, Sondra; Wolf, Toni; West-Sands, Leslie; Gray, Patricia M.; Orre, Deborah J.; Adams, Ann-Marie

    2004-01-01

    In this article, American Association of Community Colleges member institutions provide information on the collaborative efforts in allied health programs between their colleges and the communities they serve. These are but a fraction of the inventive and unique programs community colleges across the U.S. offer to support the health and wellness

  8. Redundancy and Uniqueness of Subject Access Points in Online Catalogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Hong; Lancaster, F. W.

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of 205 records in the OCLC Online Union Catalog (OLUC) found considerable duplication among subject access points provided by title, subject heading, and classification number fields. On average, only 4.12 unique access points were found per record. The results suggest that online catalogs might outperform card catalogs more in…

  9. Unique Invulnerability: A Classroom Demonstration in Estimating Personal Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, C. R.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a class experiment illustrating students' illusions about their own mortality (often referred to as "unique invulnerability"). The students received information, culled from actuarial tables, concerning age and mortality rates. The students consistently overestimated their own age of death even when told they would do so. (MJP)

  10. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Small Town Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogg, David H.; Dunn, Douglas

    A small town can strengthen its local economy as a result of business people and concerned citizens collectively identifying that community's uniqueness and then capitalizing on it via advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, or publicity. This publication relates the science of marketing to communities. Seven simple techniques are provided…

  11. New Guidelines for Reducing Stroke Risks Unique to Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... B., M.Sc. Multimedia is available on the right column of this link http://newsroom.heart.org/news/new-guidelines-for-reducing-stroke-risks-unique-to-women?preview=e8eea2d9c3cacbeaa9f0e9cc6a84bbe2 . For the latest heart and stroke ...

  12. The Uniqueness of EFL Teachers: Perceptions of Japanese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    Building on the work of Borg (2006), this article reports on a study of Japanese English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' perceptions of some of the unique characteristics of EFL teachers that distinguish them from teachers of other subjects. The data were collected by means of a questionnaire to which 163 college-level EFL students in Japan…

  13. Unique Factorization in Cyclotomic Integers of Degree Seven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, W. Ethan

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a survey of some basic results in algebraic number theory and applies this material to prove that the cyclotomic integers generated by a seventh root of unity are a unique factorization domain. Part of the proof uses the computer algebra system Maple to find and verify factorizations. The proofs use a combination of historic…

  14. [Child health nurse in prison, a unique experience].

    PubMed

    Girou, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    A child health nurse from the mother and infant welfare protection service describes her work in prisons, with women prisoners and their children. A unique experience in which professionalism and emotion go hand in hand. Indeed, while prison is a place of detention, it can also be a place of care and support. PMID:26573402

  15. Unique Relations of Age and Delinquency with Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iselin, Anne-Marie R.; DeCoster, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Context processing has significant empirical support as an explanation of age- and psychopathology-related deficiencies in cognitive control. We examined whether context processing generalizes to younger individuals who are in trouble with the law. We tested whether age and delinquency might have unique relations to context processing skills in…

  16. A unique self-calibrating redundant inertial system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Jerold P.; Musoff, Howard

    A low-cost self-calibrating redundant inertial system is described. The developed DTG (dynamically tuned gyro) used in the system and the resulting unique system operation are well suited for applications where high reliability and rapid azimuth determination as well as accurate navigation are desirable.

  17. Differentiating Performance Approach Goals and Their Unique Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Ordene V.

    2014-01-01

    The study differentiates between two types of performance approach goals (competence demonstration performance approach goal and normative performance approach goal) by examining their unique effects on self-efficacy, interest, and fear of failure. Seventy-nine students completed questionnaires that measure performance approach goals,…

  18. Unique Sensor Plane Maps Invisible Toxins for First Responders

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2010-01-08

    A unique airborne emergency response tool, ASPECT is a Los Alamos/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency project that can put chemical and radiological mapping tools in the air over an accident scene. The name ASPECT is an acronym for Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology.

  19. Distribution of histone H4 modifications as revealed by a panel of specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Hayashi-Takanaka, Yoko; Maehara, Kazumitsu; Harada, Akihito; Umehara, Takashi; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Obuse, Chikashi; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Nozaki, Naohito; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Post-translational histone modifications play a critical role in genome functions such as epigenetic gene regulation and genome maintenance. The tail of the histone H4 N-terminus contains several amino acids that can be acetylated and methylated. Some of these modifications are known to undergo drastic changes during the cell cycle. In this study, we generated a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies against histone H4 modifications, including acetylation at K5, K8, K12, and K16, and different levels of methylation at K20. Their specificity was evaluated by ELISA and immunoblotting using synthetic peptide and recombinant proteins that harbor specific modifications or amino acid substitutions. Immunofluorescence confirmed the characteristic distributions of target modifications. An H4K5 acetylation (H4K5ac)-specific antibody CMA405 reacted with K5ac only when the neighboring K8 was unacetylated. This unique feature allowed us to detect newly assembled H4, which is diacetylated at K5 and K12, and distinguish it from hyperacetylated H4, where K5 and K8 are both acetylated. Chromatin immunoprecipiation combined with deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed that acetylation of both H4K8 and H4K16 were enriched around transcription start sites. These extensively characterized and highly specific antibodies will be useful for future epigenetics and epigenome studies. PMID:26343042

  20. Epigenetic Modifications of Histones in Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Martins, M D; Jiao, Y; Larsson, L; Almeida, L O; Garaicoa-Pazmino, C; Le, J M; Squarize, C H; Inohara, N; Giannobile, W V; Castilho, R M

    2016-02-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic infectious disease driven by dysbiosis, an imbalance between commensal bacteria and the host organism. Periodontitis is a leading cause of tooth loss in adults and occurs in about 50% of the US population. In addition to the clinical challenges associated with treating periodontitis, the progression and chronic nature of this disease seriously affect human health. Emerging evidence suggests that periodontitis is associated with mechanisms beyond bacteria-induced protein and tissue degradation. Here, we hypothesize that bacteria are able to induce epigenetic modifications in oral epithelial cells mediated by histone modifications. In this study, we found that dysbiosis in vivo led to epigenetic modifications, including acetylation of histones and downregulation of DNA methyltransferase 1. In addition, in vitro exposure of oral epithelial cells to lipopolysaccharides resulted in histone modifications, activation of transcriptional coactivators, such as p300/CBP, and accumulation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Given that oral epithelial cells are the first line of defense for the periodontium against bacteria, we also evaluated whether activation of pathogen recognition receptors induced histone modifications. We found that activation of the Toll-like receptors 1, 2, and 4 and the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein 1 induced histone acetylation in oral epithelial cells. Our findings corroborate the emerging concept that epigenetic modifications play a role in the development of periodontitis. PMID:26496800

  1. LincRNAs and base modifications of p53 induced by arsenic methylation in workers.

    PubMed

    Wen, Weihua; Lu, Lin; He, Yuefeng; Cheng, Huirong; He, Fang; Cao, Shuqiao; Li, Liang; Xiong, Li; Wu, Tangchun

    2016-02-25

    Arsenic (As) metabolites could induce methylation changes of DNA and base modifications of p53, which play role in the toxicity of As. LincRNAs should play a key regulatory role in the p53 transcriptional response. There were 43 workers producing As trioxide, 36 workers who stopped exposure to As trioxide about 85 days ago, and 24 individuals as control group. Three As species in urine were measured, and primary and secondary methylation indexes, iAs%, MMA% and DMA% were calculated. RT-PCR was performed to detect the expression of 7 LincRNAs and the base modifications of exon 5, 6, 7, and 8 of p53. The concentrations of urinary As were high in workers. Compared to control group, significant changes for 5 LincRNAs in workers producing As trioxide were found (P < 0.05), and there were significant base modifications of p53 in workers came from the two plants (P < 0.05). There exist various correlations between different exon base modifications of p53 and expressions of LincRNAs (P < 0.05). The closely positive correlations between MMA/DMA and MEG3/TUG1/HOTAIR/MALAT1 were found, but negative correlation between DMA/MALAT1 and the base modifications of exon 7 and 8 of p53 were found also (P < 0.05). LincRNAs and base modifications of p53 could be induced by As, MALAT1 and the base modifications of exon 7 and 8 of p53 could play unique roles in epigenic changes. These findings suggest potentially widespread roles of p53 and relative RNAs in arsenic workers, which may be caused by As metabolism. PMID:26772154

  2. Loss and modification of habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemckert, Francis; Hecnar, Stephen; Pilliod, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Amphibians live in a wide variety of habitats around the world, many of which have been modified or destroyed by human activities. Most species have unique life history characteristics adapted to specific climates, habitats (e.g., lentic, lotic, terrestrial, arboreal, fossorial, amphibious), and local conditions that provide suitable areas for reproduction, development and growth, shelter from environmental extremes, and predation, as well as connectivity to other populations or habitats. Although some species are entirely aquatic or terrestrial, most amphibians, as their name implies, lead a dual life and require a mosaic of habitats in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. With over 6 billion people on Earth, most species are now persisting in habitats that have been directly or indirectly influenced by human activities. Some species have disappeared where their habitats have been completely destroyed, reduced, or rendered unsuitable. Habitat loss and degradation are widely considered by most researchers as the most important causes of amphibian population decline globally (Barinaga 1990; Wake and Morowitz 1991; Alford and Richards 1999). In this chapter, a background on the diverse habitat requirements of amphibians is provided, followed by a discussion of the effects of urbanization, agriculture, livestock grazing, timber production and harvesting, fire and hazardous fuel management, and roads on amphibians and their habitats. Also briefly discussed is the influence on amphibian habitats of natural disturbances, such as extreme weather events and climate change, given the potential for human activities to impact climate in the longer term. For amphibians in general, microhabitats are of greater importance than for other vertebrates. As ectotherms with a skin that is permeable to water and with naked gelatinous eggs, amphibians are physiologically constrained to be active during environmental conditions that provide appropriate body temperatures and adequate water balance (Thorson and Svihla 1943; Brattstrom 1963; Tracy 1976). Hence, individuals require and seek specific microhabitats that maintain their preferred body temperature while at the same time reducing water loss or allowing individuals to re-hydrate. Amphibians also possess relatively few physical attributes that protect them from predators. Although they may avoid predators behaviourally or deter them by skin toxins, amphibians lack defensive shells or hardened cuticles, do not have protective teeth or claws, and most are insufficiently fast to escape predators. Hence, they are relatively dependent on sites that conceal or protect them from predation. Most amphibians also differ significantly from other vertebrates in possessing a complex two-phase life cycle: the pre-metamorphic larval (tadpole) stage and the post-metamorphic juvenile and adult stage (Wilbur 1980, 1984). Most amphibian species have two distinct econes (Heatwole 1989), each with different habitat requirements, the larvae being aquatic and the post-metamorphic animals more terrestrial. The habitats required by the two phases can differ greatly, but both are essential to the survival of a species. However, amphibian diversity is great and exceptions to this general pattern exist. For example, some species have direct development without going through a larval stage and are fully terrestrial, whereas the larvae of other species can reach sexual maturity without going through metamorphosis (i.e., neoteny) and are fully aquatic.

  3. The Effects of Uniqueness-Relevant Feedback and Strength of Need for Uniqueness on the Social Behaviors and Perceptions of Individual Group Discussants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Thomas L.; Rosen, Sidney

    Uniqueness theory suggests that individuals are most comfortable with the thought that they are moderately different or unique from others. To test whether individuals with a high need for uniqueness are perceived as being different from those with a low need for uniqueness, 144 college students participated in a two-part study. In part one,…

  4. Erdheim chester - A rare disease with unique endoscopic features

    PubMed Central

    Ben-yaakov, Gil; Munteanu, Daniela; Sztarkier, Ignacio; Fich, Alexander; Schwartz, Doron

    2014-01-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare inflammatory syndrome in which systemic infiltration of non-Langerhans cell histiocytes occurs in different sites. Both the etiology and pathophysiology of ECD are unknown, but CD68 positive CD 1a/S100 negative cells are characteristic. The presentation of ECD differs according to the involved organs. This case report describes a patient with ECD and the gastrointestinal manifestations and unique endoscopic appearance as seen in gastroscopy and colonoscopy with histological proof of histiocyte infiltration of the lamina propria. The clinical and endoscopic findings of this unique case, to our knowledge, were never described before, so were the features of the gastrointestinal involvement in this disease. PMID:25009409

  5. Being and feeling unique: statistical deviance and psychological marginality.

    PubMed

    Frable, D E

    1993-03-01

    Two studies tested the hypothesis that people with culturally stigmatized and concealable conditions (e.g., gays, epileptics, juvenile delinquents, and incest victims) would be more likely to feel unique than people with culturally valued or conspicuous conditions (e.g., the physically attractive, the intellectually gifted, the obese, and the facially scarred). In Study 1, culturally stigmatized individuals with concealable conditions were least likely to perceive consensus between their personal preferences and those of others. In Study 2, they were most likely to describe themselves as unique and to make these self-relevant decisions quickly. Marginality is a psychological reality, not just a statistical one, for those with stigmatized and concealable "master status" conditions. PMID:8463952

  6. Solitary intraosseous neurofibroma: Report of a unique case

    PubMed Central

    Jangam, Sagar Satish; Ingole, Snehal Nilesh; Deshpande, Mohan Devidas; Ranadive, Pallavi Adinath

    2014-01-01

    Neural tumors located centrally in jaw bones are relatively rare compared with soft tissue neurofibromas. Less than 50 cases have been reported in the literature with a predilection for mandible. This article aims to elucidate a unique case of intraosseous neurofibroma of mandible in a 62-year-old edentulous female patient associated with facial asymmetry due to the swelling extending from the right body of mandible to left body of mandible. The uniqueness of this case is related to the age and extensiveness of this lesion. A review of clinical, radiographic, histological, and immunohistochemical features, and the surgical management pertaining to this case are discussed along with a review of the literature. PMID:25395781

  7. Solitary intraosseous neurofibroma: Report of a unique case.

    PubMed

    Jangam, Sagar Satish; Ingole, Snehal Nilesh; Deshpande, Mohan Devidas; Ranadive, Pallavi Adinath

    2014-10-01

    Neural tumors located centrally in jaw bones are relatively rare compared with soft tissue neurofibromas. Less than 50 cases have been reported in the literature with a predilection for mandible. This article aims to elucidate a unique case of intraosseous neurofibroma of mandible in a 62-year-old edentulous female patient associated with facial asymmetry due to the swelling extending from the right body of mandible to left body of mandible. The uniqueness of this case is related to the age and extensiveness of this lesion. A review of clinical, radiographic, histological, and immunohistochemical features, and the surgical management pertaining to this case are discussed along with a review of the literature. PMID:25395781

  8. Discovery and characterization of a unique mycobacterial heme acquisition system

    PubMed Central

    Harmston, Christine A.; Owens, Cedric P.; Chim, Nicholas; Morse, Robert P.; McMath, Lisa M.; Iniguez, Angelina; Kimmey, Jacqueline M.; Sawaya, Michael R.; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Horwitz, Marcus A.; Goulding, Celia W.

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis must import iron from its host for survival, and its siderophore-dependent iron acquisition pathways are well established. Here we demonstrate a newly characterized pathway, whereby M. tuberculosis can use free heme and heme from hemoglobin as an iron source. Significantly, we identified the genomic region, Rv0202c–Rv0207c, responsible for the passage of heme iron across the mycobacterial membrane. Key players of this heme uptake system were characterized including a secreted protein and two transmembrane proteins, all three specific to mycobacteria. Furthermore, the crystal structure of the key heme carrier protein Rv0203 was found to have a unique fold. The discovery of a unique mycobacterial heme acquisition pathway opens new avenues of exploration into mycobacterial therapeutics. PMID:21383189

  9. Unique research challenges for high-speed civil transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Charlie M., Jr.; Morris, E. K., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Market growth and technological advances are expected to lead to a generation of long-range transports that cruise at supersonic or even hypersonic speeds. Current NASA/industry studies will define the market windows in terms of time frame, Mach number, and technology requirements for these aircraft. Initial results indicate that, for the years 2000 to 2020, economically attractive vehicles could have a cruise speed up to Mach 6. The resulting research challenges are unique. They must be met with technologies that will produce commercially successful and environmentally compatible vehicles where none have existed. Several important areas of research were identified for the high-speed civil transports. Among these are sonic boom, takeoff noise, thermal management, lightweight structures with long life, unique propulsion concepts, unconventional fuels, and supersonic laminar flow.

  10. Unique research challenges for high-speed civil transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Charlie M., Jr.; Morris, Charles E. K., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Market growth and technological advances are expected to lead to a generation of long-range transports that cruise at supersonic or even hypersonic speeds. Current NASA/industry studies will define the market windows in terms of time frame, Mach number, and technology requirements for these aircraft. Initial results indicate that, for the years 2000 to 2020, economically attractive vehicles could have a cruise speed up to Mach 6. The resulting research challenges are unique. They must be met with technologies that will produce commercially successful and environmentally compatible vehicles where none have existed. Several important areas of research were identified for the high-speed civil transports. Among these are sonic boom, takeoff noise, thermal management, lightweight structures with long life, unique propulsion concepts, unconventional fuels, and supersonic laminar flow.

  11. Resistive Network Optimal Power Flow: Uniqueness and Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, CW; Cai, DWH; Lou, X

    2015-01-01

    The optimal power flow (OPF) problem minimizes the power loss in an electrical network by optimizing the voltage and power delivered at the network buses, and is a nonconvex problem that is generally hard to solve. By leveraging a recent development on the zero duality gap of OPF, we propose a second-order cone programming convex relaxation of the resistive network OPF, and study the uniqueness of the optimal solution using differential topology, especially the Poincare-Hopf Index Theorem. We characterize the global uniqueness for different network topologies, e.g., line, radial, and mesh networks. This serves as a starting point to design distributed local algorithms with global behaviors that have low complexity, are computationally fast, and can run under synchronous and asynchronous settings in practical power grids.

  12. On the Non-Uniqueness of Sediment Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Fatichi, S.

    2014-12-01

    There has been ample experimental evidence that soil erosion does not necessarily occur at the same rate, given the same amount of rainfall or runoff. Such a non-unique phenomenon has been often referred to in literature as due to 'natural variability'. Our recent study hypothesized that uncertainties in the distribution and properties of a sediment layer can be a potential clue to one of the reasons of the non-unique sediment yield. Specifically, numerical experimentation with a sophisticated two-dimensional model showed that a deposited layer plays two conflicting roles: it can both increase and decrease soil erosion, given the same magnitude of runoff. The difference in erodibilities of the "original, intact soil layer" and the "deposited, loose soil layer" and the composition of soil particles in the underlying layers give rise to the non-uniqueness of the amount of eroded materials. In continuing efforts, we attempt to investigate this phenomenon using a comprehensive the Universal Soil Loss Erosion (USLE) database, that contains data on paired hillslopes that show a high degree of non-uniqueness in the response, even though the hillslopes exhibit the same topography, soil type, rainfall and meteorological forcings, and landuse. An underlying hypothesis of this study is that uncertainties in the distribution of soil substrate prior to a rainfall event lead to low predictability skill, i.e., a stochastically-varying outcome. A large number of simulation cases demonstrating the proposed hypothesis are conducted using a coupled numerical model, tRIBS-VEGGIE-FEaST (Triangulated irregular network - based Real time Integrated Basin Simulator- VEGetation Generator for Interactive Evolution -Flow Erosion and Sediment Transport).

  13. A unique approach to fabricating precision space structures elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohan, H.; Johnson, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure of fabricating graphite epoxy columns used in the assembly of large space platforms is described. The requirement for precise dimensional control led to a unique hot resin injection process. Dry, high modulus fiber is wound over a vertically mounted steam-heated mandrel. A steam-heated sleeve or caul is slipped over the wound mandrel and resin is injected and cured in place. Approximately 200 column elements have been fabricated using this efficient process.

  14. Uniqueness for an inverse problem in electromagnetism with partial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, B. M.; Marletta, M.; Reyes, J. M.

    2016-04-01

    A uniqueness result for the recovery of the electric and magnetic coefficients in the time-harmonic Maxwell equations from local boundary measurements is proven. No special geometrical condition is imposed on the inaccessible part of the boundary of the domain, apart from imposing that the boundary of the domain is C 1 , 1. The coefficients are assumed to coincide on a neighbourhood of the boundary, a natural property in applications.

  15. A unique transformation from ordinary differential equations to reaction networks.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Sylvain; Heiner, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Many models in Systems Biology are described as a system of Ordinary Differential Equations, which allows for transient, steady-state or bifurcation analysis when kinetic information is available. Complementary structure-related qualitative analysis techniques have become increasingly popular in recent years, like qualitative model checking or pathway analysis (elementary modes, invariants, flux balance analysis, graph-based analyses, chemical organization theory, etc.). They do not rely on kinetic information but require a well-defined structure as stochastic analysis techniques equally do. In this article, we look into the structure inference problem for a model described by a system of Ordinary Differential Equations and provide conditions for the uniqueness of its solution. We describe a method to extract a structured reaction network model, represented as a bipartite multigraph, for example, a continuous Petri net (CPN), from a system of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). A CPN uniquely defines an ODE, and each ODE can be transformed into a CPN. However, it is not obvious under which conditions the transformation of an ODE into a CPN is unique, that is, when a given ODE defines exactly one CPN. We provide biochemically relevant sufficient conditions under which the derived structure is unique and counterexamples showing the necessity of each condition. Our method is implemented and available; we illustrate it on some signal transduction models from the BioModels database. A prototype implementation of the method is made available to modellers at http://contraintes.inria.fr/~soliman/ode2pn.html, and the data mentioned in the "Results" section at http://contraintes.inria.fr/~soliman/ode2pn_data/. Our results yield a new recommendation for the import/export feature of tools supporting the SBML exchange format. PMID:21203560

  16. The Mysteries of Diamonds: Bizarre History, Amazing Properties, Unique Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kagan, Harris

    2008-06-24

    Diamonds have been a prized material throughout history. They are scarce and beautiful, wars have been fought over them, and they remain today a symbol of wealth and power. Diamonds also have exceptional physical properties which can lead to unique applications in science. There are now techniques to artificially synthesize diamonds of extraordinarily high quality. In this talk, Professor Kagan will discuss the history of diamonds, their bizarre properties, and their manufacture and use for 21st century science.

  17. Electrical Burn Causing a Unique Pattern of Neurological Injury

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Nathan R.; Yaxley, Julian P.; O’Donohue, Peter; Lisec, Carl; Jeyarajan, Eshwarshanker

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Neurological involvement is not uncommon in patients who sustain electrical injury. The exact mechanism of nervous system damage following electrical trauma is not fully understood. The gamut of possible neurologic manifestations following electrical injury is diverse. This case report describes a young man with a unique pattern of neurological injury following an electrical burn. The combination of brachial plexopathy, partial Horner’s syndrome, and phrenic nerve palsy secondary to electrical injury has not been previously described in the literature. PMID:25973356

  18. Unique symbol for marking and tracking very small semiconductor products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, James P.

    1991-12-01

    The problem of tracking very small semiconductor products with a bar code is easily overcome by the use of the matrix symbol, which is a unique two-dimensional symbol that is the most space efficient method of packing binary data. It is both machine written and machine read to provide the utmost in accuracy and repeatability. The number of data cells can either be expanded or contracted to handle the required information and in addition can contain parity and error correcting codes. Semiconductor chips, wafers, substrates, modules and even masks can all be laser marked with this symbol and quickly read at any later stage of the manufacturing process. This unique symbol is computer generated by a software algorithm which creates the data cells and data frame which are laser etched on the product. On-line product identification yields immediate benefits in manufacturing such as inventory control, proper mating of parts, proper selection of test programs, quality control, etc. Use of a very small unique machine readable symbol now permits these benefits to be extended to miniature parts in an automated high speed manufacturing line.

  19. Plastic-casting intrinsic-surface unique identifier (tag)

    SciTech Connect

    Palm, R.G.; De Volpi, A.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the development of an authenticated intrinsic-surf ace tagging method for unique- identification of controlled items. Although developed for control of items limited by an arms control treaty, this method has other potential applications to keep track of critical or high-value items. Each tag (unique-identifier) consists of the intrinsic, microscopic surface topography of a small designated area on a controlled item. It is implemented by making a baseline plastic casting of the designated tag area and usually placing a cover (for example, a bar-code label) over this area to protect the surface from environmental alteration. The plastic casting is returned to a laboratory and prepared for high-resolution scanning electron microscope imaging. Several images are digitized and stored for use as a standard for authentication of castings taken during future inspections. Authentication is determined by numerically comparing digital images. Commercially available hardware and software are used for this tag. Tag parameters are optimized, so unique casting images are obtained from original surfaces, and images obtained from attempted duplicate surfaces are detected. This optimization uses the modulation transfer function, a first principle of image analysis, to determine the parameters. Surface duplication experiments confirmed the optimization.

  20. Unique marine derived cyanobacterial biosynthetic genes for chemical diversity.

    PubMed

    Kleigrewe, Karin; Gerwick, Lena; Sherman, David H; Gerwick, William H

    2016-02-01

    Covering: 2010 to July 2015. Previous review: Nat. Prod. Rep., 2010, 27, 1048-1065Cyanobacteria are a prolific source of structurally unique and biologically active natural products that derive from intriguing biochemical pathways. Advancements in genome sequencing have accelerated the identification of unique modular biosynthetic gene clusters in cyanobacteria and reveal a wealth of unusual enzymatic reactions involved in their construction. This article examines several interesting mechanistic transformations involved in cyanobacterial secondary metabolite biosynthesis with a particular focus on marine derived modular polyketide synthases (PKS), nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) and combinations thereof to form hybrid natural products. Further, we focus on the cyanobacterial genus Moorea and the co-evolution of its enzyme cassettes that create metabolic diversity. Progress in the development of heterologous expression systems for cyanobacterial gene clusters along with chemoenzymatic synthesis makes it possible to create new analogs. Additionally, phylum-wide genome sequencing projects have enhanced the discovery rate of new natural products and their distinctive enzymatic reactions. Summarizing, cyanobacterial biosynthetic gene clusters encode for a large toolbox of novel enzymes that catalyze unique chemical reactions, some of which may be useful in synthetic biology. PMID:26758451

  1. HowTo - Easy use of global unique identifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czerniak, A.; Fleischer, D.; Schirnick, C.

    2013-12-01

    The GEOMAR sample- and core repository covers several thousands of samples and cores and was collected over the last decades. In the actual project, we bring this collection up to the new generation and tag every sample and core with a unique identifier, in our case the International Geo Sample Number (ISGN). This work is done with our digital Ink and hand writing recognition implementation. The Smart Pen technology was save time and resources to record the information on every sample or core. In the procedure of recording, there are several steps systematical are done: 1. Getting all information about the core or sample, such as cruise number, responsible person and so on. 2. Tag with unique identifiers, in our case a QR-Code. 3. Wrote down the location of sample or core. After transmitting the information from Smart Pen, actually via USB but wireless is a choice too, into our server infrastructure the link to other information began. As it linked in our Virtual Research Environment (VRE) with the unique identifier (ISGN) sample or core can be located and the QR-Code was simply linked back from core or sample to ISGN with additional scientific information. On the QR-Code all important information are on it and it was simple to produce thousand of it.

  2. Microglia: unique and common features with other tissue macrophages.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Marco; Tay, Tuan Leng; Wolf, Yochai; Jung, Steffen

    2014-09-01

    Microglia are highly specialized tissue macrophages of the brain with dedicated functions in neuronal development, homeostasis and recovery from pathology Despite their unique localization in the central nervous system (CNS), microglia are ontogenetically and functionally related to their peripheral counterparts of the mononuclear phagocytic system in the body, namely tissue macrophages and circulating myeloid cells. Recent developments provided new insights into the myeloid system in the body with microglia emerging as intriguing unique archetypes. Similar to other tissue macrophages, microglia develop early during embryogenesis from immature yolk sac progenitors. But in contrast to most of their tissue relatives microglia persist throughout the entire life of the organism without any significant input from circulating blood cells due to their longevity and their capacity of self-renewal. Notably, microglia share some features with short-lived blood monocytes to limit CNS tissue damage in pathologies, but only bone marrow-derived cells display the ability to become permanently integrated in the parenchyma. This emphasizes the therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived microglia-like cells. Further understanding of both fate and function of microglia during CNS pathologies and considering their uniqueness among other tissue macrophages will be pivotal for potential manipulation of immune cell function in the CNS, thereby reducing disease burden. Here, we discuss new aspects of myeloid cell biology in general with special emphasis on the brain-resident macrophages and microglia. PMID:24652058

  3. Synthetic biology of cyanobacteria: unique challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Berla, Bertram M.; Saha, Rajib; Immethun, Cheryl M.; Maranas, Costas D.; Moon, Tae Seok; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms, and especially cyanobacteria, hold great promise as sources of renewably-produced fuels, bulk and specialty chemicals, and nutritional products. Synthetic biology tools can help unlock cyanobacteria's potential for these functions, but unfortunately tool development for these organisms has lagged behind that for S. cerevisiae and E. coli. While these organisms may in many cases be more difficult to work with as “chassis” strains for synthetic biology than certain heterotrophs, the unique advantages of autotrophs in biotechnology applications as well as the scientific importance of improved understanding of photosynthesis warrant the development of these systems into something akin to a “green E. coli.” In this review, we highlight unique challenges and opportunities for development of synthetic biology approaches in cyanobacteria. We review classical and recently developed methods for constructing targeted mutants in various cyanobacterial strains, and offer perspective on what genetic tools might most greatly expand the ability to engineer new functions in such strains. Similarly, we review what genetic parts are most needed for the development of cyanobacterial synthetic biology. Finally, we highlight recent methods to construct genome-scale models of cyanobacterial metabolism and to use those models to measure properties of autotrophic metabolism. Throughout this paper, we discuss some of the unique challenges of a diurnal, autotrophic lifestyle along with how the development of synthetic biology and biotechnology in cyanobacteria must fit within those constraints. PMID:24009604

  4. Structural investigation into physiological DNA phosphorothioate modification

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Wenxian; Hu, Zhongpei; Shen, Jie; Wang, Chunxi; Jiang, Feng; Liu, Huili; Long, Dewu; Liu, Maili; Cao, Chunyang

    2016-01-01

    DNA phosphorothioate (PT) modification, with sulfur replacing a nonbridging phosphate oxygen in a sequence and stereo specific manner, is a novel physiological variation in bacteria. But what effects on DNA properties PT modification has is still unclear. To address this, we prepared three double-stranded (ds) DNA decamers, d(CGPXGCCGCCGA) with its complementary strand d(TCGGCGPXGCCG) (where X = O or S, i.e., PT-free dsDNA, [Sp, Sp]-PT dsDNA or [Rp, Rp]-PT dsDNA) located in gene of Streptomyces lividans. Their melting temperature (Tm) measurement indicates that [Rp, Rp]-PT dsDNA is most unstable. Their electron transfer potential detection presents an order of anti-oxidation properties: Sp-PT DNA > Rp-PT DNA > PT-free DNA. Their NMR structures demonstrate that PT modification doesn’t change their B-form conformation. The sulfur in [Rp, Rp]-PT dsDNA locates in the major groove, with steric effects on protons in the sugar close to modification sites, resulting in its unstability, and facilitating its selectively interactions with ScoMcrA. We thought that PT modification was dialectical to the bacteria. It protects the hosting bacteria by working as antioxidant against H2O2, and acts as a marker, directing restriction enzyme observed in other hosts, like ScoMcrA, to correctly cleave the PT modified DNA, so that bacteria cannot spread and survive. PMID:27169778

  5. Sequence tagging reveals unexpected modifications in toxicoproteomics

    PubMed Central

    Dasari, Surendra; Chambers, Matthew C.; Codreanu, Simona G.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Collins, Ben C.; Pennington, Stephen R.; Gallagher, William M.; Tabb, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Toxicoproteomic samples are rich in posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of proteins. Identifying these modifications via standard database searching can incur significant performance penalties. Here we describe the latest developments in TagRecon, an algorithm that leverages inferred sequence tags to identify modified peptides in toxicoproteomic data sets. TagRecon identifies known modifications more effectively than the MyriMatch database search engine. TagRecon outperformed state of the art software in recognizing unanticipated modifications from LTQ, Orbitrap, and QTOF data sets. We developed user-friendly software for detecting persistent mass shifts from samples. We follow a three-step strategy for detecting unanticipated PTMs in samples. First, we identify the proteins present in the sample with a standard database search. Next, identified proteins are interrogated for unexpected PTMs with a sequence tag-based search. Finally, additional evidence is gathered for the detected mass shifts with a refinement search. Application of this technology on toxicoproteomic data sets revealed unintended cross-reactions between proteins and sample processing reagents. Twenty five proteins in rat liver showed signs of oxidative stress when exposed to potentially toxic drugs. These results demonstrate the value of mining toxicoproteomic data sets for modifications. PMID:21214251

  6. Consistent cosmological modifications to the Einstein equations

    SciTech Connect

    Skordis, Constantinos

    2009-06-15

    General relativity is a phenomenologically successful theory that rests on firm foundations, but has not been tested on cosmological scales. The deep mystery of dark energy (and possibly even the requirement of cold dark matter), has increased the need for testing modifications to general relativity, as the inference of such otherwise undetected fluids, depends crucially on the theory of gravity. In this work I outline a general scheme for constructing consistent and covariant modifications to the Einstein equations. This framework is such that there is a clear connection between the modification and the underlying field content that produces it. I argue that this is mandatory for distinguishing modifications of gravity from conventional fluids. I give two nontrivial examples, the first of which is a simple metric-based modification of the fluctuation equations for which the background is exact {lambda}CDM and the second has a Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati background but differs from it in the perturbations. I present their impact on observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation.

  7. Interpreting thelanguage of histone and DNA modifications

    PubMed Central

    Rothbart, Scott B.; Strahl, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    A major mechanism regulating the accessibility and function of eukaryotic genomes are the covalent modifications to DNA and histone proteins that dependably package our genetic information inside the nucleus of every cell. Formally postulated over a decade ago, it is becoming increasingly clear that post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histones act singly and in combination to form a language or ‘code’ that is read by specialized proteins to facilitate downstream functions in chromatin. Underappreciated at the time was the level of complexity harbored both within histone PTMs and their combinations, as well as within the proteins that read and interpret the language. In addition to histone PTMs, newly-identified DNA modifications that can recruit specific effector proteins has raised further awareness that histone PTMs operate within a broader language of epigenetic modifications to orchestrate the dynamic functions associated with chromatin. Here, we highlight key recent advances in our understanding of the epigenetic language encompassing histone and DNA modifications and foreshadow challenges that lie ahead as we continue our quest to decipher the fundamental mechanisms of chromatin regulation. PMID:24631868

  8. Applications for unique identifiers in the geological sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J.; Lehnert, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Even though geology has always been a generalist discipline in many parts, approaches towards questions about Earth's past have become increasingly interdisciplinary. At the same time, a wealth of samples has been collected, the resulting data have been stored in in disciplinary databases, the interpretations published in scientific literature. In the past these resources have existed alongside each other, semantically linked only by the knowledge of the researcher and his peers. One of the main drivers towards the inception of the world wide web was the ability to link scientific sources over the internet. The Uniform Resource Locator (URL) used to locate resources on the web soon turned out to be ephemeral in nature. A more reliable way of addressing objects was needed, a way of persistent identification to make digital objects, or digital representations of objects, part of the record of science. With their high degree of centralisation the scientific publishing houses were quick to implement and adopt a system for unique and persistent identification, the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) ®. At the same time other identifier systems exist alongside DOI, e.g. URN, ARK, handle ®, and others. There many uses for persistent identification in science, other than the identification of journal articles. DOI are already used for the identification of data, thus making data citable. There are several initiatives to assign identifiers to authors and institutions to allow unique identification. A recent development is the application of persistent identifiers for geological samples. As most data in the geosciences are derived from samples, it is crucial to be able to uniquely identify the samples from which a set of data were derived. Incomplete documentation of samples in publications, use of ambiguous sample names are major obstacles for synthesis studies and re-use of data. Access to samples for re-analysis and re-appraisal is limited due to the lack of a central catalogue that allows finding a sample's archiving location. The International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) provides solutions to the questions of unique sample identification and discovery. Use of the IGSN in digital data systems allows building linkages between the digital representation of samples in sample registries, e.g. SESAR, and their related data in the literature and in web accessible digital data repositories. Persistent identifiers are now available for literature, data, samples, and authors. More applications, e.g. identification of methods or instruments, will follow. In conjunction with semantic web technology the application of unique and persistent identifiers in the geosciences will aid discovery both through systematic data mining, exploratory data analysis, and serendipity effects. This talk will discuss existing and emerging applications for persistent identifiers in the geological sciences.

  9. 30 CFR 18.81 - Field modification of approved (permissible) equipment; application for approval of modification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Field modification of approved (permissible... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field Modifications of Approved...

  10. 30 CFR 18.81 - Field modification of approved (permissible) equipment; application for approval of modification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Field modification of approved (permissible... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field Modifications of Approved...

  11. Gamma-induced modifications of polycarbonate polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, D.; Sahoo, K. L.; Sinha, U. B.; Swu, T.; Chemseddine, A.; Fink, D.

    2004-10-01

    Gamma-induced modifications in polycarbonate polymer have been studied in the dose range of 10(1)-10(6) Gy. Thin films of polycarbonate have been irradiated with different gamma doses from a Co-60 source. To monitor the modifications caused by gamma radiation, FT-IR, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies have been performed. The studies have indicated that at the dose of 10(6) Gy, phenolic group forms through scissioning of ester linkage. Though the effect of radiation is most significant at the highest dose, the process of modifications starts at 10(3) Gy. Scissioning of the polymeric chain initiates a different morphological zone within the polymer matrix, and the polymer becomes more crystalline with increasing dose. Owing to chain scissioning, the mobility of the polymer increases, which in turn reduces the glass transition temperature of the polymer.

  12. Can lifestyle modification affect men's erectile function?

    PubMed

    Hehemann, Marah C; Kashanian, James A

    2016-04-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition affecting millions of men worldwide. The pathophysiology and epidemiologic links between ED and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well-established. Lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, weight reduction, dietary modification, physical activity, and psychological stress reduction have been increasingly recognized as foundational to the prevention and treatment of ED. The aim of this review is to outline behavioral choices which may increase ones risk of developing ED, to present relevant studies addressing lifestyle factors correlated with ED, and to highlight proposed mechanisms for intervention aimed at improving erectile function in men with ED. These recommendations can provide a framework for counseling patients with ED about lifestyle modification. PMID:27141445

  13. 49 CFR 237.133 - Supervision of repairs and modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supervision of repairs and modifications. 237.133... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRIDGE SAFETY STANDARDS Repair and Modification of Bridges § 237.133 Supervision of repairs and modifications. Each repair or modification pursuant to this part shall be...

  14. 47 CFR 73.875 - Modification of transmission systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Modification of transmission systems. 73.875... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.875 Modification of transmission... modifications may be made without prior authorization from the Commission. A modification of license...

  15. 47 CFR 73.875 - Modification of transmission systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Modification of transmission systems. 73.875... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.875 Modification of transmission... modifications may be made without prior authorization from the Commission. A modification of license...

  16. 47 CFR 73.875 - Modification of transmission systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modification of transmission systems. 73.875... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.875 Modification of transmission... modifications may be made without prior authorization from the Commission. A modification of license...

  17. 47 CFR 73.875 - Modification of transmission systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modification of transmission systems. 73.875... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.875 Modification of transmission... modifications may be made without prior authorization from the Commission. A modification of license...

  18. 47 CFR 73.875 - Modification of transmission systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Modification of transmission systems. 73.875... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.875 Modification of transmission... modifications may be made without prior authorization from the Commission. A modification of license...

  19. 48 CFR 22.404-6 - Modifications of wage determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modifications of wage... Involving Construction 22.404-6 Modifications of wage determinations. (a) General. (1) The Department of... modifications expire on the same day as the original determination. The need to include a modification of...

  20. 36 CFR 62.7 - Natural landmark modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... modifications. 62.7 Section 62.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL NATURAL LANDMARKS PROGRAM § 62.7 Natural landmark modifications. (a) Determination of need for modifications. After designation, the modification of the boundaries of a natural...

  1. 40 CFR 790.68 - Modification of consent agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Modification of consent agreements. 790... Implementation, Enforcement and Modification of Consent Agreements § 790.68 Modification of consent agreements..., other persons or EPA may seek modifications in the scope of testing performed under the...

  2. 20 CFR 702.373 - Modification of awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Modification of awards. 702.373 Section 702... Procedures Interlocutory Matters, Supplementary Orders, and Modifications § 702.373 Modification of awards... modification of the award of compensation the district director and claimant shall be notified through...

  3. 36 CFR 223.112 - Modification of contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modification of contracts....112 Modification of contracts. (a) Timber sale contracts may be modified only when the modification.... Modifications may be made by the officer approving the sale, by his successor, or by his superior, except...

  4. Bizonoplast, a unique chloroplast in the epidermal cells of microphylls in the shade plant Selaginella erythropus (Selaginellaceae).

    PubMed

    Sheue, Chiou-Rong; Sarafis, Vassilios; Kiew, Ruth; Liu, Ho-Yih; Salino, Alexandre; Kuo-Huang, Ling-Long; Yang, Yuen-Po; Tsai, Chi-Chu; Lin, Chun-Hung; Yong, Jean W H; Ku, Maurice S B

    2007-12-01

    Study of the unique leaf anatomy and chloroplast structure in shade-adapted plants will aid our understanding of how plants use light efficiently in low light environments. Unusual chloroplasts in terms of size and thylakoid membrane stacking have been described previously in several deep-shade plants. In this study, a single giant cup-shaped chloroplast, termed a bizonoplast, was found in the abaxial epidermal cells of the dorsal microphylls and the adaxial epidermal cells of the ventral microphylls in the deep-shade spike moss Selaginella erythropus. Bizonoplasts are dimorphic in ultrastructure: the upper zone is occupied by numerous layers of 2-4 stacked thylakoid membranes while the lower zone contains both unstacked stromal thylakoids and thylakoid lamellae stacked in normal grana structure oriented in different directions. In contrast, other cell types in the microphylls contain chloroplasts with typical structure. This unique chloroplast has not been reported from any other species. The enlargement of epidermal cells into funnel-shaped, photosynthetic cells coupled with specific localization of a large bizonoplast in the lower part of the cells and differential modification in ultrastructure within the chloroplast may allow the plant to better adapt to low light. Further experiments are required to determine whether this shade-adapted organism derives any evolutionary or ecophysiological fitness from these unique chloroplasts. PMID:21636386

  5. On Time Delay Margin Estimation for Adaptive Control and Optimal Control Modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents methods for estimating time delay margin for adaptive control of input delay systems with almost linear structured uncertainty. The bounded linear stability analysis method seeks to represent an adaptive law by a locally bounded linear approximation within a small time window. The time delay margin of this input delay system represents a local stability measure and is computed analytically by three methods: Pade approximation, Lyapunov-Krasovskii method, and the matrix measure method. These methods are applied to the standard model-reference adaptive control, s-modification adaptive law, and optimal control modification adaptive law. The windowing analysis results in non-unique estimates of the time delay margin since it is dependent on the length of a time window and parameters which vary from one time window to the next. The optimal control modification adaptive law overcomes this limitation in that, as the adaptive gain tends to infinity and if the matched uncertainty is linear, then the closed-loop input delay system tends to a LTI system. A lower bound of the time delay margin of this system can then be estimated uniquely without the need for the windowing analysis. Simulation results demonstrates the feasibility of the bounded linear stability method for time delay margin estimation.

  6. A Multi-Application Smart Card System with Authentic Post-Issuance Program Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Mohammad Mesbah; Nohara, Yasunobu; Ikeda, Daisuke; Yasuura, Hiroto

    A multi-application smart card system consists of an issuer, service vendors and cardholders, where cardholders are recipients of smart cards (from the issuer) to be used in connection with applications offered by service vendors. Authentic post-issuance program modification is necessary for a multi-application smart card system because applications in the system are realized after the issuance of a smart card. In this paper, we propose a system where only authentic modification is possible. In the proposed system, the smart card issuer stores a unique long bitstring called PID in a smart card. The smart card is then given to the cardholder. A unique substring of the PID (subPID) is shared between the cardholder and a corresponding service vendor. Another subPID is shared between the issuer and the cardholder. During program modification, a protocol using the subPlDs, a one-way hash function and a pseudorandom number generator function verifies the identity of the parties and the authenticity of the program.

  7. Influence of structures modification on left-handed plasmonic antenna for green light: from isotropic to chiral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajput, Monika; Dabas, Bhawana; Sinha, R. K.

    2011-10-01

    Dispersion and resonance properties of double nanorod structure, ring structure, H structure and chair type structure is demonstrated. With some structural modification, the properties of the structure changes from isotropic to uni-axial anisotropic and further to chiral left-handed material. The Demonstration of near-field transmission spectrum reveals the production of the local-field enhancement up to 102 for the green light. Negative real values of both permeability (μ) and permittivity (ɛ) for visible light are obtained by applying coupled dipole approximation. The structure modification exhibits some unique dispersion and resonant properties that may govern imaging applications.

  8. A amphoteric copolymer profile modification agent

    SciTech Connect

    Wang HongGuan; Yu LianCheng; Tian HongKun

    1995-11-01

    This report provides a new gel profile modification agent prepared by an amphoteric copolymer (FT-213) and a novel crosslinking agent (BY), and introduces the preparations of the amphoteric polymer, the crosslinking agent and the profile modification agent, the action mechanism, the test conditions and the evaluations of the performance of the agent. The 45 well treatments in oilfields demonstrate that the agent can be prepared conveniently, the agent has better compatibility and application performances, and the treatment life is longer with the use of the agent. 80,000 tons incremental oil and 60,000 m{sup 3} decreasing water production have been achieved.

  9. Surface modification to prevent oxide scale spallation

    DOEpatents

    Stephens, Elizabeth V; Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning; Stevenson, Jeffry W; Surdoval, Wayne; Khaleel, Mohammad A

    2013-07-16

    A surface modification to prevent oxide scale spallation is disclosed. The surface modification includes a ferritic stainless steel substrate having a modified surface. A cross-section of the modified surface exhibits a periodic morphology. The periodic morphology does not exceed a critical buckling length, which is equivalent to the length of a wave attribute observed in the cross section periodic morphology. The modified surface can be created using at least one of the following processes: shot peening, surface blasting and surface grinding. A coating can be applied to the modified surface.

  10. Conformational modifications of cyclic hexapeptide somatostatin analogs.

    PubMed

    Freidinger, R M; Perlow, D S; Randall, W C; Saperstein, R; Arison, B H; Veber, D F

    1984-02-01

    A model for the bioactive conformation of the highly active cyclic hexapeptide somatostatin analog cyclo-(Pro-Phe-D-Trp-Lys-Thr-Phe) has been proposed. As a test of this model, several compounds containing lactam and N-Me amino acid conformational modifications in the Thr-Phe-Pro-Phe beta turn were synthesized. The N-Me alanine and sarcosine substitutions for proline gave highly active analogs, while lactam dipeptides in place of Phe-Pro decreased potency. 1H n.m.r. and CD spectra of these analogs illustrate the conformational effects in solution of these modifications. The results provide additional support for the proposed conformational model. PMID:6142021

  11. Modification of gravity due to torsion

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, V. P.; Nikiforova, V.; Randjbar-Daemi, S.; Rubakov, V.

    2010-01-01

    Modifications of general relativity have been considered as one of the possible ways of addressing some of the outstanding problems related to the large scale gravitational physics. In this contribution we review some of the recent results which are due to the inclusion of dynamical torsion. More specifically we shall discuss the propagation of massive spin-2 particles in flat and curved space times. We shall show that, contrary to what is generally believed, spinning matter is not the sole source of torsion field. A symmetric energy momentum tensor can also couple to torsion degrees of freedom. The massive and massless spin-2 particles mix giving rise to an infrared modification of gravity.

  12. Development of an Improved Permeability Modification Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, H.W.; Elphnick, J.

    1999-03-09

    This report describes the development of an improved permeability modification simulator performed jointly by BDM Petroleum Technologies and Schlumberger Dowell under a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) with the US Department of Energy. The improved simulator was developed by modifying NIPER's PC-GEL permeability modification simulator to include a radial model, a thermal energy equation, a wellbore simulator, and a fully implicit time-stepping option. The temperature-dependent gelation kinetics of a delayed gel system (DGS) is also included in the simulator.

  13. NASTRAN modifications for recovering strains and curvatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennrich, C. W.

    1975-01-01

    Modifications to the NASTRAN structural analysis computer program are described. The modifications allow the recovery of strain and curvature data for the general two-dimensional elements, in addition to the usual stress data. Option features allow the transformation of the strain/curvature (or stress) data to a common coordinate system and representation at the grid points of the structural model rather than at the conventional element center locations. Usage information is provided which will allow present users of NASTRAN to easily utilize the new capability.

  14. Role of histone modification in chromatin dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takashi

    2007-05-01

    The covalent modification of histone tails has emerged as a crucial step in controlling the eucaryotic genomes. Eucaryotic cells must possess mechanisms for condensing and decondensing chromatin. Moreover, chromatin condensation is particularly evident during mitosis and apoptotic cell death, whereas chromatin relaxation is necessary for replication, repair, recombination and transcription. The post-translational modifications of histone tails such as reversible acetylation, phosphorylation and methylation play a critical role in dynamic condensation/relaxation that occurs during the cell cycle. Histone phosphorylation is believed to play a direct role in mitosis, cell death, repair, replication and recombination. In this review, we discuss recent progress in studies of histone phosphorylation. PMID:17405795

  15. Cerclage: Shirodkar, McDonald, and Modifications.

    PubMed

    Wood, S Lindsay; Owen, John

    2016-06-01

    As the concept of cervical insufficiency has evolved from a poorly defined clinical/anatomic entity into 1 component of the spontaneous preterm birth syndrome, so have cerclage applications. Originally developed to treat history-defined cervical insufficiency and acute cervical insufficiency, cerclage is now utilized on a larger scale for the prevention of recurrent spontaneous preterm birth. As its role expands, the need for prospective data evaluating cerclage techniques and modifications is emphasized. Herein, we will review the techniques, modifications, risks, efficacy, and evidence-based applications of the cerclage procedure in contemporary clinical practice. PMID:26974218

  16. Meteorological satellites in support of weather modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, D. W.; Vonder Haar, T. H.; Grant, L. O.

    1978-01-01

    During the past several years, many weather modification programs have been incorporating meteorological satellite data into both the operations and the analysis phase of these projects. This has occurred because of the advancement of the satellite as a mesoscale measurement platform, both temporally and spatially, and as the availability of high quality data has increased. This paper surveys the applications of meteorological satellite data to both summer and winter weather modification programs. A description of the types of observations needed by the programs is given, and an assessment of how accurately satellites can determine these necessary parameters is made.

  17. Beam Distribution Modification by Alfven Modes

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2010-04-03

    Modification of a deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes in a toroidal magnetic confinement device is examined. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam transport, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold. The modes produce a substantial central flattening of the beam distribution.

  18. Beam Distribution Modification By Alfven Modes

    SciTech Connect

    White, R. B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2010-01-25

    Modification of a deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes in a toroidal magnetic confinement device is examined. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam transport, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold. The modes produce a substantial central flattening of the beam distribution.

  19. Development and application of FI catalysts for olefin polymerization: unique catalysis and distinctive polymer formation.

    PubMed

    Makio, Haruyuki; Fujita, Terunori

    2009-10-20

    Catalysts contribute to the efficient production of chemicals and materials in almost all processes in the chemical industry. The polyolefin industry is one prominent example of the importance of catalysts. The discovery of Ziegler-Natta catalysts in the 1950s resulted in the production of high-density polyethylenes (PEs) and isotactic polypropylenes (iPPs). Since then, further catalyst development has led to the production of a new series of polyolefins, including linear low-density PEs, amorphous ethylene/1-butene copolymers, ethylene/propylene/diene elastomers, and syndiotactic PPs (sPPs). Polyolefins are now the most important and the most produced synthetic polymers. This Account describes a family of next-generation olefin polymerization catalysts (FI catalysts) that are currently being used in the commercial production of value-added olefin-based materials. An FI catalyst is a heteroatom-coordinated early transition metal complex that combines a pair of nonsymmetric phenoxy-imine [O(-), N] chelating ligands with a group 4 transition metal. The catalytically active species derived from FI catalysts is highly electrophilic and can assume up to five isomeric structures based on the coordination of the phenoxy-imine ligand. In addition, the accessibility of the ligands of the FI catalysts and their amenability to modification offers an opportunity for the design of diverse catalytic structures. FI catalysts exhibit many unique chemical characteristics: precise control over chain transfers (including highly controlled living ethylene and propylene polymerizations), extremely high selectivity for ethylene, high functional group tolerance, MAO- and borate-free polymerization catalysis, significant morphology polymer formation, controlled multimodal behavior, high incorporation ability for higher alpha-olefins and norbornene, and highly syndiospecific and isospecific polymerizations of both propylene and styrene. These reactions also occur with very high catalyst efficiency. The reaction products include a wide variety of unique olefin-based materials, many of which were previously unavailable via other means of polymerization. We have produced selective vinyl- and Al-terminated PEs, ultrahigh molecular weight linear PEs, regio- and stereoirregular high molecular weight poly(higher alpha-olefin)s, ethylene- and propylene-based telechelic polymers, a wide array of polyolefinic block copolymers from ethylene, propylene, and higher alpha-olefins, and ultrafine noncoherent PE particles. FI catalysts are important from the organometallic, catalytic, and polymer science points of view, and the chemical industry is now using them for the production of value-added olefin-based materials. We anticipate that future research on FI catalysts will produce additional olefin-based materials with unique architectures and material properties and will offer scientists the chance to further study olefin polymerization catalysis and related reaction mechanisms. PMID:19588950

  20. Quantitative acoustic contrast tomography reveals unique multiscale physical fluctuations during aflatoxin synthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sourav; Gummadidala, Phani M; Rima, Rowshan A; Ahmed, Riaz U; Kenne, Gabriel J; Mitra, Chandrani; Gomaa, Ola M; Hill, Jasmine; McFadden, Sandra; Banaszek, Nora; Fayad, Raja; Terejanu, Gabriel; Chanda, Anindya

    2014-12-01

    Fungal pathogens need regulated mechanical and morphological fine-tuning for pushing through substrates to meet their metabolic and functional needs. Currently very little is understood on how coordinated colony level morphomechanical modifications regulate their behavior. This is due to an absence of a method that can simultaneously map, quantify, and correlate global fluctuations in physical properties of the expanding fungal colonies. Here, we show that three-dimensional ultrasonic reflections upon decoding can render acoustic contrast tomographs that contain information on material property and morphology in the same time scale of one important phytopathogen, Aspergillus parasiticus, at multiple length scales. By quantitative analysis of the changes in acoustic signatures collected as the A. parasiticus colony expands with time, we further demonstrate that the pathogen displays unique acoustic signatures during synthesis and release of its hepatocarcinogenic secondary metabolite, aflatoxin, suggesting an involvement of a multiscale morphomechanical reorganization of the colony in this process. Our studies illustrate for the first time, the feasibility of generating in any invading cell population, four-dimensional maps of global physical properties, with minimal physical perturbation of the specimens. Our developed method that we term quantitative acoustic contrast tomography (Q-ACT), provides a novel diagnostic framework for the identification of in-cell molecular factors and discovery of small molecules that may modulate pathogen invasion in a host. PMID:25312859

  1. Linkage via K27 Bestows Ubiquitin Chains with Unique Properties among Polyubiquitins.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Carlos A; Dixon, Emma K; Walker, Olivier; Chaturvedi, Apurva; Nakasone, Mark A; Curtis, Joseph E; Reed, Megan R; Krueger, Susan; Cropp, T Ashton; Fushman, David

    2016-03-01

    Polyubiquitination, a critical protein post-translational modification, signals for a diverse set of cellular events via the different isopeptide linkages formed between the C terminus of one ubiquitin (Ub) and the ɛ-amine of K6, K11, K27, K29, K33, K48, or K63 of a second Ub. We assembled di-ubiquitins (Ub2) comprising every lysine linkage and examined them biochemically and structurally. Of these, K27-Ub2 is unique as it is not cleaved by most deubiquitinases. As this remains the only structurally uncharacterized lysine linkage, we comprehensively examined the structures and dynamics of K27-Ub2 using nuclear magnetic resonance, small-angle neutron scattering, and in silico ensemble modeling. Our structural data provide insights into the functional properties of K27-Ub2, in particular that K27-Ub2 may be specifically recognized by K48-selective receptor UBA2 domain from proteasomal shuttle protein hHR23a. Binding studies and mutagenesis confirmed this prediction, further highlighting structural/recognition versatility of polyubiquitins and the potential power of determining function from elucidation of conformational ensembles. PMID:26876099

  2. Nosiheptide Biosynthesis Featuring a Unique Indole Side Ring Formation on the Characteristic Thiopeptide Framework

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi; Duan, Lian; Zhang, Qi; Liao, Rijing; Ding, Ying; Pan, Haixue; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Tang, Gongli; Shen, Ben; Liu, Wen

    2009-01-01

    Nosiheptide (NOS), belonging to the e series of thiopeptide antibiotics that exhibit potent activity against various bacterial pathogens, bears a unique indole side ring system and regiospecific hydroxyl groups on the characteristic macrocyclic core. Here, cloning, sequencing and characterization of the nos gene cluster from Streptomyces actuosus ATCC 25421 as a model for this series of thiopeptides has unveiled new insights into their biosynthesis. Bioinformatics-based sequence analysis and in vivo investigation into the gene functions show that NOS biosynthesis shares a common strategy with recently characterized b or c series thiopeptides for forming the characteristic macrocyclic core, which features a ribosomally synthesized precursor peptide with conserved posttranslational modifications. However, it apparently proceeds via a different route for tailoring the thiopeptide framework, allowing the final product to exhibit the distinct structural characteristics of e series thiopeptides, such as the indole side ring system. Chemical complementation supports the notion that the S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet)-dependent protein NosL may play a central role in converting Trp to the key 3-methylindole moiety by an unusual carbon side chain rearrangement, most likely via a radical-initiated mechanism. Characterization of the indole side ring-opened analog of NOS from the nosN mutant strain is consistent with the proposed methyltransferase activity of its encoded protein, shedding light into the timing of the individual steps for indole side ring biosynthesis. These results also suggest the feasibility of engineering novel thiopeptides for drug discovery by manipulating the NOS biosynthetic machinery. PMID:19678698

  3. Transfer of plasmid DNA to clinical coagulase-negative staphylococcal pathogens by using a unique bacteriophage.

    PubMed

    Winstel, Volker; Kühner, Petra; Krismer, Bernhard; Peschel, Andreas; Rohde, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Genetic manipulation of emerging bacterial pathogens, such as coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), is a major hurdle in clinical and basic microbiological research. Strong genetic barriers, such as restriction modification systems or clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), usually interfere with available techniques for DNA transformation and therefore complicate manipulation of CoNS or render it impossible. Thus, current knowledge of pathogenicity and virulence determinants of CoNS is very limited. Here, a rapid, efficient, and highly reliable technique is presented to transfer plasmid DNA essential for genetic engineering to important CoNS pathogens from a unique Staphylococcus aureus strain via a specific S. aureus bacteriophage, Φ187. Even strains refractory to electroporation can be transduced by this technique once donor and recipient strains share similar Φ187 receptor properties. As a proof of principle, this technique was used to delete the alternative transcription factor sigma B (SigB) via allelic replacement in nasal and clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates at high efficiencies. The described approach will allow the genetic manipulation of a wide range of CoNS pathogens and might inspire research activities to manipulate other important pathogens in a similar fashion. PMID:25616805

  4. Beagle 2 and NASA's Mars 2003 Orbiter: A Unique Exobiology Opportunity with an Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Thatcher, John; Westall, Frances

    2000-01-01

    With the exploration strategy for Mars undergoing reexamination, the opportunity exists for the incorporation of the 60 kg Beagle 2 lander, developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission, with NASA's Mars 2003 orbiter derived from the Mars Global Orbiter. The combination of Beagle 2 with a Mars orbiter would result in a unique mission which could obtain information on Mars' life, climate and resources both from orbit as well as on the surface of the planet. Beagle 2 has been developed in the LJK for ESA as a low-cost opportunity to study the exobiology of Mars and the spacecraft is in its final stages of manufacture. Only limited modifications to the Beagle 2 package would be required for inclusion on NASA's Mars 2003 orbiter. With the ESA Mars Express mission launch in 2003 and a potential NASA Mars orbiter in 2003, both Beagle 2 landers on Mars would offer a low-cost, decreased risk and increased science return opportunity for the exploration of Mars at two distinct geologically interesting sites.

  5. Post-Translational Modifications of Histones in Human Sperm.

    PubMed

    Krejčí, Jana; Stixová, Lenka; Pagáčová, Eva; Legartová, Soňa; Kozubek, Stanislav; Lochmanová, Gabriela; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Sehnalová, Petra; Dabravolski, Siarhei; Hejátko, Jan; Bártová, Eva

    2015-10-01

    We examined the levels and distribution of post-translationally modified histones and protamines in human sperm. Using western blot immunoassay, immunofluorescence, mass spectrometry (MS), and FLIM-FRET approaches, we analyzed the status of histone modifications and the protamine P2. Among individual samples, we observed variability in the levels of H3K9me1, H3K9me2, H3K27me3, H3K36me3, and H3K79me1, but the level of acetylated (ac) histones H4 was relatively stable in the sperm head fractions, as demonstrated by western blot analysis. Sperm heads with lower levels of P2 exhibited lower levels of H3K9ac, H3K9me1, H3K27me3, H3K36me3, and H3K79me1. A very strong correlation was observed between the levels of P2 and H3K9me2. FLIM-FRET analysis additionally revealed that acetylated histones H4 are not only parts of sperm chromatin but also appear in a non-integrated form. Intriguingly, H4ac and H3K27me3 were detected in sperm tail fractions via western blot analysis. An appearance of specific histone H3 and H4 acetylation and H3 methylation in sperm tail fractions was also confirmed by both LC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Taken together, these data indicate that particular post-translational modifications of histones are uniquely distributed in human sperm, and this distribution varies among individuals and among the sperm of a single individual. PMID:25808548

  6. Prediction of transposable element derived enhancers using chromatin modification profiles.

    PubMed

    Huda, Ahsan; Tyagi, Eishita; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo; Bowen, Nathan J; Jjingo, Daudi; Jordan, I King

    2011-01-01

    Experimentally characterized enhancer regions have previously been shown to display specific patterns of enrichment for several different histone modifications. We modelled these enhancer chromatin profiles in the human genome and used them to guide the search for novel enhancers derived from transposable element (TE) sequences. To do this, a computational approach was taken to analyze the genome-wide histone modification landscape characterized by the ENCODE project in two human hematopoietic cell types, GM12878 and K562. We predicted the locations of 2,107 and 1,448 TE-derived enhancers in the GM12878 and K562 cell lines respectively. A vast majority of these putative enhancers are unique to each cell line; only 3.5% of the TE-derived enhancers are shared between the two. We evaluated the functional effect of TE-derived enhancers by associating them with the cell-type specific expression of nearby genes, and found that the number of TE-derived enhancers is strongly positively correlated with the expression of nearby genes in each cell line. Furthermore, genes that are differentially expressed between the two cell lines also possess a divergent number of TE-derived enhancers in their vicinity. As such, genes that are up-regulated in the GM12878 cell line and down-regulated in K562 have significantly more TE-derived enhancers in their vicinity in the GM12878 cell line and vice versa. These data indicate that human TE-derived sequences are likely to be involved in regulating cell-type specific gene expression on a broad scale and suggest that the enhancer activity of TE-derived sequences is mediated by epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. PMID:22087331

  7. ROSics: chemistry and proteomics of cysteine modifications in redox biology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Jung; Ha, Sura; Lee, Hee Yoon; Lee, Kong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) occurring in proteins determine their functions and regulations. Proteomic tools are available to identify PTMs and have proved invaluable to expanding the inventory of these tools of nature that hold the keys to biological processes. Cysteine (Cys), the least abundant (1-2%) of amino acid residues, are unique in that they play key roles in maintaining stability of protein structure, participating in active sites of enzymes, regulating protein function and binding to metals, among others. Cys residues are major targets of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are important mediators and modulators of various biological processes. It is therefore necessary to identify the Cys-containing ROS target proteins, as well as the sites and species of their PTMs. Cutting edge proteomic tools which have helped identify the PTMs at reactive Cys residues, have also revealed that Cys residues are modified in numerous ways. These modifications include formation of disulfide, thiosulfinate and thiosulfonate, oxidation to sulfenic, sulfinic, sulfonic acids and thiosulfonic acid, transformation to dehydroalanine (DHA) and serine, palmitoylation and farnesylation, formation of chemical adducts with glutathione, 4-hydroxynonenal and 15-deoxy PGJ2, and various other chemicals. We present here, a review of relevant ROS biology, possible chemical reactions of Cys residues and details of the proteomic strategies employed for rapid, efficient and sensitive identification of diverse and novel PTMs involving reactive Cys residues of redox-sensitive proteins. We propose a new name, "ROSics," for the science which describes the principles of mode of action of ROS at molecular levels. PMID:24916017

  8. ROSICS: CHEMISTRY AND PROTEOMICS OF CYSTEINE MODIFICATIONS IN REDOX BIOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Jung; Ha, Sura; Lee, Hee Yoon; Lee, Kong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) occurring in proteins determine their functions and regulations. Proteomic tools are available to identify PTMs and have proved invaluable to expanding the inventory of these tools of nature that hold the keys to biological processes. Cysteine (Cys), the least abundant (1–2%) of amino acid residues, are unique in that they play key roles in maintaining stability of protein structure, participating in active sites of enzymes, regulating protein function and binding to metals, among others. Cys residues are major targets of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are important mediators and modulators of various biological processes. It is therefore necessary to identify the Cys-containing ROS target proteins, as well as the sites and species of their PTMs. Cutting edge proteomic tools which have helped identify the PTMs at reactive Cys residues, have also revealed that Cys residues are modified in numerous ways. These modifications include formation of disulfide, thiosulfinate and thiosulfonate, oxidation to sulfenic, sulfinic, sulfonic acids and thiosulfonic acid, transformation to dehydroalanine (DHA) and serine, palmitoylation and farnesylation, formation of chemical adducts with glutathione, 4-hydroxynonenal and 15-deoxy PGJ2, and various other chemicals. We present here, a review of relevant ROS biology, possible chemical reactions of Cys residues and details of the proteomic strategies employed for rapid, efficient and sensitive identification of diverse and novel PTMs involving reactive Cys residues of redox-sensitive proteins. We propose a new name, “ROSics,” for the science which describes the principles of mode of action of ROS at molecular levels. © 2014 The Authors. Mass Spectrometry Reviews Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Rapid Commun. Mass Spec Rev 34:184–208, 2015. PMID:24916017

  9. Late stage modification of receptors identified from dynamic combinatorial libraries.

    PubMed

    Pinkin, Nicholas K; N Power, Amanie; Waters, Marcey L

    2015-11-28

    Small molecule receptors are attractive potential sensors of post-translational modifications, including methylated lysine and methylated arginine. Using dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC), our lab previously identified a suite of receptors that bind to Kme3 with a range of affinities ranging from low micromolar to high nanomolar, each with a unique selectivity for Kme3 over the lower methylation states. To enable these receptors to have broad application as Kme3 sensors, we have developed a method for their late-stage modification, which we used to synthesize biotinylated derivatives of A2B, A2D, and A2G in a single step. For our most attractive receptor for applications, A2N, we needed to develop an alternative method for its selective functionalization, which we achieved by "activating" the carboxylic acids on the constituent monomer A or N by pre-functionalizing them with glycine (Gly). Using the resulting Gly-A and Gly-N monomers, we synthesized the novel A2N variants A2Gly-N, Gly-A2N, and Gly-A2Gly-N, which enabled the late stage biotinylation of A2N wherever Gly was incorporated. Finally, we performed ITC and NMR binding experiments to study the effect that carboxylate spacing has on the affinity and selectivity of A2Gly-N and Gly-A2N for KmeX guests compared to A2N. These studies revealed the proximity of the carboxylates to play a complex role in the molecular recognition event, despite their positioning on the outside of the receptor. PMID:26384269

  10. Bound nucleons have unique masses that govern elemental properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamfiloff, Eugene

    2005-07-01

    It is known that measured binding energies associated with elements require equivalent energy to break the nuclear bond of a nucleus. Based upon the proposals contained in recent published works [1] [2] and with support from experimental high-energy data, it can be shown that a portion of listed binding energies are attributable to bound nucleons having a unique mass for every element. The figures show, relative to the hydrogen proton, that of the: a) 1.112 MeV binding energy per nucleon for 2H, 44% or 0.486 MeV represents a change in mass (?m) for the proton or neutron; b) of 5.629 MeV binding energy per nucleon for 7Li, 87% or 4.890 MeV represents a change of mass for each nucleon; c) likewise, 56Fe has 8.811 MeV binding energy per nucleon and of this 92% or 8.119 MeV represents a change in mass for each nucleon, and 232Th has 7.639 MeV binding energy per nucleon and of this, 90% or 6.848 MeV represents a change in mass for each nucleon. This demonstrates that the nucleons of each element have unique masses. It has been shown that if three protons are removed from 82Pb the result is not 79Au; therefore, we conclude and predict that in addition to the Z number, elemental properties are determined by the unique proton and neutron masses for each element. mailto:megforce@physast.uga.edumegforce@physast.uga.edu [1] ``The Order of the Forces'', [2] ``The Geatron Nuclear Model''

  11. Bound nucleons have unique masses that govern elemental properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamfiloff, Eugene

    2005-04-01

    It is know that measured binding energies associated with elements require equivalent energy to break the nuclear bond of a nucleus. Based upon the proposals contained in a recent published work [1] and with support from experimental high-energy data, it can be shown that a portion of listed binding energies are attributed to bound nucleons having a unique mass for every element. The figures show, relative to the hydrogen proton, that of the: a) 1.112 MeV binding energy per nucleon for ^2H, 44% or 0.486 MeV represents a change in mass for the proton and neutron; b) of 5.629 MeV binding energy per nucleon for ^7Li, 87% or 4.890 MeV represents a change of mass for each nucleon; c) likewise, ^56Fe has 8.811 MeV binding energy per nucleon and of this 92% or 8.119 MeV represents a change in mass for each nucleon; and ^232Th has 7.639 MeV binding energy per nucleon and of this, 90% or 6.848 MeV represents a change in mass for each nucleon. This demonstrates that the nucleons of each element have unique masses. It can be shown that if three protons are removed from 82Pb the result is not 79Au. We conclude and predict that in addition to the Z number, elemental properties are determined by the unique proton and neutron masses for each element. [1] mailto:megforce@physast.uga.edumegforce@physast.uga.edu ``The Order of the Forces''

  12. Bound nucleons have unique masses that govern elemental properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamfiloff, Eugene

    2005-03-01

    It is known that measured binding energies associated with elements require equivalent energy to break the nuclear bond of a nucleus. Based upon the proposals contained in recent published works [1] [2] and with support from experimental high-energy data, it can be shown that a portion of listed binding energies are attributable to bound nucleons having a unique mass for every element. The figures show, relative to the hydrogen proton, that of the: a) 1.112 MeV binding energy per nucleon for 2H, 44% or 0.486 MeV represents a change in mass (?m) for the proton or neutron; b) of 5.629 MeV binding energy per nucleon for 7Li, 87% or 4.890 MeV represents a change of mass for each nucleon; c) likewise, 56Fe has 8.811 MeV binding energy per nucleon and of this 92% or 8.119 MeV represents a change in mass for each nucleon, and 232Th has 7.639 MeV binding energy per nucleon and of this, 90% or 6.848 MeV represents a change in mass for each nucleon. This demonstrates that the nucleons of each element have unique masses. It has been shown that if three protons are removed from 82Pb the result is not 79Au; therefore, we conclude and predict that in addition to the Z number, elemental properties are determined by the unique proton and neutron masses for each element. mailto:megforce@physast.uga.edumegforce@physast.uga.edu [1] ``The Order of the Forces'', [2] ``The Geatron Nuclear Model''

  13. Motivational pathways to unique types of alcohol consequences.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Jennifer E; Read, Jennifer P

    2010-12-01

    Individuals consume alcohol for a variety of reasons (motives), and these reasons may be differentially associated with the types of drinking outcomes that result. The present study examined whether specific affect-relevant motivations for alcohol use (i.e., coping, enhancement) are associated with distinct types of consequences, and whether such associations occur directly, or only as a function of increased alcohol use. It was hypothesized that enhancement motives would be associated with distinct problem types only through alcohol use, whereas coping motives would be linked directly to hypothesized problem types. Regularly drinking undergraduates (N = 192, 93 female) completed self-report measures of drinking motives and alcohol involvement. Using structural equation modeling, we tested direct associations between coping motives and indirect associations between enhancement motives and eight unique alcohol problem domains: risky behaviors, blackout drinking, physiological dependence, academic/occupational problems, poor self-care, diminished self-perception, social/interpersonal problems, and impaired control. We observed direct effects of coping motives on three unique problem domains (academic/occupational problems, risky behaviors, and poor self-care). Both coping and enhancement motives were indirectly associated (through use) with several problem types. Unhypothesized associations between conformity motives and unique consequence types also were observed. Findings suggest specificity in the consequences experienced by individuals who drink to cope with negative affect versus to enhance positive affect, and may have intervention implications. Findings depict the coping motivated student as one who is struggling across multiple domains, regardless of levels of drinking. Such students may need to be prioritized for interventions. PMID:20822194

  14. Large Binocular Telescope: a unique interferometer for Origins research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, R.; Woolf, N.

    1997-12-01

    Interferometry from space and ground-based telescope has a central role to play in the Origins program. Interferometers complement the NGST by yielding sharper infrared images, and a nulling capability to explore extra-solar planetary system s. Because of its unique geometry the LBT is strongly differentiated from other interferometers in its scientific capabilities. Its two 8.4 m mirrors are side by side in a single alt-az mount, and adaptive optics correction of wavefront errors, essential for large ground based interferometers, will be accomplished at the secondary mirrors. So, the optical path to the interferometric focus is extremely direct, with only three warm reflecting surfaces before the beam combining dewar. This results in low thermal background, and uniquely high sensitivity to thermal emission from dust clouds. The lowest surface brightness objects observable with an interferometer depend not only on background, but also as the square of the ratio of mirror separation to mirror diameter. Because this ratio is very low for the LBT, it will be able to see galaxies. An integration of several hundred hours will enable it to image galaxies in the Hubble deep field with 10 times the Hubble resolution. The fact that the mirrors are rigidly co-mounted and always perpendicular to the line of sight means that a beam combiner can be built that respects the sine condition, yielding a wide field of view of several arc minutes for interferometric imaging. This will be exploited with a 2000x6000 pixel infrared array detectors. A second beam combiner will be built for nulling interferometry. In this mode, the LBT will be uniquely capable of detecting the 10 micron emission at 1 AU from extra-solar zodiacal clouds no stronger than our own. An understanding of this emission is crucial for planning the Planet Finder mission.

  15. EPICOCCUM SP., AN EMERGING SOURCE OF UNIQUE BIOACTIVE METABOLITES.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Nighat; Ismail, Tariq; Muhammad, Syed Aun; Jadoon, Muniba; Ahmed, Safia; Azhar, Saira; Mumtaz, Amara

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are playing a vital role for producing natural products, most productive source of lead compounds in far reaching endeavor of new drug discovery. Epicoccum fungus is known for its potential to produce diverse classes of biologically active secondary metabolites. The intent of this review is to provide detailed information about biology and chemistry of Epicoccum fungus. Most of the fungus metabolites showed cytotoxic, anticancer, antimicrobial and anti-diabetic activities. The literature given encompases the details of isolation of different unusual and unique secondary metabolites, their chemical nature and biological activities find out Epicoccum spp., a potential source of lead molecules. PMID:27008796

  16. Space Station Freedom: a unique laboratory for gravitational biology research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. W.; Cowing, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    The advent of Space Station Freedom (SSF) will provide a permanent laboratory in space with unparalleled opportunities to perform biological research. As with any spacecraft there will also be limitations. It is our intent to describe this space laboratory and present a picture of how scientists will conduct research in this unique environment we call space. SSF is an international venture which will continue to serve as a model for other peaceful international efforts. It is hoped that as the human race moves out from this planet back to the moon and then on to Mars that SSF can serve as a successful example of how things can and should be done.

  17. A unique data acquisition system for electrical resistance tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.; Zonge, K.

    1996-01-04

    Unique capabilities are needed in instrumentation used for acquiring data to do electrical resistance tomography (ERT). A data acquisition system is described which has a good combination of the required capabilities and yet is field rugged and user friendly. The system is a multichannel detector for high data rates, can operate over a wide range of load conditions, will measure both in phase and quadrature resistance at frequencies between 0.0007 Hz and 8 kHz. The system has been used in both the field and laboratory to collect data with a typical accuracy between 1 and 10%.

  18. Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Unique Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Clinical Strains

    PubMed Central

    Valdezate, Sylvia; Vindel, Ana; Loza, Elena; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael

    2001-01-01

    Susceptibility to 41 antimicrobials was studied with 99 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains, and different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles were identified among 130 prospectively collected isolates. Moxalactam, doxycycline, minocycline, and clinafloxacin displayed the highest activity (≥98% susceptibility). Ticarcillin resistance (75%) was reverted by clavulanate in 25% of strains. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance was 26.2% (≥4 [trimethoprim]/76 [sulfamethoxazole] μg/ml) and dropped to 11.1% when an 8/152-μg/ml breakpoint was applied based on its bimodal MIC distribution. Resistance was lower when unique strains were considered, because clonal organisms contribute to resistance. PMID:11302834

  19. Tourette Syndrome and Bipolar Disorder: Unique Problems with Pediatric Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Kavoor, Anjana Rao; Mitra, Sayantanava; Mehta, Varun S; Goyal, Nishant; Sinha, Vinod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder are frequent comorbidities in pediatric age group. They provide a clinician with certain unique challenges. While on one hand the tics mask manifestation of affective symptomatology, the latter makes it difficult to elicit tics with certainty. Data suggest that they might share genetic and neurobiological basis and this is currently an area of extensive research. These clinical and biological overlaps provide grey areas in our understanding, which not only complicates the diagnosis, but also poses problems with management. PMID:25969612

  20. Unique case of a geminated supernumerary tooth with trifid crown

    PubMed Central

    Ather, Hunaiza; Sheth, Sanket Milan; Muliya, Vidya Saraswathi

    2012-01-01

    Gemination, a relatively uncommon dental anomaly, is characterized by its peculiar representation as a tooth with a bifid crown and a common root and root canal. It usually occurs in primary dentition. To come across gemination in a supernumerary tooth is a rare phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to present a unique case of hyperdontia wherein gemination in an impacted supernumerary tooth resulted in a trifid crown unlike the usual bifid crown. The role of conventional radiographs as well as computed tomography, to accurately determine the morphology and spatial location, and to arrive at a diagnosis, is also emphasized in this paper. PMID:23071971