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1

Functional significance of eIF5A and its hypusine modification in eukaryotes  

PubMed Central

The unusual basic amino acid, hypusine [N?-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)-lysine], is a modified lysine with the addition of the 4-aminobutyl moiety from the polyamine spermidine. This naturally occurring amino acid is a product of a unique posttranslational modification that occurs in only one cellular protein, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A, eIF-5A). Hypusine is synthesized exclusively in this protein by two sequential enzymatic steps involving deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH). The deoxyhypusine/hypusine synthetic pathway has evolved in archaea and eukaryotes, and eIF5A, DHS and DOHH are highly conserved suggesting a vital cellular function of eIF5A. Gene disruption and mutation studies in yeast and higher eukaryotes have provided valuable information on the essential nature of eIF5A and the deoxyhypusine/hypusine modification in cell growth and in protein synthesis. In view of the extraordinary specificity and functional significance of hypusine-containing eIF5A in mammalian cell proliferation, eIF5A and the hypusine biosynthetic enzymes are novel potential targets for intervention in aberrant cell proliferation.

Park, M. H.; Nishimura, K.; Zanelli, C. F.; Valentini, S. R.

2010-01-01

2

A unique modification of the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A shows the presence of the complete hypusine pathway in Leishmania donovani.  

PubMed

Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH) catalyzes the final step in the post-translational synthesis of an unusual amino acid hypusine (N(€)-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl) lysine), which is present on only one cellular protein, eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). We present here the molecular and structural basis of the function of DOHH from the protozoan parasite, Leishmania donovani, which causes visceral leishmaniasis. The L. donovani DOHH gene is 981 bp and encodes a putative polypeptide of 326 amino acids. DOHH is a HEAT-repeat protein with eight tandem repeats of ?-helical pairs. Four conserved histidine-glutamate sequences have been identified that may act as metal coordination sites. A ~42 kDa recombinant protein with a His-tag was obtained by heterologous expression of DOHH in Escherichia coli. Purified recombinant DOHH effectively catalyzed the hydroxylation of the intermediate, eIF5A-deoxyhypusine (eIF5A-Dhp), in vitro. L. donovani DOHH (LdDOHH) showed ~40.6% sequence identity with its human homolog. The alignment of L. donovani DOHH with the human homolog shows that there are two significant insertions in the former, corresponding to the alignment positions 159-162 (four amino acid residues) and 174-183 (ten amino acid residues) which are present in the variable loop connecting the N- and C-terminal halves of the protein, the latter being present near the substrate binding site. Deletion of the ten-amino-acid-long insertion decreased LdDOHH activity to 14% of the wild type recombinant LdDOHH. Metal chelators like ciclopirox olamine (CPX) and mimosine significantly inhibited the growth of L. donovani and DOHH activity in vitro. These inhibitors were more effective against the parasite enzyme than the human enzyme. This report, for the first time, confirms the presence of a complete hypusine pathway in a kinetoplastid unlike eubacteria and archaea. The structural differences between the L. donovani DOHH and the human homolog may be exploited for structure based design of selective inhibitors against the parasite. PMID:22438895

Chawla, Bhavna; Kumar, Ravi Ranjan; Tyagi, Nidhi; Subramanian, Gowri; Srinivasan, N; Park, Myung Hee; Madhubala, Rentala

2012-03-16

3

Hypusine Is Essential for Eukaryotic Cell Proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypusine [Nε-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)lysine] occurs in all eukaryotes at one residue in a highly conserved protein, the putative eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A, old terminology eIF-4D). This unusual amino acid is produced in a unique posttranslational modification reaction that involves the conjugation of the 4-aminobutyl moiety of the polyamine spermidine to the ε-amino group of a specific lysine residue of the

Myung Hee Park; Young Bok Lee; Young Ae Joe

1997-01-01

4

Production of active recombinant eIF5A: reconstitution in E.coli of eukaryotic hypusine modification of eIF5A by its coexpression with modifying enzymes.  

PubMed

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is the only cellular protein that contains the polyamine-modified lysine, hypusine [N(?)-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)lysine]. Hypusine occurs only in eukaryotes and certain archaea, but not in eubacteria. It is formed post-translationally by two consecutive enzymatic reactions catalyzed by deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH). Hypusine modification is essential for the activity of eIF5A and for eukaryotic cell proliferation. eIF5A binds to the ribosome and stimulates translation in a hypusine-dependent manner, but its mode of action in translation is not well understood. Since quantities of highly pure hypusine-modified eIF5A is desired for structural studies as well as for determination of its binding sites on the ribosome, we have used a polycistronic vector, pST39, to express eIF5A alone, or to co-express human eIF5A-1 with DHS or with both DHS and DOHH in Escherichia coli cells, to engineer recombinant proteins, unmodified eIF5A, deoxyhypusine- or hypusine-modified eIF5A. We have accomplished production of three different forms of recombinant eIF5A in high quantity and purity. The recombinant hypusine-modified eIF5A was as active in methionyl-puromycin synthesis as the native, eIF5A (hypusine form) purified from mammalian tissue. The recombinant eIF5A proteins will be useful tools in future structure/function and the mechanism studies in translation. PMID:21131325

Park, Jong Hwan; Dias, Camila A O; Lee, Seung Bum; Valentini, Sandro R; Sokabe, Masaaki; Fraser, Christopher S; Park, Myung Hee

2010-12-02

5

Production of active recombinant eIF5A: reconstitution in E.coli of eukaryotic hypusine modification of eIF5A by its coexpression with modifying enzymes  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is the only cellular protein that contains the polyamine-modified lysine, hypusine [N?-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)lysine]. Hypusine occurs only in eukaryotes and certain archaea, but not in eubacteria. It is formed post-translationally by two consecutive enzymatic reactions catalyzed by deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH). Hypusine modification is essential for the activity of eIF5A and for eukaryotic cell proliferation. eIF5A binds to the ribosome and stimulates translation in a hypusine-dependent manner, but its mode of action in translation is not well understood. Since quantities of highly pure hypusine-modified eIF5A is desired for structural studies as well as for determination of its binding sites on the ribosome, we have used a polycistronic vector, pST39, to express eIF5A alone, or to co-express human eIF5A-1 with DHS or with both DHS and DOHH in Escherichia coli cells, to engineer recombinant proteins, unmodified eIF5A, deoxyhypusine- or hypusine-modified eIF5A. We have accomplished production of three different forms of recombinant eIF5A in high quantity and purity. The recombinant hypusine-modified eIF5A was as active in methionyl-puromycin synthesis as the native, eIF5A (hypusine form) purified from mammalian tissue. The recombinant eIF5A proteins will be useful tools in future structure/function and the mechanism studies in translation.

Park, Jong Hwan; Dias, Camila A. O.; Lee, Seung Bum; Valentini, Sandro R.; Sokabe, Masaaki; Fraser, Christopher S.; Park, Myung Hee

2011-01-01

6

Marked elevation of hypusine formation activity on eukaryotic initiation factor 5A in v-HA-RAS transformed mouse NIH3T3 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypusine formation on the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) precursor is ubiquitously present in eukaryotic cells and archebacteria. In this reaction, deoxyhypusine synthase catalyzes the conversion of one unique lysine residue on eIF-5A to deoxyhypusine using spermidine as the substrate. Hydroxylation of the deoxyhypusine residue completes hypusine formation on eIF-5A. Hypusine formation activity can be measured by an in vitro

Zong Ping Chen; Kuang Yu Chen

1997-01-01

7

Hypusine formation in protein by a two-step process in cell lysates.  

PubMed

The putative protein synthesis initiation factor eukaryotic initiation factor 4D (eIF-4D) is post-translationally modified by the polyamine spermidine, forming the rare amino acid hypusine from a lysine residue. The hypusine precursor, deoxyhypusine, was formed in crude cell lysates at pH 9.5 and converted to hypusine at pH 7.1. The modification occurred in eIF-4D, since the isoelectric points and molecular weights of the proteins modified in intact cells and lysates were indistinguishable. Only lysates from cells treated with alpha-difluoromethylornithine, to deplete endogenous polyamine pools, supported the formation of deoxyhypusine, suggesting that unmodified eIF-4D accumulated in spermidine deficient cells. Guazatine, an inhibitor of enzymes which form delta 1-pyrroline from spermidine, blocked deoxyhypusine formation in lysates by nearly 70% at 100 microM and completely at 1 mM. Other mammalian amine oxidase inhibitors had little or no effect on this reaction. Thus, deoxyhypusine formation in eIF-4D is catalyzed by a guazatine-sensitive enzyme with a basic pH optimum. PMID:3117792

Murphey, R J; Gerner, E W

1987-11-01

8

Characterization of hypusine-containing 21,000-dalton protein in Neurospora crassa  

SciTech Connect

The deoxyhypusine/hypusine-containing 21,000-dalton protein was labeled by ({sup 3}H)spermidine both in vitro and in vivo in polyamine depleted Neurospora crassa arg-12 ota aga and aga mutants. The in vitro labeling of the 21,000-dalton protein could be dramatically stimulated by NAD{sup +} and NADP{sup +} but not by FMN or FAD. The in vitro labeled 21,000-dalton protein contained the radioactivity of deoxyhypusine and hypusine with a ratio of 2 to 1. The in vivo labeled protein resulted only in hypusine. Three isoform structures of the in vitro labeled 21,000-dalton protein were found with pl values ranging from 5.2 to 6.5. In contrast, the 21,000-dalton protein metabolically labeled in vivo with ({sup 3}H)ornithine gave only one spot with a pl value of 3.5. The deoxyhypusine-modifying enzyme is heat labile and has a half life of 40 min. The complete inhibition of deoxyhypusine-modifying enzyme by NEM and pCMBS suggests that the sulfhydryl group is required for the activity. The unmodified 21,000-dalton protein is heat stable and has a half life of more than 5 hrs. In order to determine the functional role of hypusine modification of 21,000-dalton protein, a protein synthesizing cell-free system has been established to translate endogenous mRNA to discrete polypeptides ranging up to 200,000-dalton. The inhibitory effect of spermidine on protein synthesis in cell-free system of unmodified 21,000-dalton protein is in contrast to the stimulatory effect on protein synthesis in cell-free system of modified protein, suggesting that unmodified 21,000-dalton protein might be responsible for the inhibitory effect of spermidine on protein synthesis in cell-free system containing unmodified 21,000-dalton protein.

Yang, Yunchung.

1989-01-01

9

A tumour suppressor network relying on the polyamine-hypusine axis  

PubMed Central

Tumour suppressor genes encode a broad class of molecules whose mutational attenuation contributes to malignant progression. In the canonical situation, the tumour suppressor is completely inactivated through a two-hit process involving a point mutation in one allele and chromosomal deletion of the other1. Here, to identify tumour suppressor genes in lymphoma, we screen a short hairpin RNA library targeting genes deleted in human lymphomas. We functionally identify those genes whose suppression promotes tumorigenesis in a mouse lymphoma model. Of the nine tumour suppressors we identified, eight correspond to genes occurring in three physically linked ‘clusters’, suggesting that the common occurrence of large chromosomal deletions in human tumours reflects selective pressure to attenuate multiple genes. Among the new tumour suppressors are adenosylmethionine decarboxylase 1 (AMD1) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A), two genes associated with hypusine, a unique amino acid produced as a product of polyamine metabolism through a highly conserved pathway2. Through a secondary screen surveying the impact of all polyamine enzymes on tumorigenesis, we establish the polyamine–hypusine axis as a new tumour suppressor network regulating apoptosis. Unexpectedly, heterozygous deletions encompassing AMD1 and eIF5A often occur together in human lymphomas and co-suppression of both genes promotes lymphomagenesis in mice. Thus, some tumour suppressor functions can be disabled through a two-step process targeting different genes acting in the same pathway.

Scuoppo, Claudio; Miething, Cornelius; Lindqvist, Lisa; Reyes, Jose; Ruse, Cristian; Appelmann, Iris; Yoon, Seungtai; Krasnitz, Alexander; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Pappin, Darryl; Pelletier, Jerry; Lowe, Scott W.

2012-01-01

10

Unique carbon nanotube architectures via surface modification and capillary effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extraordinary material properties of carbon nanotubes make them an ideal candidate for a plethora of applications and many fundamental scientific studies. However, precise control over morphology of nanotube-based structures is required before their potential could be realized. A method for surface character alteration and controlled defect induction based on plasma chemistry is presented. This process induces defects in the nanotube structure by way of functionalization and the extent of disorder can be controlled by plasma time and power. This treatment has been characterized by time dependent Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A better understanding of the changes in the vibrational modes of nanotubes with changes in their structure could be gained from this study. Formation of visually arresting cellular structures from aligned nanotubes by the evaporation of water was discovered. Cellular patterns arise frequently in nature on length scales ranging from microscopic to macroscopic as a result of spatially periodic and random perturbations. However, a film of aligned carbon nanotubes present an unique, yet unstudied system where pattern formation arise from the collapse and reassembly of highly ordered, anisotropic, elastic, nanoscale rods with remarkable properties. The nanoscale dimensions of the nanotube arrays magnify the capillary forces exerted by the evaporating solvent from the interstitial spaces. Shrinkage induced crack formation in the films due to strong capillary forces of evaporating solvent and aided by strong van der Waals interactions between condensed nanotubes, result in the formation of stable cellular patterns and contiguous foams. These foams can be elastically deformed, transferred to other substrates, or floated out to produce free-standing macroscopic fabrics. The length-scale, orientation and shape of cell could be controlled by varying experimental conditions such as the length of nanotubes, rate of evaporation, and array dimensions. Pattern formation could also be tailored by prefabricating nanotube arrays by simple lithographic techniques. This study is on the fundamental understanding of capillary effects in dense arrays of ordered nanotubes and the effect of surface modification of nanotubes. This simple self-assembly process is a novel way of creating different macroscopic morphologies and architectures with nanotubes.

Chakrapani, Nirupama

11

A unique family of Mrr-like modification-dependent restriction endonucleases  

PubMed Central

Mrr superfamily of homologous genes in microbial genomes restricts modified DNA in vivo. However, their biochemical properties in vitro have remained obscure. Here, we report the experimental characterization of MspJI, a remote homolog of Escherichia coli’s Mrr and show it is a DNA modification-dependent restriction endonuclease. Our results suggest MspJI recognizes mCNNR (R = G/A) sites and cleaves DNA at fixed distances (N12/N16) away from the modified cytosine at the 3? side (or N9/N13 from R). Besides 5-methylcytosine, MspJI also recognizes 5-hydroxymethylcytosine but is blocked by 5-glucosylhydroxymethylcytosine. Several other close homologs of MspJI show similar modification-dependent endonuclease activity and display substrate preferences different from MspJI. A unique feature of these modification-dependent enzymes is that they are able to extract small DNA fragments containing modified sites on genomic DNA, for example ?32 bp around symmetrically methylated CG sites and ?31 bp around methylated CNG sites. The digested fragments can be directly selected for high-throughput sequencing to map the location of the modification on the genomic DNA. The MspJI enzyme family, with their different recognition specificities and cleavage properties, provides a basis on which many future methods can build to decode the epigenomes of different organisms.

Zheng, Yu; Cohen-Karni, Devora; Xu, Derrick; Chin, Hang Gyeong; Wilson, Geoffrey; Pradhan, Sriharsa; Roberts, Richard J.

2010-01-01

12

Spermidine but not spermine is essential for hypusine biosynthesis and growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Spermine is converted to spermidine in vivo by the FMS1-amine oxidase  

PubMed Central

In our earlier work we showed that either spermidine or spermine could support the growth of spe2? or spe3? polyamine-requiring mutants, but it was unclear whether the cells had a specific requirement for either of these amines. In the current work, we demonstrate that spermidine is specifically required for the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We were able to show this specificity by using a spe3? fms1? mutant that lacked both spermidine synthase and the FMS1-encoded amine oxidase that oxidizes spermine to spermidine. The polyamine requirement for the growth of this double mutant could only be satisfied by spermidine; i.e., spermine was not effective because it cannot be oxidized to spermidine in the absence of the FMS1 gene. We also showed that at least one of the reasons for the absolute requirement for spermidine for growth is the specificity of its function as a necessary substrate for the hypusine modification of eIF5A. Spermine itself cannot be used for the hypusine modification, unless it is oxidized to spermidine by the Fms1 amine oxidase. We have quantified the conversion of spermine in vivo and have shown that this conversion is markedly increased in a strain overexpressing the Fms1 protein. We have also shown this conversion in enzymatic studies by using the purified amine oxidase from yeast.

Chattopadhyay, Manas K.; Tabor, Celia White; Tabor, Herbert

2003-01-01

13

De novo sequencing of unique sequence tags for discovery of post-translational modifications of proteins.  

PubMed

De novo sequencing is a spectrum analysis approach for mass spectrometry data to discover post-translational modifications in proteins; however, such an approach is still in its infancy and is still not widely applied to proteomic practices due to its limited reliability. In this work, we describe a de novo sequencing approach for the discovery of protein modifications based on identification of the proteome UStags (Shen, Y.; Toli?, N.; Hixson, K. K.; Purvine, S. O.; Pasa-Toli?, L.; Qian, W. J.; Adkins, J. N.; Moore, R. J.; Smith, R. D. Anal. Chem. 2008, 80, 1871-1882). The de novo information was obtained from Fourier-transform tandem mass spectrometry data for peptides and polypeptides from a yeast lysate, and the de novo sequences obtained were selected based on filter levels designed to provide a limited yet high quality subset of UStags. The DNA-predicted database protein sequences were then compared to the UStags, and the differences observed across or in the UStags (i.e., the UStags' prefix and suffix sequences and the UStags themselves) were used to infer possible sequence modifications. With this de novo-UStag approach, we uncovered some unexpected variances within several yeast protein sequences due to amino acid mutations and/or multiple modifications to the predicted protein sequences. To determine false discovery rates, two random (false) databases were independently used for sequence matching, and ~3% false discovery rates were estimated for the de novo-UStag approach. The factors affecting the reliability (e.g., existence of de novo sequencing noise residues and redundant sequences) and the sensitivity of the approach were investigated and described. The combined de novo-UStag approach complements the UStag method previously reported by enabling the discovery of new protein modifications. PMID:18783246

Shen, Yufeng; Toli?, Nikola; Hixson, Kim K; Purvine, Samuel O; Anderson, Gordon A; Smith, Richard D

2008-09-11

14

The human mitochondrial tRNAMet: Structure/function relationship of a unique modification in the decoding of unconventional codons  

PubMed Central

Human mitochondrial mRNAs utilize the universal AUG and the unconventional isoleucine AUA codons for methionine. In contrast to translation in the cytoplasm, human mitochondria use one tRNA, hmtRNAMetCAU, to read AUG and AUA codons at both the peptidyl- (P-), and aminoacyl-(A-) sites of the ribosome. The hmtRNAMetCAU has a unique post-transcriptional modification, 5-formylcytidine, at the wobble position 34 (f5C34), and a cytidine substituting for the invariant uridine at position 33 of the canonical “U-turn” in tRNAs. The structure of the tRNA's anticodon stem and loop domain (hmtASLMetCAU), determined by NMR restrained molecular modeling, revealed how the f5C34 modification facilitates the decoding of AUA at the P- and A-sites. The f5C34 defined a reduced conformational space for the nucleoside, in what appears to have restricted the conformational dynamics of the anticodon bases of the modified hmtASLMetCAU. The hmtASLMetCAU exhibited a “C-turn” conformation that has some characteristics of the U-turn motif. Codon binding studies with both E. coli and bovine mitochondrial ribosomes revealed that the f5C34 facilitates AUA binding in the A-site and suggested that the modification favorably alters the ASL's binding kinetics. Mitochondrial translation by many organisms including humans sometimes initiates with the universal isoleucine codons AUU and AUC. The f5C34 enabled P-site codon binding to these normally isoleucine codons. Thus, the physicochemical properties of this one modification, f5C34, expand codon recognition from the traditional AUG to the non-traditional, synonymous codons AUU and AUC as well as AUA, in the reassignment of universal codons in the mitochondria.

Bilbille, Yann; Gustilo, Estella M.; Harris, Kimberly A.; Jones, Christie N.; Lusic, Hrvoje; Kaiser, Robert J.; Delaney, Michael O.; Spremulli, Linda L.; Deiters, Alexander; Agris, Paul F.

2011-01-01

15

Proteome-wide identification of proteins and their modifications with decreased ambiguities and improved false discovery rates using unique sequence tags  

SciTech Connect

Identifying proteins correctly and with known levels of confidence remain as significant challenges for proteomics. Random or decoy peptide databases are increasingly being used to estimate the false discovery rate (FDR), e.g., from liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses of tryptic digests. We show that this approach can significantly underestimate the FDR, and describe an approach for more confident protein identifications that uses unique partial sequences derived from a combination of database searching and de novo-style data analyses of high precision MS/MS data. Applied to a Saccharomyces cerevisiae tryptic digest, the approach provided 3,132 confident peptide identifications (~5% modified in some fashion), covering 575 proteins with an estimated zero FDR. The conventional approach provided 3,359 peptide identifications and 656 proteins with 0.3% FDR based upon a decoy database analysis. However, the present approach revealed ~5% of the 3,359 identifications to be incorrect, and many more as potentially ambiguous, (e.g., due to not considering certain amino acid substitutions and modifications). In addition, 677 peptides and 39 proteins were identified that had been missed by conventional analysis, including non-tryptic peptides, peptides with various expected/unexpected chemical modifications, known/unknown posttranslational modifications, single nucleotide polymorphisms or gene encoding errors, and multiple modifications of individual peptides.

Shen, Yufeng; Tolic, Nikola; Hixson, Kim K.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Pasa-Tolic, Liljiana; Qian, Weijun; Adkins, Joshua N.; Moore, Ronald J.; Smith, Richard D.

2008-03-15

16

Cofactor biosynthesis through protein post-translational modification.  

PubMed

Post-translational modifications of amino acids can be used to generate novel cofactors capable of chemistries inaccessible to conventional amino acid side chains. The biosynthesis of these sites often requires one or more enzyme or protein accessory factors, the functions of which are quite diverse and often difficult to isolate in cases where multiple enzymes are involved. Herein is described the current knowledge of the biosynthesis of urease and nitrile hydratase metal centers, pyrroloquinoline quinone, hypusine, and tryptophan tryptophylquinone cofactors along with the most recent work elucidating the functions of individual accessory factors in these systems. These examples showcase the breadth and diversity of this continually expanding field. PMID:22387133

Yukl, Erik T; Wilmot, Carrie M

2012-03-02

17

A rapid and robust assay for the determination of the amino acid hypusine as a possible biomarker for a high-throughput screening of antimalarials and for the diagnosis and therapy of different diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) has recently been identified as a biomarker of prognostic significance and therapeutic\\u000a potential for the treatment in hepatocellular carcinoma. This prompted us to establish a rapid and robust assay to determine\\u000a deoxyhypusine and hypusine formed with the purified enzymes deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH)\\u000a from Plasmodium to develop a rapid screening assay for

Annette KaiserAlex; Alex R. Khomutov; Alina Simonian; Enzo Agostinelli

18

A rapid and robust assay for the determination of the amino acid hypusine as a possible biomarker for a high-throughput screening of antimalarials and for the diagnosis and therapy of different diseases.  

PubMed

Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) has recently been identified as a biomarker of prognostic significance and therapeutic potential for the treatment in hepatocellular carcinoma. This prompted us to establish a rapid and robust assay to determine deoxyhypusine and hypusine formed with the purified enzymes deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH) from Plasmodium to develop a rapid screening assay for antimalarial drugs. The peptide hydrolysate obtained from hypusinylated eIF5A was analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with retention times for deoxyhypusine of 7.44 min and for hypusine of 7.30 min, respectively. The limit of detection for both compounds was 0.144 ng/?l. Determination of the specific activity of Plasmodium DOHH resulted in a twofold higher specific activity than its human counterpart. Following the iron-complexing strategy of the ferrous iron which is present in the active site of Plasmodium DOHH, a series of iron chelating compounds was tested. 2,2'-Dipyridyl and mimosine abolished DOHH activity completely while 4-oxo-piperidine-carboxylates i.e. the nitrophenylether JK8-2 and EHW 437, the oxime ether of the piperidine aldehyde, showed no inhibition although they were highly active in in vitro cultures of Plasmodium and in vivo in a rodent mouse model. The method allows a high-throughput screening (HPTS) of antimalarial drugs and the evaluation of eIF5A as a biomarker. PMID:21360085

Kaiser, Annette; Khomutov, Alex R; Simonian, Alina; Agostinelli, Enzo

2011-03-01

19

Genetic modification and genetic determinism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and

David B. Resnik; Daniel B. Vorhaus

2006-01-01

20

The Drosophila deoxyhypusine hydroxylase homologue nero and its target eIF5A are required for cell growth and the regulation of autophagy  

PubMed Central

Hypusination is a unique posttranslational modification by which lysine is transformed into the atypical amino acid hypusine. eIF5A (eukaryotic initiation factor 5A) is the only known protein to contain hypusine. In this study, we describe the identification and characterization of nero, the Drosophila melanogaster deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH) homologue. nero mutations affect cell and organ size, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, and autophagy. Knockdown of the hypusination target eIF5A via RNA interference causes phenotypes similar to nero mutations. However, loss of nero appears to cause milder phenotypes than loss of eIF5A. This is partially explained through a potential compensatory mechanism by which nero mutant cells up-regulate eIF5A levels. The failure of eIF5A up-regulation to rescue nero mutant phenotypes suggests that hypusination is required for eIF5A function. Furthermore, expression of enzymatically impaired forms of DOHH fails to rescue nero clones, indicating that hypusination activity is important for nero function. Our data also indicate that nero and eIF5A are required for cell growth and affect autophagy and protein synthesis.

Patel, Prajal H.; Costa-Mattioli, Mauro; Schulze, Karen L.

2009-01-01

21

Polyamines: ubiquitous polycations with unique roles in growth and stress responses  

PubMed Central

Background Polyamines are small polycationic molecules found ubiquitously in all organisms and function in a wide variety of biological processes. In the past decade, molecular and genetic studies using mutants and transgenic plants with an altered activity of enzymes involved in polyamine biosynthesis have contributed much to a better understanding of the biological functions of polyamines in plants. Possible roles Spermidine is essential for survival of Arabidopsis embryos. One of the reasons may lie in the fact that spermidine serves as a substrate for the lysine ? hypusine post-translational modification of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A, which is essential in all eukaryotic cells. Spermine is not essential but plays a role in stress responses, probably through the modulation of cation channel activities, and as a source of hydrogen peroxide during pathogen infection. Thermospermine, an isomer of spermine, is involved in stem elongation, possibly by acting on the regulation of upstream open reading frame-mediated translation. Conclusions The mechanisms of action of polyamines differ greatly from those of plant hormones. There remain numerous unanswered questions regarding polyamines in plants, such as transport systems and polyamine-responsive genes. Further studies on the action of polyamines will undoubtedly provide a new understanding of plant growth regulation and stress responses.

Takahashi, Taku; Kakehi, Jun-Ichi

2010-01-01

22

Predicting the pathway involved in post-translational modification of Elongation factor P in a subset of bacterial species  

PubMed Central

Background The bacterial elongation factor P (EF-P) is strictly conserved in bacteria and essential for protein synthesis. It is homologous to the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). A highly conserved eIF5A lysine is modified into an unusual amino acid derived from spermidine, hypusine. Hypusine is absolutely required for eIF5A's role in translation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The homologous lysine of EF-P is also modified to a spermidine derivative in Escherichia coli. However, the biosynthesis pathway of this modification in the bacterial EF-P is yet to be elucidated. Presentation of the Hypothesis Here we propose a potential mechanism for the post-translational modification of EF-P. By using comparative genomic methods based on physical clustering and phylogenetic pattern analysis, we identified two protein families of unknown function, encoded by yjeA and yjeK genes in E. coli, as candidates for this missing pathway. Based on the analysis of the structural and biochemical properties of both protein families, we propose two potential mechanisms for the modification of EF-P. Testing the hypothesis This hypothesis could be tested genetically by constructing a bacterial strain with a tagged efp gene. The tag would allow the purification of EF-P by affinity chromatography and the analysis of the purified protein by mass spectrometry. yjeA or yjeK could then be deleted in the efp tagged strain and the EF-P protein purified from each mutant analyzed by mass spectrometry for the presence or the absence of the modification. This hypothesis can also be tested by purifying the different components (YjeK, YjeA and EF-P) and reconstituting the pathway in vitro. Implication of the hypothesis The requirement for a fully modified EF-P for protein synthesis in certain bacteria implies the presence of specific post-translational modification mechanism in these organisms. All of the 725 bacterial genomes analyzed, possess an efp gene but only 200 (28%) possess both yjeA and yjeK genes. In the other organisms, EF-P may be modified by another pathway or the translation machinery must have adapted to the lack of EF-P modification. Our hypotheses, if confirmed, will lead to the discovery of a new post-translational modification pathway. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Céline Brochier-Armanet, Igor B. Zhulin and Mikhail Gelfand. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' reports section.

2010-01-01

23

Toward unique identifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the creation and use of unique identifiers for intellectual property. General concepts applicable to unique identifiers are defined and discussed [identifier, digital object, dumb and intelligent identifiers, readability, affordance or computability, multiple identification, resolution, metadata, persistence, granularity, derivatives (e.g., versions, formats, manifestations, and copies), check digits, and intermediate objects]. Requirements for unique identifiers are reviewed. Capacity issues

NORMAN PASKIN

1999-01-01

24

Endocrinology in Thailand: Unique challenges, unique solutions  

PubMed Central

Thailand is a developing country in Southeast Asia with a nationally acknowledged requirement for improvement of the medical system. At present, endocrinology is a specific branch of medicine that is taught in few medical schools. There are very few endocrinologists in Thailand, who are unable to cope with the large number of patients with endocrinology problems. Primary care for common endocrine disorders, such as diabetes mellitus and thyroid disease, is still the domain of general practitioners. In this article, the author will present unique challenges and unique solutions of endocrinology practice in Thailand.

Wiwanitkit, Viroj

2011-01-01

25

Behavior modification.  

PubMed

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic and substantially impairing disorder. This means that treatment must also be chronic and substantial. Behavior Modification, and in many cases, the combination of behavior modification and stimulant medication, is a valid, useful treatment for reducing the pervasive impairment experienced by children with ADHD. Based on the research evidence reviewed, behavior modification should be the first line of treatment for children with ADHD. PMID:10944662

Pelham, W E; Fabiano, G A

2000-07-01

26

Unique Instruments' Origins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to help you find unique instruments from a specific country. For whatever country you have chosen, the following resources should help you locate some unique instruments from that country. For starters, check out this link: Instruments By Country You will find a list of musical instruments for many countries in the world. Once you find an instrument from your country you want to explore, look here: Unique World Instruments Here ...

Smith, Mr.

2012-09-11

27

Primate social cognition: uniquely primate, uniquely social, or just unique?  

PubMed

Primates undoubtedly have impressive abilities in perceiving, recognizing, manipulating, and predicting other individuals, but only great apes seem to recognize the cognitive basis of manipulative and cooperative tactics or the concept of self. None of these abilities is unique to primates. We distinguish (1) a package of quantitative advantages in social sophistication, perhaps based on more efficient memory, in which neocortical enlargement is associated with the challenge of social living; from (2) a qualitative difference in understanding, whose taxonomic distribution--including several distantly related species, including birds--does not point to an evolutionary origin in social challenges and may instead relate to a need to acquire novel ways of dealing with the physical world. The ability of great apes to learn new manual routines by parsing action components may have driven their qualitatively greater social skill, suggesting that strict partition of physical and social cognition is likely to be misleading. PMID:20346757

Byrne, Richard W; Bates, Lucy A

2010-03-25

28

Chemical modification  

Treesearch

Nature is programmed to recycle wood in a timely way through biological, ... This process is reversible, and the fiber shrinks as it loses moisture below the FSP. ... Typical uses for each of these modification technologies are also covered.

29

Behavior Modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Behavioral problems may be associated with disorders of the central nervous system. The therapy of choice for such problems\\u000a is often a behavior modification program possibly supplemented by psychoactive medications. Behavior modification should be\\u000a done by health care personnel with appropriate training and competence. It is essential that all staff involved in a behavior-change\\u000a program have a clear understanding of

Robert M. Anderson

30

Post-translational modification by ?-lysylation is required for activity of Escherichia coli elongation factor P (EF-P).  

PubMed

Bacterial elongation factor P (EF-P) is the ortholog of archaeal and eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). EF-P shares sequence homology and crystal structure with eIF5A, but unlike eIF5A, EF-P does not undergo hypusine modification. Recently, two bacterial genes, yjeA and yjeK, encoding truncated homologs of class II lysyl-tRNA synthetase and of lysine-2,3-aminomutase, respectively, have been implicated in the modification of EF-P to convert a specific lysine to a hypothetical ?-lysyl-lysine. Here we present biochemical evidence for ?-lysyl-lysine modification in Escherichia coli EF-P and for its role in EF-P activity by characterizing native and recombinant EF-P proteins for their modification status and activity in vitro. Mass spectrometric analyses confirmed the lysyl modification at lysine 34 in native and recombinant EF-P proteins. The ?-lysyl-lysine isopeptide was identified in the exhaustive Pronase digests of native EF-P and recombinant EF-P isolated from E. coli coexpressing EF-P, YjeA, and YjeK but not in the digests of proteins derived from the vectors encoding EF-P alone or EF-P together with YjeA, indicating that both enzymes, YjeA and YjeK, are required for ?-lysylation of EF-P. Endogenous EF-P as well as the recombinant EF-P preparation containing ?-lysyl-EF-P stimulated N-formyl-methionyl-puromycin synthesis ?4-fold over the preparations containing unmodified EF-P and/or ?-lysyl-EF-P. The mutant lacking the modification site lysine (K34A) was inactive. This is the first report of biochemical evidence for the ?-lysylation of EF-P in vivo and the requirement for this modification for the activity of EF-P. PMID:22128152

Park, Jong-Hwan; Johansson, Hans E; Aoki, Hiroyuki; Huang, Bill X; Kim, Hee-Yong; Ganoza, M Clelia; Park, Myung Hee

2011-11-29

31

Post-translational Modification by ?-Lysylation Is Required for Activity of Escherichia coli Elongation Factor P (EF-P)*  

PubMed Central

Bacterial elongation factor P (EF-P) is the ortholog of archaeal and eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). EF-P shares sequence homology and crystal structure with eIF5A, but unlike eIF5A, EF-P does not undergo hypusine modification. Recently, two bacterial genes, yjeA and yjeK, encoding truncated homologs of class II lysyl-tRNA synthetase and of lysine-2,3-aminomutase, respectively, have been implicated in the modification of EF-P to convert a specific lysine to a hypothetical ?-lysyl-lysine. Here we present biochemical evidence for ?-lysyl-lysine modification in Escherichia coli EF-P and for its role in EF-P activity by characterizing native and recombinant EF-P proteins for their modification status and activity in vitro. Mass spectrometric analyses confirmed the lysyl modification at lysine 34 in native and recombinant EF-P proteins. The ?-lysyl-lysine isopeptide was identified in the exhaustive Pronase digests of native EF-P and recombinant EF-P isolated from E. coli coexpressing EF-P, YjeA, and YjeK but not in the digests of proteins derived from the vectors encoding EF-P alone or EF-P together with YjeA, indicating that both enzymes, YjeA and YjeK, are required for ?-lysylation of EF-P. Endogenous EF-P as well as the recombinant EF-P preparation containing ?-lysyl-EF-P stimulated N-formyl-methionyl-puromycin synthesis ?4-fold over the preparations containing unmodified EF-P and/or ?-lysyl-EF-P. The mutant lacking the modification site lysine (K34A) was inactive. This is the first report of biochemical evidence for the ?-lysylation of EF-P in vivo and the requirement for this modification for the activity of EF-P.

Park, Jong-Hwan; Johansson, Hans E.; Aoki, Hiroyuki; Huang, Bill X.; Kim, Hee-Yong; Ganoza, M. Clelia; Park, Myung Hee

2012-01-01

32

Unique Access to Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes the many learning opportunities that broadcast technology students at Ladue Horton Watkins High School in St. Louis, Missouri, experience because of their unique access to technology and methods of learning. Through scaffolding, stepladder techniques, and trial by fire, students learn to produce multiple television…

Goble, Don

2009-01-01

33

The Uniqueness of Christ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthodox Christians believe that Jesus is the unique Son of God in human flesh. How- ever, some unbelievers, who may or may not believe Jesus existed, do not believe that Jesus was necessarily a wise or a particularly good man. Others, such as Muslims, think that Jesus was a prophet, along with other prophets. Hinduism depicts Christ as one among

Norman Geisler

34

Tracking unique objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is content addressable in the representation that subserves performance in multiple-object-tracking (MOT) experiments? We\\u000a devised an MOT variant that featured unique, nameable objects (cartoon animals) as stimuli. There were two possible response\\u000a modes: standard, in which observers were asked to report the locations of all target items, and specific, in which observers\\u000a had to report the location of a particular

Todd S. Horowitz; Sarah B. Klieger; David E. Fencsik; Kevin K. Yang; George A. Alvarez; Jeremy M. Wolfe

2007-01-01

35

Home modification.  

PubMed

Almost 50 million Americans--about one in five--live with a mental or physical disability, many in homes that are inconvenient, restrictive, or dangerous for them. Modifying the home using universal (barrier-free) design, architectural accessibility, and other such concepts can reduce the risk of falls and improve overall function. Nurses can be involved by assessing patients' living quarters and recommending specific modifications. PMID:17016095

McCullagh, Marjorie Cook

2006-10-01

36

The Continuing Importance of Uniqueness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|People's conception of uniqueness in policy debate has changed dramatically in the past decade. Concepts like "we control uniqueness" and "direction of uniqueness" have come to dominate disadvantage debates. Unfortunately, policy debate has suffered as an activity as the result of some of these debating practices. In response, debaters and judges…

Coulter, Benjamin B.

37

Uniqueness Theorem for Black Objects  

SciTech Connect

We shall review the current status of uniqueness theorem for black objects in higher dimensional spacetime. At the beginning we consider static charged asymptotically flat spacelike hypersurface with compact interior with both degenerate and non-degenerate components of the event horizon in n-dimensional spacetime. We gave some remarks concerning partial results in proving uniqueness of stationary axisymmetric multidimensional solutions and winding numbers which can uniquely characterize the topology and symmetry structure of black objects.

Rogatko, Marek [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 20-031 Lublin, pl. Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej 1 (Poland)

2010-06-23

38

Émission de photons uniques par un atome unique piégé  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En illuminant un atome unique piégé dans une pince optique de taille micrométrique à l'aide d'impulsions lumineuses résonantes d'une durée de 4?ns, nous avons réalisé une source efficace de photons uniques déclenchés, de polarisation bien définie. Nous avons mesuré la fonction d'autocorrélation temporelle en intensité qui met en évidence un dégroupement de photons presque parfait. Une telle source de photons uniques de haut flux possède des applications potentielles pour le traitement de l'information quantique.

Darquié, B.; Beugnon, J.; Jones, M. P. A.; Dingjan, J.; Sortais, Y.; Browaeys, A.; Messin, G.; Grangier, P.

2006-10-01

39

Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Incontinence Related Video Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... care and improve or maintain quality of life. Diabetes and Other Conditions Having high levels of sugar ( ...

40

Chromatin modifications, epigenetics, and how protozoan parasites regulate their lives  

PubMed Central

Chromatin structure plays a vital role in epigenetic regulation of protozoan parasite gene expression. Epigenetic gene regulation impacts parasite virulence, differentiation and cell cycle control. Recent work in many laboratories has elucidated the functions of histone modifying proteins that regulate parasite gene expression by chemical modification of constituent nucleosomes. A major focus of investigation has been characterizing post-translational modifications (PTM) of histones and identifying the enzymes that are responsible. Despite conserved features and specificity common to all eukaryotes, parasite enzymes involved in chromatin modification have unique functions that regulate unique aspects of parasite biology.

Croken, Matthew M.; Nardelli, Sheila C.; Kim, Kami

2012-01-01

41

Rufus Choate: A Unique Orator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rufus Choate, a Massachusetts lawyer and orator, has been described as a "unique and romantic phenomenon" in America's history. Born in 1799 in Essex, Massachusetts, Choate graduated from Dartmouth College and attended Harvard Law School. Choate's goal was to be the top in his profession. Daniel Webster was Choate's hero. Choate became well…

Markham, Reed

42

Is Our Driving Behavior Unique?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, uniqueness of driver behavior in vehicles and the possibility to use in personal identification has been investigated with the objectives to achieve safer driving, to assist the driver in case of emergencies, and to be part of a multi-mode biometric signature for driver identification. Towards that end, the distributions and the spectra of pressure readings from the

Kei Igarashi; Kazuya Takeda; Fumitada Itakura; Hüseyin Abut

43

The bacterial magnetosome: a unique prokaryotic organelle.  

PubMed

The bacterial magnetosome is a unique prokaryotic organelle comprising magnetic mineral crystals surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer. These inclusions are biomineralized by the magnetotactic bacteria which are ubiquitous, aquatic, motile microorganisms. Magnetosomes cause cells of magnetotactic bacteria to passively align and swim along the Earth's magnetic field lines, as miniature motile compass needles. These specialized compartments consist of a phospholipid bilayer membrane surrounding magnetic crystals of magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4). The morphology of these membrane-bound crystals varies by species with a nominal magnetic domain size between 35 and 120 nm. Almost all magnetotactic bacteria arrange their magnetosomes in a chain within the cell there by maximizing the magnetic dipole moment of the cell. It is presumed that magnetotactic bacteria use magnetotaxis in conjunction with chemotaxis to locate and maintain an optimum position for growth and survival based on chemistry, redox and physiology in aquatic habitats with vertical chemical concentration and redox gradients. The biosynthesis of magnetosomes is a complex process that involves several distinct steps including cytoplasmic membrane modifications, iron uptake and transport, initiation of crystallization, crystal maturation and magnetosome chain formation. While many mechanistic details remain unresolved, magnetotactic bacteria appear to contain the genetic determinants for magnetosome biomineralization within their genomes in clusters of genes that make up what is referred to as the magnetosome gene island in some species. In addition, magnetosomes contain a unique set of proteins, not present in other cellular fractions, which control the biomineralization process. Through the development of genetic systems, proteomic and genomic work, and the use of molecular and biochemical tools, the functions of a number of magnetosome membrane proteins have been demonstrated and the molecular mechanism for the biomineralization of magnetosomes in these organisms is beginning to be revealed. PMID:23615196

Lower, Brian H; Bazylinski, Dennis A

2013-04-18

44

Metallacrown Ethers: Unique Organometallic Ligands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallacrown ethers are a unique class of complexes that form when R2PX-(CH2CH2O)nCH2CH2XPR2 (X = –, O; R = Ph, alkoxy; n = 3–5) ligands chelate to transition metals. Metallacrown ethers with cis-coordinated phosphines (cis-metallacrown ethers) contain a crown ether-like pocket and exhibit size-selective binding of alkali metal cations similar to that observed with the crown ethers. Binding of Li and

Gary M. Gray

1995-01-01

45

Surface modification of biomaterials by pulsed laser ablation deposition and plasma\\/gamma polymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface modification of stainless-steel was carried out by two different methods: pulsed laser ablation deposition (PLAD) and a combined plasma\\/gamma process. A potential application was the surface modification of endovascular stents, to enhance biocompatibility. The pulsed laser ablation deposition process, had not been previously reported for modifying stents and represented a unique and potentially important method for surface modification of

Kaustubh R. Rau

2000-01-01

46

The Special Forces medic: unique training for a unique mission.  

PubMed

The U.S. Army Special Forces Medic, Military Occupational Specialty 18D, is a unique, enlisted, medical asset. The training of the 18D is demanding, lengthy, and selective. The 18D is trained to independently assess, and provide acute and long-term medical care for, a variety of medical conditions in support of the Special Forces mission. This article briefly discusses the general missions of U.S. Army Special Operations and Special Forces. This is followed by an in-depth discussion of the 55-week selection and training program of the 18D. PMID:1603390

Moloff, A L; Bettencourt, B

1992-02-01

47

Novel Modifications in RNA  

PubMed Central

The last several years have seen numerous reports of new chemical modifications for use in RNA. In addition, in that time period, we have seen the discovery of several previously unknown naturally occurring modifications that impart novel properties on the parent RNAs. In this review, we describe recent discoveries in these areas with a focus on RNA modifications that introduce spectroscopic tags, reactive handles, or new recognition properties.

Phelps, Kelly; Morris, Alexi; Beal, Peter A.

2012-01-01

48

Lithium nephropathy: unique sonographic findings.  

PubMed

This case series describes a unique sonographic appearance consisting of numerous microcysts and punctate echogenic foci seen on renal sonograms of 10 adult patients receiving chronic lithium therapy. Clinically, chronic renal insufficiency was present in 6 and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in 2. Sonography showed numerous microcysts and punctate echogenic foci. Computed tomography in 5 patients confirmed microcysts and microcalcifications, which were fewer in number than on sonography. Magnetic resonance imaging in 2 patients confirmed microcysts in each case. Renal biopsy in 1 patient showed chronic interstitial nephritis, microcysts, and tubular dilatation. The diagnosis of lithium nephropathy should be considered when sonography shows these findings. PMID:22441921

Di Salvo, Donald N; Park, Joseph; Laing, Faye C

2012-04-01

49

Permit application modifications  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils.

NONE

1995-11-01

50

Unique features of space reactors  

SciTech Connect

Space reactors are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Buden, D.

1990-01-01

51

Unique compressor passes field test  

SciTech Connect

Revolutionary pipeline compression concept has proved successful at a Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line facility in Alabama. In April 1992, the MOPICO electric drive compressor completed 5,000 hours of successful operation at Transcontinental Gas Pipeline's Station 100 at Billingsley, Ala. The revolutionary gas pipeline compression concept eliminates many of the traditional complexities of a pipeline compressor station and has benefits not possible with conventional compressor systems. This paper reports that this is accomplished through the integration of technologies developed over the past 10 years into a design concept unique in the industry. Ross Hill Controls Inc., Houston, provides the adjustable-speed variable frequency drive unit that allows the electric motor to operate at speeds from 6,2000 rpm to 10,000 rpm. Transco Energy Ventures, a division of Transco Energy, participated in the development and assisted in placing the prototype unit on the Transcontinental Gas Pipeline system.

Not Available

1992-10-01

52

The Probabilities of Unique Events  

PubMed Central

Many theorists argue that the probabilities of unique events, even real possibilities such as President Obama's re-election, are meaningless. As a consequence, psychologists have seldom investigated them. We propose a new theory (implemented in a computer program) in which such estimates depend on an intuitive non-numerical system capable only of simple procedures, and a deliberative system that maps intuitions into numbers. The theory predicts that estimates of the probabilities of conjunctions should often tend to split the difference between the probabilities of the two conjuncts. We report two experiments showing that individuals commit such violations of the probability calculus, and corroborating other predictions of the theory, e.g., individuals err in the same way even when they make non-numerical verbal estimates, such as that an event is highly improbable.

Khemlani, Sangeet S.; Lotstein, Max; Johnson-Laird, Phil

2012-01-01

53

Notes on Behavior Modification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reviews three topics featured in his first Behavior Modification column: pupil management, social validation, and nondiscriminatory testing. Two new topics are also discussed: data and decisions, and program evaluation. (Author)

Lovitt, Thomas C.

1981-01-01

54

Modification of Wood.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Theory of chemical plasticization; Properties of plasticized non-ground and ground wood; Technological problems of plasticized non-ground, laminated and ground wood; Some data on the process of pressing of wood-particle boards; Wood modification...

T. A. Darzinsh

1976-01-01

55

Male genital modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

By modifying the body in meaningful ways, human beings establish their identity and social status. Lip plugs, ear plugs, penis\\u000a sheaths, cosmetics, ornaments, scarification, body piercings, and genital modifications encode and transmit messages about\\u000a age, sex, social status, health, and attractiveness from one individual to another. Through sociocultural sexual selection,\\u000a male genital modification plays an important role as a sociosexual

Raven Rowanchilde

1996-01-01

56

Human Rights and Behavior Modification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)

Roos, Philip

1974-01-01

57

Unique immunologic patterns in fibromyalgia  

PubMed Central

Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a clinical syndrome characterized by chronic pain and allodynia. The diagnosis of FM has been one of exclusion as a test to confirm the diagnosis is lacking. Recent data highlight the role of the immune system in FM. Aberrant expressions of immune mediators, such as cytokines, have been linked to the pathogenesis and traits of FM. We therefore determined whether cytokine production by immune cells is altered in FM patients by comparing the cellular responses to mitogenic activators of stimulated blood mononuclear cells of a large number of patients with FM to those of healthy matched individuals. Methods Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected from 110 patients with the clinical diagnosis of FM and 91 healthy donors. Parallel samples of PBMC were cultured overnight in medium alone or in the presence of mitogenic activators; PHA or PMA in combination with ionomycin. The cytokine concentrations of IFN-?, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MIP-1? , MCP-1, and MIP1-? in plasma as well as in cultured supernatants were determined using a multiplex immunoassay using bead array technology. Results Cytokine levels of stimulated PBMC cultures of healthy control subjects were significantly increased as compared to matched non-stimulated PBMC cultures. In contrast, the concentrations of most cytokines were lower in stimulated samples from patients with FM compared to controls. The decreases of cytokine concentrations in patients samples ranged from 1.5-fold for MIP-1? to 10.2-fold for IL-6 in PHA challenges. In PMA challenges, we observed 1.8 to 4-fold decreases in the concentrations of cytokines in patient samples. Conclusion The cytokine responses to mitogenic activators of PBMC isolated from patients with FM were significantly lower than those of healthy individuals, implying that cell-mediated immunity is impaired in FM patients. This novel cytokine assay reveals unique and valuable immunologic traits, which, when combined with clinical patterns, can offer a diagnostic methodology in FM.

2012-01-01

58

Utilization of waste tires employing novel surface-modification technology  

SciTech Connect

Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is developing unique technology for the recycle of scrap tires. The approach involves surface-modification of ground tire rubber particles to facilitate their incorporation into novel composites. This form of recycling represents the highest value-added and greatest energy conservation potential of all tire recycle technologies. Furthermore, it is environmentally innocuous. Research and development of this unique technology is partially funded through a cost-shared contract with the US Department of Energy. 4 figs.

Bauman, B.D. (Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (USA))

1989-01-01

59

Modifications of gravity.  

PubMed

General relativity (GR) is a phenomenologically successful theory that rests on firm foundations, but has not been tested on cosmological scales. The deep mystery of dark energy (and possibly even the requirement of cold dark matter (CDM)) has increased the need for testing modifications to GR, as the inference of such otherwise undetected fluids depends crucially on the theory of gravity. Here, I discuss a general scheme for constructing consistent and covariant modifications to the Einstein equations. This framework is such that there is a clear connection between the modification and the underlying field content that produces it. I argue that this is mandatory for distinguishing modifications of gravity from conventional fluids. I give a non-trivial example, a simple metric-based modification of the fluctuation equations for which the background is exact ?CDM, but differs from it in the perturbations. I show how this can be generalized and solved in terms of two arbitrary functions. Finally, I discuss future prospects and directions of research. PMID:22084286

Skordis, Constantinos

2011-12-28

60

Posttranslational modifications regulate microtubule function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ??-tubulin heterodimer, the building block of microtubules, is subject to a large number of post-translational modifications, comparable in diversity to the intensively studied histone modifications. Although these unusual modifications are conserved throughout evolution, their functions have remained almost completely elusive. Recently, however, important advances in the understanding of how tubulin modifications regulate function and organization have been made.

Klaus Weber; Stefan Westermann

2003-01-01

61

Noncovalent Chemical Modification of Graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low dimensional carbon allotropes presently provide an unparalleled platform to explore novel electronic properties, and with tremendous progress may one day supplant entrenched materials within the semiconductor industry. In order for graphene to continue on its extraordinary scientific and technological trajectories, many hurdles must be overcome such as reliable bandgap engineering, advances in processability, removal or mitigation of defects and so on. Noncovalent chemical modification of graphene offers a pathway to address many of these concerns and furthermore provides an opportunity to graft new functionality onto this unique material. In this work, the effects of noncovalent modification of graphene by simple polyaromatic molecules – rubrene and tetracene – are investigated. By exploiting ?-? interactions between the two highly conjugated systems, a simple approach to functionalize graphene devices has been developed. Optical and electron-beam lithography are used to fabricate graphene field effect transistors, which can be subsequently modified either in their entirety or in a site specific manner. In order to better understand the resulting graphene/rubrene structure, a suite of analytical tools has been employed. Raman spectroscopy and microscopy confirm the presence of the rubrene and spatially correlate observed electronic changes with surface modification while polarized Raman spectroscopy is used to investigate any long range order of rubrene on the graphene surface. Photoluminescence measurements show that rubrene emission is not quenched, and spectral analysis offers insight into rubrene film characteristics. Atomic force microscopy provides detailed information as to film thickness, and suggests that rubrene film morphology is largely disordered. Due to the simplicity of this functionalization procedure, a rubrene-based motif could be widely expanded allowing researchers to explore grafting new chemical moieties onto graphene and enabling new device opportunities. Transport measurements reveal the effects of rubrene on the graphene electronic properties. Modified devices display increased conductivity, a substantial shift in Dirac point and a moderate decrease in carrier mobility, all of which are consistent with an electronic doping mechanism whereby the rubrene acts as a hole dopant. Preliminary photoresponse measurements suggest that this graphene-molecular hybrid could act as a potential photodetector.

Bobak, Julia

62

Surface modification of silica nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface modification of nanosized silica particles by polymer grafting is gaining attention. This can be attributed to the fact that it provides a unique opportunity to engineer the interfacial properties of these modified particles; at the same time the mechanical and thermal properties of the polymers can be improved. Controlled free radical polymerization is a versatile technique which affords control over molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, architecture and functionalities of the resulting polymer. Three commonly used controlled free radical polymerizations include nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP), atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and reversible addition fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization. ATRP and RAFT polymerization were explored in order to modify the silica surface with well-defined polymer brushes. A novel click-functionalized RAFT chain transfer agent (RAFT CTA) was synthesized which opened up the possibility of using RAFT polymerization and click chemistry together in surface modification. Using this RAFT CTA, the surface of silica nanoparticles was modified with polystyrene and polyacrylamide brushes via the "grafting to" approach. Both tethered polystyrene and polyacrylamide chains were found in the brush regime. The combination of ATRP and click chemistry was also explored for surface modification. A combination of RAFT polymerization and click chemistry was also studied to modify the surface via the "grafting from" approach. Our strategy included the (1) "grafting from" approach for brush formation (2) facile click reaction to immobilize the RAFT agent (3) synthesis of R-supported chain transfer agent and (4) use of the more active trithiocarbonate RAFT agent. Grafting density obtained by this method was significantly higher than reported values in the literature. Polystyrene (PS) grafted silica nanoparticles were also prepared by a tandem process that simultaneously employs reversible addition fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization and click chemistry. The click reaction doesn't interfere with RAFT polymerization. With a suitable choice of a Cu(I) catalyst, it is possible to perform both RAFT polymerization and click chemistry together. In a single pot procedure, azide-modified silica, an alkyne-functionalized RAFT agent and styrene were combined to produce the desired product. As deduced by thermal gravimetric and elemental analysis, the grafting density of PS on the silica in the tandem process was intermediate between the "grafting to" and "grafting from" techniques. Relative rates of RAFT polymerization and click reaction were altered to control grafting density. ATRP was also used to modify the surface of silica nanoparticles via the "grafting from" approach. The surfaces of silica with homopolymers and diblock copolymers brushes were modified using surface initiated ATRP. The polymer grafted silica particles were characterized by FT-IR, TGA, XPS and elemental analysis.

Ranjan, Rajesh

63

Transition metal mediated surface modification of porous silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous silicon has received considerable attention lately due to its unique optical properties and use in sensor applications. The utility of this material can be further advanced with the aid of new surface chemical modification methods. Here we describe two transition metal mediated reactions that allow for the mild and chemoselective functionalization of porous silicon. The first method utilizes rhodium

Alan Saghatelian; Jillian Buriak; Victor S. Y Lin; M Reza Ghadiri

2001-01-01

64

Diet Modification for Hyperlipidemia  

PubMed Central

Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor associated with cardiovascular disease. Dietary modification is effective in achieving and maintaining improved serum lipid levels. Nutritional care provided by a dietitian includes individual dietary and lifestyle assessment, formulating an appropriate dietary regimen, education, and follow-up assessments.

Mann, Heather D.; Piotrowski, Pamela

1992-01-01

65

Industrial Arts with Modifications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Guidelines and modifications which have proved helpful when working with handicapped students in industrial arts programs are presented based on the experience of the Human Resources Center (New York), a private nonprofit organization which has offered vocational training to numerous severely handicapped students for fifteen years. (BM)|

Worrall, John D.; Mrowka, Linda

1978-01-01

66

Unique modification of adenine in genomic DNA of the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium sp. strain NIBB 1067.  

PubMed Central

The genomic DNA of the marine nonheterocystous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium sp. strain NIBB 1067 was found to be highly resistant to DNA restriction endonucleases. The DNA was digested extensively by the restriction enzyme DpnI, which requires adenine methylation for activity. The DNA composition, determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was found to be 69% AT. Surprisingly, it was found that a modified adenine which was not methylated at the usual N6 position was present and made up 4.7 mol% of the nucleosides in Trichodesmium DNA (15 mol% of deoxyadenosine). In order for adenine residues to be modified at this many positions, there must be many modifying enzymes or at least one of the modifying enzymes must have a degenerate recognition site. The reason(s) for this extensive methylation has not yet been determined but may have implications for the ecological success of this microorganism in nature. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2

Zehr, J P; Ohki, K; Fujita, Y; Landry, D

1991-01-01

67

The search for chromatically unique graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of vertex-colourings of a simple graphG in not more than? colours is a polynomial in?. This polynomial, denoted byP(G, ?), is called the chromatic polynomial ofG. A graphG is said to be chromatically unique, in short?-unique, ifH ? G for any graphH withP(H, ?) = P(G, ?). Since the appearance of the first paper on?-unique graphs by Chao

K. M. Koh; K. L. Teo

1990-01-01

68

Centromeric chromatin exhibits a histone modification pattern that is distinct from both euchromatin and heterochromatin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-translational histone modifications regulate epigenetic switching between different chromatin states. Distinct histone modifications, such as acetylation, methylation and phosphorylation, define different functional chromatin domains, and often do so in a combinatorial fashion. The centromere is a unique chromosomal locus that mediates multiple segregation functions, including kinetochore formation, spindle-mediated movements, sister cohesion and a mitotic checkpoint. Centromeric (CEN) chromatin is embedded

Gary H Karpen; Beth A Sullivan

2004-01-01

69

Uniqueness of Gibbs Measures and Absorption Probabilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gibbs measures are studied using a Markov chain on the non-negative integers. Uniqueness of Gibbs measures follows from absorption of the chain at (0). To this end a certain inequality is derived. For one-dimensional systems this improves a uniqueness res...

H. C. P. Berbee

1986-01-01

70

Verifying Uniqueness in a Logical Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm for verifying that some specified arguments of an inductively defined relation in a dependently typed - calculus are uniquely determined by some other arguments. We prove it correct and also show how to exploit this uniqueness information in cov- erage checking, which allows us to verify that a definition of a function or relation covers all

Penny Anderson; Frank Pfenning

2004-01-01

71

Teaching and Learning with Individually Unique Exercises  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author describes the pedagogical benefits of giving students individually unique homework exercises from an exercise template. Evidence from a test of this approach shows statistically significant improvements in subsequent exam performance by students receiving unique problems compared with students who received traditional…

Joerding, Wayne

2010-01-01

72

Unique Stability in Simple Coalition Formation Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We investigate the uniqueness of stable coalition structures, when the value of a coalition to a member,depends solely on the identity of the other members,of the coalition. We give a complete characterization of collections of coalitions which ensure that there is a unique stable coalition structure at every preference profile when only admissible coalitions may form. An alternative characterization

Szilvia Papai

2001-01-01

73

IMPACT SPRINKLER PATTERN MODIFICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of modifying the water distribution pattern of an impact-drive sprinkler are described. A method of pattern modification called intermittent diffusion is introduced. A deflector attached to the drive arm intermittently diffuses the jet of a standard circular-orifice nozzle, producing desirable pattern shapes while maintaining a large pattern radius. Uniformity of application for both wind and no-wind conditions was evaluated

D. C. Kincaid

74

Germline Genetic Modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several decades, scientists and ethicists have considered the possibility of altering genes at the beginning of human\\u000a life. Human germline genetic modification began to attract widespread attention as early as the 1960s (Evans 2002: 55–57).\\u000a At that time, scientists and scholars began examining the benefits and harms that could come from attempting to alter genes\\u000a at the earliest stage

Rebecca Dresser

75

Are Scattering Properties of Networks Uniquely Connected to Their Shapes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Are scattering properties of networks uniquely connected to their shapes? This is a modification of the famous question of Mark Kac "Can one hear the shape of a drum: revisited. which can be asked in the case of scattering systems such as quantum graphs and microwave networks. We present the experimental approach to this problem (Hul et al., Phys Rev Lett 109:040402, 2012). Our experimental results indicate a negative answer to the above question. To demonstrate this we constructed a pair of isospectral microwave networks consisting of vertices connected by microwave coaxial cables and extended them to scattering systems by connecting leads to infinity to form isoscattering networks. We show that the amplitudes and phases of the determinants of the scattering matrices of such networks are the same within the experimental uncertainties. Additionally, we demonstrate that the scattering matrices of the networks are conjugated by the transplantation relation. The experimental results are in perfect agreement with the theoretical predictions.

Hul, Oleh; ?awniczak, Micha?; Bauch, Szymon; Sawicki, Adam; Ku?, Marek; Sirko, Leszek

76

Perception of human body modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enhancement of physical attractiveness through body modifications, such as tattoos is evident in a wide range of cultures and has recently become popular also in Westernized societies. Evolutionary psychologists have suggested that these invasive body modifications could possibly act as handicap signals in sexual selection. However, knowledge about the actual signalling quality of body modification and its perception is

Silke Wohlrab; Bernhard Fink; Peter M. Kappeler; Gayle Brewer

2009-01-01

77

Unique Gene-Silencing and Structural Properties of 2;#8242;-Fluoro-Modified siRNAs  

SciTech Connect

With little or no negative impact on the activity of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), regardless of the number of modifications or the positions within the strand, the 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro (2'-F) modification is unique. Furthermore, the 2'-F-modified siRNA (see crystal structure) was thermodynamically more stable and more nuclease-resistant than the parent siRNA, and produced no immunostimulatory response.

Manoharan, Muthiah; Akinc, Akin; Pandey, Rajendra K.; Qin, June; Hadwiger, Philipp; John, Matthias; Mills, Kathy; Charisse, Klaus; Maier, Martin A.; Nechev, Lubomir; Greene, Emily M.; Pallan, Pradeep S.; Rozners, Eriks; Rajeev, Kallanthottathil G.; Egli, Martin (Alnylam Pharm.); (Vanderbilt); (SUNY-Binghamton)

2012-05-22

78

Unique Breast Implant Advancement Receives Patent  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. For Immediate Release: Unique Breast Implant Advancement Receives Patent The invention relates to the field ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

79

a unique threat to forest ecosystem health?  

Treesearch

Title: Anthropogenic calcium depletion: a unique threat to forest ecosystem health ? ... raises important questions concerning organism and ecosystem health. ... U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

80

UNIQUE ERGODICITY ON COMPACT HOMOGENEOUS SPACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extending results of a number of authors, we prove that if U is the unipotent radical of anR-split solvable epimorphic subgroup of a real alge- braic group G which is generated by unipotents, then the action of U on G= is uniquely ergodic for every cocompact lattice in G. This gives examples of uniquely ergodic and minimal two-dimensional ows on

BARAK WEISS

81

Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness  

PubMed Central

Darwin's claim ‘that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind’ is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference in cognitive capabilities and/or mechanisms between adult humans and other animals. Dual-process theories for some cognitive domains propose that adult human cognition shares simple basic processes with that of other animals while additionally including slower-developing and more explicit uniquely human processes. These theories are consistent with a modular account of cognition and the ‘core knowledge’ account of children's cognitive development. A complementary proposal is that human infants have unique social and/or cognitive adaptations for uniquely human learning. A view of human cognitive architecture as a mosaic of unique and species-general modular and domain-general processes together with a focus on uniquely human developmental mechanisms is consistent with modern evolutionary-developmental biology and suggests new questions for comparative research.

Shettleworth, Sara J.

2012-01-01

82

Seesaw modification of gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a model in which the fundamental scale of gravity is restricted to 10-3 eV. An observable modification of gravity occurs simultaneously at the Hubble distance and at around 0.1 mm. These predictions can be tested both by the table-top experiments and by cosmological measurements. The model is formulated as a brane-world theory embedded in a space with two or more infinite-volume extra dimensions. Gravity on the brane reproduces the four-dimensional laws at observable distances but turns to the high-dimensional behavior at larger scales. To determine the crossover distance we smooth out the singularities in the Green’s functions by taking into account softening of the graviton propagator due to the high-dimensional operators that are suppressed by the fundamental scale. We find that irrespective of the precise nature of microscopic gravity the ultraviolet and infrared scales of gravity modification are rigidly correlated. This fixes the fundamental scale of gravity at 10-3 eV. The result persists for nonzero thickness branes.

Dvali, Gia; Gabadadze, Gregory; Hou, Xin-Rui; Sefusatti, Emiliano

2003-02-01

83

Epigenetic modifications in cancer  

PubMed Central

Cancer initiation and progression is controlled by both genetic and epigenetic events. The complexity of carcinogenesis cannot be accounted for by genetic alterations alone but also involves epigenetic changes. Epigenetics refers to the study of mechanisms that alter gene expression without altering the primary DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms are heritable and reversible, and include changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and small noncoding microRNAs (miRNA). Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Aberrant epigenetic modifications probably occur at a very early stage in neoplastic development, and they are widely described as essential players in cancer progression. Recent advances in epigenetics offer a better understanding of the underlying mechanism(s) of carcinogenesis and provide insight into the discovery of putative cancer biomarkers for early detection, disease monitoring, prognosis, and risk assessment. In this review, we summarize the current literature on epigenetic changes causing genetic alterations that are thought to contribute to cancer, and discuss the potential impact of epigenetics future research.

Kanwal, R; Gupta, S

2013-01-01

84

Structural Modification of Nanocrystalline Ceria using Ion Beams  

SciTech Connect

Exceptional size-dependent electronic-ionic conductivity of nanostructured ceria can significantly alter materials properties in chemical, physical, electronic and optical applications. Using energetic ions, we have demonstrated effective modification of interface volume and grain size in nanocrystalline ceria from a few nm up to ~ 25 nm, which is the critical region for controlling size-dependent material property. The unique self-healing response of radiation damage at grain boundaries is applied to control the grain size at nanoscale as a function of ion dose and irradiation temperature. Structural modification by energetic ions is proposed to achieve disirable electronic-ionic conductivity.

Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL; Edmondson, Philip D [ORNL; Varga, Tamas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Moll, Sandra [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Namavar, Fereydoon [University of Nebraska Medical Center; Weber, William J [ORNL

2011-01-01

85

Lake Erie gas production posed unique problems  

SciTech Connect

Thick, soft bottom sediments plus the presence of H/sub 2/S, CO/sub 2/ and hydrates required application of special gas production techniques. Wellheads needed modification, flexible flowline connections were used and potential dangers from sour gas were handled with inhibitors and a safety shut-down system.

Sangster, R.B.

1981-09-01

86

SUMO modification of menin  

PubMed Central

Menin acts as contextual a tumor suppressor and a tumor promoter, partly via epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. While menin is phosphorylated, it remains unclear whether wild type menin has other post-translational modifications. Here, we report that menin is SUMOylated by SUMO1 in vivo and in vitro, and the SUMOylation is reduced by a SUMO protease. Lysine 591 of menin was covalently modified by SUMO1 and K591R mutation in menin blocked SUMOylation of the C-terminal part of menin in transfected cells. Full-length menin with K591 mutation was still SUMOylated in vivo, suggesting the existence of multiple SUMOylation sites. Menin K591R mutant or menin-SUMO fusion protein still retains the ability to regulate cell proliferation and the expression of the examined menin target genes.

Feng, Zi-Jie; Gurung, Buddha; Jin, Guang-Hui; Yang, Xiao-Lu; Hua, Xian-Xin

2013-01-01

87

SUMO modification of menin.  

PubMed

Menin acts as contextual a tumor suppressor and a tumor promoter, partly via epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. While menin is phosphorylated, it remains unclear whether wild type menin has other post-translational modifications. Here, we report that menin is SUMOylated by SUMO1 in vivo and in vitro, and the SUMOylation is reduced by a SUMO protease. Lysine 591 of menin was covalently modified by SUMO1 and K591R mutation in menin blocked SUMOylation of the C-terminal part of menin in transfected cells. Full-length menin with K591 mutation was still SUMOylated in vivo, suggesting the existence of multiple SUMOylation sites. Menin K591R mutant or menin-SUMO fusion protein still retains the ability to regulate cell proliferation and the expression of the examined menin target genes. PMID:23359867

Feng, Zi-Jie; Gurung, Buddha; Jin, Guang-Hui; Yang, Xiao-Lu; Hua, Xian-Xin

2013-01-18

88

Relationship between uniqueness and competition ability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our previous paper (Feng A X, Xu X L, He D R 2009 Chin. Phys. Lett. 26 058901) we proposed quantitative definitions of uniqueness and competition ability. Their trivial linear relationship was analytically discussed. In this letter, we present analytical discussion on the more interesting anomalous cases. The analytical result shows that, instead of the trivial linear relationship, the relationship between uniqueness and competition ability obeys a power law. The competition between Beijing restaurants is taken as an example. The empirical investigation results show a strong support to the analytical conclusion.

Liu, Ai-Fen; Xu, Xiu-Lian; He, Da-Ren

2010-03-01

89

LCA â?? Unique and Controversial Case Studies  

EPA Science Inventory

This session will focus on case studies and applications that have a unique or controversial aspect. Some of the most recent topics that seem to have significant interest include: LCA-based product declarations, LCA-based standards, LCA-based labels, alternative energy, agricul...

90

2XIIB Vacuum Vessel: A Unique Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2XIIB mirror confinement experiment makes unique demands on its vacuum system. The confinement coil set encloses a cavity whose surface is comprised of both simple and compound curves. Within this cavity and at the core of the machine is the operating...

S. M. Hibbs M. O. Calderon

1975-01-01

91

A Unique Approach to Phlebotomy Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Unique characteristics of a continuing education course in phlebotomy offered through Tarrant County Junior College in Forth Worth, Texas, are described. The course was created to address the lack of theoretical knowledge in the hospital-trained phlebotomist. The first course was offered in July 1979 on a noncredit basis for 2 nights a week for 4…

Brock, Ann; Kelly, Mary Lou

92

Helping Homeless People: Unique Challenges and Solutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is designed to provide a practical guide for gaining a detailed awareness and understanding of homelessness. After a foreword by Jesse Jackson, these chapters are included: (1) Introduction: Assessing the Unique Needs of Homeless People (Clemmie Solomon), which discusses the need for helping professionals to commit to addressing…

Solomon, Clemmie, Ed.; Jackson-Jobe, Peggy, Ed.

93

On the uniqueness of community banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

To the public, all banks seem alike. But banking insiders make important distinctions between community banks and all other banks. Policymakers worry that community banks’ unique characteristics threaten their survival in the face of industry consolidation. However, despite dramatic regulatory and technological changes in the industry in the past two decades, community banks have not only survived but often prospered.

Scott E. Hein; Timothy W. Koch; S. Scott MacDonald

2005-01-01

94

Never choose the uniquely largest A Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In this paper we characterize choice behaviour that picks the second largest element if there is a uniquely largest; otherwise, the largest elements are picked. Having defined our choice function, we offer a complete characterization of the latter in terms of pure choice function conditions. Similarities to and divergences from conventional choice theory are explained. We discuss the motivations

Nick Baigent; Wulf Gaertner

1996-01-01

95

Uniqueness Questions for Multiple Trigonometric Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

We survey some recent results on the uniqueness questions on multiple trigonometric series. Two basic questions, one about series which converges to zero and the other about the series which converge to an inte- grable function, are asked for four modes of convergence: unrestricted rectan- gular convergence, spherical convergence, square convergence, and restricted rectangular convergence. We will either get into

J. Marshall Ash; Gang Wang

96

Axioms and uniqueness theorem for Tsallis entropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Shannon-Khinchin axioms for the ordinary information entropy are generalized in a natural way to the nonextensive systems based on the concept of nonextensive conditional entropy and a complete proof of the uniqueness theorem for the Tsallis entropy is presented. This improves the discussion of dos Santos [J. Math Phys. 38 (1997) 4104].

Abe, S.

2000-06-01

97

The Uniqueness of Speech among Motor Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper considers evidence that the speech muscles are unique in their genetic, developmental, functional and phenotypical properties. The literature was reviewed using PubMed, ScienceDirect, ComDisDome and other literature-retrieval systems to identify studies reporting on the craniofacial and laryngeal muscles. Particular emphasis was given…

Kent, Ray

2004-01-01

98

The Unique School Environment of Rural Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recorded observations, camera work, conversations with 19 children in grades K-4 in a Nebraska 2-room school house, and interviews with the teacher were techniques used to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the small rural school environment and its impact on children. Five attributes were found to be significant and unique small school…

Dodendorf, Diane M.

99

Some Unique Causes of Black Suicide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aspects of suicide unique to blacks are: cultural expectations for males, which include repression of feelings and strict obedience to parents and elders; difficulty identifying with their race; gangs and drug abuse; poverty; and racism. These factors can cause depression, a known factor in suicidal behavior. (Author/ABB)

Spaights, Ernest; Simpson, Gloria

1986-01-01

100

Quantum Kinetic Heisenberg Models: A Unique Dynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We suggest that the dynamics Glauber embodied in his kinetic Ising model can be introduced similarly and in an apparently unique way, into the quantum statistical mechanics of the quantum-integrable models like the Heisenberg, sine-Gordon and Massive Thir...

J. Timonen D. J. Pilling R. K. Bullough

1986-01-01

101

ANTICANCER AGENTS FROM UNIQUE NATURAL PRODUCTS SOURCES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anticancer Agents from Unique Natural Products Sources is a consortium of researchers from academia and industry organized in1995 in response to a request for proposals by the National Cancer Institute to establish National Cooperative Drug Discovery Groups (NCDDGs). The goal of the consortium is t...

102

Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The key to marketing a town is determining and promoting the town's "differential advantage" or uniqueness that would make people want to visit or live there. Exercises to help communities gain important insights into the town's competitive edge include a brainstorming session with knowledgeable community members, a visitor questionnaire, a…

Dunn, Douglas; Hogg, David H.

103

A Graduation Stole Uniquely Designed for Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In response to student requests, and to help celebrate the graduation of our physics majors, we have designed a graduation stole uniquely befitting physics. The design incorporates the four visible spectral lines of hydrogen--the Balmer series. Since the 2002 debut of the design, all our graduates have proudly worn their physics graduation stoles…

Day, Lawrence H.

2009-01-01

104

Silicones: unique chemicals of petroleum processing  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the nature of silicones and the physical and chemical properties which make them unique. The relationship of these properties to present and potential applications in the petroleum industry are discussed. Specific emphasis is on their use as foam control agents in petroleum processes. 22 refs.

Pape, P.G.

1981-01-01

105

The question of uniqueness in geochemical modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to prevailing opinion, geochemical models that predict the distribution of species in aqueous fluids do not always give unique results. To constrain calculations of this type, geochemical modelers commonly set the activities of certain dissolved species or fugacities of certain gases and many times assume equilibrium between the fluid and one or more minerals. In such cases, there may

Craig M. Bethke

1992-01-01

106

Static black hole uniqueness and Penrose inequality  

SciTech Connect

Under certain conditions, we offer a new way to prove the uniqueness of the static black hole in higher dimensional asymptotically flat spacetimes. In the proof, the Penrose inequality plays a key role in higher dimensions as well as four dimensions.

Mizuno, Ryosuke; Shiromizu, Tetsuya [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ohashi, Seiju [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

2010-02-15

107

Bone surface modifications in zooarchaeology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cutmarks made by stone tools, conchoidal flake scars from hammerstone percussion, carnivore tooth marks, striations from sedimentary abrasion, and other surface modifications on bones from archaeological sites constitute a crucial body of evidence for investigating the role of human behaviors and of nonhuman taphonomic processes in site formation. This paper describes the various kinds of bone surface modifications produced by

1995-01-01

108

Body Modification and Suicidal Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a large sample of individuals who belong to a website for body modification, having body modifications (e.g., piercings, tattoos, scarification and surgical procedures) was associated with a higher incidence of prior suicidality (i.e., suicidal ideation and attempted suicide). However, controls for self-reported depression weakened the…

Hicinbothem, Julie; Gonsalves, Sonia; Lester, David

2006-01-01

109

Epigenetic modifications as therapeutic targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epigenetic modifications work in concert with genetic mechanisms to regulate transcriptional activity in normal tissues and are often dysregulated in disease. Although they are somatically heritable, modifications of DNA and histones are also reversible, making them good targets for therapeutic intervention. Epigenetic changes often precede disease pathology, making them valuable diagnostic indicators for disease risk or prognostic indicators for disease

Theresa K Kelly; Daniel D De Carvalho; Peter A Jones

2010-01-01

110

N-formylation of lysine in histone proteins as a secondary modification arising from oxidative DNA damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The posttranslational modification of histone and other chromatin proteins has a well recognized but poorly defined role in the physiology of gene expression. With implications for interfering with these epigenetic mechanisms, we now report the existence of a relatively abundant secondary modification of chromatin proteins, the N?-formylation of lysine that appears to be uniquely associated with histone and other nuclear

Tao Jiang; Xinfeng Zhou; Koli Taghizadeh; Min Dong; P. C. Dedon

2007-01-01

111

Fluorinated semiconductor photocatalysts: tunable synthesis and unique properties.  

PubMed

Semiconductor photocatalysts are of great significance in solar energy conversion and environmental remediation. To overcome serious drawbacks of these materials with respect to narrow light-response range and low quantum efficiency, a variety of strategies have been developed in the past decades to enhance the light harvesting and excitation as well as the charge transfer against recombination. In particular, fluorination of semiconductor photocatalysts can be employed to modify their surface and bulk properties, and consequently, to enhance their photocatalytic performance. This review presents a comprehensive description of the F-mediated synthesis and unique properties of fluorinated semiconductor photocatalysts, in particular titanium dioxide (TiO(2)). The available strategies for the synthesis of fluorinated photocatalysts include post-synthesis fluorination and in-situ fluorination. Depending on the synthesis route and conditions, it is possible to control the chemical nature of incorporated fluorine (such as adsorbed fluoride and lattice-doped fluorine) and the fluoride-mediated crystal modification and organization, which often results in exceptional surface and bulk physicochemical properties, giving rise to unique photocatalytic properties. Significantly, the surface fluorination induces unusual adsorption behavior and interfacial charge transfer dynamics, directly affecting photocatalytic redox properties of the surface-fluorinated photocatalysts. The lattice fluorine-doping, sole or cooperative with other complementary co-dopants, introduces special localized electronic structures and surface defect states, accounting for the exceptional visible-light photoactivity of the fluorine-doped photocatalysts. Finally, recent advances in the synthesis and properties of fluorinated photocatalysts are summarized along with perspectives on further developments in this area of research. PMID:22425280

Liu, Shengwei; Yu, Jiaguo; Cheng, Bei; Jaroniec, Mietek

2012-02-28

112

Assay of Deoxyhypusine Hydroxylase Activity  

PubMed Central

The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is the only cellular protein that contains an unusual amino acid, hypusine [N?-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)-lysine]. eIF5A and its hypusine/deoxyhypusine modification are vital for eukaryotic cell proliferation. Hypusine is formed posttranslationally by two enzymatic steps catalyzed by deoxyhypusine synthase and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase. Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase catalyzes a stereo-specific hydroxylation of the deoxyhypusine residue in the eIF5A intermediate protein, eIF5A(Dhp). The enzyme is totally specific for this protein and does not act on short peptides (<50 amino acids). The assay measures the conversion of the radiolabeled deoxyhypusine residue to a hypusine residue in eIF5A. Optimum conditions for the reaction and two detection methods for the product, hypusine-containing eIF5A, are described in this chapter. The first, and most reliable, method is the measurement of the amount of [3H]hypusine in the protein hydrolysate after its separation from [3H]deoxyhypusine, by ion exchange chromatography. This method does require specialized equipment. The second method is based on counting the total TCA soluble radioactivity after sodium periodate oxidation of the reaction mixture, since the radiolabeled 4-amino-2-hydroxy butyl moiety of the hypusine residue is cleaved and is released from protein as radiolabeled ?-propionaldehyde and formaldehyde by periodate oxidation.

Park, Jong Hwan; Wolff, Edith C.; Park, Myung Hee

2011-01-01

113

User applications unique to mobile satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As AMSC enters the market with its mobile satellite services, it faces a sophisticated user group that has already experimented with a wide range of communications services, including cellular radio and Ku-band satellite messaging. AMSC's challenge is to define applications unique to the capabilities of its dedicated L band satellite and consistent with the provisions outlined in its FCC license. Through a carefully researched approach to its three main markets (aeronautical, land mobile, and maritime) AMSC is discovering a wellspring of interest in corporate and general aviation, trucking companies, pipeline monitoring and control companies, maritime management firms, telecommunications companies, and government agencies. A general overview is provided of AMSC's FCC license and corporate history, and the specific applications unique to each user group is discussed.

Castiel, David

114

Unique device identification system. Final rule.  

PubMed

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule to establish a system to adequately identify devices through distribution and use. This rule requires the label of medical devices to include a unique device identifier (UDI), except where the rule provides for an exception or alternative placement. The labeler must submit product information concerning devices to FDA's Global Unique Device Identification Database (GUDID), unless subject to an exception or alternative. The system established by this rule requires the label and device package of each medical device to include a UDI and requires that each UDI be provided in a plain-text version and in a form that uses automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) technology. The UDI will be required to be directly marked on the device itself if the device is intended to be used more than once and intended to be reprocessed before each use. PMID:24066364

2013-09-24

115

Unique spin coat process for positive photoresists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique spin coat process was developed which improves the coating uniformity and extends the range of applicable resist thicknesses typically encountered for a one viscosity photoresist. This spin coat process involves a high speed, short term initial coat followed by a low speed dry cycle. Advantages are seen in better standard deviation of coating uniformity and coating thicknesses achieved over a 1 micron range (1.2 to 2.4 microns) for positive photoresists on 6' wafers. In this paper the authors discuss the application of this unique resist processing approach to three types of photoresists which differ in solvent composition (utilizing ethyl lactate, propylene glycol mono methyl ether acetate, and 3-ethoxy-ethyl propionate). Comparison of coating uniformity at various resist thicknesses with a standard coating process is made and emphasis is placed on analysis of residual solvent and PAC content in resist films.

Lyons, Dan; Beauchemin, Bernard T.; Garrard, Susan

1995-06-01

116

A Unique Instrumental Malfunction during Robotic Prostatectomy  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade, the introduction of robotics in the field of medicine has provided a new approach to patients requiring surgery, and both its advantages and disadvantages are currently under study by many groups worldwide. The use of robotics has especially been considered by the urological community as a treatment option in radical prostatectomy. The current case report is one in which the da Vinci Surgical System™, with fourth arm use was employed in radical prostatectomy. This case presents a unique occurrence in which a bolt of the Prograsper forcep became loose during an operation, leading to diminished device functionality and later impedance of its removal. A circumstance such as this has not previously been reported, so we introduce for other robotic surgeons our unique instrumental malfunction case during a robotic prostatectomy.

Park, Sung Yul; Ahn, Jenny Jin-Kyung; Jeong, Wooju; Ham, Won Sik

2010-01-01

117

Assessing non-uniqueness: An algebraic approach  

SciTech Connect

Geophysical inverse problems are endowed with a rich mathematical structure. When discretized, most differential and integral equations of interest are algebraic (polynomial) in form. Techniques from algebraic geometry and computational algebra provide a means to address questions of existence and uniqueness for both linear and non-linear inverse problem. In a sense, the methods extend ideas which have proven fruitful in treating linear inverse problems.

Vasco, Don W.

2002-09-16

118

Unique nature of hydroplant complicates design  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the unique nature of the Niagara Power Project as it affected upgrading of the Robert Moses powerplant and operation of the powerplant and pumped storage facility. To be taken into account are the variable flow of the Niagara River, treaties regarding division of river flow between Canada and USA and maintenance of river flow over the falls, and the level of Lake Erie.

Not Available

1990-01-01

119

Diabetes in African Americans: Unique pathophysiologic features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 2 diabetes is an increasing public health problem among African Americans, especially children. Several features make\\u000a type 2 diabetes among African Americans unique. First, African-American adults with type 2 diabetes, or Flatbush diabetes,\\u000a present with diabetic ketoacidosis. Patients are insulin resistant with acute, severe defects in insulin secretion and no\\u000a islet cell autoantibodies. Following treatment, some insulin secretory capacity

Mary Ann Banerji

2004-01-01

120

Silicones: unique chemicals for petroleum processing  

SciTech Connect

Silicones are specialty chemicals that are often critical in certain production operations. Their primary use in petroleum applications is as foam control agents. The physical and chemical properties of silicones are described, and foam and antifoam theory is discussed. State-of-the-art silicone use in selected key petroleum applications is outlined. The unique properties of silicones that should be considered by petroleum engineers in solving problems in other types of applications are emphasized.

Pape, P.G.

1983-06-01

121

Unique Signal Override Plug electromagnetic test report  

SciTech Connect

The MC4039 Unique Signal Override Plug (USOP) provides the unique signal for the B90 when fielded on aircraft that are not equipped with unique signal capability. Since the USOP is field installed, the concern is that it might be susceptible to electromagnetic radiation prior to installation on the weapon. This report documents a characterization of the USOP, evaluates various techniques for attaching electromagnetic shields, and evaluates the susceptibility of a fully assembled passive-USOP. Tests conducted evaluated the electromagnetic susceptibility of the passive, unconnected USOP. During normal operation the USOP is powered directly from the weapon. During the course of this test program two prototypes were developed. The prototype 1 USOP internal circuitry contains one SA3727 chip, five diodes, three resistors, and two capacitors; these are mounted on a circular circuit board and contained inside a metal back shell cover, which serves as an electromagnetic shield. The prototype 2 design incorporated four changes. The manufacturer of the SA3727 chip was changed from Lasarray to LSI Logic, the circuit board ground was tied to the case ground through a straight wire, Cl was changed from 1 microfarad to 0.1 microfarads. and the circuit board was changed, as required. 2 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs. (JF)

Bonn, R.H.

1990-10-01

122

21 CFR 331.21 - Test modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...modifications. The formulation or mode of administration of certain products may require a modification of the United States Pharmacopeia 23/National Formulary 18 acid neutralizing capacity test. Any proposed modification and the data to...

2013-04-01

123

Vehicle Modification for Alcohol Use.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current information on engine modifications to enable the use of alcohol fuels is compiled. Various types of conversions are described, specific to pure or petroleum-blended alcohol utilization. The engines considered are the most common configurations of...

1981-01-01

124

Chatting histone modifications in mammals.  

PubMed

Eukaryotic chromatin can be highly dynamic and can continuously exchange between an open transcriptionally active conformation and a compacted silenced one. Post-translational modifications of histones have a pivotal role in regulating chromatin states, thus influencing all chromatin dependent processes. Methylation is currently one of the best characterized histone modification and occurs on arginine and lysine residues. Histone methylation can regulate other modifications (e.g. acetylation, phosphorylation and ubiquitination) in order to define a precise functional chromatin environment. In this review we focus on histone methylation and demethylation, as well as on the enzymes responsible for setting these marks. In particular we are describing novel concepts on the interdependence of histone modifications marks and discussing the molecular mechanisms governing this cross-talks. PMID:21266346

Izzo, Annalisa; Schneider, Robert

2010-12-01

125

Unique features of animal mitochondrial translation systems  

PubMed Central

In animal mitochondria, several codons are non-universal and their meanings differ depending on the species. In addition, the tRNA structures that decipher codons are sometimes unusually truncated. These features seem to be related to the shortening of mitochondrial (mt) genomes, which occurred during the evolution of mitochondria. These organelles probably originated from the endosymbiosis of an aerobic eubacterium into an ancestral eukaryote. It is plausible that these events brought about the various characteristic features of animal mt translation systems, such as genetic code variations, unusually truncated tRNA and rRNA structures, unilateral tRNA recognition mechanisms by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, elongation factors and ribosomes, and compensation for RNA deficits by enlarged proteins. In this article, we discuss molecular mechanisms for these phenomena. Finally, we describe human mt diseases that are caused by modification defects in mt tRNAs.

Watanabe, Kimitsuna

2010-01-01

126

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

127

The Unique Nature of Mg2+ Channels  

PubMed Central

Considering the biological abundance and importance of Mg2+, there is a surprising lack of information regarding the proteins that transport Mg2+, the mechanisms by which they do so, and their physiological roles within the cell. The best characterized Mg2+ channel to date is the bacterial protein CorA, present in a wide range of bacterial species. The CorA homolog Mrs2 forms the mitochondrial Mg2+ channel in all eukaryotes. Physiologically, CorA is involved in bacterial pathogenesis, and the Mrs2 eukaryotic homolog is essential for cell survival. A second Mg2+ channel widespread in bacteria is MgtE. Its eukaryotic homologs are the SLC41 family of carriers. Physiological roles for MgtE and its homologs have not been established. Recently, the crystal structures for the bacterial CorA and MgtE Mg2+ channels were solved, the first structures of any divalent cation channel. As befits the unique biological chemistry of Mg2+, both structures are unique, unlike that of any other channel or transporter. Although structurally quite different, both CorA and MgtE appear to be gated in a similar manner through multiple Mg2+ binding sites in the cytosolic domain of the channels. These sites essentially serve as Mg2+ “sensors” of cytosolic Mg2+ concentration. Many questions about these channels remain, however, including the molecular basis of Mg2+ selectivity and the physiological role(s) of their eukaryotic homologs.

Moomaw, Andrea S.; Maguire, Michael E.

2009-01-01

128

Beryllium - A Unique Material in Nuclear Applications  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium, due to its unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section characteristics, has been used successfully as a neutron reflector for three generations of nuclear test reactors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the largest test reactor in the world, has utilized five successive beryllium neutron reflectors and is scheduled for continued operation with a sixth beryllium reflector. A high radiation environment in a test reactor produces radiation damage and other changes in beryllium. These changes necessitate safety analysis of the beryllium, methods to predict performance, and appropriate surveillances. Other nuclear applications also utilize beryllium. Beryllium, given its unique atomic, physical, and chemical characteristics, is widely used as a “window” for x-rays and gamma rays. Beryllium, intimately mixed with high-energy alpha radiation emitters has been successfully used to produce neutron sources. This paper addresses operational experience and methodologies associated with the use of beryllium in nuclear test reactors and in “windows” for x-rays and gamma rays. Other nuclear applications utilizing beryllium are also discussed.

T., A. Tomberlin

2004-11-01

129

Event segmentation ability uniquely predicts event memory.  

PubMed

Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. PMID:23942350

Sargent, Jesse Q; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Hambrick, David Z; Zacks, Rose T; Kurby, Christopher A; Bailey, Heather R; Eisenberg, Michelle L; Beck, Taylor M

2013-08-14

130

Unique Molecular Characteristics of Pediatric Myxopapillary Ependymoma  

PubMed Central

Myxopapillary ependymoma (MEPN) generally can be cured by gross total surgical resection and usually manifest a favorable prognosis. However, surgery is less curative in tumors that are large, multifocal or extend outside the thecal sac. Late recurrences may occur, particularly in pediatric patients. The role of adjuvant therapy is unclear in the clinical management of recurrent tumors. Clinical trial design requires a better understanding of tumor biology. Unique molecular features of MEPN were investigated by using microarray technology to compare the gene expression of five pediatric MEPN to 24 pediatric intracranial ependymoma (EPN). The upregulation of three genes of interest, homeobox B13 (HOXB13), neurofilament, light polypeptide (NEFL) and PDGFR?, was further studied by immunohistochemistry in a larger cohort that included adult MEPN and EPN specimens. Protein expression in MEPN was compared to subependymoma, spinal EPN, intracranial EPN and normal fetal and adult ependyma. Immunoreactivity for HOXB13, NEFL and PDGFR? was strongest in MEPN and virtually absent in subependymoma. Spinal and intracranial EPN generally expressed weak or focal staining. MEPN manifests unique gene and protein expression patterns compared to other EPNs. Aberrant expression of HOXB13 suggests possible recapitulation of developmental pathways in MEPN tumorigenesis. PDGFR? may be a potential therapeutic target in recurrent MEPN.

Barton, Valerie N; Donson, Andrew M; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, Bette K; Birks, Diane K; Handler, Michael H; Foreman, Nicholas K

2010-01-01

131

Therapeutic cancer vaccines: using unique antigens.  

PubMed

A decade ago, it seemed rational that our rapidly increasing knowledge of the molecular identities of tumor antigens and a deeper understanding of basic immunology would point the way to an effective therapeutic cancer vaccine. Significant progress has been made, but we do not yet have a cancer vaccine that can reliably and consistently induce tumor destruction or improve patient survival. Random mutations in cancer cells generate unique antigens in each individual, and this may be important in terms of generating a therapeutic immune response. Autologous heat shock protein-peptide complexes produced from each patient's tumor is a logical personalized approach that may obviate the need to identify the unique antigens contained in the individual vaccine. Heat shock proteins elicit adaptive and innate immune responses and have been tested in a variety of animal models and different human cancers. Activity has been seen in several animal studies. Early-phase human studies have also suggested some activity in certain cancers. Large, randomized phase 3 studies are ongoing, and these will effectively answer the question of efficacy regarding this approach to therapeutic vaccination. There are sufficient data to support the notion that cancer vaccines can induce anti-tumor immune responses in humans with cancer. How best to translate this increase in immune responsiveness to consistently and reproducibly induce objective cancer regression or increased survival remains unclear at this time. PMID:15297620

Lewis, Jonathan J

2004-08-05

132

Unique topological characterization of braided magnetic fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a topological flux function to quantify the topology of magnetic braids: non-zero, line-tied magnetic fields whose field lines all connect between two boundaries. This scalar function is an ideal invariant defined on a cross-section of the magnetic field, and measures the average poloidal magnetic flux around any given field line, or the average pairwise crossing number between a given field line and all others. Moreover, its integral over the cross-section yields the relative magnetic helicity. Using the fact that the flux function is also an action in the Hamiltonian formulation of the field line equations, we prove that it uniquely characterizes the field line mapping and hence the magnetic topology.

Yeates, A. R.; Hornig, G.

2013-01-01

133

The unique ethics of sports medicine.  

PubMed

The ethical code by which physicians traditionally conduct themselves is based on the relationship between the physician and the patient: both work toward the goal of improving or maintaining health. Constraints on this relationship may be behaviors of patient choice (tobacco use, excessive alcohol use, sedentary behavior, and so on). The athlete-physician relationship is ethically different. Influences such as the physician's employer, the athlete's desire to play with pain and injury, and the economic consequences of playing or not complicate medical decisions. This perspective suggests something different and even unique about the ethics of the sports medicine practitioner. This article explores the differences fostering the ethical tight ropes that sports physicians walk in their sports medicine practices. PMID:15183565

Johnson, Rob

2004-04-01

134

Unique biology of gliomas: challenges and opportunities  

PubMed Central

Gliomas are terrifying primary brain tumors for which patient outlook remains bleak. Recent research provides novel insights into the unique biology of gliomas. For example, these tumors exhibit an unexpected pluripotency that enables them to grow their own vasculature. They have an unusual ability to navigate tortuous extracellular pathways as they invade, and they use neurotransmitters to inflict damage and create room for growth. Here, we review studies that illustrate the importance of considering interactions of gliomas with their native brain environment. Such studies suggest that gliomas constitute a neurodegenerative disease caused by the malignant growth of brain support cells. The chosen examples illustrate how targeted research into the biology of gliomas is yielding new and much needed therapeutic approaches to this challenging nervous system disease.

Watkins, Stacey; Sontheimer, Harald

2013-01-01

135

The osteoclast and its unique cytoskeleton.  

PubMed

The osteoclast cytoskeleton is a unique structure that polarizes the cell's resorptive machinery to the bone-cell interface where it creates an isolated resorptive microenvironment consisting of an actin ring surrounding a ruffled border. This polarization process occurs under the aegis of the ?(v) ?(3) integrin in collaboration with the M-CSF receptor, c-Fms. When occupied, ?(v) ?(3) activates a canonical signaling complex consisting of c-Src, Syk, Dap12, Slp76, Vav 3, and Rac that permits the cell to spread and form actin rings. Generation of the ruffled border, the cell's resorptive organelle, is an exocytic process wherein synaptotagmin VII mediates fusion of secretory lysosomes to the bone-apposed plasma membrane. Absence of any component of this signaling pathway compromises osteoclast cytoskeletal organization and abridges bone resorption. PMID:22172034

Teitelbaum, Steven L

2011-12-01

136

Anticipating problems unique to revision ACL surgery.  

PubMed

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common in the athletic population. In fact, ACL reconstruction has become one of the most common orthopedic procedures. With the increasing number of primary ACL reconstructions being performed combined with the continued expectations of high-level athletes, revision ACL reconstruction is likely to become more frequent. Revision ACL reconstruction poses several diagnostic and technical challenges compared to primary reconstructions. The purpose of this article is to highlight problems that are unique to revision ACL reconstruction such as tunnel malposition, tunnel widening, preexisting hardware, and injuries to concomitant structures in the knee. Recognizing and avoiding these pitfalls are crucial to obtaining a successful result after revision ACL reconstruction. PMID:23649161

Cheatham, Seth A; Johnson, Darren L

2013-06-01

137

A unique device for controlled electrospinning.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to develop a system for controlled electrospinning of fibro-porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications and to use this system to assess mesh architecture sensitivity to manufacturing parameters. The intent was to achieve scaffolds with well-controlled fiber diameters and inter-fiber spacing. To accomplish these objectives, a custom, closed-loop controlled, electrospinning system was built. The system was unique in that it had a collection surface that was independent of the electrodes. The system allowed independent manipulation and analysis of a number of manufacturing parameters: distance between the electrodes, distance from the nozzle to the collection surface, applied voltage, temperature of the melt, collection surface dielectric strength, and collection surface area. Morphological analysis of fabricated meshes showed that all test parameters significantly affected fiber diameter and inter-fiber spacing. Further, contrary to what is generally accepted in the electrospinning literature, voltage and temperature (inversely related to viscosity) were not the most significant parameters. Features of the collection surface, including dielectric strength and surface area, were more significant. This dominance is, in part, a reflection of the unique electrospinning system used. The collection surface, which was not connected to either of the electrodes, substantially altered the electric field between the electrodes. Using the developed controlled electrospinning system, thermoplastic polyurethane meshes with fiber diameters ranging from 5 to 18 microm with variability less than 1.8% were made; inter-fiber spacing ranged from 4 to 90 microm with variability less than 20.2%. The system has potential use in biomedical applications where meshes with controlled fiber diameter and inter-fiber spacing are of interest. PMID:16604530

Mitchell, S B; Sanders, J E

2006-07-01

138

Adipose depots possess unique developmental gene signatures.  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated that subcutaneous and intra-abdominal adipose tissue show different patterns of expression for developmental genes (Shox2, En1, Tbx15 Hoxa5, Hoxc8, and Hoxc9), and that the expression level of Tbx15 and Hoxa5 in humans correlated with the level of obesity and fat distribution. To further explore the role of these developmental genes in adipose tissue, we have characterized their expression in different adipose depots in mice, and studied their regulation in obesity and by fasting. Developmental and adipogenic gene expression was compared in two subcutaneous and three intra-abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) depots as well as brown adipose tissue (BAT) from lean or obese mice in a fed or fasting state. Each of these six adipose depots display a unique pattern of developmental gene expression, whereas expression of adipogenic transcription factors PPARgamma2 C/EBPalpha, beta, and Delta showed constant expression levels in all depots. Expression levels of developmental genes were similar in obese (ob/ob and high-fat diet (HFD)) and lean mice in most depots. Fasting systematically decreased expression of Hoxc8, PPARgamma2, and increased C/EBPDelta in both lean and ob/ob mice, but produced only variable changes in the expression of other developmental and adipogenic genes. These data indicate that each fat depot has a unique developmental gene expression signature, which is largely independent of nutritional state. This finding further supports a fundamental role of developmental genes in fat distribution and the development and/or function of specific adipose tissue depots. PMID:20111017

Yamamoto, Yuji; Gesta, Stephane; Lee, Kevin Y; Tran, Thien T; Saadatirad, Parshin; Kahn, C Ronald

2010-01-28

139

Structural modification. Part 1: rotational receptances  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inverse problem of assigning natural frequencies and antiresonances by a modification to the stiffness, mass and damping of a structure is addressed. Very simple modifications such as the addition of masses and grounded springs can be easily accommodated and require the measurement of translational receptances at the connection coordinates. Realistic modifications of practical usefulness, such as a modification by

John E. Mottershead; Andreas Kyprianou; Huajiang Ouyang

2005-01-01

140

Surface modification for corrosion resistance  

SciTech Connect

The raw gas environments that arise from coal gasification have chemical compositions that are low in pO{sub 2} and moderate-to-high in pS{sub 2}. Metallic materials for service in such an environment undergo predominantly sulfidation attack at temperatures of 400 to 700{degree}C. Modification of alloy compositions in bulk can alter the scaling processes and lead to improvements in corrosion resistance, but the benefits can only be attained at temperatures much higher than the service temperatures of the components. Modification of surfaces of structural components by several of the coating techniques examined in this study showed substantial benefit in corrosion resistance when tested in simulated coal gasification environments. The paper presents several examples of surface modification and their corrosion performance.

Natesan, K.

1993-06-01

141

The unique inner landscape of the Anthropocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A characteristic aspect of the Anthropocene is the suite of novel changes made to the surface and subsurface of the Earth by human action, both on land and, increasingly, on and below the sea floor. Geologically, these geomorphological phenomena include features that relate to both lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic classification, the latter resulting from considering human constructions and modifications as a form of trace fossil system, albeit one that is of unprecedentedly large scale. As regards the potential formalizing of the Anthropocene, one question to be pursued relates to the chronostratigraphic definition of the phenomena involved: that is, given that many of these transformations are diachronous on human timescales, can an Anthropocene Series, with a synchronous time boundary, be characterized and mapped across the Earth's surface? Efforts to answer this question should help in the understanding of the Anthropocene within its geological context, and also in exploring the stratigraphic relation between time and rock generally at very fine stratigraphic timescales. Zalasiewicz, J., Williams M, Fortey, R.A., Smith, A.G., Barry, T.L. Coe, A.L., Bown, P.R., Gale, A., Gibbard, P.L., Gregory, F.J., Hounslow, M.W., Kerr, A.C., Pearson, P., Knox, R., Powell, J., Waters, C., Marshall, J., Oates, M., Rawson, P. & Stone, P. 2011. Stratigraphy of the Anthropocene. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A369, 1036-1055.

Zalasiewicz, Jan

2013-04-01

142

Microbial profile modification with spores  

SciTech Connect

To overcome the shortcomings of conventional, near-wellbore profile modification methods, a microbial profile modification (MPM) method with spores was investigated. A halotolerant, spore-forming mesophile was isolated and characterized. These biopolymer-producing spores propagate easily in Berea cores with permeabilities more than about 500 md. With a specifically formulated nutrient package, they are readily germinated and produce biofilm, which reduces the permeability of the rock. The depth of penetration and the degree of permeability reduction can be controlled by varying injection schemes.

Bae, J.H.; Chambers, K.T.; Lee, H.O. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States)

1996-08-01

143

Mapping chromatin modifications in nanochannels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNA and chromatin are elongated to a fixed fraction of their contour length when introduced into quasi-1d nanochannels. Because single molecules are analyzed, their hold great potential for the analysis for the genetic analysis of material from single cells. In this study, we have reconstituted chromatin with histones from a variety of sources, and mapped the modification profile of the chromatin. We monitored methylation and acetylation patterns of the histone tail protein residues using fluorescently labelled antibodies. Using those, we distinguished chromatin reconstituted from chicken erythrocytes, calf thymus, and HeLa cells. We discuss prospects for profiling histone modifications for whole chromosomes from single cells.

Lim, Shuang Fang; Karpusenko, Alena; Riehn, Robert

2013-03-01

144

The unique mitochondrial form and function of Antarctic channichthyid icefishes.  

PubMed

Antarctic icefishes of the family Channichthyidae are the only vertebrate animals that as adults do not express the circulating oxygen-binding protein hemoglobin (Hb). Six of the 16 family members also lack the intracellular oxygen-binding protein myoglobin (Mb) in the ventricle of their hearts and all lack Mb in oxidative skeletal muscle. The loss of Hb has led to substantial remodeling in the cardiovascular system of icefishes to facilitate adequate oxygenation of tissues. One of the more curious adaptations to the loss of Hb and Mb is an increase in mitochondrial density in cardiac myocytes and oxidative skeletal muscle fibers. The proliferation of mitochondria in the aerobic musculature of icefishes does not arise through a canonical pathway of mitochondrial biogenesis. Rather, the biosynthesis of mitochondrial phospholipids is up-regulated independently of the synthesis of proteins and mitochondrial DNA, and newly-synthesized phospholipids are targeted primarily to the outer-mitochondrial membrane. Consequently, icefish mitochondria have a higher lipid-to-protein ratio compared to those from red-blooded species. Elevated levels of nitric oxide in the blood plasma of icefishes, compared to red-blooded notothenioids, may mediate alterations in mitochondrial density and architecture. Modifications in mitochondrial structure minimally impact state III respiration rates but may significantly enhance intracellular diffusion of oxygen. The rate of oxygen diffusion is greater within the hydrocarbon core of membrane lipids compared to the aqueous cytosol and impeded only by proteins within the lipid bilayer. Thus, the proliferation of icefish's mitochondrial membranes provides an optimal conduit for the intracellular diffusion of oxygen and compensates for the loss of Hb and Mb. Currently little is known about how mitochondrial phospholipid synthesis is regulated and integrated into mitochondrial biogenesis. The unique architecture of the oxidative muscle cells of icefishes highlights the need for further studies in this area. PMID:21558255

O'Brien, Kristin M; Mueller, Irina A

2010-05-06

145

Improvement of stability conditions, accuracy and uniqueness of penalty approach in contact modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this paper is to improve stability conditions, uniqueness and convergence of numerical analysis of metal forming processes with contact constraints enforced by the penalty method. A commonly known drawback of this approach is the choice of penalty factor values. When assumed too low, they result in inaccurate fulfillment of the constraints while when assumed too high, they lead to ill-conditioning of the equations system which affects stability and uniqueness of the solution. The proposed modification of the penalty algorithm consists in adaptive estimation of the penalty factor values for the particular system of finite element equations and for the assumed allowed inaccuracy in fulfillment of the contact constraints. The algorithm is tested on realistic examples of sheet metal forming. The finite element code based on flow approach formulation (for rigid-plastic and rigid-viscoplastic material model) has been used.

Bednarek, Tomasz; Kowalczyk, Piotr

2013-06-01

146

Might "Unique" Factors Be "Common"? On the Possibility of Indeterminate Common-Unique Covariances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present paper shows that the usual factor analytic structured data dispersion matrix lambda psi lambda' + delta can readily arise from a set of scores y = lambda eta + epsilon, shere the "common" (eta) and "unique" (epsilon) factors have nonzero covariance: gamma = Cov epsilon,eta) is not equal to 0. Implications of this finding are discussed…

Grayson, Dave

2006-01-01

147

Might "Unique" Factors Be "Common"? On the Possibility of Indeterminate Common-Unique Covariances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper shows that the usual factor analytic structured data dispersion matrix lambda psi lambda' + delta can readily arise from a set of scores y = lambda eta + epsilon, shere the "common" (eta) and "unique" (epsilon) factors have nonzero covariance: gamma = Cov epsilon,eta) is not equal to 0. Implications of this finding are discussed…

Grayson, Dave

2006-01-01

148

Alpbach Summer School - a unique learning experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alpbach Summer School is a ten-day program that provides a unique opportunity for young european science and engineering students, both undergraduate and graduate, to learn how to approach the entire design process of a space mission. The theme of the 2010 Summer School was "New Space Missions to Understand Climate Change", a current, challenging, very broad and complex topic. The program was established more than 35 years ago and is organised in two interrelated parts: a series of lectures held by renowned experts in the field (in the case of this specific year, climate change and space engineering experts) that provides a technical and scientific background for the workshops that follow, the core of the Summer School. For the workshops the students are split into four international, interdisciplinary teams of about 15 students. In 2010 every team had to complete a number of tasks, four in total: (1) identify climate change research gaps and design a space mission that has not yet been flown or proposed, (2) define the science objectives and requirements of the mission, (3) design a spacecraft that meets the mission requirements, which includes spacecraft design and construction, payload definition, orbit calculations, but also the satellite launch, operation and mission costs and (4) write up a short mission proposal and present the results to an expert review panel. Achieving these tasks in only a few days in a multicultural, interdisciplinary team represents a major challenge for all participants and provides an excellent practical learning experience. Over the course of the program, students do not just learn facts about climate change and space engineering, but scientists also learn from engineers and engineers from scientists. The participants have to deepen their knowledge in an often unfamiliar field, develop organisational and team-work skills and work under pressure. Moreover, teams are supported by team and roving tutors and get the opportunity to meet and learn from international experts. This presentation will provide an overview of the Alpbach Summer School program from a student's perspective. The different stages of this unique and enriching experience will be covered. Special attention will be paid to the workshops, which, as mentioned above, are the core of the Alpbach Summer School. During these intense workshops, participants work towards the proposed goals resulting in the design proposal of a space mission. The Alpbach Summer School is organised by FFG and co-sponsored by ESA, ISSI and the national space authorities of ESA member and cooperating states.

Kern, K.; Aulinas, J.; Clifford, D.; Krejci, D.; Topham, R.

2011-12-01

149

The Key Correlation Between Plastic Gear Modification and Rack Tool Tip Modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to decrease the defects of the plastic gear design and manufacturing appears increasingly, the correlation between plastic gear modification and rack tool modification are ratiocinated based on domestic and abroad information. The question whether rack tool modification effects plastic gear modification during the manufacturing is discussed, and the maximum tooth root fillet modification theory is proposed. Finally, the

Haipeng Gao; Jiachun Li; Xudong Ynag

2010-01-01

150

Modification of a Hardwired Numerical Control to Include Switchable Inch/Metric Capability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A unique and relatively simple method is described for modifying a 1965-vintage hardwired numerical control (N/C) for a machine tool so that it can operate in the SI (Metric) as well as the Inch mode. The modification procedure will be valuable during the...

L. E. Newton

1976-01-01

151

Scalable human ES culture for therapeutic use: propagation, differentiation, genetic modification and regulatory issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonic stem cells unlike most adult stem cell populations can replicate indefinitely while preserving genetic, epigenetic, mitochondrial and functional profiles. ESCs are therefore an excellent candidate cell type for providing a bank of cells for allogenic therapy and for introducing targeted genetic modifications for therapeutic intervention. This ability of prolonged self-renewal of stem cells and the unique advantages that this

M Rao

2008-01-01

152

Developmental Changes in Peanut Root Structure during Root Growth and Root-structure Modification by Nodulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

† Background and Aims Basic information about the root and root nodule structure of leguminous crop plants is incomplete, with many aspects remaining unresolved. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) forms root nodules in a unique process. Structures of various peanut root types were studied with emphasis on insufficiently characterized lateral roots, changes in roots during their ontogenesis and root modification by nodule

RYOSUKE TAJIMA; JUN ABE; O NEW LEE; SHIGENORI MORITA; ALEXANDER LUX

2008-01-01

153

Protein Glycosylation in Archaea: A Post-Translational Modification to Enhance Extremophilic Protein Stability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Post-translational modifications account for much of the biological diversity generated at the proteome level. Of these, glycosylation is the most prevalent. Long-thought to be unique to Eukarya, it is now clear that both Bacteria and Archaea are also cap...

J. Eichler

2010-01-01

154

Profiling of integral membrane proteins and their post translational modifications using high-resolution mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integral membrane proteins pose challenges to traditional proteomics approaches due to unique physicochemical properties including hydrophobic transmembrane domains that limit solubility in aqueous solvents. A well resolved intact protein molecular mass profile defines a protein’s native covalent state including post-translational modifications, and is thus a vital measurement toward full structure determination. Both soluble loop regions and transmembrane regions potentially contain

Puneet Souda; Christopher M. Ryan; William A. Cramer; Julian Whitelegge

155

Triptolide: structural modifications, structure-activity relationships, bioactivities, clinical development and mechanisms.  

PubMed

Triptolide, a principal bioactive ingredient of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, has attracted extensive exploration due to its unique structure of a diterpenoid triepoxide and multiple biological activities. This review will focus on the structural modifications, structure-activity relationships, pharmacology, and clinical development of triptolide in the last forty years. PMID:22270059

Zhou, Zhao-Li; Yang, Ya-Xi; Ding, Jian; Li, Yuan-Chao; Miao, Ze-Hong

2012-01-23

156

The rural market: a unique communication medium.  

PubMed

In January 1990, the Health Secretary asked the Technologies for Primary Health Care (PRITECH) project to facilitate access to the many small villages with 500 people in Mexico since PRITECH had assisted the diarrhea disease control program. 1st PRITECH had Ministry of Health staff train trainers which would eventually spread the information to the rural areas. This strategy was effective only for those people who did not live in remote areas. The same reasons for remote people being at high risk of disease also limited this strategy: isolation, lack of education, limited diets, lack of access to services, and limited fluency in Spanish. PRITECH hired a local consulting organization, CICLOPE, to develop a new strategy. CICLOPE limited its activities to the states of Hidalgo and Vera Cruz for 8 months. 1st CICLOPE staff provided proper diarrhea management training including emphasis on oral rehydration therapy (ORT) to rural health auxiliaries. They used a gourd painted to look like an infant with holes and other modifications to depict the workings and results of diarrheal dehydration. The staff then sent the auxiliaries to their own communities to use the gourd dolls to teach mothers about ORT and correct diarrhea management. The staff conducted follow-up activities to monitor the auxiliaries' progress. This training approach allowed the auxiliaries to realize the abilities of the mothers and their active role in learning. The auxiliaries conducted the training at markets where women living in remote areas came weekly. The local radio announced market day events in which the auxiliaries participated and aired dramas about diarrhea management. CICLOPE staff and the auxiliaries sat up a booth at these markets to promote proper diarrhea management. They used a flip chart, comic books, a lottery game, and entertainment to impart education messages. PMID:12285444

Spain, P

1992-01-01

157

Women and ESRD: modalities, survival, unique considerations.  

PubMed

Women currently constitute 44.3% of prevalent patients on hemodialysis and 47% of those on peritoneal dialysis. Women on dialysis do not experience the survival benefit seen in those not on dialysis. This loss of a survival advantage is partially related to a lower cardiovascular survival benefit along with a higher noncardiovascular mortality rate compared with their male counterparts. Of particular concern is the markedly higher mortality rates seen in women less than 45 years of age on dialysis. There are several female hormonal abnormalities in the female dialysis patient that can result in menstrual irregularities, anovulation, infertility, sexual dysfunction, early menopause, accelerated bone loss, and potentially increased risk of cardiovascular complications. Although fertility is impaired in dialysis, conception occurs in 1% to 7% of women of childbearing years on dialysis. Hence, all women with a potential for pregnancy should be counseled regarding the risks of pregnancy and contraceptive options. There are specific gynecologic considerations unique to peritoneal dialysis, including hemoperitoneum, decreased fertility, and uterine prolapse. Sexual dysfunction is commonly seen in the female dialysis population and is associated with depression and a lower quality of life; however, despite the high prevalence, it is generally not assessed nor is it treated. Depression is also common in the female dialysis population. Like sexual dysfunction, depression is underdiagnosed and undertreated in this population. PMID:23978546

Guglielmi, Kelly E

2013-09-01

158

Biomechanics of the unique pterosaur pteroid.  

PubMed

Pterosaurs, flying reptiles from the Mesozoic, had wing membranes that were supported by their arm bones and a super-elongate fourth finger. Associated with the wing, pterosaurs also possessed a unique wrist bone--the pteroid--that functioned to support the forward part of the membrane in front of the leading edge, the propatagium. Pteroid shape varies across pterosaurs and reconstructions of its orientation vary (projecting anteriorly to the wing leading edge or medially, lying alongside it) and imply differences in the way that pterosaurs controlled their wings. Here we show, using biomechanical analysis and considerations of aerodynamic efficiency of a representative ornithocheirid pterosaur, that an anteriorly orientated pteroid is highly unlikely. Unless these pterosaurs only flew steadily and had very low body masses, their pteroids would have been likely to break if orientated anteriorly; the degree of movement required for a forward orientation would have introduced extreme membrane strains and required impractical tensioning in the propatagium membrane. This result can be generalized for other pterodactyloid pterosaurs because the resultant geometry of an anteriorly orientated pteroid would have reduced the aerodynamic performance of all wings and required the same impractical properties in the propatagium membrane. We demonstrate quantitatively that the more traditional reconstruction of a medially orientated pteroid was much more stable both structurally and aerodynamically, reflecting likely life position. PMID:20007183

Palmer, Colin; Dyke, Gareth J

2009-12-09

159

Unique Ganglioside Recognition Strategies for Clostridial Neurotoxins  

SciTech Connect

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and tetanus neurotoxin are the causative agents of the paralytic diseases botulism and tetanus, respectively. The potency of the clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs) relies primarily on their highly specific binding to nerve terminals and cleavage of SNARE proteins. Although individual CNTs utilize distinct proteins for entry, they share common ganglioside co-receptors. Here, we report the crystal structure of the BoNT/F receptor-binding domain in complex with the sugar moiety of ganglioside GD1a. GD1a binds in a shallow groove formed by the conserved peptide motif E ... H ... SXWY ... G, with additional stabilizing interactions provided by two arginine residues. Comparative analysis of BoNT/F with other CNTs revealed several differences in the interactions of each toxin with ganglioside. Notably, exchange of BoNT/F His-1241 with the corresponding lysine residue of BoNT/E resulted in increased affinity for GD1a and conferred the ability to bind ganglioside GM1a. Conversely, BoNT/E was not able to bind GM1a, demonstrating a discrete mechanism of ganglioside recognition. These findings provide a structural basis for ganglioside binding among the CNTs and show that individual toxins utilize unique ganglioside recognition strategies.

Benson, Marc A.; Fu, Zhuji; Kim, Jung-Ja P.; Baldwin, Michael R. (MCW); (UMC)

2012-03-15

160

Are lampbrush chromosomes unique to meiotic cells?  

PubMed

Lampbrush chromosomes (LBCs) are transcriptionally active chromosomes found in the germinal vesicle (GV) of large oocytes of many vertebrate and invertebrate animals and also in the giant single-celled alga Acetabularia. These cells are all in prophase of the first meiotic division. Nevertheless, many meiotic cells do not develop LBCs, arguing that LBCs are not an essential feature of meiosis. LBCs probably represent the most active transcriptional state that can be attained by cells that must give rise to diploid progeny. Polyploidy permits cells to reach higher rates of transcription per nucleus but precludes a return to diploidy. In this sense, LBCs represent a relatively inefficient transcriptional compromise employed by large meiotic cells. These considerations help to explain why transcriptionally active GVs develop LBCs, but they do not explain why LBCs have never been seen in somatic cells, diploid or otherwise. If LBCs are truly limited to germ cells, then some of their unusual features may reflect reprogramming of the genome. If this is the case, LBCs provide unique opportunities to study reprogramming at the level of the individual transcription unit. PMID:23263880

Gall, Joseph G

2012-12-01

161

Unique features in the ARIES glovebox line  

SciTech Connect

A series of unique features have been incorporated into the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, TA-55 Plutonium Facility. The features enhance the material handling in the process of the dismantlement of nuclear weapon primaries in the glovebox line. Incorporated into these features are the various plutonium process module`s different ventilation zone requirements that the material handling systems must meet. These features include a conveyor system that consists of a remotely controlled cart that transverses the length of the conveyor glovebox, can be operated from a remote location and can deliver process components to the entrance of any selected module glovebox. Within the modules there exists linear motion material handling systems with lifting hoist, which are controlled via an Allen Bradley control panel or local control panels. To remove the packaged products from the hot process line, the package is processed through an air lock/electrolytic decontamination process that removes the radioactive contamination from the outside of the package container and allows the package to be removed from the process line.

Martinez, H.E.; Brown, W.G.; Flamm, B.; James, C.A.; Laskie, R.; Nelson, T.O.; Wedman, D.E.

1998-12-31

162

The nuclear microprobe: A unique instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several features characterising high-energy ion interactions with matter which enables techniques which utilise the high-energy ion beam to have unique or advantageous characteristics. (i) The lack of primary particle bremsstrahlung enables Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) to be carried out with very little X-ray background, and therefore correspondingly high analytical sensitivity. (ii) The ion beam can penetrate many microns beneath the surface of the specimen with relatively little scattering, and therefore information on structures beneath the surface can be investigated at relatively high spatial resolution. (iii) The ion beam has a well defined depth in the sample, the depth depending on its energy, and this allows more complex three-dimensional structures of better depth definition to be micromachined compared with its X-ray counterpart LIGA. Illustrating these three important features are descriptions of recent work carried out on the elemental analysis of single cells, determination of the annealing efficiency of phosphorous implanted diamond, multi-layer integrated circuit fault finding, and proton micromachining of high aspect ratio structures.

Watt, F.

1997-07-01

163

Unique Ganglioside Recognition Strategies for Clostridial Neurotoxins*  

PubMed Central

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and tetanus neurotoxin are the causative agents of the paralytic diseases botulism and tetanus, respectively. The potency of the clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs) relies primarily on their highly specific binding to nerve terminals and cleavage of SNARE proteins. Although individual CNTs utilize distinct proteins for entry, they share common ganglioside co-receptors. Here, we report the crystal structure of the BoNT/F receptor-binding domain in complex with the sugar moiety of ganglioside GD1a. GD1a binds in a shallow groove formed by the conserved peptide motif E … H … SXWY … G, with additional stabilizing interactions provided by two arginine residues. Comparative analysis of BoNT/F with other CNTs revealed several differences in the interactions of each toxin with ganglioside. Notably, exchange of BoNT/F His-1241 with the corresponding lysine residue of BoNT/E resulted in increased affinity for GD1a and conferred the ability to bind ganglioside GM1a. Conversely, BoNT/E was not able to bind GM1a, demonstrating a discrete mechanism of ganglioside recognition. These findings provide a structural basis for ganglioside binding among the CNTs and show that individual toxins utilize unique ganglioside recognition strategies.

Benson, Marc A.; Fu, Zhuji; Kim, Jung-Ja P.; Baldwin, Michael R.

2011-01-01

164

Unique Properties of Reversibly Associating Polymer Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reversibly associating functional groups offer the polymer physicist with a new tool to develop stimuli-responsive polymers. Our focus has been to attach reversibly associating groups onto rubbery network polymers. Free radical copolymerization was used to synthesize a series of crosslinked poly(n-butylacrylate)s containing quadruple H-bonding ureidopyrimidinone (UPy) side-groups. Resulting elastomeric networks contain both covalent and dynamic non-covalent crosslinks, and this unique architecture is shown to affect viscoelastic behavior and mass-transport properties. Shape-memory effects are studied quantitatively using thermomechanical techniques. Experiments show how reversible interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, are capable of stabilizing mechanically strained states. Unlike conventional shape-memory polymers, these dynamic networks lack a well-defined shape recovery temperature. Instead, their shape recovery rate depends on temperature. To further study the dynamics and temperature dependence of mechanical relaxation, isothermal creep experiments and dynamic mechanical analysis were performed. Creep data, acquired at several different temperatures, are fit to a simple viscoelastic model. Fit viscosities exhibit Arrhenius-like temperature dependence with activation energies of ˜90 kJ/mol, which is in rough agreement with H-bond dissociation barriers. Molecular transport through dynamic networks is studied using gravimetric sorption and dye-diffusion techniques. Diffusion depends on temperature, network architecture, solute size, and the interaction between the solute and the network. Membranes with high temperature-sensitive diffusion properties may be useful in applications such as transdermal drug delivery, microfluidics, or liquid chemical separation processes.

Anthamatten, Mitchell

2008-03-01

165

Biomechanics of the unique pterosaur pteroid  

PubMed Central

Pterosaurs, flying reptiles from the Mesozoic, had wing membranes that were supported by their arm bones and a super-elongate fourth finger. Associated with the wing, pterosaurs also possessed a unique wrist bone—the pteroid—that functioned to support the forward part of the membrane in front of the leading edge, the propatagium. Pteroid shape varies across pterosaurs and reconstructions of its orientation vary (projecting anteriorly to the wing leading edge or medially, lying alongside it) and imply differences in the way that pterosaurs controlled their wings. Here we show, using biomechanical analysis and considerations of aerodynamic efficiency of a representative ornithocheirid pterosaur, that an anteriorly orientated pteroid is highly unlikely. Unless these pterosaurs only flew steadily and had very low body masses, their pteroids would have been likely to break if orientated anteriorly; the degree of movement required for a forward orientation would have introduced extreme membrane strains and required impractical tensioning in the propatagium membrane. This result can be generalized for other pterodactyloid pterosaurs because the resultant geometry of an anteriorly orientated pteroid would have reduced the aerodynamic performance of all wings and required the same impractical properties in the propatagium membrane. We demonstrate quantitatively that the more traditional reconstruction of a medially orientated pteroid was much more stable both structurally and aerodynamically, reflecting likely life position.

Palmer, Colin; Dyke, Gareth J.

2010-01-01

166

Evidence for the uniqueness of eidetic imagery.  

PubMed

This research examined the performance of eidetic subjects, classified by the standard self-report criteria, on a set of objective and subjective measures. Eidetic subjects were statistically superior to controls on an 'accuracy of report' test and a superimposition task, but these differences were not so large as to provide compelling evidence for the uniqueness of eidetic imagery. Further experiments investigated the effects of stimulus manipulations--type of interference and level of illumination--on, respectively, visual retention and duration of phenomenal image. The pattern of effects differed markedly between eidetic subjects and a control group matched on a measure of capacity for visual memory. These findings provide converging evidence for a qualitative distinction between eidetic imagery and visual memory that does not rely on differences in storage capacity. Eidetic imagery appears to be a long-lasting, percept-like experience which varies considerably in clarity and definition; its duration is critically dependent on level of illumination and its contents are easily disrupted by after-coming visual stimuli. PMID:7167317

Miller, S; Peacock, R

1982-12-01

167

Ion beam modification of glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a review of the effects induced by ion implantation in silica glass and in SiO2 films on silicon with particular emphasis on optical modifications and new compound formation. The formation of silicon oxynitrides and nitrogen oxides in surface layers as a consequence of nitrogen implantation was investigated by using different techniques as XPS, SIMS, and optical methods.

Paolo Mazzoldi; Alberto Carnera; F. Caccavale; G. Granozzi; R. Bertoncello; Giancarlo Battaglin; A. Boscolo-Boscoletto; P. Polato

1991-01-01

168

Problem solving and behavior modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selectively reviewed problem-solving theory and research for possible applications in behavior modification. Problem solving was defined as a behavioral process which (a) makes available a variety of response alternatives for dealing with a problematic situation, and (b) increases the probability of selecting the most effective response from among these alternatives. 5 stages of problem solving were identified: (a) general orientation

Thomas J. DZurilla; Marvin R. Goldfried

1971-01-01

169

Epigenetic modifications and human disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epigenetics is one of the most rapidly expanding fields in biology. The recent characterization of a human DNA methylome at single nucleotide resolution, the discovery of the CpG island shores, the finding of new histone variants and modifications, and the unveiling of genome-wide nucleosome positioning maps highlight the accelerating speed of discovery over the past two years. Increasing interest in

Anna Portela; Manel Esteller

2010-01-01

170

Systems modification in obstetric analgesia.  

PubMed

The need is identified of certain women in labour for a more potent analgesic than entonox. We describe a modification of the Entonox demand system incorporating an Oxford Miniature Vaporizer and there is a discussion directed towards its supervision. PMID:6703274

Levack, I D; Tunstall, M E

1984-02-01

171

Zeolite modification II - direct fluorination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past thirty years, zeolite science has grown into a major branch of chemistry. A large number of new zeolite materials have been made by both direct hydrothermal synthesis and by post-synthesis modification. This has led to a large number of new applications in such diverse fields as catalysis, adsorption and ion exchange. In synthesis alone, over one hundred

B. M. Lok; F. P. Gortsena; P. J. Izod; C. A. Messina; H. Rastelli

1982-01-01

172

Demonstrating Allotropic Modifications of Sulfur.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Shows how a common demonstration that consists of slowly heating sulfur powder in a test tube to illustrate sulfur's allotropic modifications can convince students of conclusions about the moon Io which they often find surprising. Describes the demonstration in full. (Author/MM)|

McCarty, Jillian L.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

2002-01-01

173

Behavior Modification in Marriage Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The spouses were counseled jointly with a cognitive approach and separately with behavior modification techniques for the husband's obesity and the wife's lack of affective verbalization. After eight weeks, the husband had lost thirty pounds and the wife's affective language had increased markedly. (Author)|

Baird, Emily; Redfering, David L.

1975-01-01

174

Selective Modification of Glutathione Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione, a tripeptide thiol found in virtually all cells, functions in metabolism, transport, and cellular protection. It participates in the reduction of disulfides and other molecules, and conjugates with compounds of exogenous and endogenous origin. It protects cells against the destructive effects of reactive oxygen intermediates and free radicals. Modifications of glutathione metabolism may be achieved by administration of selective

Alton Meister

1983-01-01

175

Behaviour modification in hyperactive children.  

PubMed

Behaviour problems in pre-school children can be significantly improved by professionals experienced in child behaviour modification techniques. Reported disobedience, temper tantrums and poor concentration in hyperactive children aged three to three-and-a-half years improved significantly in a treatment group, following eight home visits by research health visitors working in a child and family guidance service. PMID:9418516

Weeks, A; Laver-Bradbury, C

176

Carbohydrate post-glycosylational modifications  

PubMed Central

Carbohydrate modification is a common phenomenon in nature. Many carbohydrate modifications such as some epimerization, O-acetylation, O-sulfation, O-methylation, N-deacetylation, and N-sulfation, take place after the formation of oligosaccharide or polysaccharide backbones. These modifications can be categorized as carbohydrate post-glycosylational modifications (PGMs). Carbohydrate PGMs further extend the complexity of the structures and the synthesis of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. They also increase the capacity of the biological information that can be controlled by finely tuning the structures of carbohydrates. Developing efficient methods to obtain structurally defined naturally occurring oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycoconjugates with carbohydrate PGMs is essential for understanding the biological significance of carbohydrate PGMs. Combine with high-throughput screening methods, synthetic carbohydrates with PGMs are invaluable probes in structure-activity relationship studies. We illustrate here several classes of carbohydrates with PGMs and their applications. Recent progress in chemical, enzymatic, and chemoenzymatic syntheses of these carbohydrates and their derivatives are also presented.

Yu, Hai; Chen, Xi

2008-01-01

177

Altered histone modifications in cancer.  

PubMed

In human health and disease the choreographed actions of a wide armory of transcription factors govern the regulated expression of coding and nonprotein coding genes. These actions are central to human health and are evidently aberrant in cancer. Central components of regulated gene expression are a variety of epigenetic mechanisms that include histone modifications. The post-translational modifications of histones are widespread and diverse, and appear to be spatial--temporally regulated in a highly intricate manner. The true functional consequences of these patterns of regulation are still emerging. Correlative evidence supports the idea that these patterns are distorted in malignancy on both a genome-wide and a discrete gene loci level. These patterns of distortion also often reflect the altered expression of the enzymes that control these histone states. Similarly gene expression patterns also appear to reflect a correlation with altered histone modifications at both the candidate loci and genome-wide level. Clarity is emerging in resolving these relationships between histone modification status and gene expression -patterns. For example, altered transcription factor interactions with the key co-activator and co-repressors, which in turn marshal many of the histone-modifying enzymes, may distort regulation of histone modifications at specific gene loci. In turn these aberrant transcriptional processes can trigger other altered epigenetic events such as DNA methylation and underline the aberrant and specific gene expression patterns in cancer. Considered in this manner, altered expression and recruitment of histone-modifying enzymes may underline the distortion to transcriptional responsiveness observed in malignancy. Insight from understanding these processes addresses the challenge of targeted epigenetic therapies in cancer. PMID:22956497

Campbell, Moray J; Turner, Bryan M

2013-01-01

178

LinkNMF: identification of histone modification modules in the human genome using nonnegative matrix factorization.  

PubMed

Histone modifications are ubiquitous processes involved in various cellular mechanisms. Systemic analysis of multiple chromatin modifications has been used to characterize various chromatin states associated with functional DNA elements, gene expression, and specific biological functions. However, identification of modular modification patterns is still required to understand the functional associations between histone modification patterns and specific chromatin/DNA binding factors. To recognize modular modification patterns, we developed a novel algorithm that combines nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) and a clique-detection algorithm. We applied it, called LinkNMF, to generate a comprehensive modification map in human CD4+ T cell promoter regions. Initially, we identified 11 modules not recognized by conventional approaches. The modules were grouped into two major classes: gene activation and repression. We found that genes targeted by each module were enriched with distinguishable biological functions, suggesting that each modular pattern plays a unique functional role. To explain the formation of modular patterns, we investigated the module-specific binding patterns of chromatin regulators. Application of LinkNMF to histone modification maps of diverse cells and developmental stages will be helpful for understanding how histone modifications regulate gene expression. The algorithm is available on our website at biodb.kaist.ac.kr/LinkNMF. PMID:23266811

Jung, Inkyung; Kim, Dongsup

2012-12-22

179

Evolution of a Unique Systems Engineering Capability  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a science-based, applied engineering laboratory dedicated to supporting U.S. Department of Energy missions in nuclear and energy research, science, and national security. The INL’s Systems Engineering organization supports all of the various programs under this wide array of missions. As with any multifaceted organization, strategic planning is essential to establishing a consistent culture and a value discipline throughout all levels of the enterprise. While an organization can pursue operational excellence, product leadership or customer intimacy, it is extremely difficult to excel or achieve best-in-class at all three. In fact, trying to do so has resulted in the demise of a number of organizations given the very intricate balancing act that is necessary. The INL’s Systems Engineering Department has chosen to focus on customer intimacy where the customer’s needs are first and foremost and a more total solution is the goal. Frequently a total solution requires the employment of specialized tools to manage system complexity. However, it is only after understanding customer needs that tool selection and use would be pursued. This results in using both commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) tools and, in some cases, requires internal development of specialized tools. This paper describes how a unique systems engineering capability, through the development of customized tools, evolved as a result of this customer-focused culture. It also addresses the need for a common information model or analysis framework and presents an overview of the tools developed to manage and display relationships between entities, support trade studies through the application of utility theory, and facilitate the development of a technology roadmap to manage system risk and uncertainty.

Robert M. Caliva; James A. Murphy; Kyle B. Oswald

2011-06-01

180

Unique aspects of lysine nutrition and metabolism.  

PubMed

Lysine nutrition is unique among indispensable amino acids in that it can be conserved and can be fed 12 h out of phase (delayed supplement) with the other dietary amino acids. In piglets, high levels (2-6%) of L-lysine added to a 10% protein diet can be tolerated without obvious detrimental effects. In both rat and piglet liver preparations, the first enzyme in the saccharopine-dependent pathway of lysine catabolism, lysine alpha-ketoglutarate reductase (LKR), is found only in the mitochondrial matrix. For Lys catabolism to occur, Lys must first enter the matrix of the mitochondrion. LKR, saccharopine dehydrogenase, mitochondrial lysine uptake, and lysine oxidation (LOX) all increased>3-fold in rats fed high levels of dietary protein (up to 60%). The activities of mitochondrial Lys uptake and LOX were similar when expressed as mmol/(d.100 g body weight). Thus, LOX can be a proxy for mitochondrial Lys uptake. Piglet liver LKR and LOX increase 5- to 10-fold when piglets are fed high-protein (50 or 75%) diets. In both the rat and piglet, after adapting to the high protein diet, the activity of LKR is 400-500 times that of LOX, suggesting that Lys uptake by a transporter(s) is rate limiting. Quantitative 24-h dietary infusion studies in piglets revealed that>80% of the Lys infused (4% of the diet) could not be recovered in the urine or body or accounted for by calculated Lys oxidation based on liver activity of LOX. Other pathways and tissues may account for the Lys oxidation in piglets. PMID:17513436

Benevenga, Norlin J; Blemings, Kenneth P

2007-06-01

181

Some unique superconductive Properties of Cuprates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper oxides are the only materials that show transition temperatures, Tc, above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen, with a maximum Tmc of 162 K under pressure. Their structure is layered, with one to several CuO2 planes, and upon hole doping, their transition temperature follows a dome-shaped curve with a maximum at Tmc. In the underdoped regime, i.e., below Tmc, a pseudogap T* is found, with T* always being larger than Tc, a property unique to the copper oxides [1]. In the superconducting state, Cooper pairs (two holes with antiparallel spins) are formed that exhibit coherence lengths on the order of a lattice distance in the CuO2 plane and one order of magnitude less perpendicular to it. Their macroscopic wave function is parallel to the CuO2 plane near 100% d at their surface, but only 75% d and 25 % s in the bulk, and near 100% s perpendicular to the plane in YBCO. There are two gaps with the same Tc [2]. As function of doping, the oxygen isotope effect is novel and can be quantitatively accounted for by a two-band vibronic theory [3] near Tmc, and underdoped below it till Tc = 0 with by a formula valid for (bi)polarons [4]. These cuprates are intrinsically heterogeneous in a dynamic way. In terms of quasiparticles, Jahn-Teller bipolarons are present at low doping, and aggregate upon cooling [1], so that probably ramified clusters and/or stripes are formed, leading over to a more Fermi-liquid-type behavior at large carrier concentrations above Tmc.

Müller, K. A.

2013-04-01

182

Existence and Uniqueness of Nonoptimal Equilibria and Dynamic Stochastic Economies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The question of the existence and uniqueness of a stationary equilibrium for distorted versions of the standard neoclassical growth model is addressed in this paper. The conditions presented guaranteeing the existence and uniqueness of nontrivial equilibr...

J. Greenwood G. W. Huffman

1992-01-01

183

Comprehensive analysis of protein modifications by top-down mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is playing an increasingly important role in cardiovascular research. Proteomics includes identification and quantification of proteins and the characterization of protein modifications, such as posttranslational modifications and sequence variants. The conventional bottom-up approach, involving proteolytic digestion of proteins into small peptides before MS analysis, is routinely used for protein identification and quantification with high throughput and automation. Nevertheless, it has limitations in the analysis of protein modifications, mainly because of the partial sequence coverage and loss of connections among modifications on disparate portions of a protein. An alternative approach, top-down MS, has emerged as a powerful tool for the analysis of protein modifications. The top-down approach analyzes whole proteins directly, providing a "bird's-eye" view of all existing modifications. Subsequently, each modified protein form can be isolated and fragmented in the mass spectrometer to locate the modification site. The incorporation of the nonergodic dissociation methods, such as electron-capture dissociation (ECD), greatly enhances the top-down capabilities. ECD is especially useful for mapping labile posttranslational modifications that are well preserved during the ECD fragmentation process. Top-down MS with ECD has been successfully applied to cardiovascular research, with the unique advantages in unraveling the molecular complexity, quantifying modified protein forms, complete mapping of modifications with full-sequence coverage, discovering unexpected modifications, identifying and quantifying positional isomers, and determining the order of multiple modifications. Nevertheless, top-down MS still needs to overcome some technical challenges to realize its full potential. Herein, we reviewed the advantages and challenges of the top-down method, with a focus on its application in cardiovascular research. PMID:22187450

Zhang, Han; Ge, Ying

2011-12-01

184

Reconsidering Unique Invulnerability in the Context of Sexual Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unique invulnerability has been defined as the perception that one is less vulnerable than the average person to negative events. This study examined positive outcomes of risky behaviors with respect to unique invulnerability, taking into consideration an individual's knowledge and experience of a given risk. If the phenomenon is truly one of unique invulnerability, then we would predict either no

Angela F. Dew; Tracy B. Henley

1999-01-01

185

Deviance or uniqueness, harmony or conformity? A cultural analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uniqueness has positive connotations of freedom and independence in American culture, whereas conformity has positive connotations of connectedness and harmony in East Asian culture. The present research examined how these cultural values and individual preferences for uniqueness and conformity influence each other. In Studies 1 and 2, East Asian and European American preferences for uniqueness were measured using abstract figures.

Heejung Kim; Hazel Rose Markus

1999-01-01

186

Dramatic colour changes in a bird of paradise caused by uniquely structured breast feather barbules.  

PubMed

The breast-plate plumage of male Lawes' parotia (Parotia lawesii) produces dramatic colour changes when this bird of paradise displays on its forest-floor lek. We show that this effect is achieved not solely by the iridescence--that is an angular-dependent spectral shift of the reflected light--which is inherent in structural coloration, but is based on a unique anatomical modification of the breast-feather barbule. The barbules have a segmental structure, and in common with many other iridescent feathers, they contain stacked melanin rodlets surrounded by a keratin film. The unique property of the parotia barbules is their boomerang-like cross section. This allows each barbule to work as three coloured mirrors: a yellow-orange reflector in the plane of the feather, and two symmetrically positioned bluish reflectors at respective angles of about 30°. Movement during the parotia's courtship displays thereby achieves much larger and more abrupt colour changes than is possible with ordinary iridescent plumage. To our knowledge, this is the first example of multiple thin film or multi-layer reflectors incorporated in a single structure (engineered or biological). It nicely illustrates how subtle modification of the basic feather structure can achieve novel visual effects. The fact that the parotia's breast feathers seem to be specifically adapted to give much stronger colour changes than normal structural coloration implies that colour change is important in their courtship display. PMID:21159676

Stavenga, Doekele G; Leertouwer, Hein L; Marshall, N Justin; Osorio, Daniel

2010-12-15

187

Dramatic colour changes in a bird of paradise caused by uniquely structured breast feather barbules  

PubMed Central

The breast-plate plumage of male Lawes' parotia (Parotia lawesii) produces dramatic colour changes when this bird of paradise displays on its forest-floor lek. We show that this effect is achieved not solely by the iridescence—that is an angular-dependent spectral shift of the reflected light—which is inherent in structural coloration, but is based on a unique anatomical modification of the breast-feather barbule. The barbules have a segmental structure, and in common with many other iridescent feathers, they contain stacked melanin rodlets surrounded by a keratin film. The unique property of the parotia barbules is their boomerang-like cross section. This allows each barbule to work as three coloured mirrors: a yellow-orange reflector in the plane of the feather, and two symmetrically positioned bluish reflectors at respective angles of about 30°. Movement during the parotia's courtship displays thereby achieves much larger and more abrupt colour changes than is possible with ordinary iridescent plumage. To our knowledge, this is the first example of multiple thin film or multi-layer reflectors incorporated in a single structure (engineered or biological). It nicely illustrates how subtle modification of the basic feather structure can achieve novel visual effects. The fact that the parotia's breast feathers seem to be specifically adapted to give much stronger colour changes than normal structural coloration implies that colour change is important in their courtship display.

Stavenga, Doekele G.; Leertouwer, Hein L.; Marshall, N. Justin; Osorio, Daniel

2011-01-01

188

modifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA is truly associated with acetylated histones in vivo .B ecause the nonspecific rabbit IgGs did not pull down significant amounts of DNA, we did not further analyze it by GMAT. Using histones from wild-type S. cerevisiae as well as from yeast with a GCN5 deletion, we generated four GMAT libraries from the ChIP DNA with the antibodies against diacetylated

Ta e-young Roh; W ing Chi Ngau; K airong Cui; D avid Landsman; Keji Zhao

189

Thiol dioxygenases: unique families of cupin proteins.  

PubMed

Proteins in the cupin superfamily have a wide range of biological functions in archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes. Although proteins in the cupin superfamily show very low overall sequence similarity, they all contain two short but partially conserved cupin sequence motifs separated by a less conserved intermotif region that varies both in length and amino acid sequence. Furthermore, these proteins all share a common architecture described as a six-stranded ?-barrel core, and this canonical cupin or "jelly roll" ?-barrel is formed with cupin motif 1, the intermotif region, and cupin motif 2 each forming two of the core six ?-strands in the folded protein structure. The recently obtained crystal structures of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), with contains conserved cupin motifs, show that it has the predicted canonical cupin ?-barrel fold. Although there had been no reports of CDO activity in prokaryotes, we identified a number of bacterial cupin proteins of unknown function that share low similarity with mammalian CDO and that conserve many residues in the active-site pocket of CDO. Putative bacterial CDOs predicted to have CDO activity were shown to have similar substrate specificity and kinetic parameters as eukaryotic CDOs. Information gleaned from crystal structures of mammalian CDO along with sequence information for homologs shown to have CDO activity facilitated the identification of a CDO family fingerprint motif. One key feature of the CDO fingerprint motif is that the canonical metal-binding glutamate residue in cupin motif 1 is replaced by a cysteine (in mammalian CDOs) or by a glycine (bacterial CDOs). The recent report that some putative bacterial CDO homologs are actually 3-mercaptopropionate dioxygenases suggests that the CDO family may include proteins with specificities for other thiol substrates. A paralog of CDO in mammals was also identified and shown to be the other mammalian thiol dioxygenase, cysteamine dioxygenase (ADO). A tentative fingerprint motif for ADOs, or DUF1637 family members, is proposed. In ADOs, the conserved glutamate residue in cupin motif 1 is replaced by either glycine or valine. Both ADOs and CDOs appear to represent unique clades within the cupin superfamily. PMID:20195658

Stipanuk, Martha H; Simmons, Chad R; Karplus, P Andrew; Dominy, John E

2010-03-01

190

Characterizing the unique photochemical environment in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observational evidence suggests that the atmospheric chemical system over China could be more complex than expected, possibly as a result of the rapid increasing anthropogenic emissions. During the CAREBeijing-2007 Experiment in August of 2007, up to 14 ppbv of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN, CH3C(O)OONO2) and 4.5 ppbv of glyoxal (CHOCHO) were observed, among the highest levels observed in the world in recent years. Elevated nitrous acid (HNO2) (~1.0 ppbv on average) was also observed in the early afternoon despite of the moderate amount of its precursors, i.e. nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO + NO2). We employ a 1-D photochemical model (REAM) to analyze the observations. The results indicate that reactive aromatics are the dominating source of PAN (55%-75%) and glyoxal (90%), and methylglyoxal is the major precursor of peroxy acetyl radical (50%). Downward transport from boundary layer is found to contribute ~50% of the PAN observed at surface. Photolysis of HNO2 is by far the largest primary OH source (more than 50%) throughout the daytime, and yet the fast formation rate of HNO2 inferred from the observations could not be explained by current known mechanisms. Detailed photochemical analysis is conducted to understand the controlling factors for O3 formation. O3 formation chemistry is strongly affected by aromatics and HNO2. By providing a large primary OH source, HNO2 leads to ~25% enhancement of the average O3 production rate, and aromatics contribute ~40% by serving as a major source of RO2 and HO2 radicals. Due to the large abundance of reactive hydrocarbons, O3 formation is generally NOx limited, although the sensitivity is low that a 50% reduction of NOx could only result in less than 25% reduction of the O3 production rate. Future research targeting HNO2 formation mechanism and emission sources of aromatics is necessary for better understanding the unique photochemical environment in China under significant anthropogenic impacts and the regional pollution outflow.

Liu, Z.; Wang, Y.; Gu, D.; Zhao, C.; Huey, L. G.; Stickel, R.; Liao, J.

2010-12-01

191

HHMD: the human histone modification database  

PubMed Central

Histone modifications play important roles in chromatin remodeling, gene transcriptional regulation, stem cell maintenance and differentiation. Alterations in histone modifications may be linked to human diseases especially cancer. Histone modifications including methylation, acetylation and ubiquitylation probed by ChIP-seq, ChIP-chip and qChIP have become widely available. Mining and integration of histone modification data can be beneficial to novel biological discoveries. There has been no comprehensive data repository that is exclusive for human histone modifications. Therefore, we developed a relatively comprehensive database for human histone modifications. Human Histone Modification Database (HHMD, http://bioinfo.hrbmu.edu.cn/hhmd) focuses on the storage and integration of histone modification datasets that were obtained from laboratory experiments. The latest release of HHMD incorporates 43 location-specific histone modifications in human. To facilitate data extraction, flexible search options are built in HHMD. It can be searched by histone modification, gene ID, functional categories, chromosome location and cancer name. HHMD also includes a user-friendly visualization tool named HisModView, by which genome-wide histone modification map can be shown. HisModView facilitates the acquisition and visualization of histone modifications. The database also has manually curated information of histone modification dysregulation in nine human cancers.

Zhang, Yan; Lv, Jie; Liu, Hongbo; Zhu, Jiang; Su, Jianzhong; Wu, Qiong; Qi, Yunfeng; Wang, Fang; Li, Xia

2010-01-01

192

Chromatin modifications associated with diabetes.  

PubMed

Accelerated rates of vascular complications are associated with diabetes mellitus. Environmental factors including hyperglycaemia contribute to the progression of diabetic complications. Epidemiological and experimental animal studies identified poor glycaemic control as a major contributor to the development of complications. These studies suggest that early exposure to hyperglycaemia can instigate the development of complications that present later in the progression of the disease, despite improved glycaemic control. Recent experiments reveal a striking commonality associated with gene-activating hyperglycaemic events and chromatin modification. The best characterised to date are associated with the chemical changes of amino-terminal tails of histone H3. Enzymes that write specified histone tail modifications are not well understood in models of hyperglycaemia and metabolic memory as well as human diabetes. The best-characterised enzyme is the lysine specific Set7 methyltransferase. The contribution of Set7 to the aetiology of diabetic complications may extend to other transcriptional events through methylation of non-histone substrates. PMID:22639343

Keating, Samuel T; El-Osta, Assam

2012-05-26

193

Modification of chemotherapy by nitroimidazoles  

SciTech Connect

The potentiation of chemotherapeutic agents by radiation sensitizers has been extensively studied for several years. There is little doubt that the effectiveness of certain anti-cancer drugs, primarily alkylating agents, can readily be enhanced both in vitro and in vivo through the addition of a sensitizer. While enhanced effects have been observed in certain critical normal tissues, in general most animal model studies have demonstrated a therapeutic gain at large sensitizer doses. This approach to combination therapies therefore appears promising. Yet many questions concerning the interaction between chemotherapeutic agents and radiosensitizers, particularly in the aspects of modification of chemotherapy by nitroimidazoles are reviewed and discussed. These address the importance in chemopotentiation of (i) hypoxia, (ii) alterations in DNA damage and/or repair, (iii) depletion of intracellular sulfhydryls and (iv) modification of drug pharmacokinetics.

Siemann, D.W.

1984-09-01

194

Poly(lactic acid) modifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly(lactic acid) or polylactide (PLA) is the most extensively researched and utilized biodegradable and renewable thermoplastic polyester, with potential to replace conventional petrochemical-based polymers. In recent times, several PLA-based technologies have emerged with an emphasis on achieving chemical, mechanical, and biological properties equivalent or superior to conventional polymers. The frequent need for a chemical or physical modification of PLA to

Rahul M. Rasal; Amol V. Janorkar; Douglas E. Hirt

2010-01-01

195

Epigenetic modifications in rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

Over the last decades, genetic factors for rheumatoid diseases like the HLA haplotypes have been studied extensively. However, during the past years of research, it has become more and more evident that the influence of epigenetic processes on the development of rheumatic diseases is probably as strong as the genetic background of a patient. Epigenetic processes are heritable changes in gene expression without alteration of the nucleotide sequence. Such modifications include chromatin methylation and post-translational modification of histones or other chromatin-associated proteins. The latter comprise the addition of methyl, acetyl, and phosphoryl groups or even larger moieties such as binding of ubiquitin or small ubiquitin-like modifier. The combinatory nature of these processes forms a complex network of epigenetic modifications that regulate gene expression through activation or silencing of genes. This review provides insight into the role of epigenetic alterations in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and points out how a better understanding of such mechanisms may lead to novel therapeutic strategies.

Strietholt, Simon; Maurer, Britta; Peters, Marvin A; Pap, Thomas; Gay, Steffen

2008-01-01

196

Cross-regulation of histone modifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histones undergo several different post-translational modifications that control a variety of physiological processes. These covalent modifications show substantial cross-regulation, providing a wealth of regulatory potential. New insights into the communication between modifications on histones have emerged in recent years. This review assesses the current understanding of cross-regulation of histone modifications and identifies future questions to be addressed in this field.

John A Latham; Sharon Y R Dent

2007-01-01

197

HHMD: the human histone modification database  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histone modifications play important roles in chromatin remodeling, gene transcriptional regula- tion, stem cell maintenance and differentiation. Alterations in histone modifications may be linked to human diseases especially cancer. Histone modifications including methylation, acetylation and ubiquitylation probed by ChIP-seq, ChIP-chip and qChIP have become widely available. Mining and integration of histone modification data can be beneficial to novel biological discoveries.

Yan Zhang; Jie Lv; Hongbo Liu; Jiang Zhu; Jianzhong Su; Qiong Wu; Yunfeng Qi; Fang Wang; Xia Li

2010-01-01

198

Two Galaxies for a Unique Event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To celebrate the 100 Hours of Astronomy, ESO is sharing two stunning images of unusual galaxies, both belonging to the Sculptor group of galaxies. The images, obtained at two of ESO's observatories at La Silla and Paranal in Chile, illustrate the beauty of astronomy. ESO PR Photo 14a/09 Irregular Galaxy NGC 55 ESO PR Photo 14b/09 Spiral Galaxy NGC 7793 As part of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 Cornerstone project, 100 Hours of Astronomy, the ambitious "Around the World in 80 Telescopes" event is a unique live webcast over 24 hours, following night and day around the globe to some of the most advanced observatories on and off the planet. To provide a long-lasting memory of this amazing world tour, observatories worldwide are revealing wonderful, and previously unseen, astronomical images. For its part, ESO is releasing outstanding pictures of two galaxies, observed with telescopes at the La Silla and Paranal observatories. The first of these depicts the irregular galaxy NGC 55, a member of the prominent Sculptor group of galaxies in the southern constellation of Sculptor. The galaxy is about 70 000 light-years across, that is, a little bit smaller than our own Milky Way. NGC 55 actually resembles more our galactic neighbour, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), although the LMC is seen face-on, whilst NGC 55 is edge-on. By studying about 20 planetary nebulae in this image, a team of astronomers found that NGC 55 is located about 7.5 million light-years away. They also found that the galaxy might be forming a bound pair with the gorgeous spiral galaxy NGC 300 . Planetary nebulae are the final blooming of Sun-like stars before their retirement as white dwarfs. This striking image of NGC 55, obtained with the Wide Field Imager on the 2.2-metre MPG/ESO telescope at La Silla, is dusted with a flurry of reddish nebulae, created by young, hot massive stars. Some of the more extended ones are not unlike those seen in the LMC, such as the Tarantula Nebula. The quality of the image is clearly demonstrated by the remarkable number of background galaxies seen, as well as the huge numbers of individual stars that can be counted within NGC 55. The second image shows another galaxy belonging to the Sculptor group. This is NGC 7793, which has a chaotic spiral structure, unlike the class of grand-design spiral galaxies to which our Milky Way belongs. The image shows how difficult it is to identify any particular spiral arm in these chaotic structures, although it is possible to guess at a general rotating pattern. NGC 7793 is located slightly further away than NGC 55, about 12.5 million light-years from us, and is about half the size of NGC 55. NGC 7793 was observed with one of the workhorses of the ESO Paranal Observatory, the FORS instrument, attached to the Very Large Telescope.

2009-04-01

199

Uniqueness of solutions of elliptic equations and uniqueness of invariant measures of diffusions  

SciTech Connect

Let M be a complete connected Riemannian manifold of dimension d and let L be a second order elliptic operator on M that has a representation L=a{sup ij}{partial_derivative}{sub x{sub i}}{partial_derivative}{sub x{sub j}}+b{sup i}{partial_derivative}{sub x{sub i}} in local coordinates, where a{sup ij} element of H{sub loc}{sup p,1}, b{sup i} element of L{sub loc}{sup p} for some p>d, and the matrix (a{sup ij}) is non-singular. The aim of the paper is the study of the uniqueness of a solution of the elliptic equation L*{mu}=0 for probability measures {mu}, which is understood in the weak sense: {integral}L{phi}f d{mu}=0 for all {phi} element of C{sub 0}{sup {infinity}}(M). In addition, the uniqueness of invariant probability measures for the corresponding semigroups (T{sub t}{sup {mu}}){sub t{>=}}{sub 0} generated by the operator L is investigated. It is proved that if a probability measure {mu} on M satisfies the equation L*{mu}=0 and (L-I)C{sub o}{sup {infinity}}(M)) is dense in L{sup 1}(M,{mu}), then {mu} is a unique solution of this equation in the class of probability measures. Examples are presented (even with a{sup ij}={delta}{sup ij} and smooth b{sup i}) in which the equation L*{mu}=0 has more than one solution in the class of probability measures. Finally, it is shown that if p>d+2, then the semigroup (T{sub t}){sub t{>=}}{sub 0} generated by L has at most one invariant probability measure.

Bogachev, V I [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Rockner, M; Stannat, W [Universitat Bielefeld, Bielefeld (Germany)

2002-08-31

200

Impact of behavioral modifications for testability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral specification of a VLSI design can be used to suggest behavioral modifications that improve testability of the design. Past work has been targeted at identifying the techniques that will enable such modifications. However, the impact of such behavioral modifications on the testability of a design has not been analyzed with regards to fault coverage and area overhead which is

Thomas Thomas; P. Vishakantantaiah; Jacob A. Abraham

1994-01-01

201

Surface modification by plasma immersion ion processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los Alamos National Laboratory is actively researching a surface modification technique called plasma immersion ion processing (PIIP). PIIP is the latest innovation of the plasma source ion implantation (PSII) approach to surface modification. Like PSII, PIIP allows the modification of large areas and non-planar surface geometries, however PIIP is primarily a coating deposition technology rather than solely an ion implantation

Kevin C. Walter; D. H. Lee; X. M. He; N. P. Baker; Michael Nastasi; C. P. Munson; W. K. Scarborough; M. Tuszewski; B. P. Wood

1998-01-01

202

Regulation of Alternative Splicing by Histone Modifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA is a prominent mechanism to generate protein diversity, yet its regulation is poorly understood. We demonstrated a direct role for histone modifications in alternative splicing. We found distinctive histone modification signatures that correlate with the splicing outcome in a set of human genes, and modulation of histone modifications causes splice site switching. Histone marks affect splicing

Reini F. Luco; Qun Pan; Kaoru Tominaga; Benjamin J. Blencowe; Olivia M. Pereira-Smith; Tom Misteli

2010-01-01

203

Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

1985-09-01

204

Gold Nanoparticle Sensor for Homocysteine Thiolactone-Induced Protein Modification  

PubMed Central

Homocysteine thiolactone-induced protein modification (HTPM) is a unique post-translational protein modification that is recognized as an emergent biomarker for cardiovascular disease. HTPM involves the site-specific acylation of proteins at lysine residues by homocysteine thiolactone (HTL) to produce protein homocystamide, which has been found at elevated levels in patients with coronary heart disease. Herein, we report the development of a novel gold nanoparticle (GNP) biochemical sensor for detection of protein homocystamide in an in vitro serum protein-based model system. Human serum albumin (HSA) and human sera were subjected to HTPM in vitro to produce HSA-homocystamide or serum protein homocystamide, respectively, which was subsequently treated with citrate-capped GNPs. This GNP sensor typically provided instantaneous visual confirmation of HTPM in the protein model systems. Transmission electron microscopy images of the GNPs in the presence of HSA-homocystamide suggest that modification-directed nanoparticle assembly is the mechanism by which the biochemical sensor produces a colorimetric signal. The resultant nanoparticle-protein assembly exhibited excellent thermal and dilutional stability, which is expected for a system stabilized by chemisorption and intermolecular disulfide bonding. The sensor typically provided a linear response for modified human sera concentrations greater than ~5 mg/mL. The calculated limit of detection and calibration sensitivity for the method in human sera were 5.2 mg/mL and 13.6 AU · (?g/mL)?1, respectively.

Gates, Arther T.; Fakayode, Sayo O.; Lowry, Mark; Ganea, Gabriela M.; Murugeshu, Abitha; Robinson, James W.; Strongin, Robert M.; Warner, Isiah M.

2009-01-01

205

HOMOSEXUALITY : TREATMENT BY BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY We present here the treatment of thirteen homosexuals by behaviour modification techniques. With classical electrical aversion and positive conditioning 8(61%) out of thirteen patients showed a change in orientation lasting on a six-month 1 year follow up. A marriageable age and indirect social pressures were positively correlated with improvement whereas the presence of a steady homosexual partner and habitual passive anal intercourse indicated a poor response. The techniques, the assessments, the onset and course of improvement and complications arc discussed. Our results and techniques are compared with those of other workers.

Pradhan, P.V.; Ayyar, K.S.; Bagadia, V.N.

1982-01-01

206

Materials Modification in Nanotechnology: Oxidation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint created and presented by the Nanotechnology Applications and Career Knowledge (NACK) Center introduces students to oxidation. It goes over the various types of oxide â native, gate, field, etc. It discusses dry vs. wet oxidation, high pressure oxidation, chemical vapor deposition and has a section on modifying dielectric constant. This is a great resource for any classroom looking at nanofabrication modifications. This and all other valuable resources from the NACK Center require a fast, easy, free log-in.

2010-03-22

207

Maturation-related histone modifications in the PU.1 promoter regulate Th9-cell development.  

PubMed

Epigenetic histone modifications are thought to underlie the rapid memory immune response to recall antigen that develops after vaccination. However, histone-modification patterns in genes encoding transcription factors regulating cytokine production have not been investigated in either memory and naive T cells or as the immune system matures to understand the differences in cytokine response patterns. In the present study, we analyzed histone modifications in promoter regions of T-bet, GATA-3, PU.1, IRF4, and RORC in neonatal naive T cells and in adult naive and memory CD4 T cells, and found a unique and dynamic histone-modification pattern in the PU.1 promoter that was related to age and the naive/memory status of a T cell. Naive T cells required more intense stimulation to switch the chromatin pattern in the PU.1 promoter from a repressive to permissive state, and therefore to produce IL-9 than did memory T cells. Inhibition of repressive histone methylation by the specific inhibitor 3-deazaneplanocin induced Th9-specific PU.1 expression, even in conditions that would normally yield only Th0 cytokines. Conversely, prevention of histone acetylation by the histone acetyltransferase inhibitor curcumin diminished PU.1 expression after IL-9-inducing stimulation. Our findings identify age- and differentiation-status-related epigenetic modifications of PU.1 as a unique regulator of Th9 memory acquisition and Th9 immunity. PMID:22446486

Ramming, Andreas; Druzd, David; Leipe, Jan; Schulze-Koops, Hendrik; Skapenko, Alla

2012-03-23

208

Spontaneous allocation of visual attention: Dominant role of uniqueness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common sense suggests that unique or abruptly changing (transient) elements in a visual scene often draw attention involuntarily.\\u000a Visual search studies paint a seemingly different picture, however: Unique items usually draw attention involuntarily only\\u000a when observers seek a unique target. One type of transient— abrupt onsets—draws attention involuntarily, but only when the\\u000a observer is seeking an onset (Folk, Remington, &

Harold Pashler; Christine R. Harris

2001-01-01

209

Tattooing: An expression of uniqueness in the appearance domain.  

PubMed

The study aimed to explore the motivations underlying the practice of tattooing. There were 100 participants: 50 (30 men, 20 women) with tattoos, and a comparison group of 50 non-tattooed individuals. Participants completed measures of appearance investment, distinctive appearance investment, and need for uniqueness. It was found that tattooed individuals scored higher than the comparison group on need for uniqueness, but not on the appearance investment measures. Among the non-tattooed, need for uniqueness predicted future likelihood of getting a tattoo, and this relationship was mediated by distinctive appearance investment. These results support our conceptualization of tattooing as an expression of uniqueness in the appearance domain. PMID:18089234

Tiggemann, Marika; Golder, Fleur

2006-10-25

210

Ion Beam Modification of Materials  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials, IBMM 2004, and is published by Elsevier-Science Publishers as a special issue of Nuclear Instruments and Methods B. The conference series is the major international forum to present and discuss recent research results and future directions in the field of ion beam modification, synthesis and characterization of materials. The first conference in the series was held in Budapest, Hungary, 1978, and subsequent conferences were held every two years at locations around the Globe, most recently in Japan, Brazil, and the Netherlands. The series brings together physicists, materials scientists, and ion beam specialists from all over the world. The official conference language is English. IBMM 2004 was held on September 5-10, 2004. The focus was on materials science involving both basic ion-solid interaction processes and property changes occurring either during or subsequent to ion bombardment and ion beam processing in relation to materials and device applications. Areas of research included Nanostructures, Multiscale Modeling, Patterning of Surfaces, Focused Ion Beams, Defects in Semiconductors, Insulators and Metals, Cluster Beams, Radiation Effects in Materials, Photonic Devices, Ion Implantation, Ion Beams in Biology and Medicine including New Materials, Imaging, and Treatment.

Averback, B; de la Rubia, T D; Felter, T E; Hamza, A V; Rehn, L E

2005-10-10

211

Review of Rule Modification in Sport  

PubMed Central

The goal of this qualitative review was to analyze the state of the bibliography about rule modification in sport. In the literature reviewed, there are few studies of rule modification and related aspects. Most studies omit mentioning the purpose of the modifications, but they do refer to the goals of their analysis (improving players' performance, attracting spectators and athletes, attending to commercial pressure, adapting the sport to children’s needs and interests, preventing injuries). Eighty percent of the studies did not report the outcome of the previous modifications they analyzed. More than half of the studies (60%) achieved the proposed goals. Nearly two-thirds (63.83%) analyzed the effect of rule modification on game actions occurring during the game or through a test. Most of the studies (91.5%) did not consult the participants. Three-fourths of the studies (74.46%) examined the effect of rule modification without any knowledge of a previous analysis or without any previous analysis, and 74.47% studied rule modification related to internal logic. Modifications to be introduced in a sport should be analyzed through a reflective process before their final introduction. The following points should be considered: establishing goals, respecting the basic rules without modifying them, becoming familiar with players’ and coaches’ opinions, determining the effect of the modification on a wide spectrum of variables, elaborating useful proposals for the organizations that are responsible for competitions, using more than one type of data, modifying the internal logic and, preferably, the functional rules, and following some basic stages to consolidate rule modification. Key points Rule modification involves processes that seek change in the game conditions with a certain goal in mind. The rules related to internal logic model the game actions that are characteristic of a sport. Functional rules facilitate achieving the goals. There are few valid research studies on which to base the modifications. Modifications in a sport should be validated after a reflective process before they are introduced.

Arias, Jose L.; Argudo, Francisco M.; Alonso, Jose I.

2011-01-01

212

Unique continuation of solutions of differential equations with weighted derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper contains a generalization of Calderon's theorem on the local uniqueness of the solutions of the Cauchy problem for differential equations with weighted derivatives. Anisotropic estimates of Carleman type are obtained. A class of differential equations with weighted derivatives is distinguished in which germs of solutions have unique continuation with respect to part of the variables.

Shananin, N. A.

2000-04-01

213

Unique continuation of solutions of differential equations with weighted derivatives  

SciTech Connect

The paper contains a generalization of Calderon's theorem on the local uniqueness of the solutions of the Cauchy problem for differential equations with weighted derivatives. Anisotropic estimates of Carleman type are obtained. A class of differential equations with weighted derivatives is distinguished in which germs of solutions have unique continuation with respect to part of the variables.

Shananin, N A [Peoples Friendship University of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2000-04-30

214

Information and Knowledge: Austrian Economics in Search of its Uniqueness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Austrian School of Economics since WWII has increasingly claimed a unique position within the scientific community of economists. This paper argues that the most persuasive way to make this claim to uniqueness is to focus on the distinction scholars in the Austrian tradition place between information and knowledge in their work. In other words, it is the epistemic-cognitive turn

Peter J. Boettke; James M. Buchanan

2002-01-01

215

Possible Uniqueness of Rational Life in the Universe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Arguments for and against the uniqueness, or virtual uniqueness of rational life in the universe are weighed. Contrary to popular belief, over most of the past 15 centuries the multiplicity of rational worlds was widely accepted in the West. The likelihoo...

I. S. Shklovskiy

1977-01-01

216

The uniqueness problem in starspot models; a critical review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the scope of the uniqueness problem, the scientific credibility of the starspot hypothesis is examined. According to the two analyzing criticisms in this study (general and specific approaches), the starspot hypothesis is a consistent physical problem. That is, there is no uniqueness problem which discredits the starspot hypothesis. Confusions among the different meanings of the word "uniqueness" act as a prime source of the ambiguities. Nevertheless, the empirical evidences implying non-uniqueness of spot solutions, such as indeterminacy of spot latitudes, and therefore latitude fixing, and dissimilar solutions of models, are actually caused by insufficient accuracy of observational data not because of an intrinsic problem of uniqueness. Therefore, the starspot hypothesis must be attributed at least the same level credibility as the other light curve analyzing techniques of eclipsing binaries or cepheids since non-uniqueness because of observational data with limited accuracy is also a problem for them. Studies proving unique spot effects on the light curves and on the line profiles are reviewed. Confusing comments and misleading statements about the uniqueness problem in some leading literature are criticized.

Eker, Zeki

1999-08-01

217

Tattooing: An expression of uniqueness in the appearance domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aimed to explore the motivations underlying the practice of tattooing. There were 100 participants: 50 (30 men, 20 women) with tattoos, and a comparison group of 50 non-tattooed individuals. Participants completed measures of appearance investment, distinctive appearance investment, and need for uniqueness. It was found that tattooed individuals scored higher than the comparison group on need for uniqueness,

Marika Tiggemann; Fleur Golder

2006-01-01

218

Revisiting the uniqueness of simple demographics in the US population  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to a famous study (10) of the 1990 census data, 87% of the US population can be uniquely identified by gen- der, ZIP code and full date of birth. This short paper revisits the uniqueness of simple demographics in the US population based on the most recent census data (the 2000 census). We oer a detailed, comprehensive and up-to-date

Philippe Golle

2006-01-01

219

Morphological Awareness Uniquely Predicts Young Children's Chinese Character Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two unique measures of morphological awareness were orally administered to kindergarten and 2nd-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. Both tasks of morphological awareness predicted unique variance in Chinese character recognition in these children, after controlling for age, phonological awareness, speeded naming, speed of processing, and vocabulary.…

McBride-Chang, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Zhou, Aibao; Wat, Chun Pong; Wagner, Richard K.

2003-01-01

220

30 CFR 28.25 - Changes or modifications of approved fuses; issuance of modification of certificate of approval.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Changes or modifications of approved fuses; issuance of modification of certificate...EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FUSES FOR USE WITH DIRECT CURRENT IN PROVIDING... Changes or modifications of approved fuses; issuance of modification of...

2009-07-01

221

30 CFR 28.25 - Changes or modifications of approved fuses; issuance of modification of certificate of approval.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Changes or modifications of approved fuses; issuance of modification of certificate...EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FUSES FOR USE WITH DIRECT CURRENT IN PROVIDING... Changes or modifications of approved fuses; issuance of modification of...

2010-07-01

222

Epigenetic Modifications during Angiosperm Gametogenesis  

PubMed Central

Angiosperms do not contain a distinct germline, but rather develop gametes from gametophyte initials that undergo cell division. These gametes contain cells that give rise to an endosperm and the embryo. DNA methylation is decreased in the vegetative nucleus (VN) and central cell nuclei (CCN) resulting in expression of transposable elements (TEs). It is thought that the siRNAs produced in response to TE expression are able to travel to the sperm cells and egg cells (EC) from VN and CCN, respectively, in order to enforce silencing there. Demethylation during gametogenesis helps ensure that even newly integrated TEs are expressed and therefore silenced by the resulting siRNA production. A final form of epigenetic control is modification of histones, which includes accumulation of the H3 variant HTR10 in mature sperm that is then completely replaced following fertilization. In females, the histone isoforms present in the EC and CCN differ, potentially helping to differentiate the two components during gametogenesis.

Migicovsky, Zoe; Kovalchuk, Igor

2012-01-01

223

Vehicle modification for alcohol use  

SciTech Connect

Current information on engine modifications to enable the use of alcohol fuels is compiled. Various types of conversions are described, specific to pure or petroleum-blended alcohol utilization. The engines considered are the most common configurations of spark-ignition and diesel types. Only the basics of the conversion process are presented, along with explanations of changes in the combustion process and engine operation. The report is intended as a fundamental guide to enable those with prior knowledge of engine operation to understand the fundamentals of modifying engines for alcohol use. High school, continuing education, technical school, and community college instructors could make use of this report as a basis for classroom instruction. Fleet managers and others who represent concerns which are likely candidates to use alcohols in their vehicles may also find the report to be of value.

Not Available

1981-03-01

224

Antigenic protein modifications in Ehrlichia  

PubMed Central

To develop effective vaccination strategies againstEhrlichia, we have previously reported developing an animal model of cross-protection in which C57BL/6 mice primed withE. muris were resistant to lethal infection withIxodes ovatus ehrlichia (IOE). Polyclonal antibody produced in mice after priming withE. muris and later injected with IOE-detected antigenic proteins inE. muris and IOE cell lysates. Cross-reaction of antigenic proteins was observed when we probed both theE. muris and IOE cell lysates with IOE andE. muris-specific polyclonal antibody. Analysis of the total proteins ofE. muris and IOE by two dimensional electrophoresis showed that bothE. muris and IOE have the same antigenic proteins. Finally, studies on post-translational protein modifications using a novel technique, Eastern blotting, showed thatE. muris proteins are more lipoylated and glycosylated than those of IOE.

THOMAS, S; THIRUMALAPURA, N; CROSSLEY, E C; ISMAIL, N; WALKER, D H

2009-01-01

225

Laser surface modification of PEEK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) is a synthetic thermoplastic polymer with excellent mechanical and chemical properties, which make it attractive for the field of reconstructive surgery. Nevertheless, this material has a poor interfacial biocompatibility due to its large chemical stability which induces poor adhesive bonding properties. The possibilities of enhancing the PEEK adhesive properties by laser treatments have been explored in the past. This paper presents a systematic approach to discern the role of laser irradiation wavelength on the surface modification of PEEK under three laser wavelengths (? = 1064, 532, and 355 nm) with the aim to determine the most adequate processing conditions to increase the roughness and wettability, the main parameters affecting cell adhesion characteristics of implants. Overall results show that the ultraviolet (? = 355 nm) laser radiation is the most suitable one to enhance surface wettability of PEEK.

Riveiro, A.; Soto, R.; Comesaña, R.; Boutinguiza, M.; del Val, J.; Quintero, F.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

2012-09-01

226

Modification of mainframe BOAST II  

SciTech Connect

BOAST II is a black-oil, applied-simulation tool used routinely for performing evaluation and design work in modern petroleum reservoir engineering. Personnel from the Louisiana State University Computer Science Department worked on modifying the mainframe version of this program through the simulation of two-phase flow of slightly compressible fluids in a three-dimensional porous medium. This included the construction of a FORTRAN program that uses 3-D finite elements to approximate the governing equations. The existing finite element code was adapted so that virtually any size of element could easily be incorporated into the solution scheme. This gave increased flexibility and made it possible to utilize mesh refinement techniques. Modifications to the mainframe version also involved the development and integration of radial grid systems suitable for the investigations proposed in the project.

Tyler, J.M.; Morton, D.J.; Schenewerk, P.A.; Bourgoyne, A.T.; Kimbrell, W.C.; Dorroh, J.R.

1998-07-01

227

Waste minimization by process modification  

SciTech Connect

A simulation of the Sohio process for the production of acrylonitrile from the catalytic ammoxidation of propylene has been performed, using published kinetic and thermodynamic data to illustrate the concepts of pollution prevention by process modification. The study has determined the reaction parameters which will minimize the production of by-products while maintaining the conversion of propylene above 80%. The reaction parameters studied were reactor type (plug flow reactor [PFR], continuous stirred tank reactor [CSTR], and fluidized bed reactor [FBC]), reaction temperature, residence time, and entering feed temperature. The minimum by-products were produced in an FBR operating at 450 C at a residence time of 7 seconds for a conversion of 81%.

Hopper, J.R.; Yaws, C.L.; Ho, T.C.; Vichailak, M. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States))

1993-01-01

228

Reading protein modifications with interaction domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteins are controlled by a vast and dynamic array of post-translational modifications, many of which create binding sites for specific protein-interaction domains. We propose that these domains, working together, read the state of the proteome and therefore couple post-translational modifications to cellular organization. We also identify common strategies through which modification-dependent interactions synergize to regulate cell behaviour.

Bruce T. Seet; Ivan Dikic; Ming-Ming Zhou; Tony Pawson

2006-01-01

229

Protein Coding Palindromes Are a Unique but Recurrent Feature in Rickettsia  

PubMed Central

Rickettsia are unique in inserting in-frame a number of palindromic sequences within protein coding regions. In this study, we extensively analyzed repeated sequences in the genome of Rickettsia conorii and examined their locations in regard to coding versus noncoding regions. We identified 656 interspersed repeated sequences classified into 10 distinct families. Of the 10 families, three palindromic sequence families showed clear cases of insertions into open reading frames (ORFs). The location of those in-frame insertions appears to be always compatible with the encoded protein three-dimensional (3-D) fold and function. We provide evidence for a progressive loss of the palindromic property over time after the insertions. This comprehensive study of Rickettsia repeats confirms and extends our previous observations and further indicates a significant role of selfish DNAs in the creation and modification of proteins.

Ogata, Hiroyuki; Audic, Stephane; Abergel, Chantal; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Claverie, Jean-Michel

2002-01-01

230

A unique solid-solid transformation of silver nanoparticles on reactive ion-etching-processed silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Processes that combine nanoparticle suspensions with micromechanical or microelectronics platforms can reveal new phenomena unique to nanoscale objects. We report that silver nanoparticles react with silicon wafers that have been patterned by reactive ion etching (RIE) in SF6/O2 plasma. This reaction results in the localized deposition of silver on the patterns. Through the modification of the reaction conditions, the reaction mechanism was explored. Redeposition of the sputtered RIE products is suggested as the key to this transformation. The new silver deposition process was utilized to localize the growth of gold nanoparticles and silicon nanowires on the vertical sidewalls of patterns in silicon, demonstrating a simple route to the fabrication of overhanging nanoscale objects.

Lee, Seung Yong; Rabin, Oded

2012-02-01

231

Modeling Exon Expression Using Histone Modifications  

PubMed Central

Histones undergo numerous covalent modifications that play important roles in regulating gene expression. Previous investigations have focused on the effects of histone modifications on gene promoters, whereas efforts to unravel their effects on transcribed regions have lagged behind. To elucidate the effects of histone modification on transcribed regions, we constructed a quantitative model, which we suggest can predict the variation of gene expression more faithfully than the model constructed on promoters. Moreover, motivated by the fact that exon spicing is functionally coupled to transcription, we also devised a quantitative model to predict alternative exon expression using histone modifications on exons. This model was found to be general across different exon types and even cell types. Furthermore, an interaction network linking histone modifications to alternative exon expression was constructed using partial correlations. The network indicated that gene expression and specific histone modifications (H3K36me3 and H4K20me1) could directly influence the exon expression, while other modifications could act in an additive way to account for the stability and robustness. In addition, our results suggest that combinations of histone modifications contribute to exon splicing in a redundant and cumulative fashion. To conclude, this study provides a better understanding of the effects of histone modifications on gene transcribed regions.

Zhu, Shijia; Wang, Guohua; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yadong

2013-01-01

232

Spontaneous allocation of visual attention: dominant role of uniqueness.  

PubMed

Common sense suggests that unique or abruptly changing (transient) elements in a visual scene often draw attention involuntarily. Visual search studies paint a seemingly different picture, however Unique items usually draw attention involuntarily only when observers seek a unique target. One type of transient--abrupt onsets--draws attention involuntarily, but only when the observer is seeking an onset (Folk, Remington, & Johnston, 1992). One way of reconciling common-sense with these findings is to suppose that when people view a scene with no specific goal or task, they adopt a default set, which might prioritize novelty and/or transients. In two experiments, 336 subjects saw a single display of six items for 900 msec, expecting to have to describe it (Experiment 1) or make an aesthetic judgment about it (Experiment 2). One item in the display was either uniquely flashing (surrounded by static items) or uniquely static (surrounded by flashing items). In both studies, the unique item, even if static, was more often reported than the non-unique item, with flashing items enjoying an additional advantage. PMID:11848595

Pashler, H; Harris, C R

2001-12-01

233

Cathepsin L Stabilizes the Histone Modification Landscape on the Y Chromosome and Pericentromeric Heterochromatin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posttranslational histone modifications and histone variants form a unique epigenetic landscape on mam- malian chromosomes where the principal epigenetic heterochromatin markers, trimethylated histone H3(K9) and the histone H2A.Z, are inversely localized in relation to each other. Trimethylated H3(K9) marks pericentromeric constitutive heterochromatin and the male Y chromosome, while H2A.Z is dramatically reduced at these chromosomal locations. Inactivation of a lysosomal

Yaroslava A. Bulynko; Lianne C. Hsing; Robert W. Mason; David J. Tremethick; Sergei A. Grigoryev

2006-01-01

234

Uniqueness of the bounded flow solution in aerodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss uniqueness for steady incompressible inviscid flows past a body with a sharp trailing edge TE, with particular regard to multiconnected (toroidal) 3D wing configurations. Boundedness of the velocity field at TE is enforced by means of a singularity removal principal (Kutta condition). The resulting bounded flow solution is unique for 2D airfoils and 3D conventional wings. For toroidal bodies the flow depends on the available eigensolution which, however, has no direct influence on the lift. In this multiconnected case uniqueness of the bounded solution is shown to depend on the topology of the trailing edge.

Bassanini, P.; Casciola, C. M.; Lancia, M. R.; Piva, R.

235

Guide to good practices for operations aspects of unique processes  

SciTech Connect

This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Operations Aspects of Facility Chemistry and Unique Processes, Chapter XIII of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing employee training and facility management programs. Contractors are advised to adopt procedures that meet the intent of DOE Order 5480.19. Operations Aspects of Unique Processes is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for all personnel to coordinate interrelated activities affecting unique processes.

NONE

1998-12-01

236

A novel method of developing in-depth permeability modification using surfactant/alcohol blends  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the development of a novel method of in-depth permeability modifications in porous media using specific surfactant/alcohol blends. The unique features of this method come from (1) the development of permeability modification primarily resulting from component separation of injected blends, (2) in-depth penetration of formations without premature injectivity loss, (3) the capability to propagate the permeability barrier farther through the porous media, and (4) ease of cleanup of the porous media. Laboratory studies showed that injecting these blends into porous media can reduce permeability significantly. The degree of permeability barrier penetration was controlled experimentally, and this barrier was propagated in-depth by subsequent injection of alcohol slugs. The permeability modification potential of these blends was comparable with that of conventional gelled-polymer treatments.

Llave, F.M.; Burchfield, T.E. (NIPER, Bartlesville, OK (United States)); Dobson, R.E. (Akzo Chemicals Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1993-08-01

237

Using the Modification Index and Standardized Expected Parameter Change for Model Modification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Model modification is oftentimes conducted after discovering a badly fitting structural equation model. During the modification process, the modification index (MI) and the standardized expected parameter change (SEPC) are 2 statistics that may be used to aid in the selection of parameters to add to a model to improve the fit. The purpose of this…

Whittaker, Tiffany A.

2012-01-01

238

Proteomic analysis of post-translational modifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-translational modifications modulate the activity of most eukaryote proteins. Analysis of these modifications presents formidable challenges but their determination generates indispensable insight into biological function. Strategies developed to characterize individual proteins are now systematically applied to protein populations. The combination of function- or structure-based purification of modified 'subproteomes', such as phosphorylated proteins or modified membrane proteins, with mass spectrometry is

Matthias Mann; Ole N. Jensen

2003-01-01

239

Evaluation of cab car crashworthiness design modifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of structural modifications to rail cab cars for increased crashworthiness protection in train collisions. The crashworthiness benefits were calculated based on a particular design's ability to preserve the space occupied by the operators and the passengers during a collision. The influences of the modifications on vehicle weight and cost to manufacture were

D. C. Tyrell; K. J. Seversen; R. A. Mayville; R. G. Stringfellow; S. Berry; A. B. Perlman

1997-01-01

240

Regulation of chromatin by histone modifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromatin is not an inert structure, but rather an instructive DNA scaffold that can respond to external cues to regulate the many uses of DNA. A principle component of chromatin that plays a key role in this regulation is the modification of histones. There is an ever-growing list of these modifications and the complexity of their action is only just

Andrew J Bannister; Tony Kouzarides

2011-01-01

241

Lifestyle Modification for the Management of Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several expert panels have recommended that obese individuals attempt to lose 10% of their initial body weight through a combination of diet, physical activ- ity, and behavior therapy (frequently referred to as lifestyle modification). This article reviews the short- and long-term results of lifestyle modification and methods to improve them. Randomized controlled trials were examined that compared different diet and

THOMAS A. WADDEN; MEGHAN L. BUTRYN; CHRISTOPHER WILSON

2007-01-01

242

Characterization of Surface Modification of Polyethersulfone Membrane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Surface modification of polyethersulfone (PES) membrane surface using UV/ozone-treated grafting and interfacial polymerization on membrane surface was investigated in order to improve the resistance of membrane surface to protein adsorption. These methods of surface modification were compared in te...

243

Sonochemistry — a sound approach to surface modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface modification of dielectric materials is required throughout the electronics industry. Traditional chemical methods however tend to be characterised by the use of hazardous substances, high temperature operation and long process times. Previous work has shown that significant surface modification of substrates used in electronic manufacturing can be achieved by applying ultrasound of an appropriate frequency through liquids as

Andy Cobley; Tim Mason

2008-01-01

244

The Modification of Compounds by Attributive Adjectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the modification of nominal compounds by attributive adjectives in English. It draws on a distinction between compound-external (i.e. syntactic) and compound-internal (i.e. morphological) modification. An analysis is presented of more than 1000 pertinent cases, which are roughly equally divided into two-, three- and four-noun…

Berg, Thomas

2011-01-01

245

The end of ideology in behavior modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contends that behavior modification should be considered a technology which developed as an ideological response to medical and clinical models, rather than a science based on new theory. Distinctions are made between theory, paradigm, and analogy, and it is argued that behavior modification represents the latter 2 conceptual schemes. Desensitization and implosion therapy are considered analogies because they require the

Perry London

1972-01-01

246

7 CFR 1467.13 - Modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.13 Modifications...modification will not adversely affect the wetland functions and values for which the easement...restoration of other lands that provide greater wetland functions and values at no...

2012-01-01

247

7 CFR 1467.13 - Modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.13 Modifications...modification will not adversely affect the wetland functions and values for which the easement...restoration of other lands that provide greater wetland functions and values at no...

2013-01-01

248

AI-MSG modification work plan. [LMFBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document contains the Work Plan for the modification of the AI Steam Generator for tests in Large Leak Test Rig. This Work Plan describes the objectives, scope of work, schedule and manpower, end items, and meetings and reports required for the modification.

1973-01-01

249

Particulate Matter Emissions Factors for Dust from Unique Military Activities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

SERDP project SI-1399 carried out an empirically-based study using in situ measurements to characterize and quantify dust emissions from unique Department of Defense sources operating during testing and training maneuvers on U.S. military installations. T...

H. Kuhns H. Moosmueller J. Engelbrecht J. A. Gillies V. Etyemezian

2010-01-01

250

A NOTE ON UNIQUENESS IN THERMOELASTICITY WITH ONE RELAXATION TIME  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uniqueness for a general initial boundary-value problem of linear dynamic thermoelasticity with one relaxation time is established using the associated conservation law involving higher-order time derivatives.

Józef Ignaczak

1982-01-01

251

Unique lightning activities pertinent to tropical and temperate thunderstorms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations from two geographical locations show that some lightning events are unique and specific to the respective thunderstorms. From the measurements conducted in a tropical country, Sri Lanka, and a temperate country, Sweden, it is observed that there are some lightning activities that are unique for each location. Narrow bipolar pulses (NBPs) have frequently been observed in the tropical thunderstorms and were not observed in the temperate thunderstorms, whereas isolated breakdown pulses (IBPs) have frequently been observed in the temperate thunderstorms and were not observed in the tropical thunderstorms. It can be speculated that NBPs are the unique features of tropical thunderstorms and that IBPs are the unique features pertinent to the temperate thunderstorms.

Sharma, S. R.; Cooray, V.; Fernando, M.

2011-03-01

252

Existence and Uniqueness in Approximation by Integral Polynomials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the paper the author studies the existence and uniqueness questions for uniform approximation over compact sets by polynomials whose coefficients are, in some sense, integers. These polynomials are the integral polynomials of the title. The author also...

L. B. O. Ferguson

1974-01-01

253

Unique in the Crowd: The privacy bounds of human mobility  

PubMed Central

We study fifteen months of human mobility data for one and a half million individuals and find that human mobility traces are highly unique. In fact, in a dataset where the location of an individual is specified hourly, and with a spatial resolution equal to that given by the carrier's antennas, four spatio-temporal points are enough to uniquely identify 95% of the individuals. We coarsen the data spatially and temporally to find a formula for the uniqueness of human mobility traces given their resolution and the available outside information. This formula shows that the uniqueness of mobility traces decays approximately as the 1/10 power of their resolution. Hence, even coarse datasets provide little anonymity. These findings represent fundamental constraints to an individual's privacy and have important implications for the design of frameworks and institutions dedicated to protect the privacy of individuals.

de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Hidalgo, Cesar A.; Verleysen, Michel; Blondel, Vincent D.

2013-01-01

254

Commanding Officer's Standing Orders: A Powerful and Unique Genre.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Commanding Officer's Standing Orders are critical to shipboard watch standing. Written by the captain and used by watch standers, Standing Orders perform many unique and powerful functions aboard ships. Using genre theory, this study provides insight into...

K. H. Turner

2006-01-01

255

Bounds on locally testable codes with unique tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Unique Games Conjecture (UGC) is an important open problem in the research of PCPs and hardness of approximation. The conjecture is a strengthening of the PCP Theorem, predicting the existence of a special type of PCP verifiers: 2-query verifiers that only make unique tests. Moreover, the UGC predicts that such PCP verifiers can have almost-perfect completeness and low-soundness. The

Gillat Kol; Ran Raz

2012-01-01

256

Practical relevance of pattern uniqueness in forensic science.  

PubMed

Uniqueness being unprovable, it has recently been argued that individualization in forensic science is irrelevant and, probability, as applied for DNA profiles, should be applied for all identifications. Critiques against uniqueness have omitted physical matching, a realistic and tangible individualization that supports uniqueness. Describing case examples illustrating pattern matches including physical matching, it is indicated that individualizations are practically relevant for forensic science as they establish facts on a definitive basis providing firm leads benefitting criminal investigation. As a tenet of forensic identification, uniqueness forms a fundamental paradigm relevant for individualization. Evidence on the indeterministic and stochastic causal pathways of characteristics in patterns available in the related fields of science sufficiently supports the proposition of uniqueness. Characteristics involved in physical matching and matching achieved in patterned evidence existing in the state of nature are not events amenable for counting; instead these are ensemble of visible units occupying the entire pattern area stretching the probability of re-occurrence of a verisimilitude pattern into infinity offering epistemic support to uniqueness. Observational methods are as respectable as instrumental or statistical methods since they are capable of generating results that are tangible and obviously valid as in physical matching. Applying the probabilistic interpretation used for DNA profiles to the other patterns would be unbefitting since these two are disparate, the causal pathways of the events, the loci, in the manipulated DNA profiles being determinable. While uniqueness enables individualizations, it does not vouch for eliminating errors. Instead of dismissing uniqueness and individualization, accepting errors as human or system failures and seeking remedial measures would benefit forensic science practice and criminal investigation. PMID:23849815

Jayaprakash, Paul T

2013-07-10

257

unexceptional.net A Story about a Unique Pervasive Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the pervasive game unexceptional.net. Unexceptional.net is a unique pervasive game that is story-driven where the story evolves through multiple media channels interacting with the player. The game interacts with the user on a cellphone and a PC, and the game provides unique gaming experience by introducing gameplay elements through comics, web hacks, Blogs, a 3D-client, a database

Robert F. Nideffer; Alf Inge Wang

258

Unique morphology of dispersed clay particles in a polymer nanocomposite  

Microsoft Academic Search

This communication reports a unique morphology of dispersed clay particles in a polymer nanocomposite. A nanocomposite of poly[butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA) with 3 wt% of organically modified montmorillonite was prepared by melt-blending in a batch mixer. The focused-ion beam cross-sectioning at 36° to the sample surface, followed by delineation etching with water revealed a unique dispersed morphology of the clay particles in

Thomas Malwela; Suprakas Sinha Ray

2011-01-01

259

Monstrous Moonshine and the uniqueness of the Moonshine module  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this talk we consider the relationship between the conjectured uniqueness\\u000aof the Moonshine module of Frenkel, Lepowsky and Meurman and Monstrous\\u000aMoonshine, the genus zero property for Thompson series discovered by Conway and\\u000aNorton. We discuss some evidence to support the uniqueness of the Moonshine\\u000amodule by considering possible alternative orbifold constructions from a Leech\\u000alattice compactified string. Within

Michael P. Tuite

1992-01-01

260

A note on existence and uniqueness in shape from shading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shape recovery of a smooth Lambertian surface illuminated by one, two, or three distant light sources is discussed. In the case of three light-sources, it is shown that the corresponding system of three first-order nonlinear partial differential equations has a unique solution. In the case of one overhead light-source, the existence and uniqueness of solutions to the corresponding eikonal equation

Ryszard Kozera

1993-01-01

261

Uniqueness in the forensic identification sciences--fact or fiction?  

PubMed

Fingerprint analysts, firearms and toolmark examiners, and forensic odontologists often rely on the uniqueness proposition in order to support their theory of identification. However, much of the literature claiming to have proven uniqueness in the forensic identification sciences is methodologically weak, and suffers flaws that negate any such conclusion being drawn. The finding of uniqueness in any study appears to be an overstatement of the significance of its results, and in several instances, this claim is made despite contrary data being presented. The mathematical and philosophical viewpoint regarding this topic is that obtaining definitive proof of uniqueness is considered impossible by modern scientific methods. More importantly, there appears to be no logical reason to pursue such research, as commentators have established that uniqueness is not the essential requirement for forming forensic conclusions. The courts have also accepted this in several recent cases in the United States, and have dismissed the concept of uniqueness as irrelevant to the more fundamental question of the reliability of the forensic analysis. PMID:20832209

Page, Mark; Taylor, Jane; Blenkin, Matt

2010-09-15

262

Covariance Modifications to Subspace Bases  

SciTech Connect

Adaptive signal processing algorithms that rely upon representations of signal and noise subspaces often require updates to those representations when new data become available. Subspace representations frequently are estimated from available data with singular value (SVD) decompositions. Subspace updates require modifications to these decompositions. Updates can be performed inexpensively provided they are low-rank. A substantial literature on SVD updates exists, frequently focusing on rank-1 updates (see e.g. [Karasalo, 1986; Comon and Golub, 1990, Badeau, 2004]). In these methods, data matrices are modified by addition or deletion of a row or column, or data covariance matrices are modified by addition of the outer product of a new vector. A recent paper by Brand [2006] provides a general and efficient method for arbitrary rank updates to an SVD. The purpose of this note is to describe a closely-related method for applications where right singular vectors are not required. This note also describes the SVD updates to a particular scenario of interest in seismic array signal processing. The particular application involve updating the wideband subspace representation used in seismic subspace detectors [Harris, 2006]. These subspace detectors generalize waveform correlation algorithms to detect signals that lie in a subspace of waveforms of dimension d {ge} 1. They potentially are of interest because they extend the range of waveform variation over which these sensitive detectors apply. Subspace detectors operate by projecting waveform data from a detection window into a subspace specified by a collection of orthonormal waveform basis vectors (referred to as the template). Subspace templates are constructed from a suite of normalized, aligned master event waveforms that may be acquired by a single sensor, a three-component sensor, an array of such sensors or a sensor network. The template design process entails constructing a data matrix whose columns contain the master event waveform data, then performing a singular value decomposition on the data matrix to extract an orthonormal basis for the waveform suite. The template typically is comprised of a subset of the left singular vectors corresponding to the larger singular values. The application involves updating a subspace template when new data become available, i.e. when new defining events are detected for a particular source. It often is the case that the waveforms corresponding to a particular source drift over time [Harris, 2001]. The Green's functions describing propagation can be altered because of changes in the source region. For example, if the source is a mine, signals from explosions may change gradually as a pit is extended (the source moves) or the scattering topography is altered by excavation. This motivates a tracking adjustment to a subspace representation. This note also comments on SVD updates for a related problem. In realistic pipeline operations it often is the case that data from one or more channels of an array are unusable (dead channels, channels with prolific dropouts, etc.). In such cases it is desirable to modify an array subspace template to operate on data only from the remaining usable channels. Furthermore, it is desirable to modify the templates directly without recourse to the original data matrix. Usually the template design process is separate from the application of the template in a detector to a continuous data stream. Consequently, the original data matrix may not be available for template modification at detector run time.

Harris, D B

2008-11-19

263

Wind Farms and Weather Modification.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical generation by wind turbines is increasing rapidly, and has been projected to satisfy 15 percent of world electric demand by 2030. The extensive installation of wind farms would alter surface roughness and significantly impact the atmospheric circulation. This forcing could be changed deliberately by adjusting the attitude of the turbine blades with respect to the wind. Using the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model, we model the impact of time-dependent surface roughness changes due to manipulation of a continent-scale wind farm. We show that initial disturbances caused by a step change in roughness grow within four days such that the flow is altered at synoptic scales. The growth rate of the induced perturbations is largest in regions of high atmospheric instability. For a roughness change imposed over North America, the induced perturbations involve substantial changes in the track and development of cyclones over the North Atlantic. For example, in some cases, weather over the British Isles changes from cloudy to clear, depending on whether wind turbines in the American Midwest are "on" or "off" three days beforehand. We explore the dependence of the downstream effects on the size and roughness of the wind farm installation, showing that as the size of individual wind farms and turbines grows, the scale of atmospheric impacts increases in extent and magnitude. We also look at the dependence of the wind farm impacts on the initial state of the atmosphere, confirming that the impacts are largest when the wind farm perturbation projects onto growing error modes in the atmosphere. In particular, rapid growth occurs when the initial disturbance is carried into regions of high baroclinic instability such as the North Atlantic. By running ensemble experiments, we estimate the robustness of the wind farm impacts with respect to realistic uncertainty in the initial conditions. Our results suggest the possibility of a method for weather modification that in some cases could provide added value to very large wind farms.

Barrie, D. B.; Kirk-Davidoff, D. B.

2008-12-01

264

Regulation of Alternative Splicing by Histone Modifications  

PubMed Central

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA is a prominent mechanism to generate protein diversity, yet its regulation is poorly understood. We demonstrated a direct role for histone modifications in alternative splicing. We found distinctive histone modification signatures that correlate with the splicing outcome in a set of human genes, and modulation of histone modifications causes splice site switching. Histone marks affect splicing outcome by influencing the recruitment of splicing regulators via a chromatin-binding protein. These results outline an adaptor system for the reading of histone marks by the pre-mRNA splicing machinery.

Luco, Reini F.; Pan, Qun; Tominaga, Kaoru; Blencowe, Benjamin J.; Pereira-Smith, Olivia M.; Misteli, Tom

2010-01-01

265

Regulation of alternative splicing by histone modifications.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA is a prominent mechanism to generate protein diversity, yet its regulation is poorly understood. We demonstrated a direct role for histone modifications in alternative splicing. We found distinctive histone modification signatures that correlate with the splicing outcome in a set of human genes, and modulation of histone modifications causes splice site switching. Histone marks affect splicing outcome by influencing the recruitment of splicing regulators via a chromatin-binding protein. These results outline an adaptor system for the reading of histone marks by the pre-mRNA splicing machinery. PMID:20133523

Luco, Reini F; Pan, Qun; Tominaga, Kaoru; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Pereira-Smith, Olivia M; Misteli, Tom

2010-02-04

266

Loss of functionally unique species may gradually undermine ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Functionally unique species contribute to the functional diversity of natural systems, often enhancing ecosystem functioning. An abundance of weakly interacting species increases stability in natural systems, suggesting that loss of weakly linked species may reduce stability. Any link between the functional uniqueness of a species and the strength of its interactions in a food web could therefore have simultaneous effects on ecosystem functioning and stability. Here, we analyse patterns in 213 real food webs and show that highly unique species consistently tend to have the weakest mean interaction strength per unit biomass in the system. This relationship is not a simple consequence of the interdependence of both measures on body size and appears to be driven by the empirical pattern of size structuring in aquatic systems and the trophic position of each species in the web. Food web resolution also has an important effect, with aggregation of species into higher taxonomic groups producing a much weaker relationship. Food webs with fewer unique and less weakly interacting species also show significantly greater variability in their levels of primary production. Thus, the loss of highly unique, weakly interacting species may eventually lead to dramatic state changes and unpredictable levels of ecosystem functioning.

O'Gorman, Eoin J.; Yearsley, Jon M.; Crowe, Tasman P.; Emmerson, Mark C.; Jacob, Ute; Petchey, Owen L.

2011-01-01

267

Unique Features of a Highly Pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni Strain†  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter jejuni, a major human enteric pathogen, exhibits significant strain-to-strain differences which result in differences in pathogenic potential. C. jejuni 81-176 is a highly virulent strain that exhibits unique pathogenic features and is used by many research laboratories. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of its genome and compared it to the genomes of other sequenced C. jejuni strains. We identified a number of unique genetic features which may confer specific metabolic and pathogenic properties on this strain. We have also identified regions of the C. jejuni genome that are hot spots for the integration of horizontally acquired genetic material. This information should help the understanding of the pathogenesis of C. jejuni and, in particular, the unique features of this highly pathogenic strain.

Hofreuter, Dirk; Tsai, Jennifer; Watson, Robert O.; Novik, Veronica; Altman, Bill; Benitez, Michelle; Clark, Christina; Perbost, Clotilde; Jarvie, Thomas; Du, Lei; Galan, Jorge E.

2006-01-01

268

40 CFR 60.397 - Modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Automobile and Light Duty Truck Surface Coating Operations § 60.397 Modifications. The following...

2013-07-01

269

Modified Kriging: evaluation, modification, and recommendations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes modifications to a technique developed by Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) to predict general corrections (traveltime, etc.) for a geographic grid only sparsely covered by calibration points (Hipp and Young, 1997-DE97007155). SNL has...

C. A. Schultz S. C. Myers

1997-01-01

270

48 CFR 342.7102 - Contract modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...modifications. 342.7102 Section 342.7102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Administrative Actions for Cost Overruns 342.7102 Contract...

2011-10-01

271

Ionospheric Modification Using Relativistic Electron BEAMS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The recent development of comparatively small electron linear accelerators (linacs) now makes possible a new class of ionospheric modification experiments using beams of relativistic electrons. These experiments can potentially provide much new informatio...

P. M. Banks A. C. Fraser-Smith B. E. Gilchrist

1990-01-01

272

Weather Modification Activities in Texas, 1973.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During calendar year 1973, nine weather modification projects were conducted in the State of Texas. These projects included seven operational cloud seeding projects, one precipitation management research project, and one rain augmentation evaluation proje...

1974-01-01

273

Modifications of therapeutic proteins: challenges and prospects  

PubMed Central

The production of therapeutic proteins is one of the fastest growing sectors of the pharmaceutical industry. However, most proteins used in drug therapy require complex post-translational modifications for efficient secretion, drug efficacy and stability. Common protein modifications include variable glycosylation, misfolding and aggregation, oxidation of methionine, deamidation of asparagine and glutamine, and proteolysis. These modifications not only pose challenges for accurate and consistent bioprocessing, but also may have consequences for the patient in that incorrect modifications or aggregation may lead to an immune response to the protein therapeutic. This review provides examples of analytical and preventative advances that have been devised to meet these challenges, and insights into how further advances can improve the efficiency and safety in manufacturing recombinant proteins.

2007-01-01

274

Modification of Synthetic Fibers (Modifikatsiya Sinteticheskikh Volokon).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The article concerns research that has been conducted at the Department of Chemical Fibers of the Moscow Textile Institute during recent years concerning te modification of polyacrylonitrile, carbon, and polyolefin fibers. The above-mentioned fibers, afte...

A. A. Konkin

1970-01-01

275

Modifications to the Saclantcen Sphincter Corer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Modifications to the SACLANTCEN Sphincter Corer with Recoilless Piston reported in Technical Report 112 are described. These allow the interval between corings to be halved to about one hour and simplify the maintenance. (Author)

C. Gehin P. Blavier B. Matteucci

1969-01-01

276

Mineralogical and micromorphological modifications in soil affected ...  

Treesearch

Little is known, however, about the impact of high-temperature slash pile ... temperature-induced modifications in mineralogical and micromorphological properties that can impact thermal conductivity in soil affected by slash pile burning.

277

40 CFR 58.14 - System modification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...final plan and schedule with respect to the SLAMS network are subject to the approval...agency from making modifications to the SLAMS network for reasons other than those...appropriate, local agency requests for SLAMS monitor station discontinuation,...

2009-07-01

278

40 CFR 58.14 - System modification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...final plan and schedule with respect to the SLAMS network are subject to the approval...agency from making modifications to the SLAMS network for reasons other than those...appropriate, local agency requests for SLAMS monitor station discontinuation,...

2010-07-01

279

Federal Weather Modification Efforts Need Congressional Attention.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although the Federal Government has supported weather modification programs for more than 30 years, a coordinated Federal approach to these programs has never been established. Numerous studies have cited the need for coordination. In this report, GAO use...

1979-01-01

280

Modifications to the BIPR-5 Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report three modifications of the program BIPR-5 are described. These are the automatization of the rather extended input system of the code, reading in more appropriate flux distribution to initiate the first information and direct calculation of...

J. Zsoldos

1980-01-01

281

Aspect Modification of an EAR Application a  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose aspect modification of compiled Java programs for which source code and documentation are not available. Aspect oriented programming is used to trace the program execution and identify points, in which aspects implementing new functionalities should be applied. A special tool for aspect oriented program tracing was designed and implemented. A modification in an real Enterprise Application Archive (EAR), compiled, without source code and documentation is presented in this paper. Advantages and disadvantages of described concepts are pointed out.

Bluemke, Ilona; Billewicz, Konrad

282

Biomaterials modification by ion-beam processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomaterials modification by ion-beam processing is becoming popular for improving medical device function, biocompatibility and as a new mutation breeding method. Ion-beam-based processes, such as ion implantation and ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) can provide beneficial surface layers with desirable properties without detrimentally affecting the bulk properties. Ion implantation has been successful in biomaterials modification, such as in improving the wear

F. Z Cui; Z. S Luo

1999-01-01

283

The modification and variants of histone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modification of histone plays a crucial role in regulating chromatin states that conserve transcription programs and provide\\u000a a mechanism for chromatin states to be maintained as cells proliferate. A large number of factors and protein complexes are\\u000a now known to be involved in regulating the dynamic states of the modification and variants of histone. A fraction of histones\\u000a are

Changjun Mu; Heng Liu; Guo-Chang Zheng

2007-01-01

284

Surface modification of composites with metal nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work examines the possibility of using copper, nickel, and cobalt nanoparticles in the electrodeposition of nickel coatings\\u000a and for surface modification of porous silicon, and also colloidal silver particles for surface modification of silver-containing\\u000a polymer-matrix composites. It is shown that the deposition of metal nanoparticles may influence the morphology, electronic\\u000a structure, and phase composition of the surface and the

N. V. Sotskaya; S. V. Makarov; O. V. Dolgikh; V. M. Kashkarov; A. S. Len’shin; E. A. Kotlyarova

2010-01-01

285

Examples of Modifications to Field Emitter Arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A discussion is presented of some of the work reported during the early 21st century describing modifications to field emitter arrays (FEAs). Discussion is focused on FEAs of metals (Mo and Si), of ZnO, and of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Particular attention is given to modifications that lower the FEA turn-on field, and to the "screening effect" of closely packed emitters in an FEA. Hydrothermal synthesis briefly is described as a preparation technique.

Draeger, Norman A.

2013-06-01

286

Nanoscale Materials Modification for Device Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter considers device applications of ion beams that involve nanoscale modification of materials. It is necessarily\\u000a selective and does not include broad classes of applications such as ion beam assisted deposition of thin films or tribological\\u000a modification of surfaces for improved wear, corrosion resistance or biocompatibility. Instead it aims to illustrate the diversity\\u000a of ion beam applications by providing

Robert G. Elliman

287

Surface and interface modification science and technology.  

SciTech Connect

Surface modification of solids is of scientific and technological interest due to its significant benefits in a wide variety of applications. Various coatings applications such as corrosion protection and electrical insulators and conductors are required for proper engineering design based on geometrical relationships between interfaces and on thermodynamic/kinetic considerations for the development of surface modifications. This paper will explore three basic examples: the proton conductor BaCeO{sub 3}, high-temperature protective coatings, and epitaxial relationships between interfaces.

Park, J.-H.

1999-07-19

288

What's Unique about Unique Entities? An fMRI Investigation of the Semantics of Famous Faces and Landmarks  

PubMed Central

Famous people and artifacts are referred to as “unique entities” (UEs) due to the unique nature of the knowledge we have about them. Past imaging and lesion experiments have indicated that the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) as having a special role in the processing of UEs. It has remained unclear which attributes of UEs were responsible for the observed effects in imaging experiments. In this study, we investigated what factors of UEs influence brain activity. In a training paradigm, we systematically varied the uniqueness of semantic associations, the presence/absence of a proper name, and the number of semantic associations to determine factors modulating activity in regions subserving the processing of UEs. We found that a conjunction of unique semantic information and proper names modulated activity within a section of the left ATL. Overall, the processing of UEs involved a wider left-hemispheric cortical network. Within these regions, brain activity was significantly affected by the unique semantic attributes especially in the presence of a proper name, but we could not find evidence for an effect of the number of semantic associations. Findings are discussed in regard to current models of ATL function, the neurophysiology of semantics, and social cognitive processing.

Olson, Ingrid R.

2012-01-01

289

Detection of histone modifications in plant leaves.  

PubMed

Chromatin structure is important for the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. In this process, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, and covalent modifications on the amino-terminal tails of histones H3 and H4 play essential roles(1-2). H3 and H4 histone modifications include methylation of lysine and arginine, acetylation of lysine, and phosphorylation of serine residues(1-2). These modifications are associated either with gene activation, repression, or a primed state of gene that supports more rapid and robust activation of expression after perception of appropriate signals (microbe-associated molecular patterns, light, hormones, etc.)(3-7). Here, we present a method for the reliable and sensitive detection of specific chromatin modifications on selected plant genes. The technique is based on the crosslinking of (modified) histones and DNA with formaldehyde(8,9), extraction and sonication of chromatin, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with modification-specific antibodies(9,10), de-crosslinking of histone-DNA complexes, and gene-specific real-time quantitative PCR. The approach has proven useful for detecting specific histone modifications associated with C(4;) photosynthesis in maize(5,11) and systemic immunity in Arabidopsis(3). PMID:21969029

Jaskiewicz, Michal; Peterhansel, Christoph; Conrath, Uwe

2011-09-23

290

5 CFR 841.1007 - Agreement modification and termination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Agreement modification and termination. 841.1007 Section 841...REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... Agreement modification and termination. This agreement may...

2013-01-01

291

Mystic Chords of Memory: Cultivating America's Unique Form of Patriotism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the history of U.S. patriotism, asserting that anchored though it is to a set of ideas, there are unique challenges to educating patriots. Suggests the importance of telling the nation's stories through civics education. Explains that patriotism is cultivated when students learn about democratic values, people and events shaping the…

Berns, Walter

2002-01-01

292

Is Self-Assessment in Religious Education Unique?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the question: is self-assessment in religious education unique? It first presents an overview of some challenges for assessment from subject differences, and then reviews the generic literature on self-assessment. It builds on earlier empirical research on self-assessment in religious education, carried out in an English state…

Brooks, Val; Fancourt, Nigel

2012-01-01

293

Refinement and unique Mackey decomposition for manuals and orthalogebras  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the empirical logic approach to quantum mechanics, the physical system under consideration is given in terms of a manual of sample spaces. The resulting propositional structure has been shown to form an orthoalgebra, generalizing the structure of an orthomodular poset. An orthoalgebra satisfies the unique Mackey decomposition (UMD) property if, given two commuting propositions a and b, there is

Matthew B. Younce

1990-01-01

294

Feminism and Learning Theories: A Unique Voice in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If the principles of feminism are to be enacted and nurtured in their development, then there must be an understanding of: (1) psychological, social, economic, legal, and cultural obstacles confronting women; and (2) assumption and expectations surrounding the feminist perspective. The classroom offers a unique context for developing these…

Swarts, Valerie R.

295

Existence and uniqueness of a complex fractional system with delay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chaotic complex systems are utilized to characterize thermal convection of liquid flows and emulate the physics of lasers. This paper deals with the time-delay of a complex fractional-order Liu system. We have examined its chaos, computed numerical solutions and established the existence and uniqueness of those solutions. Ultimately, we have presented some examples.

Ibrahim, Rabha W.; Jalab, Hamid A.

2013-07-01

296

FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Uniqueness of static black holes without analyticity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the hypothesis of analyticity in the uniqueness theory of vacuum, or electrovacuum, static black holes is not needed. More generally, we show that prehorizons covering a closed set cannot occur in well-behaved domains of outer communications.

Chru?ciel, Piotr T.; Galloway, Gregory J.

2010-08-01

297

Unique fusiform alumina nanotubes fabricated by combined anodization.  

PubMed

Alumina nanotubes (ANTs) with unique fusiform morphologies were synthesized via a simple electrochemical route; the fluctuation of the electronic current density during the anodization process is considered to be the main reason for the formation of such new alumina nanostructures. PMID:21218215

Yi, Li; Zhiyuan, Ling; Xing, Hu; Yisen, Liu; Yi, Chang

2011-01-07

298

Existence and uniqueness of solutions to uncertain functional differential equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The canonical process is a Lipschitz continuous uncertain process with stationary and independent increments, and uncertain functional differential equations driven by the canonical process give a mathematical formulation for dynamic systems. This paper proves an existence and uniqueness theorem of solutions for uncertain functional differential equations under the uniform Lipschitz condition and the linear growth condition.

Hongjian Liu; Weiyin Fei

2012-01-01

299

Existence and Uniqueness Theorem for Uncertain Dierential Equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canonical process is a Lipschitz continuous uncertain process with stationary and independent increments, and uncertain dierential equation is a type of dierential equations driven by canonical process. This paper presents some methods to solve linear uncertain dierential equations, and proves an existence and uniqueness theorem of solution for uncertain dierential equation under Lipschitz condition and linear growth condition.

Xiaowei Chen; Baoding Liu

2009-01-01

300

Unique Potential: A Metaphor for John Dewey's Moral Self.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper suggests that the current confusion regarding character formation is related to a postmodern dilemma about the nature of the individual child. By looking at John Dewey's concept of "potentials," and by applying this concept to his ideas about the self and experience, this paper develops a naturalistic version of the idea of "unique

Cunningham, Craig A.

301

Uniqueness for Plane Crack Problems in Linear Elastostatics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper contains a proof of the uniqueness of solution to the traction boundary value problem in linear elastostatics for a bounded domain containing a crack. Attention is restricted to the two-dimensional case, but the elastic material considered need ...

J. K. Knowles T. A. Pucik

1972-01-01

302

TOXICOLOGY TESTING OF THE UNIQUE RADIOLYTIC PRODUCT 2-DODECYLCYCLOBUTANONE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Treatment of foods containing fatty acids, including meat and poultry, with ionizing radiation can lead to the formation of a class of chemicals called 2-alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) that are unique to irradiated foods. The major 2-ACB formed in irradiated meat is 2 dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB), wh...

303

Redundancy and Uniqueness of Subject Access Points in Online Catalogs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An analysis of 205 records in the OCLC Online Union Catalog (OLUC) found considerable duplication among subject access points provided by title, subject heading, and classification number fields. On average, only 4.12 unique access points were found per record. The results suggest that online catalogs might outperform card catalogs more in…

Xu, Hong; Lancaster, F. W.

1998-01-01

304

Across the Nation: Unique Delivery and Inventive Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, American Association of Community Colleges member institutions provide information on the collaborative efforts in allied health programs between their colleges and the communities they serve. These are but a fraction of the inventive and unique programs community colleges across the U.S. offer to support the health and wellness…

Fick, Jill; McKeown, Patricia; Whiteside, Ann B.; Paneitz, Becky; Flemming, Sondra; Wolf, Toni; West-Sands, Leslie; Gray, Patricia M.; Orre, Deborah J.; Adams, Ann-Marie

2004-01-01

305

The Uniqueness of EFL Teachers: Perceptions of Japanese Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Building on the work of Borg (2006), this article reports on a study of Japanese English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' perceptions of some of the unique characteristics of EFL teachers that distinguish them from teachers of other subjects. The data were collected by means of a questionnaire to which 163 college-level EFL students in Japan…

Lee, Joseph J.

2010-01-01

306

Tropical cyclogenesis: The unique perspective of satellite imagery and scatterometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uniquely valuable perspective of hurricanes afforded by satellite imagery in infrared, visible, and water vapor bands has been appreciated by operational forecasters for several years but is only beginning to be used for quantitative purposes in the study of tropical cyclogenesis. The imagery provide a view of the top side of these systems and, in the case of geostationary

T. J. Dunkerton

2005-01-01

307

Unique fixpoint induction for message-passing process calculi  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a proof system for message-passing process calculi with recursion. The key inference rule to deal with recursive processes is a version of Unique Fixpoint Induction for process abstractions. We prove that the proof system is sound and also complete for guarded regular message-passing processes. We also show that the system is incomplete for unguarded processes and discuss more

Matthew Hennessy; H. Lin; Julian Rathke

2001-01-01

308

Magnetoelectric birefringence as a unique effect in isotropic media.  

PubMed

Aspects of magnetoelectric birefringence phenomena are investigated in the context of electromagnetic wave propagation in isotropic nonlinear media in the eikonal approximation. It is shown that these phenomena can be produced as a unique effect in isotropic systems in the presence of external electric and magnetic fields, provided specific dielectric properties are present. PMID:21230201

De Lorenci, Vitorio A; Pereira, Dante D

2010-09-17

309

The Mysteries of Diamonds: Bizarre History, Amazing Properties, Unique Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamonds have been a prized material throughout history. They are scarce and beautiful, wars have been fought over them, and they remain today a symbol of wealth and power. Diamonds also have exceptional physical properties which can lead to unique applications in science. There are now techniques to artificially synthesize diamonds of extraordinarily high quality. In this talk, Professor Kagan

2008-01-01

310

Unique Outcome Expectations as a Training and Pedagogical Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The learning of the relations between discriminative stimuli, choice actions, and their outcomes can be characterized as conditional discriminative choice learning. Research shows that the technique of presenting unique outcomes for specific cued choices leads to faster and more accurate learning of such relations and has great potential to be…

Mok, Leh Woon; Estevez, Angeles F.; Overmier, J. Bruce

2010-01-01

311

The unique signal concept for detonation safety in nuclear weapons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of a unique signal (UQS) in a nuclear weapon system is to provide an unambiguous communication of intent to detonate from the UQS information input source device to a stronglink safety device in the weapon in a manner that is highly unlikely to be duplicated or simulated in normal environments and in a broad range of ill-defined abnormal

S. D. Spray; J. A. Cooper

1993-01-01

312

Characterization, Similarity Score and Uniqueness Associated with Perspiration Pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulnerabilities in biometric systems including spoofing has emerged as an important issue. The focus of this work is on characteri- zation of 'perspiration pattern' in a time-series of fingerprint images for liveness detection. By using information in the high pass bands of the im- ages the similarity score for the two images is calculated to determine the uniqueness of the

Aditya Abhyankar; Stephanie A. C. Schuckers

2005-01-01

313

Moffitt Cancer Center researchers identify unique immune gene signature  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at Moffitt Cancer Center have discovered a unique immune gene signature that can predict the presence of microscopic lymph node-like structures in metastatic melanoma. The presence of these immune structures, the researchers said, appears to be associated with better survival and may indicate the possibility of selecting patients for immunotherapy based solely on the immune-related makeup of their tumors.

314

Unique Problems in Prosecuting Child Abuse Cases Overseas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis examines the unique problems present in prosecuting military family child abuse cases in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Research has shown that military families overseas tend to have higher levels of stress, hence they tend to be more prone to ...

M. T. Johnson

1991-01-01

315

Unique Potential: A Metaphor for John Dewey's Moral Self.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper suggests that the current confusion regarding character formation is related to a postmodern dilemma about the nature of the individual child. By looking at John Dewey's concept of "potentials," and by applying this concept to his ideas about the self and experience, this paper develops a naturalistic version of the idea of "unique

Cunningham, Craig A.

316

A Unique, Consistent Identifier for Alternatively Spliced Transcript Variants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAs research into alternative splicing reveals the fundamental importance of this phenomenon in the genome expression of higher organisms, there is an increasing need for a standardized, consistent and unique identifier for alternatively spliced isoforms. Such an identifier would be useful to eliminate ambiguities in references to gene isoforms, and would allow for the reliable comparison of isoforms from different

Alberto Riva; Graziano Pesole; Juan Valcarcel

2009-01-01

317

Vertical microvia connections achieved using a unique conductive composite material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel base technology applicable to all major packaging and redistribution elements in an electronic module is presented. A unique polymer\\/metal composite conductor family based on transient liquid phase sintering (TLPS) can be used for chip package and PWB substrate applications, in interlayer connections, and for SMT assembly. High density multilayer circuits with landless blind and buried vias are fabricated

Goran Matijasevic; Pradeep Gandhi; Catherine Gallagher

1998-01-01

318

The importance and unique aspects of radiation protection in medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation protection in medicine has unique aspects and is an essential element of medical practice. Medical uses of radiation occur throughout the world, from large cities to rural clinics. It has been estimated that the number of medical procedures using radiation grew from about 1.7 billion in 1980 to almost 4 billion in 2007. In spite of these large numbers,

Ola Holmberg; Renate Czarwinski; Fred Mettler

2010-01-01

319

Is Self-Assessment in Religious Education Unique?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper addresses the question: is self-assessment in religious education unique? It first presents an overview of some challenges for assessment from subject differences, and then reviews the generic literature on self-assessment. It builds on earlier empirical research on self-assessment in religious education, carried out in an English…

Brooks, Val; Fancourt, Nigel

2012-01-01

320

Nickel: a unique allergen – from molecular structure to European legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel is a unique, mysterious and troublesome chemical element. Its molecular structure (unfilled electron shell) determines the high-reactivity and multidirectional biological effects. Some authors classify nickel as trace element, although its biological role in animal and human metabolism remains unclear. Conversely, nickel possesses strong sensitizing potential: as many as 65 million Europeans may be allergic to nickel. In this article,

Radoslaw Spiewak; Justyna Pietowska; Katarzyna Curzytek

2007-01-01

321

Unique chemical reactivity of a graphene nanoribbon's zigzag edge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zigzag edge of a graphene nanoribbon possesses a unique electronic state that is near the Fermi level and localized at the edge carbon atoms. The authors investigate the chemical reactivity of these zigzag edge sites by examining their reaction energetics with common radicals from first principles. A ``partial radical'' concept for the edge carbon atoms is introduced to characterize

De-En Jiang; Bobby G. Sumpter; Sheng Dai

2007-01-01

322

On the uniqueness of the moonshine vertex operator algebra  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proved that a vertex operator algebra is isomorphic to the moonshine VOA of Frenkel-Lepowsky-Meurman if it satisfies certain conditions. Our two main theorems establish a weak version of the FLM uniqueness conjecture for the moonshine vertex operator algebra. We believe that these are the first such results.

Chongying Dong; Robert L. Griess Jr.; Ching Hung Lam

2005-01-01

323

Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Small Town Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A small town can strengthen its local economy as a result of business people and concerned citizens collectively identifying that community's uniqueness and then capitalizing on it via advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, or publicity. This publication relates the science of marketing to communities. Seven simple techniques are provided…

Hogg, David H.; Dunn, Douglas

324

Effects of unique ion chemistry on thin-film growth by plasma-surface interactions  

PubMed Central

Plasma processing is a standard industrial method for the modification of material surfaces and the deposition of thin films. Polyatomic ions and neutrals larger than a triatomic play a critical role in plasma-induced surface chemistry, especially in the deposition of polymeric films from fluorocarbon plasmas. In this paper, low energy CF3+ and C3F5+ ions are used to modify a polystyrene surface. Experimental and computational studies are combined to quantify the effect of the unique chemistry and structure of the incident ions on the result of ion-polymer collisions. C3F5+ ions are more effective at growing films than CF3+, both at similar energy/atom of ?6 eV/atom and similar total kinetic energies of 25 and 50 eV. The composition of the films grown experimentally also varies with both the structure and kinetic energy of the incident ion. Both C3F5+ and CF3+ should be thought of as covalently bound polyatomic precursors or fragments that can react and become incorporated within the polystyrene surface, rather than merely donating F atoms. The size and structure of the ions affect polymer film formation via differing chemical structure, reactivity, sticking probabilities, and energy transfer to the surface. The different reactivity of these two ions with the polymer surface supports the argument that larger species contribute to the deposition of polymeric films from fluorocarbon plasmas. These results indicate that complete understanding and accurate computer modeling of plasma–surface modification requires accurate measurement of the identities, number densities, and kinetic energies of higher mass ions and energetic neutrals.

Wijesundara, Muthu B. J.; Hanley, Luke; Ni, Boris; Sinnott, Susan B.

2000-01-01

325

Wanted: unique names for unique atom positions. PDB-wide analysis of diastereotopic atom names of small molecules containing diphosphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Biological chemistry is very stereospecific. Nonetheless, the diastereotopic oxygen atoms of diphosphate-containing molecules in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) are often given names that do not uniquely distinguish them from each other due to the lack of standardization. This issue has largely not been addressed by the protein structure community. RESULTS: Of 472 diastereotopic atom pairs studied from the

Christopher A. Bottoms; Dong Xu

2008-01-01

326

Covalent Modification Cycles through the Spatial Prism.  

PubMed

Covalent modification cycles are basic units and building blocks of posttranslational modification and cellular signal transduction. We systematically explore different spatial aspects of signal transduction in covalent modification cycles by starting with a basic temporal cycle as a reference and focusing on steady-state signal transduction. We consider, in turn, the effect of diffusion on spatial signal transduction, spatial analogs of ultrasensitive behavior, and the interplay between enzyme localization and substrate diffusion. Our analysis reveals the need to explicitly account for kinetics and diffusional transport (and localization) of enzymes, substrates, and complexes. It demonstrates a complex and subtle interplay between spatial heterogeneity, diffusion, and localization. Overall, examining the spatial dimension of covalent modification reveals that 1), there are important differences between spatial and temporal signal transduction even in this cycle; and 2), spatial aspects may play a substantial role in affecting and distorting information transfer in modules/networks that are usually studied in purely temporal terms. This has important implications for the systematic understanding of signaling in covalent modification cycles, pathways, and networks in multiple cellular contexts. PMID:24094413

Alam-Nazki, Aiman; Krishnan, J

2013-10-01

327

Consistent cosmological modifications to the Einstein equations  

SciTech Connect

General relativity is a phenomenologically successful theory that rests on firm foundations, but has not been tested on cosmological scales. The deep mystery of dark energy (and possibly even the requirement of cold dark matter), has increased the need for testing modifications to general relativity, as the inference of such otherwise undetected fluids, depends crucially on the theory of gravity. In this work I outline a general scheme for constructing consistent and covariant modifications to the Einstein equations. This framework is such that there is a clear connection between the modification and the underlying field content that produces it. I argue that this is mandatory for distinguishing modifications of gravity from conventional fluids. I give two nontrivial examples, the first of which is a simple metric-based modification of the fluctuation equations for which the background is exact {lambda}CDM and the second has a Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati background but differs from it in the perturbations. I present their impact on observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation.

Skordis, Constantinos [Perimeter Institute, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

2009-06-15

328

Lysine post-translational modifications of collagen  

PubMed Central

Type I collagen is the most abundant structural protein in vertebrates. It is a heterotrimeric molecule composed of two ?1 chains and one ?2 chain, forming a long uninterrupted triple helical structure with short non-triple helical telopeptides at both the N- and C-termini. During biosynthesis, collagen acquires a number of post-translational modifications, including lysine modifications, that are critical to the structure and biological functions of this protein. Lysine modifications of collagen are highly complicated sequential processes catalysed by several groups of enzymes leading to the final step of biosynthesis, covalent intermolecular cross-linking. In the cell, specific lysine residues are hydroxylated to form hydroxylysine. Then specific hydroxylysine residues located in the helical domain of the molecule are glycosylated by the addition of galactose or glucose-galactose. Outside the cell, lysine and hydroxylysine residues in the N- and C-telopeptides can be oxidatively deaminated to produce reactive aldehydes that undergo a series of non-enzymatic condensation reactions to form covalent intra- and inter-molecular cross-links. Owing to the recent advances in molecular and cellular biology, and analytical technologies, the biological significance and molecular mechanisms of these modifications have been gradually elucidated. This chapter provides an overview on these enzymatic lysine modifications and subsequent cross-linking.

Yamauchi, Mitsuo; Sricholpech, Marnisa

2012-01-01

329

The RNA modification database, RNAMDB: 2011 update  

PubMed Central

Since its inception in 1994, The RNA Modification Database (RNAMDB, http://rna-mdb.cas.albany.edu/RNAmods/) has served as a focal point for information pertaining to naturally occurring RNA modifications. In its current state, the database employs an easy-to-use, searchable interface for obtaining detailed data on the 109 currently known RNA modifications. Each entry provides the chemical structure, common name and symbol, elemental composition and mass, CA registry numbers and index name, phylogenetic source, type of RNA species in which it is found, and references to the first reported structure determination and synthesis. Though newly transferred in its entirety to The RNA Institute, the RNAMDB continues to grow with two notable additions, agmatidine and 8-methyladenosine, appended in the last year. The RNA Modification Database is staying up-to-date with significant improvements being prepared for inclusion within the next year and the following year. The expanded future role of The RNA Modification Database will be to serve as a primary information portal for researchers across the entire spectrum of RNA-related research.

Cantara, William A.; Crain, Pamela F.; Rozenski, Jef; McCloskey, James A.; Harris, Kimberly A.; Zhang, Xiaonong; Vendeix, Franck A. P.; Fabris, Daniele; Agris, Paul F.

2011-01-01

330

The Research of Plastic Gear Tooth Tip Modification and Rack Tool Root Modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing application of plastic gears, the defects of the plastic gear design and manufacturing appears increasingly. Combining the plastic gears problems in the application and the problems of the plastic gear design and manufacturing appears in the company, we collect domestic and abroad information, ratiocinate and research the relationship between plastic gear modification and rack tool modification. Finally,

Jiachun Li; Haipeng Gao; Xudong Ynag

2010-01-01

331

Bizonoplast, a unique chloroplast in the epidermal cells of microphylls in the shade plant Selaginella erythropus (Selaginellaceae).  

PubMed

Study of the unique leaf anatomy and chloroplast structure in shade-adapted plants will aid our understanding of how plants use light efficiently in low light environments. Unusual chloroplasts in terms of size and thylakoid membrane stacking have been described previously in several deep-shade plants. In this study, a single giant cup-shaped chloroplast, termed a bizonoplast, was found in the abaxial epidermal cells of the dorsal microphylls and the adaxial epidermal cells of the ventral microphylls in the deep-shade spike moss Selaginella erythropus. Bizonoplasts are dimorphic in ultrastructure: the upper zone is occupied by numerous layers of 2-4 stacked thylakoid membranes while the lower zone contains both unstacked stromal thylakoids and thylakoid lamellae stacked in normal grana structure oriented in different directions. In contrast, other cell types in the microphylls contain chloroplasts with typical structure. This unique chloroplast has not been reported from any other species. The enlargement of epidermal cells into funnel-shaped, photosynthetic cells coupled with specific localization of a large bizonoplast in the lower part of the cells and differential modification in ultrastructure within the chloroplast may allow the plant to better adapt to low light. Further experiments are required to determine whether this shade-adapted organism derives any evolutionary or ecophysiological fitness from these unique chloroplasts. PMID:21636386

Sheue, Chiou-Rong; Sarafis, Vassilios; Kiew, Ruth; Liu, Ho-Yih; Salino, Alexandre; Kuo-Huang, Ling-Long; Yang, Yuen-Po; Tsai, Chi-Chu; Lin, Chun-Hung; Yong, Jean W H; Ku, Maurice S B

2007-12-01

332

Phase aspect of nonlinear modifications of the Schroedinger equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this dissertation was to examine a relatively new class of nonlinear modifications of the Schrödinger equation, the phase modifications of this equation, i.e., the modifications in which the phase of the quantum-mechanical wave function plays a relevant dynamical role. By introducing a class of modifications singled out by the fact that their quantum mechanical energy coincides with

Waldemar Puszkarz

1999-01-01

333

Binary switches and modification cassettes in histone biology and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immense number of post-translational modifications on histone proteins have been described and additional sites of modification are still being uncovered. Whereas many direct and indirect connections between certain histone modifications and distinct biological phenomena have now been established, concepts for comprehending the extreme density and variety of these covalent modifications are lacking. Here, we formally introduce localized `binary switches'

Wolfgang Fischle; Yanming Wang; C. David Allis

2003-01-01

334

Unique, icy gathering system will serve Norman Wells  

SciTech Connect

One of the more unique communities on the Mackenzie River is Norman Wells, ca 90 miles south of the Arctic Circle and 450 air miles south of the Beaufort Sea. For over 50 yr, Norman Wells has been a major supplier of petroleum products to the Mackenzie Valley. The most unique aspect of Norman Wells is that it is underlain by a large reservoir of oil. Fifty wells in the area produce over 3000 bbl of light crude daily, which is refined locally. Esso Resources Canada Ltd. now is developing the field and expanding production. New facilities will include 151 new wells for producing oil and injecting water, 6 artificial islands in the 3-mile wide river to accommodate gathering points, and a new central processing facility. The crude oil to be produced will be transported by Interprovincial Pipeline (NW) Ltd. from Norman Wells to Zama, Alta.

Hale, D.

1983-09-01

335

Discovery and characterization of a unique mycobacterial heme acquisition system  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis must import iron from its host for survival, and its siderophore-dependent iron acquisition pathways are well established. Here we demonstrate a newly characterized pathway, whereby M. tuberculosis can use free heme and heme from hemoglobin as an iron source. Significantly, we identified the genomic region, Rv0202c–Rv0207c, responsible for the passage of heme iron across the mycobacterial membrane. Key players of this heme uptake system were characterized including a secreted protein and two transmembrane proteins, all three specific to mycobacteria. Furthermore, the crystal structure of the key heme carrier protein Rv0203 was found to have a unique fold. The discovery of a unique mycobacterial heme acquisition pathway opens new avenues of exploration into mycobacterial therapeutics.

Harmston, Christine A.; Owens, Cedric P.; Chim, Nicholas; Morse, Robert P.; McMath, Lisa M.; Iniguez, Angelina; Kimmey, Jacqueline M.; Sawaya, Michael R.; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Horwitz, Marcus A.; Goulding, Celia W.

2011-01-01

336

Non-uniqueness of the natural and projectively equivariant quantization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In [C. Duval, V. Ovsienko, Projectively equivariant quantization and symbol calculus: Noncommutative hypergeometric functions, Lett. Math. Phys. 57 (1) (2001) 61 67], the authors showed the existence and the uniqueness of a sl(m+1,R)-equivariant quantization in non-critical situations. The curved generalization of the sl(m+1,R)-equivariant quantization is the natural and projectively equivariant quantization. In [M. Bordemann, Sur l’existence d’une prescription d’ordre naturelle projectivement invariante (submitted for publication). math.DG/0208171] and [Pierre Mathonet, Fabian Radoux, Natural and projectively equivariant quantizations by means of Cartan connections, Lett. Math. Phys. 72 (3) (2005) 183 196], the existence of such a quantization was proved in two different ways. In this paper, we show that this quantization is not unique.

Radoux, F.

2008-02-01

337

Unique after-hyperpolarization accompanying action potential in Chara globularis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique after-hyperpolarization was found in internodal cells ofChara globularis. The cells generated an ordinary action potential due to regenerative depolarization induced by the outward electric current\\u000a pulse larger than a threshold stimulus. After reaching a depolarizing peak, the membrane potential repolarized and overshooted\\u000a the resting potential to a value which was somehow 40 mV more negative than the resting

Teruo Shimmen

1994-01-01

338

Existence and uniqueness theorem for uncertain differential equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canonical process is a Lipschitz continuous uncertain process with stationary and independent increments, and uncertain differential\\u000a equation is a type of differential equations driven by canonical process. This paper presents some methods to solve linear\\u000a uncertain differential equations, and proves an existence and uniqueness theorem of solution for uncertain differential equation\\u000a under Lipschitz condition and linear growth condition.

X. Chen; B. Liu

2010-01-01

339

Water Nucleation on Gold: Existence of a Unique Double Bilayer  

SciTech Connect

Combining the results from experimental (STM and IRAS) and theoretical (DFT) studies of water adsorption on gold, we show that the Au(111) surface is hydrophobic. The weak interaction of water with Au induces the formation of a unique double bilayer, which itself is hydrophobic due to the internal locking of all hydrogen bonds within the bilayer and between the two bilayers of the water clusters.

Hrbek, J.; Stacchiola, D.; Park, J.B.; Liu, P.; Ma, S.; Yang, F.; Starr, D.E.; Muller, E.; Sutter, P.

2009-08-27

340

Teleportation of A Single Qubit State via Unique W State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a scheme for teleporting a single qubit state employing a unique three-particle W state as quantum channel. By adopting QED cavity technologies, our scheme does not involve the Bell-state measurements(BMs). An unknown state a|0> + b|1> can be probabilistically teleported by communicators' single particle measurements, unitary operations and classical communications. We can perfectly teleport quantum state ½1?2(|0> +|1>) with 100% probability.

Cao, Hai-Jing; Song, He-Shan

2007-06-01

341

Generalized Traveling Waves in Disordered Media: Existence, Uniqueness, and Stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove existence, uniqueness, and stability of transition fronts (generalized traveling waves) for reaction-diffusion equations in cylindrical domains with general inhomogeneous ignition reactions. We also show uniform convergence of solutions with exponentially decaying initial data to time translations of the front. In the case of stationary ergodic reactions, the fronts are proved to propagate with a deterministic positive speed. Our results extend to reaction-advection-diffusion equations with periodic advection and diffusion.

Zlatoš, Andrej

2013-05-01

342

Lipoprotein(a) A Unique Risk Factor for Atherothrombotic Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 immunized rabbits with human low density lipoprotein (LDL) and identified a genetic vari- ation in the anti-LDL antibody response. He attributed this genetic variation to a unique fraction of LDL that he termed lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)), and he believed that this trait was transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion. Over the subsequent two decades, data obtained from several groups 2

Joseph Loscalzo; Kare Berg

2010-01-01

343

A Unique Iontophoretic Patch for Optimal Transdermal Delivery of Sumatriptan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Migraines affect approximately 10% of the adult population worldwide. The purpose of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetic\\u000a and safety profile of a novel iontophoretic sumatriptan delivery system, NP101, which uses an electrical current to propel\\u000a sumatriptan across intact skin and into underlying tissue. Four unique prototype iontophoretic sumatriptan patch conditions\\u000a were compared to a 6 mg subcutaneous injection and

Steven J. Siegel; Carol O’Neill; Louise M. Dubé; Peter Kaldeway; Russell Morris; David Jackson; Terri Sebree

2007-01-01

344

Unique case of "post-lumbar puncture headache".  

PubMed

Lumbar puncture (LP) is associated with complications that include post-LP orthostatic headache, local bleeding, and subdural hematoma. We report a unique case of a spontaneous frontal epidural hematoma following a therapeutic lumbar puncture in a patient with a history of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. This case highlights the importance of symptomatology in patients following LPs by revealing a rare intracranial presentation that would be devastating if not discovered promptly and appropriately managed. PMID:23298181

Patel, Bimal A; Williams, Nolan R; Pritchard, Paul B

2013-01-08

345

Unique ties between Hepatitis C Virus replication and intracellular lipids  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infects approximately 3 percent of the world’s population, establishing a life-long infection in the majority of cases. The life cycle of HCV is closely tied to the lipid metabolism of liver cells, and lipid droplets have emerged as crucial intracellular organelles that support persistent propagation of viral infection. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of how HCV usurps intracellular lipids to propagate and highlight unique opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

Herker, Eva; Ott, Melanie

2011-01-01

346

Is self-assessment in religious education unique?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the question: is self-assessment in religious education unique? It first presents an overview of some challenges for assessment from subject differences, and then reviews the generic literature on self-assessment. It builds on earlier empirical research on self-assessment in religious education, carried out in an English state secondary school; this was used to propose a variant of self-assessment

Val Brooks; Nigel Fancourt

2012-01-01

347

Is self-assessment in religious education unique?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the question: is self-assessment in religious education unique? It first presents an overview of some challenges for assessment from subject differences, and then reviews the generic literature on self-assessment. It builds on earlier empirical research on self-assessment in religious education, carried out in an English state secondary school; this was used to propose a variant of self-assessment

Val Brooks; Nigel Fancourt

2011-01-01

348

HazLit: a unique resource for natural hazards information.  

PubMed

The "Online Updates" column generally focuses on bibliographic databases that may be licensed from commercial vendors or are available free of charge from a federal government agency. HazLit is featured because it is a unique and comprehensive resource of the literature of natural disasters. This column provides background information on HazLit and offers some searching basics, as well as highlights special information found at the Web site that hosts the database. PMID:17915632

Fitzpatrick, Roberta Bronson

2007-01-01

349

Quasi-nearness biframes: unique completions and related covering properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quasi-completeness was considered in [16], where a quasi-completion was constructed for any quasi-nearness biframe. In this paper, we compare the familiar notions of compactness and total boundedness with quasi-completeness. We investigate the uniqueness of quasi-completions, using the full and balanced biframes of [17]. In the case of quasi-uniform biframes it makes sense to compare this quasi-completion with the completion of

John Frith; Anneliese Schauerte

2012-01-01

350

Multiple agminated spindle cell nevi: unique clinical presentation and review.  

PubMed

A boy with agminated spindle cell nevi is described. Present within the area of involvement were congenital nevocellular and composite spindle/nevocellular nevi. Other unusual features included a dynamic pattern of growth and regression of the lesions, with the presence of halo nevi and background café au lait pigmentation. This unique presentation of multiple nevi is discussed in the context of previous reports of agminated spindle cell nevi. PMID:6863631

Lancer, H A; Muhlbauer, J E; Sober, A J

1983-05-01

351

Unique contributions of churches and clergy to community mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Good principles and practices of community mental health have been demonstrated by religious communities and leaders within these communities for many years. Using Caplan's model of primary-secondary-tertiary prevention, this paper articulates the unique and cooperative contributions of present-day religious institutions and personnel to the total community mental health endeavor. The validity of church's and clergy's involvement is supported by research

Kenneth C. Haugk

1976-01-01

352

Unique Features of a Highly Pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni Strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Campylobacter jejuni, a major human enteric pathogen, exhibits significant strain-to-strain differences which result in differences in pathogenic potential. C. jejuni 81-176 is a highly virulent strain that exhibits unique pathogenic features and is used by many research laboratories. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of its genome and compared it to the genomes of other sequenced C. jejuni strains. We

Dirk Hofreuter; Jennifer Tsai; Robert O. Watson; Veronica Novik; Bill Altman; Michelle Benitez; Christina Clark; Clotilde Perbost; Thomas Jarvie; Lei Du; Jorge E. Galan

2006-01-01

353

Uniqueness of Kerr space-time near null infinity  

SciTech Connect

We reexpress the Kerr metric in standard Bondi-Sachs coordinates near null infinity I{sup +}. Using the uniqueness result of the characteristic initial value problem, we prove the Kerr metric is the only asymptotically flat, stationary, axially symmetric, type-D solution of the vacuum Einstein equation. The Taylor series of Kerr space-time is expressed in terms of Bondi-Sachs coordinates, and the Newman-Penrose constants have been calculated.

Wu Xiaoning [Institute of Mathematics, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2734, Beijing, 100080 (China); Bai Shan [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing, 100080 (China)

2008-12-15

354

Concentration and Mindfulness Meditations: Unique Forms of Consciousness?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from 19 scalp recording sites were used to differentiate among two posited unique forms of mediation, concentration and mindfulness, and a normal relaxation control condition. Analyzes of all traditional frequency bandwidth data (i.e., delta 1–3 Hz; theta, 4–7 Hz; alpha, 8–12 Hz; beta 1, 13–25 Hz; beta 2, 26–32 Hz) showed strong mean amplitude frequency differences between

Bruce R. Dunn; Judith A. Hartigan; William L. Mikulas

1999-01-01

355

On the uniqueness of the moonshine vertex operator algebra  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proved that a vertex operator algebra is isomorphic to the moonshine\\u000aVOA of Frenkel-Lepowsky-Meurman if it satisfies certain conditions. Our two\\u000amain theorems establish a weak version of the FLM uniqueness conjecture for the\\u000amoonshine vertex operator algebra. We believe that these are the first such\\u000aresults.

Chongying Dong; Robert L. Griess Jr.; Ching Hung Lam

2005-01-01

356

[I, Robot: artificial intelligence, uniqueness and self-consciousness].  

PubMed

The cinematographic version of the science fiction classical book by Isaac Asimov (I, Robot) is used as a starting point, from the Artificial Intelligence perspective, in order to analyze what it is to have a self. Uniqueness or the exchange impossibility and the continuity of being one self are put forward to understand the movie's characters as well as the possibilities of feeling self conscious. PMID:18592055

Agrest, Martín

357

Modification Site Localization Scoring: Strategies and Performance  

PubMed Central

Using enrichment strategies many research groups are routinely producing large data sets of post-translationally modified peptides for proteomic analysis using tandem mass spectrometry. Although search engines are relatively effective at identifying these peptides with a defined measure of reliability, their localization of site/s of modification is often arbitrary and unreliable. The field continues to be in need of a widely accepted metric for false localization rate that accurately describes the certainty of site localization in published data sets and allows for consistent measurement of differences in performance of emerging scoring algorithms. In this article are discussed the main strategies currently used by software for modification site localization and ways of assessing the performance of these different tools. Methods for representing ambiguity are reviewed and a discussion of how the approaches transfer to different data types and modifications is presented.

Chalkley, Robert J.; Clauser, Karl R.

2012-01-01

358

Hypertension improvement through healthy lifestyle modifications.  

PubMed

Hypertension is the major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and renal disease. This disease has a disproportionate effect on African Americans when compared to other races. The purpose of this project was to examine the effectiveness of healthy lifestyle modifications on blood pressure control among hypertensive African American adults. Thirty-six individuals participated in the 12-week project, with a 67% retention rate. Weekly sessions included interactive educational and walking components. Initial and final BMI measurements were recorded. Participants completed health risk assessments; pre and post questionnaires; and, daily logs ofblood pressure measurement, dietary consumption, and physical activity levels. Data were collected from the logs, BMI measurements, and questionnaires. Overall, the results revealed that participants experienced an increase in healthy lifestyle modification adoption resulting in blood pressure control improvement. Implementation of healthy lifestyle modifications is crucial in providing quality patient care to hypertensive individuals. PMID:21675668

Rigsby, Brenda D

2011-01-01

359

Body modifications, sexual activity, and religious practices.  

PubMed

Relations among body modifications (i.e., tattoos and piercings), sexual activity, and religious practices and beliefs were examined. In previous studies, Koch and colleagues found the type of body modification seemed to interact with sex to predict sexual activity; but only weak, negative correlations were found between tattoos and religious beliefs and practices. In a sample of 236 students (M age=20.1 yr.) from a small Catholic liberal arts college, numbers of tattoos and sexual partners were correlated statistically significantly. Other results differed by t sex: men with piercings were more likely to have had premarital intercourse, and women who had had premarital intercourse had more piercings than women who had not. There were no statistically significant correlations among body modifications and religious variables. PMID:20524547

Rivardo, Mark G; Keelan, Colleen M

2010-04-01

360

Recent developments in classical density modification  

PubMed Central

Classical density-modification techniques (as opposed to statistical approaches) offer a computationally cheap method for improving phase estimates in order to provide a good electron-density map for model building. The rise of statistical methods has lead to a shift in focus away from the classical approaches; as a result, some recent developments have not made their way into classical density-modification software. This paper describes the application of some recent tech­niques, including most importantly the use of prior phase information in the likelihood estimation of phase errors within a classical density-modification framework. The resulting software gives significantly better results than comparable classical methods, while remaining nearly two orders of magnitude faster than statistical methods.

Cowtan, Kevin

2010-01-01

361

Plastic-casting intrinsic-surface unique identifier (tag)  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development of an authenticated intrinsic-surf ace tagging method for unique- identification of controlled items. Although developed for control of items limited by an arms control treaty, this method has other potential applications to keep track of critical or high-value items. Each tag (unique-identifier) consists of the intrinsic, microscopic surface topography of a small designated area on a controlled item. It is implemented by making a baseline plastic casting of the designated tag area and usually placing a cover (for example, a bar-code label) over this area to protect the surface from environmental alteration. The plastic casting is returned to a laboratory and prepared for high-resolution scanning electron microscope imaging. Several images are digitized and stored for use as a standard for authentication of castings taken during future inspections. Authentication is determined by numerically comparing digital images. Commercially available hardware and software are used for this tag. Tag parameters are optimized, so unique casting images are obtained from original surfaces, and images obtained from attempted duplicate surfaces are detected. This optimization uses the modulation transfer function, a first principle of image analysis, to determine the parameters. Surface duplication experiments confirmed the optimization.

Palm, R.G.; De Volpi, A.

1995-04-01

362

Uniqueness of the gauge invariant action for cosmological perturbations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In second order perturbation theory different definitions are known of gauge invariant perturbations in single field inflationary models. Consequently the corresponding gauge invariant cubic actions do not have the same form. Here we show that the cubic action for one choice of gauge invariant variables is unique in the following sense: the action for any other, non-linearly related variable can be brought to the same bulk action, plus additional boundary terms. These boundary terms correspond to the choice of hypersurface and generate extra, disconnected contributions to the bispectrum. We also discuss uniqueness of the action with respect to conformal frames. When expressed in terms of the gauge invariant curvature perturbation on uniform field hypersurfaces the action for cosmological perturbations has a unique form, independent of the original Einstein or Jordan frame. Crucial is that the gauge invariant comoving curvature perturbation is frame independent, which makes it extremely helpful in showing the quantum equivalence of the two frames, and therefore in calculating quantum effects in nonminimally coupled theories such as Higgs inflation.

Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan

2012-12-01

363

Biosynthetic Potential of Phylogenetically Unique Endophytic Actinomycetes from Tropical Plants? †  

PubMed Central

The culturable diversity of endophytic actinomycetes associated with tropical, native plants is essentially unexplored. In this study, 123 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from tropical plants collected from several locations in Papua New Guinea and Mborokua Island, Solomon Islands. Isolates were found to be prevalent in roots but uncommon in leaves. Initially, isolates were dereplicated to the strain level by ribotyping. Subsequent characterization of 105 unique strains by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that 17 different genera were represented, and rare genera, such as Sphaerisporangium and Planotetraspora, which have never been previously reported to be endophytic, were quite prevalent. Phylogenetic analyses grouped many of the strains into clades distinct from known genera within Thermomonosporaceae and Micromonosporaceae, indicating that they may be unique genera. Bioactivity testing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling of crude fermentation extracts were performed on 91 strains. About 60% of the extracts exhibited bioactivity or displayed LC-MS profiles with spectra indicative of secondary metabolites. The biosynthetic potential of 29 nonproductive strains was further investigated by the detection of putative polyketide synthase (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes. Despite their lack of detectable secondary metabolite production in fermentation, most were positive for type I (66%) and type II (79%) PKS genes, and all were positive for NRPS genes. These results suggest that tropical plants from New Guinea and the adjacent archipelago are hosts to unique endophytic actinomycetes that possess significant biosynthetic potential.

Janso, Jeffrey E.; Carter, Guy T.

2010-01-01

364

Unique symbol for marking and tracking very small semiconductor products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of tracking very small semiconductor products with a bar code is easily overcome by the use of the matrix symbol, which is a unique two-dimensional symbol that is the most space efficient method of packing binary data. It is both machine written and machine read to provide the utmost in accuracy and repeatability. The number of data cells can either be expanded or contracted to handle the required information and in addition can contain parity and error correcting codes. Semiconductor chips, wafers, substrates, modules and even masks can all be laser marked with this symbol and quickly read at any later stage of the manufacturing process. This unique symbol is computer generated by a software algorithm which creates the data cells and data frame which are laser etched on the product. On-line product identification yields immediate benefits in manufacturing such as inventory control, proper mating of parts, proper selection of test programs, quality control, etc. Use of a very small unique machine readable symbol now permits these benefits to be extended to miniature parts in an automated high speed manufacturing line.

Martin, James P.

1991-12-01

365

Synthetic biology of cyanobacteria: unique challenges and opportunities  

PubMed Central

Photosynthetic organisms, and especially cyanobacteria, hold great promise as sources of renewably-produced fuels, bulk and specialty chemicals, and nutritional products. Synthetic biology tools can help unlock cyanobacteria's potential for these functions, but unfortunately tool development for these organisms has lagged behind that for S. cerevisiae and E. coli. While these organisms may in many cases be more difficult to work with as “chassis” strains for synthetic biology than certain heterotrophs, the unique advantages of autotrophs in biotechnology applications as well as the scientific importance of improved understanding of photosynthesis warrant the development of these systems into something akin to a “green E. coli.” In this review, we highlight unique challenges and opportunities for development of synthetic biology approaches in cyanobacteria. We review classical and recently developed methods for constructing targeted mutants in various cyanobacterial strains, and offer perspective on what genetic tools might most greatly expand the ability to engineer new functions in such strains. Similarly, we review what genetic parts are most needed for the development of cyanobacterial synthetic biology. Finally, we highlight recent methods to construct genome-scale models of cyanobacterial metabolism and to use those models to measure properties of autotrophic metabolism. Throughout this paper, we discuss some of the unique challenges of a diurnal, autotrophic lifestyle along with how the development of synthetic biology and biotechnology in cyanobacteria must fit within those constraints.

Berla, Bertram M.; Saha, Rajib; Immethun, Cheryl M.; Maranas, Costas D.; Moon, Tae Seok; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

2013-01-01

366

Chemical modification of dCMP hydroxymethylase  

SciTech Connect

dCMP hydroxymethylase from E. coli B infected with a T-4 bacteriophage amber mutant is a dimer with a subunit molecular weight of 27,000 gm mol/sup -1/. Chemical modification of the homogeneous enzyme with the sulfhydryl reagents N-ethyl maleimide (NEM) and 5,5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) leads to complete loss of activity. Aminopterin or methotrexate alone do not protect the enzyme against NEM inactivation but these compounds plus dCMP protect the enzyme far better than dCMP alone. Titration of the enzyme with /sup 14/C-NEM indicate that loss of enzyme activity correlates with sulfhydryl group modification. One (0.9 +/- 0.1) sulfhydryl per enzyme dimer causes complete inactivation. Titration of sulfhydryl groups with DTNB was monitored both by activity measurements and absorbance at 412 nm. About 90% of the enzyme activity was lost with the DTNB modification of one sulfhydryl group per dimer (t/sub 1/2/ = 1.0 min). The final 10% of enzyme activity loss requires the modification of a second sulfhydryl group which reacts at a much slower rate (t/sub 1/2/ = 20 min). The rates of sulfhydryl group modification by DTNB measured spectrophotometrically and the rates of enzyme activity loss are in excellent agreement. It would appear that two active site sulfhydryl groups per enzyme dimer are required for activity. The rapid modification of one sulfhydryl likely causes a conformational change which results in the slower reaction of the second sulfhydryl group.

Lee, M.H.; Gautam-Basak, M.; Sander, E.G.

1986-05-01

367

Acetylation regulates subcellular localization of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A).  

PubMed

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is a protein subject to hypusination, which is essential for its function. eIF5A is also acetylated, but the role of that modification is unknown. Here, we report that acetylation regulates the subcellular localization of eIF5A. We identified PCAF as the major cellular acetyltransferase of eIF5A, and HDAC6 and SIRT2 as its major deacetylases. Inhibition of the deacetylases or impaired hypusination increased acetylation of eIF5A, leading to nuclear accumulation. As eIF5A is constitutively hypusinated under physiological conditions, we suggest that reversible acetylation plays a major role in controlling the subcellular localization of eIF5A. PMID:22771473

Ishfaq, Muhammad; Maeta, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Satoko; Natsume, Toru; Ito, Akihiro; Yoshida, Minoru

2012-07-04

368

Modification of gravity due to torsion  

SciTech Connect

Modifications of general relativity have been considered as one of the possible ways of addressing some of the outstanding problems related to the large scale gravitational physics. In this contribution we review some of the recent results which are due to the inclusion of dynamical torsion. More specifically we shall discuss the propagation of massive spin-2 particles in flat and curved space times. We shall show that, contrary to what is generally believed, spinning matter is not the sole source of torsion field. A symmetric energy momentum tensor can also couple to torsion degrees of freedom. The massive and massless spin-2 particles mix giving rise to an infrared modification of gravity.

Nair, V. P. [Physics Department, City College of the CUNY, New York, NY 10031 (United States); Nikiforova, V. [Physics Department, Mascow State University Moscow (Russian Federation); Randjbar-Daemi, S. [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Rubakov, V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-01-01

369

The RNA Modification Database: 1999 update.  

PubMed

The RNA Modification Database (http://medlib.med.utah.edu/RNAmods/) provides a comprehensive listing of naturally modified nucleosides in RNA. Each file includes: chemical structure; common name and symbol; type(s) of RNA in which found and corresponding phylogenetic distribution; Chemical s registry number and index name; and initial literature citations for structure characterization and chemical synthesis. New features include capability to search database files by name or substructural features, modifications in tmRNA, and links to related data and sites. PMID:9847178

Rozenski, J; Crain, P F; McCloskey, J A

1999-01-01

370

Preliminary results of impeller design modifications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power consumption in the oil mixing process is very much affected by the impeller design. Minor modification on the impeller design might result in better mixing and less energy consumption. This paper reports an early stage of applying the observation technique to modify three standard impellers, namely the Pitched blade turbine impeller, the CHEMSHEAR impeller and the Vertical Flat-Blade Turbine Impeller. The advantages and disadvantages of these three impellers were analyzed; accordingly minor modification on the impeller design is adopted. The CFD tool is used to evaluate one of the modified impellers; results indicated that the modified impeller achieves better fluid dispersion.

Yan, Y. C.; Sam, C. H.; Soo, S. E.; Khoo, X. S.; Lau, J. K.; Khek, C. H.; Younis, O.

2012-09-01

371

Modifications of Hadrons in the Nuclear Medium  

SciTech Connect

The high-energy and short-distances regime of the strong interaction is successfully described by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) involving quark and gluon degrees of freedom. In the low-energy and large-distances regime, QCD-inspired effective models are needed to describe the observed phenomena. These models predict a modification of the properties of hadrons in nuclear matter from their free-space values. A review of the theoretical and experimental approach to the in-medium modifications of light hadrons will be given.

Djalali, Chaden [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

2010-08-04

372

Chromatin proteins and modifications as drug targets.  

PubMed

A plethora of groundbreaking studies have demonstrated the importance of chromatin-associated proteins and post-translational modifications of histones, proteins and DNA (so-called epigenetic modifications) for transcriptional control and normal development. Disruption of epigenetic control is a frequent event in disease, and the first epigenetic-based therapies for cancer treatment have been approved. A generation of new classes of potent and specific inhibitors for several chromatin-associated proteins have shown promise in preclinical trials. Although the biology of epigenetic regulation is complex, new inhibitors such as these will hopefully be of clinical use in the coming years. PMID:24153301

Helin, Kristian; Dhanak, Dashyant

2013-10-24

373

Development and application of FI catalysts for olefin polymerization: unique catalysis and distinctive polymer formation.  

PubMed

Catalysts contribute to the efficient production of chemicals and materials in almost all processes in the chemical industry. The polyolefin industry is one prominent example of the importance of catalysts. The discovery of Ziegler-Natta catalysts in the 1950s resulted in the production of high-density polyethylenes (PEs) and isotactic polypropylenes (iPPs). Since then, further catalyst development has led to the production of a new series of polyolefins, including linear low-density PEs, amorphous ethylene/1-butene copolymers, ethylene/propylene/diene elastomers, and syndiotactic PPs (sPPs). Polyolefins are now the most important and the most produced synthetic polymers. This Account describes a family of next-generation olefin polymerization catalysts (FI catalysts) that are currently being used in the commercial production of value-added olefin-based materials. An FI catalyst is a heteroatom-coordinated early transition metal complex that combines a pair of nonsymmetric phenoxy-imine [O(-), N] chelating ligands with a group 4 transition metal. The catalytically active species derived from FI catalysts is highly electrophilic and can assume up to five isomeric structures based on the coordination of the phenoxy-imine ligand. In addition, the accessibility of the ligands of the FI catalysts and their amenability to modification offers an opportunity for the design of diverse catalytic structures. FI catalysts exhibit many unique chemical characteristics: precise control over chain transfers (including highly controlled living ethylene and propylene polymerizations), extremely high selectivity for ethylene, high functional group tolerance, MAO- and borate-free polymerization catalysis, significant morphology polymer formation, controlled multimodal behavior, high incorporation ability for higher alpha-olefins and norbornene, and highly syndiospecific and isospecific polymerizations of both propylene and styrene. These reactions also occur with very high catalyst efficiency. The reaction products include a wide variety of unique olefin-based materials, many of which were previously unavailable via other means of polymerization. We have produced selective vinyl- and Al-terminated PEs, ultrahigh molecular weight linear PEs, regio- and stereoirregular high molecular weight poly(higher alpha-olefin)s, ethylene- and propylene-based telechelic polymers, a wide array of polyolefinic block copolymers from ethylene, propylene, and higher alpha-olefins, and ultrafine noncoherent PE particles. FI catalysts are important from the organometallic, catalytic, and polymer science points of view, and the chemical industry is now using them for the production of value-added olefin-based materials. We anticipate that future research on FI catalysts will produce additional olefin-based materials with unique architectures and material properties and will offer scientists the chance to further study olefin polymerization catalysis and related reaction mechanisms. PMID:19588950

Makio, Haruyuki; Fujita, Terunori

2009-10-20

374

45 CFR 162.406 - Standard unique health identifier for health care providers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Standard unique health identifier for health care providers. 162.406 Section...Standard Unique Health Identifier for Health Care Providers § 162.406 Standard unique health identifier for health care providers. (a)...

2009-10-01

375

The catalytic subunit of human telomerase is a unique caspase-6 and caspase-7 substrate.  

PubMed

Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex that is essential for persistent cellular proliferation. The catalytic subunit of human telomerase, hTERT, functions as a reverse transcriptase and promotes vitality by maintaining telomeric DNA length. hTERT is tightly regulated with complex but poorly understood positive and negative regulation at several levels including transcription, protein-protein interactions, and post-translation modifications. Because evidence implicates hTERT as an apoptosis inhibitor and because telomerase activity tends to decrease during apoptosis, we hypothesized that hTERT is a caspase substrate leading to down regulation during apoptosis. Caspases are proteases that initiate and execute apoptosis by cleaving target proteins. Indeed, we found that caspases-6 and -7 cleave hTERT during apoptosis in cultured cells. Caspase-6 cleaves at residues D129 and D637, and caspase-7 cleaves at E286 and D628. Three of the caspase cleavage sites are unique motifs. All four caspase motifs appear conserved in TERTs from Old World monkeys and apes, and the caspase-6 sites appear conserved in all primates. The caspase site that cleaves at D129 appears conserved in amniotes. hTERT fragments generated by cleavage were remarkably persistent, lasting hours after caspase activation. These results reveal a new biologically relevant mechanism for telomerase down regulation through caspase-mediated cleavage of hTERT and expand the list of known caspase motifs. PMID:21936563

Soares, Joana; Lowe, Margaret M; Jarstfer, Michael B

2011-09-29

376

A unique regulatory phase of DNA methylation in the early mammalian embryo  

PubMed Central

Summary DNA methylation is highly dynamic during mammalian embryogenesis. It is broadly accepted that the paternal genome is actively depleted of 5-methyl cytosine at fertilization, followed by passive loss that reaches a minimum at the blastocyst stage. However, this model is based on limited data, and to date no base-resolution maps exist to support and refine it. Here, we generated genome-scale DNA methylation maps in mouse gametes and through post-implantation embryogenesis. We find that the oocyte already exhibits global hypomethylation, most prominently at specific families of long interspersed element-1 and long terminal repeat retro-elements, which are disparate between gametes and resolve to lower methylation values in zygote. Surprisingly, the oocyte contributes a unique set of Differentially Methylated Regions (DMRs), including many CpG Island promoter regions, that are maintained in the early embryo but are lost upon specification and absent from somatic cells. In contrast, sperm-contributed DMRs are largely intergenic and resolve to hypermethylation after the blastocyst stage. Our data provide a complete genome-scale, base-resolution timeline of DNA methylation in the pre-specified embryo, when this epigenetic modification is most dynamic, before returning to the canonical somatic pattern.

Smith, Zachary D.; Chan, Michelle M.; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S.; Gu, Hongcang; Gnirke, Andreas; Regev, Aviv; Meissner, Alexander

2012-01-01

377

Unique motifs and hydrophobic interactions shape the binding of modified DNA ligands to protein targets.  

PubMed

Selection of aptamers from nucleic acid libraries by in vitro evolution represents a powerful method of identifying high-affinity ligands for a broad range of molecular targets. Nevertheless, a sizeable fraction of proteins remain difficult targets due to inherently limited chemical diversity of nucleic acids. We have exploited synthetic nucleotide modifications that confer protein-like diversity on a nucleic acid scaffold, resulting in a new generation of binding reagents called SOMAmers (Slow Off-rate Modified Aptamers). Here we report a unique crystal structure of a SOMAmer bound to its target, platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-BB). The SOMAmer folds into a compact structure and exhibits a hydrophobic binding surface that mimics the interface between PDGF-BB and its receptor, contrasting sharply with mainly polar interactions seen in traditional protein-binding aptamers. The modified nucleotides circumvent the intrinsic diversity constraints of natural nucleic acids, thereby greatly expanding the structural vocabulary of nucleic acid ligands and considerably broadening the range of accessible protein targets. PMID:23139410

Davies, Douglas R; Gelinas, Amy D; Zhang, Chi; Rohloff, John C; Carter, Jeffrey D; O'Connell, Daniel; Waugh, Sheela M; Wolk, Steven K; Mayfield, Wesley S; Burgin, Alex B; Edwards, Thomas E; Stewart, Lance J; Gold, Larry; Janjic, Nebojsa; Jarvis, Thale C

2012-11-08

378

45 CFR 162.600 - Compliance dates of the implementation of the standard unique employer identifier.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Standard Unique Employer Identifier...the implementation of the standard unique employer identifier. (a) Health care providers. Health...

2011-10-01

379

A Classroom Modification of the Ames Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A modification of the Ames test for detecting carcinogens and mutagens using a strain of bacteria is described. A suggestion is given for checking the correctness of procedures by using particular hair dyes which have been shown to be mutogenic. (Author/SA)|

Yavornitzky, Joseph; Trzeciak, Victor

1979-01-01

380

Modifications in EPIC-2 Subcycling and Quadrilaterals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following modifications of the code EPIC-2 are described: (1) subcycling, which permits different time steps to be used in different parts of the mesh; (2) the addition of a four-node quadrilateral which uses one quadrature point and employs a consist...

T. B. Belytschko J. I. Lin G. H. Jonas

1987-01-01

381

Theory of enhanced airglow during ionospheric modifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A calculation is made of the acceleration of electrons during ionospheric modification experiments. The electrons are accelerated by Langmuir waves excited unstable by the parametric instability. It is emphasized that accelerations by Langmuir waves mainly take place at the bottom of the heated region, where the Langmuir waves are slowest and, consequently, the wave-particle interactions are strongest. The velocity distribution

Jerome Weinstock

1975-01-01

382

Microscale surface modifications for heat transfer enhancement.  

PubMed

In this experimental study, two surface modification techniques were investigated for their effect on heat transfer enhancement. One of the methods employed the particle (grit) blasting to create microscale indentations, while the other used plasma spray coating to create microscale protrusions on Al 6061 (aluminum alloy 6061) samples. The test surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Because of the surface modifications, the actual surface area was increased up to 2.8× compared to the projected base area, and the arithmetic mean roughness value (Ra) was determined to vary from 0.3 ?m for the reference smooth surface to 19.5 ?m for the modified surfaces. Selected samples with modified surfaces along with the reference smooth surface were then evaluated for their heat transfer performance in spray cooling tests. The cooling system had vapor-atomizing nozzles and used anhydrous ammonia as the coolant in order to achieve heat fluxes up to 500 W/cm(2) representing a thermal management setting for high power systems. Experimental results showed that the microscale surface modifications enhanced heat transfer coefficients up to 76% at 500 W/cm(2) compared to the smooth surface and demonstrated the benefits of these practical surface modification techniques to enhance two-phase heat transfer process. PMID:24003985

Bostanci, Huseyin; Singh, Virendra; Kizito, John P; Rini, Daniel P; Seal, Sudipta; Chow, Louis C

2013-09-19

383

Influence of behavior modification on overactive bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral interventions have been used for decades to treat urge incontinence and other symptoms of overactive bladder. Perhaps the earliest form of treatment was the bladder drill, an intensive intervention designed to increase the interval between voids to establish a normal frequency of urination and normalization of bladder function. Bladder training is a modification of bladder drill that is conducted

Kathryn L Burgio

2002-01-01

384

Selfish Behavior of Restriction-Modification Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasmids carrying gene pairs encoding type II DNA restriction endonucleases and their cognate modification enzymes were shown to have increased stability in Escherichia coli. The descendants of cells that had lost these genes appeared unable to modify a sufficient number of recognition sites in their chromosomes to protect them from lethal attack by the remaining restriction enzyme molecules. The capacity

Taku Naito; Kohji Kusano; Ichizo Kobayashi

1995-01-01

385

Hurricane Debbie Modification Experiments, August 1969  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum winds in Hurricane Debbie, August 1969, decreased after modification experiments by Project Stormfury. Clouds surrounding the center of Debbie were seeded with silver iodide particles five times at approximately 2-hour intervals on both 18 and 20 August. Before the first seeding on 18 August, the maximum speed of winds at 3600 meters was 182 kilometers per hour, but, 5

R. Cecil Gentry

1970-01-01

386

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN STUDY OF OMRE MODIFICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is presented of a conceptual design for modifications to ; the Organic Moderated Reactor Experiment (OMRE). The OMRE facility was ; originally designed and built as a minimum cost irradiation facility intended to ; be operated for one year. Due to the very limited objective of the experiment, ; only the bare minimum of building space and supporting

1959-01-01

387

Electric field induced surface modification of Au  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the role of localized high electric fields in the modification of Au surfaces with a W probe using the interfacial force microscope. Upon bringing a probe close to a Au surface, we measure both the interfacial force and the field emission current as a function of separation with a constant potential of 100 V between tip and sample.

T. M. Mayer; J. E. Houston; G. E. Franklin; A. A. Erchak; T. A. Michalske

1999-01-01

388

Advances in PSII techniques for surface modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent activities in plasma source ion implantation (PSII) technology include scale-up demonstrations for industry and development of variations on the original PSII concept for surface modification. This paper presents an overview of the continued growth of PSII research facilities world-wide and the industrial demonstrations within the USA. In order to expand the applicability of PSII, Los Alamos is actively researching

K. C Walter; M Nastasi; N. P Baker; C. P Munson; W. K Scarborough; J. T Scheuer; B. P Wood; J. R Conrad; K Sridharan; S Malik; R. A Bruen

1998-01-01

389

Air Weather Service Weather-Modification Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Air Weather Service has recently inaugurated a program to field test those weather-modification techniques within the scientific state-of-the-art and of potential value to the Air Force in order to bring them to a state of operational readiness. The f...

H. S. Appleman

1968-01-01

390

Surface Modification of Wood Using Nitric Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface modification of wood flakes by oxidation with nitric acid has been investigated at three different moisture contents of wood, and two different concentrations of the oxidant. It is shown that a significant number of the acid groups generated are chemically linked to wood. Increasing moisture content in wood has the effect of local dilution of the nitric acid oxidant

R. V. Subramanian; W. M. Balaba; K. N. Somasekharan

1982-01-01

391

Chemical modification of wood: A short review  

Microsoft Academic Search

For most markets for wood, it is used without any treatments or modifications. When wood is used in adverse environments, it may be treated with chemicals to help prevent decay, improve water resistance, reduce the effects of ultraviolet radiation or increase fire retardancy. Many of these treatments involve the use of toxic or corrosive chemicals that can harm the environment.

ROGER M. ROWELL

2006-01-01

392

Genetic modifications for personal enhancement: a defence.  

PubMed

Bioconservative commentators argue that parents should not take steps to modify the genetics of their children even in the name of enhancement because of the damage they predict for values, identities and relationships. Some commentators have even said that adults should not modify themselves through genetic interventions. One commentator worries that genetic modifications chosen by adults for themselves will undermine moral agency, lead to less valuable experiences and fracture people's sense of self. These worries are not justified, however, since the effects of modification will not undo moral agency as such. Adults can still have valuable experiences, even if some prior choices no longer seem meaningful. Changes at the genetic level will not always, either, alienate people from their own sense of self. On the contrary, genetic modifications can help amplify choice, enrich lives and consolidate identities. Ultimately, there is no moral requirement that people value their contingent genetic endowment to the exclusion of changes important to them in their future genetic identities. Through weighing risks and benefits, adults also have the power to consent to-and assume the risks of-genetic modifications for themselves in a way not possible in prenatal genetic interventions. PMID:23612680

Murphy, Timothy F

2013-04-23

393

View of Soviet ionospheric modification research  

SciTech Connect

We have reviewed and provided a technical assessment of Soviet research of the past five to ten years in ionospheric modification by high-power radio waves. This review includes a comprehensive survey of Soviet published literature, conference proceedings, and direct discussions with the involved Soviet researchers. The current state of the art for Soviet research in this field is evaluated, identifying areas of potential breakthrough discoveries, and discussing implications of this work for emerging technologies and future applications. This assessment is divided into the categories of basic research, advanced research, and applications. Basic research is further subdivided into studies of the modified natural geophysical environment, nonlinear plasma physics, and polar geophysical studies. Advanced research topics include the generation of artificial ionization mirrors and high-power oblique propagation effects. A separate comparative assessment of Soviet theoretical work also is included in this analysis. Our evaluation of practical and potential applications of this research discusses the utility of ionospheric modification in creating disturbed radio wave propagation environments, and its role in current and future remote-sensing and telecommunications systems. This technical assessment does not include consideration of ionospheric modification by means other than high-power radio waves. The Soviet effort in ionospheric modification sustains theoretical and experimental research at activity levels considerably greater than that found in comparable programs in the West. Notable strengths of the Soviet program are its breadth of coverage, large numbers of scientific participation, theoretical creativity and insight, and its powerful radio wave transmitting facilities.

Duncan, L.M.; Showen, R.L.

1990-10-01

394

Cognitive architecture and descent with modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against a background of recent progress in developmental neuroscience, some of which has been taken as challenging to the modularity hypothesis of Fodor (1983), this article contrasts two competing conceptions of modularity: sui generis modularity, according to which modules are treated as independent neurocognitive entities that owe nothing to one another, and descent-with-modification modularity, according to which current cognitive modules

Gary F. Marcus

2006-01-01

395

Collagen type II modification by hypochlorite  

Microsoft Academic Search

II (CII) — the primary cartilage protein. In our study, HOCl\\/OCl - mediated collagen II modifications were tested using various methods: circular dichroism (CD), HPLC, ELISA, dynamic light scattering (DLS), fluorimetry and spectrophotometry. It was shown that hypochlorite action causes deamination with consecutive carbonyl group formation and transformation of tyrosine residues to dichlorotyrosine. Moreover, it was shown that ammonium chloramine

Ewa Olszowska; Janusz Marcinkiewicz

396

Body Modification Sites and Abuse History  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-reported experience of physical, sexual, and mental abuse and general emotional abandonment was significantly associated with a variety of piercings, tattoos, and scarifications in a sample of 4,700 members of an online body-modification site. More significant associations were found for the women in the sample than for the men. Possible clinical implications of the results are discussed.

Charles M. Liu; David Lester

2012-01-01

397

Strategies for disease modification in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treating Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the biggest unmet medical need in neurology. Current drugs improve symptoms, but do not have profound disease-modifying effects. Three main classes of disease-modification approaches can be defined: one that is broadly neurotrophic or neuroprotective, one that targets specific aspects of AD pathology, and one that is based on epidemiological observation. This review discusses all three

Martin Citron

2004-01-01

398

Retrodirective array augmentation for electronic RCS modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an active Pon type retrodirective array (RDA) is augmented with a passive array in order to provide electronic modification of the transmit function of the combination in response to the influence of an external interrogating signal. By the use of a single phase shifter and level setting control, it will be shown that different types of broadcast

Vincent F. Fusco; Bee Yen Toh

2002-01-01

399

Naturalness and the genetic modification of animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past few years it has been recognised that so-called intrinsic concerns about genetic modification (GM) of plants and animals, for food in particular, have an important role in the public perception of GM. One of these concerns is the view that GM is ‘unnatural’. This article gives an overview of the often conflicting views on the argument of

Henk Verhoog

2003-01-01

400

Information Sources, Dogmatism, and Judgmental Modifications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined differences in the number of perceptual judgment modifications made by 36 subjects showing different levels of dogmatism when the source of information was manipulated among superior, subordinate, and peer sources. An experimental and a control group were used, and a 2x3 factorial analysis design was developed. Dogmatism was…

Long, Huey B.

401

Modification of the Koken nasal splint.  

PubMed

Koken nasal splints have been found effective postoperatively in treating cleft-lip nose deformity. In our experience, their retention has been poor, so reducing the molding effect. This paper presents a modification designed to overcome the problem of retention. PMID:10749051

Cobley, T D; Orlando, A; Page, K; Mercer, N S

2000-03-01

402

Modification of scuba regulator for IPPV.  

PubMed

Attention is appropriately being focused on the performance of adequate cardiopulmonary resuscitation in aquatic situations. We modified the second stage (mouthpiece) of a standard scuba regulator to permit intermittent positive pressure ventilation using either a mask or an esophageal obturator airway. Tests demonstrated the inexpensive modification to function adequately for emergency ventilation. PMID:3907085

Poulton, T J; Littleton, E K; Raudenbush, J

1985-06-01

403

Survey of State Statutes on Weather Modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a summary of all U.S. state laws relating to weather modification which were in effect at the end of 1973. Although previous studies in this area have been conducted, this is the only current summary of all state laws available in published form. The summary shows that 28 states have some form of statute on the regulation

Mary T. Digiulian; Mason T. Charak

1974-01-01

404

Protein modification during antiviral heat bioprocessing.  

PubMed

Heat treatment is routinely used in the preparation of therapeutic protein biopharmaceuticals as a means of viral inactivation. However, in undertaking virucidal heat treatments, a balance must be found between the bioprocessing conditions, virus kill, and the maintenance of protein integrity. In this study, we utilize a simple model protein, hen egg-white lysozyme, to investigate the relationship between antiviral bioprocess conditions (protein formulation and temperature) and the extent and type of protein modification. A variety of industrially relevant wet- and dry-heat treatments were undertaken, using formulations that included sucrose as a thermostabilizing excipient. Although there was no evidence of lysozyme aggregation or crosslinking during any of the heat treatments, using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy (LC-ESI-MS) and peptide mapping we show that protein modifications do occur with increasingly harsh heat treatment. Modifications were predominantly found after wet-heat treatment, the major covalent modification of lysozyme under these conditions being glycation of Lys(97), by either glucose or fructose derived from hydrolyzed sucrose. The extent of sucrose hydrolysis was itself dependent on both the duration of heat treatment and formulation composition. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and additional unidentified products were also present in protein samples subjected to extended heat treatment. AGEs were derived primarily from initial glycation by fructose and not glucose. These findings have implications for the improvement of bioprocesses to ensure protein product quality. PMID:10592515

Smales, C M; Pepper, D S; James, D C

2000-01-20

405

Modifications and tests of MWPC Mu0  

SciTech Connect

E711 MWPC DC5 is on long term loan to E672 from the FNAL physics department. It was received at Indiana University (Bloomington) in May 1988. This paper is a summary of the testing and modifications that were done on this chamber. The chamber is now referred to as Mu0. 11 figs.

Crittenden, R.; Lui, R.; Smith, P.; Welch, K.; Krider, J.

1989-04-01

406

Topical scar modification: hype or help?  

PubMed

Of the many topical scar modification treatments available, silicone gel sheeting is the only product shown to be effective for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. Other topical scar treatments are frequently used without evidence of their efficacy. The authors discuss available topical scar treatments and their current role in clinical plastic surgery practice. PMID:19338826

McGrath, Mary H; Chang, David S

407

Topical scar modification: Hype or help?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the many topical scar modification treatments available, silicone gel sheeting is the only product shown to be effective for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. Other topical scar treatments are frequently used without evidence of their efficacy. The authors discuss available topical scar treatments and their current role in clinical plastic surgery practice.

Mary H. McGrath; David S. Chang

2005-01-01

408

Medium-range restriction maps of five chromosomes of Leishmania infantum and localization of size-variable regions  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the localization of the gene coding for human deoxyhypusine synthase (DHPS) to human chromosome 19p13.11-p13.12 using fluorescence in situ hybridization and somatic cell hybridization analysis. DHPS plays a vital role in the modification of hypusine. 10 refs., 1 fig.

Ravel, C.; Wincker, P.; Blaineau, C. [Faculte de Medecine, Montpellier (France)] [and others

1996-08-01

409

New facility for ion beam materials characterization and modification at Los Alamos  

SciTech Connect

The Ion Beam Materials Laboratory (IBML) is a new Los Alamos laboratory devoted to the characterization and modification of the near surfaces of materials. The primary instruments of the IBML are a tandem electrostatic accelerator, a National Electrostatics Corp. Model 9SDH, coupled with a Varian CF-3000 ion implanter. The unique organizational structure of the IBML as well as the operational characteristics of the 9SDH (after approximately 3000 h of operation) and the laboratories' research capabilities will be discussed. Examples of current research results will also be presented. 5 refs., 2 figs.

Tesmer, J.R.; Maggiore, C.J.; Parkin, D.M.

1988-01-01

410

Unique Structural Characteristics of the Rabbit Prion Protein*  

PubMed Central

Rabbits are one of the few mammalian species that appear to be resistant to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies due to the structural characteristics of the rabbit prion protein (RaPrPC) itself. Here, we determined the solution structures of the recombinant protein RaPrPC-(91–228) and its S173N variant and detected the backbone dynamics of their structured C-terminal domains-(121–228). In contrast to many other mammalian PrPCs, loop 165–172, which connects ?-sheet-2 and ?-helix-2, is well-defined in RaPrPC. For the first time, order parameters S2 are obtained for residues in this loop region, indicating that loop 165–172 of RaPrPC is highly ordered. Compared with the wild-type RaPrPC, less hydrogen bonds form in the S173N variant. The NMR dynamics analysis reveals a distinct increase in the structural flexibility of loop 165–172 and helix-3 after the S173N substitution, implying that the S173N substitution disturbs the long range interaction of loop 165–172 with helix-3, which further leads to a marked decrease in the global conformational stability. Significantly, RaPrPC possesses a unique charge distribution, carrying a continuous area of positive charges on the surface, which is distinguished from other PrPCs. The S173N substitution causes visible changes of the charge distribution around the recognition sites for the hypothetical protein X. Our results suggest that the ordered loop 165–172 and its interaction with helix-3, together with the unique distribution of surface electrostatic potential, significantly contribute to the unique structural characteristics of RaPrPC.

Wen, Yi; Li, Jun; Yao, Wenming; Xiong, Minqian; Hong, Jing; Peng, Yu; Xiao, Gengfu; Lin, Donghai

2010-01-01

411

Motivational Pathways to Unique Types of Alcohol Consequences  

PubMed Central

Individuals consume alcohol for a variety of reasons (motives), and these reasons may be differentially associated with the types of drinking outcomes that result. The present study examined whether specific affect-relevant motivations for alcohol use (i.e., coping, enhancement) are associated with distinct types of consequences, and whether such associations occur directly, or only as a function of increased alcohol use. It was hypothesized that enhancement motives would be associated with distinct problem types only through alcohol use, whereas coping motives would be linked directly to hypothesized problem types. Regularly drinking undergraduates (N= 192, 93 female) completed self-report measures of drinking motives and alcohol involvement. Using structural equation modeling, we tested direct associations between Coping motives and indirect associations between Enhancement motives and eight unique alcohol problem domains: Risky Behaviors, Blackout Drinking, Physiological Dependence, Academic/Occupational problems, Poor Self-care, Diminished Self-perception, Social/Interpersonal problems, and Impaired Control. We observed direct effects of Coping motives on three unique problem domains (Academic/Occupational problems, Risky Behaviors, and Poor Self-care). Both Coping and Enhancement motives were indirectly associated (through Use) with several problem types. Unhypothesized associations between Conformity motives and unique consequence types also were observed. Findings suggest specificity in the consequences experienced by individuals who drink to cope with negative affect versus to enhance positive affect, and may have intervention implications. Findings depict the coping motivated student as one who is struggling across multiple domains, regardless of levels of drinking. Such students may need to be prioritized for interventions.

Merrill, Jennifer E.; Read, Jennifer P.

2010-01-01

412

EDITORIAL: Novel applications of surface modification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This cluster issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics arises from the Novel Applications of Surface Modification Conference (NASM 2007) held at Southampton University during 18-20 September 2007. It contains a collection of six papers based on both invited and contributed presentations at the conference. The NASM 2007 conference was organized by the Applied Physics and Technology Division of the Institute of Physics, and was co-sponsored by the Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining, the Institution of Mechanical Engineers and the British Vacuum Council. The modification of the surface of a material allows the production of far superior products in terms of reduced wear, increased corrosion resistance, better biocompatibility, improved optical properties and altered electrical/electronic properties. Clearly, as surface modification methods improve, there are many more possible applications of such surface tailoring methods. The NASM 2007 Conference was planned so that scientists, engineers and manufacturers in different fields could come together to appraise the present applications of surface modification, establish where opportunities lie, identify the most significant challenges and address how problems should be tackled. The six papers contained within the cluster illustrate the diversity and breadth of the conference. The papers describe state-of-the-art research on a wide cross-section of topics, all unified by the overall theme of novel applications of surface modification. Specifically, papers are presented which consider nanoimprint lithography, statistical distributions of the coefficient of friction, the sliding drop method for optimizing surface energies for patterning in a roll-to-roll process, shakedown of residual stresses in titanium alloys, functionalized polymers and the determination of the electrochemically active surface area of Pt/C PEM fuel cell electrodes. The papers are authored by both academics and industrialists, further highlighting the broad theme of the conference.

Truman, C. E.

2008-09-01

413

Hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia: unique histopathological findings in skin lesions.  

PubMed

Hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia (HMD) is a rare, autosomal dominantly inherited, multisystem disease thought to be caused by abnormalities in desmosomes and gap junctions. HMD affects the skin, mucosae, hair, eyes and lungs. Nearly all patients clinically display the triad of non-scarring alopecia, well-demarcated mucosal erythema and erythematous intertriginous plaques. Although histopathological findings of mucous membrane epithelium have been well characterized, only three reports have described histopathologic findings in the skin. We report a case with unique histopathological findings not previously reported in HMD. PMID:22443394

Leithauser, Laurel A; Mutasim, Diya F

2012-02-16

414

The unique sound of the Uni-Vibe pedal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A short paper covering optics and music: the Uni-Vibe, which is responsible for the unique sound of Hendrix' Woodstock performance, is one of many phasing devices based on photo conductive cells used as variable resistors. However, its sound is well distinguishable from other phasers. In the paper we shall discuss the basic properties and try to qualify and quantify the effect on the spectra of certain chords. The present paper is a side effect of the musical interests of the authors and is triggered by the announcement of the Novel Systems Session including the topics 'Optics and Music' and Historical Devices.

Hahlweg, Cornelius; Rothe, Hendrik

2012-10-01

415

Bimaxillary presentation of central ossifying fibroma: a unique aggressive entity.  

PubMed

Central ossifying fibroma is a benign neoplasm, having slow growing nature. Some rare lesions show very aggressive nature, multifocal appearance and reach up to a very massive size. So, these kinds of cases require special attention for their treatment. A unique case of central ossifying fibroma with aggressive nature, multifocal appearance is reported. This case shows growth both in maxilla and mandible with maxillary lesion massive in size involving maxillary sinus. There have not been any such cases reported so far in the literature showing bimaxillary growth of ossifying fibroma. PMID:23774709

Desai, Kiran; Gupta, Kavita; Manjunatha, B S; Palan, Soniya

2013-06-16

416

Massive splenomegaly and lymphopenia: a unique case of obstructive shock.  

PubMed

We present a patient with intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL)-induced obstructive shock. This case represents a unique presentation of the disease, while highlighting the difficulty of establishing the diagnosis. Although there was a high clinical suspicion for a lymphomatous process, the obstructive shock component of the patient's presentation was perplexing. It was not until the autopsy reports demonstrated lymphocytes within the pulmonary vasculature that the clinical picture of altered mental status, weight loss and obstructive shock were unified to the diagnosis of intravascular large B-cell lymphoma. PMID:24172780

Huprikar, Nikhil Anand; Kurtz, Maria T; Mount, Cristin A

2013-10-30

417

A unique data acquisition system for electrical resistance tomography  

SciTech Connect

Unique capabilities are needed in instrumentation used for acquiring data to do electrical resistance tomography (ERT). A data acquisition system is described which has a good combination of the required capabilities and yet is field rugged and user friendly. The system is a multichannel detector for high data rates, can operate over a wide range of load conditions, will measure both in phase and quadrature resistance at frequencies between 0.0007 Hz and 8 kHz. The system has been used in both the field and laboratory to collect data with a typical accuracy between 1 and 10%.

Daily, W.; Ramirez, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Zonge, K. [Zonge Engineering, Tucson, AZ (United States)

1996-01-04

418

THE HAYLOFT OF THE JENNE BARN, SHOWING ITS UNIQUE CONSTRUCTION. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

THE HAYLOFT OF THE JENNE BARN, SHOWING ITS UNIQUE CONSTRUCTION. (The barn?s gambrel roof is supported by seven bents made-up of diagonal stilts, collar beams, and cross-bracing that tie into the support columns on the ground floor and the sill plates. Also visible are the cables installed across each bent in 2000-02 to reinforce the construction, the hay door at the gable end, and the ladder and opening accessing the barn?s ground floor.) - Jenne Farm, Barn, 538 Engle Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

419

Diffraction with wavefront curvature: a path to unique phase recovery.  

PubMed

Modern X-ray optics is able to produce very tightly focused beams. The size of these focused spots is comparable to the scale of large molecules and therefore to the lattice spacing of crystals of these molecules. In this case, the phase of the illuminating beam may vary on the scale of the lattice and conventional diffraction theory needs to be modified. In this paper, coherent diffraction by non-planar beams is considered and it is shown that it is possible to uniquely recover the phase of the diffraction pattern. PMID:15846042

Nugent, K A; Peele, A G; Quiney, H M; Chapman, H N

2005-04-21

420

Unique Pitch Evolution in the Smectic -C-alpha* Phase  

SciTech Connect

Employing resonant x-ray diffraction, we observed unique pitch evolutions in the smectic-C{alpha}* phase in mixtures of two antiferroelectric liquid crystals. Our results show that the pitch in this phase continuously evolves across 4 layers, contradicting a theoretical model that predicts that the smectic-C{sub FI2}* phase intervenes in the smectic-C{alpha}* phase. The phase sequences we found can be explained by another model that includes one type of long-range interaction among smectic layers.

Liu,Z.; McCoy, B.; Wang, S.; Pindak, R.; Caliebe, W.; Barois, P.; Fernandes, P.; Nguyen, H.; Hsu, C.; Wang, .

2007-01-01

421

Method for preserving the uniqueness and identity of an individual  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Apparatus and methods for preserving the uniqueness and identity of an individual as well as a method for isolating and preserving DNA for visual display are disclosed. Fluid or tissue samples taken from an individual are processed to separate the DNA from the other cell components. The DNA is placed in an alcohol and water based solution that causes the precipitation and suspension of the DNA so that it becomes visible to the naked eye. The DNA bearing solution is placed in a transparent capsule that can be further mounted in a desirable display structure.

2002-06-25

422

Nicotine addiction causes unique detrimental effects on women's brains.  

PubMed

Nicotine addiction produces diverse physiological effects common to both men and women because of activation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In addition to these effects, nicotine reduces circulating estrogen (the female sex hormone) levels and leads to early onset of menopause in women. Nicotine's effect on estrogen metabolism has potential far-reaching consequences because endogenous circulating estrogen helps prevent cerebrovascular diseases in premenopausal women. In this article, the author presents a survey of literature showing that nicotine addiction causes unique deleterious effects in women's brains by inhibiting estrogen signaling, which makes the brain more susceptible to ischemic brain damage. PMID:21491296

Raval, Ami P

2011-04-01

423

Unique Degradation Signal for ClpCP in Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

Regulation of the cell-specific transcription factor ?F in the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis involves the antisigma factor SpoIIAB. Contributing to the activation of ?F is the degradation of SpoIIAB in a manner that depends on the protease ClpCP. Here we show that the three residues (LCN) located at the extreme C terminus of SpoIIAB are both necessary and sufficient for this degradation. We also report that the use of the LCN extension as a degradation signal for ClpCP is unique to SpoIIAB.

Pan, Qi; Losick, Richard

2003-01-01

424

Zygmund Spaces, Inviscid Limit and Uniqueness of Euler Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper improves the classical uniqueness result for the incompressible Euler system in the n dimensional case assuming that nabla u^E in L_1(0,T;{BMO}(?)) , only. Moreover the rate of the convergence for the inviscid limit of solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations is obtained, under the same regularity of the limit Eulerian flow. A key element of the proof is a logarithmic inequality between the Hardy and L 1 spaces which is a consequence of the basic properties of the Zygmund space L ln L.

Mucha, Piotr Bogus?aw; Rusin, Walter M.

2008-06-01

425

Unique determination of model coronal magnetic fields using photospheric observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the nonradial field-boundary condition (or the line-of-sight boundary condition) for the Laplacian-like equation developed by Bogdan and Low (1986) is sufficient to uniquely determine the model coronal magnetic field provided the electric currents are horizontal (or zero, the current-free case) at the solar surface as well as in the solar atmosphere between the photosphere and the source surface. The derived recursion formulae for the spherical harmonic coefficients can be used to determine the spherical harmonic coefficients in the solutions of the horizontal current models very efficiently.

Zhao, Xuepu; Hoeksema, J. T.

1993-01-01

426

The unique decline of mortality in revolutionary France.  

PubMed

This article seeks to draw historians' attention to a neglected reconstruction of the French population and its mortality rates developed by the Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques in the 1970s. The reconstruction shows a sharp decline in French mortality rates, beginning in the 1790s and continuing through the 1820s. This conflicts with recent historiography stressing the negative effects of the Revolution. This article contends that the reconstruction is plausible and that the French mortality decline was unique in Europe in this period. In turn, this suggests that the Revolution had a much more favorable impact than many historians would have us believe. PMID:11619481

Spagnoli, P G

1997-01-01

427

Unique and overlapping pollutant stress proteins of Escherichia coli  

SciTech Connect

Exposure of growing batch cultures of Escherichia coli to nine different model micropollutants' (benzene, cadmium chloride, chlorpyrivos, 2,4-dichloroaniline, dioctylphthalate, hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorophenol, trichloroethylene, and tetrapropylbenzosulfonate) led to the induction of 13 to 39 proteins, as analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Some of these proteins overlapped with heat shock and carbon starvation proteins, but at least 50% were unique to a given chemical. The stress protein induction showed a temporal pattern, indicating sequential gene expression. Chemical stress protein synthesis occurred even at concentrations that had no effect on growth. Thus, the synthesis of these proteins can be a sensitive index of stress and the nature of environmental pollution.

Blom, A.; Harder, W. (TNO Inst. of Environmental Sciences, Delft (Netherlands)); Matin, A. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1992-01-01

428

An Hsp90 modulator that exhibits a unique mechanistic profile  

PubMed Central

Described is the synthesis of two biotinylated derivatives of a cytotoxic macrocycle. Pull-down assays indicate that this macrocycle targets the N-middle domain of Hsp90. Untagged compound can effectively compete away tagged compound-Hsp90 protein complexes, confirming the binding specificity of the macrocycle for Hsp90. The macrocycle is similar in potency to other structurally-related analogs of Sansalvamide A (San A) and induces apoptosis via a caspase 3 mechanism. Unlike other San A derivatives, we show that the macrocycle does not inhibit binding between C-terminal client proteins and co-chaperones and Hsp90, suggesting that it has a unique mechanism of action.

Ramsey, Deborah M.; McConnell, Jeanette R.; Alexander, Leslie D.; Tanaka, Kaishin W.; Vera, Chester M.; McAlpine, Shelli R.

2012-01-01

429

Unique Signature of Dark Matter in Ancient Mica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mica can store (for >1 Gyr) etchable tracks caused by atoms recoiling from weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Because a background from fission neutrons will eventually limit this technique, a unique signature for WIMPs in ancient mica is needed. Our motion around the center of the Galaxy causes WIMPs, unlike neutrons, to enter the mica from a preferred direction on the sky. Mica is a directional detector and despite the complex rotations that natural mica crystals make with respect to this WIMP ``wind,'' there is a substantial dependence of etch pit density on present day mica orientation.

Snowden-Ifft, Daniel P.; Westphal, Andrew J.

1997-03-01

430

The Unique Maximal GF-Regular Submodule of a Module  

PubMed Central

An R-module A is called GF-regular if, for each a ? A and r ? R, there exist t ? R and a positive integer n such that rntrna = rna. We proved that each unitary R-module A contains a unique maximal GF-regular submodule, which we denoted by MGF(A). Furthermore, the radical properties of A are investigated; we proved that if A is an R-module and K is a submodule of A, then MGF(K) = K?MGF(A). Moreover, if A is projective, then MGF(A) is a G-pure submodule of A and MGF(A) = M(R) · A.

Abduldaim, Areej M.; Chen, Sheng

2013-01-01

431

Unique case of a geminated supernumerary tooth with trifid crown  

PubMed Central

Gemination, a relatively uncommon dental anomaly, is characterized by its peculiar representation as a tooth with a bifid crown and a common root and root canal. It usually occurs in primary dentition. To come across gemination in a supernumerary tooth is a rare phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to present a unique case of hyperdontia wherein gemination in an impacted supernumerary tooth resulted in a trifid crown unlike the usual bifid crown. The role of conventional radiographs as well as computed tomography, to accurately determine the morphology and spatial location, and to arrive at a diagnosis, is also emphasized in this paper.

Ather, Hunaiza; Sheth, Sanket Milan; Muliya, Vidya Saraswathi

2012-01-01

432

A unique pure mechanical system revealing dipole repulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study multiple elastic collisions of a block and a ball against a rigid wall in one dimension. The complete trajectory of the block is solved as an analytic function of time. Near the turning point of the block the force carried by the ball is proportional to 1/x3, where x is the distance between the wall and the block, in the limit that the block is sufficiently heavier than the ball. This is a unique pure mechanical system that reveals dipole-like repulsion.

Ee, June-Haak; Lee, Jungil

2012-12-01

433

Unique and overlapping pollutant stress proteins of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

Exposure of growing batch cultures of Escherichia coli to nine different "model micropollutants" (benzene, cadmium chloride, chlorpyrivos, 2,4-dichloroaniline, dioctylphtalate, hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorophenol, trichloroethylene, and tetrapropylbenzosulfonate) led to the induction of 13 to 39 proteins, as analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Some of these proteins overlapped with heat shock and carbon starvation proteins, but at least 50% were unique to a given chemical. The stress protein induction showed a temporal pattern, indicating sequential gene expression. Chemical stress protein synthesis occurred even at concentrations that had no effect on growth. Thus, the synthesis of these proteins can be a sensitive index of stress and the nature of environmental pollution. Images

Blom, A; Harder, W; Matin, A

1992-01-01

434

Modifications and integration of the electronic tracking board in a pediatric emergency department.  

PubMed

Electronic health records (EHRs) are used for data storage; provider, laboratory, and patient communication; clinical decision support; procedure and medication orders; and decision support alerts. Clinical decision support is part of any EHR and is designed to help providers make better decisions. The emergency department (ED) poses a unique environment to the use of EHRs and clinical decision support. Used effectively, computerized tracking boards can help improve flow, communication, and the dissemination of pertinent visit information between providers and other departments in a busy ED. We discuss the unique modifications and decisions made in the implementation of an her and computerized tracking board in a pediatric ED. We discuss the changing views based on provider roles, customization to the user interface including the layout and colors, decision support, tracking board best practices collected from other institutions and colleagues, and a case study of using reminders on the electronic tracking board to drive pain reassessments. PMID:23823269

Dexheimer, Judith W; Kennebeck, Stephanie

2013-07-01

435

High-coverage proteome analysis reveals the first insight of protein modification systems in the pathogenic spirochete Leptospira interrogans.  

PubMed

Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira that infects humans and a wide range of animals. By combining computational prediction and high-accuracy tandem mass spectra, we revised the genome annotation of Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai, a free-living pathogenic spirochete responsible for leptospirosis, providing substantial peptide evidence for novel genes and new gene boundaries. Subsequently, we presented a high-coverage proteome analysis of protein expression and multiple posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Approximately 64.3% of the predicted L. interrogans proteins were cataloged by detecting 2 540 proteins. Meanwhile, a profile of multiple PTMs was concurrently established, containing in total 32 phosphorylated, 46 acetylated and 155 methylated proteins. The PTM systems in the serovar Lai show unique features. Unique eukaryotic-like features of L. interrogans protein modifications were demonstrated in both phosphorylation and arginine methylation. This systematic analysis provides not only comprehensive information of high-coverage protein expression and multiple modifications in prokaryotes but also a view suggesting that the evolutionarily primitive L. interrogans shares significant similarities in protein modification systems with eukaryotes. PMID:19918266

Cao, Xing-Jun; Dai, Jie; Xu, Hao; Nie, Song; Chang, Xiao; Hu, Bao-Yu; Sheng, Quan-Hu; Wang, Lian-Shui; Ning, Zhi-Bin; Li, Yi-Xue; Guo, Xiao-Kui; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Zeng, Rong

2009-11-17

436

Modification of peptide interaction with MHC creates TCR partial agonists.  

PubMed

We report the creation of TCR partial agonists by the novel approach of manipulating the interaction between immunogenic peptide and MHC. Amino acids at MHC anchor positions of the I-E(k)-restricted hemoglobin (64-76) and moth cytochrome c (88-103) peptides were exchanged with MHC anchor residues from the low affinity class II invariant chain peptide (CLIP), resulting in antigenic peptides with altered affinity for MHC class II. Several low affinity peptides were identified as TCR partial agonists, as defined by the ability to stimulate cytolytic function but not proliferation. For example, a peptide containing methionine substitutions at positions one and nine of the I-E(k) binding motif acted as a partial agonist for two hemoglobin-reactive T cell clones (PL.17 and 3.L2). The identical MHC anchor substitutions in moth cytochrome c (88-103) also created a partial agonist for a mCC-reactive T cell (A.E7). Thus, peptides containing MHC anchor modifications mediated similar T cell responses regardless of TCR fine specificity or antigen reactivity. This data contrasts with the unique specificity among individual clones demonstrated using traditional altered peptide ligands containing substitutions at TCR contact residues. In conclusion, we demonstrate that altering the MHC anchor residues of the immunogenic peptide can be a powerful method to create TCR partial agonists. PMID:15051516

Ryan, Kelli R; McNeil, Lisa K; Dao, Chinh; Jensen, Peter E; Evavold, Brian D

2004-01-01

437

30 CFR 18.81 - Field modification of approved (permissible) equipment; application for approval of modification...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field Modifications of Approved Machines, and Permits To Use Experimental Equipment § 18.81...

2013-07-01

438

Rationality, irrationality and escalating behavior in lowest unique bid auctions.  

PubMed

Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions--lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of "bid space". The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets. PMID:22279553

Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea; Amaral, Luís A N

2012-01-18

439

Can cosmological observations uniquely determine the nature of dark energy?  

SciTech Connect

The observational effect of all minimally coupled scalar field models of dark energy can be determined by the behavior of the following two parameters: (1) equation of state parameter w, which relates dark energy pressure to its energy density, and (2) effective speed of sound c{sub e}{sup 2}, which relates dark energy pressure fluctuation to its density fluctuation. In this paper we show that these two parameters do not uniquely determine the form of a scalar field dark energy Lagrangian even after taking into account the perturbation in the scalar field. We present this result by showing that two different forms of scalar field Lagrangian can lead to the same values for these paired parameters. It is well known that from the background evolution the Lagrangian of the scalar field dark energy cannot be uniquely determined. The two models of dark energy presented in this paper are indistinguishable from the evolution of background as well as from the evolution of perturbations from a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric.

Unnikrishnan, Sanil [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

2008-09-15

440

The unique features of Th9 cells and their products.  

PubMed

Although it was discovered more than two decades ago, new information concerning the biological activities of IL-9 has been provided in recent years, after the isolation of cells that selectively produce this cytokine, designated "Th9." Th9 cells are generated in vitro by polarization, mainly by TGF-? and IL-4, during activation with the specific antigen, or with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies. This review deals mainly with Th9 generated by the former, "physiological" mode of activation. Of particular interest is the unique production kinetics of IL-9: the cytokine is produced very rapidly, but after reaching its peak (day 3 in our studies), it declines sharply to trace levels. In addition to IL-9, Th9 cells also produce similar amounts of another cytokine, IL-10, but the production kinetics of these two cytokines are strikingly different. Antigen-activated Th9 in our studies also developed pathogenic capacity, but only during the short time period of peak IL-9 production. Interestingly, no IL-9-producing cells were detected in sites of inflammation induced by Th9, in contrast to Thl and Thl7. The unique features of Th9 cells and their products are discussed with regards to the known and assumed functions of the cytokine. PMID:22428852

Tan, Cuiyan; Gery, Igal

2012-01-01

441

Creativity and Technical Innovation: Spatial Ability's Unique Role.  

PubMed

In the late 1970s, 563 intellectually talented 13-year-olds (identified by the SAT as in the top 0.5% of ability) were assessed on spatial ability. More than 30 years later, the present study evaluated whether spatial ability provided incremental validity (beyond the SAT's mathematical and verbal reasoning subtests) for differentially predicting which of these individuals had patents and three classes of refereed publications. A two-step discriminant-function analysis revealed that the SAT subtests jointly accounted for 10.8% of the variance among these outcomes (p < .01); when spatial ability was added, an additional 7.6% was accounted for-a statistically significant increase (p < .01). The findings indicate that spatial ability has a unique role in the development of creativity, beyond the roles played by the abilities traditionally measured in educational selection, counseling, and industrial-organizational psychology. Spatial ability plays a key and unique role in structuring many important psychological phenomena and should be examined more broadly across the applied and basic psychological sciences. PMID:23846718

Kell, Harrison J; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P; Steiger, James H

2013-07-11

442

The Unique Biosynthetic Route from Lupinus ?-Conglutin Gene to Blad  

PubMed Central

Background During seed germination, ?-conglutin undergoes a major cycle of limited proteolysis in which many of its constituent subunits are processed into a 20 kDa polypeptide termed blad. Blad is the main component of a glycooligomer, accumulating exclusively in the cotyledons of Lupinus species, between days 4 and 12 after the onset of germination. Principal Findings The sequence of the gene encoding ?-conglutin precursor (1791 nucleotides) is reported. This gene, which shares 44 to 57% similarity and 20 to 37% identity with other vicilin-like protein genes, includes several features in common with these globulins, but also specific hallmarks. Most notable is the presence of an ubiquitin interacting motif (UIM), which possibly links the unique catabolic route of ?-conglutin to the ubiquitin/proteasome proteolytic pathway. Significance Blad forms through a unique route from and is a stable intermediary product of its precursor, ?-conglutin, the major Lupinus seed storage protein. It is composed of 173 amino acid residues, is encoded by an intron-containing, internal fragment of the gene that codes for ?-conglutin precursor (nucleotides 394 to 913) and exhibits an isoelectric point of 9.6 and a molecular mass of 20,404.85 Da. Consistent with its role as a storage protein, blad contains an extremely high proportion of the nitrogen-rich amino acids.

Monteiro, Sara; Freitas, Regina; Rajasekhar, Baru T.; Teixeira, Artur R.; Ferreira, Ricardo B.

2010-01-01

443

A Unique Manifestation of Pupillary Fatigue in Autoimmune Autonomic Ganglionopathy  

PubMed Central

Objective To demonstrate a unique abnormality of the pupillary light reflex in patients with Autoimmune Autonomic Ganglionopathy (AAG). Design Case series Setting Autonomic clinics at two university hospitals (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center) Participants Seven patients with antibody positive AAG. Intervention All patients with AAG underwent either monocular or binocular infrared pupillometry using a standard 2 second light stimulus at a defined intensity. Findings were compared to healthy controls and patients with other autonomic disorders. The light stimulus used in this study was selected to eliminate the normal phenomenon of pupil escape. Main Outcome measure The time to onset of redilation was the main outcome measure. Other indices of pupillary constriction to light stimulus were also measured. Results Patients with AAG exhibited premature pupillary redilation (1.02 ±0.20 seconds) compared to healthy control subjects (2.24±0.10 seconds) and other patients with autonomic disorders (2.3±0.12 seconds; P<0.0001). In healthy control subjects and patients with other autonomic disorders pupillary redilation always followed the termination of the light stimulus while in AAG patients redilation consistently occurred during the light stimulus. In one patient, serial repetitive light stimulation further decreased the time to onset of redilation. Conclusion Premature redilation of the pupil is a unique physiological feature seen only in patients with AAG. This phenomenon appears to be a manifestation of pupillary fatigue, a clinical correlate of defective synaptic transmission at the level of autonomic ganglia in antibody positive AAG.

Muppidi, Srikanth; Scribner, Maggie; Gibbons, Christopher H.; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Spaeth, Elaine B.; Vernino, Steven

2012-01-01

444

Lipases at interfaces: unique interfacial properties as globular proteins.  

PubMed

The adsorption behavior of two globular proteins, lipase from Rhizomucor miehei and beta-lactoglobulin, at inert oil/water and air/water interfaces was studied by the pendant drop technique. The kinetics and adsorption isotherms were interpreted for both proteins in different environments. It was found that the adopted mathematical models well describe the adsorption behavior of the proteins at the studied interfaces. One of the main findings is that unique interfacial properties were observed for lipase as compared to the reference beta-lactoglobulin. A folded drop with a "skinlike" film was formed for the two proteins after aging followed by compression. This behavior is normally associated with protein unfolding and covalent cross-linking at the interface. Despite this, the lipase activity was not suppressed. By highlighting the unique interfacial properties of lipases, we believe that the presented work contributes to a better understanding of lipase interfacial activation and the mechanisms regulating lipolysis. The results indicate that the understanding of the physical properties of lipases can lead to novel approaches to regulate their activity. PMID:18512870

Reis, P; Miller, R; Krägel, J; Leser, M; Fainerman, V B; Watzke, H; Holmberg, K

2008-05-30

445

Unique Gold Nanoparticle Aggregates as a Highly Active SERS Substrate  

SciTech Connect

A unique gold nanoparticle aggregate (GNA) system has been shown to be an excellent substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications. Rhodamine 6G (R6G), a common molecule used for testing SERS activity on silver, but generally difficult to detect on gold substrates, has been found to readily bind to the GNA and exhibit strong SERS activity due to the unique surface chemistry afforded by sulfur species on the surface. This GNA system has yielded a large SERS enhancement of 10{sup 7}-10{sup 9} in bulk solution for R6G, on par with or greater than any previously reported gold SERS substrate. SERS activity has also been successfully demonstrated for several biological molecules including adenine, L-cysteine, L-lysine, and L-histidine for the first time on a gold SERS substrate, showing the potential of this GNA as a convenient and powerful SERS substrate for biomolecular detection. In addition, SERS spectrum of R6G on single aggregates has been measured. We have shown that the special surface properties of the GNA, in conjunction with strong near IR absorption, make it useful for SERS analysis of a wide variety of molecules.

Schwartzberg, A M; Grant, C D; Wolcott, A; Talley, C E; Huser, T R; Bogomolni, R; Zhang, J Z

2004-04-06

446

On characterizing adaptive events unique to modern humans.  

PubMed

Ever since the first draft of the human genome was completed in 2001, there has been increased interest in identifying genetic changes that are uniquely human, which could account for our distinct morphological and cognitive capabilities with respect to other apes. Recently, draft sequences of two extinct hominin genomes, a Neanderthal and Denisovan, have been released. These two genomes provide a much greater resolution to identify human-specific genetic differences than the chimpanzee, our closest extant relative. The Neanderthal genome paper presented a list of regions putatively targeted by positive selection around the time of the human-Neanderthal split. We here seek to characterize the evolutionary history of these candidate regions-examining evidence for selective sweeps in modern human populations as well as for accelerated adaptive evolution across apes. Results indicate that 3 of the top 20 candidate regions show evidence of selection in at least one modern human population (P < 5 × 10(5)). Additionally, four genes within the top 20 regions show accelerated amino acid substitutions across multiple apes (P < 0.01), suggesting importance across deeper evolutionary time. These results highlight the importance of evaluating evolutionary processes across both recent and ancient evolutionary timescales and intriguingly suggest a list of candidate genes that may have been uniquely important around the time of the human-Neanderthal split. PMID:21803765

Crisci, Jessica L; Wong, Alex; Good, Jeffrey M; Jensen, Jeffrey D

2011-07-29

447

Prokaryote or eukaryote? A unique microorganism from the deep sea.  

PubMed

There are only two kinds of organisms on the Earth: prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although eukaryotes are considered to have evolved from prokaryotes, there were no previously known intermediate forms between them. The differences in their cellular structures are so vast that the problem of how eukaryotes could have evolved from prokaryotes is one of the greatest enigmas in biology. Here, we report a unique organism with cellular structures appearing to have intermediate features between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which was discovered in the deep sea off the coast of Japan using electron microscopy and structome analysis. The organism was 10 µm long and 3 µm in diameter, having >100 times the volume of Escherichia coli. It had a large 'nucleoid', consisting of naked DNA fibers, with a single nucleoid membrane and endosymbionts that resemble bacteria, but no mitochondria. Because this organism appears to be a life form distinct from both prokaryotes and eukaryotes but similar to eukaryotes, we named this unique microorganism the 'Myojin parakaryote' with the scientific name of Parakaryon myojinensis ('next to (eu)karyote from Myojin') after the discovery location and its intermediate morphology. The existence of this organism is an indication of a potential evolutionary path between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. PMID:23024290

Yamaguchi, Masashi; Mori, Yuko; Kozuka, Yoshimichi; Okada, Hitoshi; Uematsu, Katsuyuki; Tame, Akihiro; Furukawa, Hiromitsu; Maruyama, Tadashi; Worman, Cedric O'Driscoll; Yokoyama, Koji

2012-09-28

448

Design, characterization and control of the Unique Mobility Corporation robot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space and mass are at a premium on any space mission, and thus any machinery designed for space use should be lightweight and compact, without sacrificing strength. It is for this reason that NASA/LeRC contracted Unique Mobility Corporation to exploit their novel actuator designs to build a robot that would advance the present state of technology with respect to these requirements. Custom-designed motors are the key feature of this robot. They are compact, high-performance dc brushless servo motors with a high pole count and low inductance, thus permitting high torque generation and rapid phase commutation. Using a custom-designed digital signal processor-based controller board, the pulse width modulation power amplifiers regulate the fast dynamics of the motor currents. In addition, the programmable digital signal processor (DSP) controller permits implementation of nonlinear compensation algorithms to account for motoring vs. regeneration, torque ripple, and back-EMF. As a result, the motors produce a high torque relative to their size and weight, and can do so with good torque regulation and acceptably high velocity saturation limits. This paper presents the Unique Mobility Corporation robot prototype: its actuators, its kinematic design, its control system, and its experimental characterization. Performance results, including saturation torques, saturation velocities and tracking accuracy tests are included.

Velasco, Virgilio B., Jr.; Newman, Wyatt S.; Steinetz, Bruce; Kopf, Carlo; Malik, John

1994-05-01

449

Translational invariance, the Post constraint and uniqueness in macroscopic electrodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider semi-classical multipole theory for non-magnetic molecules interacting with harmonic plane electromagnetic waves, to electric octopole-magnetic quadrupole order and relative to an arbitrary set of molecular coordinate origins {On}. Spatial averaging of expectation values of induced molecular multipole moments produces a macroscopic theory for linear, homogeneous, anisotropic media that has three shortcomings: it is only partially invariant with respect to {On}, it is ambivalent on the Post constraint (equality of the traces of the magnetoelectric tensors), and it yields non-unique dynamic response fields D and H. To remedy these, we present a fully invariant theory that is consistent (affirmative) on the Post constraint, and is based on five time-even, invariant molecular polarizability tensors (one each of electric dipole and electric quadrupole-magnetic dipole order, and three of electric octopole-magnetic quadrupole order). As in previous work on linear phenomena, translational invariance is achieved through the Van Vleck-Buckingham condition. Uniqueness of the invariant response fields is demonstrated, based on linear independence of molecular polarizability tensors at each multipole order above electric dipole. Our results are compared with previously published expressions for two invariant polarizabilities.

de Lange, O. L.; Raab, R. E.; Welter, A.

2012-07-01

450

DRUMS: a human disease related unique gene mutation search engine.  

PubMed

With the completion of the human genome project and the development of new methods for gene variant detection, the integration of mutation data and its phenotypic consequences has become more important than ever. Among all available resources, locus-specific databases (LSDBs) curate one or more specific genes' mutation data along with high-quality phenotypes. Although some genotype-phenotype data from LSDB have been integrated into central databases little effort has been made to integrate all these data by a search engine approach. In this work, we have developed disease related unique gene mutation search engine (DRUMS), a search engine for human disease related unique gene mutation as a convenient tool for biologists or physicians to retrieve gene variant and related phenotype information. Gene variant and phenotype information were stored in a gene-centred relational database. Moreover, the relationships between mutations and diseases were indexed by the uniform resource identifier from LSDB, or another central database. By querying DRUMS, users can access the most popular mutation databases under one interface. DRUMS could be treated as a domain specific search engine. By using web crawling, indexing, and searching technologies, it provides a competitively efficient interface for searching and retrieving mutation data and their relationships to diseases. The present system is freely accessible at http://www.scbit.org/glif/new/drums/index.html. PMID:21913285

Li, Zuofeng; Liu, Xingnan; Wen, Jingran; Xu, Ye; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xuan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoyan

2011-10-01

451

Rationality, Irrationality and Escalating Behavior in Lowest Unique Bid Auctions  

PubMed Central

Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions – lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of “bid space”. The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets.

Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea; Amaral, Luis A. N.

2012-01-01

452

Nuclear modifications of Parton Distribution Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation addresses a central question of modern nuclear physics: how does the behavior of fundamental degrees of freedom (quarks and gluons) change in the nuclear environment? This is an important aspect of experimental studies at current facilities such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (JLAB). It is also highly relevant to planned experimental efforts at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the future Electron Ion Collider (EIC). All these facilities probe matter via collisions involving nuclei; thus complications arise due to the presence of the attendant nuclear medium. Theoretical efforts to understand and interpret experimental results from such collisions are therefore largely dependent on the resolution of this question. The development of nuclear physics demonstrates that theoretical description is most efficient in terms of the effective degrees of freedom relevant to the scale (energy) being probed. Thus at low energies, nuclei are described as bound states of protons and neutrons (nucleons). At higher energies, the nucleons are no longer elementary, but are revealed to possess an underlying substructure: they are made up of quarks and gluons, collectively termed partons. The mometum distributions of these partons in the nucleon are referred to as Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs). Parton distributions can be determined from experimental measurements of structure functions. The ratio of nuclear structure functions to nucleon structure functions (generically referred to as nuclear ratio) is a measure of the nuclear modifications of the free nucleon PDFs. Thus a study of the nuclear ratio suffices to gain an understanding of nuclear modifications. In this dissertation we aim to describe theoretically nuclear modifications in a restricted region where the nuclear ratio is less than unity, the so-called shadowing region. We also investigate the effects of nuclear modifications on observed quantities in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. Specifically, we consider deuteron-gold collisions and observables which are directly impacted by modifications, such as pseudorapidity asymmetry and nuclear modification factors. A good description of the shadowing region is afforded by Gribov Theory. Gribov related the shadowing correction to the differential diffractive hadron-nucleon cross section. We generalize Gribov theory to include both the real part of the diffractive scattering amplitude and higher order multiple scattering necessary for heavy nuclei. The diffractive dissociation inputs are taken from experiments. We calculate observables in deuteron-gold collisions. Utilizing the factorization theorem, we use the existing parameterizations of nuclear PDFs and fragmentation functions in a pQCD-improved parton model to calculate nuclear modification factors and pseudorapidity asymmetries. The nuclear modification factor is essentially the ratio of the deuteron-gold cross section to that of the proton-proton cross section scaled by the number of binary collisions. The pseudorapidity asymmetry is the ratio of the cross section in the negative rapidity region relative to that in the equivalent positive rapidity region. Both quantities are sensitive to the effects of nuclear modifications on PDFs. Results are compared to experimental data from the BRAHMS and STAR collaborations.

Adeluyi, Adeola Adeleke

453

Identification of disulfide bonds in protein proteolytic degradation products using de novo-protein unique sequence tags approach.  

PubMed

Disulfide bonds are a form of post-translational modification that often determines protein structure(s) and function(s). In this work, we report a mass spectrometry method for identification of disulfides in degradation products of proteins, specifically endogenous peptides in the human blood plasma peptidome. LC-Fourier transform tandem mass spectrometry (FT MS/MS) was used for acquiring mass spectra that were de novo sequenced and then searched against the IPI human protein database. Through the use of unique sequence tags (UStags), we unambiguously correlated the spectra to specific database proteins. Examination of the UStags' prefix and/or suffix sequences that contain cysteine(s) in conjunction with sequences of the UStags-specified database proteins is shown to enable the unambigious determination of disulfide bonds. Using this method, we identified the intermolecular and intramolecular disulfides in human blood plasma peptidome peptides that have molecular weights of up to approximately 10 kDa. PMID:20590115

Shen, Yufeng; Toli?, Nikola; Purvine, Samuel O; Smith, Richard D

2010-08-01

454

Rhabdom evolution in butterflies: insights from the uniquely tiered and heterogeneous ommatidia of the Glacial Apollo butterfly, Parnassius glacialis  

PubMed Central

The eye of the Glacial Apollo butterfly, Parnassius glacialis, a ‘living fossil’ species of the family Papilionidae, contains three types of spectrally heterogeneous ommatidia. Electron microscopy reveals that the Apollo rhabdom is tiered. The distal tier is composed exclusively of photoreceptors expressing opsins of ultraviolet or blue-absorbing visual pigments, and the proximal tier consists of photoreceptors expressing opsins of green or red-absorbing visual pigments. This organization is unique because the distal tier of other known butterflies contains two green-sensitive photoreceptors, which probably function in improving spatial and/or motion vision. Interspecific comparison suggests that the Apollo rhabdom retains an ancestral tiered pattern with some modification to enhance its colour vision towards the long-wavelength region of the spectrum.

Matsushita, Atsuko; Awata, Hiroko; Wakakuwa, Motohiro; Takemura, Shin-ya; Arikawa, Kentaro

2012-01-01

455

Effect of site-specific modification on restriction endonucleases and DNA modification methyltransferases.  

PubMed Central

Restriction endonucleases have site-specific interactions with DNA that can often be inhibited by site-specific DNA methylation and other site-specific DNA modifications. However, such inhibition cannot generally be predicted. The empirically acquired data on these effects are tabulated for over 320 restriction endonucleases. In addition, a table of known site-specific DNA modification methyltransferases and their specificities is presented along with EMBL database accession numbers for cloned genes.

McClelland, M; Nelson, M; Raschke, E

1994-01-01

456

Tissue-specific epigenetic modifications in root apical meristem cells of Hordeum vulgare.  

PubMed

Epigenetic modifications of chromatin structure are essential for many biological processes, including growth and reproduction. Patterns of DNA and histone modifications have recently been widely studied in many plant species, although there is virtually no data on the spatial and temporal distribution of epigenetic markers during plant development. Accordingly, we have used immunostaining techniques to investigate epigenetic modifications in the root apical meristem of Hordeum vulgare. Histone H4 acetylation (H4K5ac), histone H3 dimethylation (H3K4me2, H3K9me2) and DNA methylation (5mC) patterns were established for various root meristem tissues. Distinct levels of those modifications were visualised in the root cap, epidermis, cortex and vascular tissues. The lateral root cap cells seem to display the highest level of H3K9me2 and 5mC. In the epidermis, the highest level of 5mC and H3K9me2 was detected in the nuclei from the boundary of the proximal meristem and the elongation zone, while the vascular tissues were characterized by the highest level of H4K5ac. Some of the modified histones were also detectable in the cytoplasm in a highly tissue-specific manner. Immunolocalisation of epigenetic modifications of chromatin carried out in this way, on longitudinal or transverse sections, provides a unique topographic context within the organ, and will provide some answers to the significant biological question of tissue differentiation processes during root development in a monocotyledon plant species. PMID:23935955

Braszewska-Zalewska, Agnieszka J; Wolny, Elzbieta A; Smialek, Lukasz; Hasterok, Robert

2013-07-31

457

Bimodal quantitative relationships between histone modifications for X-linked and autosomal loci  

PubMed Central

Gene expression is controlled by coordinated action of many epigenetic mechanisms including covalent histone modifications. Although numerous recurrent patterns of colocalized histone modifications have been associated with specific gene expression states, interrelationships between individual modifications are largely unknown. Here, we analyze quantitative relationships between colocalized histone marks during embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation and find that, for autosomal genes, these densities follow bimodal patterns. Analysis of repressive H3K27me3 and activating H3K4me3 modifications reveals the expected anticorrelation between them at active promoters but an unexpected positive correlation at inactive promoters. The two trends connect in a region corresponding to bivalent genes. Interestingly, this region is characterized by maximal H3K27 methylation. Resolving gene bivalency during ESC differentiation does not conform to the expected model of two marks as counteracting and competing forces. Although activated genes acquire H3K4me3 and lose H3K27me3, repressed genes lose H3K4me3 without gaining H3K27me3. The behavior of X-linked genes also deviates from expected models. Allele-specific analysis of chromatin modifications during X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) suggests that the silencing machinery focuses on active genes and depletion of H3K4me3 and that H3K27me3 is most significant during establishment of gene silencing. Our analysis reveals nontrivial relationships between H3K4me3 and H3K27me3, reveals unique aspects of gene bivalency, and demonstrates that XCI does not conform neatly to autosomal models.

Sadreyev, Ruslan I.; Yildirim, Eda; Pinter, Stefan F.; Lee, Jeannie T.

2013-01-01

458

Quantitative Proteomic Approaches to Studying Histone Modifications  

PubMed Central

Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) positively and negatively regulate gene expression, and are consequently a vital influence on the genomic profile of all eukaryotic species. The study of histone PTMs using classical methods in molecular biology, such as immunofluorescence and Western blotting, is challenging given the technical issues of the approaches, and chemical diversity and combinatorial patterns of the modifications. In light of these many technical limitations, mass spectrometry (MS) is emerging as the most unbiased and rigorous experimental platform to identify and quantify histone PTMs in a high-throughput manner. This review covers the latest developments in mass spectrometry for the analysis of histone PTMs, with the hope of inspiring the continued integration of proteomic, genomic and epigenetic research.

Zee, Barry M; Young, Nicolas L; Garcia, Benjamin A

2011-01-01

459

Tissue modification with feedback: the smart scalpel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While feedback control is widespread throughout many engineering fields, there are almost no examples of surgical instruments that utilize a real-time detection and intervention strategy. This concept of closed loop feedback can be applied to the development of autonomous or semi- autonomous minimally invasive robotic surgical systems for efficient excision or modification of diseased tissue. Spatially localized regions of the tissue are first probed to distinguish pathological from healthy tissue based on differences in histochemical and morphological properties. Energy is directed to only the diseased tissue, minimizing collateral damage by leaving the adjacent healthy tissue intact. Continuous monitoring determines treatment effectiveness and, if needed, enables real-time treatment modifications to produce optimal therapeutic outcomes. The present embodiment of this general concept is a microsurgical instrument we call the Smart Scalpel, designed to treat skin angiodysplasias such as port wine stains. Other potential Smart Scalpel applications include psoriasis treatment and early skin cancer detection and intervention.

Sebern, Elizabeth L.; Brenan, Colin J.; Anderson, R. Rox; Hunter, Ian W.

1998-10-01

460

Laser surface modification of metallic biomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Load-bearing metal implants often fail prematurely due to inadequate biocompatibility, mechanical/tribological properties, and poor osseointegration. It is well known that biomaterials' surface plays a vital role in the response to these metal implants in the biological environment. The biological effectiveness of artificial implants is determined mainly by their surface characteristics such as surface morphology, microstructure, composition, mechanical properties, wettabilility, and surface free energy. Hence, there is significant interest toward surface modification and effective design of load-bearing metal implants so as to improve their surface properties and thereby elicit a specific, desired, and timely response from the surrounding cells and tissues. In this article, we provide an insight into laser surface modification of Ti/Ti6Al4V alloy with or without functional gradation in composition and their microstructural, in vitro wear and biological properties for various loadbearing orthopedic applications.

Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Roy, Mangal; Bose, Susmita

2011-06-01

461

Effectiveness of decanter modifications on organic removal  

SciTech Connect

A series of runs were planned in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF) at the Savannah River Plant to determine the effectiveness of equipment and process modifications on the PHEF decanter organic removal efficiency. Runs 54-59 were planned to test the effectiveness of spray recirculation, a new decanter, heated organic recirculation and aqueous drawoff on organic removal efficiency in the revised HAN flowsheet. Runs 60-63 were planned to provide a comparison of the original and new decanter designs on organic removal efficiency in the late wash flowsheet without organic recirculation. Operational problems were experienced in both the PHEF and IDMS pilot facilities because of the production of high boiling organics and the low organic removal efficiency of the PHEF decanters. To prevent these problems in the DWPF Salt and Chemical Cells, modifications were proposed to the decanter and flowsheet to maximize the organic removal efficiency and minimize production of high boiling organics.

Lambert, D.P.

1992-08-20

462

Deep, diverse and definitely different: unique attributes of the world's largest ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deep sea, the largest biome on Earth, has a series of characteristics that make this environment both distinct from other marine and land ecosystems and unique for the entire planet. This review describes these patterns and processes, from geological settings to biological processes, biodiversity and biogeographical patterns. It concludes with a brief discussion of current threats from anthropogenic activities to deep-sea habitats and their fauna. Investigations of deep-sea habitats and their fauna began in the late 19th century. In the intervening years, technological developments and stimulating discoveries have promoted deep-sea research and changed our way of understanding life on the planet. Nevertheless, the deep sea is still mostly unknown and current discovery rates of both habitats and species remain high. The geological, physical and geochemical settings of the deep-sea floor and the water column form a series of different habitats with unique characteristics that support specific faunal communities. Since 1840, 28 new habitats/ecosystems have been discovered from the shelf break to the deep trenches and discoveries of new habitats are still happening in the early 21st century. However, for most of these habitats the global area covered is unknown or has been only very roughly estimated; an even smaller - indeed, minimal - proportion has actually been sampled and investigated. We currently perceive most of the deep-sea ecosystems as heterotrophic, depending ultimately on the flux on organic matter produced in the overlying surface ocean through photosynthesis. The resulting strong food limitation thus shapes deep-sea biota and communities, with exceptions only in reducing ecosystems such as inter alia hydrothermal vents or cold seeps. Here, chemoautolithotrophic bacteria play the role of primary producers fuelled by chemical energy sources rather than sunlight. Other ecosystems, such as seamounts, canyons or cold-water corals have an increased productivity through specific physical processes, such as topographic modification of currents and enhanced transport of particles and detrital matter. Because of its unique abiotic attributes, the deep sea hosts a specialized fauna. Although there are no phyla unique to deep waters, at lower taxonomic levels the composition of the fauna is distinct from that found in the upper ocean. Amongst other characteristic patterns, deep-sea species may exhibit either gigantism or dwarfism, related to the decrease in food availability with depth. Food limitation on the seafloor and water column is also reflected in the trophic structure of heterotrophic deep-sea communities, which are adapted to low energy availability. In most of these heterotrophic habitats, the dominant megafauna is composed of detritivores, while filter feeders are abundant in habitats with hard substrata (e.g. mid-ocean ridges, seamounts, canyon walls and coral reefs). Chemoautotrophy through symbiotic relationships is dominant in reducing habitats. Deep-sea biodiversity is among of the highest on the planet, mainly composed of macro and meiofauna, with high evenness. This is true for most of the continental margins and abyssal plains with hot spots of diversity such as seamounts or cold-water corals. However, in some ecosystems with particularly "extreme" physicochemical processes (e.g. hydrothermal vents), biodiversity is low but abundance and biomass are high and the communities are dominated by a few species. Two large-scale diversity patterns have been discussed for deep-sea benthic communities. First, a unimodal relationship between diversity and depth is observed, with a peak at intermediate depths (2000-3000 m), although this is not universal and particular abiotic processes can modify the trend. Secondly, a poleward trend of decreasing diversity has been discussed, but this remains controversial and studies with larger and more robust data sets are needed. Because of the paucity in our knowledge of habitat coverage and species composition, biogeographic studies are mostly based on region

Ramirez-Llodra, E.; Brandt, A.; Danovaro, R.; de Mol, B.; Escobar, E.; German, C. R.; Levin, L. A.; Martinez Arbizu, P.; Menot, L.; Buhl-Mortensen, P.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Smith, C. R.; Tittensor, D. P.; Tyler, P. A.; Vanreusel, A.; Vecchione, M.

2010-09-01

463

Deep, diverse and definitely different: unique attributes of the world's largest ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deep sea, the largest biome on Earth, has a series of characteristics that make this environment both distinct from other marine and land ecosystems and unique for the entire planet. This review describes these patterns and processes, from geological settings to biological processes, biodiversity and biogeographical patterns. It concludes with a brief discussion of current threats from anthropogenic activities to deep-sea habitats and their fauna. Investigations of deep-sea habitats and their fauna began in the late 19th Century. In the intervening years, technological developments and stimulating discoveries have promoted deep-sea research and changed our way of understanding life on the planet. Nevertheless, the deep sea is still mostly unknown and current discovery rates of both habitats and species remain high. The geological, physical and geochemical settings of the deep-sea floor and the water column form a series of different habitats with unique characteristics that support specific faunal communities. Since 1840, 27 new habitats/ecosystems have been discovered from the shelf break to the deep trenches and discoveries of new habitats are still happening in the early 21st Century. However, for most of these habitats, the global area covered is unknown or has been only very roughly estimated; an even smaller - indeed, minimal - proportion has actually been sampled and investigated. We currently perceive most of the deep-sea ecosystems as heterotrophic, depending ultimately on the flux on organic matter produced in the overlying surface ocean through photosynthesis. The resulting strong food limitation, thus, shapes deep-sea biota and communities, with exceptions only in reducing ecosystems such as inter alia hydrothermal vents or cold seeps, where chemoautolithotrophic bacteria play the role of primary producers fuelled by chemical energy sources rather than sunlight. Other ecosystems, such as seamounts, canyons or cold-water corals have an increased productivity through specific physical processes, such as topographic modification of currents and enhanced transport of particles and detrital matter. Because of its unique abiotic attributes, the deep sea hosts a specialized fauna. Although there are no phyla unique to deep waters, at lower taxonomic levels the composition of the fauna is distinct from that found in the upper ocean. Amongst other characteristic patterns, deep-sea species may exhibit either gigantism or dwarfism, related to the decrease in food availability with depth. Food limitation on the seafloor and water column is also reflected in the trophic structure of deep-sea communities, which are adapted to low energy availability. In most of the heterotrophic deep-sea settings, the dominant megafauna is composed of detritivores, while filter feeders are abundant in habitats with hard substrata (e.g. mid-ocean ridges, seamounts, canyon walls and coral reefs) and chemoautotrophy through symbiotic relationships is dominant in reducing habitats. Deep-sea biodiversity is among of the highest on the planet, mainly composed of macro and meiofauna, with high evenness. This is true for most of the continental margins and abyssal plains with hot spots of diversity such as seamounts or cold-water corals. However, in some ecosystems with particularly "extreme" physicochemical processes (e.g. hydrothermal vents), biodiversity is low but abundance and biomass are high and the communities are dominated by a few species. Two large-scale diversity patterns have been discussed for deep-sea benthic communities. First, a unimodal relationship between diversity and depth is observed, with a peak at intermediate depths (2000-3000 m), although this is not universal and particular abiotic processes can modify the trend. Secondly, a poleward trend of decreasing diversity has been discussed, but this remains controversial and studies with larger and more robust datasets are needed. Because of the paucity in our knowledge of habitat coverage and species composition, biogeographic studies are mostly based on regional

Ramirez-Llodra, E.; Brandt, A.; Danovaro, R.; Escobar, E.; German, C. R.; Levin, L. A.; Martinez Arbizu, P.; Menot, L.; Buhl-Mortensen, P.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Smith, C. R.; Tittensor, D. P.; Tyler, P. A.; Vanreusel, A.; Vecchione, M.

2010-04-01

464

Organization of restriction-modification systems.  

PubMed Central

The genes for over 100 restriction-modification systems have now been cloned, and approximately one-half have been sequenced. Despite their similar function, they are exceedingly heterogeneous. The heterogeneity is evident at three levels: in the gene arrangements; in the enzyme compositions; and in the protein sequences. This paper summarizes the main features of the R-M systems that have been cloned.

Wilson, G G

1991-01-01

465

Transition element modifications of Al-Li  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of aluminum-lithium metallurgy has led to alloys with unsurpassed combinations of density, specific strength, and specific modulus. This paper describes recent advances in the modification of aluminum-lithium binary alloys through additions of the Group IV-A transition metals (titanium, zirconium, and hafnium). These elements lead to a duplex precipitation hardening behavior through the formation of Al3Li and Al3(TM,Li) (TM

F. W. Gayle; N. F. Levoy; J. B. Vandersande

1987-01-01

466

Surface modifications of Nitinol for biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cathodic electrophoretic deposition (EPD) has been utilized for the fabrication of composite films for the surface modification of NiTi shape memory alloys (Nitinol). In the proposed method, chitosan (CH) was used as a matrix for the incorporation of other functional materials, such as heparin, hydroxyapatite and bioglass. Chitosan–heparin films were deposited from solutions of non-stoichiometric chitosan–heparin complexes. It was found

F. Sun; K. N. Sask; J. L. Brash; I. Zhitomirsky

2008-01-01

467

BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION AND THE BRAT SYNDROME  

Microsoft Academic Search

DESCRIBES A PROGRAM OF BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION TO TRAIN A MOTHER TO CONTROL HER 81\\/2-YR-OLD EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED BOY WHO WAS A SEVERE DISCIPLINARY PROBLEM. TRAINING WAS BASED ON LEARNING PRINCIPLES, AND BEHAVIORAL FEEDBACK TO THE MOTHER WAS PROVIDED VIA CLOSED-CIRCUIT TV. MOTHER-SON INTERACTIONS WERE VIDEOTAPED AS THE MOTHER PRACTICED STEP-BY-STEP INSTRUCTIONS, AND THE INTERACTION TAPES WERE VIEWED BY THE MOTHER FOR

MARTHA E. BERNAL; JOHN S. DURYEE; HAROLD L. PRUETT

1968-01-01

468

Genetic modification of human hematopoietic stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transplantation of genetically modified hematopoietic stem cells is a potential therapy for a variety of genetic and acquired\\u000a blood disorders, such as severe combined immunodeficiencies, thalassemia and AIDS. Genetic modification of stem cells can\\u000a be carried out ex vivo, by transducing bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell-rich fractions with viral vectors carrying\\u000a therapeutic genes. These vectors must be able

Fulvio Mavilio

2005-01-01

469

Metabolic syndrome, endothelial function and lifestyle modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated (1) endothelial function (FMD, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) cross-sectionally in subjects with (MS+) and without (MS-) metabolic syndrome who were at increased risk for cardiovascular disease due to either HNBP and\\/or IGR, and (2) examined in a subgroup of subjects the effects of 24-week lifestyle modification on endothelial function. MS components, FMD by Doppler ultrasound, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 by

Kunihiko Aizawa; J. Kevin Shoemaker; Tom J. Overend; Robert J. Petrella

2010-01-01

470

Metabolic syndrome, endothelial function and lifestyle modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated (1) endothelial function (FMD, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) cross-sectionally in subjects with (MS+) and without (MS-) metabolic syndrome who were at increased risk for cardiovascular disease due to either HNBP and\\/or IGR, and (2) examined in a subgroup of subjects the effects of 24-week lifestyle modification on endothelial function. MS components, FMD by Doppler ultrasound, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 by

Kunihiko Aizawa; J. Kevin Shoemaker; Tom J. Overend; Robert J. Petrella

2009-01-01

471

Genetic modification of cells for transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in gene therapy has produced promising results that translate experimental research into clinical treatment. Gene modification has been extensively employed in cell transplantation. The main barrier is an effective gene delivery system. Several viral vectors were utilized in end-stage differentiated cells. Recently, successful applications were described with adenovirus-associated vectors. As an alternative, embryonic stem cell- and stem cell-like systems

Yi Lai; Irina Drobinskaya; Eugen Kolossov; Chunguang Chen; Thomas Linn

2008-01-01

472

IIN model: modifications and case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Referring to IN\\/Internet interworking models proposed by International Telecommunication Union and Telecommunication standardization sector (ITU-T) and the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a new model is proposed based on the China Mobile Intelligent Network version 02 (CMIN02) system from Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (BUPT). This model adds modifications and refinements to the former two reference models. This model

Xiaomin Zhu; Jianxin Liao; Junliang Chen

2001-01-01

473

Genome-Wide Epigenetic Modifications in Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Epigenetic alterations in cancer include changes in DNA methylation and associated histone modifications that influence the\\u000a chromatin states and impact gene expression patterns. Due to recent technological advantages, the scientific community is\\u000a now obtaining a better picture of the genome-wide epigenetic changes that occur in a cancer genome. These epigenetic alterations\\u000a are associated with chromosomal instability and changes in transcriptional

Yoon Jung Park; Rainer Claus; Dieter Weichenhan; Christoph Plass

474

Historical overview of HF ionospheric modification research  

SciTech Connect

Radio waves have inadvertently modified the Earth's ionosphere since the Luxembourg observations of Tellegen in 1933 and perhaps since Marconi in 1901. The history of ionospheric modification by radio waves is reviewed, beginning with Marconi, describing the Luxembourg effect and its explanations, and its early use to deduce the properties of the lower ionosphere in the 1930s. The measurements became more sophisticated in the 1950s, leading to the call for high-power high-frequency modification experiments in the upper ionosphere. Beginning in 1970, radio facilities became available of sufficient powers to induce changes in the ionospheric plasma detectable by a wide array of diagnostic instruments and techniques. A summary of these effects is presented based upon work up to 1990. These studies were originally motivated as a means of better understanding the natural ionosphere using a weak perturbational approach. However, a rich spectrum of nonlinear wave-plasma interactions was quickly discovered and ionospheric modification research became strongly motivated by issues in basic plasma physics. The ionosphere and near-Earth space are now exploited as an exceptional plasma laboratory-without-walls for the study of fundamental plasma processes requiring large spatial or temporal scales. Here we present a brief overview of these processes and phenomena, illustrated using results obtained from the Arecibo ionospheric modification facilities. The lessons learned and phenomena explored thus far offer many opportunities for controlling the ionospheric environment critical to many civilian and military telecommunications systems, both to disrupt systems normally operational and to create new propagation paths otherwise unavailable.

Gordon, W.E.; Duncan, L.M.

1990-10-01

475

Protein functionality modification by extrusion cooking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooking extruders process high-protein materials into palatable foods. New applications have been developed for protein extrusion\\u000a during the past decade. Improvements in functional characteristics of proteins may be achieved through modification of temperature,\\u000a screw speed, moisture content, and other extrusion parameters. Flavors and odors may be removed during expansion at the extruder\\u000a die. Extrusion can improve the digestibility of proteins,

Mary Ellen Camire

1991-01-01

476

Epigenetic modifications in pluripotent and differentiated cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epigenetic modifications constitute a complex regulatory layer on top of the genome sequence. Pluripotent and differentiated cells provide a powerful system for investigating how the epigenetic code influences cellular fate. High-throughput sequencing of these cell types has yielded DNA methylation maps at single-nucleotide resolution and many genome-wide chromatin maps. In parallel to epigenome mapping efforts, remarkable progress has been made

Alexander Meissner

2010-01-01

477

Screening vector field modifications of general relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A screening mechanism for conformal vector-tensor modifications of general relativity is proposed. The conformal factor depends on the norm of the vector field and makes the field to vanish in high dense regions, whereas drives it to a non-null value in low density environments. Such process occurs due to a spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanism and gives rise to both the screening of fifth forces as well as Lorentz violations. The cosmology and local constraints are also computed.

Beltrán Jiménez, Jose; Delvas Fróes, André Luís; Mota, David F.

2013-10-01

478

Regioselective chemical modification of monoclonal antibodies  

DOEpatents

A method is presented of selectively modifying an immunoglobulin having at least one Fab region and at least one Fc region. Each region has an isoelectric point where the isoelectric point of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin is different from the isoelectric point of the Fc fragment of the immunoglobulin. The method comprises of a modification of the immunoglobulin at a pH between the respective isoelectric points of the Fab and Fc fragments of the immunoglobulin.

Ranadive, G.; Rozenzweig, H.S.; Epperly, M.; Bloomer, W.

1993-05-04

479

National Steel's by-product modifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The original 6-meter No. 5 coke battery and by-product plant operated from 1970 through 1986. Davy\\/Still Otto received a contract in Dec. 1990 to engineer and rebuild the by-products plant, and coal and coke material handling facilities. The rebuilt facilities began operation in Nov. 1992. Coal handling facilities were reused with repairs and modifications, such as new vibrating bin bottoms,

R. P. Kalinowsky; M. Platts

1993-01-01

480

Behavioral modification in choice process of Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

In visual operant conditioning ofDrosophila at the flight simulator, only motor output of flies—yaw torque—is recorded, which is involved in the conditioning process.\\u000a The current study used a newly-designed data analysis method to study the torque distribution ofDrosophila. Modification of torque distribution represents the effects of operant conditioning on flies’ behavioral mode. Earlier works[10] showed that, when facing contradictory visual

Shunpeng Wang; Shiming Tang; Yan Li; Aike Guo

2003-01-01