These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

A Unique Modification of the Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 5A Shows the Presence of the Complete Hypusine Pathway in Leishmania donovani  

PubMed Central

Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH) catalyzes the final step in the post-translational synthesis of an unusual amino acid hypusine (N€-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl) lysine), which is present on only one cellular protein, eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). We present here the molecular and structural basis of the function of DOHH from the protozoan parasite, Leishmania donovani, which causes visceral leishmaniasis. The L. donovani DOHH gene is 981 bp and encodes a putative polypeptide of 326 amino acids. DOHH is a HEAT-repeat protein with eight tandem repeats of ?-helical pairs. Four conserved histidine-glutamate sequences have been identified that may act as metal coordination sites. A ?42 kDa recombinant protein with a His-tag was obtained by heterologous expression of DOHH in Escherichia coli. Purified recombinant DOHH effectively catalyzed the hydroxylation of the intermediate, eIF5A-deoxyhypusine (eIF5A-Dhp), in vitro. L. donovani DOHH (LdDOHH) showed ?40.6% sequence identity with its human homolog. The alignment of L. donovani DOHH with the human homolog shows that there are two significant insertions in the former, corresponding to the alignment positions 159-162 (four amino acid residues) and 174-183 (ten amino acid residues) which are present in the variable loop connecting the N- and C-terminal halves of the protein, the latter being present near the substrate binding site. Deletion of the ten-amino-acid-long insertion decreased LdDOHH activity to 14% of the wild type recombinant LdDOHH. Metal chelators like ciclopirox olamine (CPX) and mimosine significantly inhibited the growth of L. donovani and DOHH activity in vitro. These inhibitors were more effective against the parasite enzyme than the human enzyme. This report, for the first time, confirms the presence of a complete hypusine pathway in a kinetoplastid unlike eubacteria and archaea. The structural differences between the L. donovani DOHH and the human homolog may be exploited for structure based design of selective inhibitors against the parasite. PMID:22438895

Chawla, Bhavna; Kumar, Ravi Ranjan; Tyagi, Nidhi; Subramanian, Gowri; Srinivasan, N.; Park, Myung Hee; Madhubala, Rentala

2012-01-01

2

A unique modification of the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A shows the presence of the complete hypusine pathway in Leishmania donovani.  

PubMed

Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH) catalyzes the final step in the post-translational synthesis of an unusual amino acid hypusine (N(€)-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl) lysine), which is present on only one cellular protein, eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). We present here the molecular and structural basis of the function of DOHH from the protozoan parasite, Leishmania donovani, which causes visceral leishmaniasis. The L. donovani DOHH gene is 981 bp and encodes a putative polypeptide of 326 amino acids. DOHH is a HEAT-repeat protein with eight tandem repeats of ?-helical pairs. Four conserved histidine-glutamate sequences have been identified that may act as metal coordination sites. A ~42 kDa recombinant protein with a His-tag was obtained by heterologous expression of DOHH in Escherichia coli. Purified recombinant DOHH effectively catalyzed the hydroxylation of the intermediate, eIF5A-deoxyhypusine (eIF5A-Dhp), in vitro. L. donovani DOHH (LdDOHH) showed ~40.6% sequence identity with its human homolog. The alignment of L. donovani DOHH with the human homolog shows that there are two significant insertions in the former, corresponding to the alignment positions 159-162 (four amino acid residues) and 174-183 (ten amino acid residues) which are present in the variable loop connecting the N- and C-terminal halves of the protein, the latter being present near the substrate binding site. Deletion of the ten-amino-acid-long insertion decreased LdDOHH activity to 14% of the wild type recombinant LdDOHH. Metal chelators like ciclopirox olamine (CPX) and mimosine significantly inhibited the growth of L. donovani and DOHH activity in vitro. These inhibitors were more effective against the parasite enzyme than the human enzyme. This report, for the first time, confirms the presence of a complete hypusine pathway in a kinetoplastid unlike eubacteria and archaea. The structural differences between the L. donovani DOHH and the human homolog may be exploited for structure based design of selective inhibitors against the parasite. PMID:22438895

Chawla, Bhavna; Kumar, Ravi Ranjan; Tyagi, Nidhi; Subramanian, Gowri; Srinivasan, N; Park, Myung Hee; Madhubala, Rentala

2012-01-01

3

Biosynthetic labeling of hypusine in mammalian cells  

SciTech Connect

Using a dual-label technique in which /sup 3/H - and /sup 14/C-labeled forms of putrescine and of spermidine were employed as biosynthetic precursors of hypusine, two -C-H bond cleavages were detected during production of this unique amino acid in Chinese hamster ovary cells. One of these cleavages occurs at the C-1 position of the 4-aminobutyl group during its transfer from the secondary amine nitrogen of spermidine to the nitrogen at the upsilon-position of a specific lysine residue in the polypeptide precursor of eukaryotic initiation factor 4D. Breakage of the other -C-H bond takes place at the C-2 position in this aminobutyl segment after it has been coupled to lysine to form the intermediate deoxyhypusine residue. Hydroxylation at this carbon atom, which constitutes the last step in hypusine biosynthesis, is the cause of bond cleavage. The data obtained are consistent with a notion that no additional -C-H bond fissions occur during hypusine biosynthesis. The authors findings permit a suggestion of a mechanism for enzymic aminobutyl group transfer in which 4-amino-butyraldehyde produced by oxidative cleavage of spermidine is coupled with the upsilon-amino group of a specific lysine residue to form an enzyme-bound imine intermediate.

Park, M.H.; Folk, J.E.

1986-05-01

4

Biochemical quantitation of the eIF5A hypusination in Arabidopsis thaliana uncovers ABA-dependent regulation  

PubMed Central

The eukaryotic translation elongation factor eIF5A is the only protein known to contain the unusual amino acid hypusine which is essential for its biological activity. This post-translational modification is achieved by the sequential action of the enzymes deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH). The crucial molecular function of eIF5A during translation has been recently elucidated in yeast and it is expected to be fully conserved in every eukaryotic cell, however the functional description of this pathway in plants is still sparse. The genetic approaches with transgenic plants for either eIF5A overexpression or antisense have revealed some activities related to the control of cell death processes but the molecular details remain to be characterized. One important aspect of fully understanding this pathway is the biochemical description of the hypusine modification system. Here we have used recombinant eIF5A proteins either modified by hypusination or non-modified to establish a bi-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-E) profile for the three eIF5A protein isoforms and their hypusinated or unmodified proteoforms present in Arabidopsis thaliana. The combined use of the recombinant 2D-E profile together with 2D-E/western blot analysis from whole plant extracts has provided a quantitative approach to measure the hypusination status of eIF5A. We have used this information to demonstrate that treatment with the hormone abscisic acid produces an alteration of the hypusine modification system in Arabidopsis thaliana. Overall this study presents the first biochemical description of the post-translational modification of eIF5A by hypusination which will be functionally relevant for future studies related to the characterization of this pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:24904603

Belda-Palazón, Borja; Nohales, María A.; Rambla, José L.; Aceña, José L.; Delgado, Oscar; Fustero, Santos; Martínez, M. Carmen; Granell, Antonio; Carbonell, Juan; Ferrando, Alejandro

2014-01-01

5

Effects of novel C-methylated spermidine analogs on cell growth via hypusination of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A.  

PubMed

The polyamines, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, are ubiquitous multifunctional cations essential for cellular proliferation. One specific function of spermidine in cell growth is its role as a butylamine donor for hypusine synthesis in the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). Here, we report the ability of novel mono-methylated spermidine analogs (?-MeSpd, ?-MeSpd, ?-MeSpd, and ?-MeSpd) to function in the hypusination of eIF5A and in supporting the growth of DFMO-treated DU145 cells. We also tested them as substrates and inhibitors for deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) in vitro. Of these compounds, ?-MeSpd, ?-MeSpd, and ?-MeSpd (but not ?-MeSpd) were substrates for DHS in vitro, while they all inhibited the enzyme reaction. As racemic mixtures, only ?-MeSpd and ?-MeSpd supported long-term growth (9-18 days) of spermidine-depleted DU145 cells, whereas ?-MeSpd and ?-MeSpd did not. The S-enantiomer of ?-MeSpd, which supported long-term growth, was a good substrate for DHS in vitro, whereas the R-isomer was not. The long-term growth of DFMO-treated cells correlated with the hypusine modification of eIF5A by intracellular methylated spermidine analogs. These results underscore the critical requirement for hypusine modification in mammalian cell proliferation and provide new insights into the specificity of the deoxyhypusine synthase reaction. PMID:21861168

Hyvönen, Mervi T; Keinänen, Tuomo A; Khomutov, Maxim; Simonian, Alina; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Park, Jong Hwan; Khomutov, Alex R; Alhonen, Leena; Park, Myung Hee

2012-02-01

6

Characterization of hypusine-containing 21,000-dalton protein in Neurospora crassa  

SciTech Connect

The deoxyhypusine/hypusine-containing 21,000-dalton protein was labeled by ({sup 3}H)spermidine both in vitro and in vivo in polyamine depleted Neurospora crassa arg-12 ota aga and aga mutants. The in vitro labeling of the 21,000-dalton protein could be dramatically stimulated by NAD{sup +} and NADP{sup +} but not by FMN or FAD. The in vitro labeled 21,000-dalton protein contained the radioactivity of deoxyhypusine and hypusine with a ratio of 2 to 1. The in vivo labeled protein resulted only in hypusine. Three isoform structures of the in vitro labeled 21,000-dalton protein were found with pl values ranging from 5.2 to 6.5. In contrast, the 21,000-dalton protein metabolically labeled in vivo with ({sup 3}H)ornithine gave only one spot with a pl value of 3.5. The deoxyhypusine-modifying enzyme is heat labile and has a half life of 40 min. The complete inhibition of deoxyhypusine-modifying enzyme by NEM and pCMBS suggests that the sulfhydryl group is required for the activity. The unmodified 21,000-dalton protein is heat stable and has a half life of more than 5 hrs. In order to determine the functional role of hypusine modification of 21,000-dalton protein, a protein synthesizing cell-free system has been established to translate endogenous mRNA to discrete polypeptides ranging up to 200,000-dalton. The inhibitory effect of spermidine on protein synthesis in cell-free system of unmodified 21,000-dalton protein is in contrast to the stimulatory effect on protein synthesis in cell-free system of modified protein, suggesting that unmodified 21,000-dalton protein might be responsible for the inhibitory effect of spermidine on protein synthesis in cell-free system containing unmodified 21,000-dalton protein.

Yang, Yunchung.

1989-01-01

7

Biosynthetic labeling of hypusine in mammalian cells. Carbon-hydrogen bond fissions revealed by dual labeling  

SciTech Connect

Using a dual-label technique in which /sup 3/H- and /sup 14/C-labeled forms of putrescine and of spermidine were employed as biosynthetic precursors of hypusine, two -C-H bond cleavages were detected during production of this unique amino acid in Chinese hamster ovary cells. One of these cleavages occurs at C-1 of the 4-aminobutyl group during its transfer from the secondary amine nitrogen of spermidine to the nitrogen at the epsilon-position of a specific lysine residue in the polypeptide precursor of eukaryotic initiation factor 4D. Breakage of the other -C-H bond takes place at C-2 in this aminobutyl segment after it has been coupled to lysine to form the intermediate deoxyhypusine residue. Hydroxylation at this carbon atom, which constitutes the last step in hypusine biosynthesis, is the cause of bond cleavage. The data obtained are consistent with a notion that no additional -C-H bond fissions occur during hypusine biosynthesis. Our findings permit suggestion of a mechanism for enzymic aminobutyl group transfer in which 4-aminobutyraldehyde produced by oxidative cleavage of spermidine is coupled with the epsilon-amino group of a specific lysine residue to form an enzyme-bound imine intermediate.

Park, M.H.; Folk, J.E.

1986-10-25

8

Cryptosporidium parvum has an active hypusine biosynthesis pathway  

PubMed Central

The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum causes severe enteric infection and diarrheal disease with substantial morbidity and mortality in untreated AIDS patients and children in developing or resource-limited countries. No fully effective treatment is available. Hypusination of eIF5A is an important post-translational modification essential for cell proliferation. This modification occurs in a two step process catalyzed by deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) followed by deoxyhypusine hydroxylase. An ORF of 1086 bp was identified in the C. parvum (Cp) genome which encodes for a putative polypeptide of 362 amino acids. The recombinant CpDHS protein was purified to homogeneity and used to probe the enzyme’s mechanism, structure, and inhibition profile in a series of kinetic experiments. Sequence analysis and structural modeling of CpDHS were performed to probe differences with respect to the DHS of other species. Unlike Leishmania, Trypanosomes and Entamoeba, Cryptosporidium contains only a single gene for DHS. Phylogenetic analysis shows that CpDHS is more closely related to apicomplexan DHS than kinetoplastid DHS. Important residues that are essential for the functioning of the enzyme including NAD+ binding residues, spermidine binding residues and the active site lysine are conserved between CpDHS and human DHS. N1-guanyl-1.7-diaminoheptane (GC7), a potent inhibitor of DHS caused an effective inhibition of infection and growth of C. parvum in HCT-8 cells. PMID:24893338

Mittal, Nimisha; Morada, Marie; Tripathi, Pankaj; Gowri, V.S.; Mandal, Swati; Quirch, Alison; Park, Myung Hee; Yarlett, Nigel; Madhubala, Rentala

2014-01-01

9

The spermidine analogue GC7 (N1-guanyl-1,7-diamineoheptane) induces autophagy through a mechanism not involving the hypusination of eIF5A.  

PubMed

The exogenous administration of spermidine promotes longevity in many model organisms. It has been proposed that this anti-age activity of spermidine is related to this polyamine's ability to promote autophagy. Since spermidine is the substrate for the eIF5A post-translational modification by hypusination, we asked ourselves whether mature eIF5A may represent the link between spermidine and autophagy induction. To test this hypothesis, we inhibited the conversion of native eIF5A by a pharmacological approach, using the N1-guanyl-1,7-diamineoheptane (GC7), a spermidine analogue which competitively and reversibly inhibits deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS). In addition, we also employed genetic approaches by ablating both the eIF5A protein itself and DHS, the rate limiting enzyme catalyzing the conversion of lysine to hypusine. Collectively the data presented in this study demonstrate that the mature eIF5A (hypusinated form) is not involved in the autophagic pathway and that the inhibitor of DHS, GC7, produces off-target effect(s) resulting in marked induction of basal autophagy. These data are relevant in light of the fact that GC7 is considered a potent and selective inhibitor of DHS and is a potential candidate drug for cancer, diabetes and HIV therapy. PMID:25218134

Oliverio, Serafina; Corazzari, Marco; Sestito, Claudia; Piredda, Lucia; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Piacentini, Mauro

2014-12-01

10

The Histone Code of Toxoplasma gondii Comprises Conserved and Unique Posttranslational Modifications  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Epigenetic gene regulation has emerged as a major mechanism for gene regulation in all eukaryotes. Histones are small, basic proteins that constitute the major protein component of chromatin, and posttranslational modifications (PTM) of histones are essential for epigenetic gene regulation. The different combinations of histone PTM form the histone code for an organism, marking functional units of chromatin that recruit macromolecular complexes that govern chromatin structure and regulate gene expression. To characterize the repertoire of Toxoplasma gondii histone PTM, we enriched histones using standard acid extraction protocols and analyzed them with several complementary middle-down and bottom-up proteomic approaches with the high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometer using collision-induced dissociation (CID), higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD), and/or electron transfer dissociation (ETD) fragmentation. We identified 249 peptides with unique combinations of PTM that comprise the T. gondii histone code. T. gondii histones share a high degree of sequence conservation with human histones, and many modifications are conserved between these species. In addition, T. gondii histones have unique modifications not previously identified in other species. Finally, T. gondii histones are modified by succinylation, propionylation, and formylation, recently described histone PTM that have not previously been identified in parasitic protozoa. The characterization of the T. gondii histone code will facilitate in-depth analysis of how epigenetic regulation affects gene expression in pathogenic apicomplexan parasites and identify a new model system for elucidating the biological functions of novel histone PTM. PMID:24327343

Nardelli, Sheila C.; Che, Fa-Yun; Silmon de Monerri, Natalie C.; Xiao, Hui; Nieves, Edward; Madrid-Aliste, Carlos; Angel, Sergio O.; Sullivan, William J.; Angeletti, Ruth H.; Kim, Kami; Weiss, Louis M.

2013-01-01

11

Hypusine-containing proteins and their modifying enzymes  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study is to purify and characterize this protein and to investigate general properties of its modifying enzymes. I developed a simple four-step procedure for purifying the hyp-18K protein. This procedure resulted in an 800-fold purification of the radio-labeled protein from NB-15 mouse neuroblastoma cells. Two hypusine-containing proteins with an apparent molecular weight of 18 kDa and 20 kDa were also identified by metabolic labeling in chick embryo fibroblasts. The hyp-18K in both NB cells and chick embryo fibroblastes exhibited two isoforms: acidic form (hyp-18K{sup a}) and basic form (hyp-18K{sup b}). I also purified both hyp-20K and hyp-18K isoforms from chick embryos to homogeneity. V8 protease peptide map analysis indicated that hyp-18K{sup b} isolated from chick embryos was identical, while hyp-18K{sup a} and hyp-20K were similar, to elF-4D. The chick embryo hyp-18K{sup b}, but not hyp-18K{sup a}, co-migrated with elF-4D. When NB cell lysates were incubated with ({sup 3}H)spermidine at pH 9.5, only hyp-18K{sup b} was labeled. Lysates, labeled at pH 9.5 and then adjusted to pH 7.2, gave both hyp-18K{sup a} and hyp-18K{sup b}. These data provided evidence that hyp-18K{sup a} is derived from hyp-18K{sup b}.

Dou, Q.

1988-01-01

12

Unique translational modification of an invertebrate neuropeptide: a phosphorylated member of the adipokinetic hormone peptide family  

PubMed Central

Separation of an extract of corpora cardiaca from the protea beetle, Trichostetha fascicularis, by single-step RP (reverse-phase)-HPLC and monitoring of tryptophan fluorescence resulted in two distinctive peaks, the material of which mobilized proline and carbohydrates in a bioassay performed using the beetle. Material from one of these peaks was; however, inactive in the classical bioassays of locusts and cockroaches that are used for detecting peptides belonging to the AKH (adipokinetic hormone) family. After enzymatically deblocking the N-terminal pyroglutamic acid (pGlu) residue in the peptide material and sequencing by Edman degradation, a partial sequence was obtained: (pGlu)-Ile-Asn-Met-Thr-Xaa-Gly-Trp. The complete sequence was deduced from ESI-MSn (electrospray ionization multi-stage-MS); position six was identified as a phosphothreonine residue and the C-terminus is amidated. The peptide, code-named Trifa-CC, was chemically synthesized and used in confirmatory experiments to show that the primary structure had been correctly assigned. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a phosphorylated invertebrate neuropeptide. Synthetic Trifa-CC co-elutes with the natural peptide, found in the gland of the protea beetle, after RP-HPLC. Moreover, the natural peptide can be dephosphorylated by alkaline phosphatase and the product of that reaction has the same retention time as a synthetic nonphosphorylated octapeptide which has the same sequence as Trifa-CC. Finally, synthetic Trifa-CC has hypertrehalosaemic and hyperprolinaemic biological activity in the protea beetle, but even high concentrations of synthetic Trifa-CC are inactive in locusts and cockroaches. Hence, the correct peptide structure has been assigned. Trifa-CC of the protea beetle is an unusual member of the AKH family that is unique in its post-translational modification. Since it increases the concentration of carbohydrates and proline in the haemolymph when injected into the protea beetle, and since these substrates are also used during flight, we hypothesize that Trifa-CC controls the mobilization of these metabolites in the protea beetle. PMID:16271039

2005-01-01

13

De novo sequencing of unique sequence tags for discovery of post-translational modifications of proteins  

SciTech Connect

De novo sequencing has a promise to discover the protein post-translation modifications; however, such approach is still in their infancy and not widely applied for proteomics practices due to its limited reliability. In this work, we describe a de novo sequencing approach for discovery of protein modifications through identification of the UStags (Anal. Chem. 2008, 80, 1871-1882). The de novo information was obtained from Fourier-transform tandem mass spectrometry for peptides and polypeptides in a yeast lysate, and the de novo sequences obtained were filtered to define a more limited set of UStags. The DNA-predicted database protein sequences were then compared to the UStags, and the differences observed across or in the UStags (i.e., the UStags’ prefix and suffix sequences and the UStags themselves) were used to infer the possible sequence modifications. With this de novo-UStag approach, we uncovered some unexpected variances of yeast protein sequences due to amino acid mutations and/or multiple modifications to the predicted protein sequences. Random matching of the de novo sequences to the predicted sequences were examined with use of two random (false) databases, and ~3% false discovery rates were estimated for the de novo-UStag approach. The factors affecting the reliability (e.g., existence of de novo sequencing noise residues and redundant sequences) and the sensitivity are described. The de novo-UStag complements the UStag method previously reported by enabling discovery of new protein modifications.

Shen, Yufeng; Tolic, Nikola; Hixson, Kim K.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

2008-10-15

14

Isolation of an 18,000-dalton hypusine-containing protein from cultured mouse neuroblastoma cells  

SciTech Connect

An 18,000-dalton protein can be metabolically labeled by (TH)putrescine or spermidine in mammalian cells. The labeling is due to a post-translational conversion of a lysine residue to hypusine residue. Previous studies indicated that the labeling is growth-dependent and is greatly diminished in mouse neuroblastoma cells after differentiation. To further study the physiological functions of this protein in the differentiation of mouse neuroblastoma cells, they have developed a simple procedure to purify this protein from cultured NB-15 mouse neuroblastoma cells. The 4-steps procedure included a Cibacron-Blue column, an omega-diaminooctyl-agarose column, a Sephadex G-50 column, and a Mono Q column. The procedure resulted in a 500-fold purification and the preparation appeared to be homogenous as judged by SDS-PAGE. Peptide map analysis using V-8 protease digestion method indicated that the 18,000-dalton hypusine-containing protein from NB-15 cells was identical to eukaryotic initiation factor 4D isolated from rabbit reticulocytes. This purification scheme also enabled them to detect a very faintly labeled protein in NB-15 cells. This weakly labeled protein had an apparent molecular weight of 22,000-dalton and pI of 5.0.

Dou, Q.P.; Chen, K.Y.

1987-05-01

15

Unique Structural Modifications Are Present in the Lipopolysaccharide from Colistin-Resistant Strains of Acinetobacter baumannii  

PubMed Central

Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe infections, including hospital-acquired pneumonia, wound infections, and sepsis. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains are prevalent, further complicating patient treatment. Due to the increase in MDR strains, the cationic antimicrobial peptide colistin has been used to treat A. baumannii infections. Colistin-resistant strains of A. baumannii with alterations to the lipid A component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been reported; specifically, the lipid A structure was shown to be hepta-acylated with a phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) modification present on one of the terminal phosphate residues. Using a tandem mass spectrometry platform, we provide definitive evidence that the lipid A isolated from colistin-resistant A. baumannii MAC204 LPS contains a novel structure corresponding to a diphosphoryl hepta-acylated lipid A structure with both pEtN and galactosamine (GalN) modifications. To correlate our structural studies with clinically relevant samples, we characterized colistin-susceptible and -resistant isolates obtained from patients. These results demonstrated that the clinical colistin-resistant isolate had the same pEtN and GalN modifications as those seen in the laboratory-adapted A. baumannii strain MAC204. In summary, this work has shown complete structure characterization including the accurate assignment of acylation, phosphorylation, and glycosylation of lipid A from A. baumannii, which are important for resistance to colistin. PMID:23877686

Pelletier, Mark R.; Casella, Leila G.; Jones, Jace W.; Adams, Mark D.; Zurawski, Daniel V.; Hazlett, Karsten R. O.; Doi, Yohei

2013-01-01

16

G-rich VEGF aptamer with locked and unlocked nucleic acid modifications exhibits a unique G-quadruplex fold  

PubMed Central

The formation of a single G-quadruplex structure adopted by a promising 25 nt G-rich vascular endothelial growth factor aptamer in a K+ rich environment was facilitated by locked nucleic acid modifications. An unprecedented all parallel-stranded monomeric G-quadruplex with three G-quartet planes exhibits several unique structural features. Five consecutive guanine residues are all involved in G-quartet formation and occupy positions in adjacent DNA strands, which are bridged with a no-residue propeller-type loop. A two-residue D-shaped loop facilitates inclusion of an isolated guanine residue into the vacant spot within the G-quartet. The remaining two G-rich tracts of three residues each adopt parallel orientation and are linked with edgewise and propeller loops. Both 5? with 3 nt and 3? with 4 nt overhangs display well-defined conformations, with latter adopting a basket handle topology. Locked residues contribute to thermal stabilization of the adopted structure and formation of structurally pre-organized intermediates that facilitate folding into a single G-quadruplex. Understanding the impact of chemical modifications on folding, thermal stability and structural polymorphism of G-quadruplexes provides means for the improvement of vascular endothelial growth factor aptamers and advances our insights into driving nucleic acid structure by locking or unlocking the conformation of sugar moieties of nucleotides in general. PMID:23935071

Maruši?, Maja; Veedu, Rakesh N.; Wengel, Jesper; Plavec, Janez

2013-01-01

17

Chemical-modification studies of a unique sialic acid-binding lectin from the snail Achatina fulica. Involvement of tryptophan and histidine residues in biological activity.  

PubMed Central

A unique sialic acid-binding lectin, achatininH (ATNH) was purified in single step from the haemolymph of the snail Achatina fulica by affinity chromatography on sheep submaxillary-gland mucin coupled to Sepharose 4B. The homogeneity was checked by alkaline gel electrophoresis, immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis. Amino acid analysis showed that the lectin has a fairly high content of acidic amino acid residues (22% of the total). About 1.3% of the residues are half-cystine. The glycoprotein contains 21% carbohydrate. The unusually high content of xylose (6%) and fucose (2.7%) in this snail lectin is quite interesting. The protein was subjected to various chemical modifications in order to detect the amino acid residues and carbohydrate residues present in its binding sites. Modification of tyrosine and arginine residues did not affect the binding activity of ATNH; however, modification of tryptophan and histidine residues led to a complete loss of its biological activity. A marked decrease in the fluorescence emission was found as the tryptophan residues of ATNH were modified. The c.d. data showed the presence of an identical type of conformation in the native and modified agglutinin. The modification of lysine and carboxy residues partially diminished the biological activity. The activity was completely lost after a beta-elimination reaction, indicating that the sugars are O-glycosidically linked to the glycoprotein's protein moiety. This result confirms that the carbohydrate moiety also plays an important role in the agglutination property of this lectin. Images Fig. 3. PMID:3140796

Basu, S; Mandal, C; Allen, A K

1988-01-01

18

Differentiation of Neural-Crest-Derived Intermediate Pluripotent Progenitors into Committed Periodontal Populations Involves Unique Molecular Signature Changes, Cohort Shifts, and Epigenetic Modifications  

PubMed Central

Intermediate progenitor populations play a crucial role in the regional specification and differentiation of the cranial neural crest. On the basis of global gene expression profiles, gene cohort expression levels, and epigenetic modifications, we have defined key factors involved in the differentiation of dental follicle (DF) intermediate progenitors into periodontal lineages, including alveolar bone (AB) osteoblasts, cementoblasts, and periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. When comparing differentially expressed genes, PDL cells most closely resembled DF progenitors, followed by AB osteoblasts and cementoblasts as the most distant population. According to gene ontology analyses, extracellular matrix-adhesion proteins were substantially increased in PDL cells, osteogenesis factors were elevated in AB osteoblasts, and gene expression levels were lower in cementoblasts, especially in the cytokine group. Unique signature proteins included interleukin 6, paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2, thrombospondin 2, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor for DF progenitors; asporin and prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase for AB osteoblasts; and keratin 18, Netrin 4, Jagged 1, and Dickkopf1 for cementoblasts, as verified by western blot analysis. Secreted frizzled-related protein 1 was preferentially expressed in PDL cells, whereas matrix Gla-protein, bone sialoprotein, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 were higher in AB osteoblasts than in cementoblasts. On an epigenetic level, DF progenitors featured high levels of the euchromatin marker H3K4me3, whereas PDL cells, AB osteoblasts, and cementoblasts contained high levels of the transcriptional repressor H3K9me3. Together, our data indicate that in addition to changes in signature gene expression, unique shifts in gene cohort expression levels, epigenetic modifications, and changes in cell morphology contribute to the individuation of tissue populations from a common neural-crest-derived ancestor. PMID:20604680

Dangaria, Smit Jayant; Ito, Yoshihiro; Luan, Xianghong

2011-01-01

19

Primate Social Cognition: Uniquely Primate, Uniquely Social, or Just Unique?  

E-print Network

Neuron Review Primate Social Cognition: Uniquely Primate, Uniquely Social, or Just Unique? Richard Primate Research Group, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9JP, Scotland, UK *Correspondence: rwb@st-andrews.ac.uk DOI 10.1016/j.neuron.2010.03.010 Primates undoubtedly have impressive abilities in perceiving

20

Blocking eIF5A modification in cervical cancer cells alters the expression of cancer-related genes and suppresses cell proliferation.  

PubMed

Cancer etiology is influenced by alterations in protein synthesis that are not fully understood. In this study, we took a novel approach to investigate the role of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF5A in human cervical cancers, where it is widely overexpressed. eIF5A contains the distinctive amino acid hypusine, which is formed by a posttranslational modification event requiring deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH), an enzyme that can be inhibited by the drugs ciclopirox and deferiprone. We found that proliferation of cervical cancer cells can be blocked by DOHH inhibition with either of these pharmacologic agents, as well as by RNA interference-mediated silencing of eIF5A, DOHH, or another enzyme in the hypusine pathway. Proteomic and RNA analyses in HeLa cervical cancer cells identified two groups of proteins in addition to eIF5A that were coordinately affected by ciclopirox and deferiprone. Group 1 proteins (Hsp27, NM23, and DJ-1) were downregulated at the translational level, whereas group 2 proteins (TrpRS and PRDX2) were upregulated at the mRNA level. Further investigations confirmed that eIF5A and DOHH are required for Hsp27 expression in cervical cancer cells and for regulation of its key target I?B and hence NF-?B. Our results argue that mature eIF5A controls a translational network of cancer-driving genes, termed the eIF5A regulon, at the levels of mRNA abundance and translation. In coordinating cell proliferation, the eIF5A regulon can be modulated by drugs such as ciclopirox or deferiprone, which might be repositioned to control cancer cell growth. PMID:24220243

Mémin, Elisabeth; Hoque, Mainul; Jain, Mohit R; Heller, Debra S; Li, Hong; Cracchiolo, Bernadette; Hanauske-Abel, Hartmut M; Pe'ery, Tsafi; Mathews, Michael B

2014-01-15

21

Cellular Dynamics of RNA Modification  

PubMed Central

Conspectus Decades of research have identified over 100 types of ribonucleosides that are post-transcriptionally modified. Many modified nucleosides are conserved in bacteria, archeae and eukaryotes, while some modified nucleosides are unique to each branch of life. However, the cellular and functional dynamics of RNA modifications remains largely unexplored, mostly due to the lack of functional hypotheses and experimental methods for quantification and large scale analysis. Just as many well characterized protein and DNA modifications, many RNA modifications are not essential for life. Instead, increasingly more evidence indicates that RNA modifications can play regulatory roles in cells, especially in response to stress conditions. In this Account, we review some known examples of RNA modifications that are dynamically controlled in cells and introduce some contemporary technologies and methods that enhance the studies of cellular dynamics of RNA modifications. Examples of RNA modifications discussed in this Account include (Figure 1): (1) 4-thio uridine (s4U) which can act as a cellular sensor of near UV-light; (2) queuosine (Q) which is a potential biomarker for malignancy; (3) N6-methyl adenine (m6A) which is the prevalent modification in eukaryotic mRNAs; and (4) pseudouridine (?) which are inducible by nutrient deprivation. Two recent technical advances that stimulated the studies of cellular dynamics of modified ribonucleosides are also described. First, a genome-wide method combines primer extension and microarray to study N1-methyl adenine (m1A) hypomodification in human tRNA. Second, a quantitative mass spectrometric method investigates dynamic changes of a wide range of tRNA modifications under stress conditions in yeast. In addition, we discuss potential mechanisms that control dynamic regulation of RNA modifications, and hypotheses for discovering potential RNA de-modification enzymes. We conclude the Account by highlighting the need to develop new tools and to generate additional hypotheses for modification function in order to drive this emerging field to the next level. PMID:21615108

Yi, Chengqi; Pan, Tao

2011-01-01

22

Black Hole Uniqueness Theorems  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is nearly 30 years since Werner Israel published his uniqueness theorem for the Schwarzschild black hole. This result, which surprised the cognoscenti at first, was quickly recognized as being of major importance. It soon initiated a flurry of research on uniqueness and no-hair theorems and encouraged subsequent developments such as the formulation of black hole thermodynamics. Research related to

D C Robinson

1997-01-01

23

Seeing unique hues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hue can be described by four separate sensations of red (R), green (G), yellow (Y), and blue (B). These are combined in the spectrally opponent RG and YB mechanisms, whose null points correspond to the unique sensations of Y, G, B. Participants used a form of magnitude estimation to describe color appearance of light flashes that were systematically varied in size, luminance, duration, purity, and retinal eccentricity. Wavelengths of the unique hues were derived from the hue and saturation scaling functions. Only unique Y remained invariant across all the viewing conditions. The shifts in unique hues with test conditions place strong restrictions on models of how the RG and YB mechanisms are assembled. Despite polymorphism of L and M cones and variation of their ratios across participants and across the retina, the frequency distribution of unique Y was very narrow, implying some reweighting of cone inputs to individuals' RG mechanisms.

Abramov, Israel; Gordon, James

2005-10-01

24

Modifications to the translational apparatus which affect the regulation of protein synthesis in sea urchin embryos  

SciTech Connect

Protein synthesis can be regulated at a number of cellular levels. I have examined how modifications to specific components of the protein synthetic machinery are involved in regulating the efficiency of initiation of translation during early sea urchin embryogenesis. It is demonstrated that Ca{sup 2+} concentrations exceeding 500 uM cause the inhibition of protein synthesis in cell-free translation lysates prepared from sea urchin embryos. Specific changes in the state of phosphorylation of at least 8 proteins occur during this Ca{sup 2+}-mediated repression of translation. Analysis of these proteins has indicated that, unlike mammalian systems, there is no detectable level of Ca{sup 2+}-dependent phosphorylation of the {alpha}subunit eIF-2. Two of the proteins which do become phosphorylated in response to Ca{sup 2+} are calmodulin and an isoelectric form of sea urchin eIF-4D. In addition, 2 proteins which share similarities with kinases involved in the regulation of protein synthesis in mammalian cells, also become phosphorylated. I have investigated the consequences of changes in eIF-4D during sea urchin embryogenesis because it has been proposed that a polyamine-mediated conversion of lysine to hypusine in this factor may enhance translational activity. It is demonstrated that ({sup 3}H) spermidine-derived radioactivity is incorporated into a number of proteins when sea urchin embryos are labeled in vivo, and that the pattern of individual proteins that become labeled changes over the course of the first 30 hr of development.

Scalise, F.W.

1988-01-01

25

Is Life Unique?  

PubMed Central

Is life physicochemically unique? No. Is life unique? Yes. Life manifests innumerable formalisms that cannot be generated or explained by physicodynamics alone. Life pursues thousands of biofunctional goals, not the least of which is staying alive. Neither physicodynamics, nor evolution, pursue goals. Life is largely directed by linear digital programming and by the Prescriptive Information (PI) instantiated particularly into physicodynamically indeterminate nucleotide sequencing. Epigenomic controls only compound the sophistication of these formalisms. Life employs representationalism through the use of symbol systems. Life manifests autonomy, homeostasis far from equilibrium in the harshest of environments, positive and negative feedback mechanisms, prevention and correction of its own errors, and organization of its components into Sustained Functional Systems (SFS). Chance and necessity—heat agitation and the cause-and-effect determinism of nature’s orderliness—cannot spawn formalisms such as mathematics, language, symbol systems, coding, decoding, logic, organization (not to be confused with mere self-ordering), integration of circuits, computational success, and the pursuit of functionality. All of these characteristics of life are formal, not physical. PMID:25382119

Abel, David L.

2011-01-01

26

Readers of histone modifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histone modifications not only play important roles in regulating chromatin structure and nuclear processes but also can be passed to daughter cells as epigenetic marks. Accumulating evidence suggests that the key function of histone modifications is to signal for recruitment or activity of downstream effectors. Here, we discuss the latest discovery of histone-modification readers and how the modification language is

Miyong Yun; Jun Wu; Jerry L Workman; Bing Li

2011-01-01

27

Uniqueness Theorem for Black Objects  

SciTech Connect

We shall review the current status of uniqueness theorem for black objects in higher dimensional spacetime. At the beginning we consider static charged asymptotically flat spacelike hypersurface with compact interior with both degenerate and non-degenerate components of the event horizon in n-dimensional spacetime. We gave some remarks concerning partial results in proving uniqueness of stationary axisymmetric multidimensional solutions and winding numbers which can uniquely characterize the topology and symmetry structure of black objects.

Rogatko, Marek [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, 20-031 Lublin, pl. Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej 1 (Poland)

2010-06-23

28

Émission de photons uniques par un atome unique piégé  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

En illuminant un atome unique piégé dans une pince optique de taille micrométrique à l'aide d'impulsions lumineuses résonantes d'une durée de 4?ns, nous avons réalisé une source efficace de photons uniques déclenchés, de polarisation bien définie. Nous avons mesuré la fonction d'autocorrélation temporelle en intensité qui met en évidence un dégroupement de photons presque parfait. Une telle source de photons uniques de haut flux possède des applications potentielles pour le traitement de l'information quantique.

Darquié, B.; Beugnon, J.; Jones, M. P. A.; Dingjan, J.; Sortais, Y.; Browaeys, A.; Messin, G.; Grangier, P.

2006-10-01

29

Unique  

E-print Network

?Given the increasingly joint nature of American military deployment, Services are increasingly hindered and delayed by the current need to require duplicate and inconsistent safety tests in order to qualify for military transportation Shared/Joint to a deployed site and operational use. The overlap represents possible common, duplicate and inconsistent tests USMC

Paige V. Ripani; Booz Allen Hamilton; Next Steps

2008-01-01

30

Dementia: Unique to Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Dementia Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... Managing Additional Health Problems in Older Adults with Dementia Dementia is rare in adults younger than 60. ...

31

Permit application modifications  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils.

NONE

1995-11-01

32

Histone onco-modifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-translational modification of histones provides an important regulatory platform for processes such as gene expression, DNA replication and repair, chromosome condensation and segregation and apoptosis. Disruption of these processes has been linked to the multistep process of carcinogenesis. We review the aberrant covalent histone modifications observed in cancer, and discuss how these epigenetic changes, caused by alterations in histone-modifying enzymes,

J Füllgrabe; E Kavanagh; B Joseph

2011-01-01

33

Unique Approaches to Water Resources  

E-print Network

as a result of free trade, atmospheric transport of trace pollutants, and urbanization. Available waterUnique Approaches to Water Resources Education in Florida Watershed Journal Executive Committee Photos courtesy of Dr. Frederick Bloetscher, PE W e are a diverse community of water profes- sionals. We

Central Florida, University of

34

Rufus Choate: A Unique Orator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rufus Choate, a Massachusetts lawyer and orator, has been described as a "unique and romantic phenomenon" in America's history. Born in 1799 in Essex, Massachusetts, Choate graduated from Dartmouth College and attended Harvard Law School. Choate's goal was to be the top in his profession. Daniel Webster was Choate's hero. Choate became well…

Markham, Reed

35

Uniquely identifying wheat plant structures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Uniquely naming wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) plant parts is useful for communicating plant development research and the effects of environmental stresses on normal wheat development. Over the past 30+ years, several naming systems have been proposed for wheat shoot, leaf, spike, spikelet, ...

36

Milton: A New, Unique Pallasite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Milton pallasite was found in Missouri, U.S.A. in October, 2000. It consists of a single stone that originally weighed approximately 2040 g. The chemistry of the olivine and metal phases, plus the oxygen isotope ratios of the olivines, differ significantly from other pallasites, making Milton unique. Unfortunately, the meteorite is heavily fractured and weathered.

Jones, R. H.; Wasson, J. T.; Larson, T.; Sharp, Z. D.

2003-01-01

37

Human Rights and Behavior Modification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)

Roos, Philip

1974-01-01

38

Utilization of waste tires employing novel surface-modification technology  

SciTech Connect

Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. is developing unique technology for the recycle of scrap tires. The approach involves surface-modification of ground tire rubber particles to facilitate their incorporation into novel composites. This form of recycling represents the highest value-added and greatest energy conservation potential of all tire recycle technologies. Furthermore, it is environmentally innocuous. Research and development of this unique technology is partially funded through a cost-shared contract with the US Department of Energy. 4 figs.

Bauman, B.D. (Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (USA))

1989-01-01

39

Unique Sink Orientations of Grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We introduce unique sink orientations of grids as digraph models for many well-studied problems, including linear programming over products of simplices, generalized linear complementarity problems over P-matrices (PGLCP), and simple stochastic games. We investigate the combinatorial structure of such orientations and develop randomized algorithms for nding,the sink. We show that the orientations arising from PGLCP satisfy the Holt-Klee condition

Bernd Gärtner; Walter D. Morris Jr.; Leo Rüst

2008-01-01

40

Unique Sink Orientations of Grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce unique sink orientations of grids as digraph models for many well-studied problems, including linear programming over products of simplices, generalized linear complementarity problems over P-matrices (PGLCP), and simple stochastic games. We investigate the combinatorial structure of such orientations and develop randomized algorithms for nding the sink. We show that the orientations arising from PGLCP satisfy the Holt-Klee condition

Bernd Gärtner; Walter D. Morris; Leo Rüst

2005-01-01

41

Inorganic Surface Modification of Nonwoven Polymeric Substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, atomic layer deposition (ALD), a vapor phase inorganic thin film deposition technique, is used to modify the surface of a range of industrially relevant polymers to enhance surface properties or impart additional functionalities. Several unique demonstrations of polymer surface modification are presented including uniform nanomaterial photodeposition to the surface of nonowoven fabrics and the first application of photocatalytic thin film coated nonwovens for advanced filtration of heavy metals from solution. Recent advances in polymer synthesis and processing technologies have resulted in the production of novel polymer systems with unique chemistries and sub-micron scale dimensions. As a result, advanced fiber systems have received much attention for potential use in a wide range of industrially and medically important applications such as advanced and selective filtration, catalysis, flexible electronics, and tissue engineering. However, tailoring the surface properties of the polymer is still needed in order to realize the full range of advanced applications, which can be difficult given the high complexity and non-uniformity of nonwoven polymeric structures. Uniform and controllable inorganic surface modification of nonwovens allows the introduction or modification of many crucial polymer properties with a wide range of application methods.

Halbur, Jonathan Chandler

42

Modifications of gravity.  

PubMed

General relativity (GR) is a phenomenologically successful theory that rests on firm foundations, but has not been tested on cosmological scales. The deep mystery of dark energy (and possibly even the requirement of cold dark matter (CDM)) has increased the need for testing modifications to GR, as the inference of such otherwise undetected fluids depends crucially on the theory of gravity. Here, I discuss a general scheme for constructing consistent and covariant modifications to the Einstein equations. This framework is such that there is a clear connection between the modification and the underlying field content that produces it. I argue that this is mandatory for distinguishing modifications of gravity from conventional fluids. I give a non-trivial example, a simple metric-based modification of the fluctuation equations for which the background is exact ?CDM, but differs from it in the perturbations. I show how this can be generalized and solved in terms of two arbitrary functions. Finally, I discuss future prospects and directions of research. PMID:22084286

Skordis, Constantinos

2011-12-28

43

A unique simulation teaching method.  

PubMed

Simulation is an excellent venue for students to learn experientially and provides opportunities for students to practice problem solving and psychomotor skills in a safe, controlled environment. Through the use of a specifically designed format, faculty at Creighton University School of Nursing have developed a unique method of implementing high-fidelity simulation that allows a more comprehensive learning experience. This innovative teaching strategy incorporates not just skill acquisition, but also care management concepts into the scenario, while requiring only one faculty member. Students simultaneously take one of two paths through the components of this method to achieve the same learning outcomes. PMID:19010053

Hawkins, Kim; Todd, Martha; Manz, Julie

2008-11-01

44

Surface modification of silica nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface modification of nanosized silica particles by polymer grafting is gaining attention. This can be attributed to the fact that it provides a unique opportunity to engineer the interfacial properties of these modified particles; at the same time the mechanical and thermal properties of the polymers can be improved. Controlled free radical polymerization is a versatile technique which affords control over molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, architecture and functionalities of the resulting polymer. Three commonly used controlled free radical polymerizations include nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP), atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and reversible addition fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization. ATRP and RAFT polymerization were explored in order to modify the silica surface with well-defined polymer brushes. A novel click-functionalized RAFT chain transfer agent (RAFT CTA) was synthesized which opened up the possibility of using RAFT polymerization and click chemistry together in surface modification. Using this RAFT CTA, the surface of silica nanoparticles was modified with polystyrene and polyacrylamide brushes via the "grafting to" approach. Both tethered polystyrene and polyacrylamide chains were found in the brush regime. The combination of ATRP and click chemistry was also explored for surface modification. A combination of RAFT polymerization and click chemistry was also studied to modify the surface via the "grafting from" approach. Our strategy included the (1) "grafting from" approach for brush formation (2) facile click reaction to immobilize the RAFT agent (3) synthesis of R-supported chain transfer agent and (4) use of the more active trithiocarbonate RAFT agent. Grafting density obtained by this method was significantly higher than reported values in the literature. Polystyrene (PS) grafted silica nanoparticles were also prepared by a tandem process that simultaneously employs reversible addition fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization and click chemistry. The click reaction doesn't interfere with RAFT polymerization. With a suitable choice of a Cu(I) catalyst, it is possible to perform both RAFT polymerization and click chemistry together. In a single pot procedure, azide-modified silica, an alkyne-functionalized RAFT agent and styrene were combined to produce the desired product. As deduced by thermal gravimetric and elemental analysis, the grafting density of PS on the silica in the tandem process was intermediate between the "grafting to" and "grafting from" techniques. Relative rates of RAFT polymerization and click reaction were altered to control grafting density. ATRP was also used to modify the surface of silica nanoparticles via the "grafting from" approach. The surfaces of silica with homopolymers and diblock copolymers brushes were modified using surface initiated ATRP. The polymer grafted silica particles were characterized by FT-IR, TGA, XPS and elemental analysis.

Ranjan, Rajesh

45

Separable States with Unique Decompositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We search for faces of the convex set consisting of all separable states, which are affinely isomorphic to simplices, to get separable states with unique decompositions. In the two-qutrit case, we found that six product vectors spanning a five dimensional space give rise to a face isomorphic to the 5-dimensional simplex with six vertices, under a suitable linear independence assumption. If the partial conjugates of six product vectors also span a 5-dimensional space, then this face is inscribed in the face for PPT states whose boundary shares the fifteen 3-simplices on the boundary of the 5-simplex. The remaining boundary points consist of PPT entangled edge states of rank four. We also show that every edge state of rank four arises in this way. If the partial conjugates of the above six product vectors span a 6-dimensional space then we have a face isomorphic to 5-simplex, whose interior consists of separable states with unique decompositions, but with non-symmetric ranks. We also construct a face isomorphic to the 9-simplex. As applications, we give answers to questions in the literature Chen and Djokovi? (J Math Phys 54:022201, 2013) and Chen and Djokovi? (Commun Math Phys 323:241-284, 2013), and construct 3 ? 3PPT states of type (9,5). For the qubit-qudit cases with d ? 3, we also show that ( d + 1)-dimensional subspaces give rise to faces isomorphic to the d-simplices, in most cases.

Ha, Kil-Chan; Kye, Seung-Hyeok

2014-05-01

46

Behavior Modification: Education's Watergate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several of the theoretical and experimental assumptions relating to behavior modification are examined and criticized: (1) the human mind can only be understood by observing and measuring the functional behavior it causes, (2) performance can be equated with learning, (3) reward systems and token economies improve intrinsic learning, and (4) all…

Carrison, Muriel Paskin

47

ASPOD modifications of 1993-1994  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ASPOD, Autonomous Space Processors for Orbital Debris, provides a unique way of collecting the space debris that has built up over the past 37 years. For the past several years, ASPOD has gone through several different modifications. This year's concentrations were on the solar cutting array, the solar tracker, the earth based main frame/tilt table, the controls for the two robotic arms, and accurate autocad drawings of ASPOD. This final report contains the reports written by the students who worked on the ASPOD project this year.

Jackson, Jennifer J. (editor); Fogarty, Paul W.; Muller, Matthew; Martucci, Thomas A., III; Williams, Daniel; Rowney, David A.

1994-01-01

48

Posttranslational Protein Modification in Archaea  

PubMed Central

One of the first hurdles to be negotiated in the postgenomic era involves the description of the entire protein content of the cell, the proteome. Such efforts are presently complicated by the various posttranslational modifications that proteins can experience, including glycosylation, lipid attachment, phosphorylation, methylation, disulfide bond formation, and proteolytic cleavage. Whereas these and other posttranslational protein modifications have been well characterized in Eucarya and Bacteria, posttranslational modification in Archaea has received far less attention. Although archaeal proteins can undergo posttranslational modifications reminiscent of what their eucaryal and bacterial counterparts experience, examination of archaeal posttranslational modification often reveals aspects not previously observed in the other two domains of life. In some cases, posttranslational modification allows a protein to survive the extreme conditions often encountered by Archaea. The various posttranslational modifications experienced by archaeal proteins, the molecular steps leading to these modifications, and the role played by posttranslational modification in Archaea form the focus of this review. PMID:16148304

Eichler, Jerry; Adams, Michael W. W.

2005-01-01

49

Generation of Unique Poliovirus RNA Replication Organelles  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Poliovirus (PV), a model for interactions of picornaviruses with host cells, replicates its genomic RNA in association with cellular membranes. The origin of PV replication membranes has not been determined. Hypotheses about the origin of replication membranes, based largely on localization of viral proteins, include modification of coat protein complex I (COPI) and/or COPII secretory pathway vesicles and subversion of autophagic membranes. Here, we use an antibody against double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to identify replication complexes by detection of dsRNA replication intermediates. dsRNA signal is dependent on virus genome replication and colocalizes with the viral integral membrane protein 3A, which is part of the RNA replication complex. We show that early in infection, dsRNA does not colocalize with a marker for autophagic vesicles, making it unlikely that autophagosomes contribute to the generation of PV RNA replication membranes. We also find that dsRNA does not colocalize with a marker of the COPII coat, Sec31, and, in fact, we demonstrate proteasome-dependent loss of full-length Sec31 during PV infection. These data indicate that COPII vesicles are an unlikely source of PV replication membranes. We show that the Golgi resident G-protein Arf1 and its associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), GBF1, transiently colocalize with dsRNA early in infection. In uninfected cells, Arf1 nucleates COPI coat formation, although during infection the COPI coat itself does not colocalize with dsRNA. Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate, which is associated with enterovirus-induced vesicles, tightly colocalizes with Arf1/GBF1 throughout infection. Our data point to a noncanonical role for some of the COPI-generating machinery in producing unique replication surfaces for PV RNA replication. PMID:24570367

Richards, Alexsia L.; Soares-Martins, Jamária A. P.; Riddell, Geoffrey T.; Jackson, William T.

2014-01-01

50

The Probabilities of Unique Events  

PubMed Central

Many theorists argue that the probabilities of unique events, even real possibilities such as President Obama's re-election, are meaningless. As a consequence, psychologists have seldom investigated them. We propose a new theory (implemented in a computer program) in which such estimates depend on an intuitive non-numerical system capable only of simple procedures, and a deliberative system that maps intuitions into numbers. The theory predicts that estimates of the probabilities of conjunctions should often tend to split the difference between the probabilities of the two conjuncts. We report two experiments showing that individuals commit such violations of the probability calculus, and corroborating other predictions of the theory, e.g., individuals err in the same way even when they make non-numerical verbal estimates, such as that an event is highly improbable. PMID:23056224

Khemlani, Sangeet S.; Lotstein, Max; Johnson-Laird, Phil

2012-01-01

51

Xyloglucan in cellulose modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xyloglucans are the principal polysaccharides coating and crosslinking cellulose microfibrills in the majority of land plants.\\u000a This review summarizes current knowledge of xyloglucan structures, solution properties, and the mechanism of interaction of\\u000a xyloglucans with cellulose. This knowledge base forms the platform for new biomimetic methods of cellulose surface modification\\u000a with applications within the fields of textile manufacture, papermaking, and materials

Qi Zhou; Mark W. Rutland; Tuula T. Teeri; Harry Brumer

2007-01-01

52

ARITHMETIC PROGRESSIONS IN A UNIQUE FACTORIZATION DOMAIN  

E-print Network

ARITHMETIC PROGRESSIONS IN A UNIQUE FACTORIZATION DOMAIN. We give a new proof of a slight generalization of this result to arithmetic progressions of integers and further extend it to arithmetic progressions in unique factorization domains

Ghorpade, Sudhir

53

Uniqueness of translation invariant norms Krzysztof Jarosz  

E-print Network

Uniqueness of translation invariant norms Krzysztof, the Lp-norm is the only one that makes all translations continuous, while I for A = C (G), A = L1 translation continuou* *s. Key Words: automatic continuity, uniqueness of norm, translation invariant

Jarosz, Krzysztof

54

Solitons and ionospheric modification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of Langmuir soliton formation and collapse during ionospheric modification is investigated. Parameters characterizing former facilities, existing facilities, and planned facilities are considered, using a combination of analytical and numerical techniques. At a spatial location corresponding to the exact classical reflection point of the modifier wave, the Langmuir wave evolution is found to be dominated by modulational instability followed by soliton formation and three-dimensional collapse. The earth's magnetic field is found to affect the shape of the collapsing soliton. These results provide an alternative explanation for some recent observations.

Sheerin, J. P.; Nicholson, D. R.; Payne, G. L.; Hansen, P. J.; Weatherall, J. C.; Goldman, M. V.

1982-01-01

55

Unique Posttranslational Modifications of Chitin-Binding Lectins of Entamoeba invadens Cyst Walls  

PubMed Central

Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amebic dysentery and liver abscesses, is spread via chitin-walled cysts. The most abundant protein in the cyst wall of Entamoeba invadens, a model for amebic encystation, is a lectin called EiJacob1. EiJacob1 has five tandemly arrayed, six-Cys chitin-binding domains separated by low-complexity Ser- and Thr-rich spacers. E. histolytica also has numerous predicted Jessie lectins and chitinases, which contain a single, N-terminal eight-Cys chitin-binding domain. We hypothesized that E. invadens cyst walls are composed entirely of proteins with six-Cys or eight-Cys chitin-binding domains and that some of these proteins contain sugars. E. invadens genomic sequences predicted seven Jacob lectins, five Jessie lectins, and three chitinases. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that mRNAs encoding Jacobs, Jessies, and chitinases are increased during E. invadens encystation, while mass spectrometry showed that the cyst wall is composed of an ?30:70 mix of Jacob lectins (cross-linking proteins) and Jessie and chitinase lectins (possible enzymes). Three Jacob lectins were cleaved prior to Lys at conserved sites (e.g., TPSVDK) in the Ser- and Thr-rich spacers between chitin-binding domains. A model peptide was cleaved at the same site by papain and E. invadens Cys proteases, suggesting that the latter cleave Jacob lectins in vivo. Some Jacob lectins had O-phosphodiester-linked carbohydrates, which were one to seven hexoses long and had deoxysugars at reducing ends. We concluded that the major protein components of the E. invadens cyst wall all contain chitin-binding domains (chitinases, Jessie lectins, and Jacob lectins) and that the Jacob lectins are differentially modified by site-specific Cys proteases and O-phosphodiester-linked glycans. PMID:16682461

Van Dellen, Katrina L.; Chatterjee, Anirban; Ratner, Daniel M.; Magnelli, Paula E.; Cipollo, John F.; Steffen, Martin; Robbins, Phillips W.; Samuelson, John

2006-01-01

56

Epigenetic modifications in cancer  

PubMed Central

Cancer initiation and progression is controlled by both genetic and epigenetic events. The complexity of carcinogenesis cannot be accounted for by genetic alterations alone but also involves epigenetic changes. Epigenetics refers to the study of mechanisms that alter gene expression without altering the primary DNA sequence. Epigenetic mechanisms are heritable and reversible, and include changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications and small noncoding microRNAs (miRNA). Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Aberrant epigenetic modifications probably occur at a very early stage in neoplastic development, and they are widely described as essential players in cancer progression. Recent advances in epigenetics offer a better understanding of the underlying mechanism(s) of carcinogenesis and provide insight into the discovery of putative cancer biomarkers for early detection, disease monitoring, prognosis, and risk assessment. In this review, we summarize the current literature on epigenetic changes causing genetic alterations that are thought to contribute to cancer, and discuss the potential impact of epigenetics future research. PMID:22082348

Kanwal, R; Gupta, S

2013-01-01

57

Surface modifications of nitinol.  

PubMed

Nitinol (an acronym for the Nickel-Titanium Naval Ordnance Laboratory) has been extensively explored as an implant material for the medical industry. The potential problem with Nitinol implant devices is the release of Ni in the human body, which has stimulated a great deal of research on surface modifications and the application of coatings. This paper presents a comprehensive review of various treatments to modify the surface of Nitinol in an effort to inhibit Ni release and to render improved biocompatibility. We discuss the important in-service properties of Nitinol, such as biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, stability, uniformity, and the nature of passivating oxides produced by passivation, electropolishing, magnetoelectropolishing, ion beam implantation, sterilization, and artificial coatings. PMID:20666711

Haider, Waseem; Munroe, N; Tek, V; Pulletikurthi, C; Gill, P K S; Pandya, S

2009-01-01

58

SUMO modification of menin  

PubMed Central

Menin acts as contextual a tumor suppressor and a tumor promoter, partly via epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. While menin is phosphorylated, it remains unclear whether wild type menin has other post-translational modifications. Here, we report that menin is SUMOylated by SUMO1 in vivo and in vitro, and the SUMOylation is reduced by a SUMO protease. Lysine 591 of menin was covalently modified by SUMO1 and K591R mutation in menin blocked SUMOylation of the C-terminal part of menin in transfected cells. Full-length menin with K591 mutation was still SUMOylated in vivo, suggesting the existence of multiple SUMOylation sites. Menin K591R mutant or menin-SUMO fusion protein still retains the ability to regulate cell proliferation and the expression of the examined menin target genes. PMID:23359867

Feng, Zi-Jie; Gurung, Buddha; Jin, Guang-Hui; Yang, Xiao-Lu; Hua, Xian-Xin

2013-01-01

59

Enzymatic modification of schizophyllan.  

PubMed

An enzymatic method was developed for the progressive modification of the polysaccharide schizophyllan. Fungal strains Hypocrea nigricans NRRL 62555, Penicillium crustosum NRRL 62558, and Penicillium simplicissimum NRRL 62550 were previously identified as novel sources of ?-endoglucanase with specificity towards schizophyllan. Concentrated enzyme preparations from these strains showed specific activities of 1.7-4.3 U ?-glucanase/mg protein. Using dilutions of these enzymes in time course digestions, schizophyllan was progressively modified to reduced molecular weight species. Glucose and oligosaccharides were found only in the more complete digestions, and thus modified schizophyllan can be produced quantitatively, without loss, to small molecules. Permethylation analysis confirmed that modified schizophyllan retains the fundamental linkage structure of native schizophyllan. Modified schizophyllan species showed progressively reduced viscosity profiles, and all exhibited pseudoplasticity in response to shear thinning. PMID:25335747

Leathers, Timothy D; Sutivisedsak, Nongnuch; Nunnally, Melinda S; Price, Neil P J; Stanley, April M

2014-10-22

60

Unique Gene-Silencing and Structural Properties of 2;#8242;-Fluoro-Modified siRNAs  

SciTech Connect

With little or no negative impact on the activity of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), regardless of the number of modifications or the positions within the strand, the 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro (2'-F) modification is unique. Furthermore, the 2'-F-modified siRNA (see crystal structure) was thermodynamically more stable and more nuclease-resistant than the parent siRNA, and produced no immunostimulatory response.

Manoharan, Muthiah; Akinc, Akin; Pandey, Rajendra K.; Qin, June; Hadwiger, Philipp; John, Matthias; Mills, Kathy; Charisse, Klaus; Maier, Martin A.; Nechev, Lubomir; Greene, Emily M.; Pallan, Pradeep S.; Rozners, Eriks; Rajeev, Kallanthottathil G.; Egli, Martin (Alnylam Pharm.); (Vanderbilt); (SUNY-Binghamton)

2012-05-22

61

Are Scattering Properties of Networks Uniquely Connected to Their Shapes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Are scattering properties of networks uniquely connected to their shapes? This is a modification of the famous question of Mark Kac "Can one hear the shape of a drum: revisited. which can be asked in the case of scattering systems such as quantum graphs and microwave networks. We present the experimental approach to this problem (Hul et al., Phys Rev Lett 109:040402, 2012). Our experimental results indicate a negative answer to the above question. To demonstrate this we constructed a pair of isospectral microwave networks consisting of vertices connected by microwave coaxial cables and extended them to scattering systems by connecting leads to infinity to form isoscattering networks. We show that the amplitudes and phases of the determinants of the scattering matrices of such networks are the same within the experimental uncertainties. Additionally, we demonstrate that the scattering matrices of the networks are conjugated by the transplantation relation. The experimental results are in perfect agreement with the theoretical predictions.

Hul, Oleh; ?awniczak, Micha?; Bauch, Szymon; Sawicki, Adam; Ku?, Marek; Sirko, Leszek

62

Identification of fatty acid polymorphic modifications by infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

IR spectra in the 7.5–25.0 ? region are shown to be unique for the individual long chain odd carbon numbered saturated fatty\\u000a acids and for the monounsaturated even carbon numbered fatty acids, their isomers, and polymorphic modifications. IR spectra\\u000a are presented which illustrate similarites and dissimilarities resulting from chain length differences and polymorphic variations\\u000a for monounsaturated acids. X-ray crystal long

D. Mitcham; A. V. Bailey; V. W. Tripp

1973-01-01

63

Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

Lynch, Mark A. M.

2012-01-01

64

Autoantibodies to Posttranslational Modifications in Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Autoantibodies have been associated with human pathologies for a long time, particularly with autoimmune diseases (AIDs). Rheumatoid factor (RF) is known since the late 1930s to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The discovery of anticitrullinated protein antibodies in the last century has changed this and other posttranslational modifications (PTM) relevant to RA have since been described. Such PTM introduce neoepitopes in proteins that can generate novel autoantibody specificities. The recent recognition of these novel specificities in RA provides a unique opportunity to understand human B-cell development in vivo. In this paper, we will review the three of the main classes of PTMs already associated with RA: citrullination, carbamylation, and oxidation. With the advancement of research methodologies it should be expected that other autoantibodies against PTM proteins could be discovered in patients with autoimmune diseases. Many of such autoantibodies may provide significant biomarker potential. PMID:24782594

Burska, Agata N.; Hunt, Laura; Strollo, Rocky; Ryan, Brent J.; Vital, Ed; Nissim, Ahuva; Winyard, Paul G.; Emery, Paul; Ponchel, Frederique

2014-01-01

65

Surface modification of cellulose nanocrystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical modification of cellulose nanocrystals is an increasingly popular topic in the literature. This review analyses the type of cellulose nanocrystal modification reactions that have been published in the literature thus far and looks at the steps that have been taken towards analysing the products of the nanocrystal modifications. The main categories of reactions carried out on cellulose nanocrystals are oxidations, esterifications, amidations, carbamations and etherifications. More recently nucleophilic substitutions have been used to introduce more complex functionality to cellulose nanocrystals. Multi-step modifications are also considered. This review emphasizes quantification of modification at the nanocrystal surface in terms of degree of substitution and the validity of conclusions drawn from different analysis techniques in this area. The mechanisms of the modification reactions are presented and considered with respect to the effect on the outcome of the reactions. While great strides have been made in the quality of analytical data published in the field of cellulose nanocrystal modification, there is still vast scope for improvement, both in data quality and the quality of analysis of data. Given the difficulty of surface analysis, cross-checking of results from different analysis techniques is fundamental for the development of reliable cellulose nanocrystal modification techniques.

Eyley, Samuel; Thielemans, Wim

2014-06-01

66

A Modification of Lagrange Interpolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modification of Lagrange interpolation based on the zeros of the Chebyshev polynomial of the second kind is constructed, which interpolates at many ofgiven data. Thus, for this node-system the main result gives an affimative answer to a problem suggested by Bernstein in 1930. Moreover, our modification has a Timan-Gopengauz type approximation rate.

T. Xie; X. Zhou

2001-01-01

67

Surface modification of bioceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HAp] is a major inorganic component of bone and teeth tissues and has the excellent biocompatibility and high osteoconductivity. The interactions between HAp and protein or cell have been studied. The HAp related bioceramics such as bone substitute, coating substance of metal implants, inorganic-polymer composites, and cell culture. We described two methods; (1) surface modification of HAp using organosilane; (2) fabrication of HAp ultra-thin layer on gold surface for protein adsorption analyzed with QCM-D technique. The interfacial interaction between collagen and HAp in a nano-region was controlled by depositing the organosilane of n-octadecyltrimethoxysilane (ODS: -CH3) or aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS: -NH2) with a chemical vapor deposition method. The morphologies of collagen adsorbed on the surfaces of HAp and HAp deposited with APTS were similar, however that of the surface with ODS was apparently different, due to the hydrophobic interaction between the organic head group of -CH3 and residual groups of collagen. We present a method for coating gold quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) sensor with ultra-thin layer of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals evenly covering and tightly bound to the surface. The hydroxyapatite sensor operated in liquid with high stability and sensitivity. The in-situ adsorption mechanism and conformational change of fibrinogen on gold, titanium and hydroxyapatite surfaces were investigated by QCM-D technique and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The study indicates that the hydroxyapatite sensor is applicable for qualitative and conformational analysis of protein adsorption.

Monkawa, Akira

68

Module Four - The Uniqueness of the Nanoscale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module covers the unique attributes of the nano-scale and some examples of these unique attributes, including small size, high surface to volume ratio, surface forces in relation to bulk forces, quantum mechanical effects, and wave properties of light. This module is from the Nanotechnology Applications and Career Knowledge (NACK), a National ATE Center. This site requires a free log-in to access.

69

Chromatin modification mapping in nanochannels  

PubMed Central

We report the simultaneous mapping of multiple histone tail modifications on chromatin that has been confined to nanofluidic channels. In these channels, chromatin is elongated, and histone modification can be detected using fluorescently tagged monoclonal antibodies. Using reconstituted chromatin with three distinct histone sources and two histone tail modification probes (H3K4me3 and H3K9ac), we were able to distinguish chromatin from the different sources. Determined ratios of the two modifications were consistent with the bulk composition of histone mixtures. We determined that the major difficulty in transitioning the mapping method to site-specific profiling within single genomic molecules is the interference of naturally aggregating, off-the shelf antibodies with the internal structure of chromatin. PMID:24396539

Lim, Shuang Fang; Karpusenko, Alena; Blumers, Ansel L.; Streng, Diana E.; Riehn, Robert

2013-01-01

70

Polymer surface modification by plasmas and photons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymers have been applied successfully in fields such as adhesion, biomaterials, protective coatings, friction and wear, composites, microelectronic devices, and thin-film technology. In general, special surface properties with regard to chemical composition, hydrophilicity, roughness, crystallinity, conductivity, lubricity, and cross-linking density are required for the success of these applications. Polymers very often do not possess the surface properties needed for these applications. However, they have excellent bulk physical and chemical properties, are inexpensive, and are easy to process. For these reasons, surface modification techniques which can transform these inexpensive materials into highly valuable finished products have become an important part of the plastics and many other industries. In recent years, many advances have been made in developing surface treatments to alter the chemical and physical properties of polymer surfaces without affecting bulk properties. Common surface modification techniques include treatments by flame, corona, plasmas, photons, electron beams, ion beams, X-rays, and ?-rays. Plasma treatment is probably the most versatile surface treatment technique. Different types of gases such as argon, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, carbon dioxide, and water can produce the unique surface properties required by various applications. For example, oxygen-plasma treatment can increase the surface energy of polymers, whereas fluorine-plasma treatment can decrease the surface energy and improve the chemical inertness. Cross-linking at a polymer surface can be introduced by an inert-gas plasma. Modification by plasma treatment is usually confined to the top several hundred ångströms and does not affect the bulk properties. The main disadvantage of this technique is that it requires a vacuum system, which increases the cost of operation. Thin polymer films with unique chemical and physical properties are produced by plasma polymerization. This technology is still in its infancy, and the plasma chemical process is not fully understood. The films are prepared by vapor phase deposition and can be formed on practically any substrate with good adhesion between the film and the substrate. These films, which are usually highly cross-linked and pinhole-free, have very good barrier properties. Such films find great potential in biomaterial applications and in the microelectronics industry. Very high-power microwave-driven mercury lamps are available, and they are used in UV-hardening of photoresist patterns for image stabilization at high temperatures. Other applications of UV irradiation include surface photo-oxidation, increase of hydrophilicity, and photocuring of paintings. Pulsed UV-lasers are used in surface modification in many areas. Pulsed UV-laser irradiation can produce submicron periodic linear and dot patterns on polymer surfaces without photomask. These interference patterns can be used to increase surface roughness of inert polymers for improved adhesion. These images can also be transferred to silicon surfaces by reactive ion etching. Pulsed laser beams can be applied to inert polymer surfaces for increased hydrophilicity and wettability. Polymer surfaces treated by pulsed UV-laser irradiation can be positively or negatively charged to enhance chemical reactivity and processability. Pulsed UV-laser exposures with high fluence give rise to photoablation with a clean wall profile. There are many other practical applications of laser photoablation, including via-hole fabrication, and diamond-film deposition. The present review discusses all these current applications, especially in the biomedical and microelectronics areas.

Chan, C.-M.; Ko, T.-M.; Hiraoka, H.

1996-05-01

71

Altered Histone Modifications in Gliomas  

PubMed Central

Gliomas are the most frequently occurring primary brain tumors in adults. Although they exist in different malignant stages, including histologically benign forms and highly aggressive states, most gliomas are clinically challenging for neuro-oncologists because of their infiltrative growth patterns and inherent relapse tendency with increased malignancy. Once this disease reaches the glioblastoma multiforme stage, the prognosis of patients is dismal: median survival time is 15 months. Extensive genetic analyses of glial tumors have revealed a variety of deregulated genetic pathways involved in DNA repair, apoptosis, cell migration/adhesion, and cell cycle. Recently, it has become evident that epigenetic alterations may also be an important factor for glioma genesis. Of epigenetic marks, histone modification is a key mark that regulates gene expression and thus modulates a wide range of cellular processes. In this review, I discuss the neuro-oncological significance of altered histone modifications and modifiers in glioma patients while briefly overviewing the biological roles of histone modifications. PMID:24926467

2014-01-01

72

Surface modification for corrosion resistance  

SciTech Connect

The raw gas environments that arise from coal gasification have chemical compositions that are low in pO{sub 2} and moderate-to-high in pS{sub 2}. Metallic materials for service in such an environment undergo predominantly sulfidation attack at temperatures of 400 to 700{degree}C. Modification of alloy compositions in bulk can alter the scaling processes and lead to improvements in corrosion resistance, but the benefits can only be attained at temperatures much higher than the service temperatures of the components. Modification of surfaces of structural components by several of the coating techniques examined in this study showed substantial benefit in corrosion resistance when tested in simulated coal gasification environments. The paper presents several examples of surface modification and their corrosion performance.

Natesan, K.

1993-06-01

73

LCA ? Unique and Controversial Case Studies  

EPA Science Inventory

This session will focus on case studies and applications that have a unique or controversial aspect. Some of the most recent topics that seem to have significant interest include: LCA-based product declarations, LCA-based standards, LCA-based labels, alternative energy, agricul...

74

A Graduation Stole Uniquely Designed for Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to student requests, and to help celebrate the graduation of our physics majors, we have designed a graduation stole uniquely befitting physics. The design incorporates the four visible spectral lines of hydrogen--the Balmer series. Since the 2002 debut of the design, all our graduates have proudly worn their physics graduation stoles…

Day, Lawrence H.

2009-01-01

75

On the uniqueness of community banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

To the public, all banks seem alike. But banking insiders make important distinctions between community banks and all other banks. Policymakers worry that community banks’ unique characteristics threaten their survival in the face of industry consolidation. However, despite dramatic regulatory and technological changes in the industry in the past two decades, community banks have not only survived but often prospered.

Scott E. Hein; Timothy W. Koch; S. Scott MacDonald

2005-01-01

76

Arithmetic Progressions in a Unique Factorization Domain  

E-print Network

Pillai showed that any sequence of consecutive integers with at most 16 terms possesses one term that is relatively prime to all the others. We give a new proof of a slight generalization of this result to arithmetic progressions of integers and further extend it to arithmetic progressions in unique factorization domains of characteristic zero.

Ghorpade, Sudhir R

2011-01-01

77

Unique Mongolian Historical and Cultural Heritages Online  

Microsoft Academic Search

EN) The Mongolian Government adopted over 200 objects as an heritage of the unique category selecting them from the remarkable historical and cultural heritages created by the Mongolian people for centuries by their historical, cultural and scientific significance. They are stored in the State Museums, Treasures fund, State Central library and in the Gandantegchinlen monastery. Until today these heritages are

Natsagbadam Myatraaz; Gantumur Bold; Selenge Gungaa

78

Some Unique Causes of Black Suicide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aspects of suicide unique to blacks are: cultural expectations for males, which include repression of feelings and strict obedience to parents and elders; difficulty identifying with their race; gangs and drug abuse; poverty; and racism. These factors can cause depression, a known factor in suicidal behavior. (Author/ABB)

Spaights, Ernest; Simpson, Gloria

1986-01-01

79

Art Libraries: Creating Access to Unique Collections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Art libraries face similar issues to other types of libraries during the digital transition but have unique twists driven by the needs of their collections. Art library information seekers may possess a sense of what an art library is: a library, set apart, to support the study of art and art history. For art libraries, it is the collection,…

Falls, Sarah E.

2009-01-01

80

(-)-Botryodiplodin, A Unique Ribose Analog Toxin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many toxins owe their mechanisms of action to being structural analogs of essential metabolites, messengers or structural components. Examples range from tubo-curare to penicillin. Ribose plays a unique role in the metabolism of living organisms, whether prokaryotes or eukaryotes. It and its deri...

81

The Uniqueness of Speech among Motor Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers evidence that the speech muscles are unique in their genetic, developmental, functional and phenotypical properties. The literature was reviewed using PubMed, ScienceDirect, ComDisDome and other literature-retrieval systems to identify studies reporting on the craniofacial and laryngeal muscles. Particular emphasis was given…

Kent, Ray

2004-01-01

82

A generalization of Riesz's uniqueness theorem  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been, over the last 8 years, a number of far reaching extensions of the famous original F. and M. Riesz's uniqueness theorem that states that if a bounded analytic function in the unit disc of the complex plane $\\\\Bbb C$ has the same radial limit in a set of positive Lebesgue measure on its boundary, then the function

Enrique Villamor

2005-01-01

83

Mapping chromatin modifications in nanochannels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNA and chromatin are elongated to a fixed fraction of their contour length when introduced into quasi-1d nanochannels. Because single molecules are analyzed, their hold great potential for the analysis for the genetic analysis of material from single cells. In this study, we have reconstituted chromatin with histones from a variety of sources, and mapped the modification profile of the chromatin. We monitored methylation and acetylation patterns of the histone tail protein residues using fluorescently labelled antibodies. Using those, we distinguished chromatin reconstituted from chicken erythrocytes, calf thymus, and HeLa cells. We discuss prospects for profiling histone modifications for whole chromosomes from single cells.

Lim, Shuang Fang; Karpusenko, Alena; Riehn, Robert

2013-03-01

84

THEME 2 : MODIFICATIONS DU CONTINENT ASIE AU COURS DE LA COLLISION  

E-print Network

THEME 2 : MODIFICATIONS DU CONTINENT ASIE AU COURS DE LA COLLISION 1. La collision Inde questions fondamentales 1) Quelle est la zone de déformation ? Les deux continents se déforment grands décrochements dans la déformation Tertiaire du continent Asiatique. Fait unique, nous avons pu

Déverchère, Jacques

85

Surface modification of NiTi alloy with tantalum to improve its biocompatibility and radiopacity  

E-print Network

LETTER Surface modification of NiTi alloy with tantalum to improve its biocompatibility / Published online: 27 May 2006 � Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006 Nickel­titanium alloy, with the features of shape memory effect, superelasticity and biocompatibility offers many unique advantages

Zheng, Yufeng

86

Biological roles of the O-methyl phosphoramidate capsule modification in Campylobacter jejuni  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of this organism is required for persistence and disease. C. jejuni produces over 47 different capsular structures, including a unique O-methyl phosphoramidate (MeOPN) modification pre...

87

Unique biochemical and mineral composition of whale ear bones.  

PubMed

Abstract Cetaceans are obligate aquatic mammals derived from terrestrial artiodactyls. The defining characteristic of cetaceans is a thick and dense lip (pachyosteosclerotic involucrum) of an ear bone (the tympanic). This unique feature is absent in modern terrestrial artiodactyls and is suggested to be important in underwater hearing. Here, we investigate the mineralogical and biochemical properties of the involucrum, as these may hold clues to the aquatic adaptations of cetaceans. We compared bioapatites (enamel, dentine, cementum, and skeletal bone) of cetaceans with those of terrestrial artiodactyls and pachyosteosclerotic ribs of manatees (Sirenia). We investigated organic, carbonate, and mineral composition as well as crystal size and crystallinity index. In all studied variables, bioapatites of the cetacean involucrum were intermediate in composition and structure between those of tooth enamel on the one hand and those of dentine, cementum, and skeletal bone on the other. We also studied the amino acid composition of the cetacean involucrum relative to that of other skeletal bone. The central involucrum had low glycine and hydroxyproline concentrations but high concentrations of nonessential amino acids, unlike most bone samples but similar to the tympanic of hippos and the (pachyosteosclerotic) ribs of manatees. These amino acid results are evidence of rapid bone development. We hypothesize that the mineralogical and amino acid composition of cetacean bullae differs from that of other bone because of (1) functional modifications for underwater sound reception and (2) structural adaptations related to rapid ossification. PMID:24940922

Kim, Sora L; Thewissen, J G M; Churchill, Morgan M; Suydam, Robert S; Ketten, Darlene R; Clementz, Mark T

2014-01-01

88

Organisational Change: Deliberation and Modification  

E-print Network

Organisational Change: Deliberation and Modification Catholijn M. Jonker1 , Martijn C. Schut1 For an information-agent-based system to support virtual (In- ternet-supported) organisations, changes in environmental conditions often demand changes in organisational behaviour, i.e., organisational changes

Treur, Jan

89

Demonstrating Allotropic Modifications of Sulfur.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how a common demonstration that consists of slowly heating sulfur powder in a test tube to illustrate sulfur's allotropic modifications can convince students of conclusions about the moon Io which they often find surprising. Describes the demonstration in full. (Author/MM)

McCarty, Jillian L.; Dragojlovic, Veljko

2002-01-01

90

Selective Modification of Glutathione Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutathione, a tripeptide thiol found in virtually all cells, functions in metabolism, transport, and cellular protection. It participates in the reduction of disulfides and other molecules, and conjugates with compounds of exogenous and endogenous origin. It protects cells against the destructive effects of reactive oxygen intermediates and free radicals. Modifications of glutathione metabolism may be achieved by administration of selective

Alton Meister

1983-01-01

91

Problem solving and behavior modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selectively reviewed problem-solving theory and research for possible applications in behavior modification. Problem solving was defined as a behavioral process which (a) makes available a variety of response alternatives for dealing with a problematic situation, and (b) increases the probability of selecting the most effective response from among these alternatives. 5 stages of problem solving were identified: (a) general orientation

Thomas J. DZurilla; Marvin R. Goldfried

1971-01-01

92

Changing Attitudes Through Behavior Modification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the philosophy and methods used by the staff at the Granite Alternative School in changing student attitudes through behavior modification. The students involved all have a failure syndrome or low self-image, and are dropouts from traditional high schools. Among the techniques used are: (1) reinforcing good behavior (praise…

Whipple, W. Scott

93

User applications unique to mobile satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As AMSC enters the market with its mobile satellite services, it faces a sophisticated user group that has already experimented with a wide range of communications services, including cellular radio and Ku-band satellite messaging. AMSC's challenge is to define applications unique to the capabilities of its dedicated L band satellite and consistent with the provisions outlined in its FCC license. Through a carefully researched approach to its three main markets (aeronautical, land mobile, and maritime) AMSC is discovering a wellspring of interest in corporate and general aviation, trucking companies, pipeline monitoring and control companies, maritime management firms, telecommunications companies, and government agencies. A general overview is provided of AMSC's FCC license and corporate history, and the specific applications unique to each user group is discussed.

Castiel, David

94

User applications unique to mobile satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As AMSC enters the market with its mobile satellite services, it faces a sophisticated user group that has already experimented with a wide range of communications services, including cellular radio and Ku-band satellite messaging. AMSC's challenge is to define applications unique to the capabilities of its dedicated L band satellite and consistent with the provisions outlined in its FCC license. Through a carefully researched approach to its three main markets (aeronautical, land mobile, and maritime) AMSC is discovering a wellspring of interest in corporate and general aviation, trucking companies, pipeline monitoring and control companies, maritime management firms, telecommunications companies, and government agencies. A general overview is provided of AMSC's FCC license and corporate history, and the specific applications unique to each user group is discussed.

Castiel, David

1990-01-01

95

On the uniqueness of the Shapley value  

Microsoft Academic Search

L.S. Shapley [1953] showed that there is a unique value defined on the classD of all superadditive cooperative games in characteristic function form (over a finite player setN) which satisfies certain intuitively plausible axioms. Moreover, he raised the question whether an axiomatic foundation could be obtained for a value (not necessarily theShapley value) in the context of the subclassC (respectivelyC',

P. Dubey

1975-01-01

96

Assessing non-uniqueness: An algebraic approach  

SciTech Connect

Geophysical inverse problems are endowed with a rich mathematical structure. When discretized, most differential and integral equations of interest are algebraic (polynomial) in form. Techniques from algebraic geometry and computational algebra provide a means to address questions of existence and uniqueness for both linear and non-linear inverse problem. In a sense, the methods extend ideas which have proven fruitful in treating linear inverse problems.

Vasco, Don W.

2002-09-16

97

Comprehensive Analysis of Protein Modifications by Top-down Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is playing an increasingly important role in cardiovascular research. Proteomics includes not only identification and quantification of proteins, but also the characterization of protein modifications such as post-translational modifications and sequence variants. The conventional bottom-up approach, involving proteolytic digestion of proteins into small peptides prior to MS analysis, is routinely used for protein identification and quantification with high throughput and automation. Nevertheless, it has limitations in the analysis of protein modifications mainly due to the partial sequence coverage and loss of connections among modifications on disparate portions of a protein. An alternative approach, top-down MS, has emerged as a powerful tool for the analysis of protein modifications. The top-down approach analyzes whole proteins directly, providing a “bird’s eye” view of all existing modifications. Subsequently, each modified protein form can be isolated and fragmented in the mass spectrometer to locate the modification site. The incorporation of the non-ergodic dissociation methods such as electron capture dissociation (ECD) greatly enhances the top-down capabilities. ECD is especially useful for mapping labile post-translational modifications which are well-preserved during the ECD fragmentation process. Top-down MS with ECD has been successfully applied to cardiovascular research with the unique advantages in unraveling the molecular complexity, quantifying modified protein forms, complete mapping of modifications with full sequence coverage, discovering unexpected modifications, and identifying and quantifying positional isomers and determining the order of multiple modifications. Nevertheless, top-down MS still needs to overcome some technical challenges to realize its full potential. Herein, we reviewed the advantages and challenges of top-down methodology with a focus on its application in cardiovascular research. PMID:22187450

Zhang, Han; Ge, Ying

2012-01-01

98

Some unique features of polymer crystallisation.  

PubMed

Mono-lamellar single crystals in thin films provide suitable model systems for studying crystallisation of long chain polymers, making distinct differences with respect to small molecules visible. Due to the high viscosity of polymeric melts, transport toward the growth front is slow and the corresponding crystal growth can suitably be followed in time. Besides being able to investigate generic processes in controlling crystal morphology like epitaxial growth or growth front instabilities, thin film studies reveal unique features of polymer crystallisation. In particular, it is possible to observe a logarithmic spatio-temporal evolution of the lamellar crystal thickness, caused by continuous rearrangements leading to regions of differing degrees of meta-stability within polymer single crystals. As a consequence of the kinetically determined lamellar thickness and the corresponding variations in melting temperature, polymer crystals allow for self-seeding, i.e., crystals can be re-grown from a melt which contains a few thermodynamically stable remnants of pre-existing crystals acting as seeds. Hence, when a single crystal is molten, all remnants have a unique orientation and thus also the crystals re-grown from these seeds. The logarithmic time-dependence of the variation in crystal thickness is reflected in a number of seeds decreasing exponentially with increasing seeding temperature. Despite their molecular complexity and some unique features, polymers proved to be valuable systems for detailed studies of crystal growth, allowing testing of theoretical concepts of morphology development. PMID:24150527

Reiter, Günter

2014-04-01

99

Unique Aspects of Herbal Whole System Research  

PubMed Central

Introduction Whole systems of healthcare offer unique methodological and theoretical challenges for researchers. Herbalism has its own set of methodological and philosophical research issues, which are beyond those presented for whole system research, in general. Methods An International Society for Complementary Medicine Research (ISCMR) workshop was presented on, “Challenges in Herbal Whole Systems Research”. Starting from a definition of herbalism the most important challenges to herbal whole system research (HWSR) were elicited with inputs from both the workshop presenters and the audience. Results Five major challenges unique to herbal whole systems research were identified: (1) Defining herbalists and herbalism; (2) role of natural products industry in herbal research; (3) designing placebos and delivering active herbal treatments as are given by herbalists; (4) researching the herb as a living entity; and (5) designing trials to investigate and develop multi-component herbal therapies. Conclusions To design studies of herbalism requires unique methods and theoretical frameworks. Solutions to these methodological challenges need to be addressed to conduct research that examines herbal systems of medicine versus conducting trials on individual herbs given out of their original therapeutic context. PMID:19272580

Zick, Suzanna M.; Schwabl, Herbert; Flower, Andrew; Lac, Dip; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Hirschkorn, Kristine

2009-01-01

100

A Unique Origin for Mojave Crater?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Williams et al (LPSC 2004; see also Kerr, Science vol. 304, 196 ) recently reported the discovery of a spectacularly eroded, apparently water-carved impact crater on Mars. The ~60 km diameter crater, dubbed "Mojave Crater" for the resemblance of its alluvial fans to alluvial fans seen on Earth, is located on Xanthe Terra, Mars. The crater is rated as late Hesperian or Amazonian, meaning that the impact took place some time in the past 3.5 billion years; there is some evidence that it is not extraordinarily young. Yet the crater seems unique for its size. This crater, and to present knowledge this crater alone, is the obvious source of its own precipitation. Impact by a live, ice-rich comet may provide a unique origin for this unique crater. Impacts by live comets are surprisingly rare in the inner solar system. To make a 60 km crater on Mars requires either a ~6 km diameter nearly isotropic comet (NIC), or an ~10 km diameter Jupiter-family comet (JFC). NICs strike Mars about 3 times in 10 billion if they pass its orbit. The latter happens about 6 times per decade for NICs bigger than 6 km, so that at current rates a NIC makes a 60 km crater on Mars about once every 5 billion years. The typical Mars-crossing JFCs actually hits Mars at a rate of about 8e-11 per comet per year. There are currently 3 known Mars-crossing JFCs that may be big enough to make 60 km craters on Mars (the nearly extinct P/28 Neujmin 1, P/10 Tempel 2, and perhaps P/49 Arend-Rigaux). The rate is about once per 4 billion years. Thus we expect on the order of one 60 km martian impact crater in the past 3.5 Gyr made by a comet. There would be on the order of ten 30 km craters. Preliminary GCM simulations of comet impacts indicate that, while very large impact events generate global climate effects that can lead to precipitation in topographically favored locations anywhere on Mars, on the scale of 60 km craters the impact-generated rainfall becomes localized, such that, to first approximation, a uniquely wet impact might be expected to create uniquely heavy local precipitation on scales comparable to the impact crater.

Zahnle, K.; Colaprete, A.

2004-12-01

101

Medium Modification of Vector Mesons  

SciTech Connect

The theory of the strong interaction, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), has been remarkably successful in describing high-energy and short-distance-scale experiments involving quarks and gluons. However, applying QCD to low energy and large-distance scale experiments has been a major challenge. Various QCD-inspired models predict a partial restoration of chiral symmetry in nuclear matter with modifications of the properties of hadrons from their free-space values. Measurable changes such as a shift in mass and/or a change of width are predicted at normal nuclear density. Photoproduction of vector mesons off nuclei have been performed at different laboratories. The properties of the ?, ? and ? mesons are investigated either directly by measuring their mass spectra or indirectly through transparency ratios. The latest results regarding medium modifications of the vector mesons in the nuclear medium will be discussed.

Chaden Djalali, Michael Paolone, Dennis Weygand, Michael H. Wood, Rakhsha Nasseripour

2011-03-01

102

Behavior modification in pediatric hemodialysis.  

PubMed

This article reports the results of a behavior modification approach for managing disruptive and noncompliant behaviors in four male hemodialysis patients ranging in age from 10 to 16 years. Each patient demonstrated some improvement in either behavior or health status during the intervention and 76.7% of available token reinforcers were earned. The intervention was inexpensive and well-accepted by the patients, families, and staff. Guidelines for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of such interventions are presented. PMID:2357122

Wysocki, T; Herr, R; Fryar, M; McGlone, C; Smith, B; Dyas, M; Monda, K; Coburn, T; Mahan, J; Mentser, M

1990-06-01

103

Femtosecond laser modification of glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tight focusing of ultrashort (?100fs) infrared laser pulses of moderate energy (typically 1–10?J) into a glass results in very high, localized (in space and time) intensities, in excess of 1014W\\/cm2. Under these conditions the laser–materials interaction becomes highly nonlinear, resulting in permanent modification of the material. By precisely controlling sample position and movement it is possible to optically ‘write’ three-dimensional

D. M. Krol

2008-01-01

104

Modelling of analytical peaks: peaks modifications.  

PubMed

The basic principles of symmetric peaks modifications are considered in this work. Four types of modifications--two symmetric and two asymmetric are considered in detail. Double sequent peak modification was taken as example. The dependences of peak shape parameters on modification parameters were obtained for considered examples of modifications of three basic peaks. The methods of obtaining of common sequent modifications and techniques of suitable result function choice for adequate description of analytical signal series are developed. The approximation of groups of stripping voltammetry and chromatographic peaks with some single, double and triple modifications of elementary peaks has been get. The appreciable increasing of adequacy in description of more complicated modifications was shown. PMID:17386462

Romanenko, S V; Stromberg, A G

2007-01-01

105

DNA modifications: Another stable base in DNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxidation of 5-methylcytosine has been proposed to mediate active and passive DNA demethylation. Tracking the history of DNA modifications has now provided the first solid evidence that 5-hydroxymethylcytosine is a stable epigenetic modification.

Brazauskas, Pijus; Kriaucionis, Skirmantas

2014-12-01

106

Unique properties of Drosophila spermatocyte primary cilia  

PubMed Central

Summary The primary cilium is an essential organelle required for animal development and adult homeostasis that is found on most animal cells. The primary cilium contains a microtubule-based axoneme cytoskeleton that typically grows from the mother centriole in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle as a membrane-bound compartment that protrudes from the cell surface. A unique system of bidirectional transport, intraflagellar transport (IFT), maintains the structure and function of cilia. While the axoneme is dynamic, growing and shrinking at its tip, at the same time it is very stable to the effects of microtubule-targeting drugs. The primary cilia found on Drosophila spermatocytes diverge from the general rules of primary cilium biology in several respects. Among these unique attributes, spermatocyte cilia assemble from all four centrioles in an IFT-independent manner in G2 phase, and persist continuously through two cell divisions. Here, we show that Drosophila spermatocyte primary cilia are extremely sensitive to microtubule-targeting drugs, unlike their mammalian counterparts. Spermatocyte cilia and their axonemes fail to assemble or be maintained upon nocodazole treatment, while centriole replication appears unperturbed. On the other hand, paclitaxel (Taxol), a microtubule-stabilizing drug, disrupted transition zone assembly and anchoring to the plasma membrane while causing spermatocyte primary cilia to grow extensively long during the assembly/elongation phase, but did not overtly affect the centrioles. However, once assembled to their mature length, spermatocyte cilia appeared unaffected by Taxol. The effects of these drugs on axoneme dynamics further demonstrate that spermatocyte primary cilia are endowed with unique assembly properties. PMID:24244850

Riparbelli, Maria Giovanna; Cabrera, Oscar A.; Callaini, Giuliano; Megraw, Timothy L.

2013-01-01

107

Uniqueness of the Trautman--Bondi mass  

E-print Network

It is shown that the only functionals, within a natural class, which are monotonic in time for all solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations admitting a smooth ``piece'' of conformal null infinity Scri, are those depending on the metric only through a specific combination of the Bondi `mass aspect' and other next--to--leading order terms in the metric. Under the extra condition of passive BMS invariance, the unique such functional (up to a multiplicative factor) is the Trautman--Bondi energy. It is also shown that this energy remains well-defined for a wide class of `polyhomogeneous' metrics.

Piotr T. Chru?ciel; Jacek Jezierski; Malcolm A. H. MacCallum

1998-03-02

108

Paediatric biobanks: what makes them so unique?  

PubMed

Paediatric biobanks store and organise the biological material of children. They are an invaluable resource for the study of the development, health and behaviour of children. International norms for the management of adult biobanks exist, but paediatric biobanks require distinct policies to account for the needs of children, their general incapacity, and their intellectual development throughout the life of the biobank. Because of their particular nature we revisit the issues of consent, the return of research results, and privacy, and discuss how each could be modulated in the paediatric context. We recognize that such modifications entail further financial and logistical complications but maintain that it is essential that paediatric biobanks consider these issues and adapt their biobanks management policies accordingly, rather than extrapolate the current adult-based norms and jeopardise the rights of child participants. PMID:21535284

Samuël, Julie; Knoppers, Bartha M; Avard, Denise

2012-02-01

109

Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

1985-09-01

110

Why Every Bipolar Planetary Nebula is `Unique'  

E-print Network

We present the many evolutionary routes that progenitors of bipolar planetary nebulae (BPNe) can take. Overall, there are about a hundred qualitatively different evolutionary routes, hence about a hundred qualitatively different types of BPNe. Within each type there are quantitative differences as well. Adding the dependence of the appearance on inclination, we find that the number of different apparent structures of BPN is about equal to, or even larger than the number of known BPNe and proto-BPNe. Accordingly we argue that every BPN is a `unique' object in its appearance, but all can be explained within the binary model paradigm. Therefore, we request a stop to the attaching of adjectives such as `unique', `peculiar', and `unusual' to BPNe and proto-BPNe, thereby removing the need to invoke a new model for almost every `unusual' BPN. As a case study we try to build a binary model for the proto-BPN OH231.8+4.2. In our preferred model the AGB Mira-type star has a main sequence companion of mass 1 Mo, orbital period of five years, and eccentricity of 0.1.

Noam Soker

2001-07-28

111

The Unique Nature of Mg2+ Channels  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Considering the biological abundance and importance of Mg2+, there is a surprising lack of information regarding the proteins that transport Mg2+, the mechanisms by which they do so, and their physiological roles within the cell. The best characterized Mg2+ channel to date is the bacterial protein CorA, present in a wide range of bacterial species. The CorA homolog Mrs2 forms the mitochondrial Mg2+ channel in all eukaryotes. Physiologically, CorA is involved in bacterial pathogenesis, and the Mrs2 eukaryotic homolog is essential for cell survival. A second Mg2+ channel widespread in bacteria is MgtE. Its eukaryotic homologs are the SLC41 family of carriers. Physiological roles for MgtE and its homologs have not been established. Recently, the crystal structures for the bacterial CorA and MgtE Mg2+ channels were solved, the first structures of any divalent cation channel. As befits the unique biological chemistry of Mg2+, both structures are unique, unlike that of any other channel or transporter. Although structurally quite different, both CorA and MgtE appear to be gated in a similar manner through multiple Mg2+ binding sites in the cytosolic domain of the channels. These sites essentially serve as Mg2+ "sensors" of cytosolic Mg2+ concentration. Many questions about these channels remain, however, including the molecular basis of Mg2+ selectivity and the physiological role(s) of their eukaryotic homologs.

Andrea S Moomaw (Case Western Reserve University Pharmacology)

2008-10-18

112

Beryllium - A Unique Material in Nuclear Applications  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium, due to its unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section characteristics, has been used successfully as a neutron reflector for three generations of nuclear test reactors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the largest test reactor in the world, has utilized five successive beryllium neutron reflectors and is scheduled for continued operation with a sixth beryllium reflector. A high radiation environment in a test reactor produces radiation damage and other changes in beryllium. These changes necessitate safety analysis of the beryllium, methods to predict performance, and appropriate surveillances. Other nuclear applications also utilize beryllium. Beryllium, given its unique atomic, physical, and chemical characteristics, is widely used as a “window” for x-rays and gamma rays. Beryllium, intimately mixed with high-energy alpha radiation emitters has been successfully used to produce neutron sources. This paper addresses operational experience and methodologies associated with the use of beryllium in nuclear test reactors and in “windows” for x-rays and gamma rays. Other nuclear applications utilizing beryllium are also discussed.

T., A. Tomberlin

2004-11-01

113

Astronomy Outreach for Large and Unique Audiences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this session, we discuss different approaches to reaching large audiences. In addition to star parties and astronomy events, the audiences for some of the events include music concerts or festivals, sick children and their families, minority communities, American Indian reservations, and tourist sites such as the National Mall. The goal is to bring science directly to the public—to people who attend astronomy events and to people who do not come to star parties, science museums, or science festivals. These programs allow the entire community to participate in astronomy activities to enhance the public appreciation of science. These programs attract large enthusiastic crowds often with young children participating in these family learning experiences. The public will become more informed, educated, and inspired about astronomy and will also be provided with information that will allow them to continue to learn after this outreach activity. Large and unique audiences often have common problems, and their solutions and the lessons learned will be presented. Interaction with the participants in this session will provide important community feedback used to improve astronomy outreach for large and unique audiences. New ways to expand astronomy outreach to new large audiences will be discussed.

Lubowich, D.; Sparks, R. T.; Pompea, S. M.; Kendall, J. S.; Dugan, C.

2013-04-01

114

Exploiting Unique Structural and Functional Properties of Malarial Glycolytic Enzymes for Antimalarial Drug Development  

PubMed Central

Metabolic enzymes have been known to carry out a variety of functions besides their normal housekeeping roles known as “moonlighting functions.” These functionalities arise from structural changes induced by posttranslational modifications and/or binding of interacting proteins. Glycolysis is the sole source of energy generation for malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, hence a potential pathway for therapeutic intervention. Crystal structures of several P. falciparum glycolytic enzymes have been solved, revealing that they exhibit unique structural differences from the respective host enzymes, which could be exploited for their selective targeting. In addition, these enzymes carry out many parasite-specific functions, which could be of potential interest to control parasite development and transmission. This review focuses on the moonlighting functions of P. falciparum glycolytic enzymes and unique structural differences and functional features of the parasite enzymes, which could be exploited for therapeutic and transmission blocking interventions against malaria. PMID:25580350

Neyaz, Md. Kausar; Ikramul Hasan, Syed

2014-01-01

115

Proteome-wide Identification of SUMO2 Modification Sites  

PubMed Central

Post-translational modification with small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) alters the function of proteins involved in diverse cellular processes. SUMO-specific enzymes conjugate SUMOs to lysine residues in target proteins. Although proteomic studies have identified hundreds of sumoylated substrates, methods to identify the modified lysines on a proteomic scale are lacking. We developed a method that enabled proteome-wide identification of sumoylated lysines that involves the expression of polyhistidine (6His)-tagged SUMO2 with Thr90 mutated to Lys. Endoproteinase cleavage with Lys-C of 6His-SUMO2T90K modifed proteins from human cell lysates produced a diGly remnant on SUMO2T90K conjugated lysines enabling immunoprecipitation of SUMO2T90K modified peptides and producing a unique mass-to-charge signature. Mass spectrometry analysis of SUMO enriched peptides revealed over 1,000 sumoylated lysines in 539 proteins, including many functionally related proteins involved in cell cycle, transcription, and DNA repair. Not only can this strategy be used to study the dynamics of sumoylation and potential other similar posttranslational modifications, but also, these data provide an unprecedented resource for future research on the role of sumoylation in cellular physiology and disease. PMID:24782567

Jaffray, Ellis G.; Ibrahim, Adel F. M.; Tatham, Michael H.; Hay, Ronald T.

2014-01-01

116

Key advances in the chemical modification of nanocelluloses.  

PubMed

Nanocelluloses, including nanocrystalline cellulose, nanofibrillated cellulose and bacterial cellulose nanofibers, have become fascinating building blocks for the design of new biomaterials. Derived from the must abundant and renewable biopolymer, they are drawing a tremendous level of attention, which certainly will continue to grow in the future driven by the sustainability trend. This growing interest is related to their unsurpassed quintessential physical and chemical properties. Yet, owing to their hydrophilic nature, their utilization is restricted to applications involving hydrophilic or polar media, which limits their exploitation. With the presence of a large number of chemical functionalities within their structure, these building blocks provide a unique platform for significant surface modification through various chemistries. These chemical modifications are prerequisite, sometimes unavoidable, to adapt the interfacial properties of nanocellulose substrates or adjust their hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance. Therefore, various chemistries have been developed aiming to surface-modify these nano-sized substrates in order to confer to them specific properties, extending therefore their use to highly sophisticated applications. This review collocates current knowledge in the research and development of nanocelluloses and emphasizes more particularly on the chemical modification routes developed so far for their functionalization. PMID:24316693

Habibi, Youssef

2014-03-01

117

The core and unique proteins of haloarchaea  

PubMed Central

Background Since the first genome of a halophilic archaeon was sequenced in 2000, biologists have been advancing the understanding of genomic characteristics that allow for survival in the harsh natural environments of these organisms. An increase in protein acidity and GC-bias in the genome have been implicated as factors in tolerance to extreme salinity, desiccation, and high solar radiation. However, few previous attempts have been made to identify novel genes that would permit survival in such extreme conditions. Results With the recent release of several new complete haloarchaeal genome sequences, we have conducted a comprehensive comparative genomic analysis focusing on the identification of unique haloarchaeal conserved proteins that likely play key roles in environmental adaptation. Using bioinformatic methods, we have clustered 31,312 predicted proteins from nine haloarchaeal genomes into 4,455 haloarchaeal orthologous groups (HOGs). We assigned likely functions by association with established COG and KOG databases in NCBI. After identifying homologs in four additional haloarchaeal genomes, we determined that there were 784 core haloarchaeal protein clusters (cHOGs), of which 83 clusters were found primarily in haloarchaea. Further analysis found that 55 clusters were truly unique (tucHOGs) to haloarchaea and qualify as signature proteins while 28 were nearly unique (nucHOGs), the vast majority of which were coded for on the haloarchaeal chromosomes. Of the signature proteins, only one example with any predicted function, Ral, involved in desiccation/radiation tolerance in Halobacterium sp. NRC-1, was identified. Among the core clusters, 33% was predicted to function in metabolism, 25% in information transfer and storage, 10% in cell processes and signaling, and 22% belong to poorly characterized or general function groups. Conclusion Our studies have established conserved groups of nearly 800 protein clusters present in all haloarchaea, with a subset of 55 which are predicted to be accessory proteins that may be critical or essential for success in an extreme environment. These studies support core and signature genes and proteins as valuable concepts for understanding phylogenetic and phenotypic characteristics of coherent groups of organisms. PMID:22272718

2012-01-01

118

ARAC: A unique command and control resource  

SciTech Connect

The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a centralized federal facility designed to provide real-time, world-wide support to military and civilian command and control centers by predicting the impacts of inadvertent or intentional releases of nuclear, biological, or chemical materials into the atmosphere. ARAC is a complete response system consisting of highly trained and experienced personnel, continually updated computer models, redundant data collection systems, and centralized and remote computer systems. With over 20 years of experience responding to domestic and international incidents, strong linkages with the Department of Defense, and the ability to conduct classified operations, ARAC is a unique command and control resource.

Bradley, M.M.; Baskett, R.L.; Ellis, J.S. [and others

1996-04-01

119

Unique computer system for safeguards use  

SciTech Connect

Microprocessors have been used to implement specialized scientific data processing systems since 1976. One such system, the LeCroy 3500, is presently being used by the Detection and Verification Group of the Energy Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory for a large variety of tasks involving measurement of various nuclear parameters associated with radioactive materials. The system is unique because it can do not only sophisticated pulse height and multi-scale analyses but also other analyses that are limited only by the availability fo CAMAC modules that would acquire data from exotic experiments. The system is also field portable which extends the range of experiments that it can control. Four applications of this system are described in this paper: (1) plutonium storage vault monitoring, (2) coded aperture image reconstruction, (3) spatial distribution of gamma radiation, and (4) nuclear waste management. 7 figures.

Kuckertz, T.H.; Pratt, J.C.

1981-01-01

120

Unique material challenges in photovoltaic concentrator modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photovoltaic concentrators operate in a unique environment of high light flux, high temperatures, and large variations in temperature and humidity. The stability of various polymethyl/methacrylate (PMMA) lens formulations to solar environmental exposure has been determined to be variable. The PMMA seems to be unaffected mechanically by the loss or absence of screening agents. Cells exposed to the moist environments become coated with interconnect corrosion products. A clear Dow Corning encapsulant has proven to be durable and capable of protecting cells in this environment. Solder bonds degrade due to temperature cycling and tin diffusion into copper. Finally, a new means of making an electrically insulated low thermal resistance path between the photovoltaic cell and heatsink is described.

Beavis, L. C.

121

Do viral proteins possess unique biophysical features?  

PubMed

Natural selection shapes the sequence, structure and biophysical properties of proteins to fit their environment. We hypothesize that highly thermostable proteins and viral proteins represent two opposing adaptation strategies. Thermostable proteins are highly compact and possess well-packed hydrophobic cores and intensely charged surfaces. By contrast, viral proteins, and RNA viral proteins in particular, display a high occurrence of disordered segments and loosely packed cores. These features might endow viral proteins with increased structural flexibility and effective ways to interact with the components of the host. They could also be related to high adaptability levels and mutation rates observed in viruses, thus, representing a unique strategy for buffering the deleterious effects of mutations, such that those that have little (interactions), have little to lose. PMID:19062293

Tokuriki, Nobuhiko; Oldfield, Christopher J; Uversky, Vladimir N; Berezovsky, Igor N; Tawfik, Dan S

2009-02-01

122

Hausdorff dimension of unique beta expansions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given an integer N ? 2 and a real number ? > 1, let ??, N be the set of all x=\\sumi=1^? {d_i}/{?^i} with di ? {0, 1, ···, N ? 1} for all i ? 1. The infinite sequence (di) is called a ?-expansion of x. Let U?,N be the set of all x's in ??,N which have unique ?-expansions. We give explicit formula of the Hausdorff dimension of U?,N for ? in any admissible interval [?L, ?U], where ?L is a purely Parry number while ?U is a transcendental number whose quasi-greedy expansion of 1 is related to the classical Thue–Morse sequence. This allows us to calculate the Hausdorff dimension of U?,N for almost every ? > 1. In particular, this improves the main results of Gábor Kallós (1999, 2001). Moreover, we find that the dimension function f(?) = dimHU?,N fluctuates frequently for ? ? (1, N).

Kong, Derong; Li, Wenxia

2015-01-01

123

The unique ethics of sports medicine.  

PubMed

The ethical code by which physicians traditionally conduct themselves is based on the relationship between the physician and the patient: both work toward the goal of improving or maintaining health. Constraints on this relationship may be behaviors of patient choice (tobacco use, excessive alcohol use, sedentary behavior, and so on). The athlete-physician relationship is ethically different. Influences such as the physician's employer, the athlete's desire to play with pain and injury, and the economic consequences of playing or not complicate medical decisions. This perspective suggests something different and even unique about the ethics of the sports medicine practitioner. This article explores the differences fostering the ethical tight ropes that sports physicians walk in their sports medicine practices. PMID:15183565

Johnson, Rob

2004-04-01

124

Mushrooms—Biologically Distinct and Nutritionally Unique  

PubMed Central

Mushrooms are fungi, biologically distinct from plant- and animal-derived foods (fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy, protein [meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, and seeds]) that comprise the US Department of Agriculture food patterns operationalized by consumer-focused MyPlate messages. Although mushrooms provide nutrients found in these food groups, they also have a unique nutrient profile. Classified into food grouping systems by their use as a vegetable, mushrooms’ increasing use in main entrées in plant-based diets is growing, supporting consumers’ efforts to follow dietary guidance recommendations. Mushrooms’ nutrient and culinary characteristics suggest it may be time to reevaluate food groupings and health benefits in the context of 3 separate food kingdoms: plants/botany, animals/zoology, and fungi/mycology. PMID:25435595

Feeney, Mary Jo; Miller, Amy Myrdal; Roupas, Peter

2014-01-01

125

The unique inner landscape of the Anthropocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A characteristic aspect of the Anthropocene is the suite of novel changes made to the surface and subsurface of the Earth by human action, both on land and, increasingly, on and below the sea floor. Geologically, these geomorphological phenomena include features that relate to both lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic classification, the latter resulting from considering human constructions and modifications as a form of trace fossil system, albeit one that is of unprecedentedly large scale. As regards the potential formalizing of the Anthropocene, one question to be pursued relates to the chronostratigraphic definition of the phenomena involved: that is, given that many of these transformations are diachronous on human timescales, can an Anthropocene Series, with a synchronous time boundary, be characterized and mapped across the Earth's surface? Efforts to answer this question should help in the understanding of the Anthropocene within its geological context, and also in exploring the stratigraphic relation between time and rock generally at very fine stratigraphic timescales. Zalasiewicz, J., Williams M, Fortey, R.A., Smith, A.G., Barry, T.L. Coe, A.L., Bown, P.R., Gale, A., Gibbard, P.L., Gregory, F.J., Hounslow, M.W., Kerr, A.C., Pearson, P., Knox, R., Powell, J., Waters, C., Marshall, J., Oates, M., Rawson, P. & Stone, P. 2011. Stratigraphy of the Anthropocene. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A369, 1036-1055.

Zalasiewicz, Jan

2013-04-01

126

Might "Unique" Factors Be "Common"? On the Possibility of Indeterminate Common-Unique Covariances  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper shows that the usual factor analytic structured data dispersion matrix lambda psi lambda' + delta can readily arise from a set of scores y = lambda eta + epsilon, shere the "common" (eta) and "unique" (epsilon) factors have nonzero covariance: gamma = Cov epsilon,eta) is not equal to 0. Implications of this finding are discussed…

Grayson, Dave

2006-01-01

127

Alpbach Summer School - a unique learning experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alpbach Summer School is a ten-day program that provides a unique opportunity for young european science and engineering students, both undergraduate and graduate, to learn how to approach the entire design process of a space mission. The theme of the 2010 Summer School was "New Space Missions to Understand Climate Change", a current, challenging, very broad and complex topic. The program was established more than 35 years ago and is organised in two interrelated parts: a series of lectures held by renowned experts in the field (in the case of this specific year, climate change and space engineering experts) that provides a technical and scientific background for the workshops that follow, the core of the Summer School. For the workshops the students are split into four international, interdisciplinary teams of about 15 students. In 2010 every team had to complete a number of tasks, four in total: (1) identify climate change research gaps and design a space mission that has not yet been flown or proposed, (2) define the science objectives and requirements of the mission, (3) design a spacecraft that meets the mission requirements, which includes spacecraft design and construction, payload definition, orbit calculations, but also the satellite launch, operation and mission costs and (4) write up a short mission proposal and present the results to an expert review panel. Achieving these tasks in only a few days in a multicultural, interdisciplinary team represents a major challenge for all participants and provides an excellent practical learning experience. Over the course of the program, students do not just learn facts about climate change and space engineering, but scientists also learn from engineers and engineers from scientists. The participants have to deepen their knowledge in an often unfamiliar field, develop organisational and team-work skills and work under pressure. Moreover, teams are supported by team and roving tutors and get the opportunity to meet and learn from international experts. This presentation will provide an overview of the Alpbach Summer School program from a student's perspective. The different stages of this unique and enriching experience will be covered. Special attention will be paid to the workshops, which, as mentioned above, are the core of the Alpbach Summer School. During these intense workshops, participants work towards the proposed goals resulting in the design proposal of a space mission. The Alpbach Summer School is organised by FFG and co-sponsored by ESA, ISSI and the national space authorities of ESA member and cooperating states.

Kern, K.; Aulinas, J.; Clifford, D.; Krejci, D.; Topham, R.

2011-12-01

128

12 CFR 365.105 - Use of unique identifier.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Use of unique identifier. 365.105 Section 365.105 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE...Registration of Residential Mortgage Loan Originators § 365.105 Use of unique identifier. (a)...

2012-01-01

129

Unique animal prenyltransferase with monoterpene synthase activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monoterpenes are structurally diverse natural compounds that play an essential role in the chemical ecology of a wide array of organisms. A key enzyme in monoterpene biosynthesis is geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS). GPPS is an isoprenyl diphosphate synthase that catalyzes a single electrophilic condensation reaction between dimethylallyl diphosphate (C5) and isopentenyl diphosphate (C5) to produce geranyl diphosphate (GDP; C10). GDP is the universal precursor to all monoterpenes. Subsequently, monoterpene synthases are responsible for the transformation of GDP to a variety of acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic monoterpene products. In pheromone-producing male Ips pini bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), the acyclic monoterpene myrcene is required for the production of the major aggregation pheromone component, ipsdienol. Here, we report monoterpene synthase activity associated with GPPS of I. pini. Enzyme assays were performed on recombinant GPPS to determine the presence of monoterpene synthase activity, and the reaction products were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The functionally expressed recombinant enzyme produced both GDP and myrcene, making GPPS of I. pini a bifunctional enzyme. This unique insect isoprenyl diphosphate synthase possesses the functional plasticity that is characteristic of terpene biosynthetic enzymes of plants, contributing toward the current understanding of product specificity of the isoprenoid pathway.

Gilg, Anna B.; Tittiger, Claus; Blomquist, Gary J.

2009-06-01

130

Unique animal prenyltransferase with monoterpene synthase activity.  

PubMed

Monoterpenes are structurally diverse natural compounds that play an essential role in the chemical ecology of a wide array of organisms. A key enzyme in monoterpene biosynthesis is geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS). GPPS is an isoprenyl diphosphate synthase that catalyzes a single electrophilic condensation reaction between dimethylallyl diphosphate (C(5)) and isopentenyl diphosphate (C(5)) to produce geranyl diphosphate (GDP; C(10)). GDP is the universal precursor to all monoterpenes. Subsequently, monoterpene synthases are responsible for the transformation of GDP to a variety of acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic monoterpene products. In pheromone-producing male Ips pini bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), the acyclic monoterpene myrcene is required for the production of the major aggregation pheromone component, ipsdienol. Here, we report monoterpene synthase activity associated with GPPS of I. pini. Enzyme assays were performed on recombinant GPPS to determine the presence of monoterpene synthase activity, and the reaction products were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The functionally expressed recombinant enzyme produced both GDP and myrcene, making GPPS of I. pini a bifunctional enzyme. This unique insect isoprenyl diphosphate synthase possesses the functional plasticity that is characteristic of terpene biosynthetic enzymes of plants, contributing toward the current understanding of product specificity of the isoprenoid pathway. PMID:19277597

Gilg, Anna B; Tittiger, Claus; Blomquist, Gary J

2009-06-01

131

Clinical EPR: Unique Opportunities and Some Challenges  

PubMed Central

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been well established as a viable technique for measurement of free radicals and oxygen in biological systems, from in vitro cellular systems to in vivo small animal models of disease. However, the use of EPR in human subjects in the clinical setting, although attractive for a variety of important applications such as oxygen measurement, is challenged with several factors including the need for instrumentation customized for human subjects, probe and regulatory constraints. This paper describes the rationale and development of the first clinical EPR systems for two important clinical applications, namely, measurement of tissue oxygen (oximetry), and radiation dose (dosimetry) in humans. The clinical spectrometers operate at 1.2 GHz frequency and use surface loop resonators capable of providing topical measurements up to 1 cm depth in tissues. Tissue pO2 measurements can be carried out noninvasively and repeatedly after placement of an oxygen-sensitive paramagnetic material (currently India ink) at the site of interest. Our EPR dosimetry system is capable of measuring radiation-induced free radicals in the tooth of irradiated human subjects to determine the exposure dose. These developments offer potential opportunities for clinical dosimetry and oximetry, which include guiding therapy for individual patients with tumors or vascular disease, by monitoring of tissue oxygenation. Further work is in progress to translate this unique technology to routine clinical practice. PMID:24439333

Swartz, Harold M.; Williams, Benjamin B.; Zaki, Bassem I.; Hartford, Alan C.; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Chen, Eunice; Comi, Richard J.; Ernstoff, Marc S.; Hou, Huagang; Khan, Nadeem; Swarts, Steven G.; Flood, Ann B.; Kuppusamy, Periannan

2014-01-01

132

Clinical EPR: unique opportunities and some challenges.  

PubMed

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been well established as a viable technique for measurement of free radicals and oxygen in biological systems, from in vitro cellular systems to in vivo small animal models of disease. However, the use of EPR in human subjects in the clinical setting, although attractive for a variety of important applications such as oxygen measurement, is challenged with several factors including the need for instrumentation customized for human subjects, probe, and regulatory constraints. This article describes the rationale and development of the first clinical EPR systems for two important clinical applications, namely, measurement of tissue oxygen (oximetry) and radiation dose (dosimetry) in humans. The clinical spectrometers operate at 1.2 GHz frequency and use surface-loop resonators capable of providing topical measurements up to 1 cm depth in tissues. Tissue pO2 measurements can be carried out noninvasively and repeatedly after placement of an oxygen-sensitive paramagnetic material (currently India ink) at the site of interest. Our EPR dosimetry system is capable of measuring radiation-induced free radicals in the tooth of irradiated human subjects to determine the exposure dose. These developments offer potential opportunities for clinical dosimetry and oximetry, which include guiding therapy for individual patients with tumors or vascular disease by monitoring of tissue oxygenation. Further work is in progress to translate this unique technology to routine clinical practice. PMID:24439333

Swartz, Harold M; Williams, Benjamin B; Zaki, Bassem I; Hartford, Alan C; Jarvis, Lesley A; Chen, Eunice Y; Comi, Richard J; Ernstoff, Marc S; Hou, Huagang; Khan, Nadeem; Swarts, Steven G; Flood, Ann B; Kuppusamy, Periannan

2014-02-01

133

Lunar granites with unique ternary feldspars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An unusually high concentration of granitic fragments, with textures ranging from holocrystalline to glassy, occurs throughout Boulder 1, a complex breccia of highland rocks from Apollo 17, Station 2. Among the minerals included in the granites are enigmatic K-Ca-rich feldspars that fall in the forbidden region of the ternary diagram. The great variability in chemistry and texture is probably the result of impact degradation and melting of a granitic source-rock. Studies of the breccia matrix suggest that this original granitic source-rock may have contained more pyroxenes and phosphates than most of the present clasts contain. Petrographic observations on Apollo 15 KREEP basalts indicate that granitic liquids may be produced by differentiation without immiscibility, and the association of the granites with KREEP-rich fragments in the boulder suggests that the granites represent a residual liquid from the plutonic fractional crystallization of a KREEP-rich magma. Boulder 1 is unique among Apollo 17 samples in its silica-KREEP-rich composition. We conclude that the boulder represents a source-rock unlike the bedrock of South Massif.

Ryder, G.; Stoeser, D. B.; Marvin, U. B.; Bower, J. F.

1975-01-01

134

Bullwinkle: A unique 3-D experiment  

SciTech Connect

In the spring of 1988, Shell Offshore Inc. acquired two orthogonal three-dimensional (3-D) surveys at Prospect Bullwinkle, located in the Green Canyon area of the Gulf of Mexico, to aid the development program which began later that year. Two surveys were acquired because of the complexity of the salt structures in the vicinity of the prospect. The independent acquisition and processing of two surveys shot perpendicular to each other provided a unique data set for checking the quality and accuracy of standard 3-D techniques. The high development cost of this deep water (410m) turbidite field supported the acquisition of two 3-D data sets to provide a valuable redundancy for stratigraphic interpretation. This large scale 3-D experiment has been analyzed in terms of interpretive impact. Detailed comparisons of the seismic images away from the salt complex show good agreement between the two surveys and verify the relative accuracy and repeatability of the acquisition, processing, and interpretation techniques. Structural comparisons between the surveys show that acquisition oriented in a strike direction to the primary salt face yields a superior sediment image, particularly near overhung salt. An examination of the effects of shooting direction on small scale stratigraphic resolution illustrates the importance of fine sampling in the dip direction to the features of interest. Amplitude maps extracted for the main bright spot level show differences in areal continuity that are large enough to affect the geologic model of the prospect.

O'Connell, J.K.; Kohli, M.; Amos, S. (Shell Offshore Inc., New Orleans, LA (United States))

1993-01-01

135

Unique Ganglioside Recognition Strategies for Clostridial Neurotoxins  

SciTech Connect

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and tetanus neurotoxin are the causative agents of the paralytic diseases botulism and tetanus, respectively. The potency of the clostridial neurotoxins (CNTs) relies primarily on their highly specific binding to nerve terminals and cleavage of SNARE proteins. Although individual CNTs utilize distinct proteins for entry, they share common ganglioside co-receptors. Here, we report the crystal structure of the BoNT/F receptor-binding domain in complex with the sugar moiety of ganglioside GD1a. GD1a binds in a shallow groove formed by the conserved peptide motif E ... H ... SXWY ... G, with additional stabilizing interactions provided by two arginine residues. Comparative analysis of BoNT/F with other CNTs revealed several differences in the interactions of each toxin with ganglioside. Notably, exchange of BoNT/F His-1241 with the corresponding lysine residue of BoNT/E resulted in increased affinity for GD1a and conferred the ability to bind ganglioside GM1a. Conversely, BoNT/E was not able to bind GM1a, demonstrating a discrete mechanism of ganglioside recognition. These findings provide a structural basis for ganglioside binding among the CNTs and show that individual toxins utilize unique ganglioside recognition strategies.

Benson, Marc A.; Fu, Zhuji; Kim, Jung-Ja P.; Baldwin, Michael R. (MCW); (UMC)

2012-03-15

136

Are lampbrush chromosomes unique to meiotic cells?  

PubMed Central

Lampbrush chromosomes (LBCs) are transcriptionally active chromosomes found in the germinal vesicle (GV) of large oocytes of many vertebrate and invertebrate animals and also in the giant single-celled alga Acetabularia. These cells are all in prophase of the first meiotic division. Nevertheless, many meiotic cells do not develop LBCs, arguing that LBCs are not an essential feature of meiosis. LBCs probably represent the most active transcriptional state that can be attained by cells that must give rise to diploid progeny. Polyploidy permits cells to reach higher rates of transcription per nucleus but precludes a return to diploidy. In this sense LBCs represent a relatively inefficient transcriptional compromise employed by large meiotic cells. These considerations help to explain why transcriptionally active GVs develop LBCs, but they do not explain why LBCs have never been seen in somatic cells, diploid or otherwise. If LBCs are truly limited to germ cells, then some of their unusual features may reflect reprogramming of the genome. If this is the case, LBCs provide unique opportunities to study reprogramming at the level of the individual transcription unit. PMID:23263880

Gall, Joseph G.

2012-01-01

137

A unique new microtechnology facility for Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Queensland Microtechnology Facility is an initiative of the Queensland Government in conjunction with Griffith University. The Queensland Government through its Smart State Research Facilities Funds (SSRFF) is providing funds for equipment to equip a purpose built building provided by the University. The focus of the Facility is on the application of Silicon Carbide on Silicon semiconductor systems. This is an important feature that enables access to the mature silicon technology at the same time providing access the less mature but very promising SiC technology and its properties. These properties include broad bandgap, thus high voltage and high temperature operations, excellent mobilities, very small leakage currents and high thermal conductivity. The QMF is unique in that it will encourage state of the art research with a commercial bias. It will be equipped with custom built equipment to meet the goals of the Facility. Already there are projects directed toward the exploitation of Silicon Carbide on Silicon Technology being undertaken. This paper provides some background to the planning process associated with the realisation of the QMF.

Harrison, H. B.

2005-12-01

138

Unique features in the ARIES glovebox line  

SciTech Connect

A series of unique features have been incorporated into the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, TA-55 Plutonium Facility. The features enhance the material handling in the process of the dismantlement of nuclear weapon primaries in the glovebox line. Incorporated into these features are the various plutonium process module`s different ventilation zone requirements that the material handling systems must meet. These features include a conveyor system that consists of a remotely controlled cart that transverses the length of the conveyor glovebox, can be operated from a remote location and can deliver process components to the entrance of any selected module glovebox. Within the modules there exists linear motion material handling systems with lifting hoist, which are controlled via an Allen Bradley control panel or local control panels. To remove the packaged products from the hot process line, the package is processed through an air lock/electrolytic decontamination process that removes the radioactive contamination from the outside of the package container and allows the package to be removed from the process line.

Martinez, H.E.; Brown, W.G.; Flamm, B.; James, C.A.; Laskie, R.; Nelson, T.O.; Wedman, D.E.

1998-12-31

139

The Unique Horn-Satisfiability Problem and Quadratic Boolean Equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unique satisfiability problem for general Boolean expressions has attracted interest in recent years in connection with basic complexity issues [12,13]. We investigate here Unique Horn-Satisfiability, i.e. the subclass of Unique-Sat restricted to Horn expressions. We introduce two operators,reduction andshrinking, each transforming a given Horn expression into another Horn expression involving strictly fewer variables and preserving the unique satisfiability property,

Michel Minoux; Universitd Pierre

1992-01-01

140

Did Euclid Need the Euclidean Algorithm to Prove Unique Factorization?  

E-print Network

Did Euclid Need the Euclidean Algorithm to Prove Unique Factorization? David Pengelley and Fred is uniquely a product of primes. The heart of this uniqueness is found in Book VII of Euclid's Elements [3]: Proposition 30 (Euclid's Lemma). If a prime divides a product, then it divides one of the factors. Euclid

Pengelley, David J.

141

Surface Modification for Microreactor Fabrication  

PubMed Central

In this paper, methods of surface modification of different supports, i.e. glass and polymeric beads for enzyme immobilisation are described. The developed method of enzyme immobilisation is based on Schiff's base formation between the amino groups on the enzyme surface and the aldehyde groups on the chemically modified surface of the supports. The surface of silicon modified by APTS and GOPS with immobilised enzyme was characterised by atomic force microscopy (AFM), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The supports with immobilised enzyme (urease) were also tested in combination with microreactors fabricated in silicon and Perspex, operating in a flow-through system. For microreactors filled with urease immobilised on glass beads (Sigma) and on polymeric beads (PAN), a very high and stable signal (pH change) was obtained. The developed method of urease immobilisation can be stated to be very effective.

Pijanowska, Dorota G.; Remiszewska, El?bieta; Pederzolli, Cecilia; Lunelli, Lorenzo; Vendano, Michele; Canteri, Roberto; Dudzi?ski, Konrad; Kruk, Jerzy; Torbicz, Wladyslaw

2006-01-01

142

Modifications of therapeutic proteins: challenges and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of therapeutic proteins is one of the fastest growing sectors of the pharmaceutical industry. However, most\\u000a proteins used in drug therapy require complex post-translational modifications for efficient secretion, drug efficacy and\\u000a stability. Common protein modifications include variable glycosylation, misfolding and aggregation, oxidation of methionine,\\u000a deamidation of asparagine and glutamine, and proteolysis. These modifications not only pose challenges for

Nigel Jenkins

2007-01-01

143

Some unique superconductive Properties of Cuprates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper oxides are the only materials that show transition temperatures, Tc, above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen, with a maximum Tmc of 162 K under pressure. Their structure is layered, with one to several CuO2 planes, and upon hole doping, their transition temperature follows a dome-shaped curve with a maximum at Tmc. In the underdoped regime, i.e., below Tmc, a pseudogap T* is found, with T* always being larger than Tc, a property unique to the copper oxides [1]. In the superconducting state, Cooper pairs (two holes with antiparallel spins) are formed that exhibit coherence lengths on the order of a lattice distance in the CuO2 plane and one order of magnitude less perpendicular to it. Their macroscopic wave function is parallel to the CuO2 plane near 100% d at their surface, but only 75% d and 25 % s in the bulk, and near 100% s perpendicular to the plane in YBCO. There are two gaps with the same Tc [2]. As function of doping, the oxygen isotope effect is novel and can be quantitatively accounted for by a two-band vibronic theory [3] near Tmc, and underdoped below it till Tc = 0 with by a formula valid for (bi)polarons [4]. These cuprates are intrinsically heterogeneous in a dynamic way. In terms of quasiparticles, Jahn-Teller bipolarons are present at low doping, and aggregate upon cooling [1], so that probably ramified clusters and/or stripes are formed, leading over to a more Fermi-liquid-type behavior at large carrier concentrations above Tmc.

Müller, K. A.

2013-04-01

144

Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory (MIBL) The Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory for Surface Modification and Analysis (MIBL) was completed in  

E-print Network

NERS Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory (MIBL) The Michigan Ion Beam Laboratory for Surface Modification of advancing our understanding of ion- solid interactions by providing up-to-date equipment with unique that depends on the ion charge state. A wide variety of ions can be produced by a Torvis type, a duoplasmatron

Kamat, Vineet R.

145

A computer-controlled syringe driver for use during anaesthesia. A modification of the Graseby MS16A.  

PubMed

The requirements of a drug infusion device for use in theatre are discussed. A modification of the Graseby MS16A syringe pump and an interface circuit permitting its remote control by microcomputer are described. The pump is controlled via a standard computer interface (RS232) which makes it a unique and powerful research tool. Aspects of safety are considered. PMID:3707804

Cohen, A T

1986-06-01

146

30 CFR 18.81 - Field modification of approved (permissible) equipment; application for approval of modification...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Field Modifications of Approved Machines, and Permits To Use Experimental Equipment § 18.81 Field modification of approved...part, and shall not substantially alter the basic functional design that was originally approved for the equipment....

2010-07-01

147

30 CFR 18.81 - Field modification of approved (permissible) equipment; application for approval of modification...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Field Modifications of Approved Machines, and Permits To Use Experimental Equipment § 18.81 Field modification of approved...part, and shall not substantially alter the basic functional design that was originally approved for the equipment....

2011-07-01

148

Conformation Effects of Base Modification on the Anticodon Stem-loop of Bacillus subtilis tRNATyr  

PubMed Central

tRNA molecules contain 93 chemically unique nucleotide base modifications that expand the chemical and biophysical diversity of RNA and contribute to the overall fitness of the cell. Nucleotide modifications of tRNA confer fidelity and efficiency to translation and are important in tRNA-dependent RNA-mediated regulatory processes. The three-dimensional structure of the anticodon is crucial to tRNA-mRNA specificity and the diverse modifications of nucleotide bases in the anticodon region modulate this specificity. We have determined the solution structures and thermodynamic properties of B. subtilis tRNATyr anticodon arms containing the natural base modifications N6-dimethylallyl adenine (i6A37) and pseudouridine (?39). UV melting and differential scanning calorimetry indicate the modifications stabilize the stem and may enhance base stacking in the loop. The i6A37 modification disrupts the hydrogen bond network of the unmodified anticodon loop including a C32-A38+ base pair and an A37-U33 base-base interaction. Although the i6A37 modification increases the dynamic nature of the loop nucleotides, metal ion coordination re-establishes conformational homogeneity. Interestingly, the i6A37 modification and Mg2+ are sufficient to promote the U-turn fold of the anticodon loop of E. coli tRNAPhe, but these elements do not result in this signature feature of the anticodon loop in tRNATyr. PMID:21782828

Denmon, Andria P.; Wang, Jiachen; Nikonowicz, Edward P.

2011-01-01

149

High-Throughput Liquid-Liquid Fractionation of Multiple Protein Post-Translational Modifications*  

PubMed Central

Post-translational protein modifications have contributed significantly to the identification of macromolecular biomarkers of biological processes. We have modified a 2-dimensional HPLC system (Beckman Coulter PF2D ProteomeLab) to create proteome maps of post-translational protein modifications. This system resolves complex protein mixtures by anion exchange chromatofocusing in the first dimension and hydrophobicity (reverse phase chromatography) in the second dimension. The simultaneous identification of multiple protein modifications, accomplished by incorporating a photo diode array (PDA) detector into the PF2D system, facilitates the simultaneous production of three dimensional proteome maps and visualization of both unmodified and post-translationally modified (PTM) proteins at their signature wavelengths within the proteome. We describe procedures for the simultaneous resolution of proteome maps, the identification of proteins modified by nitration, carbonylation, and phosphorylation, and proteins with unique spectra such as the heme containing proteins. PMID:19099502

DeFord, James H.; Nuss, Jonathan E.; Amaning, James; English, Robert D.; Tjernlund, Don; Papaconstantinou, John

2009-01-01

150

Unique Challenges Testing SDRs for Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the approach used by the Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed team to qualify three Software Defined Radios (SDR) for operation in space and the characterization of the platform to enable upgrades on-orbit. The three SDRs represent a significant portion of the new technologies being studied on board the SCAN Testbed, which is operating on an external truss on the International Space Station (ISS). The SCaN Testbed provides experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms and applications for communication, networking, and navigation concepts and advance the understanding of developing and operating SDRs in space. Qualifying a Software Defined Radio for the space environment requires additional consideration versus a hardware radio. Tests that incorporate characterization of the platform to provide information necessary for future waveforms, which might exercise extended capabilities of the hardware, are needed. The development life cycle for the radio follows the software development life cycle, where changes can be incorporated at various stages of development and test. It also enables flexibility to be added with minor additional effort. Although this provides tremendous advantages, managing the complexity inherent in a software implementation requires a testing beyond the traditional hardware radio test plan. Due to schedule and resource limitations and parallel development activities, the subsystem testing of the SDRs at the vendor sites was primarily limited to typical fixed transceiver type of testing. NASA s Glenn Research Center (GRC) was responsible for the integration and testing of the SDRs into the SCaN Testbed system and conducting the investigation of the SDR to advance the technology to be accepted by missions. This paper will describe the unique tests that were conducted at both the subsystem and system level, including environmental testing, and present results. For example, test waveforms were developed to measure the gain of the transmit system across the tunable frequency band. These were used during thermal vacuum testing to enable characterization of the integrated system in the wide operational temperature range of space. Receive power indicators were used for Electromagnetic Interference tests (EMI) to understand the platform s susceptibility to external interferers independent of the waveform. Additional approaches and lessons learned during the SCaN Testbed subsystem and system level testing will be discussed that may help future SDR integrators

Chelmins, David; Downey, Joseph A.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Nappier, Jennifer M.

2013-01-01

151

Unique Challenges Testing SDRs for Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the approach used by the Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed team to qualify three Software Defined Radios (SDR) for operation in space and the characterization of the platform to enable upgrades on-orbit. The three SDRs represent a significant portion of the new technologies being studied on board the SCAN Testbed, which is operating on an external truss on the International Space Station (ISS). The SCaN Testbed provides experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms and applications for communication, networking, and navigation concepts and advance the understanding of developing and operating SDRs in space. Qualifying a Software Defined Radio for the space environment requires additional consideration versus a hardware radio. Tests that incorporate characterization of the platform to provide information necessary for future waveforms, which might exercise extended capabilities of the hardware, are needed. The development life cycle for the radio follows the software development life cycle, where changes can be incorporated at various stages of development and test. It also enables flexibility to be added with minor additional effort. Although this provides tremendous advantages, managing the complexity inherent in a software implementation requires a testing beyond the traditional hardware radio test plan. Due to schedule and resource limitations and parallel development activities, the subsystem testing of the SDRs at the vendor sites was primarily limited to typical fixed transceiver type of testing. NASA's Glenn Research Center (GRC) was responsible for the integration and testing of the SDRs into the SCaN Testbed system and conducting the investigation of the SDR to advance the technology to be accepted by missions. This paper will describe the unique tests that were conducted at both the subsystem and system level, including environmental testing, and present results. For example, test waveforms were developed to measure the gain of the transmit system across the tunable frequency band. These were used during thermal vacuum testing to enable characterization of the integrated system in the wide operational temperature range of space. Receive power indicators were used for Electromagnetic Interference tests (EMI) to understand the platform's susceptibility to external interferers independent of the waveform. Additional approaches and lessons learned during the SCaN Testbed subsystem and system level testing will be discussed that may help future SDR integrators.

Johnson, Sandra; Chelmins, David; Downey, Joseph; Nappier, Jennifer

2013-01-01

152

Unique sextuple system: 65 Ursae Majoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The study of stellar multiple systems provides us with important information about the stellar formation processes and can help us to estimate the multiplicity fraction in the Galaxy. 65 UMa belongs to a rather small group of stellar systems of higher multiplicity, whose inner and outer orbits are well-known. This allows us to study the long-term stability and evolution of the orbits in these systems. Aims: We obtained new photometric and spectroscopic data that when combined with interferometric data enables us to analyze the system 65 UMa and determine its basic physical properties. Methods: We perform a combined analysis of the light and radial velocity curves, as well as the period variation by studying the times of the minima and the interferometric orbit. A disentangling technique is used to perform the spectra decomposition. This combined approach allows us to study the long-term period changes in the system for the first time, identifying the period variation due to the motion on the visual orbit, in addition to some short-term modulation. Results: We find that the system contains one more component, hence we tread it as a sextuple hierarchical system. The most inner pair of components consists of an eclipsing binary orbiting around a barycenter on a circular orbit, both components being almost identical of spectral type about A7. This pair orbits on an eccentric orbit around a barycenter, and the third component orbits with a period of about 640 days. This motion is reflected in the period variation in the minima times of the eclipsing pair, as well as in the radial velocities of the primary, secondary, and tertiary components. Moreover, this system orbits around a barycenter with the distant component resolved interferometrically, whose period is of about 118 years. Two more distant components (4'' and 63'') are also probably gravitationally bound to the system. The nodal period of the eclipsing-pair orbit is on the order of only a few centuries, which makes this system even more interesting for a future prospective detection of changing the depths of minima. Conclusions: We identify a unique solution of the system 65 UMa, decomposing the individual components and even shifting the system to higher multiplicity. The study of this kind of multiple can help us to understand the origin of stellar systems. Besides 65 UMa, only another 11 sextuple systems have been studied. Reduced photometric and spectroscopic data, and Tables A.1-A.4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/542/A78

Zasche, P.; Uhlá?, R.; Šlechta, M.; Wolf, M.; Harmanec, P.; Nemravová, J. A.; Kor?áková, D.

2012-06-01

153

The Cresta Run: a uniquely evolving tradition.  

PubMed

The Cresta Run is a unique toboggan run and exists in only one place in the world, namely, St. Moritz, Switzerland. The height of the resort is over 6,000 feet (1828 metres). Therefore there is a diminution of oxygen content in the air. Normally it takes from three to seven days for a person from lower habitat altitudes, visiting the resort, to become fully acclimatized if they are to be involved in energetic competitive sport. The age and fitness of the toboggan rider is a factor. The Cresta Run takes place each year and has, since its inception under the auspices of the St Moritz Tobogganing Club, been built from virgin snow to a formula determined by a brilliant 22-year-old Swiss geometrician, Peter Bonorand, who devised the first Run in 1884. Using his exceptional mathematical knowledge to determine a course from St. Moritz to Celerina, he drew up plans and drawings for the first Cresta Run. The Run therefore is constructed to a known formula and it is significant that in over 115 years the times on the Run have only improved on average by a few tenths of a second progressively each year despite improvements to riding equipment. Since the Run's inception in 1885 there has always been an element of danger, but accidents have invariably occurred on the section of the Run that comprises the competition course between the start line and the finish line. During the past few seasons, an increasing number of accidents have taken place after the finish line. The problem is short-term blackout while riding (Reader, 1978). There is now a need to investigate what changes have been made or have evolved to cause this. However, certain immutable facts have remained constant and these must be identified and then considered in the context of recent changes as a result of improvements in equipment. Considerable improvements have been made over the past 25 years to safety helmets. These are the result of different materials, their suitability and ease of manufacture, particularly with regard to the full-face type helmet. The full-face helmet could be a significant contributing factor to the problem of accidents, particularly after the finish line, on the Cresta Run. PMID:14655959

Ogilvie-Hardy, E T

2003-10-01

154

Probeware Modification of a Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I'm always amazed by the beauty of the atomic spectra and can imagine the excitement of the early spectroscopists when they realized that the line spectra uniquely identify the elements. I would like physics students to share that excitement, but find that the tedious nature of reading a Vernier scale in a darkened room, reading fractional angles in minutes of degrees, and converting angles in degrees and minutes to decimal notation soon make the exercise so tedious that students lose sight of the intended task of identifying and characterizing the spectral lines. At Acadia University, we have adapted a PASCO rotary motion sensor and voltage probe, both interfaced to a computer using a Vernier LabPro,2 to semi-automate our spectrometer3 measurements.

Easton, Don

2006-09-01

155

Regulation of microtubule motors by tubulin isotypes and posttranslational modifications  

PubMed Central

The ‘tubulin-code’ hypothesis proposes that different tubulin genes or posttranslational modifications (PTMs), which mainly confer variation in the carboxy-terminal tail (CTT), result in unique interactions with microtubule-associated proteins for specific cellular functions. However, the inability to isolate distinct and homogenous tubulin species has hindered biochemical testing of this hypothesis. Here, we have engineered 25 ?/? tubulin heterodimers with distinct CTTs and PTMs and tested their interactions with four different molecular motors using single molecule assays. Our results show that tubulin isotypes and PTMs can govern motor velocity, processivity and microtubule depolymerization rates, with substantial changes conferred by even single amino acid variation. Revealing the importance and specificity of PTMs, we show that kinesin-1 motility on neuronal ?-tubulin (TUBB3) is increased by polyglutamylation and that robust kinesin-2 motility requires detyrosination of ?-tubulin. Our results also show that different molecular motors recognize distinctive tubulin “signatures”, which supports the premise of tubulin-code hypothesis. PMID:24633327

Sirajuddin, Minhajuddin; Rice, Luke M.; Vale, Ronald D.

2014-01-01

156

Memory recall and modifications by activating neurons with elevated CREB.  

PubMed

Memory is supported by a specific ensemble of neurons distributed in the brain that form a unique memory trace. We previously showed that neurons in the lateral amygdala expressing elevated levels of cAMP response-element binding protein are preferentially recruited into fear memory traces and are necessary for the expression of those memories. However, it is unknown whether artificially activating just these selected neurons in the absence of behavioral cues is sufficient to recall that fear memory. Using an ectopic rat vanilloid receptor TRPV1 and capsaicin system, we found that activating this specific ensemble of neurons was sufficient to recall established fear memory. Furthermore, this neuronal activation induced a reconsolidation-like reorganization process, or strengthening of the fear memory. Thus, our findings establish a direct link between the activation of specific ensemble of neurons in the lateral amygdala and the recall of fear memory and its subsequent modifications. PMID:24212670

Kim, Jieun; Kwon, Jeong-Tae; Kim, Hyung-Su; Josselyn, Sheena A; Han, Jin-Hee

2014-01-01

157

Evaluation of cab car crashworthiness design modifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of structural modifications to rail cab cars for increased crashworthiness protection in train collisions. The crashworthiness benefits were calculated based on a particular design's ability to preserve the space occupied by the operators and the passengers during a collision. The influences of the modifications on vehicle weight and cost to manufacture were

D. C. Tyrell; K. J. Seversen; R. A. Mayville; R. G. Stringfellow; S. Berry; A. B. Perlman

1997-01-01

158

A novel DNA modification by sulphur  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Streptomyces lividans has a novel DNA modification, which sensitises its DNA to degradation during elec- trophoresis (the Dnd phenotype). The entire gene cluster ( dnd ) involved in this modification was local- ized on an 8 kb DNA fragment and was expressed in a S. lividans deletion mutant ( dnd ) and in several heterologous hosts. Disruption of the

Xiufen Zhou; Xinyi He; Jingdan Liang; Aiying Li; Tiegang Xu; Tobias Kieser; John D. Helmann

159

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT Waste Water Treatment Modifications for  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR Waste Water Treatment Modifications for Improved Effluent Compliance treatment of waste water to remove priority metals · Install new metering system to dose secondary with SPDES Permit modifications · Ensure effective treatment of waste water EA will Evaluate Treatment

Homes, Christopher C.

160

Modification of integrated partial payload lifting assembly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Integrated Partial Payload Lifting Assembly (IPPLA) is currently used to transport and load experimental payloads into the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. It is unable to carry the astronaut/passenger tunnel without a structural modification. The purpose of this design is to create a removalbe modification that will allow the IPPLA to lift and carry the passenger tunnel. Modifications evaluated were full-length insert beams which would extend through the existing strongback arms. These beam proposals were eliminated because of high cost and weight. Other proposals evaluated were attachments of cantilever beams to the existing strongback areas. The cantilever proposals reduced cost and weight compared to the full-length modifications. A third method evaluated was to simply make modifications to one side of the IPPLA therefore reducing the materials of the cantilever proposals by 40 percent. The design of the modification selected was completed with two channel beams jointly welded to a centered steel plate. The extension arm modification is inserted into the existing strongback channel beams and bolted into place. Two extension arms are added to one side of the IPPLA to provide the extra length needed to accommodate the passenger tunnel. The center counterbalance will then be offset about 20 inches to center gravity and therefore maintain horizontal status. The extension arm modification was selected because of minimum cost, low weight, and minimal installation time.

Groah, Melodie; Haddock, Michael; Woodworth, Warren

1986-01-01

161

Modification of integrated partial payload lifting assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Integrated Partial Payload Lifting Assembly (IPPLA) is currently used to transport and load experimental payloads into the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. It is unable to carry the astronaut/passenger tunnel without a structural modification. The purpose of this design is to create a removalbe modification that will allow the IPPLA to lift and carry the passenger tunnel. Modifications evaluated were full-length insert beams which would extend through the existing strongback arms. These beam proposals were eliminated because of high cost and weight. Other proposals evaluated were attachments of cantilever beams to the existing strongback areas. The cantilever proposals reduced cost and weight compared to the full-length modifications. A third method evaluated was to simply make modifications to one side of the IPPLA therefore reducing the materials of the cantilever proposals by 40 percent. The design of the modification selected was completed with two channel beams jointly welded to a centered steel plate. The extension arm modification is inserted into the existing strongback channel beams and bolted into place. Two extension arms are added to one side of the IPPLA to provide the extra length needed to accommodate the passenger tunnel. The center counterbalance will then be offset about 20 inches to center gravity and therefore maintain horizontal status. The extension arm modification was selected because of minimum cost, low weight, and minimal installation time.

Groah, Melodie; Haddock, Michael; Woodworth, Warren

162

The Modification of Compounds by Attributive Adjectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the modification of nominal compounds by attributive adjectives in English. It draws on a distinction between compound-external (i.e. syntactic) and compound-internal (i.e. morphological) modification. An analysis is presented of more than 1000 pertinent cases, which are roughly equally divided into two-, three- and four-noun…

Berg, Thomas

2011-01-01

163

Proteomic analysis of post-translational modifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-translational modifications modulate the activity of most eukaryote proteins. Analysis of these modifications presents formidable challenges but their determination generates indispensable insight into biological function. Strategies developed to characterize individual proteins are now systematically applied to protein populations. The combination of function- or structure-based purification of modified 'subproteomes', such as phosphorylated proteins or modified membrane proteins, with mass spectrometry is

Matthias Mann; Ole N. Jensen

2003-01-01

164

7 CFR 1467.13 - Modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.13 Modifications...modification will not adversely affect the wetland functions and values for which the easement...restoration of other lands that provide greater wetland functions and values at no...

2011-01-01

165

7 CFR 1467.13 - Modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.13 Modifications...modification will not adversely affect the wetland functions and values for which the easement...restoration of other lands that provide greater wetland functions and values at no...

2012-01-01

166

7 CFR 1467.13 - Modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.13 Modifications...modification will not adversely affect the wetland functions and values for which the easement...restoration of other lands that provide greater wetland functions and values at no...

2010-01-01

167

7 CFR 1467.13 - Modifications.  

...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.13 Modifications...modification will not adversely affect the wetland functions and values for which the easement...restoration of other lands that provide greater wetland functions and values at no...

2014-01-01

168

7 CFR 1467.13 - Modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.13 Modifications...modification will not adversely affect the wetland functions and values for which the easement...restoration of other lands that provide greater wetland functions and values at no...

2013-01-01

169

Metabolic syndrome and lifestyle modification.  

PubMed

A clustering of metabolic abnormalities such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus, all of which are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), occurs more often than by chance. Numerous epidemiological studies, as well as basic researches, have revealed that visceral fat accumulation is closely involved in this risk clustering. This morbid condition is now well recognized as the metabolic syndrome. The concept of the metabolic syndrome, i.e., the involvement of visceral adiposity in the clustering of CVD risk factors, implies that an effective CVD risk reduction will be accomplished by an intervention to reduce visceral fat deposits. The primary strategy of the intervention is lifestyle modification, which can be put into practice in healthcare fields, without necessity of medical treatment. Now that CVD is a leading global health burden, the metabolic syndrome attracts increasing attention in the world. To take global action against the syndrome, several working groups developed its internationally unified diagnostic criteria. Most recently, the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) jointly proposed the criteria, although some cautions will be needed in their practical use. In this review, we mainly focus on the findings observed in clinical and epidemiological studies, to discuss a practical strategy of the management of the metabolic syndrome in healthcare fields. PMID:25263290

Takahara, Mitsuyoshi; Shimomura, Iichiro

2014-12-01

170

Epigenetic Modifications during Angiosperm Gametogenesis  

PubMed Central

Angiosperms do not contain a distinct germline, but rather develop gametes from gametophyte initials that undergo cell division. These gametes contain cells that give rise to an endosperm and the embryo. DNA methylation is decreased in the vegetative nucleus (VN) and central cell nuclei (CCN) resulting in expression of transposable elements (TEs). It is thought that the siRNAs produced in response to TE expression are able to travel to the sperm cells and egg cells (EC) from VN and CCN, respectively, in order to enforce silencing there. Demethylation during gametogenesis helps ensure that even newly integrated TEs are expressed and therefore silenced by the resulting siRNA production. A final form of epigenetic control is modification of histones, which includes accumulation of the H3 variant HTR10 in mature sperm that is then completely replaced following fertilization. In females, the histone isoforms present in the EC and CCN differ, potentially helping to differentiate the two components during gametogenesis. PMID:22645573

Migicovsky, Zoë; Kovalchuk, Igor

2012-01-01

171

Magnetic perturbations as a viable tool for edge turbulence modification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complete description of the effects of magnetic perturbation on the edge region of RFX-mod is here reported. The flexibility of the RFX-mod device [1] allows for the operation of the machine both as a reversed field pinch (RFP, with maximum current 2 MA) and as a low-current, circular ohmic tokamak (Ip,max = 0.15 MA). The present paper summarizes the most recent results obtained in both configurations with either spontaneous or induced edge radial magnetic perturbation. Emphasis will be devoted to the experimental characterization of the edge flow, focusing on the phase relation between flow and perturbed magnetic field. These informations are provided for natural and stimulated helical discharges in RFPs, and for tokamak safely operated, thanks to the unique RFX-mod MHD control system, in a wide range of edge safety factor 1.9 ? q(a) ? 3.4 with externally imposed helical boundary. For the first time a detailed comparison between this phenomenology in tokamaks and RFPs will be presented, providing experimental measurement of the streamline of E × B flow around the magnetic perturbation and of the density modulation which exhibits the same periodicity of the perturbation. Strong new indication of the modification of the small scale turbulence in presence of magnetic perturbation is reported: this modification is deeply connected to the variation of turbulence induced particle transport.

Vianello, N.; Rea, C.; Agostini, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Ciaccio, G.; De Masi, G.; Martines, E.; Mazzi, A.; Momo, B.; Spizzo, G.; Scarin, P.; Spolaore, M.; Zanca, P.; Zuin, M.; Carraro, L.; Innocente, P.; Marrelli, L.; Puiatti, M. E.; Terranova, D.

2015-01-01

172

Uniqueness of the differential Mueller matrix of uniform homogeneous media.  

PubMed

We show that the differential matrix of a uniform homogeneous medium containing birefringence may not be uniquely determined from its Mueller matrix, resulting in the potential existence of an infinite set of elementary polarization properties parameterized by an integer parameter. The uniqueness depends on the symmetry properties of a special differential matrix derived from the eigenvalue decomposition of the Mueller matrix. The conditions for the uniqueness of the differential matrix are identified, physically discussed, and illustrated in examples from the literature. PMID:24875999

Devlaminck, Vincent; Ossikovski, Razvigor

2014-06-01

173

Covariance Modifications to Subspace Bases  

SciTech Connect

Adaptive signal processing algorithms that rely upon representations of signal and noise subspaces often require updates to those representations when new data become available. Subspace representations frequently are estimated from available data with singular value (SVD) decompositions. Subspace updates require modifications to these decompositions. Updates can be performed inexpensively provided they are low-rank. A substantial literature on SVD updates exists, frequently focusing on rank-1 updates (see e.g. [Karasalo, 1986; Comon and Golub, 1990, Badeau, 2004]). In these methods, data matrices are modified by addition or deletion of a row or column, or data covariance matrices are modified by addition of the outer product of a new vector. A recent paper by Brand [2006] provides a general and efficient method for arbitrary rank updates to an SVD. The purpose of this note is to describe a closely-related method for applications where right singular vectors are not required. This note also describes the SVD updates to a particular scenario of interest in seismic array signal processing. The particular application involve updating the wideband subspace representation used in seismic subspace detectors [Harris, 2006]. These subspace detectors generalize waveform correlation algorithms to detect signals that lie in a subspace of waveforms of dimension d {ge} 1. They potentially are of interest because they extend the range of waveform variation over which these sensitive detectors apply. Subspace detectors operate by projecting waveform data from a detection window into a subspace specified by a collection of orthonormal waveform basis vectors (referred to as the template). Subspace templates are constructed from a suite of normalized, aligned master event waveforms that may be acquired by a single sensor, a three-component sensor, an array of such sensors or a sensor network. The template design process entails constructing a data matrix whose columns contain the master event waveform data, then performing a singular value decomposition on the data matrix to extract an orthonormal basis for the waveform suite. The template typically is comprised of a subset of the left singular vectors corresponding to the larger singular values. The application involves updating a subspace template when new data become available, i.e. when new defining events are detected for a particular source. It often is the case that the waveforms corresponding to a particular source drift over time [Harris, 2001]. The Green's functions describing propagation can be altered because of changes in the source region. For example, if the source is a mine, signals from explosions may change gradually as a pit is extended (the source moves) or the scattering topography is altered by excavation. This motivates a tracking adjustment to a subspace representation. This note also comments on SVD updates for a related problem. In realistic pipeline operations it often is the case that data from one or more channels of an array are unusable (dead channels, channels with prolific dropouts, etc.). In such cases it is desirable to modify an array subspace template to operate on data only from the remaining usable channels. Furthermore, it is desirable to modify the templates directly without recourse to the original data matrix. Usually the template design process is separate from the application of the template in a detector to a continuous data stream. Consequently, the original data matrix may not be available for template modification at detector run time.

Harris, D B

2008-11-19

174

Equilibrium existence and uniqueness in impure public good models  

E-print Network

public goods; Equilibrium existence and uniqueness JEL classification: C72; H41 1. Introduction Models (Sander and Murdoch, 1990), agricultural research (Khanna et al., 1994), household refuse collection

Kotchen, Matthew J.

175

Histone H4 Modification During Mouse Spermatogenesis  

PubMed Central

The core histone is composed of four proteins (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Investigation of the modification patterns of histones is critical to understanding their roles in biological processes. Although histone modification is observed in multiple cells and tissues, little is known about its function in spermatogenesis. We focused on the modification patterns of histone H4 during murine spermatogenesis. We demonstrated that the individual N-terminal sites of H4 show different modification patterns during the differentiation of male germ cells. The methylation pattern varied depending on the residues that were mono-, di-, or tri-methylated. All the H4 modifications were high during the meiotic prophase, suggesting that histone H4 modification plays an important role during this stage of spermatogenesis. Elongating spermatids showed increased acetylation of histone H4, which may be associated with a histone-to-protamine substitution. Our results provide further insight into the specific relationship between histone H4 modification and gene expression during spermatogenesis, which could help to elucidate the epigenetic disorders underlying male infertility. PMID:25087733

SHIRAKATA, Yoshiki; HIRADATE, Yuuki; INOUE, Hiroki; SATO, Eimei; TANEMURA, Kentaro

2014-01-01

176

Physical modification of polyetheretherketone for orthopedic implants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is regarded as one of the most potential candidates for replacing current implant applications. To obtain good bone-implant interfaces, many modification methods have been developed to enable PEEK and PEEK-based composites from bio-inert to bioactive. Among them, physical methods have aroused significant attention and been widely used to modify PEEK for orthopedic implants. This review summarizes current physical modification techniques of PEEK for orthopedic applications, which include composite strategies, surface coating methods and irradiation treatments. The positive consequences of those modification methods will encourage continuing investigations and stimulate the wide range of applications of PEEK-based implants in orthopedics.

Du, Ya-Wei; Zhang, Li-Nan; Hou, Zeng-Tao; Ye, Xin; Gu, Hong-Sheng; Yan, Guo-Ping; Shang, Peng

2014-12-01

177

On the Development of a Unique Arc Jet Test Apparatus for Control Surface Seal Evaluations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn has developed a unique test apparatus capable of evaluating control surface seal and flap designs under simulated reentry heating conditions in NASA Johnson's arc jet test facility. The test apparatus is capable of testing a variety of seal designs with a variety of control surface materials and designs using modular components. The flap angle can be varied during testing, allowing modification of the seal environment while testing is in progress. The flap angle is varied using an innovative transmission system which limits heat transfer from the hot flap structure to the motor, all while keeping the components properly aligned regardless of thermal expansion. A combination of active and passive cooling is employed to prevent thermal damage to the test fixture while still obtaining the target seal temperature.

Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Robbie, Malcolm; Baker, Gus; Erker, Arthur

2004-01-01

178

40 CFR 72.82 - Fast-track modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fast-track modifications. 72.82 Section...REGULATION Permit Revisions § 72.82 Fast-track modifications. The following procedures shall apply to all fast-track modifications. (a)...

2010-07-01

179

Proteomic analysis of ubiquitin-like post-translational modifications induced by the adenovirus E4-ORF3 protein.  

PubMed

Viruses interact with and regulate many host metabolic pathways in order to advance the viral life cycle and counteract intrinsic and extrinsic antiviral responses. The human Adenovirus (Ad) early protein, E4-ORF3, forms a unique scaffold throughout the nuclei of infected cells and inhibits multiple antiviral defenses including a DNA damage response (DDR) and an interferon response. We previously reported that the Ad5 E4-ORF3 protein induces sumoylation of Mre11 and Nbs1, which are essential for the DDR, and their relocalization into E4-ORF3-induced nuclear inclusions is required for this modification to occur. In this study, we sought to analyze a global change in ubiquitin-like (Ubl) modifications, with particular focus on SUMO3, by the Ad5 E4-ORF3 protein and identify new substrates with these modifications. By a comparative proteome-wide approach utilizing immunoprecipitation/mass spectrometry, we found that Ubl modifications of 166 statistically significant lysine sites in 51 proteins are affected by E4-ORF3 and the proteome of modifications spans a diverse range of cellular functions. Ubl modifications of 92% of these identified sites were increased by E4-ORF3. We further analyzed SUMO3 conjugation of several identified proteins. Our findings demonstrate a role for the Ad5 E4-ORF3 protein as a regulator of Ubl modifications and reveal new SUMO3 substrates induced by E4-ORF3. PMID:25410875

Sohn, Sook-Young; G Bridges, Rebecca; Hearing, Patrick

2014-11-19

180

40 CFR 72.81 - Permit modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...compliance deadline extension; and (5) Changes in a thermal energy plan that result in any addition or subtraction of...number of allowances transferred for the replacement of thermal energy. (c)(1) Permit modifications shall follow...

2013-07-01

181

40 CFR 72.81 - Permit modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...compliance deadline extension; and (5) Changes in a thermal energy plan that result in any addition or subtraction of...number of allowances transferred for the replacement of thermal energy. (c)(1) Permit modifications shall follow...

2010-07-01

182

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT WASTE WATER TREATMENT MODIFICATIONS  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT MODIFICATIONS FOR IMPROVED EFFLUENT COMPLIANCE................................................38 5.3.4 Effects of the Enhanced Treatment Alternative on Water Resources........................39 5.................................................................................................. 21 4.3 Alternative 3 ­ Enhanced Effluent Treatment

Ohta, Shigemi

183

40 CFR 58.14 - System modification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Monitoring Network § 58.14 System modification. ...to modify the ambient air quality monitoring network that complies with the findings of the network assessments required every 5 years...

2010-07-01

184

40 CFR 60.397 - Modifications.  

...CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Automobile and Light Duty Truck Surface Coating Operations § 60.397 Modifications. The following physical or operational...

2014-07-01

185

25 CFR 134.7 - Modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ACTIVITIES PARTIAL PAYMENT CONSTRUCTION CHARGES ON INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 134.7 Modifications. The act of July 1, 1932 (47 Stat. 564; 25 U.S.C. 386a), cancelled all irrigation assessments for construction costs against lands in Indian...

2010-04-01

186

Post-Translational Modifications of TRP Channels  

PubMed Central

Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels constitute an ancient family of cation channels that have been found in many eukaryotic organisms from yeast to human. TRP channels exert a multitude of physiological functions ranging from Ca2+ homeostasis in the kidney to pain reception and vision. These channels are activated by a wide range of stimuli and undergo covalent post-translational modifications that affect and modulate their subcellular targeting, their biophysical properties, or channel gating. These modifications include N-linked glycosylation, protein phosphorylation, and covalent attachment of chemicals that reversibly bind to specific cysteine residues. The latter modification represents an unusual activation mechanism of ligand-gated ion channels that is in contrast to the lock-and-key paradigm of receptor activation by its agonists. In this review, we summarize the post-translational modifications identified on TRP channels and, when available, explain their physiological role. PMID:24717323

Voolstra, Olaf; Huber, Armin

2014-01-01

187

7 CFR 636.10 - Modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.10 Modifications. (a) The participant and NRCS may modify a cost-share...

2013-01-01

188

7 CFR 636.10 - Modifications.  

...Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.10 Modifications. (a) The participant and NRCS may modify a cost-share...

2014-01-01

189

7 CFR 636.10 - Modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.10 Modifications. (a) The participant and NRCS may modify a cost-share...

2011-01-01

190

7 CFR 636.10 - Modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVES PROGRAM § 636.10 Modifications. (a) The participant and NRCS may modify a cost-share...

2010-01-01

191

Some superpopulation models for estimating the number of population uniques  

E-print Network

- nomial distribution, statistical disclosure control 1 Introduction The number of the population uniquesSome superpopulation models for estimating the number of population uniques Akimichi Takemura in the population is of great importance in evaluating the disclosure risk of a microdata set. We approach

Takemura, Akimichi

192

Regular networks can be uniquely constructed from their trees  

E-print Network

1 Regular networks can be uniquely constructed from their trees Stephen J. Willson Department with labelled leaves displays a tree T when there exists a way to select a unique parent of each hybrid vertex resulting in the tree T. Let Tr(N) denote the set of all trees displayed by the network N. In general

Willson, Stephen J.

193

Morphological Awareness Uniquely Predicts Young Children's Chinese Character Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two unique measures of morphological awareness were orally administered to kindergarten and 2nd-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. Both tasks of morphological awareness predicted unique variance in Chinese character recognition in these children, after controlling for age, phonological awareness, speeded naming, speed of processing, and vocabulary.…

McBride-Chang, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Zhou, Aibao; Wat, Chun Pong; Wagner, Richard K.

2003-01-01

194

A uniqueness theorem for two-point boundary value problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove a uniqueness theorem for solutions of two-point boundary value problems, which says that when the nonlinearity is sublinear and Lipschitzian, and one of the boundary values is fixed, then for sufficiently large values of the other boundary value there is a unique solution of the problem. The proof is based on the Banach's fixed-point theorem, and the argument

Guy Katriel

2000-01-01

195

On unique localization of multiple sources by passive sensor arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for the unique localization of narrowband sources having the same known center frequency by passive sensor arrays. The conditions specify the maximum number of sources that can be uniquely localized by a general array that satisfies some mild geometric constraints. The conditions are expressed in terms of the number of sensors and the rank

M. Wax; I. Ziskind

1989-01-01

196

Salience of unique hues and implications for color theory  

PubMed Central

The unique hues—blue, green, yellow, red—form the fundamental dimensions of opponent-color theories, are considered universal across languages, and provide useful mental representations for structuring color percepts. However, there is no neural evidence for them from neurophysiology or low-level psychophysics. Tapping a higher prelinguistic perceptual level, we tested whether unique hues are particularly salient in search tasks. We found no advantage for unique hues over their nonunique complementary colors. However, yellowish targets were detected faster, more accurately, and with fewer saccades than their complementary bluish targets (including unique blue), while reddish-greenish pairs were not significantly different in salience. Similarly, local field potentials in primate V1 exhibited larger amplitudes and shorter latencies for yellowish versus bluish stimuli, whereas this effect was weaker for reddish versus greenish stimuli. Consequently, color salience is affected more by early neural response asymmetries than by any possible mental or neural representation of unique hues. PMID:25589294

Wool, Lauren E.; Komban, Stanley J.; Kremkow, Jens; Jansen, Michael; Li, Xiaobing; Alonso, Jose-Manuel; Zaidi, Qasim

2015-01-01

197

Telescope design considerations and a unique approach to delay line construction for the proposed Antarctic interferometer at Dome C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dome C is probably the best accessible site on earth for infrared interferometry, but siting an interferometer on the Antarctic plateau poses significant technical problems. EOS Technologies has studied how existing interferometric telescopes can be adapted to the Antarctic environment, having completed a design study for the Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope (PILOT), and has proposed a unique technique for manufacturing delay lines on site, from prefinished coil stock. Modifications to EOST's standard 2m class telescopes are discussed, including lubrication options and differential expansion of materials assembled at room temperature and cooled to -70°C, as well as continuous, high precision delay line construction, using patented rotary sizing technology.

Brunswick, R.; Cook, B. H.; Pentland, G.; Sperber, P.

2006-06-01

198

Lysine post-translational modifications of collagen  

PubMed Central

Type I collagen is the most abundant structural protein in vertebrates. It is a heterotrimeric molecule composed of two ?1 chains and one ?2 chain, forming a long uninterrupted triple helical structure with short non-triple helical telopeptides at both the N- and C-termini. During biosynthesis, collagen acquires a number of post-translational modifications, including lysine modifications, that are critical to the structure and biological functions of this protein. Lysine modifications of collagen are highly complicated sequential processes catalysed by several groups of enzymes leading to the final step of biosynthesis, covalent intermolecular cross-linking. In the cell, specific lysine residues are hydroxylated to form hydroxylysine. Then specific hydroxylysine residues located in the helical domain of the molecule are glycosylated by the addition of galactose or glucose-galactose. Outside the cell, lysine and hydroxylysine residues in the N- and C-telopeptides can be oxidatively deaminated to produce reactive aldehydes that undergo a series of non-enzymatic condensation reactions to form covalent intra- and inter-molecular cross-links. Owing to the recent advances in molecular and cellular biology, and analytical technologies, the biological significance and molecular mechanisms of these modifications have been gradually elucidated. This chapter provides an overview on these enzymatic lysine modifications and subsequent cross-linking. PMID:22708567

Yamauchi, Mitsuo; Sricholpech, Marnisa

2012-01-01

199

Ultrasonic Surface Modification of Electronics Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronics industry has always had a requirement for a range of metallised dielectric materials to form the conductive tracks used in many electronic products. It is essential that there is excellent adhesion between the dielectric material and the metal or other conductive track since without this failure of the device can occur. Surface modification of the substrate is one way to achieve good adhesion. Traditional wet chemical methods of surface modification employed in electronic manufacturing tend to be very cost effective but use hazardous, oxidizing, corrosive chemistry operate at elevated temperatures (high energy requirements) and require copious rinsing (high water usage). With the introduction of stricter health and safety and environmental legislation it is essential that 'greener' methods of surface modification are investigated. A study is currently being carried out evaluating sonochemical surface modification processes on a range of materials used in electronic manufacturing. This work has already shown that some materials can be surface modified using ultrasound through water. However, process times are still relatively long (30-60 minutes) and for the technique to become commercially viable they must be significantly reduced. One way to increase the ultrasonic intensity is to change the solvent and 'solvent swell' in a traditional surface modification process that can dramatically improve the adhesion of metal deposited on that material and a number of solvents have been screened. The efficacy of the whole process has been determined using methods such as scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements and the determination of adhesion of the plated metal.

Paniwnyk, L.; Cobley, A.

2010-01-01

200

221. View entering smart view. Note the unique snake rail ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

221. View entering smart view. Note the unique snake rail fence. The pond was a manipulated landscape element. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

201

A highly distributed Bragg stack with unique geometry provides effective  

E-print Network

A highly distributed Bragg stack with unique geometry provides effective camouflage for Loliginid Cephalopods possess a sophisticated array of mechanisms to achieve camouflage in dynamic underwater role. To explore the contribution of passive mechanisms to cephalopod camouflage, we investigated

Johnsen, Sönke

202

Unique in the Crowd: The privacy bounds of human mobility  

PubMed Central

We study fifteen months of human mobility data for one and a half million individuals and find that human mobility traces are highly unique. In fact, in a dataset where the location of an individual is specified hourly, and with a spatial resolution equal to that given by the carrier's antennas, four spatio-temporal points are enough to uniquely identify 95% of the individuals. We coarsen the data spatially and temporally to find a formula for the uniqueness of human mobility traces given their resolution and the available outside information. This formula shows that the uniqueness of mobility traces decays approximately as the 1/10 power of their resolution. Hence, even coarse datasets provide little anonymity. These findings represent fundamental constraints to an individual's privacy and have important implications for the design of frameworks and institutions dedicated to protect the privacy of individuals. PMID:23524645

de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Hidalgo, César A.; Verleysen, Michel; Blondel, Vincent D.

2013-01-01

203

Those with Autism May Have Unique Brain Connections, Study Shows  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Those With Autism May Have Unique Brain Connections, Study Shows Brains ... Preidt Monday, January 19, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Page Autism Spectrum Disorder MONDAY, Jan. 19, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

204

New Guidelines for Reducing Stroke Risks Unique to Women  

MedlinePLUS

... HeartNews Making News on Heart.org Learn More New guidelines for reducing stroke risks unique to women ... Bushnell, M.D., M.H.S., author of the new scientific statement published in the American Heart Association ...

205

Unique Chemical Keys 1 Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology  

E-print Network

applications for docking chemical compounds in proteins from the Protein Data Bank (PDB)17 . Our algorithmUnique Chemical Keys 1 Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology © Imperial College Press

Grossman, Robert

206

New Developments in Behavior Modification with Children. Leaving the 60's: Behavior Modification with Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both papers deal essentially with the same content. The author discusses briefly the popularity of behavior modification in the treatment of children and characterizes early behavior modification studies as: (1) overly reliant on undesirable features of the antipathetic medical model; (2) too limited in its selection of target subjects and problem…

Hartmann, Donald P.

207

DNA modification by sulfur: analysis of the sequence recognition specificity surrounding the modification sites  

PubMed Central

The Dnd (DNA degradation) phenotype, reflecting a novel DNA modification by sulfur in Streptomyces lividans 1326, was strongly aggravated when one (dndB) of the five genes (dndABCDE) controlling it was mutated. Electrophoretic banding patterns of a plasmid (pHZ209), reflecting DNA degradation, displayed a clear change from a preferential modification site in strain 1326 to more random modifications in the mutant. Fourteen randomly modifiable sites on pHZ209 were localized, and each seemed to be able to be modified only once. Residues in a region (5?-c–cGGCCgccg-3?) including a highly conserved 4-bp central core (5?-GGCC-3?) in a well-documented preferential modification site were assessed for their necessity by site-directed mutagenesis. While the central core (GGCC) was found to be stringently required in 1326 and in the mutant, ‘gccg’ flanking its right could either abolish or reduce the modification frequency only in the mutant, and two separate nucleotides to the left had no dramatic effect. The lack of essentiality of DndB for S-modification suggests that it might only be required for enhancing or stabilizing the activity of a protein complex at the required preferential modification site, or resolving secondary structures flanking the modifiable site(s), known to constitute an obstacle for efficient modification. PMID:17439960

Liang, Jingdan; Wang, Zhijun; He, Xinyi; Li, Jialiang; Zhou, Xiufen; Deng, Zixin

2007-01-01

208

Space Shuttle orbiter modifications to support Space Station Freedom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modifications to the Space Shuttle orbiter required to support Space Station Freedom (SSF) assembly and operations are described. Attention is given to berthing modifications, Shuttle Remote Manipulator System upgrades, docking modifications, and Spacelab mission modifications. For SSF assembly missions, the Space Shuttle orbiter will transport elements of the SSF to a 28.5 deg inclination, 220 nm altitude (nominal) orbit.

Randall Segert; Allyson Lichtenfels

1992-01-01

209

Denture identification using unique identification authority of India barcode  

PubMed Central

Over the years, various denture marking systems have been reported in the literature for personal identification. They have been broadly divided into surface marking and inclusion methods. In this technique, patient's unique identification number and barcode printed in the patient's Aadhaar card issued by Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) are used as denture markers. This article describes a simple, quick, and economical method for identification of individual. PMID:23960418

Mahoorkar, Sudhindra; Jain, Anoop

2013-01-01

210

ROSics: Chemistry and proteomics of cysteine modifications in redox biology.  

PubMed

Post-translational modifications (PTMs) occurring in proteins determine their functions and regulations. Proteomic tools are available to identify PTMs and have proved invaluable to expanding the inventory of these tools of nature that hold the keys to biological processes. Cysteine (Cys), the least abundant (1-2%) of amino acid residues, are unique in that they play key roles in maintaining stability of protein structure, participating in active sites of enzymes, regulating protein function and binding to metals, among others. Cys residues are major targets of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are important mediators and modulators of various biological processes. It is therefore necessary to identify the Cys-containing ROS target proteins, as well as the sites and species of their PTMs. Cutting edge proteomic tools which have helped identify the PTMs at reactive Cys residues, have also revealed that Cys residues are modified in numerous ways. These modifications include formation of disulfide, thiosulfinate and thiosulfonate, oxidation to sulfenic, sulfinic, sulfonic acids and thiosulfonic acid, transformation to dehydroalanine (DHA) and serine, palmitoylation and farnesylation, formation of chemical adducts with glutathione, 4-hydroxynonenal and 15-deoxy PGJ2, and various other chemicals. We present here, a review of relevant ROS biology, possible chemical reactions of Cys residues and details of the proteomic strategies employed for rapid, efficient and sensitive identification of diverse and novel PTMs involving reactive Cys residues of redox-sensitive proteins. We propose a new name, "ROSics," for the science which describes the principles of mode of action of ROS at molecular levels. © 2014 The Authors. Mass Spectrometry Reviews Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Rapid Commun. Mass Spec Rev 34:184-208, 2015. PMID:24916017

Kim, Hee-Jung; Ha, Sura; Lee, Hee Yoon; Lee, Kong-Joo

2015-04-01

211

New crystalline modification of terephthalic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new crystalline modification of terephthalic acid can be obtained either from the commercially available triclinic modification by heating at 250°C or directly by a thermal hydrolysis of p-dicyanobenzene. It crystallises in a monoclinic system, space group C2/ m with a=8.940(2), b=10.442(2), c=3.790(1) Å, V=353.7(2) Å3, ?=91.21(3)° and Z=2. Both carboxyl groups of terephthalic acid are coplanar with the phenyl ring. The molecules in the crystal are linked through the hydrogen bonds in the carboxyl groups into infinite chains. The orientational disorder is observed in the carboxyl groups. The structure of the monoclinic form is compared with the structure of both the triclinic modifications.

?led?, M.; Janczak, J.; Kubiak, R.

2001-09-01

212

Gamma-induced modifications of polycarbonate polymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma-induced modifications in polycarbonate polymer have been studied in the dose range of 10(1)-10(6) Gy. Thin films of polycarbonate have been irradiated with different gamma doses from a Co-60 source. To monitor the modifications caused by gamma radiation, FT-IR, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction studies have been performed. The studies have indicated that at the dose of 10(6) Gy, phenolic group forms through scissioning of ester linkage. Though the effect of radiation is most significant at the highest dose, the process of modifications starts at 10(3) Gy. Scissioning of the polymeric chain initiates a different morphological zone within the polymer matrix, and the polymer becomes more crystalline with increasing dose. Owing to chain scissioning, the mobility of the polymer increases, which in turn reduces the glass transition temperature of the polymer.

Sinha, D.; Sahoo, K. L.; Sinha, U. B.; Swu, T.; Chemseddine, A.; Fink, D.

2004-10-01

213

BuD, a helix–loop–helix DNA-binding domain for genome modification  

PubMed Central

DNA editing offers new possibilities in synthetic biology and biomedicine for modulation or modification of cellular functions to organisms. However, inaccuracy in this process may lead to genome damage. To address this important problem, a strategy allowing specific gene modification has been achieved through the addition, removal or exchange of DNA sequences using customized proteins and the endogenous DNA-repair machinery. Therefore, the engineering of specific protein–DNA interactions in protein scaffolds is key to providing ‘toolkits’ for precise genome modification or regulation of gene expression. In a search for putative DNA-binding domains, BurrH, a protein that recognizes a 19?bp DNA target, was identified. Here, its apo and DNA-bound crystal structures are reported, revealing a central region containing 19 repeats of a helix–loop–helix modular domain (BurrH domain; BuD), which identifies the DNA target by a single residue-to-nucleotide code, thus facilitating its redesign for gene targeting. New DNA-binding specificities have been engineered in this template, showing that BuD-derived nucleases (BuDNs) induce high levels of gene targeting in a locus of the human haemoglobin ? (HBB) gene close to mutations responsible for sickle-cell anaemia. Hence, the unique combination of high efficiency and specificity of the BuD arrays can push forward diverse genome-modification approaches for cell or organism redesign, opening new avenues for gene editing. PMID:25004980

Stella, Stefano; Molina, Rafael; López-Méndez, Blanca; Juillerat, Alexandre; Bertonati, Claudia; Daboussi, Fayza; Campos-Olivas, Ramon; Duchateau, Phillippe; Montoya, Guillermo

2014-01-01

214

NaxD is a deacetylase required for lipid A modification and Francisella pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Summary Modification of specific Gram-negative bacterial cell envelope components, such as capsule, O-antigen and lipid A, are often essential for the successful establishment of infection. Francisella species express lipid A molecules with unique characteristics involved in circumventing host defences, which significantly contribute to their virulence. In this study, we show that NaxD, a member of the highly conserved YdjC superfamily, is a deacetylase required for an important modification of the outer membrane component lipid A in Francisella. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that NaxD is essential for the modification of a lipid A phosphate with galactosamine in Francisella novicida, a model organism for the study of highly virulent Francisella tularensis. Significantly, enzymatic assays confirmed that this protein is necessary for deacetylation of its substrate. In addition, NaxD was involved in resistance to the antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B and critical for replication in macrophages and in vivo virulence. Importantly, this protein is also required for lipid A modification in F. tularensis as well as Bordetella bronchiseptica. Since NaxD homologues are conserved among many Gram-negative pathogens, this work has broad implications for our understanding of host subversion mechanisms of other virulent bacteria. PMID:22966934

Llewellyn, Anna C.; Zhao, Jinshi; Song, Feng; Parvathareddy, Jyothi; Xu, Qian; Napier, Brooke A.; Laroui, Hamed; Merlin, Didier; Bina, James E.; Cotter, Peggy A.; Miller, Mark A.; Raetz, Christian R. H.; Weiss, David S.

2013-01-01

215

O-GlcNAc protein modification in plants: evolution and function  

PubMed Central

The role in plants of posttranslational modification of proteins with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine and the evolution and function of O-GlcNAc transferases responsible for this modification are reviewed. Phylogenetic analysis of eukaryotic O-GlcNAc transferases (OGTs) leads us to propose that plants have two distinct OGTs, SEC- and SPY-like, that originated in prokaryotes. Animals and some fungi have a SEC-like enzyme while plants have both. Green algae and some members of the Apicomplexa and amoebozoa have the SPY-like enzyme. Interestingly the progenitor of the Apicomplexa lineage likely had a photosynthetic plastid that persists in a degenerated form in some species, raising the possibility that plant SPY-like OGTs are derived from a photosynthetic endosymbiont. OGTs have multiple tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs) that within the SEC- and SPY-like classes exhibit evidence of strong selective pressure on specific repeats, suggesting that the function of these repeats is conserved. SPY-like and SEC-like OGTs have both unique and overlapping roles in the plant. The phenotypes of sec and spy single and double mutants indicate that O-GlcNAc modification is essential and that it affects diverse plant processes including response to hormones and environmental signals, circadian rhythms, development, intercellular transport and virus infection. The mechanistic details of how O-GlcNAc modification affects these processes are largely unknown. A major impediment to understanding this is the lack of knowledge of the identities of the modified proteins. PMID:19961900

Olszewski, Neil E.; West, Christopher M.; Sassi, Slim O.; Hartweck, Lynn M.

2009-01-01

216

Improved Collision Search for Hash Functions: New Advanced Message Modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss the collision search for hash functions, mainly in terms of their advanced message modification. The advanced message modification is a collision search tool based on Wang et al.'s attacks. Two advanced message modifications have previously been proposed: cancel modification for MD4 and MD5, and propagation modification for SHA-0. In this paper, we propose a new

Yusuke Naito; Kazuo Ohta; Noboru Kunihiro

2008-01-01

217

Modification of gravity due to torsion  

SciTech Connect

Modifications of general relativity have been considered as one of the possible ways of addressing some of the outstanding problems related to the large scale gravitational physics. In this contribution we review some of the recent results which are due to the inclusion of dynamical torsion. More specifically we shall discuss the propagation of massive spin-2 particles in flat and curved space times. We shall show that, contrary to what is generally believed, spinning matter is not the sole source of torsion field. A symmetric energy momentum tensor can also couple to torsion degrees of freedom. The massive and massless spin-2 particles mix giving rise to an infrared modification of gravity.

Nair, V. P. [Physics Department, City College of the CUNY, New York, NY 10031 (United States); Nikiforova, V. [Physics Department, Mascow State University Moscow (Russian Federation); Randjbar-Daemi, S. [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Rubakov, V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-01-01

218

Development of an Improved Permeability Modification Simulator  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development of an improved permeability modification simulator performed jointly by BDM Petroleum Technologies and Schlumberger Dowell under a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) with the US Department of Energy. The improved simulator was developed by modifying NIPER's PC-GEL permeability modification simulator to include a radial model, a thermal energy equation, a wellbore simulator, and a fully implicit time-stepping option. The temperature-dependent gelation kinetics of a delayed gel system (DGS) is also included in the simulator.

Gao, H.W.; Elphnick, J.

1999-03-09

219

Epigenetic Modifications in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Aberrant epigenetic modifications are well-recognized drivers for oncogenesis. Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is no exception and serves as a model toward the significant impact these heritable alterations can have in leukemogenesis. In this brief review, we will focus on the main aspects of epigenetics, which control leukemogenesis in pediatric ALL, mainly DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA alterations. As we continue to gain better understanding of the driving mechanisms for pediatric ALL at both diagnosis and relapse, therapeutic interventions directed toward these pathways and mechanisms can be harnessed and introduced into clinical trials for pediatric ALL. PMID:24860797

Burke, Michael J.; Bhatla, Teena

2014-01-01

220

Epigenetic modifications in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

Aberrant epigenetic modifications are well-recognized drivers for oncogenesis. Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is no exception and serves as a model toward the significant impact these heritable alterations can have in leukemogenesis. In this brief review, we will focus on the main aspects of epigenetics, which control leukemogenesis in pediatric ALL, mainly DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA alterations. As we continue to gain better understanding of the driving mechanisms for pediatric ALL at both diagnosis and relapse, therapeutic interventions directed toward these pathways and mechanisms can be harnessed and introduced into clinical trials for pediatric ALL. PMID:24860797

Burke, Michael J; Bhatla, Teena

2014-01-01

221

Beam Distribution Modification By Alfven Modes  

SciTech Connect

Modification of a deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes in a toroidal magnetic confinement device is examined. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam transport, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold. The modes produce a substantial central flattening of the beam distribution.

R. B. White, N. Gorelenkov, W. W. Heidbrink, and M.A. Van Zeeland

2010-01-25

222

Beam Distribution Modification by Alfven Modes  

SciTech Connect

Modification of a deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes in a toroidal magnetic confinement device is examined. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam transport, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold. The modes produce a substantial central flattening of the beam distribution.

R.B. White, N. Gorelenkov, W.W. Heidbrink, and M.A. Van Zeeland

2010-04-03

223

NASTRAN modifications for recovering strains and curvatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modifications to the NASTRAN structural analysis computer program are described. The modifications allow the recovery of strain and curvature data for the general two-dimensional elements, in addition to the usual stress data. Option features allow the transformation of the strain/curvature (or stress) data to a common coordinate system and representation at the grid points of the structural model rather than at the conventional element center locations. Usage information is provided which will allow present users of NASTRAN to easily utilize the new capability.

Hennrich, C. W.

1975-01-01

224

Bond cleavage, fragment modification and reassembly in enantioselective three-component reactions  

PubMed Central

Chemical bond cleavage and reconstruction are common processes in traditional rearrangement reactions. In contrast, the process that involves bond cleavage, fragment modification and then reconstruction of the modified fragment provides an efficient way to build structurally diversified molecules. Here, we report a palladium(II)/chiral phosphoric acid catalysed three-component reaction of aryldiazoacetates, enamines and imines to afford ?-amino-?-oxo pentanoic acid derivatives in good yields with excellent diastereoselectivities and high enantioselectivities. The stereoselective reaction went through a unique process that involves cleavage of a C–N bond, modification of the resulting amino fragment and selective reassembly of the modified fragment. This innovative multi-component process represents a highly efficient way to build structurally diversified polyfunctional molecules in an atom and step economic fashion. A keto-iminium is proposed as a key intermediate and a chiral palladium/phosphate complex is proposed as an active catalyst. PMID:25586817

Zhang, Dan; Zhou, Jun; Xia, Fei; Kang, Zhenghui; Hu, Wenhao

2015-01-01

225

Bond cleavage, fragment modification and reassembly in enantioselective three-component reactions.  

PubMed

Chemical bond cleavage and reconstruction are common processes in traditional rearrangement reactions. In contrast, the process that involves bond cleavage, fragment modification and then reconstruction of the modified fragment provides an efficient way to build structurally diversified molecules. Here, we report a palladium(II)/chiral phosphoric acid catalysed three-component reaction of aryldiazoacetates, enamines and imines to afford ?-amino-?-oxo pentanoic acid derivatives in good yields with excellent diastereoselectivities and high enantioselectivities. The stereoselective reaction went through a unique process that involves cleavage of a C-N bond, modification of the resulting amino fragment and selective reassembly of the modified fragment. This innovative multi-component process represents a highly efficient way to build structurally diversified polyfunctional molecules in an atom and step economic fashion. A keto-iminium is proposed as a key intermediate and a chiral palladium/phosphate complex is proposed as an active catalyst. PMID:25586817

Zhang, Dan; Zhou, Jun; Xia, Fei; Kang, Zhenghui; Hu, Wenhao

2015-01-01

226

ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Modification of Multiple Sclerosis Phenotypes  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Modification of Multiple Sclerosis Phenotypes by African Ancestry at HLA. Oksenberg, PhD Background: In those with multiple sclerosis (MS), Afri- can American individuals have a more ancestry at HLA correlated with dis- ability as measured by the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (P .001

Reich, David

227

Modifications to the Flexible Spacecraft Dynamics Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modifications to existing subroutines are briefly described and a detailed description of new subroutines is given. The capability to simulate the Dynamics Explorer-B control system new developed and the formulation for this addition is given. The program variables in new labelled COMMON blocks are described in detail and the modified input and output for the d Flexible Spacecraft Dynamics Program is described.

1980-01-01

228

Posttranslational modification of proteins during intermittent hypoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-translational modification (PTM) is one of the mechanisms by which protein function is regulated by chronic hypoxia. This article presents an overview of recent findings on PTM of proteins induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) which is experienced by humans with sleep disordered breathing resulting in autonomic abnormalities. The analysis of PTM of proteins involves electrophoretic separation of tissue or

Ganesh K. Kumar; Nanduri R. Prabhakar

2008-01-01

229

Microscale surface modifications for heat transfer enhancement.  

PubMed

In this experimental study, two surface modification techniques were investigated for their effect on heat transfer enhancement. One of the methods employed the particle (grit) blasting to create microscale indentations, while the other used plasma spray coating to create microscale protrusions on Al 6061 (aluminum alloy 6061) samples. The test surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Because of the surface modifications, the actual surface area was increased up to 2.8× compared to the projected base area, and the arithmetic mean roughness value (Ra) was determined to vary from 0.3 ?m for the reference smooth surface to 19.5 ?m for the modified surfaces. Selected samples with modified surfaces along with the reference smooth surface were then evaluated for their heat transfer performance in spray cooling tests. The cooling system had vapor-atomizing nozzles and used anhydrous ammonia as the coolant in order to achieve heat fluxes up to 500 W/cm(2) representing a thermal management setting for high power systems. Experimental results showed that the microscale surface modifications enhanced heat transfer coefficients up to 76% at 500 W/cm(2) compared to the smooth surface and demonstrated the benefits of these practical surface modification techniques to enhance two-phase heat transfer process. PMID:24003985

Bostanci, Huseyin; Singh, Virendra; Kizito, John P; Rini, Daniel P; Seal, Sudipta; Chow, Louis C

2013-10-01

230

Landscape modification and habitat fragmentation: a synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Landscape modification and habitat fragmentation are key drivers of global species loss. Their effects may be understood by focusing on: (1) individual species and the processes threatening them, and (2) human-perceived landscape patterns and their correlation with species and assemblages. Individual species may decline as a result ofinteracting exogenous and endogenous threats, including habitat loss, habitat degradation, habitat isolation,

Joern Fischer; David B. Lindenmayer

2007-01-01

231

MASS REARING CODLING MOTHS: IMPROVEMENTS AND MODIFICATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Modifications of the diet, oviposition cages, rearing containers, diapause induction and adult handling are described for a rearing colony of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), maintained at the USDA-ARS facility in Wapato, Washington (USA), for over 40 years for use in f...

232

Behavior Modification Techniques. I: Overcorrection. II: Punishment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two newsletters review the principles and application of two behavior modification techniques with mentally retarded persons: overcorrection and punishment. Overcorrection may be either restitutional, in which the client is made to restore the environment to a far better state than before the inappropriate behavior occurred, or positive practice…

Sovner, Robert, Ed.; Hurley, Anne Des Noyers, Ed.

1983-01-01

233

A Suggested Modification to Maslow's Need Hierarchy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since its development, Maslow's need hierarchy has been criticized and applauded. This investigation was undertaken to explore a modification of the upper levels of the need hierarchy based upon the application of power, competition, and achievement to self, as well as the concept of "other directed." (Author)

Groves, David L.; And Others

1975-01-01

234

APPENDIX A. EQUIPMENT MODIFICATION DESIGN STUDY SUMMARY  

E-print Network

of sediment and modifier solids to the rotary kiln melter (Ecomelt Generator). The design feed rate was 2 being fed to the rotary kiln melter. The sediment, dredged from the Stratus Petroleum site in Upper of equipment modifications to the Cement-Lock demo plant sediment-modifier feeding system and the slag

Brookhaven National Laboratory

235

APPLICATION OF COMBUSTION MODIFICATIONS OF INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a field test program to evaluate the effect of minor combustion modifications on pollutant emissions from a variety of industrial combustion equipment types. Tested were 22 units, including refinery process heaters; clay and cement kilns; steel and alu...

236

Arithmetic coding modification to compress SMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an effective method to compress SMS by doing some modifications to arithmetic coding data compression mechanism. The aim of this proposal is to optimize the maximum character capacity of SMS body. Every character in SMS is mostly encoded in 7 bit and the maximum capacity of one SMS is only 1120 bit. Those SMS characteristics require a

Ario Yudo Husodo; Rinaldi Munir

2011-01-01

237

Mesoporous Materials Dehydroxylation Route to Surface Modification  

E-print Network

Mesoporous Materials Dehydroxylation Route to Surface Modification of Mesoporous Silicas by Using such as catalysts, adsorbents, use in reversed- phase chromatography, and advanced materials.[2­4] Organic researchers at the Mobil company reported the syntheses of mesoporous silicas such as MCM-41 and MCM-48

Kim, Ji Man

238

Genetic Modification: From Fireflies to Superbugs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Genetic modification, taking genes from one animal and putting them in another sounds like science fiction but has become an essential tool for modern medical research. In this short animated film, Dr Siouxsie Wiles from the University of Auckland explains how and why it is done.

Siouxsie Wiles (University of Auckland)

2012-11-08

239

Strategies for disease modification in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treating Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the biggest unmet medical need in neurology. Current drugs improve symptoms, but do not have profound disease-modifying effects. Three main classes of disease-modification approaches can be defined: one that is broadly neurotrophic or neuroprotective, one that targets specific aspects of AD pathology, and one that is based on epidemiological observation. This review discusses all three

Martin Citron

2004-01-01

240

Modification ofregional groundwater regimes by land reclamation  

E-print Network

Modification ofregional groundwater regimes by land reclamation Jiu Jimmy Jiao Department ofEarth Sciences, The University ofHong Kong, P. R. China Abstract JJ.Jiao Land reclamation has played a significant role in the urban development process in many coastal areas in the world. While reclamation

Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

241

Collagen type II modification by hypochlorite  

Microsoft Academic Search

II (CII) — the primary cartilage protein. In our study, HOCl\\/OCl - mediated collagen II modifications were tested using various methods: circular dichroism (CD), HPLC, ELISA, dynamic light scattering (DLS), fluorimetry and spectrophotometry. It was shown that hypochlorite action causes deamination with consecutive carbonyl group formation and transformation of tyrosine residues to dichlorotyrosine. Moreover, it was shown that ammonium chloramine

Ewa Olszowska; Janusz Marcinkiewicz

242

Chemical Modification of Nanotubes for Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the production of mesoscopically-engineered materials based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), monitoring the stages of chemical modification will be an important step in the fabrication of usable composite materials. In our research program we developed tools for studying high-temperature composites with a long-term goal of having such instrumentation available for SWNT composite analyses.

Samulski, Edward T.

2003-01-01

243

A modification of the thiobarbituric acid reaction.  

PubMed

A simple modification of the thiobarbituric acid reaction, which removes nonspecific chromogenic reaction products, involves incubation at room temperature for 16-20 hr and a column chromatographic step. The chromogen-concentrating capacity of the latter step is useful for determination of low concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive materials in biological preparations. PMID:2779371

Bidder, T G; Sipka, B M

1989-07-01

244

ADAPTIVE SIZE MODIFICATION BY DOMINANT FEMALE MEERKATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In species of cooperative insects that live in large groups, selection for increased fecundity has led to the evolution of an increased body size among female reproductives, but whether this is also true of cooperative vertebrates is unknown. Among vertebrates, morphological modification of female breeders has only been documented in a single species; in naked mole rats (Heterocephalus glaber), acquisition

Andrew F. Russell; Anne A. Carlson; Grant M. McIlrath; Neil R. Jordan; Tim Clutton-Brock

2004-01-01

245

Adaptive size modification by dominant female meerkats.  

PubMed

In species of cooperative insects that live in large groups, selection for increased fecundity has led to the evolution of an increased body size among female reproductives, but whether this is also true of cooperative vertebrates is unknown. Among vertebrates, morphological modification of female breeders has only been documented in a single species; in naked mole rats (Heterocephalus glaber), acquisition of alpha status is associated with a significant increase in body size through an elongation of the lumbar vertebrae. Here we provide evidence of morphological modification among breeding females of a cooperative carnivore, the meerkat (Suricata suricatta), and demonstrate that this modification is likely to be adaptive. The same female meerkats were significantly larger when they were dominant than when they were subordinate. This increased body size was not explained by differences in age, foraging efficiency, or investment in offspring care, but may have arisen, in part, through increased levels of hormone that govern bone growth. Increases in body size are likely to result in fitness benefits, for large females delivered larger litters and had heavier offspring, both of which are known to correlate positively with measures of breeding success in meerkats. Our results suggest that the acquisition of alpha status in female meerkats is associated with an adaptive increase in body size and hence that morphological modification of female vertebrates may be more widespread than has been previously supposed. PMID:15341161

Russell, Andrew F; Carlson, Anne A; McIlrath, Grant M; Jordan, Neil R; Clutton-Brock, Tim

2004-07-01

246

Uniqueness of Quantum States Compatible with Given Measurement Results  

E-print Network

We discuss the uniqueness of quantum states compatible with given results for measuring a set of observables. For a given pure state, we consider two different types of uniqueness: (1) no other pure state is compatible with the same measurement results and (2) no other state, pure or mixed, is compatible with the same measurement results. For case (1), it is known that for a d-dimensional Hilbert space, there exists a set of 4d-5 observables that uniquely determines any pure state. We show that for case (2), 5d-7 observables suffice to uniquely determine any pure state. Thus there is a gap between the results for (1) and (2), and we give some examples to illustrate this. The case of observables corresponding to reduced density matrices (RDMs) of a multipartite system is also discussed, where we improve known bounds on local dimensions for case (2) in which almost all pure states are uniquely determined by their RDMs. We further discuss circumstances where (1) can imply (2). We use convexity of the numerical range of operators to show that when only two observables are measured, (1) always implies (2). More generally, if there is a compact group of symmetries of the state space which has the span of the observables measured as the set of fixed points, then (1) implies (2). We analyze the possible dimensions for the span of such observables. Our results extend naturally to the case of low rank quantum states.

Jianxin Chen; Hillary Dawkins; Zhengfeng Ji; Nathaniel Johnston; David Kribs; Frederic Shultz; Bei Zeng

2012-12-14

247

Improved Collision Search for Hash Functions: New Advanced Message Modification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we discuss the collision search for hash functions, mainly in terms of their advanced message modification. The advanced message modification is a collision search tool based on Wang et al.'s attacks. Two advanced message modifications have previously been proposed: cancel modification for MD4 and MD5, and propagation modification for SHA-0. In this paper, we propose a new concept of advanced message modification, submarine modification. As a concrete example combining the ideas underlying these modifications, we apply submarine modification to the collision search for SHA-0. As a result, we show that this can reduce the collision search attack complexity from 239 to 236 SHA-0 compression operations.

Naito, Yusuke; Ohta, Kazuo; Kunihiro, Noboru

248

Mycobacterial proteomics: analysis of expressed proteomes and post-translational modifications to identify candidate virulence factors.  

PubMed

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacillus has a number of unique features that make it a particularly effective human pathogen. Although genomic analysis has added to our current understanding of the molecular basis by which M. tuberculosis damages its host, proteomics may be better suited to describe the dynamic interactions between mycobacterial and host systems that underpin this disease. The M. tuberculosis proteome has been investigated using proteomics for over a decade, with increasingly sophisticated mass spectrometry technology and sensitive methods for comparative proteomic profiling. Deeper coverage of the M. tuberculosis proteome has led to the identification of hundreds of putative virulence determinants, as well as an unsurpassed coverage of post-translational modifications. Proteomics is therefore uniquely poised to contribute to our understanding of this pathogen, which may ultimately lead to better management of the disease. PMID:25603863

Calder, Bridget; Soares, Nelson C; de Kock, Elise; Blackburn, Jonathan M

2015-02-01

249

[Study on esterified modification of anthocyanins by FTIR].  

PubMed

Anthocyanins are relatively abundant in vegetables and fruits, which have potential positive health effects. The role of anthocyanins as food coloring agents becomes very important because they can provide attractive bright color of many food products. Nevertheless, the instability of natural anthocyanins was a big obstacle for its usage in food as colorants. The stability of the red radish anthocyanins is significantly improved by modified esterification of the colorant. Usually, the red radish anthocyanins was composed of several components of similar structures. The major methods for determining the structures of anthocyanin colorants involve chromatographic techniques such as TLC, HPLC and HPLC-MS, which are very useful in separation and identification of the components of anthocyanins However, compared to the spectroscopic method, the chromatographic methods are usually complicated and time-consuming during separation and analysis. In the present paper, the authors seek to establish a new, rapid and economic method for the analysis of structural change before and after esterified modification of anthcyanins in view of unique macro-fingerprint characteristics of infrared spectroscopy, which could reflect the whole change of complicated mixture system. The anthocyanins from red radish was esterification-modified by reacting with succinic anhydride, and the natural and modified anthocyanins were detected by FTIR The results showed that carbonyl of succinic anhydride was connected with the hydroxyl in glucosyl rings of anthocyanins to form new esterified anthocyanins, which are more stable than the natural one and present attractive bright color as usual. PMID:20302076

Lu, Xiao-rui; Lu, Jin-li; Wu, Yan-wen; Ouyang, Jie; Sun, Su-qin

2010-01-01

250

Flexible and efficient genome tiling design with penalized uniqueness score  

PubMed Central

Background As a powerful tool in whole genome analysis, tiling array has been widely used in the answering of many genomic questions. Now it could also serve as a capture device for the library preparation in the popular high throughput sequencing experiments. Thus, a flexible and efficient tiling array design approach is still needed and could assist in various types and scales of transcriptomic experiment. Results In this paper, we address issues and challenges in designing probes suitable for tiling array applications and targeted sequencing. In particular, we define the penalized uniqueness score, which serves as a controlling criterion to eliminate potential cross-hybridization, and a flexible tiling array design pipeline. Unlike BLAST or simple suffix array based methods, computing and using our uniqueness measurement can be more efficient for large scale design and require less memory. The parameters provided could assist in various types of genomic tiling task. In addition, using both commercial array data and experiment data we show, unlike previously claimed, that palindromic sequence exhibiting relatively lower uniqueness. Conclusions Our proposed penalized uniqueness score could serve as a better indicator for cross hybridization with higher sensitivity and specificity, giving more control of expected array quality. The flexible tiling design algorithm incorporating the penalized uniqueness score was shown to give higher coverage and resolution. The package to calculate the penalized uniqueness score and the described probe selection algorithm are implemented as a Perl program, which is freely available at http://www1.fbn-dummerstorf.de/en/forschung/fbs/fb3/paper/2012-yang-1/OTAD.v1.1.tar.gz. PMID:23216884

2012-01-01

251

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Secondary Schizophrenia: A Unique Neuropathologic Study.  

PubMed

We report the unique neuropathologic study of an adult brain of a patient with fetal alcohol syndrome who developed the well-recognized complication of schizophrenia in adolescence. The major finding was asymmetric formation of the lateral temporal lobes, with marked enlargement of the right superior temporal gyrus, suggesting that alcohol is preferentially toxic to temporal lobe patterning during gestation. Critical maturational changes unique to adolescence can unmask psychotic symptomatology mediated by temporal lobe pathology that has been clinically dormant since birth. Elucidating the neuropathologic basis of the secondary psychiatric disorders in fetal alcohol syndrome can help provide insight into their putative developmental origins. PMID:24563476

Stoos, Catherine; Nelsen, Laura; Schissler, Kathryn A; Elliott, Amy J; Kinney, Hannah C

2014-02-20

252

30 CFR 18.81 - Field modification of approved (permissible) equipment; application for approval of modification...  

...PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field Modifications of Approved Machines, and Permits To Use Experimental Equipment § 18.81...

2014-07-01

253

What's Unique about Unique Entities? An fMRI Investigation of the Semantics of Famous Faces and Landmarks  

PubMed Central

Famous people and artifacts are referred to as “unique entities” (UEs) due to the unique nature of the knowledge we have about them. Past imaging and lesion experiments have indicated that the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) as having a special role in the processing of UEs. It has remained unclear which attributes of UEs were responsible for the observed effects in imaging experiments. In this study, we investigated what factors of UEs influence brain activity. In a training paradigm, we systematically varied the uniqueness of semantic associations, the presence/absence of a proper name, and the number of semantic associations to determine factors modulating activity in regions subserving the processing of UEs. We found that a conjunction of unique semantic information and proper names modulated activity within a section of the left ATL. Overall, the processing of UEs involved a wider left-hemispheric cortical network. Within these regions, brain activity was significantly affected by the unique semantic attributes especially in the presence of a proper name, but we could not find evidence for an effect of the number of semantic associations. Findings are discussed in regard to current models of ATL function, the neurophysiology of semantics, and social cognitive processing. PMID:22021913

Olson, Ingrid R.

2012-01-01

254

Effect of site-specific modification on restriction endonucleases and DNA modification methyltransferases.  

PubMed Central

Restriction endonucleases have site-specific interactions with DNA that can often be inhibited by site-specific DNA methylation and other site-specific DNA modifications. However, such inhibition cannot generally be predicted. The empirically acquired data on these effects are tabulated for over 320 restriction endonucleases. In addition, a table of known site-specific DNA modification methyltransferases and their specificities is presented along with EMBL database accession numbers for cloned genes. PMID:7937074

McClelland, M; Nelson, M; Raschke, E

1994-01-01

255

Hyper-adhesion: a unique property of desmosomes.  

PubMed

Hyper-adhesion is a unique, strongly adhesive form of desmosomal adhesion that functions to maintain tissue integrity. In this short review, we define hyper-adhesion, summarise the evidence for it in culture and in vivo, discuss its role in development, wound healing, and skin disease, and speculate about its molecular and cellular basis. PMID:24978153

Garrod, David; Tabernero, Lydia

2014-10-01

256

delta Tonoplast Intrinsic Protein Defines Unique Plant Vacuole Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant cell vacuoles may have either storage or degradative functions. Vegetative storage proteins (VSPs) are synthesized in response to wounding and to developmental switches that affect carbon and nitrogen sinks. Here we show that VSPs are stored in a unique type of vacuole that is derived from degradative central vacuoles coincident with insertion of a new tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP),

Guang-Yuh Jauh; Andreas M. Fischer; Howard D. Grimes; Clarence A. Ryan; John C. Rogers

1998-01-01

257

The unique Antarctic atmosphere: implications for adaptive optics  

E-print Network

. The potential for adaptive optics correction on extremely large telescopes located at Dome C stationThe unique Antarctic atmosphere: implications for adaptive optics Jon S. Lawrence1 , Michael C, USA Abstract. The turbulence structure of the atmosphere is the primary limitation to adaptive optics

Ashley, Michael C. B.

258

The Unique Antarctic Atmosphere: Implications for Adaptive Optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The turbulence structure of the atmosphere is the primary limitation to adaptive optics system performance on extremely large telescopes -- driving current world-wide site testing campaigns. The potential for adaptive optics correction on extremely large telescopes located at Dome C station on the Antarctic plateau is investigated here. Due to the unique atmospheric characteristics of this site it is found

Jon S. Lawrence; Michael C. B. Ashley; Michael G. Burton; James P. Lloyd; John W. V. Storey

2005-01-01

259

The Unique Antarctic Atmosphere: Implications for Adaptive Optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The turbulence structure of the atmosphere is the primary limitation to adaptive optics system performance on extremely large telescopes — driving current world-wide site testing campaigns. The potential for adaptive optics correction on extremely large telescopes located at Dome C station on the Antarctic plateau is investigated here. Due to the unique atmospheric characteristics of this site it is found

Jon S. Lawrence; Michael C. B. Ashley; Michael G. Burton; James P. Lloyd; John W. V. Storey

260

The unique radar properties of silicic lava domes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicic lava domes exhibit distinct morphologic characteristics at scales of centimeters to kilometers. Multiparameter radar observations capture the unique geometric signatures of silicic domes in a set of radar scattering properties that are unlike any other natural geologic surfaces. Backscatter cross-section values are among the highest observed on terrestrial lava flows and show only a weak decrease with incidence angle.

Jeffrey J. Plaut; Steven W. Anderson; David A. Crown; Ellen R. Stofan; Jakob J. van Zyl

2004-01-01

261

UNIQUE STRUCTURE Michigan's Ross School of Business designed the Global  

E-print Network

GLOBAL #12;2 WELCOME UNIQUE STRUCTURE Michigan's Ross School of Business designed the Global MBA into the next generation. DISTINGUISHED DEGREE All Michigan Ross MBA programs adhere to the same rigorous curriculum, and all Michigan Ross MBA graduates receive the same degree. INTERNATIONAL REPUTATION

Michigan, University of

262

A description of unique fluorescent yellow pigments in penguin feathers  

E-print Network

A description of unique fluorescent yellow pigments in penguin feathers Kevin J. McGraw1 *, Matthew-mail: kevin.mcgraw@asu.edu Key words: yellow pigmentation / pterin / plumage / birds / reflecting platelets a diversity of mechanisms, involving the interaction between pigment biochemicals and structural features

McGraw, Kevin J.

263

Unique Quantum Paths by Continuous Diagonalization of the Density Operator  

E-print Network

In this short note we show that for a Markovian open quantum system it is always possible to construct a unique set of perfectly consistent Schmidt paths, supporting quasi-classicality. Our Schmidt process, elaborated several years ago, is the $\\Delta t\\to 0$ limit of the Schmidt chain constructed very recently by Paz and Zurek.

Lajos Diosi

1993-05-01

264

Unique quantum paths by continuous diagonalization of the density operator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this short note we show that for a Markovian open quantum system it is always possible to construct a unique set of perfectly consistent Schmidt paths, supporting quasi-classicality. Our Schmidt process, elaborated several years ago, is the Deltat-->0 limit of the Schmidt chain constructed very recently by Paz and Zurek.

Lajos Diósi

1994-01-01

265

An automated unique tagging system using CMOS process variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Automated Unique Tagging System (AUTS) is presented, intended for RFID applications, that generates identification numbers based on random process variations, circumventing the need for non-volatile memories such as EEPROM or Flash. A sense amplifier is used to measure the mismatch in threshold voltage between two identical NMOS devices and generate a 1-bit random output. The AUTS has been fabricated

Brandon L. Dell; Jonathan F. Bolus; Travis N. Blalock

2007-01-01

266

Clocortolone pivalate: a topical corticosteroid with a unique structure.  

PubMed

As the accumulated clinical evidence and experience to be presented in the next several pages demonstrate, the unique engineering of the clocortolone pivalate molecule balances potency with documented efficacy and a favorable safety profile. Clocortolone pivalate 0.1% cream is a well-formulated and versatile therapeutic option to consider for many of our patients with steroid-responsive dermatoses. PMID:23377404

Kircik, Leon H

2013-02-01

267

Debating Historical Propositions: Toward a Unique Genre of NEDA Debate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The best way to develop a unique identity for the National Education Debate Association (NEDA) is to debate propositions distinct from National Debate Tournament (NDT) and the Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA). A neglected area of debate includes propositions temporally framed in the past. Yet, the present propositional categories of…

Scott, David K.

268

Antibody recognition of a unique tumor-specific glycopeptide antigen  

E-print Network

Antibody recognition of a unique tumor-specific glycopeptide antigen Cory L. Brooksa , Andrea 21201 Edited by David R. Davies, National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda and the overexpression of certain carbohy- drate moieties is a consistent feature of cancers, and tumor- associated

Gleeson, Joseph G.

269

Wood of Giant Sequoia: Properties and Unique Characteristics1  

E-print Network

Wood of Giant Sequoia: Properties and Unique Characteristics1 Douglas D. Piirto2 Abstract: Wood tree species. Wood properties such as specific gravity, various mechanical properties, extractive be considered for planting stock in managed production forests to increase future supplies of wood having

Standiford, Richard B.

270

Moffitt Cancer Center researchers identify unique immune gene signature  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at Moffitt Cancer Center have discovered a unique immune gene signature that can predict the presence of microscopic lymph node-like structures in metastatic melanoma. The presence of these immune structures, the researchers said, appears to be associated with better survival and may indicate the possibility of selecting patients for immunotherapy based solely on the immune-related makeup of their tumors.

271

12 Victorian Supplement 2010 Victoria's unique geothermal option  

E-print Network

12 Victorian Supplement 2010 Victoria's unique geothermal option Prof Mike Sandiford Professor Australia's `hot rocks'make it one of the best prospects for enhanced geothermal energy anywhere's most exciting geothermal prospects. Extracted from the ground, South Australian uranium could easily

Sandiford, Mike

272

Cancer Cell Dissecting the Unique Role of the Retinoblastoma  

E-print Network

Cancer Cell Article Dissecting the Unique Role of the Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor during-cycle control. However, cancer-associated mutations are almost exclusively found in RB, implying that RB has for cancer development; hence, the roles and regulation of RB have been intensively studied (reviewed

273

Genome analysis of the platypus reveals unique signatures of evolution  

E-print Network

ARTICLES Genome analysis of the platypus reveals unique signatures of evolution A list of authors and their affiliations appears at the end of the paper We present a draft genome sequence of the platypus. For example, platypuses have a coat of fur adapted to an aquatic lifestyle; platypus females lactate, yet lay

Ray, David

274

What Is Valuable and Unique about the Educational Psychologist?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a small-scale piece of research identifying which aspects of the EP role are considered valuable by SENCos and by EPs themselves. In addition, both groups were asked to identify whether they felt these aspects were uniquely offered by EPs or whether other professionals offered similar or identical services. The differences…

Ashton, Rebecca; Roberts, Elizabeth

2006-01-01

275

Climate change represents a unique challenge in the interaction  

E-print Network

Climate change represents a unique challenge in the interaction between global trends and local contributed significantly to the slow acceptance of climate change despite decades of overwhelming scientific evidence as to the basic science of the greenhouse effect. Climate change is also acknowledged

Hamann, Andreas

276

Identifying What Is Unique about the Social Studies. Bulletin 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of six papers about the foundations and history of the social studies discipline focus on the task of identifying what is unique about social studies. The papers include: "Social Studies: Born Out of Crisis and Change" (James Barth); "A Coming of Age: Social Studies as a Proactive Force" (Walter Schultz); "Social Studies Education: A…

Barth, James L., Ed.

277

Riparian Ecosystems: Conservation of Their Unique Characteristics1  

E-print Network

Riparian Ecosystems: Conservation of Their Unique Characteristics1 Katherine Carter Ewe12 Abstract.--Riparian ecosystems have two essential characteristics: laterally flowing water that rises in hydroperiod or amplitude of water level fluc~uation produce the most dramatic changes in riparian communities

278

Marine Technology Society A Unique, Multidisciplinary, Oceans and Marine Network  

E-print Network

Marine Technology Society A Unique, Multidisciplinary, Oceans and Marine Network Autonomous Robotic Fish as Mobile Sensor Platforms: Challenges and Potential Solutions Xiaobo Tan. Marine Technology, and is not to be distributed in any format. The Marine Technology Society is a not-for-profit, international, professional

Tan, Xiaobo

279

MIS 365: Data Communications Fall 2012 Unique Number: 04005  

E-print Network

1 MIS 365: Data Communications Fall 2012 ­ Unique Number: 04005 Instructor Joshua Rock Information advances, massively parallel online gaming sites, and on and on. MIS 365 will focus on three broad issues questions when you're struggling to understand a concept. #12;2 Academic Rigor and MIS 365 Workload Welcome

Ghosh, Joydeep

280

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Co-habiting amphibian species harbor unique skin  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Co-habiting amphibian species harbor unique skin bacterial communities in wild four pond habitats in Colorado, USA, where multiple amphibian species were present. In total, 32 amphibian individuals were sampled from three different species including northern leopard frogs (Lithobates

Fierer, Noah

281

Unique Sensor Plane Maps Invisible Toxins for First Responders  

SciTech Connect

A unique airborne emergency response tool, ASPECT is a Los Alamos/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency project that can put chemical and radiological mapping tools in the air over an accident scene. The name ASPECT is an acronym for Airborne Spectral Phot

2008-04-30

282

The unique aspects of fracturing western U. S. coalbeds  

SciTech Connect

Bottomhole treating pressure (BHTP) behavior during the fracture treatment of western U.S. coalbeds is unique and often unpredictable because of the distinctive material properties of coal. This paper assigns the most-probable causes to specific BHTP behavior and shows ways to adapt to the downhole problems associated with these BHTP anomalies.

Cramer, D.D. (BJ Services, Denver, CO (United States))

1992-10-01

283

Unique Structural Features Facilitate Lizard Tail Kristian W. Sanggaard1  

E-print Network

Unique Structural Features Facilitate Lizard Tail Autotomy Kristian W. Sanggaard1 , Carl Chr shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism

Schierup, Mikkel Heide

284

GENOTOXICITY OF THE UNIQUE RADIOLYTIC PRODUCT 2-DODECYLCYCLOBUTANONE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A unique radiolytic product, 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB), is formed by the radiolysis of palmitic acid and is present at low parts-per million levels in irradiated meat products. A person eating a 125 g portion of irradiated ground beef would be expected to consume about 6 ug (about 0.00012 mg/k...

285

Across the Nation: Unique Delivery and Inventive Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, American Association of Community Colleges member institutions provide information on the collaborative efforts in allied health programs between their colleges and the communities they serve. These are but a fraction of the inventive and unique programs community colleges across the U.S. offer to support the health and wellness…

Fick, Jill; McKeown, Patricia; Whiteside, Ann B.; Paneitz, Becky; Flemming, Sondra; Wolf, Toni; West-Sands, Leslie; Gray, Patricia M.; Orre, Deborah J.; Adams, Ann-Marie

2004-01-01

286

Uniqueness results for the Minkowski problem extended to hedgehogs  

E-print Network

Uniqueness results for the Minkowski problem extended to hedgehogs by Yves Martinez-Maure Abstract.- The classical Minkowski problem has a natural extension to hedgehogs, that is to Minkowski differences of closed to hedgehogs, that is to Minkowski differences H = K-L of closed convex hypersurfaces K, L Rn+1 , at least

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

287

Uniqueness results for the Minkowski problem extended to hedgehogs  

E-print Network

Uniqueness results for the Minkowski problem extended to hedgehogs by Yves Martinez-Maure Abstract.- The classical Minkowski problem has a natural extension to hedgehogs, that is to Minkowski differences of closed is of class Cm+1, for every ]0, 1[. This classical Minkowski problem has a natural extension to hedgehogs

288

Uniqueness results for the Minkowski problem extended to hedgehogs  

E-print Network

Uniqueness results for the Minkowski problem extended to hedgehogs by Yves Martinez-Maure Abstract.- The classical Minkowski problem has a natural extension to hedgehogs, that is to Minkowski differences of closed extension to hedgehogs, that is to Minkowski differences H = K-L of closed convex hypersurfaces K, L Rn+1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

289

Laser surface modification of metallic biomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Load-bearing metal implants often fail prematurely due to inadequate biocompatibility, mechanical/tribological properties, and poor osseointegration. It is well known that biomaterials' surface plays a vital role in the response to these metal implants in the biological environment. The biological effectiveness of artificial implants is determined mainly by their surface characteristics such as surface morphology, microstructure, composition, mechanical properties, wettabilility, and surface free energy. Hence, there is significant interest toward surface modification and effective design of load-bearing metal implants so as to improve their surface properties and thereby elicit a specific, desired, and timely response from the surrounding cells and tissues. In this article, we provide an insight into laser surface modification of Ti/Ti6Al4V alloy with or without functional gradation in composition and their microstructural, in vitro wear and biological properties for various loadbearing orthopedic applications.

Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Roy, Mangal; Bose, Susmita

2011-06-01

290

Chitosan Modification and Pharmaceutical/Biomedical Applications  

PubMed Central

Chitosan has received much attention as a functional biopolymer for diverse applications, especially in pharmaceutics and medicine. Our recent efforts focused on the chemical and biological modification of chitosan in order to increase its solubility in aqueous solutions and absorbability in the in vivo system, thus for a better use of chitosan. This review summarizes chitosan modification and its pharmaceutical/biomedical applications based on our achievements as well as the domestic and overseas developments: (1) enzymatic preparation of low molecular weight chitosans/chitooligosaccharides with their hypocholesterolemic and immuno-modulating effects; (2) the effects of chitin, chitosan and their derivatives on blood hemostasis; and (3) synthesis of a non-toxic ion ligand—D-Glucosaminic acid from Oxidation of D-Glucosamine for cancer and diabetes therapy. PMID:20714418

Zhang, Jiali; Xia, Wenshui; Liu, Ping; Cheng, Qinyuan; Tahirou, Talba; Gu, Wenxiu; Li, Bo

2010-01-01

291

Effectiveness of decanter modifications on organic removal  

SciTech Connect

A series of runs were planned in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF) at the Savannah River Plant to determine the effectiveness of equipment and process modifications on the PHEF decanter organic removal efficiency. Runs 54-59 were planned to test the effectiveness of spray recirculation, a new decanter, heated organic recirculation and aqueous drawoff on organic removal efficiency in the revised HAN flowsheet. Runs 60-63 were planned to provide a comparison of the original and new decanter designs on organic removal efficiency in the late wash flowsheet without organic recirculation. Operational problems were experienced in both the PHEF and IDMS pilot facilities because of the production of high boiling organics and the low organic removal efficiency of the PHEF decanters. To prevent these problems in the DWPF Salt and Chemical Cells, modifications were proposed to the decanter and flowsheet to maximize the organic removal efficiency and minimize production of high boiling organics.

Lambert, D.P.

1992-08-20

292

Tissue modification with feedback: the smart scalpel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While feedback control is widespread throughout many engineering fields, there are almost no examples of surgical instruments that utilize a real-time detection and intervention strategy. This concept of closed loop feedback can be applied to the development of autonomous or semi- autonomous minimally invasive robotic surgical systems for efficient excision or modification of diseased tissue. Spatially localized regions of the tissue are first probed to distinguish pathological from healthy tissue based on differences in histochemical and morphological properties. Energy is directed to only the diseased tissue, minimizing collateral damage by leaving the adjacent healthy tissue intact. Continuous monitoring determines treatment effectiveness and, if needed, enables real-time treatment modifications to produce optimal therapeutic outcomes. The present embodiment of this general concept is a microsurgical instrument we call the Smart Scalpel, designed to treat skin angiodysplasias such as port wine stains. Other potential Smart Scalpel applications include psoriasis treatment and early skin cancer detection and intervention.

Sebern, Elizabeth L.; Brenan, Colin J. H.; Anderson, R. Rox; Hunter, Ian W.

1998-10-01

293

Value engineering spillway modifications: A case study  

SciTech Connect

Value engineering is a cost-effective way to evaluate spillway modification alternatives. When used during the conceptual design phase, value engineering gives an opportunity for all interested parties within the owner`s organization to provide their criteria, concerns, and comments before engineering proceeds to the point where changes will result in added engineering costs and extended schedules. Value engineering was applied during the conceptual design phase to expedite the evaluation of main spillway modifications for Northern States Power Company`s Jim Falls Hydroelectric Project. The process resulted in a better understanding of the problem, selection of the most promising solutions, and agreement on the direction that needed to be pursued. Value engineering resulted in significant cost and schedule savings to Northern States Power Company.

Feild, C.T.; Asce, M. [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Olson, C.M. [Northern States Power Co., Eau Claire, WI (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

294

Biological and nonbiological modifications of organophosphorus compounds*  

PubMed Central

The general types of biological reaction that are most prominent in the modification of organophosphorus compounds involve the mixed-function oxidases, hydrolases, or transferases. In certain cases, more than one of these reactions may be involved at the same site on the pesticide molecule. Examples of various organophosphorus pesticides that are altered by oxidation, hydrolysis, alkyl- or aryl-group transfer, reduction, and conjugation are discussed. The increase or decrease in toxicity of a pesticide that can result from biological modification is emphasized. Non-biological transformations of organophosphorus compounds involve the effect ou the compounds of such factors as light, air, temperature, and solvent. These factors are discussed with special emphasis on desulfuration, rearrangement, and oxidation. PMID:4938021

Dauterman, W. C.

1971-01-01

295

Surface modification of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress in surface modification of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is summarized with regard to organic molecules, macromolecules and inorganic materials. Many researchers are now devoted to synthesizing new types of multi-functional MNPs, which show great application potential in both diagnosis and treatment of disease. By employing an ever-greater variety of surface modification techniques, MNPs can satisfy more and more of the demands of medical practice in areas like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluorescent marking, cell targeting, and drug delivery. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51125001 and 51172005), the Natural Science Foundation of Beijing,China (Grant No. 2122022), the Science Fund for Creative Research Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81421004), and the Doctoral Program of the Education Ministry of China (Grant No. 20120001110078).

Chu, Xin; Yu, Jing; Hou, Yang-Long

2015-01-01

296

Optical Marking of Alcohol Induced Hemoglobin Modification  

E-print Network

It has been shown that conformational modifications of Hb induced by ethanol consumption can be visualized in optical spectra studying oxygenation kinetics of hemoglobin or mixing hemoglobin with Cibacron blue dye. Better dye affinity of blood proteins extracted from alcoholised rats with respect to those from non-alcoholised ones confirms that ethanol and its metabolites induce structural pathologies in blood protein molecules. The detected changes for the case of the posterity of intoxicated animals may be explained as a post-translation modification, as well as a disturbance of the structure and function of tissue cellular gene mechanism for the blood creation. It is established that alcohol intake during first four months leads to the decrease of fractional weight of oxyhemoglobin and to the increase of methemoglobin amount in blood. Further alcohol consumption is accompanied by recovering of the normal level of hemoglobin derivatives in blood. Normalization of the fractional weight of hemoglobin derivati...

Vlokh, R; Moroz, O; Nastishin, Yu; Dudok, K; Dudok, T; Grinchishin, N; Nechiporenko, I; Hul, A

2007-01-01

297

Laser modification of thermally sprayed coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental results are reported on the modification of thermally sprayed coatings on steels and aluminum alloys using pulsed YAG and CW CO2 lasers. In particular, results obtained for self-fluxing Ni9CrBSi powders, ZRO2 ceramic, and titanium are examined. It is shown that the laser treatment of thermally sprayed coatings significantly improves their physicomechanical properties; it also makes it possible to obtain refractory coatings on low-melting substrates with good coating-substrate adhesion.

Uglov, A. A.; Fomin, A. D.; Naumkin, A. O.; Pekshev, P. Iu.; Smurov, I. Iu.

1987-08-01

298

Organization of restriction-modification systems.  

PubMed Central

The genes for over 100 restriction-modification systems have now been cloned, and approximately one-half have been sequenced. Despite their similar function, they are exceedingly heterogeneous. The heterogeneity is evident at three levels: in the gene arrangements; in the enzyme compositions; and in the protein sequences. This paper summarizes the main features of the R-M systems that have been cloned. PMID:2041731

Wilson, G G

1991-01-01

299

Predicting Wall Modifications for Adaptive Wind Tunnels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wall shape changed iteratively until it matches streamlines. FLEXWAL predicts upper and lower wall modifications necessary to remove wall-interference effects in adaptive-wall wind tunnels. FLEXWAL aids in elimination of wall-interference effects on objects tested in typical two-dimensional wind tunnel with rigid sidewalls and flexible, solid floor and ceiling boundaries. Iterative procedure valid for subsonic and transonic test conditions, and convergence of method verified both analytically and experimentally. FLEXWAL written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.

Everhart, J. L.

1986-01-01

300

Swift heavy ion modification of polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the effects of dense electronic excitations on vinyl linear polymers, by performing swift heavy ion, SHI, irradiations. We used different ion beams, from C to Pb, provided by the GANIL accelerator at energies of a few MeV\\/u. We mainly studied the physico-chemical modifications induced in polyethylene (PE), but the role of chemical substitutions has also been investigated

E. Balanzat; N. Betz; S. Bouffard

1995-01-01

301

Deciphering Post-translational Modification Codes  

PubMed Central

Post-translational modifications (PTMs) occur on nearly all proteins. Many domains within proteins are modified on multiple amino acid sidechains by diverse enzymes to create a myriad of possible protein species. How these combinations of PTMs lead to distinct biological outcomes is only beginning to be understood. This manuscript highlights several examples of combinatorial PTMs in proteins, and describes recent technological developments, which are driving our ability to understand how PTM patterns may “code” for biological outcomes. PMID:23402885

Lothrop, Adam P.; Torres, Matthew P.; Fuchs, Stephen M.

2014-01-01

302

21 CFR 1301.51 - Modification in registration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Modification, Transfer and Termination of Registration § 1301.51 Modification in...

2012-04-01

303

21 CFR 1301.51 - Modification in registration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Modification, Transfer and Termination of Registration § 1301.51 Modification in...

2011-04-01

304

21 CFR 1301.51 - Modification in registration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Modification, Transfer and Termination of Registration § 1301.51 Modification in...

2010-04-01

305

21 CFR 1301.51 - Modification in registration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Modification, Transfer and Termination of Registration § 1301.51 Modification in...

2013-04-01

306

21 CFR 1301.51 - Modification in registration.  

...Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Modification, Transfer and Termination of Registration § 1301.51 Modification in...

2014-04-01

307

14 CFR 151.99 - Modifications of programming standards.  

...2014-01-01 false Modifications of programming standards. 151.99 Section 151...AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.99 Modifications of programming standards. The Director,...

2014-01-01

308

14 CFR 151.99 - Modifications of programming standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Modifications of programming standards. 151.99 Section 151...AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.99 Modifications of programming standards. The Director,...

2010-01-01

309

14 CFR 151.99 - Modifications of programming standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Modifications of programming standards. 151.99 Section 151...AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.99 Modifications of programming standards. The Director,...

2011-01-01

310

14 CFR 151.99 - Modifications of programming standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Modifications of programming standards. 151.99 Section 151...AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.99 Modifications of programming standards. The Director,...

2013-01-01

311

14 CFR 151.99 - Modifications of programming standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Modifications of programming standards. 151.99 Section 151...AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.99 Modifications of programming standards. The Director,...

2012-01-01

312

47 CFR 73.152 - Modification of directional antenna data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Modification of directional antenna data. 73.152 Section 73...152 Modification of directional antenna data. (a) If, after construction...final adjustment of a directional antenna, a measured inverse...

2011-10-01

313

47 CFR 73.152 - Modification of directional antenna data.  

...false Modification of directional antenna data. 73.152 Section 73...152 Modification of directional antenna data. (a) If, after construction...final adjustment of a directional antenna, a measured inverse...

2014-10-01

314

47 CFR 73.152 - Modification of directional antenna data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Modification of directional antenna data. 73.152 Section 73...152 Modification of directional antenna data. (a) If, after construction...final adjustment of a directional antenna, a measured inverse...

2013-10-01

315

47 CFR 73.152 - Modification of directional antenna data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Modification of directional antenna data. 73.152 Section 73...152 Modification of directional antenna data. (a) If, after construction...final adjustment of a directional antenna, a measured inverse...

2012-10-01

316

76 FR 51878 - Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1545-BK14 Modifications of Certain Derivative Contracts; Correction AGENCY: Internal...a transfer or assignment of certain derivative contracts does not result in an exchange...1001-4T Modifications of certain derivative contracts...

2011-08-19

317

43 CFR 3932.20 - Lease modification land availability criteria.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MANAGEMENT OF OIL SHALE EXPLORATION AND LEASES Lease Modifications and Readjustments § 3932.20 Lease modification land availability...

2013-10-01

318

21 CFR 640.74 - Modification of Source Plasma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Modification of Source Plasma. 640.74 Section 640.74 Food and...FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.74 Modification of Source Plasma. (a) Upon approval by the...

2013-04-01

319

21 CFR 640.74 - Modification of Source Plasma.  

...2014-04-01 false Modification of Source Plasma. 640.74 Section 640.74 Food and...FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.74 Modification of Source Plasma. (a) Upon approval by the...

2014-04-01

320

36 CFR 294.27 - Corrections and modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...27 Section 294.27 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Idaho Roadless Area Management § 294.27 Corrections and modifications. Correction or modification of designations...

2012-07-01

321

36 CFR 294.27 - Corrections and modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...27 Section 294.27 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Idaho Roadless Area Management § 294.27 Corrections and modifications. Correction or modification of designations...

2011-07-01

322

21 CFR 640.74 - Modification of Source Plasma.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Modification of Source Plasma. 640.74 Section 640.74 Food and...FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.74 Modification of Source Plasma. (a) Upon approval by the...

2010-04-01

323

47 CFR 73.152 - Modification of directional antenna data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Modification of directional antenna data. 73.152 Section 73...Modification of directional antenna data. (a) If, after... (2) Excessive reradiating structures, which should be shown on a...which the analyzed measurement data does not show a need for...

2010-10-01

324

12 CFR 1710.30 - Modification of certain provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS CORPORATE GOVERNANCE Modification of Certain Provisions § 1710.30 Modification of certain provisions. In...

2010-01-01

325

21 CFR 516.161 - Modifications to indexed drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Modifications to indexed drugs. 516.161 Section 516.161 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species § 516.161 Modifications to indexed drugs....

2010-04-01

326

Post-translational protein modification as a tool for transcription  

E-print Network

Minireview Post-translational protein modification as a tool for transcription reprogramming Author, phosphorylation, plant immunity, post- translational modification, proteasome, S-nitrosylation, transcription activator. Summary Precise modulation of transcription plays a vital role in both development

Spoel, Steven

327

8. Photocopy of engineering drawing. MODIFICATION TO LAUNCH COMPLEX 17: ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Photocopy of engineering drawing. MODIFICATION TO LAUNCH COMPLEX 17: GN2 STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION MODIFICATIONS-CIVIL, MARCH 1967. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28419, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

328

43 CFR 3932.10 - Lease size modification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) MANAGEMENT OF OIL SHALE EXPLORATION AND LEASES Lease Modifications and Readjustments § 3932.10 Lease size modification....

2011-10-01

329

Electrostatic Surface Modifications to Improve Gene Delivery  

PubMed Central

Importance of the field Gene therapy has the potential to treat a wide variety of diseases including genetic diseases and cancer. Areas covered in this review This review introduces biomaterials used for gene delivery and then focuses on the use of electrostatic surface modifications to improve gene delivery materials. These modifications have been used to stabilize therapeutics in vivo, add cell-specific targeting ligands, and promote controlled release. Coatings of nanoparticles and microparticles as well as non-particulate surface coatings are covered in this review. Electrostatic principles are crucial for the development of multilayer delivery structures fabricated by the layer-by-layer method. What the reader will gain The reader will gain knowledge about the composition of biomaterials used for surface modifications and how these coatings and multilayers can be utilized to improve spatial control and efficiency of delivery. Examples are shown for the delivery of nucleic acids, including DNA and siRNA, to in vitro and in vivo systems. Take home message The versatile and powerful approach of electrostatic coatings and multilayers will lead to the development of enhanced gene therapies. PMID:20201712

Shmueli, Ron B.; Anderson, Daniel G.

2010-01-01

330

Chemical modification study of antisense gapmers.  

PubMed

A series of insertion patterns for chemically modified nucleotides [2'-O-methyl (2'-OMe), 2'-fluoro (2'-F), methoxyethyl (MOE), locked nucleic acid (LNA), and G-Clamp] within antisense gapmers is studied in vitro and in vivo in the context of the glucocorticoid receptor. Correlation between lipid transfection and unassisted (gymnotic--using no transfection agent) in vitro assays is seen to be dependent on the chemical modification, with the in vivo results corresponding to the unassisted assay in vitro. While in vitro mRNA knockdown assays are typically reasonable predictors of in vivo results, G-Clamp modified antisense oligonucleotides have poor in vivo mRNA knockdown as compared to transfected cell based assays. For LNA gapmers, knockdown is seen to be highly sensitive to the length of the antisense and number of LNA insertions, with longer 5LNA-10DNA-5LNA compounds giving less activity than 3LNA-10DNA-3LNA derivatives. Additionally, the degree of hepatoxicity for antisense gapmers with identical sequences was seen to vary widely with only subtle changes in the chemical modification pattern. While the optimization of knockdown and hepatic effects remains a sequence specific exercise, general trends emerge around preferred physical properties and modification patterns. PMID:22852836

Stanton, Robert; Sciabola, Simone; Salatto, Christopher; Weng, Yan; Moshinsky, Debra; Little, Jeremy; Walters, Evan; Kreeger, John; DiMattia, Debra; Chen, Tracy; Clark, Tracey; Liu, Mei; Qian, Jessie; Roy, Marc; Dullea, Robert

2012-10-01

331

Surface layer modification of ion bombarded HDPE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Press-moulded, high density polyethylene (HDPE) samples were subjected to ion bombardment and effects of the modification studied. He + ions of energy 100 keV or Ar + ions of energy 130 keV were applied in the range of dose 1-30 × 10 15/cm 2 or 1-100 × 10 14/cm 2, respectively. This paper has been focused on structural changes of the surface layer. The consequences of the modification were studied with TOF-SIMS and FTIR-IRS techniques. The results point on two mechanisms taking place simultaneously: ionization of polymer macromolecules and chain scission--resulting in creation of macroradicals. Both of them produce oxidation and lead to significant release of hydrogen. The former diminishes for the highest ion doses, however, creation of molecular oxygen cannot be excluded. The latter in the case of Ar + ion bombardment is reflected by prevailing degradation of the surface layer of HDPE. Contrary to the effect of heavy ions, He + ion bombardment was found to produce significant increase of the material hardness, which was explained by crosslinking of polyethylene. A mechanism of polyacetylene formation, proceeding finally to cross-polymerization of the polymer was proposed. Apart from structural changes, the modification revealed additionally a possibility to improve the wettability of the polymer.

Bielinski, D.; Lipinski, P.; Slusarski, L.; Grams, J.; Paryjczak, T.; Jagielski, J.; Turos, A.; Madi, N. K.

2004-08-01

332

qDNAmod: a statistical model-based tool to reveal intercellular heterogeneity of DNA modification from SMRT sequencing data  

PubMed Central

In an isogenic cell population, phenotypic heterogeneity among individual cells is common and critical for survival of the population under different environment conditions. DNA modification is an important epigenetic factor that can regulate phenotypic heterogeneity. The single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology provides a unique platform for detecting a wide range of DNA modifications, including N6-methyladenine (6-mA), N4-methylcytosine (4-mC) and 5-methylcytosine (5-mC). Here we present qDNAmod, a novel bioinformatic tool for genome-wide quantitative profiling of intercellular heterogeneity of DNA modification from SMRT sequencing data. It is capable of estimating proportion of isogenic haploid cells, in which the same loci of the genome are differentially modified. We tested the reliability of qDNAmod with the SMRT sequencing data of Streptococcus pneumoniae strain ST556. qDNAmod detected extensive intercellular heterogeneity of DNA methylation (6-mA) in a clonal population of ST556. Subsequent biochemical analyses revealed that the recognition sequences of two type I restriction–modification (R-M) systems are responsible for the intercellular heterogeneity of DNA methylation initially identified by qDNAmod. qDNAmod thus represents a valuable tool for studying intercellular phenotypic heterogeneity from genome-wide DNA modification. PMID:25404133

Feng, Zhixing; Li, Jing; Zhang, Jing-Ren; Zhang, Xuegong

2014-01-01

333

qDNAmod: a statistical model-based tool to reveal intercellular heterogeneity of DNA modification from SMRT sequencing data.  

PubMed

In an isogenic cell population, phenotypic heterogeneity among individual cells is common and critical for survival of the population under different environment conditions. DNA modification is an important epigenetic factor that can regulate phenotypic heterogeneity. The single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing technology provides a unique platform for detecting a wide range of DNA modifications, including N6-methyladenine (6-mA), N4-methylcytosine (4-mC) and 5-methylcytosine (5-mC). Here we present qDNAmod, a novel bioinformatic tool for genome-wide quantitative profiling of intercellular heterogeneity of DNA modification from SMRT sequencing data. It is capable of estimating proportion of isogenic haploid cells, in which the same loci of the genome are differentially modified. We tested the reliability of qDNAmod with the SMRT sequencing data of Streptococcus pneumoniae strain ST556. qDNAmod detected extensive intercellular heterogeneity of DNA methylation (6-mA) in a clonal population of ST556. Subsequent biochemical analyses revealed that the recognition sequences of two type I restriction-modification (R-M) systems are responsible for the intercellular heterogeneity of DNA methylation initially identified by qDNAmod. qDNAmod thus represents a valuable tool for studying intercellular phenotypic heterogeneity from genome-wide DNA modification. PMID:25404133

Feng, Zhixing; Li, Jing; Zhang, Jing-Ren; Zhang, Xuegong

2014-12-16

334

Plasma processing for surface optical modifications of PET films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma interaction with the surface produces modifications of its chemical structure or morphology. Surface modifications through cold plasma occur, thanks to the high plasma reactivity and ability to affect the surface of materials.The present work shows the surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films after the exposure both to low-pressure plasma (film deposition by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition)

Paola Esena; S Zanini; C. Riccardi

2007-01-01

335

RESEARCH Open Access Epigenetic histone modifications of human  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Epigenetic histone modifications of human transposable elements: genome competing hypotheses pertaining to the role of epigenetic modifications of TEs in eukaryotic genomes to the genome defense hypothesis as the best explanation for the biological role of TE epigenetic modifications

Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

336

49 CFR 237.133 - Supervision of repairs and modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supervision of repairs and modifications. 237...Modification of Bridges § 237.133 Supervision of repairs and modifications. Each...shall be performed under the immediate supervision of a railroad bridge supervisor as...

2011-10-01

337

49 CFR 237.133 - Supervision of repairs and modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supervision of repairs and modifications. 237...Modification of Bridges § 237.133 Supervision of repairs and modifications. Each...shall be performed under the immediate supervision of a railroad bridge supervisor as...

2010-10-01

338

Covalent modifications of histones during development and disease pathogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Covalent modifications of histones are central to the regulation of chromatin dynamics, and, therefore, many biological processes involving chromatin, such as replication, repair, transcription and genome stability, are regulated by chromatin and its modifications. In this review, we discuss the biochemical, molecular and genetic properties of the enzymatic machinery involved in four different types of histone modification: acetylation, ubiquitination, phosphorylation

Sukesh R Bhaumik; Edwin Smith; Ali Shilatifard

2007-01-01

339

Beagle 2 and NASA's Mars 2003 Orbiter: A Unique Exobiology Opportunity with an Orbiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the exploration strategy for Mars undergoing reexamination, the opportunity exists for the incorporation of the 60 kg Beagle 2 lander, developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission, with NASA's Mars 2003 orbiter derived from the Mars Global Orbiter. The combination of Beagle 2 with a Mars orbiter would result in a unique mission which could obtain information on Mars' life, climate and resources both from orbit as well as on the surface of the planet. Beagle 2 has been developed in the LJK for ESA as a low-cost opportunity to study the exobiology of Mars and the spacecraft is in its final stages of manufacture. Only limited modifications to the Beagle 2 package would be required for inclusion on NASA's Mars 2003 orbiter. With the ESA Mars Express mission launch in 2003 and a potential NASA Mars orbiter in 2003, both Beagle 2 landers on Mars would offer a low-cost, decreased risk and increased science return opportunity for the exploration of Mars at two distinct geologically interesting sites.

Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Thatcher, John; Westall, Frances

2000-07-01

340

Beagle 2 and NASA's Mars 2003 Orbiter: A Unique Exobiology Opportunity with an Orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the exploration strategy for Mars undergoing reexamination, the opportunity exists for the incorporation of the 60 kg Beagle 2 lander, developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission, with NASA's Mars 2003 orbiter derived from the Mars Global Orbiter. The combination of Beagle 2 with a Mars orbiter would result in a unique mission which could obtain information on Mars' life, climate and resources both from orbit as well as on the surface of the planet. Beagle 2 has been developed in the LJK for ESA as a low-cost opportunity to study the exobiology of Mars and the spacecraft is in its final stages of manufacture. Only limited modifications to the Beagle 2 package would be required for inclusion on NASA's Mars 2003 orbiter. With the ESA Mars Express mission launch in 2003 and a potential NASA Mars orbiter in 2003, both Beagle 2 landers on Mars would offer a low-cost, decreased risk and increased science return opportunity for the exploration of Mars at two distinct geologically interesting sites.

Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Thatcher, John; Westall, Frances

2000-01-01

341

21 CFR 830.330 - Times for submission of unique device identification information.  

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES UNIQUE DEVICE IDENTIFICATION Global Unique Device Identification Database § 830.330 Times for submission of unique device identification information. (a) The labeler shall submit to...

2014-04-01

342

21 CFR 830.310 - Information required for unique device identification.  

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES UNIQUE DEVICE IDENTIFICATION Global Unique Device Identification Database § 830.310 Information required for unique device identification. The contact for device identification...

2014-04-01

343

21 CFR 830.350 - Correction of information submitted to the Global Unique Device Identification Database.  

...the Global Unique Device Identification Database. 830.350 Section 830.350 Food... Global Unique Device Identification Database § 830.350 Correction of information...the Global Unique Device Identification Database. (a) If FDA becomes aware...

2014-04-01

344

21 CFR 830.320 - Submission of unique device identification information.  

...DEVICE IDENTIFICATION Global Unique Device Identification Database § 830.320 Submission of unique device identification...electronically to FDA's Global Unique Device Identification Database (GUDID) in a format that we can process, review, and...

2014-04-01

345

Salient Region Detection by UFO: Uniqueness, Focusness and Objectness Peng Jiang 1  

E-print Network

Salient Region Detection by UFO: Uniqueness, Focusness and Objectness Peng Jiang 1 Haibin Ling 2 three important visual cues namely uniqueness, focusness and objectness (UFO). In particular, uniqueness, named UFO saliency, which

Ling, Haibin

346

45 CFR 162.406 - Standard unique health identifier for health care providers.  

...Standard unique health identifier for health care providers. 162.406 Section...Standard Unique Health Identifier for Health Care Providers § 162.406 Standard unique health identifier for health care providers. (a)...

2014-10-01

347

Unique Perspectives on a Transforming Energy Economy: 2014 Annual Report (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

What makes JISEA unique? Unique perspectives. This brochure highlights the unique perspectives provided by the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis through JISEA's recent accomplishments and the people behind them.

Gossett, S.

2014-03-01

348

Erdheim chester - A rare disease with unique endoscopic features  

PubMed Central

Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare inflammatory syndrome in which systemic infiltration of non-Langerhans cell histiocytes occurs in different sites. Both the etiology and pathophysiology of ECD are unknown, but CD68 positive CD 1a/S100 negative cells are characteristic. The presentation of ECD differs according to the involved organs. This case report describes a patient with ECD and the gastrointestinal manifestations and unique endoscopic appearance as seen in gastroscopy and colonoscopy with histological proof of histiocyte infiltration of the lamina propria. The clinical and endoscopic findings of this unique case, to our knowledge, were never described before, so were the features of the gastrointestinal involvement in this disease. PMID:25009409

Ben-yaakov, Gil; Munteanu, Daniela; Sztarkier, Ignacio; Fich, Alexander; Schwartz, Doron

2014-01-01

349

New unique ECAP system with ultrasound and backpressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is about the conception, design and realization of a new unique ECAP system with application of back-pressure and intensive ultrasound energy. 3D finite element calculations were used for finding the best construction configurations. The new unique ECAP equipment is used for deforming metallic samples with dimensions of 12x12x100 mm to obtain homogenous deformation in the whole specimen. The basic technical parameters of the equipment are: angle of channel intersection ? = 90°, rounding angle ? = 0°, die heating system up to 400°C, punch heating system up to 300°C, computer controlled back pressure up to 1400 MPa, Emerson Branson ultrasonic energy system up to 4kW, longitudinal ultrasound amplitude up to 30 pm, water cooling system, flexible die geometry (channel inner radius can be changed), adaptive computer drive and control.

Doni?, T.; Martikán, M.; Hadzima, B.

2014-08-01

350

Unique research challenges for high-speed civil transports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Market growth and technological advances are expected to lead to a generation of long-range transports that cruise at supersonic or even hypersonic speeds. Current NASA/industry studies will define the market windows in terms of time frame, Mach number, and technology requirements for these aircraft. Initial results indicate that, for the years 2000 to 2020, economically attractive vehicles could have a cruise speed up to Mach 6. The resulting research challenges are unique. They must be met with technologies that will produce commercially successful and environmentally compatible vehicles where none have existed. Several important areas of research were identified for the high-speed civil transports. Among these are sonic boom, takeoff noise, thermal management, lightweight structures with long life, unique propulsion concepts, unconventional fuels, and supersonic laminar flow.

Jackson, Charlie M., Jr.; Morris, E. K., Jr.

1988-01-01

351

Unique research challenges for high-speed civil transports  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Market growth and technological advances are expected to lead to a generation of long-range transports that cruise at supersonic or even hypersonic speeds. Current NASA/industry studies will define the market windows in terms of time frame, Mach number, and technology requirements for these aircraft. Initial results indicate that, for the years 2000 to 2020, economically attractive vehicles could have a cruise speed up to Mach 6. The resulting research challenges are unique. They must be met with technologies that will produce commercially successful and environmentally compatible vehicles where none have existed. Several important areas of research were identified for the high-speed civil transports. Among these are sonic boom, takeoff noise, thermal management, lightweight structures with long life, unique propulsion concepts, unconventional fuels, and supersonic laminar flow.

Jackson, Charlie M., Jr.; Morris, Charles E. K., Jr.

1987-01-01

352

Uniqueness of black holes with bubbles in minimal supergravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We generalize uniqueness theorems for non-extremal black holes with three mutually independent Killing vector fields in five-dimensional minimal supergravity in order to account for the existence of non-trivial two-cycles in the domain of outer communication. The black hole space-times we consider may contain multiple disconnected horizons and be asymptotically flat or asymptotically Kaluza–Klein. We show that in order to uniquely specify the black hole space-time, besides providing its domain structure and a set of asymptotic and local charges, it is necessary to measure the magnetic fluxes that support the two-cycles as well as fluxes in the two semi-infinite rotation planes of the domain diagram.

Armas, Jay

2015-02-01

353

WURCS: the Web3 unique representation of carbohydrate structures.  

PubMed

In recent years, the Semantic Web has become the focus of life science database development as a means to link life science data in an effective and efficient manner. In order for carbohydrate data to be applied to this new technology, there are two requirements for carbohydrate data representations: (1) a linear notation which can be used as a URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) if needed and (2) a unique notation such that any published glycan structure can be represented distinctively. This latter requirement includes the possible representation of nonstandard monosaccharide units as a part of the glycan structure, as well as compositions, repeating units, and ambiguous structures where linkages/linkage positions are unidentified. Therefore, we have developed the Web3 Unique Representation of Carbohydrate Structures (WURCS) as a new linear notation for representing carbohydrates for the Semantic Web. PMID:24897372

Tanaka, Kenichi; Aoki-Kinoshita, Kiyoko F; Kotera, Masaaki; Sawaki, Hiromichi; Tsuchiya, Shinichiro; Fujita, Noriaki; Shikanai, Toshihide; Kato, Masaki; Kawano, Shin; Yamada, Issaku; Narimatsu, Hisashi

2014-06-23

354

A Giant Chelonioid Turtle from the Late Cretaceous of Morocco with a Suction Feeding Apparatus Unique among Tetrapods  

PubMed Central

Background Secondary adaptation to aquatic life occurred independently in several amniote lineages, including reptiles during the Mesozoic and mammals during the Cenozoic. These evolutionary shifts to aquatic environments imply major morphological modifications, especially of the feeding apparatus. Mesozoic (250–65 Myr) marine reptiles, such as ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs, mosasaurid squamates, crocodiles, and turtles, exhibit a wide range of adaptations to aquatic feeding and a broad overlap of their tooth morphospaces with those of Cenozoic marine mammals. However, despite these multiple feeding behavior convergences, suction feeding, though being a common feeding strategy in aquatic vertebrates and in marine mammals in particular, has been extremely rarely reported for Mesozoic marine reptiles. Principal Findings A relative of fossil protostegid and dermochelyoid sea turtles, Ocepechelon bouyai gen. et sp. nov. is a new giant chelonioid from the Late Maastrichtian (67 Myr) of Morocco exhibiting remarkable adaptations to marine life (among others, very dorsally and posteriorly located nostrils). The 70-cm-long skull of Ocepechelon not only makes it one of the largest marine turtles ever described, but also deviates significantly from typical turtle cranial morphology. It shares unique convergences with both syngnathid fishes (unique long tubular bony snout ending in a rounded and anteriorly directed mouth) and beaked whales (large size and elongated edentulous jaws). This striking anatomy suggests extreme adaptation for suction feeding unmatched among known turtles. Conclusion/Significance The feeding apparatus of Ocepechelon, a bony pipette-like snout, is unique among tetrapods. This new taxon exemplifies the successful systematic and ecological diversification of chelonioid turtles during the Late Cretaceous. This new evidence for a unique trophic specialization in turtles, along with the abundant marine vertebrate faunas associated to Ocepechelon in the Late Maastrichtian phosphatic beds of Morocco, further supports the hypothesis that marine life was, at least locally, very diversified just prior to the Cretaceous/Palaeogene (K/Pg) biotic crisis. PMID:23874378

Bardet, Nathalie; Jalil, Nour-Eddine; de Lapparent de Broin, France; Germain, Damien; Lambert, Olivier; Amaghzaz, Mbarek

2013-01-01

355

Novel electron devices based on the unique properties of diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An account is given of the unique design principles that apply to such electron devices as metal-insulator-metal photodetectors, cascade and virtual-contact FETs, and high-electron-mobility transistors. It is noted that while diamond is a high-power, high-temperature, or extremely HF amplifier, it cannot accomplish all three functions simultaneously. Attention is given to the significance of diamond's heat-dissipation capabilities.

Yoder, M. N.

356

Novel electron devices based on the unique properties of diamond  

Microsoft Academic Search

An account is given of the unique design principles that apply to such electron devices as metal-insulator-metal photodetectors, cascade and virtual-contact FETs, and high-electron-mobility transistors. It is noted that while diamond is a high-power, high-temperature, or extremely HF amplifier, it cannot accomplish all three functions simultaneously. Attention is given to the significance of diamond's heat-dissipation capabilities.

M. N. Yoder

1991-01-01

357

Concentration and Mindfulness Meditations: Unique Forms of Consciousness?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from 19 scalp recording sites were used to differentiate among two posited unique forms of mediation, concentration and mindfulness, and a normal relaxation control condition. Analyzes of all traditional frequency bandwidth data (i.e., delta 1–3 Hz; theta, 4–7 Hz; alpha, 8–12 Hz; beta 1, 13–25 Hz; beta 2, 26–32 Hz) showed strong mean amplitude frequency differences between

Bruce R. Dunn; Judith A. Hartigan; William L. Mikulas

1999-01-01

358

Acceleration-Induced Nonlocality: Uniqueness of the Kernel  

E-print Network

We consider the problem of uniqueness of the kernel in the nonlocal theory of accelerated observers. In a recent work, we showed that the convolution kernel is ruled out as it can lead to divergences for nonuniform accelerated motion. Here we determine the general form of bounded continuous kernels and use observational data regarding spin-rotation coupling to argue that the kinetic kernel given by $K(\\tau ,\\tau')=k(\\tau')$ is the only physically acceptable solution.

C. Chicone; B. Mashhoon

2002-02-14

359

Tamponade by an expanding left ventricular pseudoaneurysm: A unique presentation.  

PubMed

Left ventricular free wall rupture secondary to myocardial infarction is an uncommon but catastrophic event requiring emergency surgery. We describe a unique presentation of left ventricular free wall rupture as delayed tamponade caused by a gradually expanding pseudoaneurysm compressing the left atrium, leading to pulmonary congestion that required increasing respiratory support to maintain oxygenation, and necessitated emergency surgery. We discuss the options available to treat pseudoaneurysms due to left ventricular free wall rupture. PMID:24692597

Mahesh, Balakrishnan; Ong, Ping; Kutty, Ramesh; Abu-Omar, Yasir

2014-04-01

360

A unique transformation from ordinary differential equations to reaction networks.  

PubMed

Many models in Systems Biology are described as a system of Ordinary Differential Equations, which allows for transient, steady-state or bifurcation analysis when kinetic information is available. Complementary structure-related qualitative analysis techniques have become increasingly popular in recent years, like qualitative model checking or pathway analysis (elementary modes, invariants, flux balance analysis, graph-based analyses, chemical organization theory, etc.). They do not rely on kinetic information but require a well-defined structure as stochastic analysis techniques equally do. In this article, we look into the structure inference problem for a model described by a system of Ordinary Differential Equations and provide conditions for the uniqueness of its solution. We describe a method to extract a structured reaction network model, represented as a bipartite multigraph, for example, a continuous Petri net (CPN), from a system of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). A CPN uniquely defines an ODE, and each ODE can be transformed into a CPN. However, it is not obvious under which conditions the transformation of an ODE into a CPN is unique, that is, when a given ODE defines exactly one CPN. We provide biochemically relevant sufficient conditions under which the derived structure is unique and counterexamples showing the necessity of each condition. Our method is implemented and available; we illustrate it on some signal transduction models from the BioModels database. A prototype implementation of the method is made available to modellers at http://contraintes.inria.fr/~soliman/ode2pn.html, and the data mentioned in the "Results" section at http://contraintes.inria.fr/~soliman/ode2pn_data/. Our results yield a new recommendation for the import/export feature of tools supporting the SBML exchange format. PMID:21203560

Soliman, Sylvain; Heiner, Monika

2010-01-01

361

On Uniqueness of Kerr Space-time near null infinity  

E-print Network

We re-express the Kerr metric in standard Bondi-Saches' coordinate near null infinity ${\\cal I}^+$. Using the uniqueness result of characteristic initial value problem, we prove the Kerr metric is the only asymptotic flat, stationary, axial symmetric, Type-D solution of vacuum Einstein equation. The Taylor series of Kerr space-time is expressed in terms of B-S coordinates and the N-P constants have been calculated.

Xiaoning Wu; Shan Bai

2008-11-24

362

Diophantine and minimal but not uniquely ergodic (almost)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that minimal non-uniquely ergodic behaviour can be generated by slowing down a simple harmonic oscillator with diophantine frequency, in contrast with the known examples where the frequency is well approximable by the rationals. The slowing is effected by a singular time change that brings one phase point to rest. The time one-map of the flow has uncountably many invariant measures yet every orbit is dense, with the minor exception of the rest point.

Kwapisz, Jaroslaw; Mathison, Mark

2012-07-01

363

Black hole uniqueness theorems in higher dimensional spacetimes  

E-print Network

We review uniqueness theorems as well as other general results about higher dimensional black hole spacetimes. This includes in particular theorems about the topology of higher dimensional spacetimes, theorems about their symmetries (rigidity theorem), and the classification of supersymmetric black holes. We outline the basic ideas underlying the proofs of these statements, and we also indicate ways to generalize some of these results to more general contexts, such as more complicated theories.

Stefan Hollands; Akihiro Ishibashi

2012-08-30

364

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis: a unique presentation in a pediatric patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection by the Aspergillus species of fungus can result in a variety of clinically and radiographically unique pulmonary diseases. The specific disease\\u000a manifested is most dependent upon the immunocompetency of the infected individual. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis\\u000a (ABPA) is most commonly seen in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis. Since its original description in 1952, much has\\u000a been published describing the

Michael V. Huppmann; Matthew Monson

2008-01-01

365

Uniqueness and the Multiple Fractal Character of Product Engineering Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This metaphor, taken from an article about the Christian church, is also valid for the complex system of product engineering.\\u000a Every product engineering process is unique and individual. This is the first out of five hypotheses about product engineering\\u000a processes (Albers, 2010). In this paper we investigate where the differences between product engineering processes originate\\u000a from. We examine the integrated

A. Albers; A. Braun; S. Muschik

366

[I, Robot: artificial intelligence, uniqueness and self-consciousness].  

PubMed

The cinematographic version of the science fiction classical book by Isaac Asimov (I, Robot) is used as a starting point, from the Artificial Intelligence perspective, in order to analyze what it is to have a self. Uniqueness or the exchange impossibility and the continuity of being one self are put forward to understand the movie's characters as well as the possibilities of feeling self conscious. PMID:18592055

Agrest, Martín

2008-01-01

367

Two unique presentations of Achromobacter xylosoxidans infections in clinical settings.  

PubMed

Two rare and unique infections of Achromobacter xylosoxidans are described. The first case is a novel presentation of acute necrotising pancreatitis leading to a pancreatic pseudocyst, which was treated successfully in an immunocompetent male. The second case describes a local wound infection of metastatic ductal carcinoma of the breast; the patient consequently succumbed from a pre-existing co-morbid condition. Vigilant and efficient microbiological workup and surveillance are needed to diagnose infections by this rare pathogen in clinical settings. PMID:21389595

Eshwara, Vandana Kalwaje; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay; Mohan, Savitha; Prakash, Rajath; Pai, Ganesh

2011-02-01

368

Why Is Pt So Unique A Chemical Physics Approach  

E-print Network

Why Is Pt So Unique A Chemical Physics Approach Philip N. Ross, Jr. Materials Sciences Division · One electron makes a big difference d9s1 versus d10s1 · Pt at the top of the Volcano Curve #12) LANL2DZ/6-31+G(d) #12;O ­Pt Potential Energy Curves vs.2 O-O bond length #12;(O2 - )­Pt Potential

369

Uniqueness Theorem of W-Constraints for Simple Singularities  

E-print Network

In a recent paper [3], Bakalov and Milanov proved that the total descendant potential of a simple singularity satisfies the W-constraints, which come from the W-algebra of the lattice vertex algebra associated to the root lattice of this singularity and a twisted module of this vertex algebra. In the present paper, we prove that the solution of these W-constraints is unique up to a constant factor, as conjectured by Bakalov and Milanov in their paper.

Si-Qi Liu; Di Yang; Youjin Zhang

2013-05-12

370

Modifications of Glycans: Biological Significance and Therapeutic Opportunities  

PubMed Central

Carbohydrates play a central role in a wide range of biological processes. As with nucleic acids and proteins, modifications of specific sites within the glycan chain can modulate a carbohydrate’s overall biological function. For example, acylation, methylation, sulfation, epimerization, and phosphorylation can occur at various positions within a carbohydrate to modulate bioactivity. Therefore, there is significant interest in identifying discrete carbohydrate modifications and understanding their biological effects. Additionally, enzymes that catalyze those modifications and proteins that bind modified glycans provide numerous targets for therapeutic intervention. This review will focus on modifications of glycans that occur after the oligomer/polymer has been assembled, generally referred to as postglycosylational modifications. PMID:22195988

Muthana, Saddam M.; Campbell, Christopher; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C.

2012-01-01

371

Synthetic biology of cyanobacteria: unique challenges and opportunities  

PubMed Central

Photosynthetic organisms, and especially cyanobacteria, hold great promise as sources of renewably-produced fuels, bulk and specialty chemicals, and nutritional products. Synthetic biology tools can help unlock cyanobacteria's potential for these functions, but unfortunately tool development for these organisms has lagged behind that for S. cerevisiae and E. coli. While these organisms may in many cases be more difficult to work with as “chassis” strains for synthetic biology than certain heterotrophs, the unique advantages of autotrophs in biotechnology applications as well as the scientific importance of improved understanding of photosynthesis warrant the development of these systems into something akin to a “green E. coli.” In this review, we highlight unique challenges and opportunities for development of synthetic biology approaches in cyanobacteria. We review classical and recently developed methods for constructing targeted mutants in various cyanobacterial strains, and offer perspective on what genetic tools might most greatly expand the ability to engineer new functions in such strains. Similarly, we review what genetic parts are most needed for the development of cyanobacterial synthetic biology. Finally, we highlight recent methods to construct genome-scale models of cyanobacterial metabolism and to use those models to measure properties of autotrophic metabolism. Throughout this paper, we discuss some of the unique challenges of a diurnal, autotrophic lifestyle along with how the development of synthetic biology and biotechnology in cyanobacteria must fit within those constraints. PMID:24009604

Berla, Bertram M.; Saha, Rajib; Immethun, Cheryl M.; Maranas, Costas D.; Moon, Tae Seok; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

2013-01-01

372

Biosynthetic Potential of Phylogenetically Unique Endophytic Actinomycetes from Tropical Plants? †  

PubMed Central

The culturable diversity of endophytic actinomycetes associated with tropical, native plants is essentially unexplored. In this study, 123 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from tropical plants collected from several locations in Papua New Guinea and Mborokua Island, Solomon Islands. Isolates were found to be prevalent in roots but uncommon in leaves. Initially, isolates were dereplicated to the strain level by ribotyping. Subsequent characterization of 105 unique strains by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that 17 different genera were represented, and rare genera, such as Sphaerisporangium and Planotetraspora, which have never been previously reported to be endophytic, were quite prevalent. Phylogenetic analyses grouped many of the strains into clades distinct from known genera within Thermomonosporaceae and Micromonosporaceae, indicating that they may be unique genera. Bioactivity testing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling of crude fermentation extracts were performed on 91 strains. About 60% of the extracts exhibited bioactivity or displayed LC-MS profiles with spectra indicative of secondary metabolites. The biosynthetic potential of 29 nonproductive strains was further investigated by the detection of putative polyketide synthase (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes. Despite their lack of detectable secondary metabolite production in fermentation, most were positive for type I (66%) and type II (79%) PKS genes, and all were positive for NRPS genes. These results suggest that tropical plants from New Guinea and the adjacent archipelago are hosts to unique endophytic actinomycetes that possess significant biosynthetic potential. PMID:20472734

Janso, Jeffrey E.; Carter, Guy T.

2010-01-01

373

Unique symbol for marking and tracking very small semiconductor products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of tracking very small semiconductor products with a bar code is easily overcome by the use of the matrix symbol, which is a unique two-dimensional symbol that is the most space efficient method of packing binary data. It is both machine written and machine read to provide the utmost in accuracy and repeatability. The number of data cells can either be expanded or contracted to handle the required information and in addition can contain parity and error correcting codes. Semiconductor chips, wafers, substrates, modules and even masks can all be laser marked with this symbol and quickly read at any later stage of the manufacturing process. This unique symbol is computer generated by a software algorithm which creates the data cells and data frame which are laser etched on the product. On-line product identification yields immediate benefits in manufacturing such as inventory control, proper mating of parts, proper selection of test programs, quality control, etc. Use of a very small unique machine readable symbol now permits these benefits to be extended to miniature parts in an automated high speed manufacturing line.

Martin, James P.

1991-12-01

374

Surface Modifications in Adhesion and Wetting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in surface modification are changing the world. Changing surface properties of bulk materials with nanometer scale coatings enables inventions ranging from the familiar non-stick frying pan to advanced composite aircraft. Nanometer or monolayer coatings used to modify a surface affect the macro-scale properties of a system; for example, composite adhesive joints between the fuselage and internal frame of Boeing's 787 Dreamliner play a vital role in the structural stability of the aircraft. This dissertation focuses on a collection of surface modification techniques that are used in the areas of adhesion and wetting. Adhesive joints are rapidly replacing the familiar bolt and rivet assemblies used by the aerospace and automotive industries. This transition is fueled by the incorporation of composite materials into aircraft and high performance road vehicles. Adhesive joints have several advantages over the traditional rivet, including, significant weight reduction and efficient stress transfer between bonded materials. As fuel costs continue to rise, the weight reduction is accelerating this transition. Traditional surface pretreatments designed to improve the adhesion of polymeric materials to metallic surfaces are extremely toxic. Replacement adhesive technologies must be compatible with the environment without sacrificing adhesive performance. Silane-coupling agents have emerged as ideal surface modifications for improving composite joint strength. As these coatings are generally applied as very thin layers (<50 nm), it is challenging to characterize their material properties for correlation to adhesive performance. We circumvent this problem by estimating the elastic modulus of the silane-based coatings using the buckling instability formed between two materials of a large elastic mismatch. The elastic modulus is found to effectively predict the joint strength of an epoxy/aluminum joint that has been reinforced with silane coupling agents. This buckling technique is extended to investigate the effects of chemical composition on the elastic modulus. Finally, the effect of macro-scale roughness on silane-reinforced joints is investigated within the framework of the unresolved problem of how to best characterize rough surfaces. Initially, the fractal dimension is used to characterize grit-blasted and sanded surfaces. It is found that, contrary to what has been suggested in the literature, the fractal dimension is independent of the roughening mechanism. Instead, the use of an anomalous diffusion coefficient is proposed as a more effective way to characterize a rough surface. Surface modification by preparation of surface energy gradients is then investigated. Materials with gradients in surface energy are useful in the areas of microfluidics, heat transfer and protein adsorption, to name a few. Gradients are prepared by vapor deposition of a reactive silane from a filter paper source. The technique gives control over the size and shape of the gradient. This surface modification is then used to induce droplet motion through repeated stretching and compression of a water drop between two gradient surfaces. This inchworm type motion is studied in detail and offers an alternative method to surface vibration for moving drops in microfluidic devices. The final surface modification considered is the application of a thin layer of rubber to a rigid surface. While this technique has many practical uses, such as easy release coatings in marine environments, it is applied herein to enable spontaneous healing between a rubber surface and a glass cover slip. Study of the diffusion controlled healing of a blister can be made by trapping an air filled blister between a glass cover slip and a rubber film. Through this study we find evidence for an interfacial diffusion process. This mechanism of diffusion is likely to be important in many biological systems.

Longley, Jonathan

375

Transfer RNA modifications: Nature’s combinatorial chemistry playground  

PubMed Central

Following synthesis, tRNAs are peppered by numerous chemical modifications which may differentially affect a tRNA’s structure and function. Although modifications affecting the business ends of a tRNA are predictably important for cell viability, a majority of modifications play more subtle structural roles that can affect tRNA stability and folding. The current trend is that modifications act in concert and it is in the context of the specific sequence of a given tRNA that they impart their differing effects. Recent developments in the modification field have highlighted the diversity of modifications in tRNA. From these the combinatorial nature of modifications in explaining previously described phenotypes derived from their absence has emerged as a growing theme. PMID:23139145

Jackman, Jane E.; Alfonzo, Juan D.

2012-01-01

376

Applications for unique identifiers in the geological sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even though geology has always been a generalist discipline in many parts, approaches towards questions about Earth's past have become increasingly interdisciplinary. At the same time, a wealth of samples has been collected, the resulting data have been stored in in disciplinary databases, the interpretations published in scientific literature. In the past these resources have existed alongside each other, semantically linked only by the knowledge of the researcher and his peers. One of the main drivers towards the inception of the world wide web was the ability to link scientific sources over the internet. The Uniform Resource Locator (URL) used to locate resources on the web soon turned out to be ephemeral in nature. A more reliable way of addressing objects was needed, a way of persistent identification to make digital objects, or digital representations of objects, part of the record of science. With their high degree of centralisation the scientific publishing houses were quick to implement and adopt a system for unique and persistent identification, the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) ®. At the same time other identifier systems exist alongside DOI, e.g. URN, ARK, handle ®, and others. There many uses for persistent identification in science, other than the identification of journal articles. DOI are already used for the identification of data, thus making data citable. There are several initiatives to assign identifiers to authors and institutions to allow unique identification. A recent development is the application of persistent identifiers for geological samples. As most data in the geosciences are derived from samples, it is crucial to be able to uniquely identify the samples from which a set of data were derived. Incomplete documentation of samples in publications, use of ambiguous sample names are major obstacles for synthesis studies and re-use of data. Access to samples for re-analysis and re-appraisal is limited due to the lack of a central catalogue that allows finding a sample's archiving location. The International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) provides solutions to the questions of unique sample identification and discovery. Use of the IGSN in digital data systems allows building linkages between the digital representation of samples in sample registries, e.g. SESAR, and their related data in the literature and in web accessible digital data repositories. Persistent identifiers are now available for literature, data, samples, and authors. More applications, e.g. identification of methods or instruments, will follow. In conjunction with semantic web technology the application of unique and persistent identifiers in the geosciences will aid discovery both through systematic data mining, exploratory data analysis, and serendipity effects. This talk will discuss existing and emerging applications for persistent identifiers in the geological sciences.

Klump, J.; Lehnert, K. A.

2012-12-01

377

STS-114: Discovery Propulsion System Modification Briefing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A briefing on the propulsion system modification of the STS-114 Discovery is presented. June Malone, NASA Public Affairs, introduces the panel who consists of: Sandy Coleman, External Tank Project Manager, Neil Otte, External Tank Chief Engineer, and Tom Williams, Solid Rocket Booster, Deputy Project Manager. Neil Otte presents charts on new requirements for foam debris reduction on the external tank. He also presents charts describing the Forward Bipod Redesign, LO2 Feedline Bellows Location, LH2 Intertank Flange Location, and In-Flight Imagery. Tom Williams presents charts describing Solid Rocket Booster Activities and Return to Flight efforts.

2005-01-01

378

Microwave-mediated enzymatic modifications of DNA.  

PubMed

Here we report microwave-induced specific cleavage, ligation, dephosphorylation, and phosphorylation of nucleic acids catalyzed by restriction endonucleases, T4 DNA ligase, T4 polynucleotide kinase, and calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase. The microwave-mediated method has dramatically reduced the reaction time to 20 to 50s. In control experiments, the same reactions failed to give the desired reaction products when carried out in the same time periods but without microwave irradiation. Because the microwave method is rapid, it could be a useful alternative to the time-consuming conventional procedure for enzymatic modification of DNA. PMID:25447491

Das, Rakha Hari; Ahirwar, Rajesh; Kumar, Saroj; Nahar, Pradip

2015-02-15

379

Materials Modification in Nanotechnology: Advanced Etch Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint created and presented by the Nanotechnology Applications and Career Knowledge (NACK) Center discusses etch systems. The presentation provides descriptions and examples of nine different system classifications, including Horizontal Plate RIE, Parallel Plate Etch, Microwave Etch, Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Etch, Hexode RIE, MERIE, Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Etch, Ion Beam Etch, and Advanced Strip and Passivation (ASP). This presentation also has a cluster tools section, explaining their function and configuration. This is a great resource for any classroom looking at nanofabrication modifications. This and all other valuable resources from the NACK Center require a fast, easy, free log-in.

2010-03-17

380

Modification of surface energy in nuclear multifragmentation  

SciTech Connect

Within the statistical multifragmentation model we study modifications of the surface and symmetry energy of primary fragments in the freeze-out volume. The ALADIN experimental data on multifragmentation obtained in reactions induced by high-energy projectiles with different neutron richness are analyzed. We have extracted the isospin dependence of the surface energy coefficient at different degrees of fragmentation. We conclude that the surface energy of hot fragments produced in multifragmentation reactions differs from the values extracted for isolated nuclei at low excitation. At high fragment multiplicity, it becomes nearly independent of the neutron content of the fragments.

Botvina, A. S. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, RU-117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Buyukcizmeci, N.; Erdogan, M. [Department of Physics, University of Selcuk, TR-42079 Konya (Turkey); Lukasik, J. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Pl-31342 Krakow (Poland); Mishustin, I. N. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, J.W. Goethe University, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Kurchatov Institute, Russian Research Center, RU-123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Ogul, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Selcuk, TR-42079 Konya (Turkey); Trautmann, W. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

2006-10-15

381

Covalent modification of proteins by cocaine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cocaine covalently modifies proteins through a reaction in which the methyl ester of cocaine acylates the -amino group of lysine residues. This reaction is highly specific in vitro, because no other amino acid reacts with cocaine, and only cocaine's methyl ester reacts with the lysine side chain. Covalently modified proteins were present in the plasma of rats and human subjects chronically exposed to cocaine. Modified endogenous proteins are immunogenic, and specific antibodies were elicited in mouse and detected in the plasma of human subjects. Covalent modification of proteins could explain cocaine's autoimmune effects and provide a new biochemical approach to cocaine's long-term actions.

Deng, Shi-Xian; Bharat, Narine; Fischman, Marian C.; Landry, Donald W.

2002-03-01

382

Covalent modification of proteins by cocaine  

PubMed Central

Cocaine covalently modifies proteins through a reaction in which the methyl ester of cocaine acylates the ?-amino group of lysine residues. This reaction is highly specific in vitro, because no other amino acid reacts with cocaine, and only cocaine's methyl ester reacts with the lysine side chain. Covalently modified proteins were present in the plasma of rats and human subjects chronically exposed to cocaine. Modified endogenous proteins are immunogenic, and specific antibodies were elicited in mouse and detected in the plasma of human subjects. Covalent modification of proteins could explain cocaine's autoimmune effects and provide a new biochemical approach to cocaine's long-term actions. PMID:11891282

Deng, Shi-Xian; Bharat, Narine; Fischman, Marian C.; Landry, Donald W.

2002-01-01

383

Structural Mapping of Post-translational Modifications in Human Interleukin-24  

PubMed Central

Human interleukin-24 (IL-24) is unique among the IL-10 superfamily as there is considerable evidence that it possesses multiple anti-cancer properties, including direct tumor cell cytotoxicity, helper T cell (TH1) immune stimulation, and anti-angiogenic activities. The primary sequence of human IL-24 differs from homologous cytokines, because it possesses three consensus N-linked glycosylation sites and the potential for a single disulfide bond. To address the significance of these modifications in human IL-24, we analyzed the relationship between post-translational modifications and the cytokine activity of the human IL-24 protein. In contrast to related interleukins, we identified a relationship between net glycosylation, protein solubility, and cytokine activity. In addition, abrogation of the two cysteine residues by mutagenesis dramatically altered the ability of IL-24 to secrete from host cells and resulted in the concomitant loss of IL-24 activity. We conclude that, unlike other IL-10 family members, human IL-24 must be glycosylated to maintain solubility and bioavailability. Further, a single, unique disulfide bond is required for secretion and activity. These structure-function relationships show that, although IL-24 is a member of the IL-19 subfamily of IL-10-like cytokines by sequence similarity, its surface properties and its distinctive disulfide arrangement make it unique. These observations could explain the novel biological activities measured of this cytokine. Understanding the structural basis of IL-24 activity will be important in the interpretation of the function of this cytokine and in the development of scale-up strategies for biophysical and clinical applications. PMID:19734147

Fuson, Kerry L.; Zheng, Mingzhong; Craxton, Molly; Pataer, Abujiang; Ramesh, Rajagopal; Chada, Sunil; Sutton, R. Bryan

2009-01-01

384

Basic Mechanics of DNA Methylation and the Unique Landscape of the DNA Methylome in Metal-Induced Carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation plays an intricate role in the regulation of gene expression and events that compromise the integrity of the methylome may potentially contribute to disease development. DNA methylation is a reversible and regulatory modification that elicits a cascade of events leading to chromatin condensation and gene silencing. In general, normal cells are characterized by gene-specific hypomethylation and global hypermethylation, while cancer cells portray a reverse profile to this norm. The unique methylome displayed in cancer cells is induced after exposure to carcinogenic metals such as nickel, arsenic, cadmium, and chromium (VI). These metals alter the DNA methylation profile by provoking both hyper- and hypomethylation events. The metal-stimulated deviations to the methylome are possible mechanisms for metal-induced carcinogenesis and may provide potential biomarkers for cancer detection. Development of therapies based on the cancer methylome requires further research including human studies that supply results with larger impact and higher human relevance. PMID:23844698

Brocato, Jason; Costa, Max

2013-01-01

385

Water-soluble and optically pH-sensitive single-walled carbon nanotubes from surface modification.  

PubMed

There is great interest in using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as nanoscale probes and sensors in biological electronics and optical devices because the electronic and optical properties of SWNTs are extremely sensitive to the surrounding environments. A well-controlled modification of SWNT surfaces may provide unique interfaces that are sensitive to the biological variables such as pH, glucose, various ions and proteins. In this paper, we report a facile chemical routine to prepare water-soluble SWNTs that still retain their van Hove singularities after acid oxidative treatment. The aqueous solutions (0.03-0.15 mg/mL) are stable for more than a month. The solubility in water for as-treated SWNTs with surfaces modified by carboxylate groups provides us with a unique opportunity to reveal the relationship of the SWNT electronic and optical properties with pH. Here we present the first observation that after surface modification with carboxylate groups, the optical absorption of the first interband transition of as-treated water-soluble semiconducting SWNTs reversibly responds to the pH change in aqueous solutions. Our results indicate that surface modification of SWNTs is a promising way for preparing chemically selective SWNT interfaces, which may open new exciting opportunities for various applications. PMID:12381176

Zhao, Wei; Song, Chulho; Pehrsson, Pehr E

2002-10-23

386

See-Saw Modification of Gravity  

E-print Network

We discuss a model in which the fundamental scale of gravity is restricted to 10^{-3} eV. An observable modification of gravity occurs simultaneously at the Hubble distance and at around 0.1 mm. These predictions can be tested both by the table-top experiments and by cosmological measurements. The model is formulated as a brane-world theory embedded in a space with two or more infinite-volume extra dimensions. Gravity on the brane reproduces the four-dimensional laws at observable distances but turns to the high-dimensional behavior at larger scales. To determine the crossover distance we smooth out the singularities in the Green's functions by taking into account softening of the graviton propagator due to the high-dimensional operators that are suppressed by the fundamental scale. We find that irrespective of the precise nature of microscopic gravity the ultraviolet and infrared scales of gravity-modification are rigidly correlated. This fixes the fundamental scale of gravity at 10^{-3} eV. The result persists for nonzero thickness branes.

Gia Dvali; Gregory Gabadadze; Xin-rui Hou; Emiliano Sefusatti

2001-11-29

387

Current practices for modification of paving asphalts  

SciTech Connect

The Superpave binder specification, AASHTO MP1, has introduced new concepts for selecting paving asphalt binders. The specification, in addition to using rheological and failure measurements that are more related to performance, is based on the idea that the criteria to maintain a satisfactory contribution of asphalt binders to the resistance of pavement failures remains the same but have to be satisfied at critical application temperatures. The test procedures require that the material be characterized within certain ranges of strains or stresses to ensure that material and geometric non-linearities are not confounded in the measurements. These new specification concepts have resulted in re-evaluation of asphalt modification by the majority of modified asphalt suppliers. The philosophy of asphalt modification is expected to change, following these new concepts, from a general improvement of quality to more focus on using modifiers based on the most critical need as defined by two factors: (1) The application temperature domain and (2) the type of distress to be remedied. The new specification requirements should result in a more effective use of modifiers as the amount and type of modifier will be directly related to the application environment and the engineering requirements.

Bahia, H.U.; Perdomo, D. [Asphalt Institute, Lexington, KY (United States)

1996-12-31

388

The NEDD8 modification pathway in plants  

PubMed Central

NEDD8, in plants and yeasts also known as RELATED TO UBIQUITIN (RUB), is an evolutionarily conserved 76 amino acid protein highly related to ubiquitin. Like ubiquitin, NEDD8 can be conjugated to and deconjugated from target proteins, but unlike ubiquitin, NEDD8 has not been reported to form chains similar to the different polymeric ubiquitin chains that have a role in a diverse set of cellular processes. NEDD8-modification is best known as a post-translational modification of the cullin subunits of cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases. In this context, structural analyses have revealed that neddylation induces a conformation change of the cullin that brings the ubiquitylation substrates into proximity of the interacting E2 conjugating enzyme. In turn, NEDD8 deconjugation destabilizes the cullin RING ligase complex allowing for the exchange of substrate recognition subunits via the exchange factor CAND1. In plants, components of the neddylation and deneddylation pathway were identified based on mutants with defects in auxin and light responses and the characterization of these mutants has been instrumental for the elucidation of the neddylation pathway. More recently, there has been evidence from animal and plant systems that NEDD8 conjugation may also regulate the behavior or fate of non-cullin substrates in a number of ways. Here, the current knowledge on NEDD8 processing, conjugation and deconjugation is presented, where applicable, in the context of specific signaling pathways from plants. PMID:24711811

Mergner, Julia; Schwechheimer, Claus

2014-01-01

389

Using global unique identifiers to link autism collections  

PubMed Central

Objective To propose a centralized method for generating global unique identifiers to link collections of research data and specimens. Design The work is a collaboration between the Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative and the National Database for Autism Research. The system is implemented as a web service: an investigator inputs identifying information about a participant into a client application and sends encrypted information to a server application, which returns a generated global unique identifier. The authors evaluated the system using a volume test of one million simulated individuals and a field test on 2000 families (over 8000 individual participants) in an autism study. Measurements Inverse probability of hash codes; rate of false identity of two individuals; rate of false split of single individual; percentage of subjects for which identifying information could be collected; percentage of hash codes generated successfully. Results Large-volume simulation generated no false splits or false identity. Field testing in the Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative Simplex Collection produced identifiers for 96% of children in the study and 77% of parents. On average, four out of five hash codes per subject were generated perfectly (only one perfect hash is required for subsequent matching). Discussion The system must achieve balance among the competing goals of distinguishing individuals, collecting accurate information for matching, and protecting confidentiality. Considerable effort is required to obtain approval from institutional review boards, obtain consent from participants, and to achieve compliance from sites during a multicenter study. Conclusion Generic unique identifiers have the potential to link collections of research data, augment the amount and types of data available for individuals, support detection of overlap between collections, and facilitate replication of research findings. PMID:20962132

Whitney, Glen; McAuliffe, Matthew; Wang, Hailong; McCreedy, Evan; Rozenblit, Leon; Evans, Clark C

2010-01-01

390

Heterogeneous polymer modification: Polyolefin maleation in supercritical carbon dioxide and amorphous fluoropolymer surface modification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three distinct heterogeneous polymer modification reactions are explored in this work. The first is a bulk reaction commonly conducted on polyolefins---the free radical addition of maleic anhydride. This reaction was run using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) as the solvent. The second was the chemical surface modification of an amorphous fluorocopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene and a perfluorodioxole monomer (Teflon AF). Several reactions were explored to reduce the surface of the fluorocopolymer for the enhancement of wettability. The last modification was also on Teflon AF and involved the physical modification of the surface through the transport polymerization of xylylene in order to synthesize a novel bilayer membrane. The bulk maleation of poly-4-methyl-1-pentene (PMP) was the focus of the first project. SC CO2 was utilized as both solvent and swelling agent to promote this heterogeneous reaction and led to successful grafting of anhydride groups on both PMP and linear low density polyethylene. Varying the reaction conditions and reagent concentrations allowed optimization of the reaction. The grafted anhydride units were found to exist as single maleic and succinic grafts, and the PMP became crosslinked upon maleation. The surface of a fluoropolymer can be difficult to alter. An examination of three reactions was made to determine the reactivity of Teflon AF: sodium naphthalenide treatment (Na-Nap), aluminum metal modification through deposition and dissolution, and mercury/ammonia photosensitization. The fluorocopolymer with the lower perfluorodioxole percentage was found to be more reactive towards modification with the Na-Nap treatment. The other modification reactions appeared to be nearly equally reactive toward both fluorocopolymers. The functionality of the Na-Nap-treated surface was examined in detail with the use of several derivatization reactions. In the final project, an asymmetric gas separation membrane was synthesized using Teflon AF as the highly permeable support layer and chemical vapor deposited poly(p-xylylene) (PPX) as the thin selective layer. This bilayer membrane has oxygen and nitrogen permeability values close to those predicted by the series resistance model. To enhance the weak adhesive bond between Teflon AF and PPX, Na-Nap reduction was used to modify the Teflon AF surface prior to the vapor deposition polymerization of di-p-xylylene monomer.

Hayes, Heather J.

1999-11-01

391

WIYN's New Unique Multi-size Fiber IFUs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new integral field units (IFUs) were installed recently on the WIYN Observatory's 3.5-meter telescope at Kitt Peak. These unique IFUs contain fibers of different sizes in the same head. This design allows smaller fibers to sample regions of higher surface brightness, providing higher spatial resolution while maintaining adequate signal-to-noise (S/N). Conversely, larger fibers maintain S/N at the expense of spatial resolution in the lower surface brightness regions of galaxies. The new IFUs were built with funds from NSF award ATI-0804576.

Hooper, E. J.; Wolf, M. J.; Bershady, M. A.; Eigenbrot, A. D.; Wood, C. M.; Buckley, S. A.; Smith, M. P.; Corson, C.; Zhu, G. Y.; Vang, A.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Sheinis, A. I.

2015-02-01

392

Unique Cerebrovascular Anomalies in Noonan Syndrome With RAF1 Mutation.  

PubMed

Noonan syndrome is a common autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder caused by gain-of-function germline mutations affecting components of the Ras-MAPK pathway. The authors present the case of a 6-year-old male with Noonan syndrome, Chiari malformation type I, shunted benign external hydrocephalus in infancy, and unique cerebrovascular changes. A de novo heterozygous change in the RAF1 gene was identified. The patient underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography to further clarify the nature of his abnormal brain vasculature. The authors compared his findings to the few cases of Noonan syndrome reported with cerebrovascular pathology. PMID:23877478

Zarate, Yuri A; Lichty, Angie W; Champion, Kristen J; Clarkson, L Kate; Holden, Kenton R; Matheus, M Gisele

2013-07-21

393

A Unique Dermoscopy Pattern of Solitary Cutaneous Reticulohistiocytosis  

PubMed Central

Histiocytosis represents a group of rare disorders characterized by nonneoplastic proliferation of histiocytes and solitary cutaneous reticulohistiocytosis (SCR) is a form of non-Langerhans histiocytosis. SCR consists of small papule, usually single, varying in color from yellow to brownish-red, more frequent in young adults, and uncommon in childhood. We report a case of SCR in an 11-year-old child and emphasize a unique dermoscopy pattern of this lesion and its correlation with clinical and histopathological aspects in the diagnosis. PMID:23476822

Nogueira, Letycia Lopes Chagas; Chaves, Gabriel Monteiro de Castro; Muniz, Mariana Daflon Vinhosa; Timbó, Renata Pinto Fernandes; Sasse, Mariana Martins; Meotti, Carolina Degen

2013-01-01

394

Obstetric anesthesia for harlequin ichthyosis: a unique challenge.  

PubMed

Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is a rare disorder of defective lipid transport resulting in severe epidermal hyperkeratosis producing large plate-like scales. Although mortality is high, improved treatments have allowed some with HI to survive into their third and fourth decades. However, until this case, there have been no known reports of pregnancy followed by birth of a healthy neonate to a mother with HI. We report one of the only approximately 25 known current HI survivors worldwide unique in having carried a pregnancy to full term and outline challenges for the anesthesiologist during labor and delivery. PMID:25611001

Rosenbaum, Thea; Rosenbaum, Eric R; Lienhart, Kristen L; Choate, Andrea I

2015-01-15

395

Unique Mechanism of Chance Fracture in a Young Adult Male  

PubMed Central

Since the first description of the Chance fracture in 1948, there have been few case reports of unique mechanisms causing this classical flexion-extension injury to the spine in motor vehicle accidents, sports injury, and falls. To our knowledge, this injury has not been reported from a fall with the mechanistic forces acting laterally on the spine and with spinal support in place. We present a 21-year-old male who slid down a flight of stairs onto his side wearing a heavy mountaineering style backpack, subsequently sustaining a Chance fracture of his first lumbar vertebrae. PMID:23599852

Birch, Aaron; Walsh, Ryan; Devita, Diane

2013-01-01

396

A unique exercise facility for simulating orbital extravehicular activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique exercise facility has been developed and used to simulate orbital extravehicular activity (EVA). The device incorporates an arm ergometer into a mechanism which places the subject in the zero-g neutral body posture. The intent of this configuration is to elicit muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses similar to those observed during orbital EVA. Experiments done with this facility will help characterize the astronaut's dynamic heat balance during EVA and will eventually lead to the development of an automated thermal control system which would more effectively maintain thermal comfort.

Williamson, Rebecca C.; Sharer, Peter J.; Webbon, Bruce W.

397

Apparatus for controlling system state based on unique identifiers  

DOEpatents

An apparatus allows workers to assert and release control over the energization of a system. The apparatus does not require the workers to carry any additional paraphernalia, and is not be easily defeated by other workers. Users asserting and releasing control present tokens uniquely identifying each user to a reader, and the apparatus prevents transition of the system to an undesired state until an appropriate number of users are currently asserting control. For example, a dangerous manufacturing robot can be prevented from energizing until all the users that have asserted control when entering the robot's controlled space have subsequently released control when leaving the robot's controlled space.

Drotning, William D. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

398

Acute Onset Collagenous Colitis with Unique Endoscopic Findings  

PubMed Central

We experienced a rare case of 72-year-old woman with acute onset collagenous colitis (CC) induced by lansoprazole. The patient developed acute abdominal pain, watery diarrhea, and melena that are quite rare in usual CC. We could find the characteristic colonoscopic findings such as active long liner ulcers in the patient. We also observed the healing courses of these unique findings. Our case indicates two important points of view. (1) CC sometimes develops with acute onset symptoms which resemble those of ischemic colitis. (2) Colonoscopy would be useful and necessary to distinguish acute onset CC and ischemic colitis. PMID:25610672

Kuhroha, Masatake; Kinouchi, Yoshitaka; Shimosegawa, Tooru

2014-01-01

399

Some Unique Constants Associated with Extremal Black Holes  

E-print Network

In recent papers we had developed a unified picture of black hole entropy and curvature which was shown to lead to Hawking radiation. It was shown that for any black hole mass, holography implies a phase space of just one quantum associated with the interior of the black hole. Here we study extremal rotating and charged black holes and obtain unique values for ratios of angular momentum to entropy, charge to entropy, etc. It turns out that these ratios can be expressed in terms of fundamental constants in nature, having analogies with other physical systems, like in condensed matter physics.

C. Sivaram; Kenath Arun

2012-02-04

400

On the uniqueness of flow in a recent tsunami model  

E-print Network

We give an elementary proof of uniqueness for the integral curve starting from the vertical axis in the phase-plane analysis of the recent model [A. Constantin, R.S. Johnson, Propagation of very long water waves, with vorticity, over variable depth, with applications to tsunamis, Fluid Dynam. Res. 40 (2008), 175--211]. Our technique can be applied easily in circumstances where the reparametrization device from [A. Constantin, A dynamical systems approach towards isolated vorticity regions for tsunami background states, Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. doi: 10.1007/s00205-010-0347-1] might lead to some serious difficulties.

Octavian G. Mustafa

2011-03-12

401

A unique exercise facility for simulating orbital extravehicular activity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique exercise facility has been developed and used to simulate orbital extravehicular activity (EVA). The device incorporates an arm ergometer into a mechanism which places the subject in the zero-g neutral body posture. The intent of this configuration is to elicit muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses similar to those observed during orbital EVA. Experiments done with this facility will help characterize the astronaut's dynamic heat balance during EVA and will eventually lead to the development of an automated thermal control system which would more effectively maintain thermal comfort.

Williamson, Rebecca C.; Sharer, Peter J.; Webbon, Bruce W.

1993-01-01

402

On the uniqueness of flow in a recent tsunami model  

E-print Network

We give an elementary proof of uniqueness for the integral curve starting from the vertical axis in the phase-plane analysis of the recent model [A. Constantin, R.S. Johnson, Propagation of very long water waves, with vorticity, over variable depth, with applications to tsunamis, Fluid Dynam. Res. 40 (2008), 175--211]. Our technique can be applied easily in circumstances where the reparametrization device from [A. Constantin, A dynamical systems approach towards isolated vorticity regions for tsunami background states, Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. doi: 10.1007/s00205-010-0347-1] might lead to some serious difficulties.

Mustafa, Octavian G

2011-01-01

403

SOCIOGENESIS VERSUS PSYCHOGENESIS: THE UNIQUE SOCIOLOGY OF NORBERT ELIAS  

E-print Network

>. ;, REVIEW FEATURE ESSAY SOCIOGENESIS VERSUS PSYCHOGENESIS: THE UNIQUE SOCI·OLOGY OF NORBERT ELIAS* Alan Sica University ofKansas One wonders, as Elias must, what form sociology and its theories would have taken, in Europe and the U.S., had his... (1937) and The Social System (1951), might have been mitigated, or at least refined. Elias certainly thinks so, as he explains at length in the 1968 preface to the second German edition (appended to this translation). If Parsons, on the right, could...

Sica, Alan

1984-04-01

404

Copernicus crater central peak: lunar mountain of unique composition.  

PubMed

Olivine is identified as the major mafic mineral in a central peak of Copernicus crater. Information on the mineral assemblages of such unsampled lunar surface material is provided by near infrared reflectance spectra (0.7 to 2.5 micrometers) obtained with Earth-based telescopes. The composition of the deep-seated material comprising the Copernicus central peak is unique among measured areas. Other lunar terra areas and the wall of Copernicus exhibit spectral characteristics of mineral assemblages comparable to the feldspathic breccias returned by the Apollo missions, with low-calcium orthopyroxene being the major mafic mineral. PMID:17790469

Pieters, C M

1982-01-01

405

Copernicus crater central peak - Lunar mountain of unique composition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Olivine is identified as the major mafic mineral in a central peak of Copernicus crater. Information on the mineral assemblages of such unsampled lunar surface material is provided by near infrared reflectance spectra (0.7 to 2.5 micrometers) obtained with earth-based telescopes. The composition of the deep-seated material comprising the Copernicus central peak is unique among measured areas. Other lunar terra areas and the wall of Copernicus exhibit spectral characteristics of mineral assemblages comparable to the feldspathic breccias returned by the Apollo missions, with low-calcium orthopyroxene being the major mafic mineral.

Pieters, C. M.

1982-01-01

406

Unique Signature of Dark Matter in Ancient Mica  

E-print Network

Mica can store (for >1 Gy) etchable tracks caused by atoms recoiling from WIMPs. Because a background from fission neutrons will eventually limit this technique, a unique signature for WIMPs in ancient mica is needed. Our motion around the center of the Galaxy causes WIMPs, unlike neutrons, to enter the mica from a preferred direction on the sky. Mica is a directional detector and despite the complex rotations that natural mica crystals make with respect to this WIMP ``wind,'' there is a substantial dependence of etch pit density on present day mica orientation.

Daniel P. Snowden-Ifft; Andrew J. Westphal

1997-01-28

407

Unique Signature of Dark Matter in Ancient Mica  

E-print Network

Mica can store (for >1 Gy) etchable tracks caused by atoms recoiling from WIMPs. Because a background from fission neutrons will eventually limit this technique, a unique signature for WIMPs in ancient mica is needed. Our motion around the center of the Galaxy causes WIMPs, unlike neutrons, to enter the mica from a preferred direction on the sky. Mica is a directional detector and despite the complex rotations that natural mica crystals make with respect to this WIMP ``wind,'' there is a substantial dependence of etch pit density on present day mica orientation.

Snowden-Ifft, D P; Snowden-Ifft, Daniel P.; Westphal, Andrew J.

1997-01-01

408

The unique sound of the Uni-Vibe pedal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A short paper covering optics and music: the Uni-Vibe, which is responsible for the unique sound of Hendrix' Woodstock performance, is one of many phasing devices based on photo conductive cells used as variable resistors. However, its sound is well distinguishable from other phasers. In the paper we shall discuss the basic properties and try to qualify and quantify the effect on the spectra of certain chords. The present paper is a side effect of the musical interests of the authors and is triggered by the announcement of the Novel Systems Session including the topics 'Optics and Music' and Historical Devices.

Hahlweg, Cornelius; Rothe, Hendrik

2012-10-01

409

Unique material requirements in the Space Shuttle Main Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Components operating in staged-combustion cycle liquid fuel rocket engines such as the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs) are subjected to severe temperature changes during start/stop transients, together with extremely high pressures, corrosive gases, high fluid velocities, demanding weight-control criteria, etc. Attention is given to the selection and application of metallic and nonmetallic materials for high temperature resistance, cryogenic properties, and hydrogen and oxygen compatibility. The materials in question include polyimides, Kel-F, Armalon, and Teflon among plastics, and gold and copper platings, weld-overlays and heat treatment modifications among metals and metallic processing techniques. The polymeric materials are oxygen-resistant, and the metallic ones hydrogen-resistant.

Fulton, D. L.; Shoemaker, M. C.; Bashir, S.

1983-01-01

410

Deep, diverse and definitely different: unique attributes of the world's largest ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deep sea, the largest biome on Earth, has a series of characteristics that make this environment both distinct from other marine and land ecosystems and unique for the entire planet. This review describes these patterns and processes, from geological settings to biological processes, biodiversity and biogeographical patterns. It concludes with a brief discussion of current threats from anthropogenic activities to deep-sea habitats and their fauna. Investigations of deep-sea habitats and their fauna began in the late 19th century. In the intervening years, technological developments and stimulating discoveries have promoted deep-sea research and changed our way of understanding life on the planet. Nevertheless, the deep sea is still mostly unknown and current discovery rates of both habitats and species remain high. The geological, physical and geochemical settings of the deep-sea floor and the water column form a series of different habitats with unique characteristics that support specific faunal communities. Since 1840, 28 new habitats/ecosystems have been discovered from the shelf break to the deep trenches and discoveries of new habitats are still happening in the early 21st century. However, for most of these habitats the global area covered is unknown or has been only very roughly estimated; an even smaller - indeed, minimal - proportion has actually been sampled and investigated. We currently perceive most of the deep-sea ecosystems as heterotrophic, depending ultimately on the flux on organic matter produced in the overlying surface ocean through photosynthesis. The resulting strong food limitation thus shapes deep-sea biota and communities, with exceptions only in reducing ecosystems such as inter alia hydrothermal vents or cold seeps. Here, chemoautolithotrophic bacteria play the role of primary producers fuelled by chemical energy sources rather than sunlight. Other ecosystems, such as seamounts, canyons or cold-water corals have an increased productivity through specific physical processes, such as topographic modification of currents and enhanced transport of particles and detrital matter. Because of its unique abiotic attributes, the deep sea hosts a specialized fauna. Although there are no phyla unique to deep waters, at lower taxonomic levels the composition of the fauna is distinct from that found in the upper ocean. Amongst other characteristic patterns, deep-sea species may exhibit either gigantism or dwarfism, related to the decrease in food availability with depth. Food limitation on the seafloor and water column is also reflected in the trophic structure of heterotrophic deep-sea communities, which are adapted to low energy availability. In most of these heterotrophic habitats, the dominant megafauna is composed of detritivores, while filter feeders are abundant in habitats with hard substrata (e.g. mid-ocean ridges, seamounts, canyon walls and coral reefs). Chemoautotrophy through symbiotic relationships is dominant in reducing habitats. Deep-sea biodiversity is among of the highest on the planet, mainly composed of macro and meiofauna, with high evenness. This is true for most of the continental margins and abyssal plains with hot spots of diversity such as seamounts or cold-water corals. However, in some ecosystems with particularly "extreme" physicochemical processes (e.g. hydrothermal vents), biodiversity is low but abundance and biomass are high and the communities are dominated by a few species. Two large-scale diversity patterns have been discussed for deep-sea benthic communities. First, a unimodal relationship between diversity and depth is observed, with a peak at intermediate depths (2000-3000 m), although this is not universal and particular abiotic processes can modify the trend. Secondly, a poleward trend of decreasing diversity has been discussed, but this remains controversial and studies with larger and more robust data sets are needed. Because of the paucity in our knowledge of habitat coverage and species composition, biogeographic studies are mostly based on region

Ramirez-Llodra, E.; Brandt, A.; Danovaro, R.; de Mol, B.; Escobar, E.; German, C. R.; Levin, L. A.; Martinez Arbizu, P.; Menot, L.; Buhl-Mortensen, P.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Smith, C. R.; Tittensor, D. P.; Tyler, P. A.; Vanreusel, A.; Vecchione, M.

2010-09-01

411

Deep, diverse and definitely different: unique attributes of the world's largest ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deep sea, the largest biome on Earth, has a series of characteristics that make this environment both distinct from other marine and land ecosystems and unique for the entire planet. This review describes these patterns and processes, from geological settings to biological processes, biodiversity and biogeographical patterns. It concludes with a brief discussion of current threats from anthropogenic activities to deep-sea habitats and their fauna. Investigations of deep-sea habitats and their fauna began in the late 19th Century. In the intervening years, technological developments and stimulating discoveries have promoted deep-sea research and changed our way of understanding life on the planet. Nevertheless, the deep sea is still mostly unknown and current discovery rates of both habitats and species remain high. The geological, physical and geochemical settings of the deep-sea floor and the water column form a series of different habitats with unique characteristics that support specific faunal communities. Since 1840, 27 new habitats/ecosystems have been discovered from the shelf break to the deep trenches and discoveries of new habitats are still happening in the early 21st Century. However, for most of these habitats, the global area covered is unknown or has been only very roughly estimated; an even smaller - indeed, minimal - proportion has actually been sampled and investigated. We currently perceive most of the deep-sea ecosystems as heterotrophic, depending ultimately on the flux on organic matter produced in the overlying surface ocean through photosynthesis. The resulting strong food limitation, thus, shapes deep-sea biota and communities, with exceptions only in reducing ecosystems such as inter alia hydrothermal vents or cold seeps, where chemoautolithotrophic bacteria play the role of primary producers fuelled by chemical energy sources rather than sunlight. Other ecosystems, such as seamounts, canyons or cold-water corals have an increased productivity through specific physical processes, such as topographic modification of currents and enhanced transport of particles and detrital matter. Because of its unique abiotic attributes, the deep sea hosts a specialized fauna. Although there are no phyla unique to deep waters, at lower taxonomic levels the composition of the fauna is distinct from that found in the upper ocean. Amongst other characteristic patterns, deep-sea species may exhibit either gigantism or dwarfism, related to the decrease in food availability with depth. Food limitation on the seafloor and water column is also reflected in the trophic structure of deep-sea communities, which are adapted to low energy availability. In most of the heterotrophic deep-sea settings, the dominant megafauna is composed of detritivores, while filter feeders are abundant in habitats with hard substrata (e.g. mid-ocean ridges, seamounts, canyon walls and coral reefs) and chemoautotrophy through symbiotic relationships is dominant in reducing habitats. Deep-sea biodiversity is among of the highest on the planet, mainly composed of macro and meiofauna, with high evenness. This is true for most of the continental margins and abyssal plains with hot spots of diversity such as seamounts or cold-water corals. However, in some ecosystems with particularly "extreme" physicochemical processes (e.g. hydrothermal vents), biodiversity is low but abundance and biomass are high and the communities are dominated by a few species. Two large-scale diversity patterns have been discussed for deep-sea benthic communities. First, a unimodal relationship between diversity and depth is observed, with a peak at intermediate depths (2000-3000 m), although this is not universal and particular abiotic processes can modify the trend. Secondly, a poleward trend of decreasing diversity has been discussed, but this remains controversial and studies with larger and more robust datasets are needed. Because of the paucity in our knowledge of habitat coverage and species composition, biogeographic studies are mostly based on regional

Ramirez-Llodra, E.; Brandt, A.; Danovaro, R.; Escobar, E.; German, C. R.; Levin, L. A.; Martinez Arbizu, P.; Menot, L.; Buhl-Mortensen, P.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Smith, C. R.; Tittensor, D. P.; Tyler, P. A.; Vanreusel, A.; Vecchione, M.

2010-04-01

412

The Unique Biosynthetic Route from Lupinus ?-Conglutin Gene to Blad  

PubMed Central

Background During seed germination, ?-conglutin undergoes a major cycle of limited proteolysis in which many of its constituent subunits are processed into a 20 kDa polypeptide termed blad. Blad is the main component of a glycooligomer, accumulating exclusively in the cotyledons of Lupinus species, between days 4 and 12 after the onset of germination. Principal Findings The sequence of the gene encoding ?-conglutin precursor (1791 nucleotides) is reported. This gene, which shares 44 to 57% similarity and 20 to 37% identity with other vicilin-like protein genes, includes several features in common with these globulins, but also specific hallmarks. Most notable is the presence of an ubiquitin interacting motif (UIM), which possibly links the unique catabolic route of ?-conglutin to the ubiquitin/proteasome proteolytic pathway. Significance Blad forms through a unique route from and is a stable intermediary product of its precursor, ?-conglutin, the major Lupinus seed storage protein. It is composed of 173 amino acid residues, is encoded by an intron-containing, internal fragment of the gene that codes for ?-conglutin precursor (nucleotides 394 to 913) and exhibits an isoelectric point of 9.6 and a molecular mass of 20,404.85 Da. Consistent with its role as a storage protein, blad contains an extremely high proportion of the nitrogen-rich amino acids. PMID:20066045

Monteiro, Sara; Freitas, Regina; Rajasekhar, Baru T.; Teixeira, Artur R.; Ferreira, Ricardo B.

2010-01-01

413

Unique sodium phosphosilicate glasses designed through extended topological constraint theory.  

PubMed

Sodium phosphosilicate glasses exhibit unique properties with mixed network formers, and have various potential applications. However, proper understanding on the network structures and property-oriented methodology based on compositional changes are lacking. In this study, we have developed an extended topological constraint theory and applied it successfully to analyze the composition dependence of glass transition temperature (Tg) and hardness of sodium phosphosilicate glasses. It was found that the hardness and Tg of glasses do not always increase with the content of SiO2, and there exist maximum hardness and Tg at a certain content of SiO2. In particular, a unique glass (20Na2O-17SiO2-63P2O5) exhibits a low glass transition temperature (589 K) but still has relatively high hardness (4.42 GPa) mainly due to the high fraction of highly coordinated network former Si((6)). Because of its convenient forming and manufacturing, such kind of phosphosilicate glasses has a lot of valuable applications in optical fibers, optical amplifiers, biomaterials, and fuel cells. Also, such methodology can be applied to other types of phosphosilicate glasses with similar structures. PMID:24779999

Zeng, Huidan; Jiang, Qi; Liu, Zhao; Li, Xiang; Ren, Jing; Chen, Guorong; Liu, Fude; Peng, Shou

2014-05-15

414

Covalent Adaptable Networks (CANs): A Unique Paradigm in Crosslinked Polymers  

PubMed Central

Polymer networks possessing reversible covalent crosslinks constitute a novel material class with the capacity for adapting to an externally applied stimulus. These covalent adaptable networks (CANs) represent a trend in polymer network fabrication towards the rational design of structural materials possessing dynamic characteristics for specialty applications. Herein, we discuss the unique attributes of CANs that must be considered when designing, fabricating, and characterizing these smart materials that respond to either thermal or photochemical stimuli. While there are many reversible reactions which to consider as possible crosslink candidates in CANs, there are very few that are readily and repeatedly reversible. Furthermore, characterization of the mechanical properties of CANs requires special consideration owing to their unique attributes. Ultimately, these attributes are what lead to the advantageous properties displayed by CANs, such as recyclability, healability, tunability, shape changes, and low polymerization stress. Throughout this perspective, we identify several trends and future directions in the emerging field of CANs that demonstrate the progress to date as well as the essential elements that are needed for further advancement. PMID:20305795

Kloxin, Christopher J.; Scott, Timothy F.; Adzima, Brian J.; Bowman, Christopher N.

2010-01-01

415

Unique Gold Nanoparticle Aggregates as a Highly Active SERS Substrate  

SciTech Connect

A unique gold nanoparticle aggregate (GNA) system has been shown to be an excellent substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) applications. Rhodamine 6G (R6G), a common molecule used for testing SERS activity on silver, but generally difficult to detect on gold substrates, has been found to readily bind to the GNA and exhibit strong SERS activity due to the unique surface chemistry afforded by sulfur species on the surface. This GNA system has yielded a large SERS enhancement of 10{sup 7}-10{sup 9} in bulk solution for R6G, on par with or greater than any previously reported gold SERS substrate. SERS activity has also been successfully demonstrated for several biological molecules including adenine, L-cysteine, L-lysine, and L-histidine for the first time on a gold SERS substrate, showing the potential of this GNA as a convenient and powerful SERS substrate for biomolecular detection. In addition, SERS spectrum of R6G on single aggregates has been measured. We have shown that the special surface properties of the GNA, in conjunction with strong near IR absorption, make it useful for SERS analysis of a wide variety of molecules.

Schwartzberg, A M; Grant, C D; Wolcott, A; Talley, C E; Huser, T R; Bogomolni, R; Zhang, J Z

2004-04-06

416

Unique Construction and Social Experiences in Residential Remediation Sites - 13423  

SciTech Connect

Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc., (Sevenson) has performed several radiological remediation projects located in residential urban areas. Over the course of these projects, there has been a wide variety of experiences encountered from construction related issues to unique social situations. Some of the construction related issues included the remediation of interior basements where contaminated material was located under the footers of the structure or was used in the mortar between cinder block or field stone foundations. Other issues included site security, maintaining furnaces or other utilities, underpinning, backfilling and restoration. In addition to the radiological hazards associated with this work there were occupational safety and industrial hygiene issues that had to be addressed to ensure the safety and health of neighboring properties and residents. The unique social situations at these job sites have included arson, theft/stolen property, assault/battery, prostitution, execution of arrest warrants for residents, discovery of drugs and paraphernalia, blood borne pathogens, and unexploded ordnance. Some of these situations have become a sort of comical urban legend throughout the organization. One situation had historical significance, involving the demolition of a house to save a tree older than the Declaration of Independence. All of these projects typically involve the excavation of early 20. century items such as advertisement signs, various old bottles (milk, Listerine, perfume, whisky) and other miscellaneous common trash items. (authors)

Jung, Paul; Scarborough, Rebecca [Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc. 2749 Lockport Road, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States)] [Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc. 2749 Lockport Road, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States)

2013-07-01

417

Unique lithiation and delithiation processes of nanostructured metal silicides.  

PubMed

We report that TiSi(2) nanonet exhibits considerable activities in the reversible lithiation and delithiation processes, although bulk-sized titanium silicide is known to be inactive when used as an electrode material for lithium ion batteries. The detailed mechanism of this unique process was studied using electrochemical techniques including the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) method. By systematic characterizations of the Nyquist plots and comparisons with the microstructure examinations, we identified the main reason for the activities as the layered crystal structure that is found stable only in TiSi(2) nanonets. The layer structure is characterized by the existence of a Si-only layer, which exhibits reactivity when exposed to lithium ions. Control studies where TiSi(2) nanowires and TiSi(2)/Si heteronanostructures were involved, respectively, were performed. Similar to bulk TiSi(2), TiSi(2) nanowires show limited reactivity in lithium ion insertion and deinsertion; the EIS characteristics of TiSi(2)/Si heteronanostructures, on the other hand, are distinctly different from those of TiSi(2) nanonets. The result supports our proposed TiSi(2) nanonet lithiation mechanism. This discovery highlights the uniqueness of nanoscale materials and will likely broaden the spectrum of electrode material choices for electrochemical energy storage. PMID:20942440

Zhou, Sa; Wang, Dunwei

2010-11-23

418

Unique Genotypic Differences Discovered among Indigenous Bangladeshi Rice Landraces  

PubMed Central

Bangladesh is a reservoir of diverse rice germplasm and is home to many landraces with unique, important traits. Molecular characterization of these landraces is of value for their identification, preservation, and potential use in breeding programs. Thirty-eight rice landraces from different regions of Bangladesh including some high yielding BRRI varieties were analyzed by 34 polymorphic microsatellite markers yielding a total of 258 reproducible alleles. The analysis could locate 34 unique identifiers for 21 genotypes, making the latter potentially amenable to identity verification. An identity map for these genotypes was constructed with all the 12 chromosomes of the rice genome. Polymorphism information content (PIC) scores of the 34 SSR markers were 0.098 to 0.89 where on average 7.5 alleles were observed. A dendogram constructed using UPGMA clustered the varieties into two major groups and five subgroups. In some cases, the clustering matched with properties like aromaticity, stickiness, salt tolerance, and photoperiod insensitivity. The results will help breeders to work towards the proper utilization of these landraces for parental selection and linkage map construction for discovery of useful alleles. PMID:25301195

Elias, Sabrina M.; Haque, Taslima; Mahbub Hasan, A. K. M.; Seraj, Zeba I.

2014-01-01

419

Design, characterization and control of the Unique Mobility Corporation robot  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space and mass are at a premium on any space mission, and thus any machinery designed for space use should be lightweight and compact, without sacrificing strength. It is for this reason that NASA/LeRC contracted Unique Mobility Corporation to exploit their novel actuator designs to build a robot that would advance the present state of technology with respect to these requirements. Custom-designed motors are the key feature of this robot. They are compact, high-performance dc brushless servo motors with a high pole count and low inductance, thus permitting high torque generation and rapid phase commutation. Using a custom-designed digital signal processor-based controller board, the pulse width modulation power amplifiers regulate the fast dynamics of the motor currents. In addition, the programmable digital signal processor (DSP) controller permits implementation of nonlinear compensation algorithms to account for motoring vs. regeneration, torque ripple, and back-EMF. As a result, the motors produce a high torque relative to their size and weight, and can do so with good torque regulation and acceptably high velocity saturation limits. This paper presents the Unique Mobility Corporation robot prototype: its actuators, its kinematic design, its control system, and its experimental characterization. Performance results, including saturation torques, saturation velocities and tracking accuracy tests are included.

Velasco, Virgilio B., Jr.; Newman, Wyatt S.; Steinetz, Bruce; Kopf, Carlo; Malik, John

1994-01-01

420

Divergence of unique DNA sequences in Lepidoptera (insecta)  

SciTech Connect

The authors contribute additional information about the interrelationship between lepidoteran taxons. Such information may be obtained by the techniques of genosystematics. DNA was extracted from the last larval instars of images by the usual methods. The labeled and unlabeled fragments were 150-250 nucleotide pairs (n.p.) long. DNA hybridization was performed under gentle conditions: 0.5 M Na phosphage buffer, pH 6.8, at 55/sup 0/C, incubation to 10,000 C/sub o/T (product of initial concentration of single-strand DNA molecules, moles/liter, and time of incubation (in seconds)), permitting the comparison of genomes of species from taxons phylogenetically far apart. The ratio of labeled fragments of reference unique DNA sequences to unlabeled total DNA was 1:2500. The techniques of hybridization and determination of the thermal stability (T/sub m/) of the duplexes, taking into account the auto-reassociation of the labeled DNA fragments. The radioactivity was determined in a dioxane-based scintillator, after partial acid hydrolysis of the DNA at 55/sup 0/C, in a counter. Under the experimental conditions chosen, reassociation of unique DNA sequences in homologous reactions was 70-85%

Ado, N.Yu.; Petrov, N.B.

1985-07-01

421

Historical contingency and the purported uniqueness of evolutionary innovations  

PubMed Central

Many events in the history of life are thought to be singular, that is, without parallels, analogs, or homologs in time and space. These claims imply that history is profoundly contingent in that independent origins of life in the universe will spawn radically different histories. If, however, most innovations arose more than once on Earth, histories would be predictable and replicable at the scale of functional roles and directions of adaptive change. Times of origin of 23 purportedly unique evolutionary innovations are significantly more ancient than the times of first instantiation of 55 innovations that evolved more than once, implying that the early phases of life’s history were less replicable than later phases or that the appearance of singularity results from information loss through time. Indirect support for information loss comes from the distribution of sizes of clades in which the same minor, geologically recent innovation has arisen multiple times. For three repeated molluscan innovations, 28–71% of instantiations are represented by clades of five or fewer species. Such small clades would be undetectable in the early history of life. Purportedly unique innovations either arose from the union and integration of previously independent components or belong to classes of functionally similar innovations. Claims of singularity are therefore not well supported by the available evidence. Details of initial conditions, evolutionary pathways, phenotypes, and timing are contingent, but important ecological, functional, and directional aspects of the history of life are replicable and predictable. PMID:16443685

Vermeij, Geerat J.

2006-01-01

422

Nanomedicine and ethics: is there anything new or unique?  

PubMed

As medicine moves toward being able to predict what you will die from and when, nanomedicine is expected to enhance human capabilities and properties and promises the ability of health care professionals to diagnose, treat, and share medical information nearly instantaneously. It promises to deliver drugs directly to the source of the disease, i.e. tumor. This article examines the literature surrounding ethics associated with nanomedicine, and asks whether these ethical issues are new and unique. While opinions differ, this review concludes that none of the ethical questions surrounding nanomedicine are new or unique, and would hold true for any new medical device or medicine that was being evaluated. The real issue becomes public acceptance of nanomedicine and how much risk society is willing to accept with a new technology before it is proven effective and 'safe'. While ethical foresight can prove effective in forecasting potential problems, in reality, ethics may not be capable of evaluating such a technology that has yet proven effective in all it has promised. PMID:20544800

Kuiken, Todd

2011-01-01

423

Unique disease heritage of the Dutch-German Mennonite population.  

PubMed

The Dutch-German Mennonites are a religious isolate with foundational roots in the 16th century. A tradition of endogamy, large families, detailed genealogical records, and a unique disease history all contribute to making this a valuable population for genetic studies. Such studies in the Dutch-German Mennonite population have already contributed to the identification of the causative genes in several conditions such as the incomplete form of X-linked congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB2; previously iCSNB) and hypophosphatasia (HOPS), as well as the discovery of founder mutations within established disease genes (MYBPC1, CYP17alpha). The Dutch-German Mennonite population provides a strong resource for gene discovery and could lead to the identification of additional disease genes with relevance to the general population. In addition, further research developments should enhance delivery of clinical genetic services to this unique community. In the current review we discuss 31 genetic conditions, including 17 with identified gene mutations, within the Dutch-German Mennonite population. PMID:18348259

Orton, Noelle C; Innes, A Micheil; Chudley, Albert E; Bech-Hansen, N Torben

2008-04-15

424

Rationality, Irrationality and Escalating Behavior in Lowest Unique Bid Auctions  

PubMed Central

Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions – lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of “bid space”. The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets. PMID:22279553

Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea; Amaral, Luís A. N.

2012-01-01

425

On the genetic modification of psychology, personality, and behavior.  

PubMed

I argue that the use of heritable modifications for psychology, personality, and behavior should be limited to the reversal or prevention of relatively unambiguous instances of pathology or likely harm (e.g. sociopathy). Most of the likely modifications of psychological personality would not be of this nature, however, and parents therefore should not have the freedom to make such modifications to future children. I argue by examining the viewpoints of both the individual and society. For individuals, modifications would interfere with their capacity for self-determination in a way that undermines the very concept of self-determination. I argue that modification of psychology and personality is unlike present parenting in morally significant ways. For society, modification offers a medium for power to manipulate the makeup of persons and populations, possibly causing biological harm to the species and altering our conceptions of social responsibility. PMID:23420940

Neitzke, Alex B

2012-12-01

426

Surface Modification of Biomaterials: A Quest for Blood Compatibility  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular implants must resist thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia to maintain patency. These implants when in contact with blood face a challenge to oppose the natural coagulation process that becomes activated. Surface protein adsorption and their relevant 3D confirmation greatly determine the degree of blood compatibility. A great deal of research efforts are attributed towards realising such a surface, which comprise of a range of methods on surface modification. Surface modification methods can be broadly categorized as physicochemical modifications and biological modifications. These modifications aim to modulate platelet responses directly through modulation of thrombogenic proteins or by inducing antithrombogenic biomolecules that can be biofunctionalised onto surfaces or through inducing an active endothelium. Nanotechnology is recognising a great role in such surface modification of cardiovascular implants through biofunctionalisation of polymers and peptides in nanocomposites and through nanofabrication of polymers which will pave the way for finding a closer blood match through haemostasis when developing cardiovascular implants with a greater degree of patency. PMID:22693509

de Mel, Achala; Cousins, Brian G.; Seifalian, Alexander M.

2012-01-01

427

Development of unique xanthene-cyanine fused near-infrared fluorescent fluorophores with superior chemical stability for biological fluorescence imaging.  

PubMed

The development of near-infrared (NIR) functional fluorescent dyes has gained increasing attention over the last few decades. Herein, we describe the development of a unique type of xanthene-cyanine fused NIR fluorophores, XC dyes, formed by reacting chloro-substituted cyanine with resorcin or its analogues under anhydrous conditions. XC dyes are a hybrid of cyanine and xanthene. The preliminary mechanistic studies indicate that the formation of XC compounds likely includes a sequence of cyclization and oxidation. XC dyes have absorption and emission in the NIR region, and their fluorescence properties can be controlled by modifications of the key hydroxyl and amine groups. The novel XC NIR dyes are advantageous over previously developed merocyanine dyes NIR dyes in their chemical stability against strong nucleophiles. Quantum chemical calculations reveal that the distinct properties of XC and HD dyes can be attributed to their structural differences. By taking advantage of the superior properties of XC dyes, we have further constructed a new NIR fluorescent probe, XC-H2 S, which is capable of monitoring both the concentration- and time-dependent variations of H2 S in living animals, highlighting the value of XC NIR dyes. We expect that the unique XC NIR dyes developed herein will find broader applications than HD NIR dyes as fluorescent platforms for the development of a wide variety of NIR fluorescent probes, in particular, those suitable for targets of interest that have strong nucleophilic character. PMID:25388080

Chen, Hua; Lin, Weiying; Cui, Haijun; Jiang, Wenqing

2015-01-01

428

Bt toxin modification for enhanced efficacy.  

PubMed

Insect-specific toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provide a valuable resource for pest suppression. Here we review the different strategies that have been employed to enhance toxicity against specific target species including those that have evolved resistance to Bt, or to modify the host range of Bt crystal (Cry) and cytolytic (Cyt) toxins. These strategies include toxin truncation, modification of protease cleavage sites, domain swapping, site-directed mutagenesis, peptide addition, and phage display screens for mutated toxins with enhanced activity. Toxin optimization provides a useful approach to extend the utility of these proteins for suppression of pests that exhibit low susceptibility to native Bt toxins, and to overcome field resistance. PMID:25340556

Deist, Benjamin R; Rausch, Michael A; Fernandez-Luna, Maria Teresa; Adang, Michael J; Bonning, Bryony C

2014-10-01

429

Genetic modification of respiratory capacity in potato.  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial respiration was altered in transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) lines by overexpression of the alternative oxidase Aox1 gene. Overexpressing lines showed higher levels of Aox1 mRNA, increased levels of alternative oxidase protein(s), and an unusual higher molecular weight polypeptide, which may be a normal processing/modification intermediate. Evidence suggests that the alternative oxidase protein is further processed/modified beyond removal of the transit peptide. Addition of pyruvate to mitochondria oxidizing succinate or NADH increased the alternative pathway capacity but did not eliminate the difference in the capacity between these two substrates. Induction of alternative pathway capacity by aging of tubers appeared to be more dependent on increased levels of alternative oxidase protein than changes in its oxidation state. In leaf and tuber mitochondria, overexpressing lines possessed higher alternative pathway capacity than the control line, which suggests that changing the alternative oxidase protein level by genetic engineering can effectively change alternative pathway capacity. PMID:8587988

Hiser, C; Kapranov, P; McIntosh, L

1996-01-01

430

Locally exact modifications of numerical integrators  

E-print Network

We present a new class of exponential integrators for ordinary differential equations. They are locally exact, i.e., they preserve the linearization of the original system at every point. Their construction consists in modifying existing numerical schemes in order to make them locally exact. The resulting schemes preserve all fixed points and are A-stable. The most promising results concern the discrete gradient method (modified implicit midpoint rule) where we succeeded to preserve essential geometric properties and the final results have a relatively simple form. In the case of one-dimensional Hamiltonian systems numerical experiments show that our modifications can increase the accuracy by several orders of magnitude. The main result of this paper is the construction of energy-preserving locally exact discrete gradient schemes for arbitrary multidimensional Hamiltonian systems in canonical coordinates.

Cie?li?ski, Jan L

2011-01-01

431

Genome modification by CRISPR/Cas9.  

PubMed

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein (Cas)9-mediated genome modification enables us to edit the genomes of a variety of organisms rapidly and efficiently. The advantages of the CRISPR-Cas9 system have made it an increasingly popular genetic engineering tool for biological and therapeutic applications. Moreover, CRISPR-Cas9 has been employed to recruit functional domains that repress/activate gene expression or label specific genomic loci in living cells or organisms, in order to explore developmental mechanisms, gene expression regulation, and animal behavior. One major concern about this system is its specificity; although CRISPR-Cas9-mediated off-target mutation has been broadly studied, more efforts are required to further improve the specificity of CRISPR-Cas9. We will also discuss the potential applications of CRISPR-Cas9. PMID:25315507

Ma, Yuanwu; Zhang, Lianfeng; Huang, Xingxu

2014-12-01

432

Shining light on modifications of gravity  

SciTech Connect

Many modifications of gravity introduce new scalar degrees of freedom, and in such theories matter fields typically couple to an effective metric that depends on both the true metric of spacetime and on the scalar field and its derivatives. Scalar field contributions to the effective metric can be classified as conformal and disformal. Disformal terms introduce gradient couplings between scalar fields and the energy momentum tensor of other matter fields, and cannot be constrained by fifth force experiments because the effects of these terms are trivial around static non-relativistic sources. The use of high-precision, low-energy photon experiments to search for conformally coupled scalar fields, called axion-like particles, is well known. In this article we show that these experiments are also constraining for disformal scalar field theories, and are particularly important because of the difficulty of constraining these couplings with other laboratory experiments.

Brax, Philippe [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA2306, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cédex (France); Burrage, Clare [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Davis, Anne-Christine, E-mail: Philippe.Brax@cea.fr, E-mail: Clare.Burrage@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: A.C.Davis@damtp.cam.ac.uk [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

2012-10-01

433

Surface modifications of some nanocomposites containing starch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites have attracted strong interest in today's materials research, due to the possible impressive enhancements of material properties, comparatively with those of pure polymers. Several starch/poly(vinylalcohol)/montmorillonite nanocomposites have been subjected to surface modification by physical treatments such as dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) exposure and coating with proteins (albumin) or polysaccharides (chitosan), for improving their biocompatibility. Untreated and treated surfaces have been comparatively studied by contact angle measurements, FT-IR and 2D-FT-IR spectroscopy and optical microscopy. It has been established that enhancement of the surface characteristics depends on the type and number of incorporated nanoparticles as well as on the treatment applied. Coupling of DBD exposure and coating techniques appears to be highly efficient.

Pascu, M.-C.; Popescu, M.-C.; Vasile, C.

2008-09-01

434

Post-translational Modification and Quality Control  

PubMed Central

Protein quality control (PQC) functions to minimize the level and toxicity of misfolded proteins in the cell. PQC is performed by intricate collaboration among chaperones and target protein degradation. The latter is carried out primarily by the ubiquitin-proteasome system and perhaps autophagy. Terminally misfolded proteins that are not timely removed tend to form aggregates. Their clearance requires macroautophagy. Macroautophagy serves in intracellular quality control also by selectively segregating defective organelles (e.g., mitochondria) and targeting them for degradation by the lysosome. Inadequate PQC is observed in a large subset of failing human hearts with a variety of etiologies and its pathogenic role has been experimentally demonstrated. Multiple post-translational modifications (PTMs) can occur to substrate proteins and/or PQC machineries, promoting or hindering the removal of the misfolded proteins. This article highlights recent advances in PTMs-mediated regulation of intracellular quality control mechanisms and its known involvement in cardiac pathology. PMID:23329792

Wang, Xuejun; Pattison, J. Scott; Su, Huabo

2013-01-01

435

RNF8 regulates active epigenetic modifications and escape gene activation from inactive sex chromosomes in post-meiotic spermatids  

PubMed Central

Sex chromosomes are uniquely subject to chromosome-wide silencing during male meiosis, and silencing persists into post-meiotic spermatids. Against this background, a select set of sex chromosome-linked genes escapes silencing and is activated in post-meiotic spermatids. Here, we identify a novel mechanism that regulates escape gene activation in an environment of chromosome-wide silencing in murine germ cells. We show that RNF8-dependent ubiquitination of histone H2A during meiosis establishes active epigenetic modifications, including dimethylation of H3K4 on the sex chromosomes. RNF8-dependent active epigenetic memory, defined by dimethylation of H3K4, persists throughout meiotic division. Various active epigenetic modifications are subsequently established on the sex chromosomes in post-meiotic spermatids. These RNF8-dependent modifications include trimethylation of H3K4, histone lysine crotonylation (Kcr), and incorporation of the histone variant H2AFZ. RNF8-dependent epigenetic programming regulates escape gene activation from inactive sex chromosomes in post-meiotic spermatids. Kcr accumulates at transcriptional start sites of sex-linked genes activated in an RNF8-dependent manner, and a chromatin conformational change is associated with RNF8-dependent epigenetic programming. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this RNF8-dependent pathway is distinct from that which recognizes DNA double-strand breaks. Our results establish a novel connection between a DNA damage response factor (RNF8) and epigenetic programming, specifically in establishing active epigenetic modifications and gene activation. PMID:23249736

Sin, Ho-Su; Barski, Artem; Zhang, Fan; Kartashov, Andrey V.; Nussenzweig, Andre; Chen, Junjie; Andreassen, Paul R.; Namekawa, Satoshi H.

2012-01-01

436

Pnp gene modification for improved xylose utilization in Zymomonas  

SciTech Connect

The endogenous pnp gene encoding polynucleotide phosphorylase in the Zymomonas genome was identified as a target for modification to provide improved xylose utilizing cells for ethanol production. The cells are in addition genetically modified to have increased expression of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (RPI) activity, as compared to cells without this genetic modification, and are not limited in xylose isomerase activity in the absence of the pnp modification.

Caimi, Perry G G; Qi, Min; Tao, Luan; Viitanen, Paul V; Yang, Jianjun

2014-12-16

437

Position-specific chemical modification of siRNAs reduces \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transfected siRNAs regulate numerous transcripts sharing limited complementarity to the RNA duplex. This unintended (''off- target'') silencing can hinder the use of RNAi to define gene function. Here we describe position-specific, sequence-independent chemical modifications that reduced silencing of partially complementary transcripts by all siRNAs tested. Silencing of perfectly matched targets was unaffected by these modifications. The chemical modification also reduced

AIMEE L. JACKSON; JULJA BURCHARD; DEVIN LEAKE; ANGELA REYNOLDS; JANELL SCHELTER; JIE GUO; JASON M. JOHNSON; LEE LIM; JON KARPILOW; KIM NICHOLS; WILLIAM MARSHALL; ANASTASIA KHVOROVA; PETER S. LINSLEY

2006-01-01

438

Bivalent histone modifications during tooth development.  

PubMed

Histone methylation is one of the most widely studied post-transcriptional modifications. It is thought to be an important epigenetic event that is closely associated with cell fate determination and differentiation. To explore the spatiotemporal expression of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) epigenetic marks and methylation or demethylation transferases in tooth organ development, we measured the expression of SET7, EZH2, KDM5B and JMJD3 via immunohistochemistry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis in the first molar of BALB/c mice embryos at E13.5, E15.5, E17.5, P0 and P3, respectively. We also measured the expression of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 with immunofluorescence staining. During murine tooth germ development, methylation or demethylation transferases were expressed in a spatial-temporal manner. The bivalent modification characterized by H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 can be found during the tooth germ development, as shown by immunofluorescence. The expression of SET7, EZH2 as methylation transferases and KDM5B and JMJD3 as demethylation transferases indicated accordingly with the expression of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 respectively to some extent. The bivalent histone may play a critical role in tooth organ development via the regulation of cell differentiation. PMID:25394593

Zheng, Li-Wei; Zhang, Bin-Peng; Xu, Ruo-Shi; Xu, Xin; Ye, Ling; Zhou, Xue-Dong

2014-12-01

439

5 CFR 470.315 - Project modification and extension.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

5 Administrative Personnel 1...2011-01-01 false Project modification and...Section 470.315 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ...DEMONSTRATIONS PROJECTS...

2011-01-01

440

Electromyographic effects of ergonomic modifications in selected meatpacking tasks.  

PubMed

This project evaluated the feasibility of a new method of collection of electromyographic (EMG) data during working conditions in industry, and quantified the effects of specific job modifications on the EMG activity of selected upper extremity muscle groups. Average root mean square (RMS) surface EMG activity, calibrated to force equivalent units, was collected on 20 workers from three pork processing tasks before and after ergonomic modifications to their tasks. Significant reductions in muscle effort were detected in the biceps and/or wrist and finger flexors after modification for two of the three tasks. This EMG measurement technique can be used to objectively validate reduced muscle effort with ergonomic modifications. PMID:10327086

Cook, T M; Ludewig, P M; Rosecrance, J C; Zimmermann, C L; Gerleman, D G

1999-06-01

441

Regulation of the androgen receptor by post-translational modifications.  

PubMed

The androgen receptor (AR) is a key molecule in prostate cancer and Kennedy's disease. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of this steroid receptor is important in the development of potential therapies for these diseases. One layer of AR regulation is provided by post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, acetylation, sumoylation, ubiquitination and methylation. While these modifications have mostly been studied as individual events, it is becoming clear that these modifications can functionally interact with each other in a signalling pathway. In this review, the effects of all modifications are described with a focus on interplay between them and the functional consequences for the AR. PMID:22872761

Coffey, Kelly; Robson, Craig N

2012-11-01

442

The Glory Program: Global Science from a Unique Spacecraft Integration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Glory program is an Earth and Solar science mission designed to broaden science community knowledge of the environment. The causes and effects of global warming have become a concern in recent years and Glory aims to contribute to the knowledge base of the science community. Glory is designed for two functions: one is solar viewing to monitor the total solar irradiance and the other is observing the Earth s atmosphere for aerosol composition. The former is done with an active cavity radiometer, while the latter is accomplished with an aerosol polarimeter sensor to discern atmospheric particles. The Glory program is managed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) with Orbital Sciences in Dulles, VA as the prime contractor for the spacecraft bus, mission operations, and ground system. This paper will describe some of the more unique features of the Glory program including the integration and testing of the satellite and instruments as well as the science data processing. The spacecraft integration and test approach requires extensive analysis and additional planning to ensure existing components are successfully functioning with the new Glory components. The science mission data analysis requires development of mission unique processing systems and algorithms. Science data analysis and distribution will utilize our national assets at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP). The Satellite was originally designed and built for the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission, which was terminated in the middle of integration and testing due to payload development issues. The bus was then placed in secure storage in 2001 and removed from an environmentally controlled container in late 2003 to be refurbished to meet the Glory program requirements. Functional testing of all the components was done as a system at the start of the program, very different from a traditional program. The plan for Glory is to minimize any changes to the spacecraft in order to meet the Glory requirements. This means that the instrument designs must adhere to the existing interfaces and capabilities as much as possible. Given Glory's unique history and the potential science return, the program is one of significant value to both the science community and the world. The findings Glory promises will improve our understanding of the drivers for global climate change for a minimal investment. The program hopes to show that reuse of existing government assets can result in a lower cost, and fully successful mission.

Bajpayee Jaya; Durham, Darcie; Ichkawich, Thomas

2006-01-01

443

A unique funding opportunity for public health in Texas.  

PubMed

In addition to the Affordable Care Act, states are more frequently turning to Medicaid waivers to achieve the "Triple Aim" goals of improving the experience of care, improving population health, and reducing per capita costs. These demonstration waivers provide opportunities to test innovative ways to finance and deliver care. Texas is currently implementing a waiver known as the Transformation and Quality Improvement Program. Its inclusion of public health agencies is a unique approach to a system typically limited to traditional providers. San Antonio Metropolitan Health District is one public health agency taking advantage of this new funding opportunity to implement 6 new or expanded programs targeting health issues of highest priority in this south Texas region. This article discusses the use of Medicaid waivers and the advantages and challenges of public health agency participation. PMID:25423061

Schlenker, Thomas; Huber, Carol A

2015-01-01

444

Experimental investigation of a unique airbreathing pulsed laser propulsion concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigations were conducted into unique methods of converting pulsed laser energy into propulsive thrust across a flat impulse surface under atmospheric conditions. The propulsion experiments were performed with a 1-micron neodymium-glass laser at the Space Plasma Branch of the Naval Research Laboratory. Laser-induced impulse was measured dynamically by ballistic pendulums and statically using piezoelectric pressure transducers on a stationary impulse surface. The principal goal was to explore methods for increasing the impulse coupling performance of airbreathing laser-propulsion engines. A magnetohydrodynamic thrust augmentation effect was discovered when a tesla-level magnetic field was applied perpendicular to the impulse surface. The impulse coupling coefficient performance doubled and continued to improve with increasing laser-pulse energies. The resultant performance of 180 to 200 N-s/MJ was found to be comparable to that of the earliest afterburning turbojets.

Myrabo, L. N.; Nagamatsu, H. T.; Manka, C.; Lyons, P. W.; Jones, R. A.

1991-01-01

445

Noncommutative quantum mechanics: Uniqueness of the functional description  

SciTech Connect

The generalized Weyl transform of index {alpha} is used to implement the time-slice definition of the phase space path integral yielding the Feynman kernel in the case of noncommutative quantum mechanics. As expected, this representation for the Feynman kernel is not unique but labeled by the real parameter {alpha}. We succeed in proving that the {alpha}-dependent contributions disappear at the limit where the time slice goes to zero. This proof of consistency turns out to be intricate because the Hamiltonian involves products of noncommuting operators originating from the noncommutativity. The antisymmetry of the matrix parametrizing the noncommutativity plays a key role in the cancellation mechanism of the {alpha}-dependent terms.

Bemfica, F. S.; Girotti, H. O. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, 91501-970-Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

2008-12-15

446

Unique behavior of DMF as solvent in fluorescence quenching process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We did a comparative fluorescence quenching study with different derivatives of carbazole (CZ) as fluorophore and 1,4-dicyanobenzene (DCB) as quencher. It was found that the bimolecular fluorescence quenching rate constant ( kq) values in N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) were almost half of that reported for a much less polar solvent tetra-hydrofuran (THF), which is something exceptional. Moreover, this phenomenon was not system specific. Similar results were obtained for some other systems too. In this communication while trying to resolve this unique problem, we have found that micro heterogeneous nature of DMF, its high viscosity and certain impurities present in the commercial grade of this solvent are probably responsible for such anomalous result.

Chatterjee, Suchandra; Basu, Samita; Ghosh, Nandita; Chakrabarty, Manas

2004-04-01

447

The unique experience of spouses in early-onset dementia.  

PubMed

To date, few studies have examined the experience of spouse caregivers living with a person with early-onset dementia. Moreover, few support resources are offered to these family caregivers and fewer are still tailored to their unique trajectory. The aim of this qualitative study was to document the lived experience of spouse caregivers of young patients in order to inform the development of professional support tailored to their reality. A sample of 12 spouses of persons diagnosed with dementia before the age of 65 participated in semistructured interviews. Six themes emerged from their caregiver trajectories, namely, difficulty managing behavioral and psychological symptoms, long quest for diagnosis, nondisclosure to others and denial of diagnosis, grief for loss of spouse and midlife projects, difficulty juggling unexpected role and daily life responsibilities, and difficulty planning for future. Results open up innovative avenues for the development of interventions geared to facilitating role transition for these spouse caregivers. PMID:23823140

Ducharme, Francine; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Antoine, Pascal; Pasquier, Florence; Coulombe, Renée

2013-09-01

448

The unique cosmic-ray history of the Malakal chondrite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cosmogenic radionuclides, including Na-22, Al-26, and Mn-54, were measured in a sample of the recently-fallen Malakal hypersthene chondrite. The high Al-26 activity, 79 plus or minus 2 dpm/kg, greatly exceeds the levels expected from elemental production rates, shielding considerations, or comparisons with other ordinary chondrites, and can only be explained by exposure to a uniquely high cosmic-ray flux. Calculations including noble gas, H-3, and Mn-53 data from other laboratories require a two-stage irradiation. Malakal's most probable history is: exposure in excess of 4 m.y. to an effective cosmic-ray flux approximately three times that experienced by other chondrites, an orbit change (very possibly caused by a collision), and a final period of about 2 m.y. during which it was exposed to a normal cosmic-ray flux.

Cressy, P. J., Jr.; Rancitelli, L. A.

1974-01-01

449

Invariance, groups, and non-uniqueness: The discrete case  

SciTech Connect

Lie group methods provide a valuable tool for examininginvariance and non-uniqueness associated with geophysical inverseproblems. The techniques are particularly well suited for the study ofnon-linear inverse problems. Using the infinitesimal generators of thegroup it is possible to move within the null space in an iterativefashion. The key computational step in determining the symmetry groupsassociated with an inverse problem is the singular value decomposition(SVD) of a sparse matrix. I apply the methodology to the eikonal equationand examine the possible solutions associated with a crosswelltomographic experiment. Results from a synthetic test indicate that it ispossible to vary the velocity model significantly and still fit thereference arrival times. the approach is also applied to data fromcorosswell surveys conducted before and after a CO2 injection at the LostHills field in California. The results highlight the fact that a faultcross-cutting the region between the wells may act as a conduit for theflow of water and CO2.

Vasco, D.W.

2005-03-24

450

Specific structure and unique function define the hemicentin  

PubMed Central

Hemicentin has come a long way from when it was first identified in C. elegans as him-4 (High incidence of males). The protein is now a recognized player in maintaining the architectural integrity of vertebrate tissues and organs. Highly conserved hemicentin sequences across species indicate this gene’s ancient evolutionary roots and functional importance. In mouse, hemicentin is liberally distributed on the cell surface of many cell types, including epithelial cells, endothelial cells of the eye, lung, and uterus, and trophectodermal cells of blastocyst. Recent discoveries have uncovered yet another vital purpose of hemicentin 1. The protein also serves a unique function in mitotic cytokinesis, during which this extracellular matrix protein plays a key role in cleavage furrow maturation. Though understanding of hemicentin function has improved through new discoveries, much about this protein remains mysterious. PMID:23803222

2013-01-01

451

Unique contributions of metacognition and cognition to depressive symptoms.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT This study attempts to examine the unique contributions of "cognitions" or "metacognitions" to depressive symptoms while controlling for their intercorrelations and comorbid anxiety. Two-hundred-and-fifty-one university students participated in the study. Two complementary hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed, in which symptoms of depression were regressed on the dysfunctional attitudes (DAS-24 subscales) and metacognition scales (Negative Beliefs about Rumination Scale [NBRS] and Positive Beliefs about Rumination Scale [PBRS]). Results showed that both NBRS and PBRS individually explained a significant amount of variance in depressive symptoms above and beyond dysfunctional schemata while controlling for anxiety. Although dysfunctional attitudes as a set significantly predicted depressive symptoms after anxiety and metacognitions were controlled for, they were weaker than metacognitive variables and none of the DAS-24 subscales contributed individually. Metacognitive beliefs about ruminations appeared to contribute more to depressive symptoms than dysfunctional beliefs in the "cognitive" domain. PMID:25539184

Yilmaz, Adviye Esin; Gençöz, Tülin; Wells, Adrian

2015-01-01

452

Immune Tolerance Elicited via Unique Ocular and Oral Routes.  

PubMed

Immune tolerance can be induced by numerous methods. This review article aims to draw lines of similarity and contrast between two unique models of immune tolerance, namely Anterior Chamber Associated Immune Deviation (ACAID) and Nickel-induced oral tolerance. ACAID is an immune tolerance model that leads to the generation of CD4(+) T regulatory cells and CD8(+) T regulatory cells in the periphery after the injection of an antigen into the anterior chamber of the eye. Nickel-induced oral tolerance is another immune tolerance model that is induced by the contact allergen Nickel and leads to the generation of Nickel-specific CD4(+) CD25(+) T regulatory cells after oral exposure. The goal of comparing different models of immune tolerance is to identify which mechanisms are universal and which mechanisms are model-specific. The knowledge of such mechanisms would allow scientists and clinicians to better intervene in different immune deregulation scenarios. PMID:25601470

Ashour, H M

2015-01-01

453

Growth Mechanism of a Unique Hierarchical Vaterite Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium carbonate is one of the most significant minerals in nature as well as in biogenic sources. Calcium carbonate occurs naturally in three crystalline polymorphs, i.e., calcite, aragonite, and vaterite. Although it has been attracted much research attention to understanding of the formation mechanisms of the material, the properties of the vaterite polymorph is not well known. Here we report synthesis and formation mechanism of a unique hierarchical structure of vaterite. The material is grown by a controlled diffusion method. The structure possesses a core and an outer part. The core is convex lens-like and is formed by vaterite nanocrystals that have small misorientations. The outer part is separated into six garlic clove-like segments. Each segment possesses piles of plate-like vaterite crystals, and the orientations of the plates continuously change from pile to pile. Based on real-time experimental results and the structural analysis, a growth mechanism is presented.

Ma, Guobin; Xu, Yifei; Wang, Mu

2013-03-01

454

Rapid temporal recalibration is unique to audiovisual stimuli.  

PubMed

Following prolonged exposure to asynchronous multisensory signals, the brain adapts to reduce the perceived asynchrony. Here, in three separate experiments, participants performed a synchrony judgment task on audiovisual, audiotactile or visuotactile stimuli and we used inter-trial analyses to examine whether temporal recalibration occurs rapidly on the basis of a single asynchronous trial. Even though all combinations used the same subjects, task and design, temporal recalibration occurred for audiovisual stimuli (i.e., the point of subjective simultaneity depended on the preceding trial's modality order), but none occurred when the same auditory or visual event was combined with a tactile event. Contrary to findings from prolonged adaptation studies showing recalibration for all three combinations, we show that rapid, inter-trial recalibration is unique to audiovisual stimuli. We conclude that recalibration occurs at two different timescales for audiovisual stimuli (fast and slow), but only on a slow timescale for audiotactile and visuotactile stimuli. PMID:25200176

Van der Burg, Erik; Orchard-Mills, Emily; Alais, David

2015-01-01

455

Unique phenotype in a patient with CHARGE syndrome.  

PubMed

CHARGE is a phenotypically heterogeneous autosomal dominant disorder recognized as a cohesive syndrome since the identification of CHD7 as a genetic etiology. Classic features include: Coloboma, Heart defects, Atresia choanae, Retarded growth and development, Genitourinary abnormalities, and Ear anomalies and/or deafness. With greater accessibility to genetic analysis, a wider spectrum of features are emerging, and overlap with disorders such as DiGeorge syndrome, Kallmann syndrome, and Hypoparathyroidism Sensorineural Deafness and Renal Disease syndrome, is increasingly evident. We present a patient with a unique manifestation of CHARGE syndrome, including primary hypoparathyroidism and a limb anomaly; to our knowledge, he is also the first CHARGE subject reported with bilateral multicystic dysplastic kidneys. Furthermore, with structural modeling and murine expression studies, we characterize a putative CHD7 G744S missense mutation. Our report continues to expand the CHARGE phenotype and highlights that stringent fulfillment of conventional criteria should not strictly guide genetic analysis. PMID:21995344

Jain, Shobhit; Kim, Hyung-Goo; Lacbawan, Felicitas; Meliciani, Irene; Wenzel, Wolfgang; Kurth, Ingo; Sharma, Josefina; Schoeneman, Morris; Ten, Svetlana; Layman, Lawrence C; Jacobson-Dickman, Elka

2011-01-01

456

Unique phenotype in a patient with CHARGE syndrome  

PubMed Central

CHARGE is a phenotypically heterogeneous autosomal dominant disorder recognized as a cohesive syndrome since the identification of CHD7 as a genetic etiology. Classic features include: Coloboma, Heart defects, Atresia choanae, Retarded growth and development, Genitourinary abnormalities, and Ear anomalies and/or deafness. With greater accessibility to genetic analysis, a wider spectrum of features are emerging, and overlap with disorders such as DiGeorge syndrome, Kallmann syndrome, and Hypoparathyroidism Sensorineural Deafness and Renal Disease syndrome, is increasingly evident. We present a patient with a unique manifestation of CHARGE syndrome, including primary hypoparathyroidism and a limb anomaly; to our knowledge, he is also the first CHARGE subject reported with bilateral multicystic dysplastic kidneys. Furthermore, with structural modeling and murine expression studies, we characterize a putative CHD7 G744S missense mutation. Our report continues to expand the CHARGE phenotype and highlights that stringent fulfillment of conventional criteria should not strictly guide genetic analysis. PMID:21995344

2011-01-01

457

Unique Features of Young Age Breast Cancer and Its Management  

PubMed Central

Young age breast cancer (YABC) has unique clinical and biological features that are not seen in older patients. Breast tumor biology is more aggressive and is associated with an unfavorable prognosis in younger women. The diagnosis of breast cancer is often delayed, resulting in their initial presentation with more advanced disease. Together, these characteristics lead to a poorer prognosis in younger women than in older women. Young women who receive breast-conserving therapy have a higher rate of local recurrence. Therefore, it is important to secure sufficient resection margins and consider boost radiotherapy to prevent local treatment failure. Based on age alone, patients with YABC should be regarded as high-risk cases, and they should be treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Special considerations regarding psychosocial factors and fertility should be taken into account for young patients. This review discusses the major considerations and principles concerning the management of patients with YABC. PMID:25548576

Lee, Han-Byoel

2014-01-01

458

Chiropractic’s unique evolution and its future status  

PubMed Central

Chiropractic’s demise was regularly predicted but the AMA’s campaign to “contain and then eliminate” it did not succeed. Nor did chiropractic follow osteopathy toward fusion with medicine. D.D. and B.J. Palmer were charismatic outsiders who emphasized the differences between medicine and chiropractic. Chiropractic’s unique evolution and survival owed a lot to BJ’s activity in publishing books and brochures and in part, to motivating his followers to fight for separate and distinct licensure. This paper proposes that in the twenty-first century chiropractic is most likely to become well established as an independent limited medical profession like dentistry, podiatry, optometry, and psychology.

Wardwell, Walter I

1996-01-01

459

The skeleton as a unique environment for breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Bone is a favored location for several cancer metastases especially breast, prostate and myeloma. This review evaluates various properties of the skeleton that contribute to its successful colonization by breast cancer cells. The first consideration is the unique aspects of the vasculature of metaphyseal bone, which may account for the initial lodging of breast cancer cells in specific regions of the skeleton. Metasphyseal bone, found at the ends of long bone, in ribs and in vertebrae, is comprised of trabecular bone interspersed with marrow and a rich vasculature. The chemotactic factors that arise from bone marrow and bone cells are discussed in terms of cancer cell migration out of the vasculature and entry of cancer cells into the marrow cavity. Once the breast cancer cells have migrated into the metaphysis, they interact both directly and indirectly with bone cells and other cells in the marrow. As tumor growth progresses, functional bone cells are lost, most likely through apoptosis. PMID:12741685

Mastro, Andrea M; Gay, Carol V; Welch, Danny R

2003-01-01

460

The Cuban Rafter Phenomenon: A Unique Sea Exodus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing on the talents of three local scholars in and around Miami, this interactive and informative website offers an unique perspective into the experience of the thousands of citizens who left Cuba in small boats, homemade rafts and other such crafts during the raft crisis of 1994. The broader theme of the site is the general post-1959 migration of Cubans to America, which has been the subject of much scrutiny by policy-makers and scholars. Beginning with an interactive map, visitors can get a sense of the route these people have taken over the years, in and around such places as Key West, Havana, and the Caymans. The other documents on the site include photographs of the rafters' experience, timelines of key events, and information from a 2004 conference held on the subject. The site is further enhanced by a number of dramatic video clips and the availability of the material in Spanish.

461

Non-unique factorizations, land surveying and electricity  

E-print Network

Non-unique factorizations theory, which started in algebraic number theory, over the years has expanded into several areas of mathematics. Here, we propose yet another branching. We show that some concepts of factorizations theory, such as half factorial and weak half factorial properties can be translated via Cayley graphs into graph theory. It is proved, that subset S of abelian group G is half factorial, if and only if the Cayley digraph Cay(G; S) is geodetical, e.g., simple paths connecting a fixed pair of vertices have the same length. Further, it is shown that the voltage digraph naturally arising from subset S of group G satisfies Kirchoff's Voltage Law exactly when S is weakly half factorial. In the concluding remarks, some loosely formulated ideas for further research are presented..

Sliwa, Jan

2010-01-01

462

Unique Method for Generating Design Earthquake Time Histories  

SciTech Connect

A method has been developed which takes a seed earthquake time history and modifies it to produce given design response spectra. It is a multi-step process with an initial scaling step and then multiple refinement steps. It is unique in the fact that both the acceleration and displacement response spectra are considered when performing the fit (which primarily improves the low frequency acceleration response spectrum accuracy). Additionally, no matrix inversion is needed. The features include encouraging the code acceleration, velocity, and displacement ratios and attempting to fit the pseudo velocity response spectrum. Also, “smoothing” is done to transition the modified time history to the seed time history at its start and end. This is done in the time history regions below a cumulative energy of 5% and above a cumulative energy of 95%. Finally, the modified acceleration, velocity, and displacement time histories are adjusted to start and end with an amplitude of zero (using Fourier transform techniques for integration).

R. E. Spears

2008-07-01

463

Bioelectric mechanisms in regeneration: unique aspects and future perspectives  

PubMed Central

Regenerative biology has focused largely on chemical factors and transcriptional networks. However, endogenous ion flows serve as key epigenetic regulators of cell behavior. Bioelectric signaling involves feedback loops, long-range communication, polarity, and information transfer over multiple size scales. Understanding the roles of endogenous voltage gradients, ion flows, and electric fields will contribute to the basic understanding of numerous morphogenetic processes and the means by which they can robustly restore pattern after perturbation. By learning to modulate the bioelectrical signals that control cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation, we gain a powerful set of new techniques with which to manipulate growth and patterning in biomedical contexts. This chapter reviews the unique properties of bioelectric signaling, surveys molecular strategies and reagents for its investigation, and discusses the opportunities made available for regenerative medicine. PMID:19406249

Levin, Michael

2009-01-01

464

Unique single-domain state in a polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-180° ferroelectric domains are also ferroelastic domains; their existence in polycrystalline materials is to relieve internal stresses generated during solid-solid phase transitions and minimize the elastic distortion energy. Therefore, grains with random orientations in polycrystalline ceramics are always occupied by many domains, especially in the regions close to grain boundaries. In this Rapid Communication, we report the observation of a single-domain state in a BaTiO3-based polycrystalline ceramic at intermediate poling electric fields with in situ transmission electron microscopy. The grains in the virgin ceramic and under high poling fields are found multidomained. The unique single-domain state is believed to be responsible for the ultrahigh piezoelectric property observed in this lead-free composition and is suggested to be of orthorhombic symmetry for its exceptionally low elastic modulus.

Guo, Hanzheng; Zhou, Chao; Ren, Xiaobing; Tan, Xiaoli

2014-03-01

465

Factor H-binding protein, a unique meningococcal vaccine antigen.  

PubMed

GNA1870, also named factor H-binding protein (fHbp) or rLP-2086, is a genome-derived antigen and one of the components of a rationally designed vaccine against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B, which has entered phase III clinical trials. It has been classified into three main non-cross-protective variant groups. GNA1870 has also been termed fHbp because of its ability to bind factor H, a key regulatory component of the alternative complement pathway. fHbp is important for survival in human blood, human sera, and in presence of antimicrobial peptides, independently of its expression level. All these properties make fHbp a unique vaccine antigen. PMID:19388164

Pizza, Mariagrazia; Donnelly, John; Rappuoli, Rino

2008-12-30

466

Unique mounting for miniature optics at cryogenic temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper highlights a mounting solution for miniature, high aspect ratio Zinc Selenide (ZnSe) optics capable of sustaining high vibration loads and cryogenic temperatures. The GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) optical design requires ZnSe filters that have a significantly higher-than-standard aspect ratio. The thin structure, along with the material properties of ZnSe, lead to a filter that is very delicate. The mounting technique minimizes stresses induced over thermal extremes, while maintaining sufficient preload for launch loads. The filters are mounted to metallic housings using a spring loaded retainer and compliant materials. Detailed analysis of the mounting and an understanding of the unique material properties enables the design to be successful. Special attention is given to materials passing through glass transition temperatures. This design was qualified through extensive thermal cycling and vibration testing, and exhibited performance acceptable for production.

Leahy, Zachary N.; Magner, Andrew J.

2013-09-01

467

Centromeres: unique chromatin structures that drive chromosome segregation  

PubMed Central

Fidelity during chromosome segregation is essential to prevent aneuploidy. The proteins and chromatin at the centromere form a unique site for kinetochore attachment and allow the cell to sense and correct errors during chromosome segregation. Centromeric chromatin is characterized by distinct chromatin organization, epigenetics, centromere-associated proteins and histone variants. These include the histone H3 variant centromeric protein A (CENPA), the composition and deposition of which have been widely investigated. Studies have examined the structural and biophysical properties of the centromere and have suggested that the centromere is not simply a ‘landing pad’ for kinetochore formation, but has an essential role in mitosis by assembling and directing the organization of the kinetochore. PMID:21508988

Verdaasdonk, Jolien S.; Bloom, Kerry

2012-01-01

468

Electroplated targets for production of unique PET radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past decade has witnessed the applications of positron emission tomography (PET) evolving from a purely research endeavor to a procedure which has specific clinical applications in the areas of cardiology, neurology and oncology. The growth of PET has been facilitated by developments in both medical instrumentation and radiopharmaceutical chemistry efforts. Included in this latter effort has been the low energy accelerator production and processing of unique PET radionuclides appropriate for the radiolabeling of biomolecules, i.e. monoclonal antibodies and peptides. The development and application of electroplated targets of antimony and copper for the production of iodine-124 and gallium-66 respectively, utilizing the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) cyclotron are examples of target design and development applicable to many medical accelerators.

Bui, V.; Sheh, Y.; Finn, R.; Francesconi, L.; Cai, S.; Schlyer, D.; Wieland, B.

1995-12-01

469

Unique frequencies of HFE gene variants in Roma/Gypsies.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the frequencies of three hemochromatosis gene (HFE) mutations in ethnic Roma/Gypsies in Slovakia. A cohort of 367 individuals representing general population and not preselected for health status was genotyped by TaqMan real-time PCR assay for C282Y, H63D and S65C mutations in HFE gene. A unique genetic profile was revealed: C282Y is found in the highest frequency of all Central European countries (4.90%), while the frequency of H63D mutation (4.09%) is lower than any reported in Europe so far. S65C mutation was not present in the cohort. These mutation frequencies can be explained rather by gene influx and genetic isolation than by genetic inheritance from a former Roma/Gypsy homeland. PMID:22354660

Gabriková, Dana; Bernasovská, Jarmila; Ma?eková, So?a; Bôžiková, Alexandra; Bernasovský, Ivan; Bališinová, Alena; Sovi?ová, Adriana; Behulová, Regína; Petrej?íková, Eva; Soták, Miroslav; Boro?ová, Iveta

2012-05-01

470

Are Scattering Properties of Graphs Uniquely Connected to Their Shapes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The famous question of Kac “can one hear the shape of a drum?” addressing the unique connection between the shape of a planar region and the spectrum of the corresponding Laplace operator, can be legitimately extended to scattering systems. In the modified version, one asks whether the geometry of a vibrating system can be determined by scattering experiments. We present the first experimental approach to this problem in the case of microwave graphs (networks) simulating quantum graphs. Our experimental results strongly indicate a negative answer. To demonstrate this we consider scattering from a pair of isospectral microwave networks consisting of vertices connected by microwave coaxial cables and extended to scattering systems by connecting leads to infinity to form isoscattering networks. We show that the amplitudes and phases of the determinants of the scattering matrices of such networks are the same within the experimental uncertainties. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the scattering matrices of the networks are conjugated by the so-called transplantation relation.

Hul, Oleh; ?awniczak, Micha?; Bauch, Szymon; Sawicki, Adam; Ku?, Marek; Sirko, Leszek

2012-07-01

471

Unique Offerings of the ISS as an Earth Observing Platform  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station offers unique capabilities for earth remote sensing. An established Earth orbiting platform with abundant power, data and commanding infrastructure, the ISS has been in operation for twelve years as a crew occupied science laboratory and offers low cost and expedited concept-to-operation paths for new sensing technologies. Plug in modularity on external platforms equipped with structural, power and data interfaces standardizes and streamlines integration and minimizes risk and start up difficulties. Data dissemination is also standardized. Emerging sensor technologies and instruments tailored for sensing of regional dynamics may not be worthy of dedicated platforms and launch vehicles, but may well be worthy of ISS deployment, hitching a ride on one of a variety of government or commercial visiting vehicles. As global acceptance of the urgent need for understanding Climate Change continues to grow, the value of ISS, orbiting in Low Earth Orbit, in complementing airborne, sun synchronous polar, geosynchronous and other platform remote sensing will also grow.

Cooley, Victor M.

2013-01-01

472

True Limits to Precision via Unique Quantum Probe  

E-print Network

Quantum instruments derived from composite systems allow greater measurement precision than their classical counterparts due to coherences maintained between N components; spins, atoms or photons. Decoherence that plagues real-world devices can be particle loss, or thermal excitation and relaxation, or dephasing due to external noise sources -- and also due to prior parameter uncertainty. All these adversely affect precision estimation of time, phase or frequency. We develop a novel technique uncovering the uniquely optimal probe states of the N `qubits' alongside new tight bounds on precision under local and collective mechanisms of these noise types above. For large quantum ensembles where numerical techniques fail, the problem reduces by analogy to finding the ground state of a 1-D particle in a potential well; the shape of the well is dictated by the type and strength of decoherence. The formalism is applied to prototypical Mach-Zehnder and Ramsey interferometers to discover the ultimate performance of real-world instruments.

Sergey I. Knysh; Edward H. Chen; Gabriel A. Durkin

2014-02-03

473

Bleomycin induced flagellate erythema: Revisiting a unique complication.  

PubMed

Bleomycin induced flagellate dermatitis is a rare and unique adverse effect. With the declining use of bleomycin, this complication is becoming increasingly infrequent in common clinical practice. We herein describe a case of a 22-year-old Indian male with Hodgkin's lymphoma, Ann Arbor stage IIBEX developing flagellate dermatitis following 1(st) cycle of chemotherapy with ABVD regimen. The diagnostic dilemma in the illustrative case underscores the importance of awareness and prompt identification and treatment of this dermatological toxicity in limiting morbidity in patients undergoing bleomycin based combination chemotherapy. In patients having severe rash, bleomycin should be expeditiously discontinued. Omission of bleomycin does not compromise the treatment outcome in the majority of patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:24125992

Biswas, Ahitagni; Chaudhari, Pritee B; Sharma, Punit; Singh, Lavleen; Julka, Pramod Kumar; Sethuraman, Gomathy

2013-01-01

474

The unique biogeochemical signature of the marine diazotroph trichodesmium.  

PubMed

The elemental composition of phytoplankton can depart from canonical Redfield values under conditions of nutrient limitation or production (e.g., N fixation). Similarly, the trace metal metallome of phytoplankton may be expected to vary as a function of both ambient nutrient concentrations and the biochemical processes of the cell. Diazotrophs such as the colonial cyanobacteria Trichodesmium are likely to have unique metal signatures due to their cell physiology. We present metal (Fe, V, Zn, Ni, Mo, Mn, Cu, Cd) quotas for Trichodesmium collected from the Sargasso Sea which highlight the unique metallome of this organism. The element concentrations of bulk colonies and trichomes sections were analyzed by ICP-MS and synchrotron x-ray fluorescence, respectively. The cells were characterized by low P contents but enrichment in V, Fe, Mo, Ni, and Zn in comparison to other phytoplankton. Vanadium was the most abundant metal in Trichodesmium, and the V quota was up to fourfold higher than the corresponding Fe quota. The stoichiometry of 600C:101N:1P (mol?mol(-1)) reflects P-limiting conditions. Iron and V were enriched in contiguous cells of 10 and 50% of Trichodesmium trichomes, respectively. The distribution of Ni differed from other elements, with the highest concentration in the transverse walls between attached cells. We hypothesize that the enrichments of V, Fe, Mo, and Ni are linked to the biochemical requirements for N fixation either directly through enrichment in the N-fixing enzyme nitrogenase or indirectly by the expression of enzymes responsible for the removal of reactive oxygen species. Unintentional uptake of V via P pathways may also be occurring. Overall, the cellular content of trace metals and macronutrients differs significantly from the (extended) Redfield ratio. The Trichodesmium metallome is an example of how physiology and environmental conditions can cause significant deviations from the idealized stoichiometry. PMID:22557997

Nuester, Jochen; Vogt, Stefan; Newville, Matthew; Kustka, Adam B; Twining, Benjamin S

2012-01-01

475

A Unique Manifestation of Pupillary Fatigue in Autoimmune Autonomic Ganglionopathy  

PubMed Central

Objective To demonstrate a unique abnormality of the pupillary light reflex in patients with Autoimmune Autonomic Ganglionopathy (AAG). Design Case series Setting Autonomic clinics at two university hospitals (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center) Participants Seven patients with antibody positive AAG. Intervention All patients with AAG underwent either monocular or binocular infrared pupillometry using a standard 2 second light stimulus at a defined intensity. Findings were compared to healthy controls and patients with other autonomic disorders. The light stimulus used in this study was selected to eliminate the normal phenomenon of pupil escape. Main Outcome measure The time to onset of redilation was the main outcome measure. Other indices of pupillary constriction to light stimulus were also measured. Results Patients with AAG exhibited premature pupillary redilation (1.02 ±0.20 seconds) compared to healthy control subjects (2.24±0.10 seconds) and other patients with autonomic disorders (2.3±0.12 seconds; P<0.0001). In healthy control subjects and patients with other autonomic disorders pupillary redilation always followed the termination of the light stimulus while in AAG patients redilation consistently occurred during the light stimulus. In one patient, serial repetitive light stimulation further decreased the time to onset of redilation. Conclusion Premature redilation of the pupil is a unique physiological feature seen only in patients with AAG. This phenomenon appears to be a manifestation of pupillary fatigue, a clinical correlate of defective synaptic transmission at the level of autonomic ganglia in antibody positive AAG. PMID:22232207

Muppidi, Srikanth; Scribner, Maggie; Gibbons, Christopher H.; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Spaeth, Elaine B.; Vernino, Steven

2012-01-01

476

The Unique Biogeochemical Signature of the Marine Diazotroph Trichodesmium  

PubMed Central

The elemental composition of phytoplankton can depart from canonical Redfield values under conditions of nutrient limitation or production (e.g., N fixation). Similarly, the trace metal metallome of phytoplankton may be expected to vary as a function of both ambient nutrient concentrations and the biochemical processes of the cell. Diazotrophs such as the colonial cyanobacteria Trichodesmium are likely to have unique metal signatures due to their cell physiology. We present metal (Fe, V, Zn, Ni, Mo, Mn, Cu, Cd) quotas for Trichodesmium collected from the Sargasso Sea which highlight the unique metallome of this organism. The element concentrations of bulk colonies and trichomes sections were analyzed by ICP-MS and synchrotron x-ray fluorescence, respectively. The cells were characterized by low P contents but enrichment in V, Fe, Mo, Ni, and Zn in comparison to other phytoplankton. Vanadium was the most abundant metal in Trichodesmium, and the V quota was up to fourfold higher than the corresponding Fe quota. The stoichiometry of 600C:101N:1P (mol?mol?1) reflects P-limiting conditions. Iron and V were enriched in contiguous cells of 10 and 50% of Trichodesmium trichomes, respectively. The distribution of Ni differed from other elements, with the highest concentration in the transverse walls between attached cells. We hypothesize that the enrichments of V, Fe, Mo, and Ni are linked to the biochemical requirements for N fixation either directly through enrichment in the N-fixing enzyme nitrogenase or indirectly by the expression of enzymes responsible for the removal of reactive oxygen species. Unintentional uptake of V via P pathways may also be occurring. Overall, the cellular content of trace metals and macronutrients differs significantly from the (extended) Redfield ratio. The Trichodesmium metallome is an example of how physiology and environmental conditions can cause significant deviations from the idealized stoichiometry. PMID:22557997

Nuester, Jochen; Vogt, Stefan; Newville, Matthew; Kustka, Adam B.; Twining, Benjamin S.

2012-01-01

477

The Gaming of Concussions: A Unique Intervention in Postconcussion Syndrome.  

PubMed

Objective :? To present the case of 2 adolescent high school student-athletes who developed postconcussion syndrome with protracted and limiting visual complaints that markedly affected academic, social, and athletic activity for a year after the onset of symptoms. Both had significant improvement soon after a unique intervention was administered. Background :? A 14-year-old female soccer and softball player sustained 2 concussions in the same week. She had persistent symptoms for a year that affected her grades and precluded athletic participation. A 15-year-old male football player sustained a concussion during an altercation with 2 other male adolescents. He continued to have symptoms 1 year later, with a marked decrease in academic performance and restriction from athletics. Both adolescents reported blurry vision, photophobia, and associated headache as significant components of the postconcussion syndrome. Differential Diagnosis : ?Concussion, postconcussion syndrome, skull fracture, subdural hematoma, epidural hematoma, second-impact syndrome, and visually sensitive migraine. Treatment :? Both patients were advised to obtain computer gaming glasses to use throughout the day. The female patient was diligent in her use of the glasses, with marked lessening of symptoms. The male patient was less accepting of the glasses but did report lessening of symptoms when using the glasses. Uniqueness :? We hypothesized that postconcussion syndrome with marked visual complaints would respond to and improve with decreased stimulation of the visual system. This was attempted with the addition of computer gaming glasses. Both adolescent athletes responded well to the filtering of visual stimuli by off-the-shelf computer gaming glasses. Conclusions : ?Postconcussion syndrome is a persistent condition with a myriad of symptoms. Two young athletes developed postconcussion syndrome with prominent visual symptoms that lasted a year. The addition of computer gaming glasses markedly lessened symptoms in both patients. PMID:25347238

Lynch, James M; Anderson, Megan; Benton, Brooke; Green, Sue Stanley

2014-10-27

478

Transglutaminase and Polyamination of Tubulin: Posttranslational Modification for Stabilizing Axonal Microtubules  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Neuronal microtubules support intracellular transport, facilitate axon growth, and form a basis for neuronal morphology. While microtubules in non-neuronal cells are depolymerized by cold, Ca2+ or antimitotic drugs, neuronal microtubules are unusually stable. Such stability is important for normal axon growth and maintenance, while hyperstability may compromise neuronal function in aging and degeneration. Though mechanisms for stability were unclear, studies suggested that stable microtubules contain biochemically distinct tubulins that are more basic than conventional tubulins. Transglutaminase-catalyzed posttranslational incorporation of polyamines is one of the few modifications of intracellular proteins that add positive charges. Here we show that neuronal tubulin can be polyaminated by transglutaminase. Endogenous brain transglutaminase-catalyzed polyaminated tubulins have the biochemical characteristics of neuronal stable microtubules. Inhibiting polyamine synthesis or transglutaminase activity significantly decreases microtubule stability in vitro and in vivo. Together, this suggests that transglutaminase-catalyzed polyamination of tubulins stabilizes neuronal microtubules essential for unique neuronal structures and functions. PMID:23583110

Song, Yuyu; Kirkpatrick, Laura L.; Schilling, Alexander B.; Helseth, Donald L.; Chabot, Nicolas; Keillor, Jeffrey W.; Johnson, Gail V.W.; Brady, Scott T.

2013-01-01

479

Controlled shape modification of embedded Au nanoparticles by 3 MeV Au2+-ion irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shape modification of embedded Au nanoparticles by 3 MeV Au2+-ion irradiation has been studied by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). The ion irradiation on spherical Au nanoparticles shallowly-embedded in SiO2 caused a well-controlled transformation of shape to ellipsoidal. Satellite nanoparticles of smaller sizes were found to nucleate around the ellipsoids. Rapid growth of the ellipsoidal nanoparticles was observed as the applied fluence increased from 3 × 1015 to 7 × 1015 ions cm-2. The XTEM study also revealed the crystallinity of the ellipsoids formed by MeV ion irradiation. Reduction in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak intensity in the optical absorption spectrum indicates partial dissolution of the spherical nanoparticles by ion irradiation. We have thus obtained a unique near-surface structure of ellipsoidal nanoparticles. The results are discussed in terms of effects of ion energy deposition and inverse Ostwald ripening.

Datta, D. P.; Takeda, Y.; Amekura, H.; Sasase, M.; Kishimoto, N.

2014-08-01

480

Modification to the Langley 8-foot high temperature tunnel for hypersonic propulsion testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Described are the modifications currently under way to the Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel to produce a new, unique national resource for testing hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems. The current tunnel, which has been used for aerothermal loads and structures research since its inception, is being modified with the addition of a LOX system to bring the oxygen content of the test medium up to that of air, the addition of alternate Mach number capability (4 and 5) to augment the current M=7 capability, improvements to the tunnel hardware to reduce maintenance downtime, the addition of a hydrogen system to allow the testing of hydrogen powered engines, and a new data system to increase both the quantity and quality of the data obtained.

Reubush, D. E.; Puster, R. L.; Kelly, H. N.

1987-01-01