Sample records for unique hypusine modification

  1. Cryptosporidium parvum has an active hypusine biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Nimisha; Morada, Marie; Tripathi, Pankaj; Gowri, V S; Mandal, Swati; Quirch, Alison; Park, Myung Hee; Yarlett, Nigel; Madhubala, Rentala

    2014-06-01

    The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum causes severe enteric infection and diarrheal disease with substantial morbidity and mortality in untreated AIDS patients and children in developing or resource-limited countries. No fully effective treatment is available. Hypusination of eIF5A is an important post-translational modification essential for cell proliferation. This modification occurs in a two step process catalyzed by deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) followed by deoxyhypusine hydroxylase. An ORF of 1086bp was identified in the C. parvum (Cp) genome which encodes for a putative polypeptide of 362 amino acids. The recombinant CpDHS protein was purified to homogeneity and used to probe the enzyme's mechanism, structure, and inhibition profile in a series of kinetic experiments. Sequence analysis and structural modeling of CpDHS were performed to probe differences with respect to the DHS of other species. Unlike Leishmania, Trypanosomes and Entamoeba, Cryptosporidium contains only a single gene for DHS. Phylogenetic analysis shows that CpDHS is more closely related to apicomplexan DHS than kinetoplastid DHS. Important residues that are essential for the functioning of the enzyme including NAD(+) binding residues, spermidine binding residues and the active site lysine are conserved between CpDHS and human DHS. N(1)-guanyl-1,7-diaminoheptane (GC7), a potent inhibitor of DHS caused an effective inhibition of infection and growth of C. parvum in HCT-8 cells. PMID:24893338

  2. Development of orthogonally protected hypusine for solid-phase peptide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Song, Aimin; Tom, Jeffrey; Yu, Zhiyong; Pham, Victoria; Tan, Dajin; Zhang, Dengxiong; Fang, Guoyong; Yu, Tao; Deshayes, Kurt

    2015-04-01

    An orthogonally protected hypusine reagent was developed for solid-phase synthesis of hypusinated peptides using the Fmoc/t-Bu protection strategy. The reagent was synthesized in an overall yield of 27% after seven steps from Cbz-Lys-OBzl and (R)-3-hydroxypyrrolidin-2-one. The side-chain protecting groups (Boc and t-Bu) are fully compatible with standard Fmoc chemistry and can be readily removed during the peptide cleavage step. The utility of the reagent was demonstrated by solid-phase synthesis of hypusinated peptides. PMID:25769022

  3. Unique carbon nanotube architectures via surface modification and capillary effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrapani, Nirupama

    The extraordinary material properties of carbon nanotubes make them an ideal candidate for a plethora of applications and many fundamental scientific studies. However, precise control over morphology of nanotube-based structures is required before their potential could be realized. A method for surface character alteration and controlled defect induction based on plasma chemistry is presented. This process induces defects in the nanotube structure by way of functionalization and the extent of disorder can be controlled by plasma time and power. This treatment has been characterized by time dependent Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A better understanding of the changes in the vibrational modes of nanotubes with changes in their structure could be gained from this study. Formation of visually arresting cellular structures from aligned nanotubes by the evaporation of water was discovered. Cellular patterns arise frequently in nature on length scales ranging from microscopic to macroscopic as a result of spatially periodic and random perturbations. However, a film of aligned carbon nanotubes present an unique, yet unstudied system where pattern formation arise from the collapse and reassembly of highly ordered, anisotropic, elastic, nanoscale rods with remarkable properties. The nanoscale dimensions of the nanotube arrays magnify the capillary forces exerted by the evaporating solvent from the interstitial spaces. Shrinkage induced crack formation in the films due to strong capillary forces of evaporating solvent and aided by strong van der Waals interactions between condensed nanotubes, result in the formation of stable cellular patterns and contiguous foams. These foams can be elastically deformed, transferred to other substrates, or floated out to produce free-standing macroscopic fabrics. The length-scale, orientation and shape of cell could be controlled by varying experimental conditions such as the length of nanotubes, rate of evaporation, and array dimensions. Pattern formation could also be tailored by prefabricating nanotube arrays by simple lithographic techniques. This study is on the fundamental understanding of capillary effects in dense arrays of ordered nanotubes and the effect of surface modification of nanotubes. This simple self-assembly process is a novel way of creating different macroscopic morphologies and architectures with nanotubes.

  4. The Histone Code of Toxoplasma gondii Comprises Conserved and Unique Posttranslational Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Nardelli, Sheila C.; Che, Fa-Yun; Silmon de Monerri, Natalie C.; Xiao, Hui; Nieves, Edward; Madrid-Aliste, Carlos; Angel, Sergio O.; Sullivan, William J.; Angeletti, Ruth H.; Kim, Kami; Weiss, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epigenetic gene regulation has emerged as a major mechanism for gene regulation in all eukaryotes. Histones are small, basic proteins that constitute the major protein component of chromatin, and posttranslational modifications (PTM) of histones are essential for epigenetic gene regulation. The different combinations of histone PTM form the histone code for an organism, marking functional units of chromatin that recruit macromolecular complexes that govern chromatin structure and regulate gene expression. To characterize the repertoire of Toxoplasma gondii histone PTM, we enriched histones using standard acid extraction protocols and analyzed them with several complementary middle-down and bottom-up proteomic approaches with the high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometer using collision-induced dissociation (CID), higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD), and/or electron transfer dissociation (ETD) fragmentation. We identified 249 peptides with unique combinations of PTM that comprise the T. gondii histone code. T. gondii histones share a high degree of sequence conservation with human histones, and many modifications are conserved between these species. In addition, T. gondii histones have unique modifications not previously identified in other species. Finally, T. gondii histones are modified by succinylation, propionylation, and formylation, recently described histone PTM that have not previously been identified in parasitic protozoa. The characterization of the T. gondii histone code will facilitate in-depth analysis of how epigenetic regulation affects gene expression in pathogenic apicomplexan parasites and identify a new model system for elucidating the biological functions of novel histone PTM. PMID:24327343

  5. De novo sequencing of unique sequence tags for discovery of post-translational modifications of proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yufeng; Tolic, Nikola; Hixson, Kim K.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-10-15

    De novo sequencing has a promise to discover the protein post-translation modifications; however, such approach is still in their infancy and not widely applied for proteomics practices due to its limited reliability. In this work, we describe a de novo sequencing approach for discovery of protein modifications through identification of the UStags (Anal. Chem. 2008, 80, 1871-1882). The de novo information was obtained from Fourier-transform tandem mass spectrometry for peptides and polypeptides in a yeast lysate, and the de novo sequences obtained were filtered to define a more limited set of UStags. The DNA-predicted database protein sequences were then compared to the UStags, and the differences observed across or in the UStags (i.e., the UStags’ prefix and suffix sequences and the UStags themselves) were used to infer the possible sequence modifications. With this de novo-UStag approach, we uncovered some unexpected variances of yeast protein sequences due to amino acid mutations and/or multiple modifications to the predicted protein sequences. Random matching of the de novo sequences to the predicted sequences were examined with use of two random (false) databases, and ~3% false discovery rates were estimated for the de novo-UStag approach. The factors affecting the reliability (e.g., existence of de novo sequencing noise residues and redundant sequences) and the sensitivity are described. The de novo-UStag complements the UStag method previously reported by enabling discovery of new protein modifications.

  6. Unique Structural Modifications Are Present in the Lipopolysaccharide from Colistin-Resistant Strains of Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Mark R.; Casella, Leila G.; Jones, Jace W.; Adams, Mark D.; Zurawski, Daniel V.; Hazlett, Karsten R. O.; Doi, Yohei

    2013-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe infections, including hospital-acquired pneumonia, wound infections, and sepsis. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains are prevalent, further complicating patient treatment. Due to the increase in MDR strains, the cationic antimicrobial peptide colistin has been used to treat A. baumannii infections. Colistin-resistant strains of A. baumannii with alterations to the lipid A component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been reported; specifically, the lipid A structure was shown to be hepta-acylated with a phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) modification present on one of the terminal phosphate residues. Using a tandem mass spectrometry platform, we provide definitive evidence that the lipid A isolated from colistin-resistant A. baumannii MAC204 LPS contains a novel structure corresponding to a diphosphoryl hepta-acylated lipid A structure with both pEtN and galactosamine (GalN) modifications. To correlate our structural studies with clinically relevant samples, we characterized colistin-susceptible and -resistant isolates obtained from patients. These results demonstrated that the clinical colistin-resistant isolate had the same pEtN and GalN modifications as those seen in the laboratory-adapted A. baumannii strain MAC204. In summary, this work has shown complete structure characterization including the accurate assignment of acylation, phosphorylation, and glycosylation of lipid A from A. baumannii, which are important for resistance to colistin. PMID:23877686

  7. Unique structural modifications are present in the lipopolysaccharide from colistin-resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Mark R; Casella, Leila G; Jones, Jace W; Adams, Mark D; Zurawski, Daniel V; Hazlett, Karsten R O; Doi, Yohei; Ernst, Robert K

    2013-10-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe infections, including hospital-acquired pneumonia, wound infections, and sepsis. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains are prevalent, further complicating patient treatment. Due to the increase in MDR strains, the cationic antimicrobial peptide colistin has been used to treat A. baumannii infections. Colistin-resistant strains of A. baumannii with alterations to the lipid A component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) have been reported; specifically, the lipid A structure was shown to be hepta-acylated with a phosphoethanolamine (pEtN) modification present on one of the terminal phosphate residues. Using a tandem mass spectrometry platform, we provide definitive evidence that the lipid A isolated from colistin-resistant A. baumannii MAC204 LPS contains a novel structure corresponding to a diphosphoryl hepta-acylated lipid A structure with both pEtN and galactosamine (GalN) modifications. To correlate our structural studies with clinically relevant samples, we characterized colistin-susceptible and -resistant isolates obtained from patients. These results demonstrated that the clinical colistin-resistant isolate had the same pEtN and GalN modifications as those seen in the laboratory-adapted A. baumannii strain MAC204. In summary, this work has shown complete structure characterization including the accurate assignment of acylation, phosphorylation, and glycosylation of lipid A from A. baumannii, which are important for resistance to colistin. PMID:23877686

  8. G-rich VEGF aptamer with locked and unlocked nucleic acid modifications exhibits a unique G-quadruplex fold

    PubMed Central

    Maruši?, Maja; Veedu, Rakesh N.; Wengel, Jesper; Plavec, Janez

    2013-01-01

    The formation of a single G-quadruplex structure adopted by a promising 25 nt G-rich vascular endothelial growth factor aptamer in a K+ rich environment was facilitated by locked nucleic acid modifications. An unprecedented all parallel-stranded monomeric G-quadruplex with three G-quartet planes exhibits several unique structural features. Five consecutive guanine residues are all involved in G-quartet formation and occupy positions in adjacent DNA strands, which are bridged with a no-residue propeller-type loop. A two-residue D-shaped loop facilitates inclusion of an isolated guanine residue into the vacant spot within the G-quartet. The remaining two G-rich tracts of three residues each adopt parallel orientation and are linked with edgewise and propeller loops. Both 5? with 3 nt and 3? with 4 nt overhangs display well-defined conformations, with latter adopting a basket handle topology. Locked residues contribute to thermal stabilization of the adopted structure and formation of structurally pre-organized intermediates that facilitate folding into a single G-quadruplex. Understanding the impact of chemical modifications on folding, thermal stability and structural polymorphism of G-quadruplexes provides means for the improvement of vascular endothelial growth factor aptamers and advances our insights into driving nucleic acid structure by locking or unlocking the conformation of sugar moieties of nucleotides in general. PMID:23935071

  9. Structural and functional effects of selective chemical modifications of Scapharca inaequivalvis haemoglobins in relation to their unique assembly.

    PubMed Central

    Boffi, A; Gattoni, M; Santucci, R; Vecchini, P; Ascoli, F; Chiancone, E

    1987-01-01

    The structural and functional roles of lysyl and thiol groups in the dimeric (HbI) and tetrameric (HbII) haemoglobins from the mollusc Scapharca inaequivalvis have been assessed. In these haemoglobins a unique mode of assembly (the haem-carrying E and F helices form the intersubunit contact of the dimeric unit) is associated with co-operative oxygen binding. Extensive acylation is accompanied by significant haem oxidation. Modification of one or two lysyl residues per chain (corresponding to approximately 20% of the total residues) does not affect the structural and functional properties of both haemoglobins, in line with the proposal that the intersubunit contacts are rich in hydrophobic residues. The modification of the thiol groups does not influence the state of association in both HbI and HbII, despite the location of the cysteine residue common to all polypeptide chains in the vicinity of the major intersubunit contact. The effect on the functional properties depends on the size of the thiol reagent: p-chloromercuribenzoate and phenylmercuric acetate increase the oxygen affinity about 20-fold, but iodoacetamide and mercuric chloride have no effect. Moreover, electrophoresis experiments indicate that p-chloromercuribenzoate is bound in a co-operative fashion, the degree of co-operativity being much higher in the dimeric HbI. Thus, only in HbII are intermediates containing substoichiometric amounts of p-chloromercuribenzoate formed in significant amounts. Their oxygen binding properties show that reaction of only one thiol group/tetramer suffices to alter the oxygen affinity of the molecule. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3593205

  10. Modification of NASA Langley 8 foot high temperature tunnel to provide a unique national research facility for hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, H. N.; Wieting, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A planned modification of the NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel to make it a unique national research facility for hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems is described, and some of the ongoing supporting research for that modification is discussed. The modification involves: (1) the addition of an oxygen-enrichment system which will allow the methane-air combustion-heated test stream to simulate air for propulsion testing; and (2) supplemental nozzles to expand the test simulation capability from the current nominal Mach number to 7.0 include Mach numbers 3.0, 4.5, and 5.0. Detailed design of the modifications is currently underway and the modified facility is scheduled to be available for tests of large scale propulsion systems by mid 1988.

  11. The Drosophila deoxyhypusine hydroxylase homologue nero and its target eIF5A are required for cell growth and the regulation of autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Prajal H.; Costa-Mattioli, Mauro; Schulze, Karen L.

    2009-01-01

    Hypusination is a unique posttranslational modification by which lysine is transformed into the atypical amino acid hypusine. eIF5A (eukaryotic initiation factor 5A) is the only known protein to contain hypusine. In this study, we describe the identification and characterization of nero, the Drosophila melanogaster deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH) homologue. nero mutations affect cell and organ size, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, and autophagy. Knockdown of the hypusination target eIF5A via RNA interference causes phenotypes similar to nero mutations. However, loss of nero appears to cause milder phenotypes than loss of eIF5A. This is partially explained through a potential compensatory mechanism by which nero mutant cells up-regulate eIF5A levels. The failure of eIF5A up-regulation to rescue nero mutant phenotypes suggests that hypusination is required for eIF5A function. Furthermore, expression of enzymatically impaired forms of DOHH fails to rescue nero clones, indicating that hypusination activity is important for nero function. Our data also indicate that nero and eIF5A are required for cell growth and affect autophagy and protein synthesis. PMID:19546244

  12. Predicting the pathway involved in post-translational modification of Elongation factor P in a subset of bacterial species

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The bacterial elongation factor P (EF-P) is strictly conserved in bacteria and essential for protein synthesis. It is homologous to the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A). A highly conserved eIF5A lysine is modified into an unusual amino acid derived from spermidine, hypusine. Hypusine is absolutely required for eIF5A's role in translation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The homologous lysine of EF-P is also modified to a spermidine derivative in Escherichia coli. However, the biosynthesis pathway of this modification in the bacterial EF-P is yet to be elucidated. Presentation of the Hypothesis Here we propose a potential mechanism for the post-translational modification of EF-P. By using comparative genomic methods based on physical clustering and phylogenetic pattern analysis, we identified two protein families of unknown function, encoded by yjeA and yjeK genes in E. coli, as candidates for this missing pathway. Based on the analysis of the structural and biochemical properties of both protein families, we propose two potential mechanisms for the modification of EF-P. Testing the hypothesis This hypothesis could be tested genetically by constructing a bacterial strain with a tagged efp gene. The tag would allow the purification of EF-P by affinity chromatography and the analysis of the purified protein by mass spectrometry. yjeA or yjeK could then be deleted in the efp tagged strain and the EF-P protein purified from each mutant analyzed by mass spectrometry for the presence or the absence of the modification. This hypothesis can also be tested by purifying the different components (YjeK, YjeA and EF-P) and reconstituting the pathway in vitro. Implication of the hypothesis The requirement for a fully modified EF-P for protein synthesis in certain bacteria implies the presence of specific post-translational modification mechanism in these organisms. All of the 725 bacterial genomes analyzed, possess an efp gene but only 200 (28%) possess both yjeA and yjeK genes. In the other organisms, EF-P may be modified by another pathway or the translation machinery must have adapted to the lack of EF-P modification. Our hypotheses, if confirmed, will lead to the discovery of a new post-translational modification pathway. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Céline Brochier-Armanet, Igor B. Zhulin and Mikhail Gelfand. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' reports section. PMID:20070887

  13. Quantum uniqueness

    E-print Network

    Denis Sych; Gerd Leuchs

    2010-03-06

    In the classical world one can construct two identical systems which have identical behavior and give identical measurement results. We show this to be impossible in the quantum domain. We prove that after the same quantum measurement two different quantum systems cannot yield always identical results, provided the possible measurement results belong to a non orthogonal set. This is interpreted as quantum uniqueness - a quantum feature which has no classical analog. Its tight relation with objective randomness of quantum measurements is discussed.

  14. Molecular modeling of the human eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) based on spectroscopic and computational analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Costa-Neto, Claudio M. [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, 14049-900 Ribeirao Preto (Brazil)]. E-mail: claudio@fmrp.usp.br; Parreiras-e-Silva, Lucas T. [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, 14049-900 Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Ruller, Roberto [Department of Chemistry, FFCLRP, University of Sao Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Oliveira, Eduardo B. [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, 14049-900 Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Miranda, Antonio [Department of Biophysics, Escola Paulista de Medicina, UNIFESP, 04023-062 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Oliveira, Laerte [Department of Biophysics, Escola Paulista de Medicina, UNIFESP, 04023-062 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ward, Richard J. [Department of Chemistry, FFCLRP, University of Sao Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto (Brazil)

    2006-09-01

    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is a protein ubiquitously present in archaea and eukarya, which undergoes a unique two-step post-translational modification called hypusination. Several studies have shown that hypusination is essential for a variety of functional roles for eIF5A, including cell proliferation and synthesis of proteins involved in cell cycle control. Up to now neither a totally selective inhibitor of hypusination nor an inhibitor capable of directly binding to eIF5A has been reported in the literature. The discovery of such an inhibitor might be achieved by computer-aided drug design based on the 3D structure of the human eIF5A. In this study, we present a molecular model for the human eIF5A protein based on the crystal structure of the eIF5A from Leishmania brasiliensis, and compare the modeled conformation of the loop bearing the hypusination site with circular dichroism data obtained with a synthetic peptide of this loop. Furthermore, analysis of amino acid variability between different human eIF5A isoforms revealed peculiar structural characteristics that are of functional relevance.

  15. Behavior Modification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert M. Anderson

    \\u000a Behavioral problems may be associated with disorders of the central nervous system. The therapy of choice for such problems\\u000a is often a behavior modification program possibly supplemented by psychoactive medications. Behavior modification should be\\u000a done by health care personnel with appropriate training and competence. It is essential that all staff involved in a behavior-change\\u000a program have a clear understanding of

  16. Surface modification of silica nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajesh Ranjan

    2008-01-01

    Surface modification of nanosized silica particles by polymer grafting is gaining attention. This can be attributed to the fact that it provides a unique opportunity to engineer the interfacial properties of these modified particles; at the same time the mechanical and thermal properties of the polymers can be improved. Controlled free radical polymerization is a versatile technique which affords control

  17. Evaluation of the metal ion requirement of the human deoxyhypusine hydroxylase from HeLa cells using a novel enzyme assay.

    PubMed

    Csonga, R; Ettmayer, P; Auer, M; Eckerskorn, C; Eder, J; Klier, H

    1996-02-19

    Hypusine synthesis in the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A is a unique two-step posttranslational modification. After deoxyhypusine is generated by the deoxyhypusine synthase, the deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (EC 1.14.99.29) catalyzes the formation of mature hypusine. A rapid assay for monitoring the deoxyhypusine hydroxylase activity was established, employing the oxidative cleavage of the hypusyl residue and subsequent extraction of the generated aldehydes. As metal ion chelators have been reported to inhibit the deoxyhypusine hydroxylase, the mechanism of this inhibition and the effect of transition metal ions on enzyme activity were investigated. A ferric ion appears to be essential for enzymatic activity, the inhibition of which is entirely attributed to the metal ion binding capacity of the chelators. PMID:8601426

  18. Home modification.

    PubMed

    McCullagh, Marjorie Cook

    2006-10-01

    Almost 50 million Americans--about one in five--live with a mental or physical disability, many in homes that are inconvenient, restrictive, or dangerous for them. Modifying the home using universal (barrier-free) design, architectural accessibility, and other such concepts can reduce the risk of falls and improve overall function. Nurses can be involved by assessing patients' living quarters and recommending specific modifications. PMID:17016095

  19. Isoprenoid Modifications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uyen T. T. Nguyen; Andrew Goodall; Kirill Alexandrov; Daniel Abankwa

    \\u000a Up to 2% of mammalian proteome is post-translationally modified with isoprenoid lipids. Many of these molecules are key regulators\\u000a of signaling pathways involved in cellular homeostasis. Appropriate signaling by prenylated proteins requires a combination\\u000a of correct expression levels, efficient post-translational modification, correct subcellular trafficking and nanolocalisation\\u000a as well as an appropriately regulated activation\\/deactivation cycle. Aberrant signaling by prenylated proteins can

  20. Unique Instruments' Origins

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Smith

    2012-09-11

    The purpose of this activity is to help you find unique instruments from a specific country. For whatever country you have chosen, the following resources should help you locate some unique instruments from that country. For starters, check out this link: Instruments By Country You will find a list of musical instruments for many countries in the world. Once you find an instrument from your country you want to explore, look here: Unique World Instruments Here ...

  1. Genetic modification in floriculture.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Stephen F; Brugliera, Filippa

    2011-02-01

    Micro-propagation, embryo rescue, mutagenesis via chemical or irradiation means and in vitro inter-specific hybridisation methods have been used by breeders in the floriculture industry for many years. In the past 20 years these enabling technologies have been supplemented by genetic modification methods. Though many genes of potential utility to the floricultural industry have been identified, and much has been learnt of the genetic factors and molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypes of great importance to the industry, there are only flower colour modified varieties of carnation and rose in the marketplace. To a large extent this is due to unique financial barriers to market entry for genetically modified varieties of flower crops, including use of technology fees and costs of regulatory approval. PMID:20882313

  2. Unique Access to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Don

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the many learning opportunities that broadcast technology students at Ladue Horton Watkins High School in St. Louis, Missouri, experience because of their unique access to technology and methods of learning. Through scaffolding, stepladder techniques, and trial by fire, students learn to produce multiple television programs,…

  3. Is life unique?

    PubMed

    Abel, David L

    2011-01-01

    Is life physicochemically unique? No. Is life unique? Yes. Life manifests innumerable formalisms that cannot be generated or explained by physicodynamics alone. Life pursues thousands of biofunctional goals, not the least of which is staying alive. Neither physicodynamics, nor evolution, pursue goals. Life is largely directed by linear digital programming and by the Prescriptive Information (PI) instantiated particularly into physicodynamically indeterminate nucleotide sequencing. Epigenomic controls only compound the sophistication of these formalisms. Life employs representationalism through the use of symbol systems. Life manifests autonomy, homeostasis far from equilibrium in the harshest of environments, positive and negative feedback mechanisms, prevention and correction of its own errors, and organization of its components into Sustained Functional Systems (SFS). Chance and necessity-heat agitation and the cause-and-effect determinism of nature's orderliness-cannot spawn formalisms such as mathematics, language, symbol systems, coding, decoding, logic, organization (not to be confused with mere self-ordering), integration of circuits, computational success, and the pursuit of functionality. All of these characteristics of life are formal, not physical. PMID:25382119

  4. Chromatin modifications, epigenetics, and how protozoan parasites regulate their lives

    PubMed Central

    Croken, Matthew M.; Nardelli, Sheila C.; Kim, Kami

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin structure plays a vital role in epigenetic regulation of protozoan parasite gene expression. Epigenetic gene regulation impacts parasite virulence, differentiation and cell cycle control. Recent work in many laboratories has elucidated the functions of histone modifying proteins that regulate parasite gene expression by chemical modification of constituent nucleosomes. A major focus of investigation has been characterizing post-translational modifications (PTM) of histones and identifying the enzymes that are responsible. Despite conserved features and specificity common to all eukaryotes, parasite enzymes involved in chromatin modification have unique functions that regulate unique aspects of parasite biology. PMID:22480826

  5. The ethics of molecular memory modification.

    PubMed

    Hui, Katrina; Fisher, Carl E

    2015-07-01

    Novel molecular interventions have recently shown the potential to erase, enhance and alter specific long-term memories. Unique features of this form of memory modification call for a close examination of its possible applications. While there have been discussions of the ethics of memory modification in the literature, molecular memory modification (MMM) can provide special insights. Previously raised ethical concerns regarding memory enhancement, such as safety issues, the 'duty to remember', selfhood and personal identity, require re-evaluation in light of MMM. As a technology that exploits the brain's updating processes, MMM helps correct the common misconception that memory is a static entity by demonstrating how memory is plastic and subject to revision even in the absence of external manipulation. Furthermore, while putatively safer than other speculative technologies because of its high specificity, MMM raises notable safety issues, including potential insidious effects on the agent's emotions and personal identity. Nonetheless, MMM possesses characteristics of a more permissible form of modification, not only because it is theoretically safer, but because its unique mechanism of action requires a heightened level of cooperation from the agent. Discussions of memory modification must consider the specific mechanisms of action, which can alter the weight and relevance of various ethical concerns. MMM also highlights the need for conceptual accuracy regarding the term 'enhancement'; this umbrella term will have to be differentiated as new technologies are applied to a widening array of purposes. PMID:25552663

  6. Is covariant star product unique?

    E-print Network

    Dmitri Vassilevich

    2011-01-24

    We give a nontechnical introduction to the problem of non-uniqueness of star products and describe a covariant resolution of this problem. Some implications (e.g., for noncommutative gravity) and further prospects are discussed.

  7. Osteoporosis: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    Unique to Older Adults This section provides information to help older adults and their caregivers consider their disease or condition in conjunction with other health issues. As older adults live longer, they may have more than one ...

  8. Delirium: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    Unique to Older Adults This section provides information to help older adults and their caregivers consider their disease or condition in conjunction with other health issues. As older adults live longer, they may have more than one ...

  9. Dementia: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Aging & Health A to Z Dementia Unique to Older Adults This section provides information to help older adults ... quality of life. Managing Additional Health Problems in Older Adults with Dementia Dementia is rare in adults younger ...

  10. On Unique Independence Weighted Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farzad Didehvar; Ali D. Mehrabi

    2009-01-01

    An independent set in a graph G is a set of vertices no two of which are joined by an edge (no two of which share an edge). A vertex-weighted graph associates a weight with every vertex in the graph. A vertex-weighted graph G is called a unique independence vertex-weighted graphif it has a unique independent set with maximum sum

  11. On Unique Independence Weighted Graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farzad Didehvar; Ali D. Mehrabi; Fatemeh Raee B

    2009-01-01

    An independent set in a graph G is a set of vertices no two of which are joined by an edge. A vertex-weighted graph associates a weight with every vertex in the graph. A vertex-weighted graph G is called a unique independence vertex-weighted graph if it has a unique independent set with maximum sum of weights. Although, in this paper

  12. Gold Nanoparticle Sensor for Homocysteine Thiolactone-Induced Protein Modification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arther T. Gates; Sayo O. Fakayode; Mark Lowry; Gabriela M. Ganea; Abitha Murugeshu; James W. Robinson; Robert M. Strongin; Isiah M. Warner

    2008-01-01

    Homocysteine thiolactone-induced protein modification (HTPM) is a unique post-translational protein modification that is recognized as an emergent biomarker for cardiovascular disease. HTPM involves the site-specific acylation of proteins at lysine residues by homocysteine thiolactone (HTL) to produce protein homocystamide, which has been found at elevated levels in patients with coronary heart disease. Herein, we report the development of a novel

  13. Enzymatic modifications of exopolysaccharides enhance bacterial persistence

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, Gregory B.; Marmont, Lindsey S.; Howell, P. Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms are surface-attached communities of bacterial cells embedded in a self-produced matrix that are found ubiquitously in nature. The biofilm matrix is composed of various extracellular polymeric substances, which confer advantages to the encapsulated bacteria by protecting them from eradication. The matrix composition varies between species and is dependent on the environmental niche that the bacteria inhabit. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) play a variety of important roles in biofilm formation in numerous bacterial species. The ability of bacteria to thrive in a broad range of environmental settings is reflected in part by the structural diversity of the EPS produced both within individual bacterial strains as well as by different species. This variability is achieved through polymerization of distinct sugar moieties into homo- or hetero-polymers, as well as post-polymerization modification of the polysaccharide. Specific enzymes that are unique to the production of each polymer can transfer or remove non-carbohydrate moieties, or in other cases, epimerize the sugar units. These modifications alter the physicochemical properties of the polymer, which in turn can affect bacterial pathogenicity, virulence, and environmental adaptability. Herein, we review the diversity of modifications that the EPS alginate, the Pel polysaccharide, Vibrio polysaccharide, cepacian, glycosaminoglycans, and poly-N-acetyl-glucosamine undergo during biosynthesis. These are EPS produced by human pathogenic bacteria for which studies have begun to unravel the effect modifications have on their physicochemical and biological properties. The biological advantages these polymer modifications confer to the bacteria that produce them will be discussed. The expanding list of identified modifications will allow future efforts to focus on linking these modifications to specific biosynthetic genes and biofilm phenotypes. PMID:26029200

  14. Surface modification and characterization Collaborative Research Center at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The Surface Modification and Characterization Collaborative Research Center (SMAC/CRC) is a unique facility for the alteration and characterization of the near-surface properties of materials. The SMAC/CRC facility is equipped with particle accelerators and high-powered lasers which can be used to improve the physical, electrical, and/or chemical properties of solids and to create unique new materials not possible to obtain with conventional ''equilibrium'' processing techniques. Surface modification is achieved using such techniques as ion implantation doping, ion beam mixing, laser mixing, ion deposition, and laser annealing.

  15. Enzymatic modification of schizophyllan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An enzymatic method was developed for the progressive modification of the polysaccharide schizophyllan. Fungal strains Hypocrea nigricans NRRL 62555, Penicillium crustosum NRRL 62558, and Penicillium simplicissimum NRRL 62550 were previously identified as novel sources of ß-endoglucanase with specif...

  16. Male genital modification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raven Rowanchilde

    1996-01-01

    By modifying the body in meaningful ways, human beings establish their identity and social status. Lip plugs, ear plugs, penis\\u000a sheaths, cosmetics, ornaments, scarification, body piercings, and genital modifications encode and transmit messages about\\u000a age, sex, social status, health, and attractiveness from one individual to another. Through sociocultural sexual selection,\\u000a male genital modification plays an important role as a sociosexual

  17. Tyrosine Modifications in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, Maria B.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The understanding of physiological and pathological processes involving protein oxidation, particularly under conditions of aging and oxidative stress, can be aided by proteomic identification of proteins that accumulate oxidative post-translational modifications only if these detected modifications are connected to functional consequences. The modification of tyrosine (Tyr) residues can elicit significant changes in protein structure and function, which, in some cases, may contribute to biological aging and age-related pathologies, such as atherosclerosis, neurodegeneration, and cataracts. Recent Advances: Studies characterizing proteins in which Tyr has been modified to 3-nitrotyrosine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, 3,3?-dityrosine and other cross-links, or 3-chlorotyrosine are reviewed, with an emphasis on structural and functional consequences. Critical Issues: Distinguishing between inconsequential modifications and functionally significant ones requires careful biochemical and biophysical analysis of target proteins, as well as innovative methods for isolating the effects of the multiple modifications that often occur under oxidizing conditions. Future Directions: The labor-intensive task of isolating and characterizing individual modified proteins must continue, especially given the expanding list of known modifications. Emerging approaches, such as genetic and metabolic incorporation of unnatural amino acids, hold promise for additional focused studies of this kind. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 1571–1579. PMID:22424390

  18. Uniquely identifying wheat plant structures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Uniquely naming wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) plant parts is useful for communicating plant development research and the effects of environmental stresses on normal wheat development. Over the past 30+ years, several naming systems have been proposed for wheat shoot, leaf, spike, spikelet, ...

  19. Unique Juncus Hybrids in Lancashire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Stage

    1970-01-01

    DETAILED anatomical investigations have confirmed the presence on the Lancashire coast of Juncus hybrids with the parentage J. balticus × J. effusus, and J. balticus × J. inflexus. These hybrids are believed to be unique: neither has been found elsewhere in the world, despite the frequent co-habitation of the parents in parts of northern Europe. The programme of nature conservation

  20. UNIQUE MITOCHONDRIAL GENETICS OF CUCUMIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cucumis mitochondrial (mt) genome is unique for its enormous size and paternal transmission. Recombination among inverted and direct repeats in the cucumber mt DNA produce paternally transmitted mosaic (MSC) phenotypes with altered mt gene expression. We used MSC to reveal phenotypic variation...

  1. In vitro and in vivo modifications of recombinant and human IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongcheng; Ponniah, Gomathinayagam; Zhang, Hui-Min; Nowak, Christine; Neill, Alyssa; Gonzalez-Lopez, Nidia; Patel, Rekha; Cheng, Guilong; Kita, Adriana Z; Andrien, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Tremendous knowledge has been gained in the understanding of various modifications of IgG antibodies, driven mainly by the fact that antibodies are one of the most important groups of therapeutic molecules and because of the development of advanced analytical techniques. Recombinant monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics expressed in mammalian cell lines and endogenous IgG molecules secreted by B cells in the human body share some modifications, but each have some unique modifications. Modifications that are common to recombinant mAb and endogenous IgG molecules are considered to pose a lower risk of immunogenicity. On the other hand, modifications that are unique to recombinant mAbs could potentially pose higher risk. The focus of this review is the comparison of frequently observed modifications of recombinant monoclonal antibodies to those of endogenous IgG molecules. PMID:25517300

  2. ASPOD modifications of 1993-1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Jennifer J. (editor); Fogarty, Paul W.; Muller, Matthew; Martucci, Thomas A., III; Williams, Daniel; Rowney, David A.

    1994-01-01

    ASPOD, Autonomous Space Processors for Orbital Debris, provides a unique way of collecting the space debris that has built up over the past 37 years. For the past several years, ASPOD has gone through several different modifications. This year's concentrations were on the solar cutting array, the solar tracker, the earth based main frame/tilt table, the controls for the two robotic arms, and accurate autocad drawings of ASPOD. This final report contains the reports written by the students who worked on the ASPOD project this year.

  3. Microdensitometer electronics modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewitt, A. V.

    1984-01-01

    Minor modifications of electronic components in the PDS 1010A microdensitometer are discussed. The operational requirements and performance limitations of the PDS are noted. Replacement of the photomultiplier and front-end analog circuitry significantly improved the photometric performance of the PDS. The improvement in density repeatability is marked, and the permissible density slew speed is greatly increased.

  4. Instructional Improvement: Behavior Modification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haring, Norris G.; Hayden, Alice H.

    Sixteen papers are provided. B. F. Skinner discusses the arrangement of contingencies for learning: Lloyd Homme describes behavioral engineering; and Frank Hewett considers behavior modification in special education. Also treated are experimental education by Norris Haring, program evaluation by Arthur Lumsdaine, and administration of special…

  5. Toy Modification Note. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderheiden, Gregg C.; And Others

    Described are toy modifications which enable handicapped individuals to operate battery-powered toys. A battery interrupter is explained as a device which fits between the batteries in a toy and provides the ability to have a separate on-off switch which can be custom designed to fit a handicapped user's needs. Construction and use of three types…

  6. Mucormycosis in India: unique features.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Singh, Rachna

    2014-12-01

    Mucormycosis remains a devastating invasive fungal infection, with high mortality rates even after active management. The disease is being reported at an alarming frequency over the past decades from India. Indian mucormycosis has certain unique features. Rhino-orbito-cerebral presentation associated with uncontrolled diabetes is the predominant characteristic. Isolated renal mucormycosis has emerged as a new clinical entity. Apophysomyces elegans and Rhizopus homothallicus are emerging species in this region and uncommon agents such as Mucor irregularis and Thamnostylum lucknowense are also being reported. This review focuses on these distinct features of mucormycosis observed in India. PMID:25187095

  7. Unique photochemistry of surface nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R.; Finlayson-Pitts, B.J. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    1995-11-23

    Unique inorganic surface nitrate species are known to be formed by the reactions of alkali halides such as solid NaCl with gaseous NO{sub 2}, HNO{sub 3}, and N{sub 2}O{sub 5}. We report here that these surface nitrate species do not give nitrite ions upon UV photolysis, unlike stable crystalline inorganic nitrates such as NaNO{sub 3}. No infrared active products are detected in the salt while the surface nitrate photodecomposes, demonstrating that the surface nitrate species has a unique photochemistry that is distinct from that of crystalline NaNO{sub 3}. On the other hand, if the surface nitrate is transformed into microcrystallites of NaNO{sub 3} through a water-induced surface reorganization, the formation of nitrite is observed upon photolysis, as expected for the stable crystalline salt. A possible mechanism for the decomposition of the surface nitrate involves production of NO{sub 2}: NO{sub 3}{sup -}{sub surf} + hv {yields} NO{sub 2} + O{sup -}{sub surf} (8) rather than NO{sub 2}{sup -} + O or ONOO{sup -} as observed in earlier studies. The atmospheric implications of these observations are discussed. 29 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Pectin modifications: a review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Liu, Wei; Liu, Cheng-Mei; Li, Ti; Liang, Rui-Hong; Luo, Shun-Jing

    2015-10-15

    In recent years, the interest in studying modification of pectin has increased. A number of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups distributed along the backbone as well as a certain amount of neutral sugars presented as side chains make pectin capable of preparing a broad spectrum of derivatives. By forming pectin derivatives, their properties may be modified and some other new functional properties may be created. This article attempts to review the information about various methods used for pectin modification, including substitution (alkylation, amidation, quaternization, thiolation, sulfation, oxidation, etc.), chain elongation (cross-linking and grafting) and depolymerization (chemical, physical, and enzymatic degradation). Characteristics and applications of some pectin derivatives are also presented. In addition, the safety and regulatory status of pectin and its derivatives were reviewed. PMID:24798790

  9. Genetic modification in floriculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen F. Chandler; Filippa Brugliera

    2011-01-01

    Micro-propagation, embryo rescue, mutagenesis via chemical or irradiation means and in vitro inter-specific hybridisation\\u000a methods have been used by breeders in the floriculture industry for many years. In the past 20 years these enabling technologies\\u000a have been supplemented by genetic modification methods. Though many genes of potential utility to the floricultural industry\\u000a have been identified, and much has been learnt of

  10. Solitons and ionospheric modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheerin, J. P.; Nicholson, D. R.; Payne, G. L.; Hansen, P. J.; Weatherall, J. C.; Goldman, M. V.

    1982-01-01

    The possibility of Langmuir soliton formation and collapse during ionospheric modification is investigated. Parameters characterizing former facilities, existing facilities, and planned facilities are considered, using a combination of analytical and numerical techniques. At a spatial location corresponding to the exact classical reflection point of the modifier wave, the Langmuir wave evolution is found to be dominated by modulational instability followed by soliton formation and three-dimensional collapse. The earth's magnetic field is found to affect the shape of the collapsing soliton. These results provide an alternative explanation for some recent observations.

  11. Structural Modification of Nanocrystalline Ceria using Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL; Edmondson, Philip D [ORNL; Varga, Tamas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Moll, Sandra [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Namavar, Fereydoon [University of Nebraska Medical Center; Weber, William J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Exceptional size-dependent electronic-ionic conductivity of nanostructured ceria can significantly alter materials properties in chemical, physical, electronic and optical applications. Using energetic ions, we have demonstrated effective modification of interface volume and grain size in nanocrystalline ceria from a few nm up to ~ 25 nm, which is the critical region for controlling size-dependent material property. The unique self-healing response of radiation damage at grain boundaries is applied to control the grain size at nanoscale as a function of ion dose and irradiation temperature. Structural modification by energetic ions is proposed to achieve disirable electronic-ionic conductivity.

  12. ARITHMETIC PROGRESSIONS IN A UNIQUE FACTORIZATION DOMAIN

    E-print Network

    Ghorpade, Sudhir

    ARITHMETIC PROGRESSIONS IN A UNIQUE FACTORIZATION DOMAIN. We give a new proof of a slight generalization of this result to arithmetic progressions of integers and further extend it to arithmetic progressions in unique factorization domains

  13. Chemical modification interference.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Timothy W

    2015-01-01

    Chemical modification interference is a powerful method for surveying an entire RNA molecule to identify functionally important chemical groups. The basic idea is to generate a pool of end-labeled RNAs wherein each RNA molecule is chemically modified (e.g., by diethyl pyrocarbonate [DEPC], hydrazine, dimethyl sulfate, CMCT, or kethoxal) at a different position. The pool of RNAs is then allowed to participate in the reaction of interest. The functionally important RNA molecules (e.g., those bound by protein or that successfully participate in a processing reaction) are then separated from the nonfunctional RNA molecules (e.g., those not bound by protein or unable to participate in a processing reaction). This is often achieved by straightforward gel electrophoretic analysis. In the case of protein binding, it is necessary to be able to separate bound RNA from unbound RNA, which can be accomplished using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, filter binding, or affinity approaches (e.g., by immunoprecipitation or the use of tagged proteins). None of these techniques requires that a large fraction of RNA be bound or reacted, and, as a result, they are quite sensitive. Here we describe one example of a chemical modification interference assay in which RNA is modified with DEPC or hydrazine before binding to a protein. This technique can be readily adapted for use with other chemicals. PMID:26034302

  14. Electrochemical phenomena provide unique methods for materials synthesis and surface modification. Within this framework, the group

    E-print Network

    Acton, Scott

    and control of atomistic phenomena occurring at electrolyte-solid interfaces for use in electronic and energy magnetic alloys, focusing on electrolyte development and on the optimization of magnetic properties), or (iii) templates for enhanced cell growth (composite oxide nanostructures, nanoporous gold

  15. Public perceptions of hurricane modification.

    PubMed

    Klima, Kelly; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Morgan, M Granger; Grossmann, Iris

    2012-07-01

    If hurricane modification were to become a feasible strategy for potentially reducing hurricane damages, it would likely generate public discourse about whether to support its implementation. To facilitate an informed and constructive discourse, policymakers need to understand how people perceive hurricane modification. Here, we examine Florida residents' perceptions of hurricane modification techniques that aim to alter path and wind speed. Following the mental models approach, we conducted a survey study about public perceptions of hurricane modification that was guided by formative interviews on the topic. We report a set of four primary findings. First, hurricane modification was perceived as a relatively ineffective strategy for damage reduction, compared to other strategies for damage reduction. Second, hurricane modification was expected to lead to changes in projected hurricane path, but not necessarily to the successful reduction of projected hurricane strength. Third, more anger was evoked when a hurricane was described as having changed from the initially forecasted path or strength after an attempted modification. Fourth, unlike what we expected, participants who more strongly agreed with statements that recognized the uncertainty inherent in forecasts reported more rather than less anger at scientists across hurricane modification scenarios. If the efficacy of intensity-reduction techniques can be increased, people may be willing to support hurricane modification. However, such an effort would need to be combined with open and honest communications to members of the general public. PMID:22050325

  16. Structural Modification of Nanocrystalline Ceria by Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanwen; Edmondson, Philip D.; Varga, Tamas; Moll, Sandra J.; Namavar, Fereydoon; Lan, Chune; Weber, William J.

    2011-05-25

    Using energetic ions, we have demonstrated effective modification of grain size in nanocrystalline ceria in the critical region for controlling exceptional size-dependent electronicionic conductivity. The grain size increases and follows an exponential law as a function of ion fluence that increases with temperature, while the cubic phase is stable under the irradiation. The unique self-healing response of radiation damage at grain boundaries is utilized to control the grain size at the nanoscale.

  17. Autoantibodies to Posttranslational Modifications in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Burska, Agata N.; Hunt, Laura; Strollo, Rocky; Ryan, Brent J.; Vital, Ed; Nissim, Ahuva; Winyard, Paul G.; Emery, Paul; Ponchel, Frederique

    2014-01-01

    Autoantibodies have been associated with human pathologies for a long time, particularly with autoimmune diseases (AIDs). Rheumatoid factor (RF) is known since the late 1930s to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The discovery of anticitrullinated protein antibodies in the last century has changed this and other posttranslational modifications (PTM) relevant to RA have since been described. Such PTM introduce neoepitopes in proteins that can generate novel autoantibody specificities. The recent recognition of these novel specificities in RA provides a unique opportunity to understand human B-cell development in vivo. In this paper, we will review the three of the main classes of PTMs already associated with RA: citrullination, carbamylation, and oxidation. With the advancement of research methodologies it should be expected that other autoantibodies against PTM proteins could be discovered in patients with autoimmune diseases. Many of such autoantibodies may provide significant biomarker potential. PMID:24782594

  18. Body Modification and Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicinbothem, Julie; Gonsalves, Sonia; Lester, David

    2006-01-01

    In a large sample of individuals who belong to a website for body modification, having body modifications (e.g., piercings, tattoos, scarification and surgical procedures) was associated with a higher incidence of prior suicidality (i.e., suicidal ideation and attempted suicide). However, controls for self-reported depression weakened the strength…

  19. Epigenetic modifications as therapeutic targets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theresa K Kelly; Daniel D De Carvalho; Peter A Jones

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications work in concert with genetic mechanisms to regulate transcriptional activity in normal tissues and are often dysregulated in disease. Although they are somatically heritable, modifications of DNA and histones are also reversible, making them good targets for therapeutic intervention. Epigenetic changes often precede disease pathology, making them valuable diagnostic indicators for disease risk or prognostic indicators for disease

  20. The search for chromatically unique graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Koh; K. L. Teo

    1990-01-01

    The number of vertex-colourings of a simple graphG in not more than? colours is a polynomial in?. This polynomial, denoted byP(G, ?), is called the chromatic polynomial ofG. A graphG is said to be chromatically unique, in short?-unique, ifH ? G for any graphH withP(H, ?) = P(G, ?). Since the appearance of the first paper on?-unique graphs by Chao

  1. Position Auctions with Budgets: Existence and Uniqueness

    E-print Network

    Ashlagi, Itai

    We design a Generalized Position Auction for players with private values and private budget constraints. Our mechanism is a careful modification of the Generalized English Auction of Edelman, Ostrovsky and Schwarz (2007). ...

  2. Process facility modifications project

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, J.P.; Alaconis, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    The Process Facility Modification Project (PFM) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) project which is designed to replace the existing head-end of the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant at the DOE's Hanford, Washington facilities. The purpose and need for the PFM project are twofold. First, it is desired to recover the plutonium loaned to the DOE's breeder reactor research program by the DOE's Defense Program. This plutonium is being used as fuel in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) at Hanford, Washington. The fuel consists of a mixture of PuO/UO clad in stainless steel tubes. There are presently no US facilities which can reprocess stainless-steel-clad fuel. Therefore, to recover this plutonium a new facility which uses a chop/leach process must be constructed. Secondly, it is desired to use more modern reprocessing techniques to reduce the volume of high-level liquid radioactive waste produce by PUREX. By replacing the current Zirflex headed with the chop/leach process, the amount of liquid waste generated when reprocessing N Reactor fuel can be reduced by approx.90%.

  3. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  4. Teaching and Learning with Individually Unique Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joerding, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the pedagogical benefits of giving students individually unique homework exercises from an exercise template. Evidence from a test of this approach shows statistically significant improvements in subsequent exam performance by students receiving unique problems compared with students who received traditional…

  5. UNIQUENESS OF BESSEL MODELS: THE ARCHIMEDEAN CASE

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Chen-Bo

    UNIQUENESS OF BESSEL MODELS: THE ARCHIMEDEAN CASE Dihua Jiang, Binyong Sun and Chen-Bo Zhu Abstract. In the archimedean case, we prove uniqueness of Bessel models for general linear groups, unitary groups) , On(C) . (1) In order to consider Bessel models for G, we consider, for each non-negative integer r

  6. Surface modification of bioceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monkawa, Akira

    Hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HAp] is a major inorganic component of bone and teeth tissues and has the excellent biocompatibility and high osteoconductivity. The interactions between HAp and protein or cell have been studied. The HAp related bioceramics such as bone substitute, coating substance of metal implants, inorganic-polymer composites, and cell culture. We described two methods; (1) surface modification of HAp using organosilane; (2) fabrication of HAp ultra-thin layer on gold surface for protein adsorption analyzed with QCM-D technique. The interfacial interaction between collagen and HAp in a nano-region was controlled by depositing the organosilane of n-octadecyltrimethoxysilane (ODS: -CH3) or aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS: -NH2) with a chemical vapor deposition method. The morphologies of collagen adsorbed on the surfaces of HAp and HAp deposited with APTS were similar, however that of the surface with ODS was apparently different, due to the hydrophobic interaction between the organic head group of -CH3 and residual groups of collagen. We present a method for coating gold quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) sensor with ultra-thin layer of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals evenly covering and tightly bound to the surface. The hydroxyapatite sensor operated in liquid with high stability and sensitivity. The in-situ adsorption mechanism and conformational change of fibrinogen on gold, titanium and hydroxyapatite surfaces were investigated by QCM-D technique and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The study indicates that the hydroxyapatite sensor is applicable for qualitative and conformational analysis of protein adsorption.

  7. Chromatin modification mapping in nanochannels

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Shuang Fang; Karpusenko, Alena; Blumers, Ansel L.; Streng, Diana E.; Riehn, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We report the simultaneous mapping of multiple histone tail modifications on chromatin that has been confined to nanofluidic channels. In these channels, chromatin is elongated, and histone modification can be detected using fluorescently tagged monoclonal antibodies. Using reconstituted chromatin with three distinct histone sources and two histone tail modification probes (H3K4me3 and H3K9ac), we were able to distinguish chromatin from the different sources. Determined ratios of the two modifications were consistent with the bulk composition of histone mixtures. We determined that the major difficulty in transitioning the mapping method to site-specific profiling within single genomic molecules is the interference of naturally aggregating, off-the shelf antibodies with the internal structure of chromatin. PMID:24396539

  8. Energy Conservation & Behavior Modification Programs

    E-print Network

    Goodin, E.; Hanner, S.; Mitchel, R.

    2012-01-01

    Energy Conservation & Behavior Modification Programs Emily Goodin, LEED AP Energy Solutions Specialist Schneider Electric Steve Hanner Director of Maintenance Allen ISD Roy Mitchel District Energy Manager Allen ISD 2 Behavior...

  9. Standard approach to plant modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Mecredy, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Organizational and management approaches to the design, installation, and turnover of nuclear plant modifications have changed dramatically in the last 10 to 15 yr. In response to these changes, organizational and individual responsibilities have been defined and management systems have been established at Rochester Gas and Electric (RG and E) Corporation to ensure that high-quality plant modifications are installed in a timely manner that satisfies user needs at minimal cost.

  10. The Uniqueness of -Matrix Graph Invariants

    PubMed Central

    Dehmer, Matthias; Shi, Yongtang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the uniqueness (discrimination power) of a newly proposed graph invariant based on the matrix defined by Randi? et al. In order to do so, we use exhaustively generated graphs instead of special graph classes such as trees only. Using these graph classes allow us to generalize the findings towards complex networks as they usually do not possess any structural constraints. We obtain that the uniqueness of this newly proposed graph invariant is approximately as low as the uniqueness of the Balaban index on exhaustively generated (general) graphs. PMID:24392099

  11. Cytosine modifications in myeloid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Meldi, Kristen M; Figueroa, Maria E

    2015-08-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation is a hallmark of many cancers, including the myeloid malignancies acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). The discovery of TET-mediated demethylation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and technological advancements in next-generation sequencing have permitted the examination of other cytosine modifications, namely 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), in these myeloid malignancies on a genome-wide scale. Due to the prominence of mutations in epigenetic modifiers that can influence cytosine modifications in these disorders, including IDH1/2, TET2, and DNMT3A, many recent studies have evaluated the relative levels, distribution, and functional consequences of cytosine modifications in leukemic cells. Furthermore, several therapies are being used to treat AML and MDS that target various proteins within the cytosine modification pathway in an effort to revert the abnormal epigenetic patterns that contribute to the diseases. In this review, we provide an overview of cytosine modifications and selected technologies currently used to distinguish and analyze these epigenetic marks in the genome. Then, we discuss the role of mutant enzymes, including DNMT3A, TET2, IDH1/2, and the transcription factor, WT1, in disrupting normal patterns of 5mC and 5hmC in AML and MDS. Finally, we describe several therapies, both standard, front-line treatments and new drugs in clinical trials, aimed at inhibiting the proteins that ultimately lead to aberrant cytosine modifications in these diseases. PMID:25956466

  12. Static black hole uniqueness and Penrose inequality

    E-print Network

    Ryosuke Mizuno; Seiju Ohashi; Tetsuya Shiromizu

    2009-11-30

    Under certain conditions, we give a new way to prove the uniqueness of static black hole in higher dimensional asymptotically flat spacetimes. In the proof, the Penrose inequality plays a key role in higher dimensions as well as four dimensions.

  13. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides information to help older adults and their caregivers consider their disease or condition in conjunction with other health issues. ...

  14. A unique integrated biobanking academic course

    E-print Network

    van der Torre, Leon

    A unique integrated biobanking academic course Covering all technical, scientific and legal/ethical bioresources to different communities of practice, the technical, scientific and legal/ethical aspects, TECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNICATION Certificate ­ Principles of Biobanking for clinical, biological

  15. Heart Failure: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart Failure Unique to Older Adults This section provides information to help older adults and their caregivers ... or maintain quality of life. Urinary Incontinence and Heart Failure If you have heart failure, you may ...

  16. Kinematical Uniqueness of Loop Quantum Gravity

    E-print Network

    Fleischhack, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We review uniqueness results for the kinematical part of loop quantum gravity. After sketching the general loop formalism, the holonomy-flux and the Weyl algebras are introduced. In both cases, then, diffeomorphism invariant representations are described.

  17. Unique Challenges of Managing Inductive Knowledge

    E-print Network

    Jensen, David

    1 p 1 Abstract Unique Challenges of Managing Inductive Knowledge produc­ ing statistical significance inductive bias David Jensen Executive Summary Statistical Significance knowledge dis­ covery Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Intelligent Data Analysis et al. Tools for inducing knowledge from

  18. Kinematical Uniqueness of Loop Quantum Gravity

    E-print Network

    Christian Fleischhack

    2015-05-17

    We review uniqueness results for the kinematical part of loop quantum gravity. After sketching the general loop formalism, the holonomy-flux and the Weyl algebras are introduced. In both cases, then, diffeomorphism invariant representations are described.

  19. On Limits of Uniquely Best Linear Estimators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn Roy LaMotte

    1997-01-01

    In a general linear model, it is shown that all admissible linear estimators are limits of linear estimators that are uniquely\\u000a best at some point in an extended parameter set. The principal result shows that a linear estimator that is uniquely best\\u000a at a pointW\\u000a 2 among multiple linear estimators that are best at a pointW\\u000a 1 is the limit

  20. Surface modification for corrosion resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    1993-06-01

    The raw gas environments that arise from coal gasification have chemical compositions that are low in pO{sub 2} and moderate-to-high in pS{sub 2}. Metallic materials for service in such an environment undergo predominantly sulfidation attack at temperatures of 400 to 700{degree}C. Modification of alloy compositions in bulk can alter the scaling processes and lead to improvements in corrosion resistance, but the benefits can only be attained at temperatures much higher than the service temperatures of the components. Modification of surfaces of structural components by several of the coating techniques examined in this study showed substantial benefit in corrosion resistance when tested in simulated coal gasification environments. The paper presents several examples of surface modification and their corrosion performance.

  1. Playing TETris with DNA modifications

    PubMed Central

    Delatte, Benjamin; Deplus, Rachel; Fuks, François

    2014-01-01

    Methylation of the fifth carbon of cytosine was the first epigenetic modification to be discovered in DNA. Recently, three new DNA modifications have come to light: hydroxymethylcytosine, formylcytosine, and carboxylcytosine, all generated by oxidation of methylcytosine by Ten Eleven Translocation (TET) enzymes. These modifications can initiate full DNA demethylation, but they are also likely to participate, like methylcytosine, in epigenetic signalling per se. A scenario is emerging in which coordinated regulation at multiple levels governs the participation of TETs in a wide range of physiological functions, sometimes via a mechanism unrelated to their enzymatic activity. Although still under construction, a sophisticated picture is rapidly forming where, according to the function to be performed, TETs ensure epigenetic marking to create specific landscapes, and whose improper build-up can lead to diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24825349

  2. Weather Modification A Theoretician's Viewpoint.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Kenneth C.

    1996-11-01

    Early progress in weather modification is attributed to a healthy interaction between theory and experiment. During the 1970s, a divergence of approaches took place. A "theoretical/experimental" approach, exemplified by the Cascade Project, focused on testing scientific hypotheses; an "observational/experimental" approach, exemplified by the Colorado River Basin Pilot Project, sought to enhance understanding of the seeding process through more detailed observations.The theoretical/experimental school soon came to focus almost exclusively on natural cloud processes, leaving the field of weather modification nearly devoid of a theoretical component. It is suggested that this theoretical component is necessary to revitalize the field of weather modification.Key questions are addressed. These include 1) identification of clouds that are amenable to seeding; 2) glaciogenic versus hygroscopic seeding; 3) optimizing critical seeding variables, such as seed particle concentration for glaciogenic seeding and seed particle size for hygroscopic seeding; and 4) seeding for hail suppression.

  3. Laser modification of polyamide fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahtiyari, M. ?.

    2011-02-01

    A new method for the modification of the properties of polyamide fabric, based on exposure to the output from a CO 2 laser, has been investigated. It was found that, after laser modification of polyamide fabric, the dyeability of fabric was increased significantly, while the bursting strength was decreased. The reasons for this drastic increase in dyeability of polyamide fabrics have been analyzed with the help of FTIR and iodine sorption methods, revealing a relationship with a decrease in the crystallinity of the polyamide. It was observed that, as the laser modification of the fabric was carried out with low intensity, the concentration of free amino groups, which are necessary during dyeing with acid and reactive dyes, increased.

  4. Structural modification of nanocrystalline ceria by ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanwen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Edmondson, Philip D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Varga, Tamas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab. (EMSL); Moll, Sandra [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab. (EMSL); Namavar, Fereydoon [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, (United States); Lan, Chune [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Weber, William J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Exceptional size-dependent electronic–ionic conductivity of nanostructured ceria can significantly alter materials properties in chemical, physical, electronic and optical applications. Using energetic ions, we have demonstrated effective modification of interface volume and grain size in nanocrystalline ceria from a few nm up to ~25 nm, which is the critical region for controlling size-dependent material property. The grain size increases and follows an exponential law as a function of ion fluence that increases with temperature, while the cubic phase is stable under the irradiation. The unique self-healing response of radiation damage at grain boundaries is utilized to control the grain size at the nanoscale. Structural modification by energetic ions is proposed to achieve desirable electronic–ionic conductivity.

  5. Identification of Posttranslationally Modified 18-Kilodalton Protein from Rice as Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 5A.

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, A. M.; Saftner, R. A.; Mehta, R. A.; Davies, P. J.

    1994-01-01

    Using anther-derived rice (Oryza sativa L.) cell-suspension cultures, we have identified an 18-kD protein that is posttranslationally modified by spermidine and is influenced by endogenous polyamine levels. The posttranslationally modified residue has been identified as the unusual amino acid hypusine [N[epsilon]-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)lysine] by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass-spectrometry analyses. Differential labeling of the protein with labeled amines provided evidence that the butylamine moiety of spermidine is the immediate precursor of the hypusine residue in the protein. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) is the only known mammalian protein that undergoes a similar posttranslational modification with hypusine. The purified 18-kD protein co-electrophoreses with human translational initiation factor eIF-5A in both isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The purified protein from rice stimulated methionyl-puromycin synthesis in vitro, indicating its functional similarity to mammalian eIF-5A. The results presented provide evidence that the posttranslationally modified 18-kD protein from rice containing hypusine is eIF-5A and suggest the conservation of hypusine-containing translation initiation factor eIF-5A in eukaryotes. PMID:12232418

  6. Optimization of Process Conditions for Enzymatic Modification of Alternan using Dextranase from Chaetomium erraticum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternan is a unique branched glucan with alternating a-(1 ' 6) and a-(1 ' 3) backbone linkages. We previously described the modification of alternan to a reduced molecular weight form using dextranase from Penicillium sp. The solution viscosity properties of this modified alternan resemble those ...

  7. Kruskal's uniqueness condition for Candecomp/Parafac

    E-print Network

    Sidiropoulos, Nikolaos D.

    · Component matrices A (I �R ), B (J �R ) and C (K �R ) with diagonals of Ck as rows · CP is also written uniqueness: 2R + 2 kA + kB + kC · k-rank of A = max number k such that every set of k columns decompositions of array X , both with R components. If 2R + 2 kA + kB + kC , (K) then there exists a unique

  8. Unique Phase Recovery for Nonperiodic Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugent, K. A.; Peele, A. G.; Chapman, H. N.; Mancuso, A. P.

    2003-11-01

    It is well known that the loss of phase information at detection means that a diffraction pattern may be consistent with a multitude of physically different structures. This Letter shows that it is possible to perform unique structural determination in the absence of a priori information using x-ray fields with phase curvature. We argue that significant phase curvature is already available using modern x-ray optics and we demonstrate an algorithm that allows the phase to be recovered uniquely and reliably.

  9. 5-Formylcytosine can be a stable DNA modification in mammals

    E-print Network

    Bachman, Martin; Uribe-Lewis, Santiago; Yang, Xiaoping; Burgess, Heather E.; Iurlaro, Mario; Reik, Wolf; Murrell, Adele; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2015-01-01

    on the activity of other biosynthetic pathways feeding into the one carbon metabolism. The labelling ratios can be determined very accurately for each modified cytosine using LC-MS/HRMS due to unique masses of the labelled base fragments (Supplementary Fig. 8... on the labelled diet (the 6 d-old pups were therefore labelled for 13 d when harvested). The genomic DNA in tissues such as kidney or colon showed uniform labelling of around 30% for all detectable modifications (5mC, 5hmC and 5fC) (Fig. 2b). However, brain...

  10. The Modification of Biocellular Chemical Reactions by Environmental Physicochemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishido, M.

    Environmental risk factors affect human biological system to different extent from modification of biochemical reaction to cellular catastrophe. There are considerable public concerns about electromagnetic fields and endocrine disruptors. Their risk assessments have not been fully achieved because of their scientific uncertainty: electromagnetic fields just modify the bioreaction in the restricted cells and endocrine disruptors are quite unique in that their expression is dependent on the exposure periods throughout a life. Thus, we here describe their molecular characterization to establish the new risk assessments for environmental physicochemicals.

  11. Energy Conservation & Behavior Modification Programs 

    E-print Network

    Goodin, E.; Hanner, S.; Mitchel, R.

    2012-01-01

    Energy Conservation & Behavior Modification Programs Emily Goodin, LEED AP Energy Solutions Specialist Schneider Electric Steve Hanner Director of Maintenance Allen ISD Roy Mitchel District Energy Manager Allen ISD 2 Behavior... arranged with Energy Management Team ?Opportunity arises from discussions Conserve My Planet 4 The Opportunity ?Technology and Maintenance addressed ?DDC Controls ?Efficient Lighting ?Efficient Mechanical Equipment ?Motion sensors...

  12. Paper surface modification by lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Zekou; D. G. Kotsifaki; A. A. Serafetinides

    2010-01-01

    Lasers can provide a precious tool to conservation process due to their accuracy and the controlled energy they deliver, especially to fragile organic material such as paper. The current study concerns laser modification such as paper cleaning, initially of test papers artificially soiled and then of an original book of the early 20th Century. The test objects were A4 copier

  13. Plasma surface modification of polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirotsu, T.

    1980-01-01

    Thin plasma polymerization films are discussed from the viewpoint of simplicity in production stages. The application of selective, absorbent films and films used in selective permeability was tested. The types of surface modification of polymers discussed are: (1) plasma etching, (2) surface coating by plasma polymerized thin films, and (3) plasma activation surface graft polymerization.

  14. Zeolite modification II - direct fluorination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Lok; F. P. Gortsena; P. J. Izod; C. A. Messina; H. Rastelli

    1982-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, zeolite science has grown into a major branch of chemistry. A large number of new zeolite materials have been made by both direct hydrothermal synthesis and by post-synthesis modification. This has led to a large number of new applications in such diverse fields as catalysis, adsorption and ion exchange. In synthesis alone, over one hundred

  15. New modifications of tungsten oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. S. Palatnik; O. A. Obolyaninova; M. N. Naboka; N. T. Gladkikh

    1973-01-01

    New cubic modiflcations of WâOâ and WO\\/sub 3 in thin ; condensed films were discovered. It was established that cubic WOâ has a ; lattice of the ReO\\/sub 3 type with one molecular unit per unit cell. It was also ; found that thin condensed films contain modifications, the lattices of which have ; a greater number of symmetry elements

  16. MODIFICATIONS TO FUEL CYCLE CODE \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Sovka; M. Benedict

    1963-01-01

    Modifications were made to the fuel cycle code FUELMOVE to enable ; calculations to be made upon reflected reactors without the use of the ; reflector savings'' approximation. The modified code, called FUELMOVE II, is ; able to obtain thermal flux distributions in both the fuelbearing regions and the ; reflector for batch and steadystate bi-directionally fueled reactors. Also, ;

  17. Modification of tropospheric propagation conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Jeske

    1990-01-01

    The propagation mechanisms of ultra-short radio waves and microwaves are governed by the composition of the troposphere and their space-time structure of the refractive index field. Useful effects are obtained by chaff clouds concerning communication channels, masking of targets or meteorological research. A wide field of posiibilities seems to be within the scope of weather modification experiments. But due to

  18. MODIFICATION OF CC WHITEFLY TRAPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modifications of CC whitefly traps are in progress to improve their potential for adult whitefly control in greenhouses. Adult catches in the modified CC traps have been increased by 50% by coating trap tops with Tanglefoot and removing the deflector plates. In laboratory studies, installation of ...

  19. Epigenetic modifications and human disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Portela; Manel Esteller

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetics is one of the most rapidly expanding fields in biology. The recent characterization of a human DNA methylome at single nucleotide resolution, the discovery of the CpG island shores, the finding of new histone variants and modifications, and the unveiling of genome-wide nucleosome positioning maps highlight the accelerating speed of discovery over the past two years. Increasing interest in

  20. Unique features in the ARIES glovebox line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. E. Martinez; W. G. Brown; B. Flamm; C. A. James; R. Laskie; T. O. Nelson; D. E. Wedman

    1998-01-01

    A series of unique features have been incorporated into the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, TA-55 Plutonium Facility. The features enhance the material handling in the process of the dismantlement of nuclear weapon primaries in the glovebox line. Incorporated into these features are the various plutonium process module`s different ventilation zone requirements

  1. Hitler and the Uniqueness of Nazism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Kershaw

    2004-01-01

    Though nazism can be located as a form of fascism or type of totalitarianism, these generic concepts inadequately account for what was singular about a regime which unleashed such devastating inhumanity — a terrible war of annihilation and the worst genocide the world has yet experienced. So this article suggests an answer located in a unique combination of forces embodied

  2. Uniqueness of Kerr-Newman solution

    E-print Network

    A. K. M. Masood-ul-Alam

    2014-07-21

    We show that non-degenerate multiple black hole solution of Einstein- Maxwell equations in an asymptotically flat axisymmetric spacetime cannot be in stationary equilibrium. This extends the uniqueness of Kerr-Newman solution first proved by Bunting and Mazur in a much wider desirable class. Spin-spin interaction cannot hold the black hole aparts even with electromagnetic forces.

  3. (-)-Botryodiplodin, A Unique Ribose Analog Toxin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many toxins owe their mechanisms of action to being structural analogs of essential metabolites, messengers or structural components. Examples range from tubo-curare to penicillin. Ribose plays a unique role in the metabolism of living organisms, whether prokaryotes or eukaryotes. It and its deri...

  4. Urban Atmospheres captures a unique, synergistic moment

    E-print Network

    Paulos, Eric

    Urban Atmospheres captures a unique, synergistic moment ­ expanding urban populations, rapid of wireless technologies across our grow- ing urban landscapes. The United Nations recently re- ported that 48 percent of the world's population current live in urban areas and that this number is expected to exceed

  5. UNIQUE CHALLENGES IN MANAGING DEEPWATER PIPELINE INTEGRITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry MacPherson

    Deepwater oil and gas production is increasing rapidly, and global output is expected to increase by almost 80% over the next few years. It is forecast that deepwater's share relative to shallow water production will grow from 15% to approximately 20% of global offshore production by 2011(1). Beyond the unique design and construction challenges, cost effective operations, maintenance and integrity

  6. Unique material challenges in photovoltaic concentrator modules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. Beavis

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic concentrators operate in a unique environment of high light flux, high temperatures, and large variations in temperature and humidity. The stability of various polymethyl\\/methacrylate (PMMA) lens formulations to solar environmental exposure has been determined to be variable. The PMMA seems to be unaffected mechanically by the loss or absence of screening agents. Cells exposed to the moist environments become

  7. Some Unique Causes of Black Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaights, Ernest; Simpson, Gloria

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of suicide unique to blacks are: cultural expectations for males, which include repression of feelings and strict obedience to parents and elders; difficulty identifying with their race; gangs and drug abuse; poverty; and racism. These factors can cause depression, a known factor in suicidal behavior. (Author/ABB)

  8. Unique rig fulfills unusual mobility requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    This article describes a unique rig designed by SEDCO FOREX operating in the Paris basin of France. Built to drill clusters of wells from a single pad, Rig 47 significantly reduces the time needed to move from well to well on a pad and from location to location.

  9. A Graduation Stole Uniquely Designed for Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Lawrence H.

    2009-01-01

    In response to student requests, and to help celebrate the graduation of our physics majors, we have designed a graduation stole uniquely befitting physics. The design incorporates the four visible spectral lines of hydrogen--the Balmer series. Since the 2002 debut of the design, all our graduates have proudly worn their physics graduation stoles…

  10. A unique case of conjoined triplets.

    PubMed

    Athanasiadis, Apostolos P; Tzannatos, Christinne; Mikos, Themistoklis; Zafrakas, Menelaos; Bontis, John N

    2005-06-01

    A unique case of conjoined triplets that was characterized as tricephalus, tetrabrachius, and tetrapus parapagothoracopagus is presented. Antenatal diagnosis of the conjoined triplet was made at 22 weeks of gestation with 2-dimensional ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Pregnancy was terminated by hysterotomy, and diagnosis of conjoined triplets was confirmed postnatally. PMID:15970906

  11. Arithmetic Progressions in a Unique Factorization Domain

    E-print Network

    Ghorpade, Sudhir R

    2011-01-01

    Pillai showed that any sequence of consecutive integers with at most 16 terms possesses one term that is relatively prime to all the others. We give a new proof of a slight generalization of this result to arithmetic progressions of integers and further extend it to arithmetic progressions in unique factorization domains of characteristic zero.

  12. Art Libraries: Creating Access to Unique Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falls, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Art libraries face similar issues to other types of libraries during the digital transition but have unique twists driven by the needs of their collections. Art library information seekers may possess a sense of what an art library is: a library, set apart, to support the study of art and art history. For art libraries, it is the collection,…

  13. The Uniqueness of Speech among Motor Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Ray

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers evidence that the speech muscles are unique in their genetic, developmental, functional and phenotypical properties. The literature was reviewed using PubMed, ScienceDirect, ComDisDome and other literature-retrieval systems to identify studies reporting on the craniofacial and laryngeal muscles. Particular emphasis was given…

  14. 77 FR 69393 - Unique Device Identification System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ...Health, Food and Drug...identification system, as required...device through distribution and use...establishing a system of unique...medical device industry, and the...226 of the Food and Drug...or on the distribution of power...Identification System, Docket...the Federal Food,...

  15. On the Unique Games Conjecture Subhash Khot

    E-print Network

    Khot, Subhash

    : The inapproximability reductions from the Unique Game problem often use gadgets constructed from a boolean hypercube as constructions of Probabilistically Checkable Proofs (PCPs) and the gadgets can be viewed as probabilistic on hypercube play a crucial role in ensuring that the gadgets indeed "work". Applications to inapproximability

  16. Toward a Unique UnderstandingToward a Unique Understanding Washington SquareWashington Square

    E-print Network

    Hung, I-Kuai

    Toward a Unique UnderstandingToward a Unique Understanding ofof Washington SquareWashington Square Robert Z. Selden Jr.Robert Z. Selden Jr. Dan J. KaminskiDan J. Kaminski #12;Washington SquareWashington Square Photograph courtesy of Anthropology and Archaeology Laboratory ­ Stephen F. Austin State

  17. 2014 NASFAA 1 Unique Situations FAFSA Tips Students in Unique Situations: Tips for

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    © 2014 NASFAA 1 Unique Situations FAFSA Tips Students in Unique Situations: Tips for Completing the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) Questions on the 2014­15 FAFSA that may cause. Question numbers refer to the paper FAFSA. Sections refer to the FAFSA on the Web (FOTW) Worksheet. Please

  18. Unique biochemical and mineral composition of whale ear bones.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sora L; Thewissen, J G M; Churchill, Morgan M; Suydam, Robert S; Ketten, Darlene R; Clementz, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cetaceans are obligate aquatic mammals derived from terrestrial artiodactyls. The defining characteristic of cetaceans is a thick and dense lip (pachyosteosclerotic involucrum) of an ear bone (the tympanic). This unique feature is absent in modern terrestrial artiodactyls and is suggested to be important in underwater hearing. Here, we investigate the mineralogical and biochemical properties of the involucrum, as these may hold clues to the aquatic adaptations of cetaceans. We compared bioapatites (enamel, dentine, cementum, and skeletal bone) of cetaceans with those of terrestrial artiodactyls and pachyosteosclerotic ribs of manatees (Sirenia). We investigated organic, carbonate, and mineral composition as well as crystal size and crystallinity index. In all studied variables, bioapatites of the cetacean involucrum were intermediate in composition and structure between those of tooth enamel on the one hand and those of dentine, cementum, and skeletal bone on the other. We also studied the amino acid composition of the cetacean involucrum relative to that of other skeletal bone. The central involucrum had low glycine and hydroxyproline concentrations but high concentrations of nonessential amino acids, unlike most bone samples but similar to the tympanic of hippos and the (pachyosteosclerotic) ribs of manatees. These amino acid results are evidence of rapid bone development. We hypothesize that the mineralogical and amino acid composition of cetacean bullae differs from that of other bone because of (1) functional modifications for underwater sound reception and (2) structural adaptations related to rapid ossification. PMID:24940922

  19. Capitalized Asset Management EQUIPMENT INVENTORY MODIFICATION

    E-print Network

    Yamamoto, Keith

    Capitalized Asset Management EQUIPMENT INVENTORY MODIFICATION REQUEST Instructions to the Department: Submit this form for changes to University equipment assigned to your operating unit. This form of Modification ­ Request for Equipment: Addition (Attach acquisition documents) Cannibalized ­ Date: Stolen

  20. Surface Modification with Self-Assembled Monolayer &

    E-print Network

    Hong, Deog Ki

    1 1 / 40 Surface Modification with Self-Assembled Monolayer & Polymer Brush for Biotechnology Surface Modification with Self-Assembled Monolayer & Polymer Brush for Biotechnology 2 / 40 linear star comb / brush network/ crosslinked dendritic / hyperbranched homopolymer random copolymer periodic

  1. 21 CFR 352.77 - Test modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...require modification of the testing procedures in this subpart. In addition, alternative methods (including automated or in vitro procedures) employing the same basic procedures as those described in this subpart may be used. Any proposed modification...

  2. Medium Modification of Vector Mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Chaden Djalali, Michael Paolone, Dennis Weygand, Michael H. Wood, Rakhsha Nasseripour

    2011-03-01

    The theory of the strong interaction, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), has been remarkably successful in describing high-energy and short-distance-scale experiments involving quarks and gluons. However, applying QCD to low energy and large-distance scale experiments has been a major challenge. Various QCD-inspired models predict a partial restoration of chiral symmetry in nuclear matter with modifications of the properties of hadrons from their free-space values. Measurable changes such as a shift in mass and/or a change of width are predicted at normal nuclear density. Photoproduction of vector mesons off nuclei have been performed at different laboratories. The properties of the ?, ? and ? mesons are investigated either directly by measuring their mass spectra or indirectly through transparency ratios. The latest results regarding medium modifications of the vector mesons in the nuclear medium will be discussed.

  3. Epigenetic modifications in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ngollo, Marjolaine; Dagdemir, Aslihan; Karsli-Ceppioglu, Seher; Judes, Gaelle; Pajon, Amaury; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Boiteux, Jean-Paul; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Guy, Laurent; Bernard-Gallon, Dominique J

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in France. Apart from the genetic alterations in prostate cancer, epigenetics modifications are involved in the development and progression of this disease. Epigenetic events are the main cause in gene regulation and the three most epigenetic mechanisms studied include DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNA expression. In this review, we summarized epigenetic mechanisms in prostate cancer. Epigenetic drugs that inhibit DNA methylation, histone methylation and histone acetylation might be able to reactivate silenced gene expression in prostate cancer. However, further understanding of interactions of these enzymes and their effects on transcription regulation in prostate cancer is needed and has become a priority in biomedical research. In this study, we summed up epigenetic changes with emphasis on pharmacologic epigenetic target agents. PMID:25333850

  4. Unique Astrophysics in the Lyman Ultraviolet

    E-print Network

    Tumlinson, Jason; Kriss, Gerard; France, Kevin; McCandliss, Stephan; Sembach, Ken; Fox, Andrew; Tripp, Todd; Jenkins, Edward; Beasley, Matthew; Danforth, Charles; Shull, Michael; Stocke, John; Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, Christopher; Froning, Cynthia; Green, James; Oliveira, Cristina; Fullerton, Alex; Blair, Bill; Kruk, Jeff; Sonneborn, George; Penton, Steven; Wakker, Bart; Prochaska, Xavier; Vallerga, John; Scowen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    There is unique and groundbreaking science to be done with a new generation of UV spectrographs that cover wavelengths in the "Lyman Ultraviolet" (LUV; 912 - 1216 Ang). There is no astrophysical basis for truncating spectroscopic wavelength coverage anywhere between the atmospheric cutoff (3100 Ang) and the Lyman limit (912 Ang); the usual reasons this happens are all technical. The unique science available in the LUV includes critical problems in astrophysics ranging from the habitability of exoplanets to the reionization of the IGM. Crucially, the local Universe (z <= 0.1) is entirely closed to many key physical diagnostics without access to the LUV. These compelling scientific problems require overcoming these technical barriers so that future UV spectrographs can extend coverage to the Lyman limit at 912 Ang.

  5. Is mankind unique in the Galaxy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. R.; Bond, A.

    1984-10-01

    There is a relation between questions regarding the uniqueness of mankind in the Galaxy and the 'Fermi Paradox'. It has appeared to Fermi that the eventual controlled command of astronomical quantities of energy, and the ability for mankind to head out into the universe was only a matter of time. On the other hand, he reasoned that a large number of sites for intelligence should have developed in the Galaxy a long time ago. He expected that such civilizations in colonizing the Galaxy would come in contact with the earth, and yet, there is no evidence regarding such contacts. Many aspects of the Fermi Paradox have been debated. The present investigation represents an attempt to further contribute to that debate by exploring some of the arguments prompted by the Paradox. It is concluded that all of the arguments have only one self-consistent resolution. According to this resolution, mankind is unique in the Galaxy.

  6. Unique device identification system. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-09-24

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule to establish a system to adequately identify devices through distribution and use. This rule requires the label of medical devices to include a unique device identifier (UDI), except where the rule provides for an exception or alternative placement. The labeler must submit product information concerning devices to FDA's Global Unique Device Identification Database (GUDID), unless subject to an exception or alternative. The system established by this rule requires the label and device package of each medical device to include a UDI and requires that each UDI be provided in a plain-text version and in a form that uses automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) technology. The UDI will be required to be directly marked on the device itself if the device is intended to be used more than once and intended to be reprocessed before each use. PMID:24066364

  7. Cradle modification for hydraulic ram

    SciTech Connect

    Koons, B.M.

    1995-03-02

    The analysis of the cradle hydraulic system considers stress, weld strength, and hydraulic forces required to lift and support the cradle/pump assembly. The stress and weld strength of the cradle modifications is evaluated to ensure that they meet the requirements of the American Institute for Steel Construction (AISC 1989). The hydraulic forces are evaluated to ensure that the hydraulic system is capable of rotating the cradle and pump assembly to the vertical position (between 70{degrees} and 90{degrees}).

  8. Advances in Chemical Protein Modification

    E-print Network

    Boutureira, Omar; Bernardes, Gonçalo J. L.

    2015-02-20

    - exposed lysine versus internal lysine). 2. TRANSITION METAL-FREE APPROACHES 2.1. Classical Methods The chemical modification of proteins aims to obtain new bioconjugates by performing chemical reactions on their original structures, maintaining both... Chem. Rev. 2015, 115, 2174?2195 2177 isoindoline-based nitroxide spin labels for electron para- magnetic resonance (EPR) in a small chloroplastic protein CP12, which possess a single tyrosine together with disulfide bonds and Trp residues that remain...

  9. Materials Modification in Nanotechnology: Oxidation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This PowerPoint created and presented by the Nanotechnology Applications and Career Knowledge (NACK) Center introduces students to oxidation. It goes over the various types of oxide â?? native, gate, field, etc. It discusses dry vs. wet oxidation, high pressure oxidation, chemical vapor deposition and has a section on modifying dielectric constant. This is a great resource for any classroom looking at nanofabrication modifications. This and all other valuable resources from the NACK Center require a fast, easy, free log-in.

  10. On the uniqueness of the Shapley value

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Dubey

    1975-01-01

    L.S. Shapley [1953] showed that there is a unique value defined on the classD of all superadditive cooperative games in characteristic function form (over a finite player setN) which satisfies certain intuitively plausible axioms. Moreover, he raised the question whether an axiomatic foundation could be obtained for a value (not necessarily theShapley value) in the context of the subclassC (respectivelyC',

  11. Materials modification by electronic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoneham, A. M.; Itoh, Noriaki

    2000-12-01

    Electronic excitation by lasers or electron beams can modify the properties of materials. The changes are not just due to heat, nor do they result from the well-known collision dynamics of much radiation damage. Everyday examples of modification by electronic excitation include photography, and photochromics (such as sunglasses) which change colour. In the last few years it has become clear that excitation can offer novel types of modification, with better-controlled changes. The field has evolved through a mix of basic science, of new laser and electron beam tools, and of new needs from microelectronics, photonics and nanotechnology. Underlying this development are some common themes which integrate the basic science and its applications. These include especially the ideas of energy localisation and charge localisation. There are detailed comparisons of experiment and theory for halides, but there is a wealth of information for other materials. From this, we identify ways to connect understanding to technological needs, like selective removal of material, controlled changes, altering the balance between process steps, and possibilities of quantum control. The field is reviewed in full in our recent book [N. Itoh, A.M. Stoneham, Materials Modification by Electronic Excitation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000].

  12. Unique Aspects of Herbal Whole System Research

    PubMed Central

    Zick, Suzanna M.; Schwabl, Herbert; Flower, Andrew; Lac, Dip; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Hirschkorn, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Whole systems of healthcare offer unique methodological and theoretical challenges for researchers. Herbalism has its own set of methodological and philosophical research issues, which are beyond those presented for whole system research, in general. Methods An International Society for Complementary Medicine Research (ISCMR) workshop was presented on, “Challenges in Herbal Whole Systems Research”. Starting from a definition of herbalism the most important challenges to herbal whole system research (HWSR) were elicited with inputs from both the workshop presenters and the audience. Results Five major challenges unique to herbal whole systems research were identified: (1) Defining herbalists and herbalism; (2) role of natural products industry in herbal research; (3) designing placebos and delivering active herbal treatments as are given by herbalists; (4) researching the herb as a living entity; and (5) designing trials to investigate and develop multi-component herbal therapies. Conclusions To design studies of herbalism requires unique methods and theoretical frameworks. Solutions to these methodological challenges need to be addressed to conduct research that examines herbal systems of medicine versus conducting trials on individual herbs given out of their original therapeutic context. PMID:19272580

  13. Medium-range restriction maps of five chromosomes of Leishmania infantum and localization of size-variable regions

    SciTech Connect

    Ravel, C.; Wincker, P.; Blaineau, C. [Faculte de Medecine, Montpellier (France)] [and others] [Faculte de Medecine, Montpellier (France); and others

    1996-08-01

    This report describes the localization of the gene coding for human deoxyhypusine synthase (DHPS) to human chromosome 19p13.11-p13.12 using fluorescence in situ hybridization and somatic cell hybridization analysis. DHPS plays a vital role in the modification of hypusine. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Gold nanoparticle sensor for homocysteine thiolactone-induced protein modification.

    PubMed

    Gates, Arther T; Fakayode, Sayo O; Lowry, Mark; Ganea, Gabriela M; Murugeshu, Abitha; Robinson, James W; Strongin, Robert M; Warner, Isiah M

    2008-04-15

    Homocysteine thiolactone-induced protein modification (HTPM) is a unique post-translational protein modification that is recognized as an emergent biomarker for cardiovascular disease. HTPM involves the site-specific acylation of proteins at lysine residues by homocysteine thiolactone (HTL) to produce protein homocystamide, which has been found at elevated levels in patients with coronary heart disease. Herein, we report the development of a novel gold nanoparticle (GNP) biochemical sensor for detection of protein homocystamide in an in vitro serum protein-based model system. Human serum albumin (HSA) and human sera were subjected to HTPM in vitro to produce HSA-homocystamide or serum protein homocystamide, respectively, which was subsequently treated with citrate-capped GNPs. This GNP sensor typically provided instantaneous visual confirmation of HTPM in the protein model systems. Transmission electron microscopy images of the GNPs in the presence of HSA-homocystamide suggest that modification-directed nanoparticle assembly is the mechanism by which the biochemical sensor produces a colorimetric signal. The resultant nanoparticle-protein assembly exhibited excellent thermal and dilutional stability, which is expected for a system stabilized by chemisorption and intermolecular disulfide bonding. The sensor typically provided a linear response for modified human sera concentrations greater than approximately 5 mg/mL. The calculated limit of detection and calibration sensitivity for the method in human sera were 5.2 mg/mL and 13.6 AU . (microg/mL)-1, respectively. PMID:18324853

  15. Uniqueness of the Trautman--Bondi mass

    E-print Network

    Piotr T. Chru?ciel; Jacek Jezierski; Malcolm A. H. MacCallum

    1998-03-02

    It is shown that the only functionals, within a natural class, which are monotonic in time for all solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations admitting a smooth ``piece'' of conformal null infinity Scri, are those depending on the metric only through a specific combination of the Bondi `mass aspect' and other next--to--leading order terms in the metric. Under the extra condition of passive BMS invariance, the unique such functional (up to a multiplicative factor) is the Trautman--Bondi energy. It is also shown that this energy remains well-defined for a wide class of `polyhomogeneous' metrics.

  16. [Celiac disease: an unique autoinmune model].

    PubMed

    Rodrigo Sáez, Luis Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Celiac disease is a unique autoimmune disorder, because the environmental precipitant factor is known. It is gluten, the major storage protein of wheat and similar grains. Originally was considered a rare malabsorption syndrome of childhood, but nowadays is recognized a common condition, that affects to 1% of the general population, all over the world', involves to all different races, may be diagnosed at any age, and affects to many organ systems. Therapy for the disease is a gluten-free-diet that must be strict and long-term. This diet cause a total recovery clinical and analytical, with excellent quality of life of patients. PMID:18777845

  17. 48 CFR 243.205-70 - Pricing of contract modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pricing of contract modifications. 243...MODIFICATIONS Change Orders 243.205-70 Pricing of contract modifications. Use the clause at 252.243-7001, Pricing of Contract Modifications, in...

  18. Role of Signaling Pathway Modification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Riesterer; M. Pruschy; S. Bodis

    \\u000a A unique aspect of ionizing radiation as a therapeutic tool is the locoregional application of the cytotoxic therapy without\\u000a systemic toxicity. However, there are several limitations to the efficacy of radiation treatment: ionizing radiation is mainly\\u000a effective for the treatment of cancers that have not spread. Furthermore, in patients presenting with locoregional disease,\\u000a some are cured whereas in others disease

  19. Beryllium - A Unique Material in Nuclear Applications

    SciTech Connect

    T., A. Tomberlin

    2004-11-01

    Beryllium, due to its unique combination of structural, chemical, atomic number, and neutron absorption cross section characteristics, has been used successfully as a neutron reflector for three generations of nuclear test reactors at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), the largest test reactor in the world, has utilized five successive beryllium neutron reflectors and is scheduled for continued operation with a sixth beryllium reflector. A high radiation environment in a test reactor produces radiation damage and other changes in beryllium. These changes necessitate safety analysis of the beryllium, methods to predict performance, and appropriate surveillances. Other nuclear applications also utilize beryllium. Beryllium, given its unique atomic, physical, and chemical characteristics, is widely used as a “window” for x-rays and gamma rays. Beryllium, intimately mixed with high-energy alpha radiation emitters has been successfully used to produce neutron sources. This paper addresses operational experience and methodologies associated with the use of beryllium in nuclear test reactors and in “windows” for x-rays and gamma rays. Other nuclear applications utilizing beryllium are also discussed.

  20. Surface modification of graphitic foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sharmila M.; Pulikollu, Rajasekhar V.; Ripberger, Erik; Roy, Ajit K.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses surface-related issues and possible modification approaches in high-porosity graphitic foam. The microcellular solid is made of graphitic carbon walls, ligaments, and beams supporting a network of interconnected pores. This makes the exposed surface area very high and its understanding a necessity for most applications. Graphitic planes are seen to be stacked at various orientations with respect to exposed surfaces. Therefore, a simplified analytical model that assumes "random" graphitic planes forming a three-dimensional array of tetrahedral cells may be an appropriate approximation. The influence of oxidizing chemicals such as nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide on surface properties has been studied using electron microscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, and water absorption tests. Bulk properties such as density measurements and mechanical tests have been performed in parallel. It is seen that exposure to nitric acid results in an increase in oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface, which may lead to increased infiltration of polar matrix fluids such as water and epoxy resins. This possibility is further supported by water absorption studies that show increased water infiltration in foam after nitric acid treatment. Electron microscopy and density studies indicate that some surface etching occurs with concentrated nitric acid exposure, but not significant enough to decrease density. Strength of the stand-alone foam is reduced for concentrated nitric acid treatment, but the elastic modulus is unaffected. The scientific significance of these results in terms of future surface modification of microcellular solids has been discussed.

  1. Review of Rule Modification in Sport

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Jose L.; Argudo, Francisco M.; Alonso, Jose I.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this qualitative review was to analyze the state of the bibliography about rule modification in sport. In the literature reviewed, there are few studies of rule modification and related aspects. Most studies omit mentioning the purpose of the modifications, but they do refer to the goals of their analysis (improving players' performance, attracting spectators and athletes, attending to commercial pressure, adapting the sport to children’s needs and interests, preventing injuries). Eighty percent of the studies did not report the outcome of the previous modifications they analyzed. More than half of the studies (60%) achieved the proposed goals. Nearly two-thirds (63.83%) analyzed the effect of rule modification on game actions occurring during the game or through a test. Most of the studies (91.5%) did not consult the participants. Three-fourths of the studies (74.46%) examined the effect of rule modification without any knowledge of a previous analysis or without any previous analysis, and 74.47% studied rule modification related to internal logic. Modifications to be introduced in a sport should be analyzed through a reflective process before their final introduction. The following points should be considered: establishing goals, respecting the basic rules without modifying them, becoming familiar with players’ and coaches’ opinions, determining the effect of the modification on a wide spectrum of variables, elaborating useful proposals for the organizations that are responsible for competitions, using more than one type of data, modifying the internal logic and, preferably, the functional rules, and following some basic stages to consolidate rule modification. Key points Rule modification involves processes that seek change in the game conditions with a certain goal in mind. The rules related to internal logic model the game actions that are characteristic of a sport. Functional rules facilitate achieving the goals. There are few valid research studies on which to base the modifications. Modifications in a sport should be validated after a reflective process before they are introduced. PMID:24149289

  2. Uniqueness properties of the Kerr metric

    E-print Network

    Marc Mars

    2000-04-06

    We obtain a geometrical condition on vacuum, stationary, asymptotically flat spacetimes which is necessary and sufficient for the spacetime to be locally isometric to Kerr. Namely, we prove a theorem stating that an asymptotically flat, stationary, vacuum spacetime such that the so-called Killing form is an eigenvector of the self-dual Weyl tensor must be locally isometric to Kerr. Asymptotic flatness is a fundamental hypothesis of the theorem, as we demonstrate by writing down the family of metrics obtained when this requirement is dropped. This result indicates why the Kerr metric plays such an important role in general relativity. It may also be of interest in order to extend the uniqueness theorems of black holes to the non-connected and to the non-analytic case.

  3. ARAC: A unique command and control resource

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, M.M.; Baskett, R.L.; Ellis, J.S. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a centralized federal facility designed to provide real-time, world-wide support to military and civilian command and control centers by predicting the impacts of inadvertent or intentional releases of nuclear, biological, or chemical materials into the atmosphere. ARAC is a complete response system consisting of highly trained and experienced personnel, continually updated computer models, redundant data collection systems, and centralized and remote computer systems. With over 20 years of experience responding to domestic and international incidents, strong linkages with the Department of Defense, and the ability to conduct classified operations, ARAC is a unique command and control resource.

  4. Unique material challenges in photovoltaic concentrator modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beavis, L. C.

    Photovoltaic concentrators operate in a unique environment of high light flux, high temperatures, and large variations in temperature and humidity. The stability of various polymethyl/methacrylate (PMMA) lens formulations to solar environmental exposure has been determined to be variable. The PMMA seems to be unaffected mechanically by the loss or absence of screening agents. Cells exposed to the moist environments become coated with interconnect corrosion products. A clear Dow Corning encapsulant has proven to be durable and capable of protecting cells in this environment. Solder bonds degrade due to temperature cycling and tin diffusion into copper. Finally, a new means of making an electrically insulated low thermal resistance path between the photovoltaic cell and heatsink is described.

  5. Britoil's Beatrice gets unique workover rig

    SciTech Connect

    Salter, M.J.; Hogan, K.G.

    1983-11-15

    On the expectation of continuous downhole production problems in its Beatrice field in the UK sector of the North Sea, Britoil selected a unique workover rig, with some drilling capability, for permanent installation on its B platform. Experience on Beatrice A platform provided inputs for the rig's design, which was accomplished by a multidisciplined group of engineers and draftsmen, including an experienced toolpusher. The rig features a kelly racking system, in the absence of space for a rathole, and a spooler unit to handle downhole pump electrical cables, small-bore chemical injection lines, and downhole instrument cables (Fig. 1). The rig is fully instrumented to ensure safe, pollution-free operation. Britoil PLC is the operator of the Beatrice field in Block 11at30 in the Inner Moray Firth off Scotland's East Coast, on behalf of a consortium including Deminex UK Oil and Gas Ltd., Hunt Overseas Oil Inc., Kerr-McGee Oil (UK) Ltd., and Lasmo North Sea Ltd.

  6. Hue discrimination, unique hues and naming.

    PubMed

    Bachy, Romain; Dias, Jérôme; Alleysson, David; Bonnardel, Valérie

    2012-02-01

    The hue discrimination curve (HDC) that characterizes performances over the entire hue circle was determined by using sinusoidally modulated spectral power distributions of 1.5 c/300 nm with fixed amplitude and twelve reference phases. To investigate relationship between hue discrimination and appearance, observers further performed a free color naming and unique hue tasks. The HDC consistently displayed two minima and two maxima; discrimination is optimal at the yellow/orange and blue/magenta boundaries and pessimal in green and in the extra-spectral magenta colors. A linear model based on Müller zone theory correctly predicts a periodical profile but with a phase-opponency (minima/maxima at 180° apart) which is inconsistent with the empirical HDC's profile. PMID:22330406

  7. Mushrooms—Biologically Distinct and Nutritionally Unique

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Miller, Amy Myrdal; Roupas, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms are fungi, biologically distinct from plant- and animal-derived foods (fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy, protein [meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, and seeds]) that comprise the US Department of Agriculture food patterns operationalized by consumer-focused MyPlate messages. Although mushrooms provide nutrients found in these food groups, they also have a unique nutrient profile. Classified into food grouping systems by their use as a vegetable, mushrooms’ increasing use in main entrées in plant-based diets is growing, supporting consumers’ efforts to follow dietary guidance recommendations. Mushrooms’ nutrient and culinary characteristics suggest it may be time to reevaluate food groupings and health benefits in the context of 3 separate food kingdoms: plants/botany, animals/zoology, and fungi/mycology. PMID:25435595

  8. The unique inner landscape of the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalasiewicz, Jan

    2013-04-01

    A characteristic aspect of the Anthropocene is the suite of novel changes made to the surface and subsurface of the Earth by human action, both on land and, increasingly, on and below the sea floor. Geologically, these geomorphological phenomena include features that relate to both lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic classification, the latter resulting from considering human constructions and modifications as a form of trace fossil system, albeit one that is of unprecedentedly large scale. As regards the potential formalizing of the Anthropocene, one question to be pursued relates to the chronostratigraphic definition of the phenomena involved: that is, given that many of these transformations are diachronous on human timescales, can an Anthropocene Series, with a synchronous time boundary, be characterized and mapped across the Earth's surface? Efforts to answer this question should help in the understanding of the Anthropocene within its geological context, and also in exploring the stratigraphic relation between time and rock generally at very fine stratigraphic timescales. Zalasiewicz, J., Williams M, Fortey, R.A., Smith, A.G., Barry, T.L. Coe, A.L., Bown, P.R., Gale, A., Gibbard, P.L., Gregory, F.J., Hounslow, M.W., Kerr, A.C., Pearson, P., Knox, R., Powell, J., Waters, C., Marshall, J., Oates, M., Rawson, P. & Stone, P. 2011. Stratigraphy of the Anthropocene. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A369, 1036-1055.

  9. Laser surface modification of PEEK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveiro, A.; Soto, R.; Comesaña, R.; Boutinguiza, M.; del Val, J.; Quintero, F.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2012-09-01

    Polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) is a synthetic thermoplastic polymer with excellent mechanical and chemical properties, which make it attractive for the field of reconstructive surgery. Nevertheless, this material has a poor interfacial biocompatibility due to its large chemical stability which induces poor adhesive bonding properties. The possibilities of enhancing the PEEK adhesive properties by laser treatments have been explored in the past. This paper presents a systematic approach to discern the role of laser irradiation wavelength on the surface modification of PEEK under three laser wavelengths (? = 1064, 532, and 355 nm) with the aim to determine the most adequate processing conditions to increase the roughness and wettability, the main parameters affecting cell adhesion characteristics of implants. Overall results show that the ultraviolet (? = 355 nm) laser radiation is the most suitable one to enhance surface wettability of PEEK.

  10. Modification of mainframe BOAST II

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, J.M.; Morton, D.J.; Schenewerk, P.A.; Bourgoyne, A.T.; Kimbrell, W.C.; Dorroh, J.R.

    1998-07-01

    BOAST II is a black-oil, applied-simulation tool used routinely for performing evaluation and design work in modern petroleum reservoir engineering. Personnel from the Louisiana State University Computer Science Department worked on modifying the mainframe version of this program through the simulation of two-phase flow of slightly compressible fluids in a three-dimensional porous medium. This included the construction of a FORTRAN program that uses 3-D finite elements to approximate the governing equations. The existing finite element code was adapted so that virtually any size of element could easily be incorporated into the solution scheme. This gave increased flexibility and made it possible to utilize mesh refinement techniques. Modifications to the mainframe version also involved the development and integration of radial grid systems suitable for the investigations proposed in the project.

  11. Paper surface modification by lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zekou, E.; Kotsifaki, D. G.; Serafetinides, A. A.

    2010-10-01

    Lasers can provide a precious tool to conservation process due to their accuracy and the controlled energy they deliver, especially to fragile organic material such as paper. The current study concerns laser modification such as paper cleaning, initially of test papers artificially soiled and then of an original book of the early 20th Century. The test objects were A4 copier paper, newspaper, and paper Whatman No.1056. During the experiments, ink of a pen, pencil and ink from a stamp was mechanically employed on each paper surface. Laser cleaning was applied using a Q-switched Nd:YAG operating at 532 nm and CO2 laser at 10.6 ?m for various fluences. The experimental results were presented by using optical microscopy. Eventually, laser cleaning of ink was performed to a book of 1934, by choosing the best conditions and parameters from cleaning the test samples, like Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm.

  12. Thermomechanical modification of diffraction gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumetsky, M.; Dulashko, Y.; Fleming, J. W.; Kortan, A.; Reyes, P. I.; Westbrook, P. S.

    2004-06-01

    The most accurate approaches to fabrication of diffraction gratings are known to be the lithographic and holographic methods. The lithographic methods allow fabrication of arbitrarily chirped gratings whose performance, however, is degraded by stitching errors. The holographic methods are free from stitching errors; however, they are limited in the achievable spatial variations of their grating periods. We suggest a method of diffraction grating modification by nonuniform heating and stretching that is much more flexible than the holographic approach and does not suffer from the problem of stitching error. We demonstrate our approach for quartz phase masks that have a characteristic grating period of 1 µm and a length of several centimeters. Our approach allows the grating periods of the phase masks to vary in a range from a few picometers to a few nanometers and a spatial resolution of a few millimeters. It is shown that the grating period can be modified with a negligible effect on the profile of the gratings.

  13. Network effects of synaptic modifications.

    PubMed

    Liljenström, H

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we use computational models of varying complexity to investigate the role of synaptic modifications for cortical network properties. In particular, we study how the dynamics can be regulated by neuromodulators, intrinsic noise and chemical agents. We focus on the complex neurodynamics and its modulation, and how this is related to the neural circuitry, where connectivity enhancement and pruning is considered. The emphasis is on the overall network structures, with feedforward and feedback loops between excitatory and inhibitory neurons at several layers and distances, and less details at the synaptic level. Our models aim at linking processes at a molecular and cellular (microscale), with processes at a network level (mesoscale), which in turn are linked to the mental processes and cognitive functions (macroscale). We also discuss the relevance of these results for clinical and experimental neuroscience, with applications to learning, memory, arousal, and mental disorders. PMID:20486052

  14. Materials Modification by Electronic Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Noriaki; Stoneham, Marshall

    2000-12-01

    Photography is a well-known example of changing a material by exciting it with light. This book examines a special case of a more general approach, which uses new lasers or electron beams to address some of the current needs emerging in microelectronics, photonics, and nanotechnology. It analyzes the important features of the changes induced by electronic excitation, identifies what is critical, and provides a basis from which materials modification can be developed successfully. It addresses ideas such as energy localization and charge localization, with detailed comparisons of experiment and theory. It also identifies the ways this understanding links to technological needs, such as selective removal of material, controlled changes, altering the balance between process steps, and possibilities of quantum control. This book will be of particular interest to research workers in physics, chemistry, electronic engineering and materials science.

  15. 7 CFR 623.14 - Easement modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...modifications. 623.14 Section 623.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS...

  16. Conformation Effects of Base Modification on the Anticodon Stem-loop of Bacillus subtilis tRNATyr

    PubMed Central

    Denmon, Andria P.; Wang, Jiachen; Nikonowicz, Edward P.

    2011-01-01

    tRNA molecules contain 93 chemically unique nucleotide base modifications that expand the chemical and biophysical diversity of RNA and contribute to the overall fitness of the cell. Nucleotide modifications of tRNA confer fidelity and efficiency to translation and are important in tRNA-dependent RNA-mediated regulatory processes. The three-dimensional structure of the anticodon is crucial to tRNA-mRNA specificity and the diverse modifications of nucleotide bases in the anticodon region modulate this specificity. We have determined the solution structures and thermodynamic properties of B. subtilis tRNATyr anticodon arms containing the natural base modifications N6-dimethylallyl adenine (i6A37) and pseudouridine (?39). UV melting and differential scanning calorimetry indicate the modifications stabilize the stem and may enhance base stacking in the loop. The i6A37 modification disrupts the hydrogen bond network of the unmodified anticodon loop including a C32-A38+ base pair and an A37-U33 base-base interaction. Although the i6A37 modification increases the dynamic nature of the loop nucleotides, metal ion coordination re-establishes conformational homogeneity. Interestingly, the i6A37 modification and Mg2+ are sufficient to promote the U-turn fold of the anticodon loop of E. coli tRNAPhe, but these elements do not result in this signature feature of the anticodon loop in tRNATyr. PMID:21782828

  17. High-Throughput Liquid-Liquid Fractionation of Multiple Protein Post-Translational Modifications*

    PubMed Central

    DeFord, James H.; Nuss, Jonathan E.; Amaning, James; English, Robert D.; Tjernlund, Don; Papaconstantinou, John

    2009-01-01

    Post-translational protein modifications have contributed significantly to the identification of macromolecular biomarkers of biological processes. We have modified a 2-dimensional HPLC system (Beckman Coulter PF2D ProteomeLab) to create proteome maps of post-translational protein modifications. This system resolves complex protein mixtures by anion exchange chromatofocusing in the first dimension and hydrophobicity (reverse phase chromatography) in the second dimension. The simultaneous identification of multiple protein modifications, accomplished by incorporating a photo diode array (PDA) detector into the PF2D system, facilitates the simultaneous production of three dimensional proteome maps and visualization of both unmodified and post-translationally modified (PTM) proteins at their signature wavelengths within the proteome. We describe procedures for the simultaneous resolution of proteome maps, the identification of proteins modified by nitration, carbonylation, and phosphorylation, and proteins with unique spectra such as the heme containing proteins. PMID:19099502

  18. Alpbach Summer School - a unique learning experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, K.; Aulinas, J.; Clifford, D.; Krejci, D.; Topham, R.

    2011-12-01

    The Alpbach Summer School is a ten-day program that provides a unique opportunity for young european science and engineering students, both undergraduate and graduate, to learn how to approach the entire design process of a space mission. The theme of the 2010 Summer School was "New Space Missions to Understand Climate Change", a current, challenging, very broad and complex topic. The program was established more than 35 years ago and is organised in two interrelated parts: a series of lectures held by renowned experts in the field (in the case of this specific year, climate change and space engineering experts) that provides a technical and scientific background for the workshops that follow, the core of the Summer School. For the workshops the students are split into four international, interdisciplinary teams of about 15 students. In 2010 every team had to complete a number of tasks, four in total: (1) identify climate change research gaps and design a space mission that has not yet been flown or proposed, (2) define the science objectives and requirements of the mission, (3) design a spacecraft that meets the mission requirements, which includes spacecraft design and construction, payload definition, orbit calculations, but also the satellite launch, operation and mission costs and (4) write up a short mission proposal and present the results to an expert review panel. Achieving these tasks in only a few days in a multicultural, interdisciplinary team represents a major challenge for all participants and provides an excellent practical learning experience. Over the course of the program, students do not just learn facts about climate change and space engineering, but scientists also learn from engineers and engineers from scientists. The participants have to deepen their knowledge in an often unfamiliar field, develop organisational and team-work skills and work under pressure. Moreover, teams are supported by team and roving tutors and get the opportunity to meet and learn from international experts. This presentation will provide an overview of the Alpbach Summer School program from a student's perspective. The different stages of this unique and enriching experience will be covered. Special attention will be paid to the workshops, which, as mentioned above, are the core of the Alpbach Summer School. During these intense workshops, participants work towards the proposed goals resulting in the design proposal of a space mission. The Alpbach Summer School is organised by FFG and co-sponsored by ESA, ISSI and the national space authorities of ESA member and cooperating states.

  19. The Unique Horn-Satisfiability Problem and Quadratic Boolean Equations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Minoux; Universitd Pierre

    1992-01-01

    The unique satisfiability problem for general Boolean expressions has attracted interest in recent years in connection with basic complexity issues [12,13]. We investigate here Unique Horn-Satisfiability, i.e. the subclass of Unique-Sat restricted to Horn expressions. We introduce two operators,reduction andshrinking, each transforming a given Horn expression into another Horn expression involving strictly fewer variables and preserving the unique satisfiability property,

  20. Unique features in the ARIES glovebox line

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, H.E.; Brown, W.G.; Flamm, B.; James, C.A.; Laskie, R.; Nelson, T.O.; Wedman, D.E.

    1998-12-31

    A series of unique features have been incorporated into the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, TA-55 Plutonium Facility. The features enhance the material handling in the process of the dismantlement of nuclear weapon primaries in the glovebox line. Incorporated into these features are the various plutonium process module`s different ventilation zone requirements that the material handling systems must meet. These features include a conveyor system that consists of a remotely controlled cart that transverses the length of the conveyor glovebox, can be operated from a remote location and can deliver process components to the entrance of any selected module glovebox. Within the modules there exists linear motion material handling systems with lifting hoist, which are controlled via an Allen Bradley control panel or local control panels. To remove the packaged products from the hot process line, the package is processed through an air lock/electrolytic decontamination process that removes the radioactive contamination from the outside of the package container and allows the package to be removed from the process line.

  1. Clinical EPR: Unique Opportunities and Some Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Harold M.; Williams, Benjamin B.; Zaki, Bassem I.; Hartford, Alan C.; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Chen, Eunice; Comi, Richard J.; Ernstoff, Marc S.; Hou, Huagang; Khan, Nadeem; Swarts, Steven G.; Flood, Ann B.; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2014-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been well established as a viable technique for measurement of free radicals and oxygen in biological systems, from in vitro cellular systems to in vivo small animal models of disease. However, the use of EPR in human subjects in the clinical setting, although attractive for a variety of important applications such as oxygen measurement, is challenged with several factors including the need for instrumentation customized for human subjects, probe and regulatory constraints. This paper describes the rationale and development of the first clinical EPR systems for two important clinical applications, namely, measurement of tissue oxygen (oximetry), and radiation dose (dosimetry) in humans. The clinical spectrometers operate at 1.2 GHz frequency and use surface loop resonators capable of providing topical measurements up to 1 cm depth in tissues. Tissue pO2 measurements can be carried out noninvasively and repeatedly after placement of an oxygen-sensitive paramagnetic material (currently India ink) at the site of interest. Our EPR dosimetry system is capable of measuring radiation-induced free radicals in the tooth of irradiated human subjects to determine the exposure dose. These developments offer potential opportunities for clinical dosimetry and oximetry, which include guiding therapy for individual patients with tumors or vascular disease, by monitoring of tissue oxygenation. Further work is in progress to translate this unique technology to routine clinical practice. PMID:24439333

  2. Unique Properties of Reversibly Associating Polymer Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthamatten, Mitchell

    2008-03-01

    Reversibly associating functional groups offer the polymer physicist with a new tool to develop stimuli-responsive polymers. Our focus has been to attach reversibly associating groups onto rubbery network polymers. Free radical copolymerization was used to synthesize a series of crosslinked poly(n-butylacrylate)s containing quadruple H-bonding ureidopyrimidinone (UPy) side-groups. Resulting elastomeric networks contain both covalent and dynamic non-covalent crosslinks, and this unique architecture is shown to affect viscoelastic behavior and mass-transport properties. Shape-memory effects are studied quantitatively using thermomechanical techniques. Experiments show how reversible interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, are capable of stabilizing mechanically strained states. Unlike conventional shape-memory polymers, these dynamic networks lack a well-defined shape recovery temperature. Instead, their shape recovery rate depends on temperature. To further study the dynamics and temperature dependence of mechanical relaxation, isothermal creep experiments and dynamic mechanical analysis were performed. Creep data, acquired at several different temperatures, are fit to a simple viscoelastic model. Fit viscosities exhibit Arrhenius-like temperature dependence with activation energies of ˜90 kJ/mol, which is in rough agreement with H-bond dissociation barriers. Molecular transport through dynamic networks is studied using gravimetric sorption and dye-diffusion techniques. Diffusion depends on temperature, network architecture, solute size, and the interaction between the solute and the network. Membranes with high temperature-sensitive diffusion properties may be useful in applications such as transdermal drug delivery, microfluidics, or liquid chemical separation processes.

  3. Optimizing acne therapy with unique vehicles.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon; Friedman, Adam

    2010-05-01

    The science of cutaneous drug delivery is focused on overcoming the major force of resistance to drug penetration and permeation-the stratum corneum. Acne vulgaris is a multifactorial disease of the pilosebaceous unit, resulting from abnormalities in sebum production, follicular epithelial desquamation, bacterial proliferation and inflammation. Topical treatment of even mild-moderate acne requires combination topical therapy, yet often systemic therapy is needed to ultimately confer an acceptable clinical endpoint. New delivery systems have emerged in response to the limited routes of entry and therefore efficacy of topical regimens. The unique physical and optical properties of micro/nano encapsulation of known therapeutics such as benzoyl peroxide and tretinoin allow for both improved efficacy while minimizing issues of compliance and adverse events. Vehicles that offer both inherent biological reactivity and permeation enhancement have also been shown improvement over the current armament of topical drug delivery. This current and exciting path of topical drug development will likely be continued with investigative vigor. PMID:20518361

  4. Unique animal prenyltransferase with monoterpene synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Gilg, Anna B; Tittiger, Claus; Blomquist, Gary J

    2009-06-01

    Monoterpenes are structurally diverse natural compounds that play an essential role in the chemical ecology of a wide array of organisms. A key enzyme in monoterpene biosynthesis is geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS). GPPS is an isoprenyl diphosphate synthase that catalyzes a single electrophilic condensation reaction between dimethylallyl diphosphate (C(5)) and isopentenyl diphosphate (C(5)) to produce geranyl diphosphate (GDP; C(10)). GDP is the universal precursor to all monoterpenes. Subsequently, monoterpene synthases are responsible for the transformation of GDP to a variety of acyclic, monocyclic, and bicyclic monoterpene products. In pheromone-producing male Ips pini bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), the acyclic monoterpene myrcene is required for the production of the major aggregation pheromone component, ipsdienol. Here, we report monoterpene synthase activity associated with GPPS of I. pini. Enzyme assays were performed on recombinant GPPS to determine the presence of monoterpene synthase activity, and the reaction products were analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The functionally expressed recombinant enzyme produced both GDP and myrcene, making GPPS of I. pini a bifunctional enzyme. This unique insect isoprenyl diphosphate synthase possesses the functional plasticity that is characteristic of terpene biosynthetic enzymes of plants, contributing toward the current understanding of product specificity of the isoprenoid pathway. PMID:19277597

  5. Using the Modification Index and Standardized Expected Parameter Change for Model Modification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Tiffany A.

    2012-01-01

    Model modification is oftentimes conducted after discovering a badly fitting structural equation model. During the modification process, the modification index (MI) and the standardized expected parameter change (SEPC) are 2 statistics that may be used to aid in the selection of parameters to add to a model to improve the fit. The purpose of this…

  6. Regulation of microtubule motors by tubulin isotypes and posttranslational modifications

    PubMed Central

    Sirajuddin, Minhajuddin; Rice, Luke M.; Vale, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘tubulin-code’ hypothesis proposes that different tubulin genes or posttranslational modifications (PTMs), which mainly confer variation in the carboxy-terminal tail (CTT), result in unique interactions with microtubule-associated proteins for specific cellular functions. However, the inability to isolate distinct and homogenous tubulin species has hindered biochemical testing of this hypothesis. Here, we have engineered 25 ?/? tubulin heterodimers with distinct CTTs and PTMs and tested their interactions with four different molecular motors using single molecule assays. Our results show that tubulin isotypes and PTMs can govern motor velocity, processivity and microtubule depolymerization rates, with substantial changes conferred by even single amino acid variation. Revealing the importance and specificity of PTMs, we show that kinesin-1 motility on neuronal ?-tubulin (TUBB3) is increased by polyglutamylation and that robust kinesin-2 motility requires detyrosination of ?-tubulin. Our results also show that different molecular motors recognize distinctive tubulin “signatures”, which supports the premise of tubulin-code hypothesis. PMID:24633327

  7. Upconversion Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Surface Modification, and Biological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Abbineni, Gopal; Clevenger, April; Mao, Chuanbin; Xu, Shukun

    2011-01-01

    New generation fluorophores, also termed upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), have the ability to convert near infrared radiations with lower energy into visible radiations with higher energy via a non-linear optical process. Recently, these UCNPs have evolved as alternative fluorescent labels to traditional fluorophores, showing great potential for imaging and biodetection assays in both in vitro and in vivo applications. UCNPs exhibit unique luminescent properties, including high penetration depth into tissues, low background signals, large Stokes shifts, sharp emission bands, and high resistance to photo-bleaching, making UCNPs an attractive alternative source for overcoming current limitations in traditional fluorescent probes. In this review, we discuss the recent progress in the synthesis and surface modification of rare earth doped UCNPs with a specific focus on their biological applications. PMID:21419877

  8. Uniqueness and Nonuniqueness for Nonsmooth Divergence Free Transport

    E-print Network

    d´ecembre 2003. XXII­1 #12;Di Perna and P.-L. Lions [DL] showed uniqueness of solutions u L when, that is the integral curves of the vector field, do not have uniqueness. Lions [Li] proved uniqueness for a generic there are good existence theorems in the framework of Di Perna-Lions and Ambrosio, we do not know of an existence

  9. Four decades of black hole uniqueness D. C. Robinson

    E-print Network

    Bushnell, Colin J.

    mass Schwarzschild family of metrics. This result initiated research on black hole uniqueness theoremsFour decades of black hole uniqueness theorems D. C. Robinson Mathematics Department King's College years into uniqueness theorems for equilibrium black holes is surveyed. Results obtained from the 1960s

  10. Quality planning for major plant design modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Dulee, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the approach and activities undertaken by Public Service Electric and Gas Company's (PSE and G's) nuclear quality assurance (QA) department to support major plant design modifications conducted during refueling outages at Salem Generating Station. It includes the planning and implementation of quality plans developed to provide both QA and quality control (QC) coverage of modification performed by contracted service organizations.

  11. 7 CFR 1467.13 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.13 Modifications...modification will not adversely affect the wetland functions and values for which the easement...restoration of other lands that provide greater wetland functions and values at no...

  12. 7 CFR 1467.13 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 1467.13 Modifications...modification will not adversely affect the wetland functions and values for which the easement...restoration of other lands that provide greater wetland functions and values at no...

  13. Pitch and Duration Modification for Speech Watermarking

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Gaurav

    Pitch and Duration Modification for Speech Watermarking Mehmet Celik, Gaurav Sharma and A. Murat of Engineering, Koc University, Istanbul, Turkey. Abstract-- We propose a speech watermarking algorithm based variability of these speech features allows watermarking modifications to be imperceptible to the human

  14. Regulation of chromatin by histone modifications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J Bannister; Tony Kouzarides

    2011-01-01

    Chromatin is not an inert structure, but rather an instructive DNA scaffold that can respond to external cues to regulate the many uses of DNA. A principle component of chromatin that plays a key role in this regulation is the modification of histones. There is an ever-growing list of these modifications and the complexity of their action is only just

  15. The pivotal regulatory landscape of RNA modifications.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng; Mason, Christopher E

    2014-01-01

    Posttranscriptionally modified nucleosides in RNA play integral roles in the cellular control of biological information that is encoded in DNA. The modifications of RNA span all three phylogenetic domains (Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya) and are pervasive across RNA types, including messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and (less frequently) small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and microRNA (miRNA). Nucleotide modifications are also one of the most evolutionarily conserved properties of RNAs, and the sites of modification are under strong selective pressure. However, many of these modifications, as well as their prevalence and impact, have only recently been discovered. Here, we examine both labile and permanent modifications, from simple methylation to complex transcript alteration (RNA editing and intron retention); detail the models for their processing; and highlight remaining questions in the field of the epitranscriptome. PMID:24898039

  16. The Einstein constraints: uniqueness and non-uniqueness in the conformal thin sandwich approach

    E-print Network

    Thomas W. Baumgarte; Niall Ó Murchadha; Harald P. Pfeiffer

    2006-10-25

    We study the appearance of multiple solutions to certain decompositions of Einstein's constraint equations. Pfeiffer and York recently reported the existence of two branches of solutions for identical background data in the extended conformal thin-sandwich decomposition. We show that the Hamiltonian constraint alone, when expressed in a certain way, admits two branches of solutions with properties very similar to those found by Pfeiffer and York. We construct these two branches analytically for a constant-density star in spherical symmetry, but argue that this behavior is more general. In the case of the Hamiltonian constraint this non-uniqueness is well known to be related to the sign of one particular term, and we argue that the extended conformal thin-sandwich equations contain a similar term that causes the breakdown of uniqueness.

  17. Proteome-wide identification of SUMO2 modification sites.

    PubMed

    Tammsalu, Triin; Matic, Ivan; Jaffray, Ellis G; Ibrahim, Adel F M; Tatham, Michael H; Hay, Ronald T

    2014-04-29

    Posttranslational modification with small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) alters the function of proteins involved in diverse cellular processes. SUMO-specific enzymes conjugate SUMOs to lysine residues in target proteins. Although proteomic studies have identified hundreds of sumoylated substrates, methods to identify the modified lysines on a proteomic scale are lacking. We developed a method that enabled proteome-wide identification of sumoylated lysines that involves the expression of polyhistidine (6His)-tagged SUMO2 with Thr(90) mutated to Lys. Endoproteinase cleavage with Lys-C of 6His-SUMO2(T90K)-modified proteins from human cell lysates produced a diGly remnant on SUMO2(T90K)-conjugated lysines, enabling immunoprecipitation of SUMO2(T90K)-modified peptides and producing a unique mass-to-charge signature. Mass spectrometry analysis of SUMO-enriched peptides revealed more than 1000 sumoylated lysines in 539 proteins, including many functionally related proteins involved in cell cycle, transcription, and DNA repair. Not only can this strategy be used to study the dynamics of sumoylation and other potentially similar posttranslational modifications, but also, these data provide an unprecedented resource for future research on the role of sumoylation in cellular physiology and disease. PMID:24782567

  18. Surface modification of a microcellular porous solid: carbon foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, S. M.; Pulikollu, R. V.; Roy, A. K.

    2004-03-01

    Microcellular solids such as carbon foams offer unique advantages over traditional solids in many applications. However, since these structures are 80-90% porous, they have a high interface/volume ratio, and surface driven properties such as atmospheric tolerance and bond formation with the matrix material are crucial for applicability. This calls for controlled surface modification techniques that can tailor surface-related properties without compromising the desirable bulk properties of the material (graphite in this case). Several types of modification, using liquid-phase and plasma-phase treatments, have been investigated by this group. One of the goals is to improve composite formation. If a composite is to be made with the foam, it needs to be infiltrated with a matrix phase (e.g. epoxy for structural composite or metal for thermal composite). Enhanced infiltration of the matrix material and optimum bond-strength is achieved by surface treatments that increase chemical affinity between the two phases. Hydrophilic coatings that increase oxygen-functional groups on the surface are seen to be very effective. The second modification goal is to enhance the foam's durability as a stand-alone solid (such as in a lightweight sandwich structure or thermal dissipation foam). Coatings that incorporate moisture-repellent and chemically inert groups (such as fluorocarbons) achieve this. The following aspects of these coatings have been discussed: (a) chemistry of specific surface functional groups, (b) contact angle changes with water, and (c) infiltration of water (which is a predictor of infiltration of other polar compounds). The significance of these results to our understanding of composite interfaces and future fabrication issues has been discussed.

  19. Unitary Evolution as a Uniqueness Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortez, J.; Mena Marugán, G. A.; Olmedo, J.; Velhinho, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the process of quantizing field theories is plagued with ambiguities. First, there is ambiguity in the choice of basic variables describing the system. Second, once a choice of field variables has been made, there is ambiguity concerning the selection of a quantum representation of the corresponding canonical commutation relations. The natural strategy to remove these ambiguities is to demand positivity of energy and to invoke symmetries, namely by requiring that classical symmetries become unitarily implemented in the quantum realm. The success of this strategy depends, however, on the existence of a sufficiently large group of symmetries, usually including time-translation invariance. These criteria are therefore generally insufficient in non-stationary situations, as is typical for free fields in curved spacetimes. Recently, the criterion of unitary implementation of the dynamics has been proposed in order to select a unique quantization in the context of manifestly non-stationary systems. Specifically, the unitarity criterion, together with the requirement of invariance under spatial symmetries, has been successfully employed to remove the ambiguities in the quantization of linearly polarized Gowdy models as well as in the quantization of a scalar field with time varying mass, propagating in a static background whose spatial topology is either of a d-sphere (with d = 1, 2, 3) or a three torus. Following Ref. 3, we will see here that the symmetry and unitarity criteria allows for a complete removal of the ambiguities in the quantization of scalar fields propagating in static spacetimes with compact spatial sections, obeying field equations with an explicitly time-dependent mass, of the form ddot ? - ? ? + s(t)? = 0 . These results apply in particular to free fields in spacetimes which, like e.g. in the closed FRW models, are conformal to a static spacetime, by means of an exclusively time-dependent conformal factor. In fact, in such cases the free field equation can be mapped to an equation of the above type, via a suitable scaling of the field...

  20. Kerala: a unique model of development.

    PubMed

    Kannan, K P; Thankappan, K R; Ramankutty, V; Aravindan, K P

    1991-12-01

    This article capsules health in terms of morbidity, mortality, and maternal and child health; sex ratios, and population density in Kerala state in India from a more expanded report. Kerala state is known for its highly literate and female literate, and poor income population, but its well advanced state of demographic transition. There is a declining population growth rate, a high average marriage age, a low fertility rate, and a high degree of population mobility. One of the unique features of Kerala is the high female literacy, and the favorable position of women in decision making and a matrilineal inheritance mode. The rights of the poor and underprivileged have been upheld. The largest part of government revenue is spent on education followed by health. Traditional healing systems such the ayurveda are strong in Kerala, and Christian missionaries have contributed to a caring tradition. Morbidity is high and mortality is low because medical interventions have affected morality only. The reduction of poverty and environmentally related diseases has not been accomplished inspite of land reform, mass schooling, and general egalitarian policies. Mortality declines and a decline in birth rates have lead to a more adult and aged population, which increases the prevalence of chronic degenerative diseases. Historically, the death rate in Kerala was always lower (25/1000 in 1930 and 6.4 in 1986). The gains in mortality were made in reducing infant mortality (27/1000), which is 4 times less than India as a whole and comparable to Korea, Panama, Yugoslavia, Sri Lanka, and Colombia. Lower female mortality occurs in the 0-4 years. Life expectancy which was the same as India's in 1930 is currently 12 years higher than India's. Females have a higher expectation of life. The sex ratio in 1981 was 1032 compared to India's of 935. Kerala had almost replacement level in 1985. The crude birth rate is 21 versus 32 for India. In addition to the decline in death rates of those 5 years, the 45 year population has also experienced a decline. In the 15-24 age group, the most common cause of death is suicides (53/100,000 or 25% of all deaths) and accidents. Further study is needed to examine the determinants. 76% have hospital births. Home deliveries are related to low social class. Pregnancy risk is avoided in higher groups. Child health has been improved by the rise in marriage age, the small family norm, better women's education, greater decision making for women, and health care availability: all socioeconomic factors. PMID:12317117

  1. Characterizing the unique photochemical environment in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Wang, Y.; Gu, D.; Zhao, C.; Huey, L. G.; Stickel, R.; Liao, J.

    2010-12-01

    Recent observational evidence suggests that the atmospheric chemical system over China could be more complex than expected, possibly as a result of the rapid increasing anthropogenic emissions. During the CAREBeijing-2007 Experiment in August of 2007, up to 14 ppbv of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN, CH3C(O)OONO2) and 4.5 ppbv of glyoxal (CHOCHO) were observed, among the highest levels observed in the world in recent years. Elevated nitrous acid (HNO2) (~1.0 ppbv on average) was also observed in the early afternoon despite of the moderate amount of its precursors, i.e. nitrogen oxides (NOx=NO + NO2). We employ a 1-D photochemical model (REAM) to analyze the observations. The results indicate that reactive aromatics are the dominating source of PAN (55%-75%) and glyoxal (90%), and methylglyoxal is the major precursor of peroxy acetyl radical (50%). Downward transport from boundary layer is found to contribute ~50% of the PAN observed at surface. Photolysis of HNO2 is by far the largest primary OH source (more than 50%) throughout the daytime, and yet the fast formation rate of HNO2 inferred from the observations could not be explained by current known mechanisms. Detailed photochemical analysis is conducted to understand the controlling factors for O3 formation. O3 formation chemistry is strongly affected by aromatics and HNO2. By providing a large primary OH source, HNO2 leads to ~25% enhancement of the average O3 production rate, and aromatics contribute ~40% by serving as a major source of RO2 and HO2 radicals. Due to the large abundance of reactive hydrocarbons, O3 formation is generally NOx limited, although the sensitivity is low that a 50% reduction of NOx could only result in less than 25% reduction of the O3 production rate. Future research targeting HNO2 formation mechanism and emission sources of aromatics is necessary for better understanding the unique photochemical environment in China under significant anthropogenic impacts and the regional pollution outflow.

  2. Unique Challenges Testing SDRs for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sandra; Chelmins, David; Downey, Joseph; Nappier, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the approach used by the Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed team to qualify three Software Defined Radios (SDR) for operation in space and the characterization of the platform to enable upgrades on-orbit. The three SDRs represent a significant portion of the new technologies being studied on board the SCAN Testbed, which is operating on an external truss on the International Space Station (ISS). The SCaN Testbed provides experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms and applications for communication, networking, and navigation concepts and advance the understanding of developing and operating SDRs in space. Qualifying a Software Defined Radio for the space environment requires additional consideration versus a hardware radio. Tests that incorporate characterization of the platform to provide information necessary for future waveforms, which might exercise extended capabilities of the hardware, are needed. The development life cycle for the radio follows the software development life cycle, where changes can be incorporated at various stages of development and test. It also enables flexibility to be added with minor additional effort. Although this provides tremendous advantages, managing the complexity inherent in a software implementation requires a testing beyond the traditional hardware radio test plan. Due to schedule and resource limitations and parallel development activities, the subsystem testing of the SDRs at the vendor sites was primarily limited to typical fixed transceiver type of testing. NASA's Glenn Research Center (GRC) was responsible for the integration and testing of the SDRs into the SCaN Testbed system and conducting the investigation of the SDR to advance the technology to be accepted by missions. This paper will describe the unique tests that were conducted at both the subsystem and system level, including environmental testing, and present results. For example, test waveforms were developed to measure the gain of the transmit system across the tunable frequency band. These were used during thermal vacuum testing to enable characterization of the integrated system in the wide operational temperature range of space. Receive power indicators were used for Electromagnetic Interference tests (EMI) to understand the platform's susceptibility to external interferers independent of the waveform. Additional approaches and lessons learned during the SCaN Testbed subsystem and system level testing will be discussed that may help future SDR integrators.

  3. Modification of Sr on 4004 Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Erjun; Cao, Guojian; Feng, Yicheng; Wang, Liping; Wang, Guojun; Lv, Xinyu

    2013-05-01

    As a brazing foil, 4004 Al alloy has good welding performance. However, the high Si content decreases the plasticity of the alloy. To improve the plasticity of 4004 Al alloy and subsequently improve the productivity of 4004 Al foil or 434 composite foil, 4004 Al alloy was modified by Al-10%Sr master alloy. Modification effects of an additional amount of Sr, modification temperature, and holding time on 4004 aluminum alloy were studied by orthogonal design. The results showed that the greatest impact parameter of 4004 aluminum alloy modification was the additional amount of Sr, followed by holding time and modification temperature. The optimum modification parameters obtained by orthogonal design were as follows: Sr addition of 0.04%, holding time of 60 min, and modification temperature of 760°C. The effect of Sr addition on modification was analyzed in detail based on orthogonal results. With increasing of Sr addition, elongation of 4004 alloy increased at first, and decreased after reaching the maximum value.

  4. Covariance Modifications to Subspace Bases

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D B

    2008-11-19

    Adaptive signal processing algorithms that rely upon representations of signal and noise subspaces often require updates to those representations when new data become available. Subspace representations frequently are estimated from available data with singular value (SVD) decompositions. Subspace updates require modifications to these decompositions. Updates can be performed inexpensively provided they are low-rank. A substantial literature on SVD updates exists, frequently focusing on rank-1 updates (see e.g. [Karasalo, 1986; Comon and Golub, 1990, Badeau, 2004]). In these methods, data matrices are modified by addition or deletion of a row or column, or data covariance matrices are modified by addition of the outer product of a new vector. A recent paper by Brand [2006] provides a general and efficient method for arbitrary rank updates to an SVD. The purpose of this note is to describe a closely-related method for applications where right singular vectors are not required. This note also describes the SVD updates to a particular scenario of interest in seismic array signal processing. The particular application involve updating the wideband subspace representation used in seismic subspace detectors [Harris, 2006]. These subspace detectors generalize waveform correlation algorithms to detect signals that lie in a subspace of waveforms of dimension d {ge} 1. They potentially are of interest because they extend the range of waveform variation over which these sensitive detectors apply. Subspace detectors operate by projecting waveform data from a detection window into a subspace specified by a collection of orthonormal waveform basis vectors (referred to as the template). Subspace templates are constructed from a suite of normalized, aligned master event waveforms that may be acquired by a single sensor, a three-component sensor, an array of such sensors or a sensor network. The template design process entails constructing a data matrix whose columns contain the master event waveform data, then performing a singular value decomposition on the data matrix to extract an orthonormal basis for the waveform suite. The template typically is comprised of a subset of the left singular vectors corresponding to the larger singular values. The application involves updating a subspace template when new data become available, i.e. when new defining events are detected for a particular source. It often is the case that the waveforms corresponding to a particular source drift over time [Harris, 2001]. The Green's functions describing propagation can be altered because of changes in the source region. For example, if the source is a mine, signals from explosions may change gradually as a pit is extended (the source moves) or the scattering topography is altered by excavation. This motivates a tracking adjustment to a subspace representation. This note also comments on SVD updates for a related problem. In realistic pipeline operations it often is the case that data from one or more channels of an array are unusable (dead channels, channels with prolific dropouts, etc.). In such cases it is desirable to modify an array subspace template to operate on data only from the remaining usable channels. Furthermore, it is desirable to modify the templates directly without recourse to the original data matrix. Usually the template design process is separate from the application of the template in a detector to a continuous data stream. Consequently, the original data matrix may not be available for template modification at detector run time.

  5. Characterization of Tyrosine Nitration and Cysteine Nitrosylation Modifications by Metastable Atom-Activation Dissociation Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Shannon L.; Jackson, Glen P.

    2011-02-01

    The fragmentation behavior of nitrated and S-nitrosylated peptides were studied using collision induced dissociation (CID) and metastable atom-activated dissociation mass spectrometry (MAD-MS). Various charge states, such as 1+, 2+, 3+, 2-, of modified and unmodified peptides were exposed to a beam of high kinetic energy helium (He) metastable atoms resulting in extensive backbone fragmentation with significant retention of the post-translation modifications (PTMs). Whereas the high electron affinity of the nitrotyrosine moiety quenches radical chemistry and fragmentation in electron capture dissociation (ECD) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD), MAD does produce numerous backbone cleavages in the vicinity of the modification. Fragment ions of nitrosylated cysteine modifications typically exhibit more abundant neutral losses than nitrated tyrosine modifications because of the extremely labile nature of the nitrosylated cysteine residues. However, compared with CID, MAD produced between 66% and 86% more fragment ions, which preserved the labile -NO modification. MAD was also able to differentiate I/L residues in the modified peptides. MAD is able to induce radical ion chemistry even in the presence of strong radical traps and therefore offers unique advantages to ECD, ETD, and CID for determination of PTMs such as nitrated and S-nitrosylated peptides.

  6. Surface modification of semiconductor photoelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Guijarro, Néstor; Prévot, Mathieu S; Sivula, Kevin

    2015-06-28

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells have emerged as promising devices that afford the direct conversion of solar energy into electric power and/or chemical fuels. Apart from the obvious importance of the bulk properties of semiconductor materials employed as photoelectrodes, the semiconductor-liquid interface has proven to strongly govern surface-related processes, i.e. the stability, charge separation/recombination and catalytic activity. Because of this, numerous surface treatments have been reported in an effort to tailor the physicochemical properties of the semiconductor-liquid interface, and in turn, the overall PEC response. In this Perspective article we provide a brief conceptual overview of these surface engineering treatments, connecting the particular effects on the interfacial energetics with the respective consequences on the performance. The beneficial effects that arise from surface treatment are categorized as (i) the protection of the surface against photocorrosion, (ii) the passivation of deleterious surface states, (iii) the modification of the band edge positions or band bending, and (iv) the selective extraction of carriers and improved catalytic activity. State-of-the-art surface treatments such as the adsorption of organic molecules or ions, the deposition of semiconductor overlayers and metal nanoparticles or etching procedures are exemplified and described with respect to the observed beneficial effects. A common emerging theme from recent work is that one single surface treatment can lead to multiple distinct effects. Overall, we suggest that surface engineering holds the key for effectively managing the intrinsic common defects of native semiconductor photoelectrodes regardless of their nature, leading to improved light harvesting efficiency. PMID:26030025

  7. Physical modification of polyetheretherketone for orthopedic implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Ya-Wei; Zhang, Li-Nan; Hou, Zeng-Tao; Ye, Xin; Gu, Hong-Sheng; Yan, Guo-Ping; Shang, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is regarded as one of the most potential candidates for replacing current implant applications. To obtain good bone-implant interfaces, many modification methods have been developed to enable PEEK and PEEK-based composites from bio-inert to bioactive. Among them, physical methods have aroused significant attention and been widely used to modify PEEK for orthopedic implants. This review summarizes current physical modification techniques of PEEK for orthopedic applications, which include composite strategies, surface coating methods and irradiation treatments. The positive consequences of those modification methods will encourage continuing investigations and stimulate the wide range of applications of PEEK-based implants in orthopedics.

  8. TRP channel activation by reversible covalent modification.

    PubMed

    Hinman, Andrew; Chuang, Huai-Hu; Bautista, Diana M; Julius, David

    2006-12-19

    Allyl isothiocyanate, the pungent principle of wasabi and other mustard oils, produces pain by activating TRPA1, an excitatory ion channel on sensory nerve endings. Isothiocyanates are membrane-permeable electrophiles that form adducts with thiols and primary amines, suggesting that covalent modification, rather than classical lock-and-key binding, accounts for their agonist properties. Indeed, we show that thiol reactive compounds of diverse structure activate TRPA1 in a manner that relies on covalent modification of cysteine residues within the cytoplasmic N terminus of the channel. These findings suggest an unusual paradigm whereby natural products activate a receptor through direct, reversible, and covalent protein modification. PMID:17164327

  9. Post-translational protein modification as a tool for transcription

    E-print Network

    Spoel, Steven

    Minireview Post-translational protein modification as a tool for transcription reprogramming Author, phosphorylation, plant immunity, post- translational modification, proteasome, S-nitrosylation, transcription the activities of these proteins are controlled. Recent findings indicate that post-translational modifications

  10. 40 CFR 228.11 - Modification in disposal site use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Modification in disposal site use. 228.11 Section 228...DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.11 Modification in disposal site use. (a) Modifications...

  11. Two Galaxies for a Unique Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-04-01

    To celebrate the 100 Hours of Astronomy, ESO is sharing two stunning images of unusual galaxies, both belonging to the Sculptor group of galaxies. The images, obtained at two of ESO's observatories at La Silla and Paranal in Chile, illustrate the beauty of astronomy. ESO PR Photo 14a/09 Irregular Galaxy NGC 55 ESO PR Photo 14b/09 Spiral Galaxy NGC 7793 As part of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 Cornerstone project, 100 Hours of Astronomy, the ambitious "Around the World in 80 Telescopes" event is a unique live webcast over 24 hours, following night and day around the globe to some of the most advanced observatories on and off the planet. To provide a long-lasting memory of this amazing world tour, observatories worldwide are revealing wonderful, and previously unseen, astronomical images. For its part, ESO is releasing outstanding pictures of two galaxies, observed with telescopes at the La Silla and Paranal observatories. The first of these depicts the irregular galaxy NGC 55, a member of the prominent Sculptor group of galaxies in the southern constellation of Sculptor. The galaxy is about 70 000 light-years across, that is, a little bit smaller than our own Milky Way. NGC 55 actually resembles more our galactic neighbour, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), although the LMC is seen face-on, whilst NGC 55 is edge-on. By studying about 20 planetary nebulae in this image, a team of astronomers found that NGC 55 is located about 7.5 million light-years away. They also found that the galaxy might be forming a bound pair with the gorgeous spiral galaxy NGC 300 . Planetary nebulae are the final blooming of Sun-like stars before their retirement as white dwarfs. This striking image of NGC 55, obtained with the Wide Field Imager on the 2.2-metre MPG/ESO telescope at La Silla, is dusted with a flurry of reddish nebulae, created by young, hot massive stars. Some of the more extended ones are not unlike those seen in the LMC, such as the Tarantula Nebula. The quality of the image is clearly demonstrated by the remarkable number of background galaxies seen, as well as the huge numbers of individual stars that can be counted within NGC 55. The second image shows another galaxy belonging to the Sculptor group. This is NGC 7793, which has a chaotic spiral structure, unlike the class of grand-design spiral galaxies to which our Milky Way belongs. The image shows how difficult it is to identify any particular spiral arm in these chaotic structures, although it is possible to guess at a general rotating pattern. NGC 7793 is located slightly further away than NGC 55, about 12.5 million light-years from us, and is about half the size of NGC 55. NGC 7793 was observed with one of the workhorses of the ESO Paranal Observatory, the FORS instrument, attached to the Very Large Telescope.

  12. (4/28/14) SUMMARY OF MODIFICATIONS

    E-print Network

    and DH recommendations · Revise language to clarify faculty access to Committee (4/28/14) SUMMARY OF MODIFICATIONS FACULTY HANDBOOK SECTION 8 PROMOTION Communication Clarification · Add language to clarify circumstances under which University

  13. Examples of Process Modifications that Reduce Waste 

    E-print Network

    Nelson, K. E.

    1990-01-01

    The ideal approach to reducing or eliminating waste products is to avoid making them in the first place. This article will examine numerous process modifications that have accomplished that goal. We'll look at changes to raw materials, reactors...

  14. Examples of Process Modifications that Reduce Waste

    E-print Network

    Nelson, K. E.

    The ideal approach to reducing or eliminating waste products is to avoid making them in the first place. This article will examine numerous process modifications that have accomplished that goal. We'll look at changes to raw materials, reactors...

  15. 25 CFR 134.7 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ACTIVITIES PARTIAL PAYMENT CONSTRUCTION CHARGES ON INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 134.7 Modifications. The act of July 1, 1932 (47 Stat. 564; 25 U.S.C. 386a), cancelled all irrigation assessments for construction costs against lands in Indian...

  16. 25 CFR 134.7 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ACTIVITIES PARTIAL PAYMENT CONSTRUCTION CHARGES ON INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 134.7 Modifications. The act of July 1, 1932 (47 Stat. 564; 25 U.S.C. 386a), cancelled all irrigation assessments for construction costs against lands in Indian...

  17. 25 CFR 134.7 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ACTIVITIES PARTIAL PAYMENT CONSTRUCTION CHARGES ON INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 134.7 Modifications. The act of July 1, 1932 (47 Stat. 564; 25 U.S.C. 386a), cancelled all irrigation assessments for construction costs against lands in Indian...

  18. 25 CFR 134.7 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ACTIVITIES PARTIAL PAYMENT CONSTRUCTION CHARGES ON INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 134.7 Modifications. The act of July 1, 1932 (47 Stat. 564; 25 U.S.C. 386a), cancelled all irrigation assessments for construction costs against lands in Indian...

  19. 25 CFR 134.7 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ACTIVITIES PARTIAL PAYMENT CONSTRUCTION CHARGES ON INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 134.7 Modifications. The act of July 1, 1932 (47 Stat. 564; 25 U.S.C. 386a), cancelled all irrigation assessments for construction costs against lands in Indian...

  20. 7 CFR 634.26 - Contract modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01...2010-01-01 false Contract modifications...Section 634.26 Agriculture Regulations...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING...Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.26...

  1. 7 CFR 634.26 - Contract modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01...2011-01-01 false Contract modifications...Section 634.26 Agriculture Regulations...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING...Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.26...

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT WASTE WATER TREATMENT MODIFICATIONS

    E-print Network

    Ohta, Shigemi

    ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR WASTE WATER TREATMENT MODIFICATIONS FOR IMPROVED EFFLUENT COMPLIANCE................................................38 5.3.4 Effects of the Enhanced Treatment Alternative on Water Resources........................39 5.................................................................................................. 21 4.3 Alternative 3 ­ Enhanced Effluent Treatment

  3. Modifications of therapeutic proteins: challenges and prospects

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The production of therapeutic proteins is one of the fastest growing sectors of the pharmaceutical industry. However, most proteins used in drug therapy require complex post-translational modifications for efficient secretion, drug efficacy and stability. Common protein modifications include variable glycosylation, misfolding and aggregation, oxidation of methionine, deamidation of asparagine and glutamine, and proteolysis. These modifications not only pose challenges for accurate and consistent bioprocessing, but also may have consequences for the patient in that incorrect modifications or aggregation may lead to an immune response to the protein therapeutic. This review provides examples of analytical and preventative advances that have been devised to meet these challenges, and insights into how further advances can improve the efficiency and safety in manufacturing recombinant proteins. PMID:19003198

  4. 2014-2015 Student Insurance Plan Modifications

    E-print Network

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    coverage for vision correction after Surgery or Accident Plan Modification · Change Emergency Room Copay drugs These drugs treat complex and chronic diseases o Brand name female contraceptive drugs or devices

  5. 40 CFR 60.304 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Grain Elevators § 60.304 Modifications. (a) The factor 6.5 shall be used in place of “annual asset guidelines repair...

  6. 40 CFR 60.304 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Grain Elevators § 60.304 Modifications. (a) The factor 6.5 shall be used in place of “annual asset guidelines repair...

  7. 40 CFR 60.304 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Grain Elevators § 60.304 Modifications. (a) The factor 6.5 shall be used in place of “annual asset guidelines repair...

  8. 40 CFR 60.304 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Grain Elevators § 60.304 Modifications. (a) The factor 6.5 shall be used in place of “annual asset guidelines repair...

  9. 40 CFR 60.304 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Grain Elevators § 60.304 Modifications. (a) The factor 6.5 shall be used in place of “annual asset guidelines repair...

  10. Modification of Phenolic Oximes for Copper Extraction 

    E-print Network

    Forgan, Ross Stewart

    2008-01-01

    The thesis deals with the modification of salicylaldoxime-based reagents used in hydrometallurgical extraction, addressing rational ligand design to tune copper(II) extractant strengths and also the development of reagents ...

  11. 38 CFR 36.4315 - Loan modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Loan modifications. 36.4315 Section 36.4315...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting §...

  12. 38 CFR 36.4315 - Loan modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Loan modifications. 36.4315 Section 36.4315...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting §...

  13. 38 CFR 36.4315 - Loan modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Loan modifications. 36.4315 Section 36.4315...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting §...

  14. 38 CFR 36.4315 - Loan modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loan modifications. 36.4315 Section 36.4315...DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting §...

  15. 7 CFR 636.10 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.10 Modifications. (a) The participant and NRCS may modify a cost-share...

  16. 7 CFR 636.10 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.10 Modifications. (a) The participant and NRCS may modify a cost-share...

  17. 7 CFR 636.10 - Modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVES PROGRAM § 636.10 Modifications. (a) The participant and NRCS may modify a cost-share...

  18. Fifth wheel modification assembly, Issue U

    SciTech Connect

    Arning, C.

    1994-12-31

    This report consists of one engineering drawing showing modifications to the Fifth Wheel System for a semi-tractor trailer truck. Notes give instructions for installation of some items, where other items may be purchased, testing instructions, and shipping instructions.

  19. 75 FR 3255 - Petitions for Modification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ...resistor will extend along with the power conductors and serve as the grounding conductor for the frame of the pump(s) and all associated...1002 (Installation of electric equipment and conductors; permissibility). Modification...

  20. Sustainable environmental nanotechnology using nanoparticle surface modification.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reactive nanomaterials used for environmental remediation require surface modification to make them mobile in the subsurface. Nanomaterials released into the environment inadvertently without an engineered surface coating will acquire one (e.g. adsorption of natural organic matt...

  1. Surface modification of composites with metal nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. V. Sotskaya; S. V. Makarov; O. V. Dolgikh; V. M. Kashkarov; A. S. Len’shin; E. A. Kotlyarova

    2010-01-01

    This work examines the possibility of using copper, nickel, and cobalt nanoparticles in the electrodeposition of nickel coatings\\u000a and for surface modification of porous silicon, and also colloidal silver particles for surface modification of silver-containing\\u000a polymer-matrix composites. It is shown that the deposition of metal nanoparticles may influence the morphology, electronic\\u000a structure, and phase composition of the surface and the

  2. Current status on plastic scintillators modifications.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Guillaume H V; Hamel, Matthieu; Sguerra, Fabien

    2014-11-24

    Recent developments of plastic scintillators are reviewed, from 2000 to March 2014, distributed in two different chapters. First chapter deals with the chemical modifications of the polymer backbone, whereas modifications of the fluorescent probe are presented in the second chapter. All examples are provided with the scope of detection of various radiation particles. The main characteristics of these newly created scintillators and their detection properties are given. PMID:25335882

  3. Characterization of Surface Modification of Polyethersulfone Membrane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean X. Liu; Jun-Tae Kim

    2011-01-01

    Surface modification of polyethersulfone (PES) membrane surfaces using UV\\/ozone pretreatment with subsequent grafting and interfacial polymerization on membrane surface was investigated in order to improve the resistance of membrane surface to protein adsorption. The surface modifications were evaluated in terms of hydrophilicity, chemical composition of the surface and static protein adsorption. In both methods, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)

  4. Unique Optical System For Conversion Of Existing Photometers Into Scanning Microphotometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulpitt, Thomas H.; Walker, Richard A.

    1980-08-01

    There are many thousands of luminance photometers in the field, both telephotometers and microphotometers; however, very few of these have scanning microphotometric capability. This paper describes a unique optical system that can be field-interchanged with the standard objective lens, without requiring any modification of the photometer's internal optical system, to convert an existing photometer into a high-resolution scanning microphotometer. One embodiment, called the MicroScanner Spatial Scanner, will be described in detail. Used with any standard Pritchard Photometer, this scanner provides variable-speed scanning of a half-inch (12 mm) of object space with field coverage as fine as 0.0001 in. (0.0025 mm) or as broad as 0.39 in. (10 mm). The system features photometric uniformity within +/-0.5% over the entire scan distance, freedom from polarization error, and a half-inch scan distance independent of choice of objective lens.

  5. On the Development of a Unique Arc Jet Test Apparatus for Control Surface Seal Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Robbie, Malcolm; Baker, Gus; Erker, Arthur

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn has developed a unique test apparatus capable of evaluating control surface seal and flap designs under simulated reentry heating conditions in NASA Johnson's arc jet test facility. The test apparatus is capable of testing a variety of seal designs with a variety of control surface materials and designs using modular components. The flap angle can be varied during testing, allowing modification of the seal environment while testing is in progress. The flap angle is varied using an innovative transmission system which limits heat transfer from the hot flap structure to the motor, all while keeping the components properly aligned regardless of thermal expansion. A combination of active and passive cooling is employed to prevent thermal damage to the test fixture while still obtaining the target seal temperature.

  6. Unique Features of the m6A Methylome in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Hongchao; Dore, Louis C; Lu, Zhike; Liu, Jun; Chen, Kai; Jia, Guifang; Bergelson, Joy; He, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Recent discoveries of reversible N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation on messenger RNA (mRNA) and mapping of m6A methylomes in mammals and yeast have revealed potential regulatory functions of this RNA modification. In plants, defects in m6A methyltransferase cause an embryo-lethal phenotype, suggesting a critical role of m6A in plant development. Here, we profile m6A transcriptome-wide in two accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana and reveal that m6A is a highly conserved modification of mRNA in plants. Distinct from mammals, m6A in A. thaliana is enriched not only around the stop codon and within 3? untranslated regions (3? UTRs), but also around the start codon. Gene ontology analysis indicates that the unique distribution pattern of m6A in A. thaliana is associated with plant-specific pathways involving the chloroplast. We also discover a positive correlation between m6A deposition and the mRNA abundance, suggesting a regulatory role of m6A in plant gene expression. PMID:25430002

  7. Bivariate Uniqueness in the Logistic Recursive Distributional Equation

    E-print Network

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    Bivariate Uniqueness in the Logistic Recursive Distributional Equation Antar Bandyopadhyay. Bivariate uniqueness, distributional identity, fixed-point equation, Logistic distribution, measurability if = µ , where µ is defined as the joint distribution of (Z, Z) on R2 , with Z Logistic distribution

  8. Bilingual Effects Are Not Unique, Only More Salient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradis, Michel

    2008-01-01

    I am in full agreement with Aneta Pavlenko's analysis of the data and her line of reasoning about emotion words and emotion concepts, but not with her claim that the findings are unique to the study of bilingualism, and that differential language emotionality is uniquely visible in bi- and multilingual speakers. I will argue that (i) emotion words…

  9. Some superpopulation models for estimating the number of population uniques

    E-print Network

    Takemura, Akimichi

    - nomial distribution, statistical disclosure control 1 Introduction The number of the population uniquesSome superpopulation models for estimating the number of population uniques Akimichi Takemura in the population is of great importance in evaluating the disclosure risk of a microdata set. We approach

  10. Uniqueness of extremal Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Amsel, Aaron J.; Horowitz, Gary T.; Marolf, Donald; Roberts, Matthew M. [Department of Physics, UCSB, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    We prove that the only four-dimensional, stationary, rotating, asymptotically flat (analytic) vacuum black hole with a single degenerate horizon is given by the extremal Kerr solution. We also prove a similar uniqueness theorem for the extremal Kerr-Newman solution. This closes a long-standing gap in the black hole uniqueness theorems.

  11. Regular networks can be uniquely constructed from their trees

    E-print Network

    Willson, Stephen J.

    1 Regular networks can be uniquely constructed from their trees Stephen J. Willson Department with labelled leaves displays a tree T when there exists a way to select a unique parent of each hybrid vertex resulting in the tree T. Let Tr(N) denote the set of all trees displayed by the network N. In general

  12. Morphological Awareness Uniquely Predicts Young Children's Chinese Character Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Zhou, Aibao; Wat, Chun Pong; Wagner, Richard K.

    2003-01-01

    Two unique measures of morphological awareness were orally administered to kindergarten and 2nd-grade Hong Kong Chinese children. Both tasks of morphological awareness predicted unique variance in Chinese character recognition in these children, after controlling for age, phonological awareness, speeded naming, speed of processing, and vocabulary.…

  13. Covalent Modification Cycles through the Spatial Prism

    PubMed Central

    Alam-Nazki, Aiman; Krishnan, J.

    2013-01-01

    Covalent modification cycles are basic units and building blocks of posttranslational modification and cellular signal transduction. We systematically explore different spatial aspects of signal transduction in covalent modification cycles by starting with a basic temporal cycle as a reference and focusing on steady-state signal transduction. We consider, in turn, the effect of diffusion on spatial signal transduction, spatial analogs of ultrasensitive behavior, and the interplay between enzyme localization and substrate diffusion. Our analysis reveals the need to explicitly account for kinetics and diffusional transport (and localization) of enzymes, substrates, and complexes. It demonstrates a complex and subtle interplay between spatial heterogeneity, diffusion, and localization. Overall, examining the spatial dimension of covalent modification reveals that 1), there are important differences between spatial and temporal signal transduction even in this cycle; and 2), spatial aspects may play a substantial role in affecting and distorting information transfer in modules/networks that are usually studied in purely temporal terms. This has important implications for the systematic understanding of signaling in covalent modification cycles, pathways, and networks in multiple cellular contexts. PMID:24094413

  14. Chromatin Modifications Associated With Diabetes and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Schones, Dustin E; Leung, Amy; Natarajan, Rama

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of obesity across the globe has doubled over the past several decades, leading to escalating rates of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and other complications. Given this dramatic rise in disease incidence, understanding the cause of these diseases is therefore of paramount importance. Metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus, result from a multitude of genetic and environmental factors. Although the genetic basis of these diseases has been extensively studied, the molecular pathways whereby environmental factors influence disease progression are only beginning to be understood. One manner by which environmental factors can contribute to disease progression is through modifications to chromatin. The highly structured packaging of the genome into the nucleus through chromatin has been shown to be fundamental to tissue-specific gene regulation. Modifications to chromatin can regulate gene expression and are involved in a myriad of biological functions, and hence, disruption of these modifications is central to many human diseases. These modifications can furthermore be epigenetic in nature, thereby contributing to prolonged disease risk. Recent work has demonstrated that modifications to chromatin are associated with the progression of both diabetes mellitus and obesity, which is the subject of this review. PMID:26044585

  15. Sequence tagging reveals unexpected modifications in toxicoproteomics

    PubMed Central

    Dasari, Surendra; Chambers, Matthew C.; Codreanu, Simona G.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Collins, Ben C.; Pennington, Stephen R.; Gallagher, William M.; Tabb, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Toxicoproteomic samples are rich in posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of proteins. Identifying these modifications via standard database searching can incur significant performance penalties. Here we describe the latest developments in TagRecon, an algorithm that leverages inferred sequence tags to identify modified peptides in toxicoproteomic data sets. TagRecon identifies known modifications more effectively than the MyriMatch database search engine. TagRecon outperformed state of the art software in recognizing unanticipated modifications from LTQ, Orbitrap, and QTOF data sets. We developed user-friendly software for detecting persistent mass shifts from samples. We follow a three-step strategy for detecting unanticipated PTMs in samples. First, we identify the proteins present in the sample with a standard database search. Next, identified proteins are interrogated for unexpected PTMs with a sequence tag-based search. Finally, additional evidence is gathered for the detected mass shifts with a refinement search. Application of this technology on toxicoproteomic data sets revealed unintended cross-reactions between proteins and sample processing reagents. Twenty five proteins in rat liver showed signs of oxidative stress when exposed to potentially toxic drugs. These results demonstrate the value of mining toxicoproteomic data sets for modifications. PMID:21214251

  16. Considerations relating to pulsed-beam modification of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S.M.; Follstaedt, D.M.; Bourcier, R.J.; Dugger, M.T.; McIntyre, D.C.; Rader, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Ion implantation has been shown to produce unique improvements in the properties of a wide range of materials. This technology has been extensively used for doping of semiconductors, where the required doses and implantation depths are relatively modest and readily achieved with commercial implanters. Other applications of ion implantation currently being pursued at a commercial level include the synthesis of buried second-phase layers in Si and the improvement of metal surface properties such as hardness, friction, wear rate, and corrosion. However, these applications have been severely constrained by the costs of treating large surface areas with the high ion doses required, and by the need to produce modified layers thicker than the range of the sub-MeV ions available from presently available commercial high-flux ion implanters. It therefore seems worthwhile to consider whether pulsed ion accelerators may offer advantages for such applications by providing high ion fluxes at MeV energies. The previously reported applications of pulsed accelerators to materials modification have used sub-MeV ion energies. The purpose of this article is to being these considerations the perspective of materials scientists who use ion implantation. We comment on needed extensions in implantation capabilities while leaving to others the question of whether these needs can be met with pulsed-beam technology. Further, in order to illustrate the kinds of beneficial materials modifications that can be achieved with implantation, we provide examples from recent work at Sandia National Laboratories, where large improvements have been realized in the tribological properties and strengths of Fe and A{ell} alloys. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  17. BuD, a helix–loop–helix DNA-binding domain for genome modification

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Stefano; Molina, Rafael; López-Méndez, Blanca; Juillerat, Alexandre; Bertonati, Claudia; Daboussi, Fayza; Campos-Olivas, Ramon; Duchateau, Phillippe; Montoya, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    DNA editing offers new possibilities in synthetic biology and biomedicine for modulation or modification of cellular functions to organisms. However, inaccuracy in this process may lead to genome damage. To address this important problem, a strategy allowing specific gene modification has been achieved through the addition, removal or exchange of DNA sequences using customized proteins and the endogenous DNA-repair machinery. Therefore, the engineering of specific protein–DNA interactions in protein scaffolds is key to providing ‘toolkits’ for precise genome modification or regulation of gene expression. In a search for putative DNA-binding domains, BurrH, a protein that recognizes a 19?bp DNA target, was identified. Here, its apo and DNA-bound crystal structures are reported, revealing a central region containing 19 repeats of a helix–loop–helix modular domain (BurrH domain; BuD), which identifies the DNA target by a single residue-to-nucleotide code, thus facilitating its redesign for gene targeting. New DNA-binding specificities have been engineered in this template, showing that BuD-derived nucleases (BuDNs) induce high levels of gene targeting in a locus of the human haemoglobin ? (HBB) gene close to mutations responsible for sickle-cell anaemia. Hence, the unique combination of high efficiency and specificity of the BuD arrays can push forward diverse genome-modification approaches for cell or organism redesign, opening new avenues for gene editing. PMID:25004980

  18. Surface modification of silicon-containing fluorocarbon films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yoonyoung; Desta, Yohannes; Goettert, Jost; Lee, G. S.; Ajmera, P. K.

    2005-07-01

    Surface modification of silicon-containing fluorocarbon (SiCF) films achieved by wet chemical treatments and through x-ray irradiation is examined. The SiCF films were prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, using gas precursors of tetrafluoromethane and disilane. As-deposited SiCF film composition was analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Surface modification of SiCF films utilizing n-lithiodiaminoethane wet chemical treatment is discussed. Sessile water-drop contact angle changed from 95°+/-2° before treatment to 32°+/-2° after treatment, indicating a change in the film surface characteristics from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. For x-ray irradiation on the SiCF film with a dose of 27.4 kJ/cm3, the contact angle of the sessile water drop changed from 95°+/-2° before radiation to 39°+/-3° after x-ray exposure. The effect of x-ray exposure on chemical bond structure of SiCF films is studied using Fourier transform infrared measurements. Electroless Cu deposition was performed to test the applicability of the surface modified films. The x-ray irradiation method offers a unique advantage in making possible surface modification in a localized area of high-aspect-ratio microstructures. Fabrication of a Ti-membrane x-ray mask is introduced here for selective surface modification using x-ray irradiation.

  19. Modification Site Localization Scoring: Strategies and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Chalkley, Robert J.; Clauser, Karl R.

    2012-01-01

    Using enrichment strategies many research groups are routinely producing large data sets of post-translationally modified peptides for proteomic analysis using tandem mass spectrometry. Although search engines are relatively effective at identifying these peptides with a defined measure of reliability, their localization of site/s of modification is often arbitrary and unreliable. The field continues to be in need of a widely accepted metric for false localization rate that accurately describes the certainty of site localization in published data sets and allows for consistent measurement of differences in performance of emerging scoring algorithms. In this article are discussed the main strategies currently used by software for modification site localization and ways of assessing the performance of these different tools. Methods for representing ambiguity are reviewed and a discussion of how the approaches transfer to different data types and modifications is presented. PMID:22328712

  20. Identification and interrogation of combinatorial histone modifications

    PubMed Central

    Karch, Kelly R.; DeNizio, Jamie E.; Black, Ben E.; Garcia, Benjamin A.

    2013-01-01

    Histone proteins are dynamically modified to mediate a variety of cellular processes including gene transcription, DNA damage repair, and apoptosis. Regulation of these processes occurs through the recruitment of non-histone proteins to chromatin by specific combinations of histone post-translational modifications (PTMs). Mass spectrometry has emerged as an essential tool to discover and quantify histone PTMs both within and between samples in an unbiased manner. Developments in mass spectrometry that allow for characterization of large histone peptides or intact protein has made it possible to determine which modifications occur simultaneously on a single histone polypeptide. A variety of techniques from biochemistry, biophysics, and chemical biology have been employed to determine the biological relevance of discovered combinatorial codes. This review first describes advancements in the field of mass spectrometry that have facilitated histone PTM analysis and then covers notable approaches to probe the biological relevance of these modifications in their nucleosomal context. PMID:24391660

  1. Alkyl- and fluoroalkyltrialkoxysilanes for wettability modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dopierala, Katarzyna; Maciejewski, Hieronim; Karasiewicz, Joanna; Prochaska, Krystyna

    2013-10-01

    Alkyl- and fluoroalkyltriethoxysilanes were investigated as potential surface modifiers. Many aspects concerning trialkoxysilanes were discussed, starting from hydrolysis of silanes in water solutions, the effect of this hydrolysis on the surface tension, wettability of the modified surface to the morphology of the modified surface. Surface tension and contact angle measurements as well as scanning electron microscopy were used to characterise alkyl- and fluoroalkyltriethoxysilanes and their ability to modify the wettability of glass. The effect of such modification was superhydrophobic surface with high values of contact angles. Superhydrophobic behaviour was observed as a result of two-step modification providing increased surface roughness thanks to the use of different size silica particles and surface chemical modification with fluorosilane molecules.

  2. Electron capture dissociation mass spectrometry in characterization of post-translational modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Bakhtiar, Ray [Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065 (United States)]. E-mail: bakhtir@wyeth.com; Guan Ziqiang [Department of Biochemistry, Duke University Medical Center, P.O. Box 3711, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

    2005-08-19

    Electron capture dissociation (ECD) represents a significant advance in tandem mass spectrometry for the identification and characterization of post-translational modifications (PTMs) of polypeptides. In comparison with the conventional fragmentation techniques, such as collisionally induced dissociation and infrared multi-photon dissociation, ECD provides more extensive sequence fragments, while allowing the labile modifications to remain intact during backbone fragmentation. This unique attribute offers ECD as an attractive alternative for detection and localization of PTMs. The success and rapid adoption of ECD recently led to the culmination of The 1st International Uppsala Symposium on Electron Capture Dissociation of Biomolecules and Related Phenomena (October 19-22, 2003, Stockholm, Sweden). Herein, we present a general overview of the ECD technique as well as selected applications in characterization of post-translationally modified polypeptides.

  3. Development of an Improved Permeability Modification Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, H.W.; Elphnick, J.

    1999-03-09

    This report describes the development of an improved permeability modification simulator performed jointly by BDM Petroleum Technologies and Schlumberger Dowell under a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) with the US Department of Energy. The improved simulator was developed by modifying NIPER's PC-GEL permeability modification simulator to include a radial model, a thermal energy equation, a wellbore simulator, and a fully implicit time-stepping option. The temperature-dependent gelation kinetics of a delayed gel system (DGS) is also included in the simulator.

  4. Epigenetic modifications in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michael J; Bhatla, Teena

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant epigenetic modifications are well-recognized drivers for oncogenesis. Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is no exception and serves as a model toward the significant impact these heritable alterations can have in leukemogenesis. In this brief review, we will focus on the main aspects of epigenetics, which control leukemogenesis in pediatric ALL, mainly DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA alterations. As we continue to gain better understanding of the driving mechanisms for pediatric ALL at both diagnosis and relapse, therapeutic interventions directed toward these pathways and mechanisms can be harnessed and introduced into clinical trials for pediatric ALL. PMID:24860797

  5. A amphoteric copolymer profile modification agent

    SciTech Connect

    Wang HongGuan; Yu LianCheng; Tian HongKun [Scientific Research Inst. of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing (China)

    1995-11-01

    This report provides a new gel profile modification agent prepared by an amphoteric copolymer (FT-213) and a novel crosslinking agent (BY), and introduces the preparations of the amphoteric polymer, the crosslinking agent and the profile modification agent, the action mechanism, the test conditions and the evaluations of the performance of the agent. The 45 well treatments in oilfields demonstrate that the agent can be prepared conveniently, the agent has better compatibility and application performances, and the treatment life is longer with the use of the agent. 80,000 tons incremental oil and 60,000 m{sup 3} decreasing water production have been achieved.

  6. Protein chemical modification on endogenous amino acids.

    PubMed

    Baslé, Emmanuel; Joubert, Nicolas; Pucheault, Mathieu

    2010-03-26

    Chemical modification of protein is an arduous but fruitful task. Many chemical methods have been developed for such purpose by carefully balancing reactivity and selectivity. Now both chemists and biologists have in hand an arsenal of tools from which they can select a relevant reaction to tackle their problems. This review focuses on the various chemical transformations available for selective modification of proteins. It also provides a brief overview of some of their main applications, including detection of protein interactions, preparation of bioconjugates, and protein microarrays. PMID:20338513

  7. Uniqueness of photon spheres via positive mass rigidity

    E-print Network

    Carla Cederbaum; Gregory J. Galloway

    2015-04-22

    In a recent paper the first author established the uniqueness of photon spheres, suitably defined, in static vacuum asymptotically flat spacetimes by adapting Israel's proof of static black hole uniqueness. In this note we establish uniqueness of photon spheres by adapting the argument of Bunting and Masood-ul-Alam, which then allows certain assumptions to be relaxed. In particular, multiple photon spheres are allowed a priori. As a consequence of our result, we can rule out the existence of static configurations involving multiple "very compact" bodies and black holes.

  8. Effects of plasma surface modification on interfacial behaviors and mechanical properties of carbon nanotube-Al2O3 nanocomposites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Guo; Hoonsung Cho; Donglu Shi; Jie Lian; Yi Song; Jandro Abot; Bed Poudel; Zhifeng Ren; Lumin Wang; Rodney C. Ewing

    2007-01-01

    The effects of plasma surface modification on interfacial behaviors in carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced alumina (Al2O3) nanocomposites were studied. A unique plasma polymerization method was used to modify the surfaces of CNTs and Al2O3 nanoparticles. The CNT-Al2O3 nanocomposites were processed by both ambient pressure and hot-press sintering. The electron microscopy results showed ultrathin polymer coating on the surfaces of CNTs

  9. Tracking epigenetic histone modifications in single cells using Fab-based live endogenous modification labeling

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi-Takanaka, Yoko; Yamagata, Kazuo; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Stasevich, Timothy J.; Kainuma, Takashi; Tsurimoto, Toshiki; Tachibana, Makoto; Shinkai, Yoichi; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi; Nozaki, Naohito; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Histone modifications play an important role in epigenetic gene regulation and genome integrity. It remains largely unknown, however, how these modifications dynamically change in individual cells. By using fluorescently labeled specific antigen binding fragments (Fabs), we have developed a general method to monitor the distribution and global level of endogenous histone H3 lysine modifications in living cells without disturbing cell growth and embryo development. Fabs produce distinct nuclear patterns that are characteristic of their target modifications. H3K27 trimethylation-specific Fabs, for example, are concentrated on inactive X chromosomes. As Fabs bind their targets transiently, the ratio of bound and free molecules depends on the target concentration, allowing us to measure changes in global modification levels. High-affinity Fabs are suitable for mouse embryo imaging, so we have used them to monitor H3K9 and H3K27 acetylation levels in mouse preimplantation embryos produced by in vitro fertilization and somatic cell nuclear transfer. The data suggest that a high level of H3K27 acetylation is important for normal embryo development. As Fab-based live endogenous modification labeling (FabLEM) is broadly useful for visualizing any modification, it should be a powerful tool for studying cell signaling and diagnosis in the future. PMID:21576221

  10. 14 CFR 417.127 - Unique safety policies, requirements and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Unique safety policies, requirements and practices...TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...127 Unique safety policies, requirements and practices...implement any unique safety policy, requirement, or practice needed to protect the public from the unique...

  11. 14 CFR 417.127 - Unique safety policies, requirements and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Unique safety policies, requirements and practices...TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...127 Unique safety policies, requirements and practices...implement any unique safety policy, requirement, or practice needed to protect the public from the unique...

  12. 14 CFR 417.127 - Unique safety policies, requirements and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Unique safety policies, requirements and practices...TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...127 Unique safety policies, requirements and practices...implement any unique safety policy, requirement, or practice needed to protect the public from the unique...

  13. 14 CFR 417.127 - Unique safety policies, requirements and practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Unique safety policies, requirements and practices...TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...127 Unique safety policies, requirements and practices...implement any unique safety policy, requirement, or practice needed to protect the public from the unique...

  14. 221. View entering smart view. Note the unique snake rail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    221. View entering smart view. Note the unique snake rail fence. The pond was a manipulated landscape element. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  15. Unique in the Crowd: The privacy bounds of human mobility

    E-print Network

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre

    We study fifteen months of human mobility data for one and a half million individuals and find that human mobility traces are highly unique. In fact, in a dataset where the location of an individual is specified hourly, ...

  16. New Guidelines for Reducing Stroke Risks Unique to Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... HeartNews Making News on Heart.org Learn More New guidelines for reducing stroke risks unique to women ... Bushnell, M.D., M.H.S., author of the new scientific statement published in the American Heart Association ...

  17. A highly distributed Bragg stack with unique geometry provides effective

    E-print Network

    Johnsen, Sönke

    A highly distributed Bragg stack with unique geometry provides effective camouflage for Loliginid Cephalopods possess a sophisticated array of mechanisms to achieve camouflage in dynamic underwater role. To explore the contribution of passive mechanisms to cephalopod camouflage, we investigated

  18. Comparison of Bacillus monooxygenase genes for unique fatty acid production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews Bacillus genes encoding monooxygenase enzymes producing unique fatty acid metabolites. Specifically, it examines standard monooxygenase electron transfer schemes and related domain structures of these fused domain enzymes on route to understanding the observed oxygenase activiti...

  19. Unique University and Utility Team Reduces Energy and Pollutants

    E-print Network

    Smith, K. L.; Traill, D. A.; Sears, R. L.; Spielman, M.

    In 1992 the Center for Energy Systems Research of the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences and the Arizona State University (ASU) Facilities Management Department formed a unique Demand Side Management (DSM) team dedicated to reducing energy...

  20. Unique in the Crowd: The privacy bounds of human mobility

    PubMed Central

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Hidalgo, César A.; Verleysen, Michel; Blondel, Vincent D.

    2013-01-01

    We study fifteen months of human mobility data for one and a half million individuals and find that human mobility traces are highly unique. In fact, in a dataset where the location of an individual is specified hourly, and with a spatial resolution equal to that given by the carrier's antennas, four spatio-temporal points are enough to uniquely identify 95% of the individuals. We coarsen the data spatially and temporally to find a formula for the uniqueness of human mobility traces given their resolution and the available outside information. This formula shows that the uniqueness of mobility traces decays approximately as the 1/10 power of their resolution. Hence, even coarse datasets provide little anonymity. These findings represent fundamental constraints to an individual's privacy and have important implications for the design of frameworks and institutions dedicated to protect the privacy of individuals. PMID:23524645

  1. Unique Role of Occupational Therapy in Rehabilitation of the Hand

    MedlinePLUS

    ... injury. The Unique Role of Occupational Therapy In Rehabilitation of the Hand www.aota.org 4720 Montgomery ... of day-to-day functioning early in the rehabilitation process; • increasing motivation for therapy and more cost- ...

  2. New facility for ion beam materials characterization and modification at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Tesmer, J.R.; Maggiore, C.J.; Parkin, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Ion Beam Materials Laboratory (IBML) is a new Los Alamos laboratory devoted to the characterization and modification of the near surfaces of materials. The primary instruments of the IBML are a tandem electrostatic accelerator, a National Electrostatics Corp. Model 9SDH, coupled with a Varian CF-3000 ion implanter. The unique organizational structure of the IBML as well as the operational characteristics of the 9SDH (after approximately 3000 h of operation) and the laboratories' research capabilities will be discussed. Examples of current research results will also be presented. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  3. A Classroom Modification of the Ames Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yavornitzky, Joseph; Trzeciak, Victor

    1979-01-01

    A modification of the Ames test for detecting carcinogens and mutagens using a strain of bacteria is described. A suggestion is given for checking the correctness of procedures by using particular hair dyes which have been shown to be mutogenic. (Author/SA)

  4. Topical scar modification: Hype or help?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary H. McGrath; David S. Chang

    2005-01-01

    Of the many topical scar modification treatments available, silicone gel sheeting is the only product shown to be effective for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. Other topical scar treatments are frequently used without evidence of their efficacy. The authors discuss available topical scar treatments and their current role in clinical plastic surgery practice.

  5. Nanoscale Surface Modification ALD --A Versatile Tool

    E-print Network

    George, Steven M.

    such as Al2O3 and TiN. For example, Al2O3 ALD is usually performed using Al(CH3)3 (TMA, Aldrich Prod. NoNanoscale Surface Modification ALD -- A Versatile Tool for Nanostructuring Molecular Layer Atomic layer deposition (ALD) techniques have emerged in the last ten years to meet various needs

  6. Microscale surface modifications for heat transfer enhancement.

    PubMed

    Bostanci, Huseyin; Singh, Virendra; Kizito, John P; Rini, Daniel P; Seal, Sudipta; Chow, Louis C

    2013-10-01

    In this experimental study, two surface modification techniques were investigated for their effect on heat transfer enhancement. One of the methods employed the particle (grit) blasting to create microscale indentations, while the other used plasma spray coating to create microscale protrusions on Al 6061 (aluminum alloy 6061) samples. The test surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Because of the surface modifications, the actual surface area was increased up to 2.8× compared to the projected base area, and the arithmetic mean roughness value (Ra) was determined to vary from 0.3 ?m for the reference smooth surface to 19.5 ?m for the modified surfaces. Selected samples with modified surfaces along with the reference smooth surface were then evaluated for their heat transfer performance in spray cooling tests. The cooling system had vapor-atomizing nozzles and used anhydrous ammonia as the coolant in order to achieve heat fluxes up to 500 W/cm(2) representing a thermal management setting for high power systems. Experimental results showed that the microscale surface modifications enhanced heat transfer coefficients up to 76% at 500 W/cm(2) compared to the smooth surface and demonstrated the benefits of these practical surface modification techniques to enhance two-phase heat transfer process. PMID:24003985

  7. Modification of Vegetable Oils for Lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current talk deals with a partial review of research for developing improved lubricants from vegetable oils through modifications of the chemical structure. The typical vegetable oil is a mixture of triesters of glycerin with linear fatty acids, most of them with one or more double bonds. The ...

  8. Oxidative Modifications of Mitochondria Complex II

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liwen; Kang, Patrick T.; Chen, Chwen-Lih; Green-Church, Kari B.; Chen, Yeong-Renn

    2013-01-01

    Summary Increased superoxide (O2•?) and nitric oxide (NO) production is a key mechanism of mitochondrial dysfunction in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. In the complex II, oxidative impairment, decreased protein S-glutathionylation, and increased protein tyrosine nitration at the 70 kDa subunit occurs in the post-ischemic myocardium (1–3). To gain the deeper insights into ROS–mediated oxidative modifications relevant in myocardial infarction, isolated complex II is subjected to in vitro oxidative modifications with GSSG (to induce cystine S-glutathionylation) or OONO? (to induce tyrosine nitration). Here, we describe the protocol to characterize the specific oxidative modifications at the 70 kDa subunit by nano-LC/MS/MS analysis. We further demonstrate the cellular oxidative modification with protein nitration/S-glutathionylation with immunofluorescence microscopy using the antibodies against 3-nitrotyrosine/glutathione and complex II 70 kDa polypeptide (AbGSC90) in myocytes under conditions of oxidative stress. PMID:23606255

  9. A Suggested Modification to Maslow's Need Hierarchy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, David L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Since its development, Maslow's need hierarchy has been criticized and applauded. This investigation was undertaken to explore a modification of the upper levels of the need hierarchy based upon the application of power, competition, and achievement to self, as well as the concept of "other directed." (Author)

  10. A Modification to Maxwell's Needle Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soorya, Tribhuvan N.

    2015-01-01

    Maxwell's needle apparatus is used to determine the shear modulus (?) of the material of a wire of uniform cylindrical cross section. Conventionally, a single observation is taken for each observable, and the value of ? is calculated in a single shot. A modification to the above apparatus is made by varying one of the observables, namely the mass…

  11. WEATHER MODIFICATION BY AIRCRAFT CLOUD SEEDING

    E-print Network

    Vali, Gabor

    WEATHER MODIFICATION BY AIRCRAFT CLOUD SEEDING BERYULEV G.P. Head, Department of Cloud;#12; Precipitation Enhancement An aircraft cloud seeding by iceforming or hygroscopic agents is a basis of the technology. The seeding is produced from aircrafts of a types IL18, AN12, AN26, AN 30, YaK40, equipped

  12. Landscape modification and habitat fragmentation: a synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joern Fischer; David B. Lindenmayer

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT Landscape modification and habitat fragmentation are key drivers of global species loss. Their effects may be understood by focusing on: (1) individual species and the processes threatening them, and (2) human-perceived landscape patterns and their correlation with species and assemblages. Individual species may decline as a result ofinteracting exogenous and endogenous threats, including habitat loss, habitat degradation, habitat isolation,

  13. APPLICATION OF COMBUSTION MODIFICATIONS OF INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a field test program to evaluate the effect of minor combustion modifications on pollutant emissions from a variety of industrial combustion equipment types. Tested were 22 units, including refinery process heaters; clay and cement kilns; steel and alu...

  14. Modification ofregional groundwater regimes by land reclamation

    E-print Network

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    Modification ofregional groundwater regimes by land reclamation Jiu Jimmy Jiao Department ofEarth Sciences, The University ofHong Kong, P. R. China Abstract JJ.Jiao Land reclamation has played a significant role in the urban development process in many coastal areas in the world. While reclamation

  15. Modification of starch during malting of sorghum

    E-print Network

    Floyd, Cherie Diane

    1994-01-01

    Five sorghum varieties, Dorado, Malisor 84-7, Tortillero, ATx630*R3338, and ATx623*SC1 03 were malted according to standard procedures and monitored for malting quality and starch modification during a 5 day malting period. Dry matter losses (DML...

  16. Behavior Modification of Retarded Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Kaoru

    1977-01-01

    In a study of behavior modification two Down's syndrome preschool children, the first a 5-year-old boy with autistic behavior patterns and the second a 4-year-old girl whose behavior problem was to reject other children, were examined. The first S was engaged in ball catching activities with a teacher with positive reinforcement (playing the S's…

  17. Optical Marking of Alcohol Induced Hemoglobin Modification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Vlokh; I. Vlokh; O. Moroz; Yu. Nastishin; K. Dudok; T. Dudok; N. Grinchishin; I. Nechiporenko; A. Hul

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that conformational modifications of Hb induced by ethanol consumption can be visualized in optical spectra studying oxygenation kinetics of hemoglobin or mixing hemoglobin with Cibacron blue dye. Better dye affinity of blood proteins extracted from alcoholised rats with respect to those from non-alcoholised ones confirms that ethanol and its metabolites induce structural pathologies in blood protein

  18. Modifications of the Test Information Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    Two modification formulas are presented for the test information function in order to provide better measures of local accuracies of the estimation of "theta" when maximum likelihood estimation is used to provide the estimate of ability "theta." A minimum bound of any estimator, biased or unbiased, is considered; and Formula 1 is proposed for the…

  19. Modifications to the Flexible Spacecraft Dynamics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Modifications to existing subroutines are briefly described and a detailed description of new subroutines is given. The capability to simulate the Dynamics Explorer-B control system new developed and the formulation for this addition is given. The program variables in new labelled COMMON blocks are described in detail and the modified input and output for the d Flexible Spacecraft Dynamics Program is described.

  20. Modifications to the Number Field Sieve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don Coppersmith

    1993-01-01

    The Number Field Sieve, due to Lenstra et al. [LLMP] and Buhler et al. [BLP], is a new routine for factoring integers. We present here a modification of that sieve. We use the fact that certain smoothness computations can be reused, and thereby reduce the asymptotic running time of the Number Field Sieve. We also give a way to precompute

  1. ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Modification of Multiple Sclerosis Phenotypes

    E-print Network

    Reich, David

    ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Modification of Multiple Sclerosis Phenotypes by African Ancestry at HLA. Oksenberg, PhD Background: In those with multiple sclerosis (MS), Afri- can American individuals have a more ancestry at HLA correlated with dis- ability as measured by the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (P .001

  2. Behavior Modification Techniques. I: Overcorrection. II: Punishment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sovner, Robert, Ed.; Hurley, Anne Des Noyers, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Two newsletters review the principles and application of two behavior modification techniques with mentally retarded persons: overcorrection and punishment. Overcorrection may be either restitutional, in which the client is made to restore the environment to a far better state than before the inappropriate behavior occurred, or positive practice…

  3. A modification to particle swarm optimization algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huiyuan Fan

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a modification strategy is proposed for the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. The strategy adds an adaptive scaling term into the algorithm, which aims to increase its convergence rate and thereby to obtain an acceptable solution with a lower number of objective function evaluations. Such an improvement can be useful in many practical engineering optimizations where the

  4. Modifications and integration of the electronic tracking board in a pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Dexheimer, Judith W; Kennebeck, Stephanie

    2013-07-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) are used for data storage; provider, laboratory, and patient communication; clinical decision support; procedure and medication orders; and decision support alerts. Clinical decision support is part of any EHR and is designed to help providers make better decisions. The emergency department (ED) poses a unique environment to the use of EHRs and clinical decision support. Used effectively, computerized tracking boards can help improve flow, communication, and the dissemination of pertinent visit information between providers and other departments in a busy ED. We discuss the unique modifications and decisions made in the implementation of an EHR and computerized tracking board in a pediatric ED. We discuss the changing views based on provider roles, customization to the user interface including the layout and colors, decision support, tracking board best practices collected from other institutions and colleagues, and a case study of using reminders on the electronic tracking board to drive pain reassessments. PMID:23823269

  5. Exact Scaling in the Expansion-Modification System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado-García, R.; Ugalde, E.

    2013-12-01

    This work is devoted to the study of the scaling, and the consequent power-law behavior, of the correlation function in a mutation-replication model known as the expansion-modification system. The latter is a biology inspired random substitution model for the genome evolution, which is defined on a binary alphabet and depends on a parameter interpreted as a mutation probability. We prove that the time-evolution of this system is such that any initial measure converges towards a unique stationary one exhibiting decay of correlations not slower than a power-law. We then prove, for a significant range of mutation probabilities, that the decay of correlations indeed follows a power-law with scaling exponent smoothly depending on the mutation probability. Finally we put forward an argument which allows us to give a closed expression for the corresponding scaling exponent for all the values of the mutation probability. Such a scaling exponent turns out to be a piecewise smooth function of the parameter.

  6. Uniqueness of the generators of brain evoked potential maps.

    PubMed

    Amir, A

    1994-01-01

    This study considers the uniqueness of neuronal generators of human brain evoked potentials measured on the scalp using the physical and mathematical properties of the volume conductor model. The results are applicable to a realistic, nonhomogeneous head shape where the potential map is known on a continuous set of points on the scalp. It is shown that sources which occupy "zero volume" in space such as point dipoles or sources distributed on an open surface or a line are uniquely defined by the potential maps. Finite volume nonoverlapping sources are also uniquely defined by their potential map. However, there are infinitely many different but overlapping sources which can create the same map. Several examples of such sources are provided. It is shown that there is a unique, minimum volume source which can be defined in this case. Results suggest that if a reconstruction of the sources starts from a continuous scalp map (obtained by interpolation of the data between electrode sites), one can obtain unique results concerning the source parameters that are not available in a search for a source whose potential map fits only at a discrete set of points. PMID:8200662

  7. Absolute uniqueness of phase retrieval with random illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fannjiang, Albert

    2012-07-01

    Random illumination is proposed to enforce absolute uniqueness and resolve all types of ambiguity, trivial or nontrivial, in phase retrieval. Almost sure irreducibility is proved for any complex-valued object whose support set has rank ??2. While the new irreducibility result can be viewed as a probabilistic version of the classical result by Bruck, Sodin and Hayes, it provides a novel perspective and an effective method for phase retrieval. In particular, almost sure uniqueness, up to a global phase, is proved for complex-valued objects under general two-point conditions. Under a tight sector constraint absolute uniqueness is proved to hold with probability exponentially close to unity as the object sparsity increases. Under a magnitude constraint with random amplitude illumination, uniqueness modulo global phase is proved to hold with probability exponentially close to unity as object sparsity increases. For general complex-valued objects without any constraint, almost sure uniqueness up to global phase is established with two sets of Fourier magnitude data under two independent illuminations. Numerical experiments suggest that random illumination essentially alleviates most, if not all, numerical problems commonly associated with the standard phasing algorithms.

  8. Absolute Uniqueness of Phase Retrieval with Random Illumination

    E-print Network

    Albert Fannjiang

    2012-07-20

    Random illumination is proposed to enforce absolute uniqueness and resolve all types of ambiguity, trivial or nontrivial, from phase retrieval. Almost sure irreducibility is proved for any complex-valued object of a full rank support. While the new irreducibility result can be viewed as a probabilistic version of the classical result by Bruck, Sodin and Hayes, it provides a novel perspective and an effective method for phase retrieval. In particular, almost sure uniqueness, up to a global phase, is proved for complex-valued objects under general two-point conditions. Under a tight sector constraint absolute uniqueness is proved to hold with probability exponentially close to unity as the object sparsity increases. Under a magnitude constraint with random amplitude illumination, uniqueness modulo global phase is proved to hold with probability exponentially close to unity as object sparsity increases. For general complex-valued objects without any constraint, almost sure uniqueness up to global phase is established with two sets of Fourier magnitude data under two independent illuminations. Numerical experiments suggest that random illumination essentially alleviates most, if not all, numerical problems commonly associated with the standard phasing algorithms.

  9. 21 CFR 640.74 - Modification of Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Modification of Source Plasma. 640.74 Section 640.74 Food and...FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.74 Modification of Source Plasma. (a) Upon approval by the...

  10. 76 FR 6555 - Loan Guaranty Revised Loan Modification Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ...OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 36 RIN 2900-AN78 Loan Guaranty Revised Loan Modification Procedures AGENCY: Department of Veterans...document amends a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Loan Guaranty regulation related to modification of...

  11. 43 CFR 3152.5 - Modification of exploration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Modification of exploration permit. 3152.5 Section 3152.5 Public...MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION Exploration in Alaska § 3152.5 Modification of...

  12. 43 CFR 3152.5 - Modification of exploration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Modification of exploration permit. 3152.5 Section 3152.5 Public...MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION Exploration in Alaska § 3152.5 Modification of...

  13. 43 CFR 3152.5 - Modification of exploration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modification of exploration permit. 3152.5 Section 3152.5 Public...MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION Exploration in Alaska § 3152.5 Modification of...

  14. 43 CFR 3152.5 - Modification of exploration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Modification of exploration permit. 3152.5 Section 3152.5 Public...MANAGEMENT (3000) ONSHORE OIL AND GAS GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION Exploration in Alaska § 3152.5 Modification of...

  15. 21 CFR 640.74 - Modification of Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Modification of Source Plasma. 640.74 Section 640.74 Food and...FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.74 Modification of Source Plasma. (a) Upon approval by the...

  16. 21 CFR 640.74 - Modification of Source Plasma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Modification of Source Plasma. 640.74 Section 640.74 Food and...FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.74 Modification of Source Plasma. (a) Upon approval by the...

  17. 12 CFR 1710.30 - Modification of certain provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS CORPORATE GOVERNANCE Modification of Certain Provisions § 1710.30 Modification of certain provisions. In...

  18. 12 CFR 1710.30 - Modification of certain provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS CORPORATE GOVERNANCE Modification of Certain Provisions § 1710.30 Modification of certain provisions. In...

  19. 12 CFR 1710.30 - Modification of certain provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS CORPORATE GOVERNANCE Modification of Certain Provisions § 1710.30 Modification of certain provisions. In...

  20. 12 CFR 1710.30 - Modification of certain provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS CORPORATE GOVERNANCE Modification of Certain Provisions § 1710.30 Modification of certain provisions. In...

  1. Tissue modification with feedback: the smart scalpel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebern, Elizabeth L.; Brenan, Colin J. H.; Anderson, R. Rox; Hunter, Ian W.

    1998-10-01

    While feedback control is widespread throughout many engineering fields, there are almost no examples of surgical instruments that utilize a real-time detection and intervention strategy. This concept of closed loop feedback can be applied to the development of autonomous or semi- autonomous minimally invasive robotic surgical systems for efficient excision or modification of diseased tissue. Spatially localized regions of the tissue are first probed to distinguish pathological from healthy tissue based on differences in histochemical and morphological properties. Energy is directed to only the diseased tissue, minimizing collateral damage by leaving the adjacent healthy tissue intact. Continuous monitoring determines treatment effectiveness and, if needed, enables real-time treatment modifications to produce optimal therapeutic outcomes. The present embodiment of this general concept is a microsurgical instrument we call the Smart Scalpel, designed to treat skin angiodysplasias such as port wine stains. Other potential Smart Scalpel applications include psoriasis treatment and early skin cancer detection and intervention.

  2. Starch nanocrystals with large chain surface modifications.

    PubMed

    Thielemans, Wim; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur; Dufresne, Alain

    2006-05-01

    Nanoscale monocrystalline starch particles were successfully modified using stearic acid chloride and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether. Surface modification was confirmed using FTIR, XPS spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements. X-ray diffraction and DSC analysis confirmed that there was no alteration of the starch crystalline structure due to the surface modification. The grafts at the starch surface were also found to crystallize on the surface. TEM showed the individualization of nanoparticles as a result of the reduction of polar and hydrogen bonding forces. These results show our ability to modify the starch nanocrystal surface with plasticizing chains. Modified nanoparticles can find applications as compatibilized polymer additives, surface-active particles, and co-continuous nanocomposite precursors. PMID:16649799

  3. D-region modification experiments at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. C.; Agrawal, D.; Fujimaru, S.; Langston, J.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a summary of D-region modification experiments performed at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) observatory in 2011. Observations are used to compare the relative efficiencies various low-ELF wave generation mechanisms and to identify a new path toward improving the efficiency of ELF/VLF wave generation. Dual-beam HF heating experiments are used to assess the electrical properties of the lower ionosphere. HF cross-modulation experiments are used to identify the dominant altitude at which HF absorption occurs and to quantify the level of absorption as a function of HF power. In this paper, we compare experimental observations with the predictions of an ionospheric HF heating model and provide several recommendations to guide future D-region modification experiments.

  4. Medium modification of the proton form factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauch, Steffen; Jefferson Lab E93-049 Collaboration

    . I argue that the double ratio of proton-recoil polarization-transfer coefficients, P'x and P'z, of the quasielastic reaction with respect to the elastic reaction is sensitive to possible medium modifications of the proton form factor in 4He. Recent measurements at both Mainz and Jefferson Lab of this double ratio at four-momentum transfers squared between between 0.4 and 2.6 are discussed. I show that the data challenge state-of-the-art conventional meson-nucleon calculations, as these are unable to describe the results. The data hint at the need to include medium modifications of the proton form factor, as predicted by a quark-meson-coupling model, in the calculations. A recently approved follow-up experiment at a Q2 of 0.8 and 1.3 with unprecedented precision will provide one of the most stringent tests of the applicability of various calculations.

  5. Computational Methods for Modification of Metabolic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Takeyuki; Lu, Wei; Akutsu, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    In metabolic engineering, modification of metabolic networks is an important biotechnology and a challenging computational task. In the metabolic network modification, we should modify metabolic networks by newly adding enzymes or/and knocking-out genes to maximize the biomass production with minimum side-effect. In this mini-review, we briefly review constraint-based formalizations for Minimum Reaction Cut (MRC) problem where the minimum set of reactions is deleted so that the target compound becomes non-producible from the view point of the flux balance analysis (FBA), elementary mode (EM), and Boolean models. Minimum Reaction Insertion (MRI) problem where the minimum set of reactions is added so that the target compound newly becomes producible is also explained with a similar formalization approach. The relation between the accuracy of the models and the risk of overfitting is also discussed. PMID:26106462

  6. Surface modification of magnetic nanoparticles in biomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Xin; Yu, Jing; Hou, Yang-Long

    2015-01-01

    Progress in surface modification of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is summarized with regard to organic molecules, macromolecules and inorganic materials. Many researchers are now devoted to synthesizing new types of multi-functional MNPs, which show great application potential in both diagnosis and treatment of disease. By employing an ever-greater variety of surface modification techniques, MNPs can satisfy more and more of the demands of medical practice in areas like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), fluorescent marking, cell targeting, and drug delivery. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51125001 and 51172005), the Natural Science Foundation of Beijing,China (Grant No. 2122022), the Science Fund for Creative Research Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81421004), and the Doctoral Program of the Education Ministry of China (Grant No. 20120001110078).

  7. Computational Methods for Modification of Metabolic Networks.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Takeyuki; Lu, Wei; Akutsu, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    In metabolic engineering, modification of metabolic networks is an important biotechnology and a challenging computational task. In the metabolic network modification, we should modify metabolic networks by newly adding enzymes or/and knocking-out genes to maximize the biomass production with minimum side-effect. In this mini-review, we briefly review constraint-based formalizations for Minimum Reaction Cut (MRC) problem where the minimum set of reactions is deleted so that the target compound becomes non-producible from the view point of the flux balance analysis (FBA), elementary mode (EM), and Boolean models. Minimum Reaction Insertion (MRI) problem where the minimum set of reactions is added so that the target compound newly becomes producible is also explained with a similar formalization approach. The relation between the accuracy of the models and the risk of overfitting is also discussed. PMID:26106462

  8. Deciphering Post-translational Modification Codes

    PubMed Central

    Lothrop, Adam P.; Torres, Matthew P.; Fuchs, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) occur on nearly all proteins. Many domains within proteins are modified on multiple amino acid sidechains by diverse enzymes to create a myriad of possible protein species. How these combinations of PTMs lead to distinct biological outcomes is only beginning to be understood. This manuscript highlights several examples of combinatorial PTMs in proteins, and describes recent technological developments, which are driving our ability to understand how PTM patterns may “code” for biological outcomes. PMID:23402885

  9. Materials Modification in Nanotechnology: Laboratory Activities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page from the Nanotechnology Applications and Career Knowledge (NACK) Center presents a series of laboratory activities on materials modification in nanotechnology. An overview of the activities is provided. The laboratory exercises cover microfluidics, furnace oxidation, ion implantation simulation, siction and doping. All are available for download in .DOC file format. This and all other valuable resources from the NACK Center require a fast, easy, free log-in.

  10. Genome-Wide Epigenetic Modifications in Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoon Jung Park; Rainer Claus; Dieter Weichenhan; Christoph Plass

    \\u000a Epigenetic alterations in cancer include changes in DNA methylation and associated histone modifications that influence the\\u000a chromatin states and impact gene expression patterns. Due to recent technological advantages, the scientific community is\\u000a now obtaining a better picture of the genome-wide epigenetic changes that occur in a cancer genome. These epigenetic alterations\\u000a are associated with chromosomal instability and changes in transcriptional

  11. Surface modifications of some nanocomposites containing starch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M-C Pascu; M-C Popescu; C Vasile

    2008-01-01

    Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites have attracted strong interest in today's materials research, due to the possible impressive enhancements of material properties, comparatively with those of pure polymers. Several starch\\/poly(vinylalcohol)\\/montmorillonite nanocomposites have been subjected to surface modification by physical treatments such as dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) exposure and coating with proteins (albumin) or polysaccharides (chitosan), for improving their biocompatibility. Untreated and treated

  12. Surface modification by negative-ion implantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junzo Ishikawa; Hiroshi Tsuji; Yasuhito Gotoh

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a negative-ion implantation technique for surface modification of materials together with the development of high-intensity negative-ion sources and negative-ion implanters. In the negative-ion implantation, we have the advantage of a nearly “charge-up-free” property for the implanted surface of insulators or insulated materials. The charging voltage on the implanted surface is no greater than plus or minus a

  13. Surface modification of metallic Co nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina Matoussevitch; Angelika Gorschinski; Wilhelm Habicht; Jens Bolle; Eckhard Dinjus; Helmut Bönnemann; Silke Behrens

    2007-01-01

    Monodisperse Co nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition in the presence of aluminium alkyls yielding air-stable Co nanoparticles after surface passivation. Several procedures for surface modification of these pre-stabilized, metallic Co nanoparticles are presented, including direct anchoring of surface-active functional groups and biocompatible dextran layers as well as silica and polymer coatings. As a result, individually coated nanoparticles as well

  14. Predicting Wall Modifications for Adaptive Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Wall shape changed iteratively until it matches streamlines. FLEXWAL predicts upper and lower wall modifications necessary to remove wall-interference effects in adaptive-wall wind tunnels. FLEXWAL aids in elimination of wall-interference effects on objects tested in typical two-dimensional wind tunnel with rigid sidewalls and flexible, solid floor and ceiling boundaries. Iterative procedure valid for subsonic and transonic test conditions, and convergence of method verified both analytically and experimentally. FLEXWAL written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.

  15. Epigenetic modifications in pluripotent and differentiated cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Meissner

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications constitute a complex regulatory layer on top of the genome sequence. Pluripotent and differentiated cells provide a powerful system for investigating how the epigenetic code influences cellular fate. High-throughput sequencing of these cell types has yielded DNA methylation maps at single-nucleotide resolution and many genome-wide chromatin maps. In parallel to epigenome mapping efforts, remarkable progress has been made

  16. Physical modification of food starch functionalities.

    PubMed

    BeMiller, James N; Huber, Kerry C

    2015-01-01

    Because, in general, native starches do not have properties that make them ideally suited for applications in food products, most starch is modified by dervatization to improve its functionality before use in processed food formulations, and because food processors would prefer not to have to use the modified food starch label designation required when chemically modified starches are used, there is considerable interest in providing starches with desired functionalities that have not been chemically modified. One investigated approach is property modification via physical treatments, that is, modifications of starches imparted by physical treatments that do not result in any chemical modification of the starch. Physical treatments are divided into thermal and nonthermal treatments. Thermal treatments include those that produce pregelatinized and granular cold-water-swelling starches, heat-moisture treatments, annealing, microwave heating, so-called osmotic pressure treatment, and heating of dry starch. Nonthermal treatments include ultrahigh-pressure treatments, instantaneous controlled pressure drop, use of high-pressure homogenizers, dynamic pulsed pressure, pulsed electric field, and freezing and thawing. PMID:25884280

  17. N(6)-methyladenine DNA modification in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Huang, Hua; Liu, Di; Cheng, Ying; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Wenxin; Yin, Ruichuan; Zhang, Dapeng; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Jianzhao; Li, Chaoyi; Liu, Baodong; Luo, Yuewan; Zhu, Yuanxiang; Zhang, Ning; He, Shunmin; He, Chuan; Wang, Hailin; Chen, Dahua

    2015-05-01

    DNA N(6)-methyladenine (6mA) modification is commonly found in microbial genomes and plays important functions in regulating numerous biological processes in bacteria. However, whether 6mA occurs and what its potential roles are in higher-eukaryote cells remain unknown. Here, we show that 6mA is present in Drosophila genome and that the 6mA modification is dynamic and is regulated by the Drosophila Tet homolog, DNA 6mA demethylase (DMAD), during embryogenesis. Importantly, our biochemical assays demonstrate that DMAD directly catalyzes 6mA demethylation in vitro. Further genetic and sequencing analyses reveal that DMAD is essential for development and that DMAD removes 6mA primarily from transposon regions, which correlates with transposon suppression in Drosophila ovary. Collectively, we uncover a DNA modification in Drosophila and describe a potential role of the DMAD-6mA regulatory axis in controlling development in higher eukaryotes. PMID:25936838

  18. Surface modification: advantages, techniques, and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    2000-03-01

    Adequate performance of materials at elevated temperatures is a potential problem in many systems within the chemical, petroleum, process, and power-generating industries. Degradation of materials occurs because of interaction between the structural material and the exposure environment. These interactions are generally undesired chemical reactions that can lead to accelerated wastage and alter the functional requirements and/or structural integrity of the materials. Therefore, material selection for high-temperature applications must be based not only on a material strength properties but also on resistance to the complex environments prevalent in the anticipated exposure environment. As plants become larger, the satisfactory performance and reliability of components play a greater role in plant availability and economics. However, system designers are becoming increasingly concerned with finding the least expensive material that will satisfactorily perform the design function for the desired service life. This present paper addresses the benefits of surface modification and identified several criteria for selection and application of modified surfaces in the power sector. A brief review is presented on potential methods for modification of surfaces, with the emphasis on coatings. In the final section of the paper, several examples address the requirements of different energy systems and surface modification avenues that have been applied to resolve the issues.

  19. [Modification of perioperative psychiatric drug therapy].

    PubMed

    Redel, Andreas; Hommers, Leif G; Kranke, Peter; Schwemmer, Ulrich; Prasser, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Apart from cardiovascular, pulmonary and metabolic drugs, many patients scheduled for surgery are taking antidepressive or antipsychotic drugs. Some of these psychiatric drugs may interfere with anesthetics. The anesthesiologist has to decide whether or not to continue the psychiatric medication during the perioperative period. Since the discontinuation of psychiatric drugs may lead to withdrawal syndromes, the decision should be made in accordance with the attending psychiatrist. Should the discontinuation of any psychiatric drug be recommended, it may be prudent to involve the attending surgeon in order to postpone the procedure, since the modification of psychiatric drugs may take several days.Prospective randomized data about the perioperative modification of psychiatric drugs are scarce. Thus, recommendations in this regard must rely on physiological and pharmacological principles, case reports and published expert opinions. In this article we use the available data to answer the question of a journal reader regarding the perioperative modification of Opipramol therapy for a 59-year-old patient scheduled for elective shoulder surgery. PMID:23364819

  20. Bivalent histone modifications in early embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Vastenhouw, Nadine L; Schier, Alexander F

    2012-06-01

    Histone modifications influence the interactions of transcriptional regulators with chromatin. Studies in embryos and embryonic stem (ES) cells have uncovered histone modification patterns that are diagnostic for different cell types and developmental stages. For example, bivalent domains consisting of regions of H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) mark lineage control genes in ES cells and zebrafish blastomeres. Such bivalent domains have garnered attention because the H3K27me3 mark might help repress lineage-regulatory genes during pluripotency while the H3K4me3 mark could poise genes for activation upon differentiation. Despite the prominence of the bivalent domain concept, studies in other model organisms have questioned its universal nature, and the function of bivalent domains has remained unclear. Histone marks are also associated with developmental regulatory genes in sperm. These observations have raised the possibility that specific histone modification patterns might persist from parent to offspring, but it is unclear whether histone marks are inherited or formed de novo. Here, we review the potential roles of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 marks in embryos and ES cells and discuss how histone marks might be established, maintained and resolved during embryonic development. PMID:22513113

  1. Bivalent Histone Modifications In Early Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vastenhouw, Nadine L; Schier, Alexander F

    2012-01-01

    Histone modifications influence the interactions of transcriptional regulators with chromatin. Studies in embryos and embryonic stem (ES) cells have uncovered histone modification patterns that are diagnostic for different cell types and developmental stages. For example, bivalent domains consisting of regions of H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) mark lineage control genes in ES cells and zebrafish blastomeres. Such bivalent domains have garnered attention because the H3K27me3 mark might help repress lineage regulatory genes during pluripotency while the H3K4me3 mark could poise genes for activation upon differentiation. Despite the prominence of the bivalent domain concept, studies in other model organisms have questioned its universal nature and the function of bivalent domains has remained unclear. Histone marks are also associated with developmental regulatory genes in sperm. These observations have raised the possibility that specific histone modification patterns might persist from parent to offspring, but it is unclear whether histone marks are inherited or formed de novo. Here, we review the potential roles of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 marks in embryos and ES cells and discuss how histone marks might be established, maintained and resolved during embryonic development. PMID:22513113

  2. 48 CFR 252.243-7001 - Pricing of contract modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pricing of contract modifications. 252.243-7001...Provisions And Clauses 252.243-7001 Pricing of contract modifications. As prescribed...205-70, use the following clause: Pricing of Contract Modifications (DEC...

  3. 49 CFR 237.133 - Supervision of repairs and modifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supervision of repairs and modifications. 237...Modification of Bridges § 237.133 Supervision of repairs and modifications. Each...shall be performed under the immediate supervision of a railroad bridge supervisor as...

  4. What's Unique about Unique Entities? An fMRI Investigation of the Semantics of Famous Faces and Landmarks

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Ingrid R.

    2012-01-01

    Famous people and artifacts are referred to as “unique entities” (UEs) due to the unique nature of the knowledge we have about them. Past imaging and lesion experiments have indicated that the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) as having a special role in the processing of UEs. It has remained unclear which attributes of UEs were responsible for the observed effects in imaging experiments. In this study, we investigated what factors of UEs influence brain activity. In a training paradigm, we systematically varied the uniqueness of semantic associations, the presence/absence of a proper name, and the number of semantic associations to determine factors modulating activity in regions subserving the processing of UEs. We found that a conjunction of unique semantic information and proper names modulated activity within a section of the left ATL. Overall, the processing of UEs involved a wider left-hemispheric cortical network. Within these regions, brain activity was significantly affected by the unique semantic attributes especially in the presence of a proper name, but we could not find evidence for an effect of the number of semantic associations. Findings are discussed in regard to current models of ATL function, the neurophysiology of semantics, and social cognitive processing. PMID:22021913

  5. 78 FR 13089 - Petitions for Modification of Application of Existing Mandatory Safety Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ...Installation of electric equipment and conductors; permissibility). Modification Request...Installation of electric equipment and conductors; permissibility). Modification Request...Installation of electric equipment and conductors; permissibility). Modification...

  6. Reactive modification of polyesters and their blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Chen

    2004-12-01

    As part of a broader research effort to investigate the chemical modification of polyesters by reactive processing a low molecular weight (MW) unsaturated polyester (UP) and a higher MW saturated polyester, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), alone or blended with polypropylene (PP) were melt processed in a batch mixer and continuous twin screw extruders. Modification was monitored by on-line rheology and the products were characterized primarily by off-line rheology, morphology and thermal analysis. Efforts were made to establish processing/property relationships and provide an insight of the accompanying structural changes. The overall response of the reactively modified systems was found to be strongly dependent on the component characteristics, blend composition, type and concentrations of reactive additives and processing conditions. The work concluded that UP can be effectively modified through reactive melt processing. Its melt viscosity and MW can be increased through chemical reactions between organic peroxides (POX) and chain unsaturation or between MgO and carboxyl/hydroxyl end groups. Reactive blending of PP/UP blends through peroxide modification gave finer and more uniform morphology than unreacted blends and at a given PP/UP weight ratio more thermoplastic elastomers-like rheological behavior. This is due to the continuously decreasing viscosity ratio of PP/UP towards unity by the competing reactions between POX and the blend components and formation of PP-UP copolymers which serve as in-situ compatibilizers to promote better interfacial adhesion. Kinetics of the competing reactions were analyzed through a developed model. In addition to POX concentration and mixing efficiency, rheology and morphology of UP/PP bends were significantly affected by the addition of inorganic and organic coagents. Addition of coagents such as a difunctional maleimide, MgO and/or an anhydride functionalized PP during reactive blending offers effective means for tailoring the desired rheological and structural characteristics of the final products for potential applications such as low density extrusion foaming or compatibilization of immiscible polymer blends. Important modification conditions through coagents are identified and reaction mechanisms are proposed. A high MW saturated polyester, PET, can also be rheologically modified in extruders through low MW multifunctional anhydride and epoxy compounds by chain extension/branching. Several such modifiers were successfully screened in terms of their reactivity towards PET under controlled reactive extrusion conditions. A dianhydride with medium reactivity was then successfully used in a one-step reactive modification/extrusion foaming process to produce low density foams. A similar process was successfully used to produce small cell size foams from a four component system containing PET, PP and lesser amounts of a low molecular weight multifunctional epoxy compound and an acid functionalized polyolefin, the latter acting as compatibilizers.

  7. Pea lectin unfolding reveals a unique molten globule fragment chain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debasish Sen; Dipak K. Mandal

    2011-01-01

    Pea lectin (PSL) is a dimeric protein in which each subunit comprises two intertwined, post-translationally processed polypeptide chains -a long ?-fragment and a short ?-fragment. Using guanidine hydrochloride-induced denaturation, we have investigated and characterized the species obtained in the unfolding equilibrium of PSL by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence, phosphorescence, and selective chemical modification. During unfolding, the fragment chains become separated,

  8. Pannexin1 Channel Proteins in the Zebrafish Retina Have Shared and Unique Properties

    PubMed Central

    Kurtenbach, Sarah; Prochnow, Nora; Kurtenbach, Stefan; Klooster, Jan; Zoidl, Christiane; Dermietzel, Rolf; Kamermans, Maarten; Zoidl, Georg

    2013-01-01

    In mammals, a single pannexin1 gene (Panx1) is widely expressed in the CNS including the inner and outer retinae, forming large-pore voltage-gated membrane channels, which are involved in calcium and ATP signaling. Previously, we discovered that zebrafish lack Panx1 expression in the inner retina, with drPanx1a exclusively expressed in horizontal cells of the outer retina. Here, we characterize a second drPanx1 protein, drPanx1b, generated by whole-genome duplications during teleost evolution. Homology searches strongly support the presence of pannexin sequences in cartilaginous fish and provide evidence that pannexins evolved when urochordata and chordata evolution split. Further, we confirm Panx1 ohnologs being solely present in teleosts. A hallmark of differential expression of drPanx1a and drPanx1b in various zebrafish brain areas is the non-overlapping protein localization of drPanx1a in the outer and drPanx1b in the inner fish retina. A functional comparison of the evolutionary distant fish and mouse Panx1s revealed both, preserved and unique properties. Preserved functions are the capability to form channels opening at resting potential, which are sensitive to known gap junction and hemichannel blockers, intracellular calcium, extracellular ATP and pH changes. However, drPanx1b is unique due to its highly complex glycosylation pattern and distinct electrophysiological gating kinetics. The existence of two Panx1 proteins in zebrafish displaying distinct tissue distribution, protein modification and electrophysiological properties, suggests that both proteins fulfill different functions in vivo. PMID:24194896

  9. A uniqueness result on crack location in vibrating rods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonino Morassi

    1997-01-01

    The inverse problem of locating a single crack in an elastic beam in axial vibration from the knowledge of spectral data is considered. By modeling the crack with a local compliance, the diagnostic problem becomes a inverse eigenvalue problem with discontinuity. It is found that knowledge of the highest part of the spectrum suffices to determine uniquely the position of

  10. 12 Victorian Supplement 2010 Victoria's unique geothermal option

    E-print Network

    Sandiford, Mike

    12 Victorian Supplement 2010 Victoria's unique geothermal option Prof Mike Sandiford Professor Australia's `hot rocks'make it one of the best prospects for enhanced geothermal energy anywhere's most exciting geothermal prospects. Extracted from the ground, South Australian uranium could easily

  11. Connected level sets, minimizing sets, and uniqueness in optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Martin

    1982-01-01

    Intimate relationships are investigated between connectedness properties of the lower level sets of a real functionf on a topological spaceX and the uniqueness of suitably defined minimizing sets forf. Two distinct theories are presented, the simpler one pertaining to the LE-level sets

  12. Unique Sensor Plane Maps Invisible Toxins for First Responders

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2008-04-30

    A unique airborne emergency response tool, ASPECT is a Los Alamos/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency project that can put chemical and radiological mapping tools in the air over an accident scene. The name ASPECT is an acronym for Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology.

  13. Shared and Unique Patterns of Embryo Development in Extremophile Poeciliids

    E-print Network

    Schlupp, Ingo

    Shared and Unique Patterns of Embryo Development in Extremophile Poeciliids Ru¨ diger Riesch1 the development of these (and other) divergent traits in embryos of Poecilia mexicana from benign surface habitats (``surface mollies'') and a sulphidic cave (``cave mollies''), as well as in embryos of the sister taxon

  14. NON-UNIQUE FACTORIZATION AND PRINCIPALIZATION IN NUMBER FIELDS

    E-print Network

    Martin, Kimball

    NON-UNIQUE FACTORIZATION AND PRINCIPALIZATION IN NUMBER FIELDS KIMBALL MARTIN Abstract. Following the structure of the irre- ducible factorizations of an element n in the ring of integers of a number field K. Consequently, we give a combinatorial expression for the number of ir- reducible factorizations of n

  15. Essentials and Uniqueness of 3-D Global Particle Simulations

    E-print Network

    Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi

    Essentials and Uniqueness of 3-D Global Particle Simulations Ken Nishikawa Rutgers University Solar Wind-Magnetosphere Interactions · Future work #12;Other methods · MHD simulations without kinetic due to variations of solar wind conditions ?? convections #12;Why do we need to do particle

  16. Uniqueness results for the Minkowski problem extended to hedgehogs

    E-print Network

    Uniqueness results for the Minkowski problem extended to hedgehogs by Yves Martinez-Maure Abstract.- The classical Minkowski problem has a natural extension to hedgehogs, that is to Minkowski differences of closed is of class Cm+1, for every ]0, 1[. This classical Minkowski problem has a natural extension to hedgehogs

  17. Uniqueness results for the Minkowski problem extended to hedgehogs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Uniqueness results for the Minkowski problem extended to hedgehogs by Yves Martinez-Maure Abstract.- The classical Minkowski problem has a natural extension to hedgehogs, that is to Minkowski differences of closed extension to hedgehogs, that is to Minkowski differences H = K-L of closed convex hypersurfaces K, L Rn+1

  18. Uniqueness results for the Minkowski problem extended to hedgehogs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Uniqueness results for the Minkowski problem extended to hedgehogs by Yves Martinez-Maure Abstract.- The classical Minkowski problem has a natural extension to hedgehogs, that is to Minkowski differences of closed to hedgehogs, that is to Minkowski differences H = K-L of closed convex hypersurfaces K, L Rn+1 , at least

  19. 1 INTRODUCTION The rare earth elements (REE's) form a unique

    E-print Network

    Chen, Zhongxing

    1 INTRODUCTION The rare earth elements (REE's) form a unique chemical set wherein the gradual waters this results in the light REE's being more readily adsorbed to particle surfaces than the heavier REE's. In contrast, the heavy REE's are more strongly complexed in solution than the lighter elements

  20. Unique continuation on a line for the Helmholtz equation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuai Lu; Boxi Xu; Xiang Xu

    2012-01-01

    In this article, local unique continuation on a line for solutions of the Helmholtz equation is discussed. The fundamental solution of the exterior problem for the Helmholtz equation have a logarithmic singularity which behaves similar to those of the interior problem for the Laplace equation in two dimension. A Hölder-type conditional stability estimate of the proposed exterior problem for the

  1. Unique continuation on a line for the Helmholtz equation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuai Lu; Boxi Xu; Xiang Xu

    2011-01-01

    In this article, local unique continuation on a line for solutions of the Helmholtz equation is discussed. The fundamental solution of the exterior problem for the Helmholtz equation have a logarithmic singularity which behaves similar to those of the interior problem for the Laplace equation in two dimension. A Hölder-type conditional stability estimate of the proposed exterior problem for the

  2. Mystic Chords of Memory: Cultivating America's Unique Form of Patriotism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berns, Walter

    2002-01-01

    Describes the history of U.S. patriotism, asserting that anchored though it is to a set of ideas, there are unique challenges to educating patriots. Suggests the importance of telling the nation's stories through civics education. Explains that patriotism is cultivated when students learn about democratic values, people and events shaping the…

  3. The unique Antarctic atmosphere: implications for adaptive optics

    E-print Network

    Ashley, Michael C. B.

    The unique Antarctic atmosphere: implications for adaptive optics Jon S. Lawrence1 , Michael C, USA Abstract. The turbulence structure of the atmosphere is the primary limitation to adaptive optics. The potential for adaptive optics correction on extremely large telescopes located at Dome C station

  4. Unique features: This book is the first and

    E-print Network

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    @gkp-online.de Book order, purchase and download via the costfact website: www.costfact.de/cost-management-bookUnique features: This book is the first and currently only specialist book on cost management, the book describes the methods, processes and systems necessary for efficiently planning, analysing

  5. Interpretation of Orthographic Uniqueness Point Effects in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamberts, Koen

    2005-01-01

    The orthographic uniqueness point (OUP) of a word is the position of the first letter from the left that distinguishes a word from all other words. In 2 recent studies (P. J. Kwantes & D. J. K. Mewhort, 1999a; A. K. Lindell, M. E. R. Nicholls, & A. E. Castles, 2003), it has been observed that words with an early OUP were processed more quickly…

  6. Understanding Family Uniqueness through Cultural Diversity. Project Ta-kos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luera, Margarita

    This training manual for early childhood special education service providers aims to develop an understanding of the roles culture plays in interpersonal dynamics, how adults blend to form unique family life ways, and how families arrive at appropriate early intervention techniques and activities for their special needs children. Participants…

  7. 1 INTRODUCTION Oil sand has unique properties exhibits performance

    E-print Network

    Joseph, Tim Grain

    1 INTRODUCTION Oil sand has unique properties exhibits performance akin to sandstone in winter seated on oil sand can sink after a number of cycles with ground softening oc- curring rapidly due true for unconsolidated sands such as oil sand. 2 ASSUMPTIONS Following the work of Sharif-Abadi (2006

  8. Climate change represents a unique challenge in the interaction

    E-print Network

    Hamann, Andreas

    Climate change represents a unique challenge in the interaction between global trends and local contributed significantly to the slow acceptance of climate change despite decades of overwhelming scientific evidence as to the basic science of the greenhouse effect. Climate change is also acknowledged

  9. Uniqueness of radial solutions for the fractional Laplacian

    E-print Network

    Rupert L. Frank; Enno Lenzmann; Luis Silvestre

    2015-03-23

    We prove general uniqueness results for radial solutions of linear and nonlinear equations involving the fractional Laplacian $(-\\Delta)^s$ with $s \\in (0,1)$ for any space dimensions $N \\geq 1$. By extending a monotonicity formula found by Cabre and Sire \\cite{CaSi-10}, we show that the linear equation $(-\\Delta)^s u+ Vu = 0$ in $\\mathbb{R}^N$ has at most one radial and bounded solution vanishing at infinity, provided that the potential $V$ is a radial and non-decreasing. In particular, this result implies that all radial eigenvalues of the corresponding fractional Schr\\"odinger operator $H=(-\\Delta)^s + V$ are simple. Furthermore, by combining these findings on linear equations with topological bounds for a related problem on the upper half-space $\\mathbb{R}^{N+1}_+$, we show uniqueness and nondegeneracy of ground state solutions for the nonlinear equation $(-\\Delta)^s Q + Q - |Q|^{\\alpha} Q = 0$ in $\\mathbb{R}^N$ for arbitrary space dimensions $N \\geq 1$ and all admissible exponents $\\alpha >0$. This generalizes the nondegeneracy and uniqueness result for dimension N=1 recently obtained by the first two authors in \\cite{FrLe-10} and, in particular, the uniqueness result for solitary waves of the Benjamin--Ono equation found by Amick and Toland \\cite{AmTo-91}.

  10. Industrial restructuring as class restructuring: Production decentralization and local uniqueness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doreen Massey

    1983-01-01

    Massey D. (1983) Industrial restructuring as class restructuring: production decentralization and local uniqueness, Reg. Studies17, 73–89. Industrial change is also a process of social change. This article examines the impact on two very different kinds of area of the entry of new forms of economic activity. It points out that, although in each case the new industry was the same

  11. Connected rigidity matroids and unique realizations of graphs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bill Jackson; Tibor Jordán

    2005-01-01

    A d-dimensional framework is a straight line realization of a graph G in Rd. We shall only consider generic frameworks, in which the co-ordinates of all the vertices of G are algebraically independent. Two frameworks for G are equivalent if corresponding edges in the two frameworks have the same length. A framework is a unique realization of G in Rd

  12. Semantic Bijectivity and the Uniqueness of Constant-Complement Updates

    E-print Network

    Hegner, Stephen J.

    Semantic Bijectivity and the Uniqueness of Constant-Complement Updates in the Relational Context by constant complement is independent of the choice of complement is presented. In contrast to previous update entails. The only requirement is that the view and its complement together possess a property

  13. The Uniqueness of EFL Teachers: Perceptions of Japanese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    Building on the work of Borg (2006), this article reports on a study of Japanese English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' perceptions of some of the unique characteristics of EFL teachers that distinguish them from teachers of other subjects. The data were collected by means of a questionnaire to which 163 college-level EFL students in Japan…

  14. Uniqueness and regularity of scaling profiles for Smoluchowski's coagulation equation

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Uniqueness and regularity of scaling profiles for Smoluchowski's coagulation equation St are asymptotic at y = 0, are equal. Our methods include a new representation of the coagulation operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2 Preliminaries: self-similar profiles 9 3 A representation of the coagulation operator 10 1 hal

  15. Hue discrimination, unique hues and naming Romain, Bachy1

    E-print Network

    Alleysson, David

    ;Val´erie, Bonnardel1 1 Department of Psychology, The University of Winchester, Winchester, SO22 4NR Corresponding : Valerie.Bonnardel@winchester.ac.uk The Hue Discrimination Curve (HDC) that characterizes´er^ome Dias, David Alleysson, and Val´erie Bonnardel, "Hue discrimination, unique hues and naming," J. Opt

  16. A unique Master's Degree in Space Systems Engineering

    E-print Network

    Langendoen, Koen

    mastering space systems PAGE 1/6 #12;A unique Master's Degree in Space Systems Engineering GIOVE B-GERMAN GRACE (GRAVITY RECOVERY AND CLIMATE EXPERIMENT) MISSION WERE LAUNCHED IN 2002 © EADS - ASTRIUM "Space by obtaining expertise in both space systems and business engineering. This flexible one-year program provides

  17. Dicentric chromosomes: unique models to study centromere function and inactivation

    E-print Network

    Sullivan, Beth A.

    Dicentric chromosomes: unique models to study centromere function and inactivation Kaitlin M Dicentric chromosomes are products of genome rearrangement that place two centromeres on the same chromosome. Their stability has been attributed to inactivation of one of the two centromeres, creating a functionally

  18. UNIQUE CONTINUATION ESTIMATES FOR THE LAPLACIAN AND THE HEAT EQUATION

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    UNIQUE CONTINUATION ESTIMATES FOR THE LAPLACIAN AND THE HEAT EQUATION ON NON-COMPACT MANIFOLDS LUC- alent to the interior null-controllability in time T of the heat equation with Dirichlet condition (the.1. Controllability/observability for the heat equation. 2 1.2. Observability at low-frequencies for the heat

  19. Our unique collaboration of research, education and health

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Steven D.

    Doctors Our unique collaboration of research, education and health care creates partnerships both researchers, educators and clinicians working together in a symbiotic relationship to turn science into health. This leads to the creation of a national model for education and care devoted to the continuum of health

  20. CMOS APS crosstalk characterization via a unique submicron scanning system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor Shcherback; Orly Yadid-Pecht

    2003-01-01

    This work introduces a novel way for CMOS APS crosstalk (CTK) determination and prediction based on our unique Submicron Scanning System (SSS) measurements. It enables the crosstalk magnitude determination, the tracking of its main causes, and can be used as a predictive tool for design optimization. A pronounced crosstalk asymmetry within the array which was revealed by the measurements is

  1. Unique high density leadframe development for SOT23

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Jingyuan; Ruan Jianhua

    2008-01-01

    With a drive of leading lower cost and higher productivity of Small Outline Surface Mounting (SOSM) packages, high density leadframe introduction was launched in the market since 21st century. But almost all factories use more expensive spot silver (Ag) plated and less than 60mm width leadframe. This paper presents the challenges faced and success in the development of unique high

  2. The Fern Sporangium: A Unique Catapult X. Noblin,1

    E-print Network

    Argentina, Mederic

    The Fern Sporangium: A Unique Catapult X. Noblin,1 * N. O. Rojas,2 J. Westbrook,3 C. Llorens,2 M ingenious mechanisms to disperse their spores effectively (1, 2). Many of these mechanisms use the same mechanism is the cavitation-triggered catapult of fern sporangia. The sporangia open when dehydrating

  3. The fern sporangium: a unique catapult1 X. Noblin1,*

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 The fern sporangium: a unique catapult1 2 X. Noblin1,* , N. Rojas2 , J. Westbrook3 , C. LLorens2, Cambridge, MA, 021389 USA.10 11 Spore dispersal in plants and fungi plays a critical role in the survival evolved ingenious mechanisms to disperse their spores effectively [1, 2]. Many of14 these mechanisms use

  4. WOMEN'S STUDIES Founded in 1971 and unique in

    E-print Network

    WOMEN'S STUDIES Founded in 1971 and unique in Kansas, the Center for Women's Studies at Wichita State University is one of the longest-standing, degree- granting, autonomous women's studies for Women's Studies offers a major and minor in women's studies. Students receive academic training

  5. PERIODIC UNIQUE BETA-EXPANSIONS: THE SHARKOVSKII ORDERING

    E-print Network

    Sidorov, Nikita

    PERIODIC UNIQUE BETA-EXPANSIONS: THE SHARKOVSKII ORDERING JEAN-PAUL ALLOUCHE, MATTHEW CLARKE, and the other one links it to the dynamics of a family of trapezoidal maps. 1. HISTORY OF THE PROBLEM85, 68R15. Key words and phrases. Beta-expansion, univoque numbers, iteration of continuous functions

  6. A description of unique fluorescent yellow pigments in penguin feathers

    E-print Network

    McGraw, Kevin J.

    A description of unique fluorescent yellow pigments in penguin feathers Kevin J. McGraw1 *, Matthew bird feathers--carotenoids, melanins, porphyrins, psittacofulvins, and iron oxides (Hill and McGraw, 2006). However, we have recently gathered preliminary data on yellow feathers from sev- eral species

  7. A unique IFU capability for JWST in the near infrared

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Prieto; Pierre Ferruit; Jean-Gabriel Cuby; Pierre-Eric Blanc; Olivier Le Fevre

    2004-01-01

    We propose to implement an Integral-Field Unit (IFU) mode in the near-infrared spectrograph NIRSpec of the future James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), instrument under the responsibility of the European Space Agency (ESA). The IFU mode will provide unique additional scientific capabilities, complementary to those of the main multi-object mode of NIRSpec. It would cover a 3\\

  8. Is Self-Assessment in Religious Education Unique?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Val; Fancourt, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the question: is self-assessment in religious education unique? It first presents an overview of some challenges for assessment from subject differences, and then reviews the generic literature on self-assessment. It builds on earlier empirical research on self-assessment in religious education, carried out in an English state…

  9. Females with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Unique Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Darcy; And Others

    This paper offers profiles of females with behavioral/emotional disorders and suggests that these young women have unique needs. The paper discusses selected characteristics and assessment considerations and offers recommendations that will facilitate more responsive social, correctional, and educational programming. Characteristics of these young…

  10. Uniqueness of Infinite Homogeneous Clusters in 1-2 Model

    E-print Network

    Zhongyang Li

    2012-10-12

    A 1-2 model configuration is a subset of edges of the hexagonal lattice such that each vertex is incident to one or two edges. We prove that for any translation-invariant Gibbs measure of 1-2 model, almost surely the infinite homogeneous cluster is unique.

  11. Modifications of Glycans: Biological Significance and Therapeutic Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Muthana, Saddam M.; Campbell, Christopher; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrates play a central role in a wide range of biological processes. As with nucleic acids and proteins, modifications of specific sites within the glycan chain can modulate a carbohydrate’s overall biological function. For example, acylation, methylation, sulfation, epimerization, and phosphorylation can occur at various positions within a carbohydrate to modulate bioactivity. Therefore, there is significant interest in identifying discrete carbohydrate modifications and understanding their biological effects. Additionally, enzymes that catalyze those modifications and proteins that bind modified glycans provide numerous targets for therapeutic intervention. This review will focus on modifications of glycans that occur after the oligomer/polymer has been assembled, generally referred to as postglycosylational modifications. PMID:22195988

  12. Pretreatment and Membrane Hydrophilic Modification to Reduce Membrane Fouling

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wen; Liu, Junxia; Chu, Huaqiang; Dong, Bingzhi

    2013-01-01

    The application of low pressure membranes (microfiltration/ultrafiltration) has undergone accelerated development for drinking water production. However, the major obstacle encountered in its popularization is membrane fouling caused by natural organic matter (NOM). This paper firstly summarizes the two factors causing the organic membrane fouling, including molecular weight (MW) and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of NOM, and then presents a brief introduction of the methods which can prevent membrane fouling such as pretreatment of the feed water (e.g., coagulation, adsorption, and pre-oxidation) and membrane hydrophilic modification (e.g., plasma modification, irradiation grafting modification, surface coating modification, blend modification, etc.). Perspectives of further research are also discussed. PMID:24956947

  13. Evaluating heat rate modifications with the EPRI plant modification operating savings (PMOS) model

    SciTech Connect

    Fahd, G.; Jabbour, S.J. [Decision Focus Incorporated, Mountain View, CA (United States); O`Connor, D. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The Electric power Research Institute (EPRI) developed the Plant Modification Operating Savings Model (PMOS) to overcome the shortcomings of conventional planning tools in capturing the value of small-scale plant modifications. PMOS focuses on one single plant and determines the value of a modification at that plant to the system, using readily available cost and performance data. PMOS provides decision-makers with accurate results to help select the projects with highest value to the system. it is a powerful, yet easy-to-use, computer model that is a useful addition to the utility planning toolkit. This paper discusses the use of PMOS for evaluation heat rate improvements of power plants, considers utility applications, and describes the model`s methodology, required data, operation, results, and applications.

  14. Transfer RNA modifications: Nature’s combinatorial chemistry playground

    PubMed Central

    Jackman, Jane E.; Alfonzo, Juan D.

    2012-01-01

    Following synthesis, tRNAs are peppered by numerous chemical modifications which may differentially affect a tRNA’s structure and function. Although modifications affecting the business ends of a tRNA are predictably important for cell viability, a majority of modifications play more subtle structural roles that can affect tRNA stability and folding. The current trend is that modifications act in concert and it is in the context of the specific sequence of a given tRNA that they impart their differing effects. Recent developments in the modification field have highlighted the diversity of modifications in tRNA. From these the combinatorial nature of modifications in explaining previously described phenotypes derived from their absence has emerged as a growing theme. PMID:23139145

  15. Surface Modifications in Adhesion and Wetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longley, Jonathan

    Advances in surface modification are changing the world. Changing surface properties of bulk materials with nanometer scale coatings enables inventions ranging from the familiar non-stick frying pan to advanced composite aircraft. Nanometer or monolayer coatings used to modify a surface affect the macro-scale properties of a system; for example, composite adhesive joints between the fuselage and internal frame of Boeing's 787 Dreamliner play a vital role in the structural stability of the aircraft. This dissertation focuses on a collection of surface modification techniques that are used in the areas of adhesion and wetting. Adhesive joints are rapidly replacing the familiar bolt and rivet assemblies used by the aerospace and automotive industries. This transition is fueled by the incorporation of composite materials into aircraft and high performance road vehicles. Adhesive joints have several advantages over the traditional rivet, including, significant weight reduction and efficient stress transfer between bonded materials. As fuel costs continue to rise, the weight reduction is accelerating this transition. Traditional surface pretreatments designed to improve the adhesion of polymeric materials to metallic surfaces are extremely toxic. Replacement adhesive technologies must be compatible with the environment without sacrificing adhesive performance. Silane-coupling agents have emerged as ideal surface modifications for improving composite joint strength. As these coatings are generally applied as very thin layers (<50 nm), it is challenging to characterize their material properties for correlation to adhesive performance. We circumvent this problem by estimating the elastic modulus of the silane-based coatings using the buckling instability formed between two materials of a large elastic mismatch. The elastic modulus is found to effectively predict the joint strength of an epoxy/aluminum joint that has been reinforced with silane coupling agents. This buckling technique is extended to investigate the effects of chemical composition on the elastic modulus. Finally, the effect of macro-scale roughness on silane-reinforced joints is investigated within the framework of the unresolved problem of how to best characterize rough surfaces. Initially, the fractal dimension is used to characterize grit-blasted and sanded surfaces. It is found that, contrary to what has been suggested in the literature, the fractal dimension is independent of the roughening mechanism. Instead, the use of an anomalous diffusion coefficient is proposed as a more effective way to characterize a rough surface. Surface modification by preparation of surface energy gradients is then investigated. Materials with gradients in surface energy are useful in the areas of microfluidics, heat transfer and protein adsorption, to name a few. Gradients are prepared by vapor deposition of a reactive silane from a filter paper source. The technique gives control over the size and shape of the gradient. This surface modification is then used to induce droplet motion through repeated stretching and compression of a water drop between two gradient surfaces. This inchworm type motion is studied in detail and offers an alternative method to surface vibration for moving drops in microfluidic devices. The final surface modification considered is the application of a thin layer of rubber to a rigid surface. While this technique has many practical uses, such as easy release coatings in marine environments, it is applied herein to enable spontaneous healing between a rubber surface and a glass cover slip. Study of the diffusion controlled healing of a blister can be made by trapping an air filled blister between a glass cover slip and a rubber film. Through this study we find evidence for an interfacial diffusion process. This mechanism of diffusion is likely to be important in many biological systems.

  16. Ultrafast Laser Modification of Inorganic Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krol, Denise

    2005-03-01

    Consider the interaction between visible or near-infrared laser light with a ``transparent'' material, such as glass. Under normal conditions, i.e continuous low power illumination, the glass will transmit the light. However, when ultra-short pulses of modest energy of this same light (for example 100 fs, 1 ?J laser pulses) are tightly focused into a micron-size spot, very high, localized (in space and time) intensities, on the order of 100 TW cm-2 are obtained. Under these conditions the laser-materials interaction becomes highly nonlinear and can result in permanent changes in the structure of the glass. Since these high intensities are only achieved at the focal point of the laser beam, the effective nonlinear interaction and subsequent modification only occurs locally, i.e. within a confined region limited by the size of the focal volume. By moving the sample with respect to the laser focus it is possible to ``write'' 3-D patterns inside the glass. The structure of the modification patterns can differ from the unmodified material in a wide variety of properties including refractive index, absorption coefficient, nonlinear optical susceptibility, crystal structure, morphology etc. Applications of this so-called fs laser writing technique are in optical data storage, telecommunications and bio-sensing and --imaging. The experimental tools that are used for modifying the material can in a different implementation also be used to optically and spectroscopically characterize a material with high spatial resolution. In this talk I will review the basics of ultrafast laser modification of glass and present our results on optical waveguide fabrication in a variety of inorganic oxide glasses. I will discuss the behavior of the different glass systems and show how confocal laser fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy help us understand the relationship between the index changes and the associated changes in the atomic scale structure of the glass.

  17. Unique motifs and hydrophobic interactions shape the binding of modified DNA ligands to protein targets

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Douglas R.; Gelinas, Amy D.; Zhang, Chi; Rohloff, John C.; Carter, Jeffrey D.; O’Connell, Daniel; Waugh, Sheela M.; Wolk, Steven K.; Mayfield, Wesley S.; Burgin, Alex B.; Edwards, Thomas E.; Stewart, Lance J.; Gold, Larry; Janjic, Nebojsa; Jarvis, Thale C.

    2012-01-01

    Selection of aptamers from nucleic acid libraries by in vitro evolution represents a powerful method of identifying high-affinity ligands for a broad range of molecular targets. Nevertheless, a sizeable fraction of proteins remain difficult targets due to inherently limited chemical diversity of nucleic acids. We have exploited synthetic nucleotide modifications that confer protein-like diversity on a nucleic acid scaffold, resulting in a new generation of binding reagents called SOMAmers (Slow Off-rate Modified Aptamers). Here we report a unique crystal structure of a SOMAmer bound to its target, platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-BB). The SOMAmer folds into a compact structure and exhibits a hydrophobic binding surface that mimics the interface between PDGF-BB and its receptor, contrasting sharply with mainly polar interactions seen in traditional protein-binding aptamers. The modified nucleotides circumvent the intrinsic diversity constraints of natural nucleic acids, thereby greatly expanding the structural vocabulary of nucleic acid ligands and considerably broadening the range of accessible protein targets. PMID:23139410

  18. Modified Kriging: evaluation, modification, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, C.A.; Myers, S.C.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes modifications to a technique developed by Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) to predict general corrections (traveltime, etc.) for a geographic grid only sparsely covered by calibration points (Hipp and Young, 1997). SNL has worked to create a modified version of linear prediction (kriging) based on the idea of blending the surface back to zero at some distance from the points or, in other words, by damping the solution through the damping of the input data points. LLNL has been working with SNL to evaluate Modified Kriging. This report documents our evaluation of the technique and our resulting recommendations to SNL.

  19. Gold nanowires and their chemical modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Haekkinen, H.; Barnett, R.N.; Landman, U.

    1999-10-21

    Equilibrium structure, local densities of states, and electronic transport in a gold nanowire made of a four atom chain supported by two gold electrodes, which has been imaged recently by high-resolution electron microscopy, and chemical modification of the wire via the adsorption of a methylthiol molecule, are investigated with ab initio local density functional simulations. In the bare wire at the imaged geometry the middle two atoms dimerize, and the structure is strongly modified by the adsorption of the molecule with an accompanying increase of the ballistic conductance through the wire.

  20. STS-114: Discovery Propulsion System Modification Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A briefing on the propulsion system modification of the STS-114 Discovery is presented. June Malone, NASA Public Affairs, introduces the panel who consists of: Sandy Coleman, External Tank Project Manager, Neil Otte, External Tank Chief Engineer, and Tom Williams, Solid Rocket Booster, Deputy Project Manager. Neil Otte presents charts on new requirements for foam debris reduction on the external tank. He also presents charts describing the Forward Bipod Redesign, LO2 Feedline Bellows Location, LH2 Intertank Flange Location, and In-Flight Imagery. Tom Williams presents charts describing Solid Rocket Booster Activities and Return to Flight efforts.

  1. Methylation – an uncommon modification of glycans*

    PubMed Central

    Staudacher, Erika

    2013-01-01

    A methyl group on a sugar residue is a rarely reported event. Until now this kind of modification has been found in the kingdom of animals only in worms and molluscs, whereas it is more frequently present in some species of bacteria, fungi, algae and plants, but not in mammals. The monosaccharides involved as well as the positions of the methyl groups on the sugar vary with the species. Methylation seems to play a role in some recognition events but details are still unknown. This review summarises the current knowledge on methylation of sugars in all kinds of organism. PMID:22944672

  2. Laser micromachining and modification of bioabsorbable polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepak, Bogusz D.; Anto?czak, Arkadiusz J.; Kozio?, Pawe? E.; Szustakiewicz, Konrad; Abramski, Krzysztof M.

    2014-03-01

    In this research the influence of laser micromachining on physicochemical properties of bioabsorbable polymer was investigated. Poly(l-lactide) (PLLA), commonly used for manufacturing non-permanent biomedical devices, was irradiated with varying fluences by CO2 laser and by KrF excimer laser. To evaluate modification of the material, several analytical techniques were used: ATR (attenuated total reflection), XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and DSC (differential scanning calorimetry). We found that the laser-affected material has lower glass transition (Tg) and melting (Tm) temperatures. CO2 and KrF excimer lasers can be successfully used for cutting and drilling of polylactide.

  3. Modifications of Fabrication of Vibratory Microgyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Sam Y.; Yee, Karl Y.; Wiberg, Dean

    2005-01-01

    A micromachining process for the fabrication of vibratory microgyroscopes from silicon wafers, and aspects of the microgyroscope design that are inextricably linked with the fabrication process, have been modified in an effort to increase production yields from perspectives of both quantity and quality. Prior to the modifications, the effective production yield of working microgyroscopes was limited to one or less per wafer. The modifications are part of a continuing effort to improve the design and increase production yields to more than 30 working microgyroscopes per wafer. A discussion of pertinent aspects of the unmodified design and the unmodified fabrication process is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the modifications. The design of the microgyroscope package was not conducive to high yield and rapid testing of many microgyroscopes. One of the major impediments to high yield and testing was found to lie in vibration- isolation beams around the four edges of each microgyroscope, which beams were found to be unnecessary for achieving high resonance quality factors (Q values) characterizing the vibrations of petallike cantilevers. The fabrication process included an 8- m-deep plasma etch. The purpose of the etch was to create 8- m vertical gaps, below which were to be placed large gold evaporated electrodes and sensing pads to drive and sense resonant vibrations of the "petals." The process also included a step in which bridges between dies were cut to separate the dies. The etched areas must be kept clean and smooth (free of debris and spikes), because any object close to 8 m high in those areas would stop the vibrations. However, it was found that after the etch, there remained some spikes with heights that were, variously, almost as high or as high as the etch depth. It also was found that the cutting of bridges created silicon debris, some of which lodged in the 8- m gaps and some of which landed on top of the petals. The masses added to the petals by the debris altered resonance frequencies and/or Q values to unacceptable degrees. Hence, the spikes and the debris have been conjectured to cause most of the observed malfunctions of newly fabricated microgyroscopes. Another pertinent aspect of the unmodified design and process was the fabrication of electrodes and the 8- m capacitance gap on a 500- m-thick wafer, and the fabrication of a 3-mm-thick baseplate from another wafer. It was necessary to bond these wafers to each other in an assembly step that was later found to be superfluous in that it could be eliminated by a suitable modification of the design.

  4. Modification to single catheter exchange transfusion technique.

    PubMed Central

    Tripp, J H; Valaes, T

    1976-01-01

    A simple modification to the standard 'in-out' exchange transfusion technique is described which requires cannulation of the umbilical vein only, yet provides many of the theoretical and practical advantages of a 2-catheter arteriovenous technique. The advantages include a reduction of cardiovascular disturbance; a reduction of the inevitable pressure changes in the portal venous system (probably important in the pathogenesis of complicating necrotizing enterocolitis); administration of alkali or drugs diluted in donor blood; accurate assessment of balance; a more efficient exchange; and general ease of management allowing better clinical observation of the infant. PMID:1275542

  5. A Giant Chelonioid Turtle from the Late Cretaceous of Morocco with a Suction Feeding Apparatus Unique among Tetrapods

    PubMed Central

    Bardet, Nathalie; Jalil, Nour-Eddine; de Lapparent de Broin, France; Germain, Damien; Lambert, Olivier; Amaghzaz, Mbarek

    2013-01-01

    Background Secondary adaptation to aquatic life occurred independently in several amniote lineages, including reptiles during the Mesozoic and mammals during the Cenozoic. These evolutionary shifts to aquatic environments imply major morphological modifications, especially of the feeding apparatus. Mesozoic (250–65 Myr) marine reptiles, such as ichthyosaurs, plesiosaurs, mosasaurid squamates, crocodiles, and turtles, exhibit a wide range of adaptations to aquatic feeding and a broad overlap of their tooth morphospaces with those of Cenozoic marine mammals. However, despite these multiple feeding behavior convergences, suction feeding, though being a common feeding strategy in aquatic vertebrates and in marine mammals in particular, has been extremely rarely reported for Mesozoic marine reptiles. Principal Findings A relative of fossil protostegid and dermochelyoid sea turtles, Ocepechelon bouyai gen. et sp. nov. is a new giant chelonioid from the Late Maastrichtian (67 Myr) of Morocco exhibiting remarkable adaptations to marine life (among others, very dorsally and posteriorly located nostrils). The 70-cm-long skull of Ocepechelon not only makes it one of the largest marine turtles ever described, but also deviates significantly from typical turtle cranial morphology. It shares unique convergences with both syngnathid fishes (unique long tubular bony snout ending in a rounded and anteriorly directed mouth) and beaked whales (large size and elongated edentulous jaws). This striking anatomy suggests extreme adaptation for suction feeding unmatched among known turtles. Conclusion/Significance The feeding apparatus of Ocepechelon, a bony pipette-like snout, is unique among tetrapods. This new taxon exemplifies the successful systematic and ecological diversification of chelonioid turtles during the Late Cretaceous. This new evidence for a unique trophic specialization in turtles, along with the abundant marine vertebrate faunas associated to Ocepechelon in the Late Maastrichtian phosphatic beds of Morocco, further supports the hypothesis that marine life was, at least locally, very diversified just prior to the Cretaceous/Palaeogene (K/Pg) biotic crisis. PMID:23874378

  6. Unique Perspectives on a Transforming Energy Economy: 2014 Annual Report (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Gossett, S.

    2014-03-01

    What makes JISEA unique? Unique perspectives. This brochure highlights the unique perspectives provided by the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis through JISEA's recent accomplishments and the people behind them.

  7. BuD, a helix–loop–helix DNA-binding domain for genome modification

    SciTech Connect

    Stella, Stefano [Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Calle de Melchor Fernández Almagro 3, 28029 Madrid (Spain); University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Copenhagen (Denmark); Molina, Rafael; López-Méndez, Blanca [Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Calle de Melchor Fernández Almagro 3, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Juillerat, Alexandre; Bertonati, Claudia; Daboussi, Fayza [Cellectis, 8 Rue de la Croix Jarry, 75013 Paris (France); Campos-Olivas, Ramon [Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Calle de Melchor Fernández Almagro 3, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Duchateau, Phillippe [Cellectis, 8 Rue de la Croix Jarry, 75013 Paris (France); Montoya, Guillermo, E-mail: guillermo.montoya@cpr.ku.dk [Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Calle de Melchor Fernández Almagro 3, 28029 Madrid (Spain); University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-07-01

    Crystal structures of BurrH and the BurrH–DNA complex are reported. DNA editing offers new possibilities in synthetic biology and biomedicine for modulation or modification of cellular functions to organisms. However, inaccuracy in this process may lead to genome damage. To address this important problem, a strategy allowing specific gene modification has been achieved through the addition, removal or exchange of DNA sequences using customized proteins and the endogenous DNA-repair machinery. Therefore, the engineering of specific protein–DNA interactions in protein scaffolds is key to providing ‘toolkits’ for precise genome modification or regulation of gene expression. In a search for putative DNA-binding domains, BurrH, a protein that recognizes a 19 bp DNA target, was identified. Here, its apo and DNA-bound crystal structures are reported, revealing a central region containing 19 repeats of a helix–loop–helix modular domain (BurrH domain; BuD), which identifies the DNA target by a single residue-to-nucleotide code, thus facilitating its redesign for gene targeting. New DNA-binding specificities have been engineered in this template, showing that BuD-derived nucleases (BuDNs) induce high levels of gene targeting in a locus of the human haemoglobin ? (HBB) gene close to mutations responsible for sickle-cell anaemia. Hence, the unique combination of high efficiency and specificity of the BuD arrays can push forward diverse genome-modification approaches for cell or organism redesign, opening new avenues for gene editing.

  8. The unique properties of polyurethane foam for small engine filters

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzirusso, J.F.

    1995-12-31

    The properties of reticulated polyurethane foam have been investigated to determine its suitability as a small engine filter system. Polyurethane foam is useful in small engine filter systems due to the ease of manufacturing, freedom in geometric design, variable physical properties, and ease of property modification and filter enhancement through the use of composite materials and coatings. The results of this study will give direction to the filtration designer to optimize the selection of the proper polyurethane foam or foam combinations along with the geometric configuration to obtain a suitable design.

  9. Non-uniqueness of the natural and projectively equivariant quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radoux, F.

    2008-02-01

    In [C. Duval, V. Ovsienko, Projectively equivariant quantization and symbol calculus: Noncommutative hypergeometric functions, Lett. Math. Phys. 57 (1) (2001) 61-67], the authors showed the existence and the uniqueness of a sl(m+1,R)-equivariant quantization in non-critical situations. The curved generalization of the sl(m+1,R)-equivariant quantization is the natural and projectively equivariant quantization. In [M. Bordemann, Sur l'existence d'une prescription d'ordre naturelle projectivement invariante (submitted for publication). math.DG/0208171] and [Pierre Mathonet, Fabian Radoux, Natural and projectively equivariant quantizations by means of Cartan connections, Lett. Math. Phys. 72 (3) (2005) 183-196], the existence of such a quantization was proved in two different ways. In this paper, we show that this quantization is not unique.

  10. Erdheim Chester - a rare disease with unique endoscopic features.

    PubMed

    Ben-Yaakov, Gil; Munteanu, Daniela; Sztarkier, Ignacio; Fich, Alexander; Schwartz, Doron

    2014-07-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare inflammatory syndrome in which systemic infiltration of non-Langerhans cell histiocytes occurs in different sites. Both the etiology and pathophysiology of ECD are unknown, but CD68 positive CD 1a/S100 negative cells are characteristic. The presentation of ECD differs according to the involved organs. This case report describes a patient with ECD and the gastrointestinal manifestations and unique endoscopic appearance as seen in gastroscopy and colonoscopy with histological proof of histiocyte infiltration of the lamina propria. The clinical and endoscopic findings of this unique case, to our knowledge, were never described before, so were the features of the gastrointestinal involvement in this disease. PMID:25009409

  11. Erdheim chester - A rare disease with unique endoscopic features

    PubMed Central

    Ben-yaakov, Gil; Munteanu, Daniela; Sztarkier, Ignacio; Fich, Alexander; Schwartz, Doron

    2014-01-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare inflammatory syndrome in which systemic infiltration of non-Langerhans cell histiocytes occurs in different sites. Both the etiology and pathophysiology of ECD are unknown, but CD68 positive CD 1a/S100 negative cells are characteristic. The presentation of ECD differs according to the involved organs. This case report describes a patient with ECD and the gastrointestinal manifestations and unique endoscopic appearance as seen in gastroscopy and colonoscopy with histological proof of histiocyte infiltration of the lamina propria. The clinical and endoscopic findings of this unique case, to our knowledge, were never described before, so were the features of the gastrointestinal involvement in this disease. PMID:25009409

  12. New unique ECAP system with ultrasound and backpressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doni?, T.; Martikán, M.; Hadzima, B.

    2014-08-01

    This paper is about the conception, design and realization of a new unique ECAP system with application of back-pressure and intensive ultrasound energy. 3D finite element calculations were used for finding the best construction configurations. The new unique ECAP equipment is used for deforming metallic samples with dimensions of 12x12x100 mm to obtain homogenous deformation in the whole specimen. The basic technical parameters of the equipment are: angle of channel intersection ? = 90°, rounding angle ? = 0°, die heating system up to 400°C, punch heating system up to 300°C, computer controlled back pressure up to 1400 MPa, Emerson Branson ultrasonic energy system up to 4kW, longitudinal ultrasound amplitude up to 30 pm, water cooling system, flexible die geometry (channel inner radius can be changed), adaptive computer drive and control.

  13. Unique and conserved features of floral evocation in legumes.

    PubMed

    Liew, Lim Chee; Singh, Mohan B; Bhalla, Prem L

    2014-08-01

    Legumes, with their unique ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, play a vital role in ensuring future food security and mitigating the effects of climate change because they use less fossil energy and produce less greenhouse gases compared with N-fertilized systems. Grain legumes are second only to cereal crops as a source of human and animal food, and they contribute approximately one third of the protein consumed by the human population. The productivity of seed crops, such as grain legumes, is dependent on flowering. Despite the genetic variation and importance of flowering in legume production, studies of the molecular pathways that control flowering in legumes are limited. Recent advances in genomics have revealed that legume flowering pathways are divergent from those of such model species as Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we discuss the current understanding of flowering time regulation in legumes and highlight the unique and conserved features of floral evocation in legumes. PMID:24930396

  14. Unique research challenges for high-speed civil transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Charlie M., Jr.; Morris, Charles E. K., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Market growth and technological advances are expected to lead to a generation of long-range transports that cruise at supersonic or even hypersonic speeds. Current NASA/industry studies will define the market windows in terms of time frame, Mach number, and technology requirements for these aircraft. Initial results indicate that, for the years 2000 to 2020, economically attractive vehicles could have a cruise speed up to Mach 6. The resulting research challenges are unique. They must be met with technologies that will produce commercially successful and environmentally compatible vehicles where none have existed. Several important areas of research were identified for the high-speed civil transports. Among these are sonic boom, takeoff noise, thermal management, lightweight structures with long life, unique propulsion concepts, unconventional fuels, and supersonic laminar flow.

  15. Unique research challenges for high-speed civil transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Charlie M., Jr.; Morris, E. K., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Market growth and technological advances are expected to lead to a generation of long-range transports that cruise at supersonic or even hypersonic speeds. Current NASA/industry studies will define the market windows in terms of time frame, Mach number, and technology requirements for these aircraft. Initial results indicate that, for the years 2000 to 2020, economically attractive vehicles could have a cruise speed up to Mach 6. The resulting research challenges are unique. They must be met with technologies that will produce commercially successful and environmentally compatible vehicles where none have existed. Several important areas of research were identified for the high-speed civil transports. Among these are sonic boom, takeoff noise, thermal management, lightweight structures with long life, unique propulsion concepts, unconventional fuels, and supersonic laminar flow.

  16. Chemical characterization of a unique chondrite - Allan Hills 85085

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosselin, D. C.; Laul, J. C.

    1990-06-01

    Allan Hills 85085 is a new and very important addition to the growing list of unique carbonaceous chondrites because of its unique chemical and mineralogical properties. This chemical study provides more precise data on the major, minor, and trace element characteristics of ALH85085. ALH85085 has compositional, petrological, and isotopic affinities to AL Rais and Renazzo, and to Bencubbin-Weatherford. The similarities to Al Rais and Renazzo suggest similar formation locations and thermal processing, possibly in the vicinity of CI chondrites. Petrologic, compositional and isotopic studies indicate that the components that control the abundance of the various refractory and volatile elements were not allowed to equilibrate with the nebula as conditions changed, explaining the inconsistencies in the classification of these meteorites using known taxonomic parameters.

  17. Waterhole auroral arc modification experiments: Electrodynamic response

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, B.A.; Yau, A.W.; Creutzberg, F.; Wallis, D.D.; McNamara, A.G.; Harris, F.R.; Pongratz, M.B.; Bernhardt, P.A.; Kintner, P.M.; Labelle, J.

    1985-09-01

    A series of perturbation experiments (Waterhole I, II, and III), in which ''holes'' were created in the F region ionosphere by explosive releases of large quantities of water vapor, has been conducted to test theories of the electrodynamic structure of auroral arcs. The water vapor releases created large (roughly-equal50-km diameter) holes in the ionosphere in and near structured premidnight auroral arcs. It was anticipated that these holes would interrupt or perturb the ionospheric current systems associated with the arcs and that this perturbation would in turn affect the acceleration mechanism responsible for the aurora. Results from the two successful rocket flights (Waterhole I and III) are presented, and it is shown that significant modifications of the energetic electron precipitation patterns were induced by both releases. The first release was made 10 km poleward of a discrete early evening auroral arc, and the perturbation caused a cessation of electron precipitation through the hole and a significant modification of the arc. The second release, which occurred on magnetic field lines connected to the center of a series of arcs, produced a much smaller hole mainly due to the preexisting low electron density and also induced a less striking energetic electron response. In this case the flux was enhanced. Various models and theories of the perturbation mechanism are discussed, and it is shown that both responses are consistent with current theories of the electrodynamic structure of auroral arcs.

  18. MODOMICS: a database of RNA modification pathways

    PubMed Central

    Dunin-Horkawicz, Stanislaw; Czerwoniec, Anna; Gajda, Michal J.; Feder, Marcin; Grosjean, Henri; Bujnicki, Janusz M.

    2006-01-01

    MODOMICS is the first comprehensive database resource for systems biology of RNA modification. It integrates information about the chemical structure of modified nucleosides, their localization in RNA sequences, pathways of their biosynthesis and enzymes that carry out the respective reactions. MODOMICS also provides literature information, and links to other databases, including the available protein sequence and structure data. The current list of modifications and pathways is comprehensive, while the dataset of enzymes is limited to Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and sequence alignments are presented only for tRNAs from these organisms. RNAs and enzymes from other organisms will be included in the near future. MODOMICS can be queried by the type of nucleoside (e.g. A, G, C, U, I, m1A, nm5s2U, etc.), type of RNA, position of a particular nucleoside, type of reaction (e.g. methylation, thiolation, deamination, etc.) and name or sequence of an enzyme of interest. Options for data presentation include graphs of pathways involving the query nucleoside, multiple sequence alignments of RNA sequences and tabular forms with enzyme and literature data. The contents of MODOMICS can be accessed through the World Wide Web at . PMID:16381833

  19. Xanthan gel system effective for profile modification

    SciTech Connect

    Burkholder, L.

    1985-04-15

    To cope with the problem of optimizing reservoir sweep efficiency, many companies today are utilizing a technique known as profile modification. This technique is based on the premise that a gelled polymer formulation can be injected into the reservoir some distance beyond the well bore where it creates a flow diversion. The successful application of profile modification techniques has resulted in significant increases in incremental oil recovery. The injectant is a xanthan-gum solution precross-linked with a chromium complex to form a gel. The polymer/chromium combination reduces permeability in the thief zones and diverts a higher percentage of the displacing fluids into previously unswept, oil-saturated portions of the reservoir. Although reservoir characteristics and brine composition are key considerations, xanthan/chrome gels can be tailored to meet almost any conditions. Fractures will require strong gels while tight formations, or formations with low parting pressures, will require thinner gels. Slug volume is designed to treat the ''thief'' interval and must be carefully sized to improve sweep efficiency within economical limits.

  20. [Modification and biological role of histone].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Meng, Zhi-Qi; Shi, Fang-Xiong

    2012-07-01

    Histone is one of critical components of chromatin, which amino acid residues at the N-terminus can be covalently modified. Histone modification (HM) can change the chromatin conformation and induce transcription or gene silencing. Not only can HM control gene expression, but also participate in cell division, cell apoptosis and memory formation by recruiting protein complex and affecting downstream proteins. HM can also have the impact on immune system and inflammatory reaction. In addition, lots of recent studies have indicated that histone code (or HM) is related to the CTD code, circadian clock and DNA repair, implying the significance of HM. The domains of protein complex can never be replaced, because they play a mediating role during the formation and deciphering of histone code, as well as the modification cascade and the recruitment of protein complex. Therefore, these domains are very important to comprehend the histone code. Because of the widespread use of analytical techniques, such as mass-spectrometry, new domains will be discovered. Herein, our review focuses on the basic concept, recent progress and hot points of the histone code study. PMID:22805206

  1. New IUE Observations of Unique Asteroids & Asteroid Surface Calibration Targets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Alan Stern

    1993-01-01

    We propose that IUE expand the first-order reconnaissance of non-icy planetary surface properties in the mid-ultraviolet by obtaining the UV spectra of (i) a set of asteroids visited by spacecraft, (ii) well characterized lunar surfaces, and (iii) a pair of objects making unique apparitions in 1993-1994. None of the proposed targets (including the lunar terrains, as we describe below) have

  2. On Uniqueness of Kerr Space-time near null infinity

    E-print Network

    Xiaoning Wu; Shan Bai

    2008-11-24

    We re-express the Kerr metric in standard Bondi-Saches' coordinate near null infinity ${\\cal I}^+$. Using the uniqueness result of characteristic initial value problem, we prove the Kerr metric is the only asymptotic flat, stationary, axial symmetric, Type-D solution of vacuum Einstein equation. The Taylor series of Kerr space-time is expressed in terms of B-S coordinates and the N-P constants have been calculated.

  3. Finding a unique texture for quark mass matrices

    E-print Network

    Samandeep Sharma; Priyanka Fakay; Gulsheen Ahuja; Manmohan Gupta

    2015-03-13

    Within the Standard Model, starting with the most general mass matrices we have used the facility of making weak basis transformations and have imposed the condition of `naturalness' to carry out their analysis within the texture zero approach. Interestingly, our analysis reveals that a particular set of texture 4 zero quark mass matrices can be considered to be a unique viable option for the description of quark mixing data.

  4. Tamponade by an expanding left ventricular pseudoaneurysm: A unique presentation.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, Balakrishnan; Ong, Ping; Kutty, Ramesh; Abu-Omar, Yasir

    2014-04-01

    Left ventricular free wall rupture secondary to myocardial infarction is an uncommon but catastrophic event requiring emergency surgery. We describe a unique presentation of left ventricular free wall rupture as delayed tamponade caused by a gradually expanding pseudoaneurysm compressing the left atrium, leading to pulmonary congestion that required increasing respiratory support to maintain oxygenation, and necessitated emergency surgery. We discuss the options available to treat pseudoaneurysms due to left ventricular free wall rupture. PMID:24692597

  5. The Galactic nucleus: A unique region in the Galactic ecosystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genzel, Reinhard; Poglitsch, Albrecht

    1995-01-01

    The nucleus is a unique region in the Galactic ecosystem. It is also superb laboratory of modern astrophysics where astronomers can study, at unprecedented spatial resolution and across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, physical processes that may also happen at the cores of other galaxies. Infrared observations from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory have made important contributions to unraveling the mysteries of the Galactic nucleus and this review highlights some of these measurements, as well as recent results regarding the central parsec.

  6. Unique Mitogenomic Features in the Scleractinian Family Pocilloporidae (Scleractinia: Astrocoeniina)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chienhsun Chen; Chih-Yung Chiou; Chang-Feng Dai; Chaolun Allen Chen

    2008-01-01

    The complete DNA sequences of three mitochondrial (mt) genomes were obtained from the scleractinian corals, Stylophora pistillata, Pocillopora damicornis, and Madracis mirabilis, and were compared to the published mt genomes to elucidate phylogenetically unique features of the family Pocilloporidae.\\u000a The entire mt genomes of pocilloporid corals ranged from 16,951 to 17,425 bp with the A+T contents of their sense strands\\u000a ranging

  7. Global existence and uniqueness for an optical fibre laser model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke, Alexander; Holmes, Philip; Kutz, J. Nathan

    1998-11-01

    We prove global existence and uniqueness of solutions for a modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation modelling pulse propagation in an optical fibre laser. Pulse shaping is achieved by a saturable Bragg reflector: a device modelled here by nonlocal, nonlinear terms. Our results rely only on general model properties and are not limited to the specific case discussed. We discuss stability and bifurcation from the trivial solution and chirped soliton solutions in a special case. Numerical illustrations are provided.

  8. Uniqueness of Kerr space-time near null infinity

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Xiaoning [Institute of Mathematics, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2734, Beijing, 100080 (China); Bai Shan [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing, 100080 (China)

    2008-12-15

    We reexpress the Kerr metric in standard Bondi-Sachs coordinates near null infinity I{sup +}. Using the uniqueness result of the characteristic initial value problem, we prove the Kerr metric is the only asymptotically flat, stationary, axially symmetric, type-D solution of the vacuum Einstein equation. The Taylor series of Kerr space-time is expressed in terms of Bondi-Sachs coordinates, and the Newman-Penrose constants have been calculated.

  9. The skeleton as a unique environment for breast cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea M. Mastro; Carol V. Gay; Danny R. Welch

    2003-01-01

    Bone is a favored location for several cancer metastases especially breast, prostate and myeloma. This review evaluates various\\u000a properties of the skeleton that contribute to its successful colonization by breast cancer cells. The first consideration\\u000a is the unique aspects of the vasculature of metaphyseal bone, which may account for the initial lodging of breast cancer cells\\u000a in specific regions of

  10. Electrical Burn Causing a Unique Pattern of Neurological Injury

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Nathan R.; Yaxley, Julian P.; O’Donohue, Peter; Lisec, Carl; Jeyarajan, Eshwarshanker

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Neurological involvement is not uncommon in patients who sustain electrical injury. The exact mechanism of nervous system damage following electrical trauma is not fully understood. The gamut of possible neurologic manifestations following electrical injury is diverse. This case report describes a young man with a unique pattern of neurological injury following an electrical burn. The combination of brachial plexopathy, partial Horner’s syndrome, and phrenic nerve palsy secondary to electrical injury has not been previously described in the literature. PMID:25973356

  11. Unique structure\\/properties of chemical vapor deposited parylene E

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay J. Senkevich; Christopher J. Mitchell; Aravind Vijayaraghavan; Edward V. Barnat; John F. McDonald; Toh-Ming Lu

    2002-01-01

    Parylene E, a low kappa polymer thin film, with the approximate composition 69% diethylated and 25% monoethylated poly(p-xylylene), has been chemical vapor deposited via a cyclophane precursor at room temperature. It has a dielectric constant of 2.34plus-or-minus0.03 and dielectric loss of <0.005 at 10 kHz from MIMCAP structures. It is particularly unique compared to the other common parylene polymers. Namely,

  12. Unique Signal Override Plug (USOP) electromagnetic test report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonn, R. H.

    1990-10-01

    The MC4039 Unique Signal Override Plug (USOP) provides the unique signal for the B90 when fielded on aircraft that are not equipped with unique signal capability. Since the USOP is field installed, the concern is that it might be susceptible to electromagnetic radiation prior to installation on the weapon. This report documents a characterization of the USOP, evaluates various techniques for attaching electromagnetic shields, and evaluates the susceptibility of a fully assembled passive-USOP. Tests conducted evaluated the electromagnetic susceptibility of the passive, unconnected USOP. During normal operation the USOP is powered directly from the weapon. During the course of this test program two prototypes were developed. The prototype 1 USOP internal circuitry contains one SA3727 chip, five diodes, three resistors, and two capacitors; these are mounted on a circular circuit board and contained inside a metal back shell cover, which serves as an electromagnetic shield. The prototype 2 design incorporated four changes. The manufacturer of the SA3727 chip was changed from Lasarray to LSI Logic, the circuit board ground was tied to the case ground through a straight wire, Cl was changed from 1 microfarad to 0.1 microfarads. and the circuit board was changed, as required.

  13. Biosynthetic Potential of Phylogenetically Unique Endophytic Actinomycetes from Tropical Plants? †

    PubMed Central

    Janso, Jeffrey E.; Carter, Guy T.

    2010-01-01

    The culturable diversity of endophytic actinomycetes associated with tropical, native plants is essentially unexplored. In this study, 123 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from tropical plants collected from several locations in Papua New Guinea and Mborokua Island, Solomon Islands. Isolates were found to be prevalent in roots but uncommon in leaves. Initially, isolates were dereplicated to the strain level by ribotyping. Subsequent characterization of 105 unique strains by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that 17 different genera were represented, and rare genera, such as Sphaerisporangium and Planotetraspora, which have never been previously reported to be endophytic, were quite prevalent. Phylogenetic analyses grouped many of the strains into clades distinct from known genera within Thermomonosporaceae and Micromonosporaceae, indicating that they may be unique genera. Bioactivity testing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling of crude fermentation extracts were performed on 91 strains. About 60% of the extracts exhibited bioactivity or displayed LC-MS profiles with spectra indicative of secondary metabolites. The biosynthetic potential of 29 nonproductive strains was further investigated by the detection of putative polyketide synthase (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes. Despite their lack of detectable secondary metabolite production in fermentation, most were positive for type I (66%) and type II (79%) PKS genes, and all were positive for NRPS genes. These results suggest that tropical plants from New Guinea and the adjacent archipelago are hosts to unique endophytic actinomycetes that possess significant biosynthetic potential. PMID:20472734

  14. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a series of penicillin-derived HIV proteinase inhibitors containing a stereochemically unique peptide isostere.

    PubMed

    Holmes, D S; Bethell, R C; Cammack, N; Clemens, I R; Kitchin, J; McMeekin, P; Mo, C L; Orr, D C; Patel, B; Paternoster, I L

    1993-10-15

    A series of HIV-1 proteinase inhibitors was synthesized based upon a single penicillin derived thiazolidine moiety. Reaction of the C-4 carboxyl group with (R)-phenylalaninol gave amide 10 which was a moderately potent inhibitor of HIV-1 proteinase (IC50 = 0.15 microM). Further modifications based on molecular modeling studies led to compound 48 which contained a stereochemically unique statine-based isostere. This was a potent competitive inhibitor (Ki = 0.25 nM) with antiviral activity against HIV-1 in vitro (5 microM). Neither modification to the benzyl group in an attempt to improve interaction with the S2' pocket, nor introduction of a hydrogen bond donating group to interact with residue Gly48' resulted in improved inhibitory or antiviral activity. PMID:8230099

  15. Pea lectin unfolding reveals a unique molten globule fragment chain.

    PubMed

    Sen, Debasish; Mandal, Dipak K

    2011-03-01

    Pea lectin (PSL) is a dimeric protein in which each subunit comprises two intertwined, post-translationally processed polypeptide chains--a long ?-fragment and a short ?-fragment. Using guanidine hydrochloride-induced denaturation, we have investigated and characterized the species obtained in the unfolding equilibrium of PSL by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence, phosphorescence, and selective chemical modification. During unfolding, the fragment chains become separated, and the unfolding pattern reveals a ?-fragment as intermediate that has the molten globule characteristics. As examined by 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS) binding, the fragment intermediate shows ~20 fold increase in ANS fluorescence, and a large increase in ANS lifetime (12.8 ns). The tryptophan environment of the molten globule ?-fragment has been probed by selective modification with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS), which shows that two tryptophans, possibly Trp 53 and Trp 152 are oxidized while the other Trp 128 remains resistant to oxidation. The different types of tryptophan environment for the intermediate are supported by phosphorescence studies at 77 K, which gives a (0,0) band at 410 nm. These results seem to indicate that the larger fragment chain of PSL can independently behave as a monomeric or single domain protein that undergoes unfolding through intermediate state(s), and may provide important insight into the folding problem of oligomeric proteins in general and lectins in particular. PMID:21078359

  16. Applications for unique identifiers in the geological sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J.; Lehnert, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Even though geology has always been a generalist discipline in many parts, approaches towards questions about Earth's past have become increasingly interdisciplinary. At the same time, a wealth of samples has been collected, the resulting data have been stored in in disciplinary databases, the interpretations published in scientific literature. In the past these resources have existed alongside each other, semantically linked only by the knowledge of the researcher and his peers. One of the main drivers towards the inception of the world wide web was the ability to link scientific sources over the internet. The Uniform Resource Locator (URL) used to locate resources on the web soon turned out to be ephemeral in nature. A more reliable way of addressing objects was needed, a way of persistent identification to make digital objects, or digital representations of objects, part of the record of science. With their high degree of centralisation the scientific publishing houses were quick to implement and adopt a system for unique and persistent identification, the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) ®. At the same time other identifier systems exist alongside DOI, e.g. URN, ARK, handle ®, and others. There many uses for persistent identification in science, other than the identification of journal articles. DOI are already used for the identification of data, thus making data citable. There are several initiatives to assign identifiers to authors and institutions to allow unique identification. A recent development is the application of persistent identifiers for geological samples. As most data in the geosciences are derived from samples, it is crucial to be able to uniquely identify the samples from which a set of data were derived. Incomplete documentation of samples in publications, use of ambiguous sample names are major obstacles for synthesis studies and re-use of data. Access to samples for re-analysis and re-appraisal is limited due to the lack of a central catalogue that allows finding a sample's archiving location. The International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) provides solutions to the questions of unique sample identification and discovery. Use of the IGSN in digital data systems allows building linkages between the digital representation of samples in sample registries, e.g. SESAR, and their related data in the literature and in web accessible digital data repositories. Persistent identifiers are now available for literature, data, samples, and authors. More applications, e.g. identification of methods or instruments, will follow. In conjunction with semantic web technology the application of unique and persistent identifiers in the geosciences will aid discovery both through systematic data mining, exploratory data analysis, and serendipity effects. This talk will discuss existing and emerging applications for persistent identifiers in the geological sciences.

  17. Profile modification to minimize spur gear dynamic loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, H. H.; Townsend, D. P.; Oswald, F. B.

    1989-01-01

    An analytical computer simulation program for dynamic modeling of low-contact-ratio spur gear systems is presented. The procedure computes the static transmission error of the gears operating under load and uses a fast Fourier transform to generate the frequency spectrum of the static transmission error at various tooth profile modifications. The dynamic loading response of an unmodified (perfect involute) gear pair was compared with that of gears with various profile modifications. Correlations were found between various profile modifications and the resulting dynamic loads. An effective error, obtained from frequency domain analysis of the static transmission error of the gears, gave a very good indication of the optimum profile modification to reduce gear dynamic loading. Design curves generated by dynamic simulation at various profile modifications are given for gear systems operated at various loads. Optimum profile modifications can be determined from these design curves for improved gear design.

  18. Surface Modification of Biomaterials: A Quest for Blood Compatibility

    PubMed Central

    de Mel, Achala; Cousins, Brian G.; Seifalian, Alexander M.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular implants must resist thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia to maintain patency. These implants when in contact with blood face a challenge to oppose the natural coagulation process that becomes activated. Surface protein adsorption and their relevant 3D confirmation greatly determine the degree of blood compatibility. A great deal of research efforts are attributed towards realising such a surface, which comprise of a range of methods on surface modification. Surface modification methods can be broadly categorized as physicochemical modifications and biological modifications. These modifications aim to modulate platelet responses directly through modulation of thrombogenic proteins or by inducing antithrombogenic biomolecules that can be biofunctionalised onto surfaces or through inducing an active endothelium. Nanotechnology is recognising a great role in such surface modification of cardiovascular implants through biofunctionalisation of polymers and peptides in nanocomposites and through nanofabrication of polymers which will pave the way for finding a closer blood match through haemostasis when developing cardiovascular implants with a greater degree of patency. PMID:22693509

  19. On the genetic modification of psychology, personality, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Neitzke, Alex B

    2012-12-01

    I argue that the use of heritable modifications for psychology, personality, and behavior should be limited to the reversal or prevention of relatively unambiguous instances of pathology or likely harm (e.g. sociopathy). Most of the likely modifications of psychological personality would not be of this nature, however, and parents therefore should not have the freedom to make such modifications to future children. I argue by examining the viewpoints of both the individual and society. For individuals, modifications would interfere with their capacity for self-determination in a way that undermines the very concept of self-determination. I argue that modification of psychology and personality is unlike present parenting in morally significant ways. For society, modification offers a medium for power to manipulate the makeup of persons and populations, possibly causing biological harm to the species and altering our conceptions of social responsibility. PMID:23420940

  20. DNA methylation: bisulphite modification and analysis.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Kate; Molloy, Laura; Qu, Wenjia; Clark, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetics describes the heritable changes in gene function that occur independently to the DNA sequence. The molecular basis of epigenetic gene regulation is complex, but essentially involves modifications to the DNA itself or the proteins with which DNA associates. The predominant epigenetic modification of DNA in mammalian genomes is methylation of cytosine nucleotides (5-MeC). DNA methylation provides instruction to gene expression machinery as to where and when the gene should be expressed. The primary target sequence for DNA methylation in mammals is 5'-CpG-3' dinucleotides (Figure 1). CpG dinucleotides are not uniformly distributed throughout the genome, but are concentrated in regions of repetitive genomic sequences and CpG "islands" commonly associated with gene promoters (Figure 1). DNA methylation patterns are established early in development, modulated during tissue specific differentiation and disrupted in many disease states including cancer. To understand the biological role of DNA methylation and its role in human disease, precise, efficient and reproducible methods are required to detect and quantify individual 5-MeCs. This protocol for bisulphite conversion is the "gold standard" for DNA methylation analysis and facilitates identification and quantification of DNA methylation at single nucleotide resolution. The chemistry of cytosine deamination by sodium bisulphite involves three steps (Figure 2). (1) Sulphonation: The addition of bisulphite to the 5-6 double bond of cytosine (2) Hydrolic Deamination: hydrolytic deamination of the resulting cytosine-bisulphite derivative to give a uracil-bisulphite derivative (3) Alkali Desulphonation: Removal of the sulphonate group by an alkali treatment, to give uracil. Bisulphite preferentially deaminates cytosine to uracil in single stranded DNA, whereas 5-MeC, is refractory to bisulphite-mediated deamination. Upon PCR amplification, uracil is amplified as thymine while 5-MeC residues remain as cytosines, allowing methylated CpGs to be distinguished from unmethylated CpGs by presence of a cytosine "C" versus thymine "T" residue during sequencing. DNA modification by bisulphite conversion is a well-established protocol that can be exploited for many methods of DNA methylation analysis. Since the detection of 5-MeC by bisulphite conversion was first demonstrated by Frommer et al. and Clark et al., methods based around bisulphite conversion of genomic DNA account for the majority of new data on DNA methylation. Different methods of post PCR analysis may be utilized, depending on the degree of specificity and resolution of methylation required. Cloning and sequencing is still the most readily available method that can give single nucleotide resolution for methylation across the DNA molecule. PMID:22042230

  1. Uniqueness and Non-uniqueness of Limit Cycles for Piecewise Linear Differential Systems with Three Zones and No Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llibre, Jaume; Ponce, Enrique; Valls, Clàudia

    2015-03-01

    Some techniques for proving the existence and uniqueness of limit cycles for smooth differential systems are extended to continuous piecewise linear differential systems with two and three zones and no symmetry. For planar systems with three linearity zones, the existence of two limit cycles surrounding the only equilibrium point at the origin is rigorously shown for the first time. The usefulness of the achieved analytical results is illustrated by considering non-symmetric memristor-based electronic oscillators.

  2. Pnp gene modification for improved xylose utilization in Zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Caimi, Perry G G; Qi, Min; Tao, Luan; Viitanen, Paul V; Yang, Jianjun

    2014-12-16

    The endogenous pnp gene encoding polynucleotide phosphorylase in the Zymomonas genome was identified as a target for modification to provide improved xylose utilizing cells for ethanol production. The cells are in addition genetically modified to have increased expression of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (RPI) activity, as compared to cells without this genetic modification, and are not limited in xylose isomerase activity in the absence of the pnp modification.

  3. Characterization and hardware modification of linear momentum exchange devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgemon, George D.; Curtis, Sally; Waites, Henry B.

    1987-01-01

    A sequence of modifications were made on the TRW Linear Momentum Exchange Devices (LMEDs) which were supplied for a joint MSFC/Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratory (AFWAL) control venture called Vibrational Control of Space Structures (VCOSS)-II. The modifications were necessary to alleviate and assuage the LMED nonlinearities. Extensive discussion of the LMED modification are presented along with the test plan, test results and conclusions. In addition, a chronology of events, relative to the LMED changes, is given.

  4. Transannular Diels-Alder/1,3-dipolar cycloaddition cascade of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles: total synthesis of a unique set of vinblastine analogues.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Erica L; Skepper, Colin K; Sankar, Kuppusamy; Duncan, Katharine K; Boger, Dale L

    2013-10-18

    A powerful tandem [4 + 2]/[3 + 2] cycloaddition cascade of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles initiated by a transannular [4 + 2] cycloaddition is detailed. An impressive four rings, four carbon-carbon bonds, and six stereocenters are set on each site of the newly formed central six-membered ring in a cascade thermal reaction that proceeds at temperatures as low as 80 °C. The resulting cycloadducts provide the basis for the synthesis of unique analogues of vinblastine containing metabolically benign deep-seated cyclic modifications at the C3/C4 centers of the vindoline-derived subunit of the natural product. PMID:24087969

  5. Transannular Diels-Alder/1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Cascade of 1,3,4-Oxadiazoles: Total Synthesis of a Unique Set of Vinblastine Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Erica L.; Skepper, Colin K.; Sankar, Kuppusamy; Duncan, Katharine K.; Boger, Dale L.

    2013-01-01

    A powerful tandem [4+2]/[3+2] cycloaddition cascade of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles initiated by a transannular [4+2] cycloaddition is detailed. An impressive four rings, four carbon-carbon bonds, and six stereocenters are set on each site of the newly formed central six-membered ring in a cascade thermal reaction that proceeds at temperatures as low as 80 °C. The resulting cycloadducts provide the basis for the synthesis of unique analogues of vinblastine containing metabolically benign deep-seated cyclic modifications at the C3/C4 centers of the vindoline-derived subunit of the natural product. PMID:24087969

  6. Differential modification of Ras proteins by ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Jura, Natalia; Scotto-Lavino, Elizabeth; Sobczyk, Aleksander; Bar-Sagi, Dafna

    2006-03-01

    Ras proteins are essential components of signal transduction pathways that control cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. It is well recognized that the functional versatility of Ras proteins is accomplished through their differential compartmentalization, but the mechanisms that control their spatial segregation are not fully understood. Here we show that HRas is subject to ubiquitin conjugation, whereas KRas is refractory to this modification. The membrane-anchoring domain of HRas is necessary and sufficient to direct the mono- and diubiquitination of HRas. Ubiquitin attachment to HRas stabilizes its association with endosomes and modulates its ability to activate the Raf/MAPK signaling pathway. Therefore, differential ubiquitination of Ras proteins may control their location-specific signaling activities. PMID:16507365

  7. Gas release and conductivity modification studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linson, L. M.; Baxter, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    The behavior of gas clouds produced by releases from orbital velocity in either a point release or venting mode is described by the modification of snowplow equations valid in an intermediate altitude regime. Quantitative estimates are produced for the time dependence of the radius of the cloud, the average internal energy, the translational velocity, and the distance traveled. The dependence of these quantities on the assumed density profile, the internal energy of the gas, and the ratio of specific heats is examined. The new feature is the inclusion of the effect of the large orbital velocity. The resulting gas cloud models are used to calculate the characteristics of the field line integrated Pedersen conductivity enhancements that would be produced by the release of barium thermite at orbital velocity in either the point release or venting modes as a function of release altitude and chemical payload weight.

  8. Pursuing DNA catalysts for protein modification.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Scott K

    2015-05-19

    Catalysis is a fundamental chemical concept, and many kinds of catalysts have considerable practical value. Developing entirely new catalysts is an exciting challenge. Rational design and screening have provided many new small-molecule catalysts, and directed evolution has been used to optimize or redefine the function of many protein enzymes. However, these approaches have inherent limitations that prompt the pursuit of different kinds of catalysts using other experimental methods. Nature evolved RNA enzymes, or ribozymes, for key catalytic roles that in modern biology are limited to phosphodiester cleavage/ligation and amide bond formation. Artificial DNA enzymes, or deoxyribozymes, have great promise for a broad range of catalytic activities. They can be identified from unbiased (random) sequence populations as long as the appropriate in vitro selection strategies can be implemented for their identification. Notably, in vitro selection is different in key conceptual and practical ways from rational design, screening, and directed evolution. This Account describes the development by in vitro selection of DNA catalysts for many different kinds of covalent modification reactions of peptide and protein substrates, inspired in part by our earlier work with DNA-catalyzed RNA ligation reactions. In one set of studies, we have sought DNA-catalyzed peptide backbone cleavage, with the long-term goal of artificial DNA-based proteases. We originally anticipated that amide hydrolysis should be readily achieved, but in vitro selection instead surprisingly led to deoxyribozymes for DNA phosphodiester hydrolysis; this was unexpected because uncatalyzed amide bond hydrolysis is 10(5)-fold faster. After developing a suitable selection approach that actively avoids DNA hydrolysis, we were able to identify deoxyribozymes for hydrolysis of esters and aromatic amides (anilides). Aliphatic amide cleavage remains an ongoing focus, including via inclusion of chemically modified DNA nucleotides in the catalyst, which we have recently found to enable this cleavage reaction. In numerous other efforts, we have investigated DNA-catalyzed peptide side chain modification reactions. Key successes include nucleopeptide formation (attachment of oligonucleotides to peptide side chains) and phosphatase and kinase activities (removal and attachment of phosphoryl groups to side chains). Through all of these efforts, we have learned the importance of careful selection design, including the frequent need to develop specific "capture" reactions that enable the selection process to provide only those DNA sequences that have the desired catalytic functions. We have established strategies for identifying deoxyribozymes that accept discrete peptide and protein substrates, and we have obtained data to inform the key choice of random region length at the outset of selection experiments. Finally, we have demonstrated the viability of modular deoxyribozymes that include a small-molecule-binding aptamer domain, although the value of such modularity is found to be minimal, with implications for many selection endeavors. Advances such as those summarized in this Account reveal that DNA has considerable catalytic abilities for biochemically relevant reactions, specifically including covalent protein modifications. Moreover, DNA has substantially different, and in many ways better, characteristics than do small molecules or proteins for a catalyst that is obtained "from scratch" without demanding any existing information on catalyst structure or mechanism. Therefore, prospects are very strong for continued development and eventual practical applications of deoxyribozymes for peptide and protein modification. PMID:25939889

  9. Bt Toxin Modification for Enhanced Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Deist, Benjamin R.; Rausch, Michael A.; Fernandez-Luna, Maria Teresa; Adang, Michael J.; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2014-01-01

    Insect-specific toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provide a valuable resource for pest suppression. Here we review the different strategies that have been employed to enhance toxicity against specific target species including those that have evolved resistance to Bt, or to modify the host range of Bt crystal (Cry) and cytolytic (Cyt) toxins. These strategies include toxin truncation, modification of protease cleavage sites, domain swapping, site-directed mutagenesis, peptide addition, and phage display screens for mutated toxins with enhanced activity. Toxin optimization provides a useful approach to extend the utility of these proteins for suppression of pests that exhibit low susceptibility to native Bt toxins, and to overcome field resistance. PMID:25340556

  10. Bt toxin modification for enhanced efficacy.

    PubMed

    Deist, Benjamin R; Rausch, Michael A; Fernandez-Luna, Maria Teresa; Adang, Michael J; Bonning, Bryony C

    2014-10-01

    Insect-specific toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provide a valuable resource for pest suppression. Here we review the different strategies that have been employed to enhance toxicity against specific target species including those that have evolved resistance to Bt, or to modify the host range of Bt crystal (Cry) and cytolytic (Cyt) toxins. These strategies include toxin truncation, modification of protease cleavage sites, domain swapping, site-directed mutagenesis, peptide addition, and phage display screens for mutated toxins with enhanced activity. Toxin optimization provides a useful approach to extend the utility of these proteins for suppression of pests that exhibit low susceptibility to native Bt toxins, and to overcome field resistance. PMID:25340556

  11. Genome modification by CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuanwu; Zhang, Lianfeng; Huang, Xingxu

    2014-12-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein (Cas)9-mediated genome modification enables us to edit the genomes of a variety of organisms rapidly and efficiently. The advantages of the CRISPR-Cas9 system have made it an increasingly popular genetic engineering tool for biological and therapeutic applications. Moreover, CRISPR-Cas9 has been employed to recruit functional domains that repress/activate gene expression or label specific genomic loci in living cells or organisms, in order to explore developmental mechanisms, gene expression regulation, and animal behavior. One major concern about this system is its specificity; although CRISPR-Cas9-mediated off-target mutation has been broadly studied, more efforts are required to further improve the specificity of CRISPR-Cas9. We will also discuss the potential applications of CRISPR-Cas9. PMID:25315507

  12. Restriction modification systems as engines of diversity

    PubMed Central

    Sneppen, Kim; Semsey, Szabolcs; Seshasayee, Aswin S. N.; Krishna, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Restriction modification (RM) systems provide protection against a broad spectrum of phages. However, the likelihood of a phage permanently bypassing this can be as high as 0.1 per infection (Korona et al., 1993) which makes for a relatively weak defense. Here we argue that, apart from providing such transient defenses, RM systems can facilitate long-term coexistence of many bacterial strains. We show that this diversity can be as large as the burst size of the phage but no larger—a curious correspondence between a number at the level of species and another number at the level of individuals. Such a highly diverse and stably coexisting ecosystem is robust to substantial variation in both bacterial growth rates and strength of their RM systems, which might be one reason why quite weak RM systems exist in the wild. PMID:26082758

  13. Surface modifications of some nanocomposites containing starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascu, M.-C.; Popescu, M.-C.; Vasile, C.

    2008-09-01

    Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites have attracted strong interest in today's materials research, due to the possible impressive enhancements of material properties, comparatively with those of pure polymers. Several starch/poly(vinylalcohol)/montmorillonite nanocomposites have been subjected to surface modification by physical treatments such as dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) exposure and coating with proteins (albumin) or polysaccharides (chitosan), for improving their biocompatibility. Untreated and treated surfaces have been comparatively studied by contact angle measurements, FT-IR and 2D-FT-IR spectroscopy and optical microscopy. It has been established that enhancement of the surface characteristics depends on the type and number of incorporated nanoparticles as well as on the treatment applied. Coupling of DBD exposure and coating techniques appears to be highly efficient.

  14. Filtering Gravity: Modification at Large Distances?

    E-print Network

    Dvali, Gia

    2005-01-01

    In this lecture I address the issue of possible large distance modification of gravity and its observational consequences. Although, for the illustrative purposes we focus on a particular simple generally-covariant example, our conclusions are rather general and apply to large class of theories in which, already at the Newtonian level, gravity changes the regime at a certain very large crossover distance $r_c$. In such theories the cosmological evolution gets dramatically modified at the crossover scale, usually exhibiting a "self-accelerated" expansion, which can be differentiated from more conventional "dark energy" scenarios by precision cosmology. However, unlike the latter scenarios, theories of modified-gravity are extremely constrained (and potentially testable) by the precision gravitational measurements at much shorter scales. Despite the presence of extra polarizations of graviton, the theory is compatible with observations, since the naive perturbative expansion in Newton's constant breaks down at ...

  15. Post-translational Modification and Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuejun; Pattison, J. Scott; Su, Huabo

    2013-01-01

    Protein quality control (PQC) functions to minimize the level and toxicity of misfolded proteins in the cell. PQC is performed by intricate collaboration among chaperones and target protein degradation. The latter is carried out primarily by the ubiquitin-proteasome system and perhaps autophagy. Terminally misfolded proteins that are not timely removed tend to form aggregates. Their clearance requires macroautophagy. Macroautophagy serves in intracellular quality control also by selectively segregating defective organelles (e.g., mitochondria) and targeting them for degradation by the lysosome. Inadequate PQC is observed in a large subset of failing human hearts with a variety of etiologies and its pathogenic role has been experimentally demonstrated. Multiple post-translational modifications (PTMs) can occur to substrate proteins and/or PQC machineries, promoting or hindering the removal of the misfolded proteins. This article highlights recent advances in PTMs-mediated regulation of intracellular quality control mechanisms and its known involvement in cardiac pathology. PMID:23329792

  16. A modification of 4330 alloy steel

    SciTech Connect

    Gogolewski, R.; Cunningham, B.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Gentile, R.; Fleming, S. (Norton Defense Systems, Mahwah, NJ (USA))

    1990-08-01

    We have developed a modification of 4330 alloy steel which does not have an exact equivalent expressed in any standard specification. When we compare the ballistic performance of our modified cast steel in thicknesses of about 120 mm with that of stacked, 24 mm thick rolled 4340 alloy steel plates of comparable hardness and the same total thickness, we do not find a significant difference in terminal ballistic performance against either heavy metal kinetic energy penetrators or precision shaped charges. This result is surprising in relation to contemporary experience in which cast steel has been found to be ballistically inferior to rolled steel against either kinetic energy projectiles or shaped charge warheads. 1 ref., 9 figs.

  17. [Modification and decoration of transposase: a review].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qianqian; Zhou, Mingbing

    2014-10-01

    Transposons are the mobile and autonomic replication DNA fragments in genomes. With more understanding of the structure and function of transposons, numerous transposons have been developed to the genetics tool for gene function analysis, gene transformation and gene therapy. The low transpositional activity of the natural transposons is the main obstacles to the utilization of transposons. Recently, with the progress in bioinformatics and protein engineering methods, researchers have reconstructed and optimized natural transposases to create hyperactive transposases that catalyze the transposition with high efficiency. The resulted hyperactive transposons have been applied to gene-modification and gene-tagging. Meanwhile, transposase chimeras were created by protein fusion technology. The insertion characteristic of transposons were artificially regulated which could be utilized in gene therapy. PMID:25726575

  18. 47 CFR 1.947 - Modification of licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...947 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Wireless Radio Services Applications and Proceedings Application Requirements and Procedures § 1.947 Modification of...

  19. Biomolecular Modification of Inorganic Crystal Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Yoreo, James J.

    2007-06-01

    The fascinating shapes and hierarchical designs of biomineralized structures are an inspiration to materials scientists because of the potential they suggest for biomolecular control over materials synthesis. Conversely, the failure to prevent or limit tissue mineralization in the vascular, skeletal, and urinary systems is a common source of disease. Understanding the mechanisms by which organisms direct or limit crystallization has long been a central challenge to the biomineralization community. One prevailing view is that mineral-associated macromolecules are responsible for either inhibiting crystallization or initiating and stabilizing non-equilibrium crystal polymorphs and morphologies through interactions between anionic moieties and cations in solution or at mineralizing surfaces. In particular, biomolecules that present carboxyl groups to the growing crystal have been implicated as primary modulators of growth. Here we review the results from a combination of in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and molecular modeling (MM) studies to investigate the effect of specific interactions between carboxylate-rich biomolecules and atomic steps on crystal surfaces during the growth of carbonates, oxalates and phosphates of calcium. Specifically, we how the growth kinetics and morphology depend on the concentration of additives that include citrate, simple amino acids, synthetic Asp-rich polypeptides, and naturally occurring Asp-rich proteins found in both functional and pathological mineral tissues. The results reveal a consistent picture of shape modification in which stereochemical matching of modifiers to specific atomic steps drives shape modification. Inhibition and other changes in growth kinetics are shown to be due to a range of mechanisms that depend on chemistry and molecular size. Some effects are well described by classic crystal growth theories, but others, such as step acceleration due to peptide charge and hydrophylicity, were previously unrealized. Finally, we show that the molecular scale observations are well correlated with macroscopic growth rate data.

  20. Bivalent histone modifications during tooth development.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Li-Wei; Zhang, Bin-Peng; Xu, Ruo-Shi; Xu, Xin; Ye, Ling; Zhou, Xue-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Histone methylation is one of the most widely studied post-transcriptional modifications. It is thought to be an important epigenetic event that is closely associated with cell fate determination and differentiation. To explore the spatiotemporal expression of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) epigenetic marks and methylation or demethylation transferases in tooth organ development, we measured the expression of SET7, EZH2, KDM5B and JMJD3 via immunohistochemistry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis in the first molar of BALB/c mice embryos at E13.5, E15.5, E17.5, P0 and P3, respectively. We also measured the expression of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 with immunofluorescence staining. During murine tooth germ development, methylation or demethylation transferases were expressed in a spatial-temporal manner. The bivalent modification characterized by H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 can be found during the tooth germ development, as shown by immunofluorescence. The expression of SET7, EZH2 as methylation transferases and KDM5B and JMJD3 as demethylation transferases indicated accordingly with the expression of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 respectively to some extent. The bivalent histone may play a critical role in tooth organ development via the regulation of cell differentiation. PMID:25394593

  1. How google analytics and conventional cookie tracking techniques overestimate unique visitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Max I. Fomitchev

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of the analysis of website traffic logs and argue that both unique IP address and cookies vastly overestimate unique visitors, e.g. by factor of 8 in our studies. Google Analytics 'absolute unique visitors' measure is shown to produce similar 6x overestimation. To address the problem we present a new model for relating unique visitors to IP

  2. The Eigenvector Moment Flow and local Quantum Unique Ergodicty

    E-print Network

    Paul Bourgade; Horng-Tzer Yau

    2015-05-17

    We prove that the distribution of eigenvectors of generalized Wigner matrices is universal both in the bulk and at the edge. This includes a probabilistic version of local quantum unique ergodicity and asymptotic normality of the eigenvector entries. The proof relies on analyzing the eigenvector flow under the Dyson Brownian motion. The key new ideas are: (1) the introduction of the eigenvector moment flow, a multi-particle random walk in a random environment, (2) an effective estimate on the regularity of this flow based on maximum principle and (3) optimal finite speed of propagation holds for the eigenvector moment flow with very high probability.

  3. Novel particulate production processes to create unique security materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampden-Smith, Mark; Kodas, Toivo; Haubrich, Scott; Oljaca, Miki; Einhorn, Rich; Williams, Darryl

    2006-02-01

    Particles are frequently used to impart security features to high value items. These particles are typically produced by traditional methods, and therefore the security must be derived from the chemical composition of the particles rather than the particle production process. Here, we present new and difficult-to-reproduce particle production processes based on spray pyrolysis that can produce unique particles and features that are dependent on the use of these new-to-the-world processes and process trade secrets. Specifically two examples of functional materials are described, luminescent materials and electrocatalytic materials.

  4. Unique features of retrovirus expression in F/St mice.

    PubMed Central

    Morse, H C; Kozak, C A; Yetter, R A; Hartley, J W

    1982-01-01

    F/St mice are unique in producing high levels of both ecotropic and xenotropic murine leukemia virus. The high ecotropic virus phenotype is determined by three or more V (virus-inducing) loci. A single locus for inducibility of xenotropic murine leukemia virus was mapped to chromosome 1 close to, but possibly not allelic to, Bxv-1. Although the high ecotropic virus phenotype is phenotypically dominant, the high xenotropic virus phenotype was recessive in all crosses tested. Suppression of xenotropic murine leukemia virus is governed by a single gene which is not linked to the xenotropic V locus. PMID:6286989

  5. Tourette Syndrome and Bipolar Disorder: Unique Problems with Pediatric Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Kavoor, Anjana Rao; Mitra, Sayantanava; Mehta, Varun S; Goyal, Nishant; Sinha, Vinod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder are frequent comorbidities in pediatric age group. They provide a clinician with certain unique challenges. While on one hand the tics mask manifestation of affective symptomatology, the latter makes it difficult to elicit tics with certainty. Data suggest that they might share genetic and neurobiological basis and this is currently an area of extensive research. These clinical and biological overlaps provide grey areas in our understanding, which not only complicates the diagnosis, but also poses problems with management. PMID:25969612

  6. Inverse uniqueness results for one-dimensional weighted Dirac operators

    E-print Network

    Jonathan Eckhardt; Aleksey Kostenko; Gerald Teschl

    2014-07-29

    Given a one-dimensional weighted Dirac operator we can define a spectral measure by virtue of singular Weyl-Titchmarsh-Kodaira theory. Using the theory of de Branges spaces we show that the spectral measure uniquely determines the Dirac operator up to a gauge transformation. Our result applies in particular to radial Dirac operators and extends the classical results for Dirac operators with one regular endpoint. Moreover, our result also improves the currently known results for canonical (Hamiltonian) systems. If one endpoint is limit circle case, we also establish corresponding two-spectra results.

  7. Unique Signature of Dark Matter in Ancient Mica

    E-print Network

    Snowden-Ifft, D P; Snowden-Ifft, Daniel P.; Westphal, Andrew J.

    1997-01-01

    Mica can store (for >1 Gy) etchable tracks caused by atoms recoiling from WIMPs. Because a background from fission neutrons will eventually limit this technique, a unique signature for WIMPs in ancient mica is needed. Our motion around the center of the Galaxy causes WIMPs, unlike neutrons, to enter the mica from a preferred direction on the sky. Mica is a directional detector and despite the complex rotations that natural mica crystals make with respect to this WIMP ``wind,'' there is a substantial dependence of etch pit density on present day mica orientation.

  8. Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder: unique problems with pediatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Kavoor, Anjana Rao; Mitra, Sayantanava; Mehta, Varun S; Goyal, Nishant; Sinha, Vinod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder are frequent comorbidities in pediatric age group. They provide a clinician with certain unique challenges. While on one hand the tics mask manifestation of affective symptomatology, the latter makes it difficult to elicit tics with certainty. Data suggest that they might share genetic and neurobiological basis and this is currently an area of extensive research. These clinical and biological overlaps provide grey areas in our understanding, which not only complicates the diagnosis, but also poses problems with management. PMID:25969612

  9. Focus groups. A unique approach to curriculum development.

    PubMed

    Kooker, B M; Shoultz, J; Sloat, A R; Trotter, C M

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the use and effectiveness of focus group methodology for curriculum development. This unique approach grew from the investigators' belief in the application of the principles of primary health care in designing a curriculum for community-based nursing education. The specific content and outcomes of the focus groups in relation to three curricular themes are reported in this journal in the article "Community-Based Nursing Education: Research Study from the NLN Vision for Nursing Education--Hawai'i, Phase II." The current article concentrates on the process and methods used. PMID:10478071

  10. Hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia: unique histopathological findings in skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Leithauser, Laurel A; Mutasim, Diya F

    2012-04-01

    Hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia (HMD) is a rare, autosomal dominantly inherited, multisystem disease thought to be caused by abnormalities in desmosomes and gap junctions. HMD affects the skin, mucosae, hair, eyes and lungs. Nearly all patients clinically display the triad of non-scarring alopecia, well-demarcated mucosal erythema and erythematous intertriginous plaques. Although histopathological findings of mucous membrane epithelium have been well characterized, only three reports have described histopathologic findings in the skin. We report a case with unique histopathological findings not previously reported in HMD. PMID:22443394

  11. Bimaxillary presentation of central ossifying fibroma: a unique aggressive entity

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Kiran; Gupta, Kavita; Manjunatha, B S; Palan, Soniya

    2013-01-01

    Central ossifying fibroma is a benign neoplasm, having slow growing nature. Some rare lesions show very aggressive nature, multifocal appearance and reach up to a very massive size. So, these kinds of cases require special attention for their treatment. A unique case of central ossifying fibroma with aggressive nature, multifocal appearance is reported. This case shows growth both in maxilla and mandible with maxillary lesion massive in size involving maxillary sinus. There have not been any such cases reported so far in the literature showing bimaxillary growth of ossifying fibroma. PMID:23774709

  12. ACFER 094, a uniquely primitive carbonaceous chondrite from the Sahara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, J.; Bischoff, A.; Arden, J. W.; Franchi, I. A.; Geiger, T.; Greshake, A.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1995-01-01

    The Saharan meteorite Acfer 094 is a unique type of carbonaceous chondrite. Mineralogical and petrological considerations and O isotopes are unable to distinguish unambiguously between a CO3 vs. CM2 classification. The other important light elements, C and N, have systematics that do not match any previously recognized meteorite group. Particularly important in this respect is the very low C/N ratio and delta C-13 of the macromolecular C. Acfer 094 has more diamond and SiC, especially X type grains, than any other specimen studied, suggesting minimal thermal or aqueous processing to decrease its very primitive status.

  13. On uniqueness and non-degeneracy of anisotropic polarons

    E-print Network

    Julien Ricaud

    2014-12-03

    We study the anisotropic Choquard--Pekar equation which de-scribes a polaron in an anisotropic medium. We prove the uniqueness and non-degeneracy of minimizers in a weakly anisotropic medium. In addition, for a wide range of anisotropic media, we derive the symmetry properties of minimizers and prove that the kernel of the associated linearized operator is reduced, apart from three functions coming from the translation invariance, to the kernel on the subspace of functions that are even in each of the three principal directions of the medium.

  14. Unique determination of model coronal magnetic fields using photospheric observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Xuepu; Hoeksema, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    We show that the nonradial field-boundary condition (or the line-of-sight boundary condition) for the Laplacian-like equation developed by Bogdan and Low (1986) is sufficient to uniquely determine the model coronal magnetic field provided the electric currents are horizontal (or zero, the current-free case) at the solar surface as well as in the solar atmosphere between the photosphere and the source surface. The derived recursion formulae for the spherical harmonic coefficients can be used to determine the spherical harmonic coefficients in the solutions of the horizontal current models very efficiently.

  15. A unique approach to fixed occipito-cervico-thoracic deformity.

    PubMed

    Aw, G E; Mobbs, R J

    2013-04-01

    We discuss a unique approach to a patient who presented with severe kyphosis and laterolisthesis of the cranio-cervico-thoracic spine, following a history of neck trauma 24months prior to presentation. The patient had organized voluntary euthanasia if no treatment could be performed. Our approach included a three-part procedure over a 3-week time interval, including: initial traction, division of anterior neck muscles, multilevel anterior fusion and, finally, posterior occipito-cervico-thoracic fusion. Follow-up at 6months revealed a patient in neutral sagittal and coronal balance of the neck. PMID:23313528

  16. A unique exercise facility for simulating orbital extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, Rebecca C.; Sharer, Peter J.; Webbon, Bruce W.

    1993-01-01

    A unique exercise facility has been developed and used to simulate orbital extravehicular activity (EVA). The device incorporates an arm ergometer into a mechanism which places the subject in the zero-g neutral body posture. The intent of this configuration is to elicit muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses similar to those observed during orbital EVA. Experiments done with this facility will help characterize the astronaut's dynamic heat balance during EVA and will eventually lead to the development of an automated thermal control system which would more effectively maintain thermal comfort.

  17. Large fungating thyroid cancers: a unique surgical challenge.

    PubMed

    Harjit, Kaur D; Hisham, Abdullah N

    2005-01-01

    Large goitres are common in the developing world, particularly in Asia and Africa. Nonetheless, large fungating goitres are extremely rare and represent a unique challenge to surgeons. Surgery should always be considered, when the general condition of the patient permits, to provide a better quality of life as it offers the only hope of long-term survival. The potential gain with surgery is that it allows maximum benefit for more effective radioactive iodine ablation and radiotherapy treatment. We report two cases of large fungating thyroid cancers complicated by anaemia and foul-smelling discharge. PMID:15691799

  18. On the uniqueness of flow in a recent tsunami model

    E-print Network

    Octavian G. Mustafa

    2011-03-12

    We give an elementary proof of uniqueness for the integral curve starting from the vertical axis in the phase-plane analysis of the recent model [A. Constantin, R.S. Johnson, Propagation of very long water waves, with vorticity, over variable depth, with applications to tsunamis, Fluid Dynam. Res. 40 (2008), 175--211]. Our technique can be applied easily in circumstances where the reparametrization device from [A. Constantin, A dynamical systems approach towards isolated vorticity regions for tsunami background states, Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. doi: 10.1007/s00205-010-0347-1] might lead to some serious difficulties.

  19. On the uniqueness of flow in a recent tsunami model

    E-print Network

    Mustafa, Octavian G

    2011-01-01

    We give an elementary proof of uniqueness for the integral curve starting from the vertical axis in the phase-plane analysis of the recent model [A. Constantin, R.S. Johnson, Propagation of very long water waves, with vorticity, over variable depth, with applications to tsunamis, Fluid Dynam. Res. 40 (2008), 175--211]. Our technique can be applied easily in circumstances where the reparametrization device from [A. Constantin, A dynamical systems approach towards isolated vorticity regions for tsunami background states, Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. doi: 10.1007/s00205-010-0347-1] might lead to some serious difficulties.

  20. The existence and uniqueness of standard static splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aledo, Juan A.; Romero, Alfonso; Rubio, Rafael M.

    2015-05-01

    New techniques are introduced to study the existence and uniqueness of the static standard splitting of a static spacetime, and as a consequence, several results are provided in the field of geometric analysis. In particular, we obtain a rigidity result for compact spacelike hypersurfaces with a boundary, we solve a Dirichlet problem for the non-linear elliptic maximal hypersurface equation in a standard static spacetime, and finally we provide an upper bound for the first nontrivial eigenvalue of the Laplacian operator for a compact spacelike surface in certain standard static spacetimes.

  1. Gibbs Measures on Marked Configuration Spaces: Existence and Uniqueness

    E-print Network

    Diana Conache; Alexei Daletskii; Yuri Kondratiev; Tanja Pasurek

    2015-03-21

    We study equilibrium states of an infinite system of interacting particles in a Euclidean space. The particles bear `unbounded' spins with a given symmetric a priori distribution. The interaction between the particles is pairwise and splits into position-position and spin-spin parts. The position-position part is described by a superstable potential, and the spin-spin part is attractive and of finite range. Thermodynamic states of the system are defined as tempered Gibbs measures on the space of marked configurations. We derive sufficient conditions of the existence and uniqueness of these Gibbs measures.

  2. Obstetric anesthesia for harlequin ichthyosis: a unique challenge.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Thea; Rosenbaum, Eric R; Lienhart, Kristen L; Choate, Andrea I

    2015-01-15

    Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is a rare disorder of defective lipid transport resulting in severe epidermal hyperkeratosis producing large plate-like scales. Although mortality is high, improved treatments have allowed some with HI to survive into their third and fourth decades. However, until this case, there have been no known reports of pregnancy followed by birth of a healthy neonate to a mother with HI. We report one of the only approximately 25 known current HI survivors worldwide unique in having carried a pregnancy to full term and outline challenges for the anesthesiologist during labor and delivery. PMID:25611001

  3. Some Unique Constants Associated with Extremal Black Holes

    E-print Network

    C. Sivaram; Kenath Arun

    2012-02-04

    In recent papers we had developed a unified picture of black hole entropy and curvature which was shown to lead to Hawking radiation. It was shown that for any black hole mass, holography implies a phase space of just one quantum associated with the interior of the black hole. Here we study extremal rotating and charged black holes and obtain unique values for ratios of angular momentum to entropy, charge to entropy, etc. It turns out that these ratios can be expressed in terms of fundamental constants in nature, having analogies with other physical systems, like in condensed matter physics.

  4. Unique case of a geminated supernumerary tooth with trifid crown

    PubMed Central

    Ather, Hunaiza; Sheth, Sanket Milan; Muliya, Vidya Saraswathi

    2012-01-01

    Gemination, a relatively uncommon dental anomaly, is characterized by its peculiar representation as a tooth with a bifid crown and a common root and root canal. It usually occurs in primary dentition. To come across gemination in a supernumerary tooth is a rare phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to present a unique case of hyperdontia wherein gemination in an impacted supernumerary tooth resulted in a trifid crown unlike the usual bifid crown. The role of conventional radiographs as well as computed tomography, to accurately determine the morphology and spatial location, and to arrive at a diagnosis, is also emphasized in this paper. PMID:23071971

  5. Modality specific semantic knowledge loss for unique items.

    PubMed

    Kartsounis, L D; Shallice, T

    1996-03-01

    We report the case of a man who, following a major myocardial infarction, suffered anoxia followed by significant event memory impairment. Investigations indicated that his semantic memory for word concepts and object meanings was well preserved. However, he had great difficulty in identifying in the visual (but not verbal) modality historically known people, such as Queen Elizabeth I and Napoleon, and well known world and London landmarks, such as the Parthenon and Buckingham Palace. This selective impairment could not be accounted for in terms of prosopagnosia or high level visual perceptual deficits and we interpret it as a modality specific semantic memory loss for unique objects. PMID:8697742

  6. Unique appendages associated with spores of Bacillus cereus isolates.

    PubMed

    Mizuki, E; Ohba, M; Ichimatsu, T; Hwang, S H; Higuchi, K; Saitoh, H; Akao, T

    1998-01-01

    Electron microscopic observations revealed the presence of a new type of large appendage on the spores of two Bacillus cereus strains isolated from phylloplanes. The appendages were thin and sword-like in shape, having the sizes of 1.5 to 2.8 microns in length and 0.03 to 0.6 micron in width. There were no core or sheath structures in these appendages. The number of appendages on a spore ranged from three to more than twenty, radiating from the swelling on one end of the exosporium. These appendages gave a unique octopus- or jellyfish-like feature to the spores. PMID:9542106

  7. Unique stalked crinoids from Upper Cretaceous of Mississippi

    E-print Network

    Moore, R. C.

    1967-05-19

    unique in that they are the only yet-discovered fossils belonging to this group from any part of the world in which long pinnulate arms are attached to the dorsal cups. Also, proximal-intermediate and distal regions of the column are shown to be markedly dissimilar, the former... of Mississippi as region which has yielded the only adequately complete stalked Cre- taceous crinoids found anywhere in the world. The crinoids have a diminutive, steeply conical dorsal cup and five delicate unbranched arms which give off long pinnules from...

  8. A Spectroscopically Unique Main Belt Asteroid: 10537 (1991 RY16)

    E-print Network

    Nicholas A. Moskovitz; Samuel Lawrence; Robert Jedicke; Mark Willman; Nader Haghighipour; Schelte J. Bus; Eric Gaidos

    2008-06-13

    We present visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra and interpreted surface mineralogy for asteroid 10537 (1991 RY16). The spectrum of this object is without precedent amongst the Main Belt asteroids. A unique absorption band centered at 0.63 microns could be attributed to one of several mineralogies. Pronounced 1- and 2-micron absorption bands suggest that the composition of 10537 is a mixture of pyroxenes and olivine and that it originated from a parent body that was partially or fully differentiated. The closest available analog is the large Main Belt asteroid 349 Dembowska but 10537 may be an isolated fragment from a completely eroded parent body.

  9. Unique mechanism of chance fracture in a young adult male.

    PubMed

    Birch, Aaron; Walsh, Ryan; Devita, Diane

    2013-03-01

    Since the first description of the Chance fracture in 1948, there have been few case reports of unique mechanisms causing this classical flexion-extension injury to the spine in motor vehicle accidents, sports injury, and falls. To our knowledge, this injury has not been reported from a fall with the mechanistic forces acting laterally on the spine and with spinal support in place. We present a 21-year-old male who slid down a flight of stairs onto his side wearing a heavy mountaineering style backpack, subsequently sustaining a Chance fracture of his first lumbar vertebrae. PMID:23599852

  10. Breaking the uniqueness of the Shape Dynamics Hamiltonian

    E-print Network

    Henrique Gomes

    2012-01-20

    In earlier works on Shape Dynamics (SD), a linear method of solving a particular set of Lichnerowicz-type equations through the implicit function theorem was developed in order to implicitly construct SD's global Hamiltonian and eliminate second class constraints. This method was later used for extending Shape Dynamics (SD) to the non-vacuum case, showing how other fields are coupled to the theory. In that study it was found that unlike the vacuum case the use of such methods yielded puzzling bounds on the density of some types of fields. Here we show that the original SD cannot be extended beyond such bounds, but that a slight modification of the original can withstand any type of coupling. When the bound is broken, the theory does not come equipped with a single Hamiltonian as in vacuum SD, but with a finite set of weakly commuting Hamiltonians, which we describe.

  11. Core and Shell Song Systems Unique to the Parrot Brain.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Walløe, Solveig; Nedergaard, Signe; Fridel, Emma E; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pakkenberg, Bente; Bertelsen, Mads F; Dorrestein, Gerry M; Brauth, Steven E; Durand, Sarah E; Jarvis, Erich D

    2015-01-01

    The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found with other avian vocal learners. Motivated by questions of whether there are important differences in the vocal systems of parrots relative to other vocal learners, we used specialized constitutive gene expression, singing-driven gene expression, and neural connectivity tracing experiments to further characterize the song system of budgerigars and/or other parrots. We found that the parrot brain uniquely contains a song system within a song system. The parrot "core" song system is similar to the song systems of songbirds and hummingbirds, whereas the "shell" song system is unique to parrots. The core with only rudimentary shell regions were found in the New Zealand kea, representing one of the only living species at a basal divergence with all other parrots, implying that parrots evolved vocal learning systems at least 29 million years ago. Relative size differences in the core and shell regions occur among species, which we suggest could be related to species differences in vocal and cognitive abilities. PMID:26107173

  12. Rationality, Irrationality and Escalating Behavior in Lowest Unique Bid Auctions

    PubMed Central

    Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea; Amaral, Luís A. N.

    2012-01-01

    Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions – lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of “bid space”. The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets. PMID:22279553

  13. Unique human orbital morphology compared with that of apes

    PubMed Central

    Denion, Eric; Hitier, Martin; Guyader, Vincent; Dugué, Audrey-Emmanuelle; Mouriaux, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Humans’ and apes’ convergent (front-facing) orbits allow a large overlap of monocular visual fields but are considered to limit the lateral visual field extent. However, humans can greatly expand their lateral visual fields using eye motion. This study aimed to assess whether the human orbital morphology was unique compared with that of apes in avoiding lateral visual field obstruction. The orbits of 100 human skulls and 120 ape skulls (30 gibbons; 30 orangutans; 30 gorillas; 30 chimpanzees and bonobos) were analyzed. The orbital width/height ratio was calculated. Two orbital angles representing orbital convergence and rearward position of the orbital margin respectively were recorded using a protractor and laser levels. Humans have the largest orbital width/height ratio (1.19; p?uniquely rearward temporal orbital margin (107.1°; p?

  14. Unique Features and Spacecraft Applications of Dynamic Isotope Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Raab, B.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamic isotope power system represents the most recent attempt to develop a heat-engine generator for space electric power. A major objective in this most recent effort was to increase the power and to reduce the cost of nuclear space power systems to the point where the unique features of this power source could be brought to bear for Earth-orbit missions which could benefit therefrom. This objective was largely achieved; both weight and cost of the dynamic isotope systems are comparable to solar power systems. The dynamic isotope power system, designed for spacecraft requiring prime power in the 500-2000 W range, has been successfully built and ground tested. A number of studies, summarized herein, have demonstrated the advantages of using such a power system instead of the conventional solar system for a variety of Earth-orbit missions. These advantages stem from the unique nature of the dynamic isotope system, different in kind from solar power systems. As a result, in many cases, the spacecraft design can be significantly simplified and more closely harmonized with mission requirements. This overall advantage can be crucial in missions which have stringent pointing, stability, viewing, and/or positioning requirements.

  15. Common processes at unique volcanoes – a volcanological conundrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cashman, Katharine; Biggs, Juliet

    2014-11-01

    An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behaviour over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behaviour (or “personality”). In contrast, volcano classification schemes define eruption “styles” referenced to “type” volcanoes (e.g. Plinian, Strombolian, Vulcanian); this approach implicitly assumes that common processes underpin volcanic activity and can be used to predict the nature, extent and ensuing hazards of individual volcanoes. Actual volcanic eruptions, however, often include multiple styles, and type volcanoes may experience atypical eruptions (e.g., violent explosive eruptions of Kilauea, Hawaii1). The volcanological community is thus left with a fundamental conundrum that pits the uniqueness of individual volcanic systems against generalization of common processes. Addressing this challenge represents a major challenge to volcano research.

  16. Quantum Gowdy T3 model: a uniqueness result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Cortez, Jerónimo; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Velhinho, José M.

    2006-11-01

    Modulo a homogeneous degree of freedom and a global constraint, the linearly polarized Gowdy T3 cosmologies are equivalent to a free scalar field propagating in a fixed nonstationary background. Recently, a new field parametrization was proposed for the metric of the Gowdy spacetimes such that the associated scalar field evolves in a flat background in (1+1) dimensions with the spatial topology of S1, although subject to a time-dependent potential. Introducing a suitable Fock quantization for this scalar field, a quantum theory was constructed for the Gowdy model in which the dynamics is implemented as a unitary transformation. A question that was left open is whether one might adopt a different, nonequivalent Fock representation by selecting a distinct complex structure. The present work proves that the chosen Fock quantization is in fact unique (up to unitary equivalence) if one demands unitary implementation of the dynamics and invariance under the group of S1 translations. These translations are precisely those generated by the global constraint that remains on the Gowdy model. It is also shown that the proof of uniqueness in the choice of the complex structure can be applied to more general field dynamics than that corresponding to the Gowdy cosmologies.

  17. Unique Genotypic Differences Discovered among Indigenous Bangladeshi Rice Landraces

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Sabrina M.; Haque, Taslima; Mahbub Hasan, A. K. M.; Seraj, Zeba I.

    2014-01-01

    Bangladesh is a reservoir of diverse rice germplasm and is home to many landraces with unique, important traits. Molecular characterization of these landraces is of value for their identification, preservation, and potential use in breeding programs. Thirty-eight rice landraces from different regions of Bangladesh including some high yielding BRRI varieties were analyzed by 34 polymorphic microsatellite markers yielding a total of 258 reproducible alleles. The analysis could locate 34 unique identifiers for 21 genotypes, making the latter potentially amenable to identity verification. An identity map for these genotypes was constructed with all the 12 chromosomes of the rice genome. Polymorphism information content (PIC) scores of the 34 SSR markers were 0.098 to 0.89 where on average 7.5 alleles were observed. A dendogram constructed using UPGMA clustered the varieties into two major groups and five subgroups. In some cases, the clustering matched with properties like aromaticity, stickiness, salt tolerance, and photoperiod insensitivity. The results will help breeders to work towards the proper utilization of these landraces for parental selection and linkage map construction for discovery of useful alleles. PMID:25301195

  18. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    PubMed

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-01

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus. PMID:25891406

  19. Core and Shell Song Systems Unique to the Parrot Brain

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Walløe, Solveig; Nedergaard, Signe; Fridel, Emma E.; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pakkenberg, Bente; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Brauth, Steven E.; Durand, Sarah E.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found with other avian vocal learners. Motivated by questions of whether there are important differences in the vocal systems of parrots relative to other vocal learners, we used specialized constitutive gene expression, singing-driven gene expression, and neural connectivity tracing experiments to further characterize the song system of budgerigars and/or other parrots. We found that the parrot brain uniquely contains a song system within a song system. The parrot “core” song system is similar to the song systems of songbirds and hummingbirds, whereas the “shell” song system is unique to parrots. The core with only rudimentary shell regions were found in the New Zealand kea, representing one of the only living species at a basal divergence with all other parrots, implying that parrots evolved vocal learning systems at least 29 million years ago. Relative size differences in the core and shell regions occur among species, which we suggest could be related to species differences in vocal and cognitive abilities. PMID:26107173

  20. Unique Properties of Lunar Impact Glass: Nanophase Metallic Fe Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Taylor, Lawrence A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Thompson, James R [ORNL; Schnare, Darren W. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Park, Jae-Sung [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2007-01-01

    Lunar regolith contains important materials that can be used for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) on the Moon, thereby providing for substantial economic savings for development of a manned base. However, virtually all activities on the Moon will be affected by the deleterious effects of the adhering, abrasive, and pervasive nature of lunar dust (<20 {micro}m portion of regolith, which constitutes {approx}20 wt% of the soil). In addition, the major impact-produced glass in the lunar soil, especially agglutinitic glass (60-80 vol% of the dust), contains unique nanometer-sized metallic Fe (np-Fe{sup 0}), which may pose severe pulmonary problems for humans. The presence of the np-Fe0 imparts considerable magnetic susceptibility to the fine portion of the lunar soil, and dust mitigation techniques can be designed using these magnetic properties. The limited availability of Apollo lunar soils for ISRU research has made it necessary to produce materials that simulate this unique np-Fe{sup 0} property, for testing different dust mitigation methods using electromagnetic fields, and for toxicity studies of human respiratory and pulmonary systems, and for microwave treatment of lunar soil to produce paved roads, etc. A method for synthesizing np-Fe{sup 0} in an amorphous silica matrix is presented here. This type of specific simulant can be used as an additive to other existing lunar soil simulants.

  1. Design, characterization and control of the Unique Mobility Corporation robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velasco, Virgilio B., Jr.; Newman, Wyatt S.; Steinetz, Bruce; Kopf, Carlo; Malik, John

    1994-01-01

    Space and mass are at a premium on any space mission, and thus any machinery designed for space use should be lightweight and compact, without sacrificing strength. It is for this reason that NASA/LeRC contracted Unique Mobility Corporation to exploit their novel actuator designs to build a robot that would advance the present state of technology with respect to these requirements. Custom-designed motors are the key feature of this robot. They are compact, high-performance dc brushless servo motors with a high pole count and low inductance, thus permitting high torque generation and rapid phase commutation. Using a custom-designed digital signal processor-based controller board, the pulse width modulation power amplifiers regulate the fast dynamics of the motor currents. In addition, the programmable digital signal processor (DSP) controller permits implementation of nonlinear compensation algorithms to account for motoring vs. regeneration, torque ripple, and back-EMF. As a result, the motors produce a high torque relative to their size and weight, and can do so with good torque regulation and acceptably high velocity saturation limits. This paper presents the Unique Mobility Corporation robot prototype: its actuators, its kinematic design, its control system, and its experimental characterization. Performance results, including saturation torques, saturation velocities and tracking accuracy tests are included.

  2. Unique life sciences research facilities at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulenburg, G. M.; Vasques, M.; Caldwell, W. F.; Tucker, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Life Science Division at NASA's Ames Research Center has a suite of specialized facilities that enable scientists to study the effects of gravity on living systems. This paper describes some of these facilities and their use in research. Seven centrifuges, each with its own unique abilities, allow testing of a variety of parameters on test subjects ranging from single cells through hardware to humans. The Vestibular Research Facility allows the study of both centrifugation and linear acceleration on animals and humans. The Biocomputation Center uses computers for 3D reconstruction of physiological systems, and interactive research tools for virtual reality modeling. Psycophysiological, cardiovascular, exercise physiology, and biomechanical studies are conducted in the 12 bed Human Research Facility and samples are analyzed in the certified Central Clinical Laboratory and other laboratories at Ames. Human bedrest, water immersion and lower body negative pressure equipment are also available to study physiological changes associated with weightlessness. These and other weightlessness models are used in specialized laboratories for the study of basic physiological mechanisms, metabolism and cell biology. Visual-motor performance, perception, and adaptation are studied using ground-based models as well as short term weightlessness experiments (parabolic flights). The unique combination of Life Science research facilities, laboratories, and equipment at Ames Research Center are described in detail in relation to their research contributions.

  3. Rationality, irrationality and escalating behavior in lowest unique bid auctions.

    PubMed

    Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea; Amaral, Luís A N

    2012-01-01

    Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions--lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of "bid space". The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets. PMID:22279553

  4. [Reactance proneness, collectivism, uniqueness, and resistance to persuasion].

    PubMed

    Imajo, Shuzo

    2002-10-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of Japanese psychological reactance scales. A total of 167 undergraduates completed a questionnaire of Therapeutic Reactance Scale (TRS), the Hong Reactance Scale (HRS), the Uniqueness Scale, and the Collectivism Scale. They also received messages involving three persuasion situations that were either high or low in terms of threat, and were asked to describe their reactions to them. The author categorized the reactions into three: acceptance, indirect resistance, and direct resistance. Reliabilities of the reactance scales were satisfactory. Their scores positively correlated with uniqueness scores, and negatively with collectivism scores. Those high on reactance proneness were less persuaded in two of the three situations. But in the third, an HRS by threat interaction was observed, indicating that only those who were high on reactance proneness under the high-threat condition showed resistance to persuasion. These results suggest that the Japanese versions of reactance scale were reliable and valid. However, the assertiveness aspect of TRS may not be appropriate for the definition of reactance. The influence of culture on psychological reactance was also discussed. PMID:12516187

  5. Covalent Adaptable Networks (CANs): A Unique Paradigm in Crosslinked Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Kloxin, Christopher J.; Scott, Timothy F.; Adzima, Brian J.; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2010-01-01

    Polymer networks possessing reversible covalent crosslinks constitute a novel material class with the capacity for adapting to an externally applied stimulus. These covalent adaptable networks (CANs) represent a trend in polymer network fabrication towards the rational design of structural materials possessing dynamic characteristics for specialty applications. Herein, we discuss the unique attributes of CANs that must be considered when designing, fabricating, and characterizing these smart materials that respond to either thermal or photochemical stimuli. While there are many reversible reactions which to consider as possible crosslink candidates in CANs, there are very few that are readily and repeatedly reversible. Furthermore, characterization of the mechanical properties of CANs requires special consideration owing to their unique attributes. Ultimately, these attributes are what lead to the advantageous properties displayed by CANs, such as recyclability, healability, tunability, shape changes, and low polymerization stress. Throughout this perspective, we identify several trends and future directions in the emerging field of CANs that demonstrate the progress to date as well as the essential elements that are needed for further advancement. PMID:20305795

  6. Unique Construction and Social Experiences in Residential Remediation Sites - 13423

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Paul; Scarborough, Rebecca [Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc. 2749 Lockport Road, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States)] [Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc. 2749 Lockport Road, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc., (Sevenson) has performed several radiological remediation projects located in residential urban areas. Over the course of these projects, there has been a wide variety of experiences encountered from construction related issues to unique social situations. Some of the construction related issues included the remediation of interior basements where contaminated material was located under the footers of the structure or was used in the mortar between cinder block or field stone foundations. Other issues included site security, maintaining furnaces or other utilities, underpinning, backfilling and restoration. In addition to the radiological hazards associated with this work there were occupational safety and industrial hygiene issues that had to be addressed to ensure the safety and health of neighboring properties and residents. The unique social situations at these job sites have included arson, theft/stolen property, assault/battery, prostitution, execution of arrest warrants for residents, discovery of drugs and paraphernalia, blood borne pathogens, and unexploded ordnance. Some of these situations have become a sort of comical urban legend throughout the organization. One situation had historical significance, involving the demolition of a house to save a tree older than the Declaration of Independence. All of these projects typically involve the excavation of early 20. century items such as advertisement signs, various old bottles (milk, Listerine, perfume, whisky) and other miscellaneous common trash items. (authors)

  7. Histone modification mapping in human brain reveals aberrant expression of histone H3 lysine 79 dimethylation in neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Xue, Peng; Li, Huili; Bao, Yihua; Wu, Lihua; Chang, Shaoyan; Niu, Bo; Yang, Fuquan; Zhang, Ting

    2013-06-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are severe, common birth defects that result from failure of neural tube closure, but their pathological mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Histone modifications have an important role in gene regulation during fetal development. We therefore hypothesized that the human NTDs may be partly caused by an imbalance in metabolism, perhaps caused by nutritional deficiencies, that leads to aberrant histone modifications. Here, we report a screen of fetal brain histone modifications using 2D nano-LC strong cation exchange reverse phase (SCX/RP) MS/MS and the identification of 61 unique post-translational modification sites on histones H1, H2a, H2b, H3, and H4. Of these, 38 sites are novel (not already found in the Uniprot database). Furthermore, we compared the histone modification patterns between normal brains and NTD brains special of which maternal folate levels were lower than of normal control. The results showed that histone H3 lysine 79 dimethylation (H3K79me2) and a novel identified site, H2bK5 monomethylation (H2bK5me1), were completely absent in individuals with NTDs. Follow-up Western blotting validated the decreased H3K79me2 expression in brains with NTDs, but the amplified samples experiments displayed that decreased H3K79me2 expression was not suitable for all samples with NTDs. Furthermore, folate-free treated mouse embryonic stem cells induced the decreased H3K79me2 level. Subsequently, our ChIP results in normal fetal brain tissues showed that H3K79me2 binds to SUFU, RARA and ITGA3 which induce NTDs phenotype after knockout in mice, and in NTDs brain tissues the bindings of H3K79me2 to these three genes were significantly altered. Taken together, our study indicated that low folate treatment might attenuate H3K79 dimethylation, further affect its regulate activation on target genes, some of which are NTDs-resulting associated, lastly interrupt early embryo developing. Our study increases the understanding of normal fetal brain histone modifications and provides a platform for investigating histone modifications in neural disease and also has an insight into a potential role of aberrant histone modification in etiology of NTDs. PMID:23376398

  8. Structural and kinetic modifications of aldose reductase by S-nitrosothiols.

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, S; Dixit, B L; Ramana, K V; Chandra, A; Chandra, D; Zacarias, A; Petrash, J M; Bhatnagar, A; Srivastava, S K

    2001-01-01

    Modification of aldose reductase (AR) by the nitrosothiols S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) and N-(beta-glucopyranosyl)-N(2)-acetyl-S-nitrosopenicillamide (glyco-SNAP) resulted in a 3-7-fold increase in its k(cat) and a 25-40-fold increase in its K(m) for glyceraldehyde. In comparison with the native protein, the modified enzyme was less sensitive to inhibition by sorbinil and was not activated by SO(2-)(4) anions. The active-site residue, Cys-298, was identified as the main site of modification, because the site-directed mutant in which Cys-298 was replaced by serine was insensitive to glyco-SNAP. The extent of modification was not affected by P(i) or O(2), indicating that it was not due to spontaneous release of nitric oxide (NO) by the nitrosothiols. Electrospray ionization MS revealed that the modification reaction proceeds via the formation of an N-hydroxysulphenamide-like adduct between glyco-SNAP and AR. In time, the adduct dissociates into either nitrosated AR (AR-NO) or a mixed disulphide between AR and glyco-N-acetylpenicillamine (AR-S-S-X). Removal of the mixed-disulphide form of the protein by lectin-column chromatography enriched the preparation in the high-K(m)-high-k(cat) form of the enzyme, suggesting that the kinetic changes are due to the formation of AR-NO, and that the AR-S-S-X form of the enzyme is catalytically inactive. Modification of AR by the non-thiol NO donor diethylamine NONOate (DEANO) increased enzyme activity and resulted in the formation of AR-NO. However, no adducts between AR and DEANO were formed. These results show that nitrosothiols cause multiple structural and functional changes in AR. Our observations also suggest the general possibility that transnitrosation reactions can generate both nitrosated and thiolated products, leading to non-unique changes in protein structure and function. PMID:11485558

  9. Structural and kinetic modifications of aldose reductase by S-nitrosothiols.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, S; Dixit, B L; Ramana, K V; Chandra, A; Chandra, D; Zacarias, A; Petrash, J M; Bhatnagar, A; Srivastava, S K

    2001-08-15

    Modification of aldose reductase (AR) by the nitrosothiols S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP) and N-(beta-glucopyranosyl)-N(2)-acetyl-S-nitrosopenicillamide (glyco-SNAP) resulted in a 3-7-fold increase in its k(cat) and a 25-40-fold increase in its K(m) for glyceraldehyde. In comparison with the native protein, the modified enzyme was less sensitive to inhibition by sorbinil and was not activated by SO(2-)(4) anions. The active-site residue, Cys-298, was identified as the main site of modification, because the site-directed mutant in which Cys-298 was replaced by serine was insensitive to glyco-SNAP. The extent of modification was not affected by P(i) or O(2), indicating that it was not due to spontaneous release of nitric oxide (NO) by the nitrosothiols. Electrospray ionization MS revealed that the modification reaction proceeds via the formation of an N-hydroxysulphenamide-like adduct between glyco-SNAP and AR. In time, the adduct dissociates into either nitrosated AR (AR-NO) or a mixed disulphide between AR and glyco-N-acetylpenicillamine (AR-S-S-X). Removal of the mixed-disulphide form of the protein by lectin-column chromatography enriched the preparation in the high-K(m)-high-k(cat) form of the enzyme, suggesting that the kinetic changes are due to the formation of AR-NO, and that the AR-S-S-X form of the enzyme is catalytically inactive. Modification of AR by the non-thiol NO donor diethylamine NONOate (DEANO) increased enzyme activity and resulted in the formation of AR-NO. However, no adducts between AR and DEANO were formed. These results show that nitrosothiols cause multiple structural and functional changes in AR. Our observations also suggest the general possibility that transnitrosation reactions can generate both nitrosated and thiolated products, leading to non-unique changes in protein structure and function. PMID:11485558

  10. Flower-like surface modification of titania materials by lithium hydroxide solution.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, George; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi; Sugawara, Yoshihiro; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Kazuki

    2012-05-15

    Surface modification of titania materials to give flower-like structures has been achieved simply by the treatment in lithium hydroxide aqueous solution under mild conditions. The flower-like structured materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and Raman scattering. The analyses indicate that the flower-like materials are composed of layered hydrous lithium titanate. It is suggested that the unique intercalation behavior of lithium ions into titania allows dissolution and re-precipitation of titania to form the flower-like structure. The obtained flower-like structure can be retained up to 700 °C, while the crystal phase transforms into Li(4)Ti(5)O(12). PMID:22369983

  11. Endowing carbon nanotubes with biological and biomedical properties by chemical modifications.

    PubMed

    Battigelli, Alessia; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Da Ros, Tatiana; Prato, Maurizio; Bianco, Alberto

    2013-12-01

    The scope of nanotechnology is gaining importance in biology and medicine. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have emerged as a promising tool due to their unique properties, high specific surface area, and capacity to cross biological barriers. These properties offer a variety of opportunities for applications in nanomedicine, such as diagnosis, disease treatment, imaging, and tissue engineering. Nevertheless, pristine CNTs are insoluble in water and in most organic solvents; thereby functionalization of their surface is necessary to increase biocompatibility. Derivatization of CNTs also gives the possibility to conjugate different biological and bioactive molecules including drugs, proteins, and targeting ligands. This review focuses on the chemical modifications of CNTs that have been developed to impart specific properties for biological and medical purposes. Biomolecules can be covalently grafted or non-covalently adsorbed on the nanotube surface. In addition, the inner core of CNTs can be exploited to encapsulate drugs, nanoparticles, or radioactive elements. PMID:23856410

  12. Microfabrication, surface modification, and laser guidance techniques to create a neuron biochip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirlo, Russell Kirk; Peng, Xiang; Yuan, Xiaocong; Gao, Bruce Zhi

    2008-09-01

    In this report we illustrate our application of soft lithography-based microfabrication, surface modification, and our unique laser cell-patterning system toward the creation of neuron biochips. We deposited individual forebrain neurons from Day 7 embryonic chicks into two rows of eight in a silicon microstructure aligned over a microelectrode array (MEA). The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane with microstructures to confine cells and guide network connectivity was aligned to the electrodes of a MEA. Both the MEA and the PDMS membrane were treated with O2 plasma, Poly-L-Lysine, and Laminin to aid in cell attachment and survival. The primary advantage of our process is that it is quicker and simpler than previous cell-placement methods and may make highly defined neuronal network biochips more practical.

  13. Interpretation of the gas flow field modification induced by guided streamer (‘plasma bullet’) propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, P. K.; Vafeas, P.; Svarnas, P.; Gazeli, K.; Hatzikonstantinou, P. M.; Gkelios, A.; Clément, F.

    2014-10-01

    Atmospheric-pressure non-equilibrium plasmas of noble gases in the form of ‘bullets’ have attracted considerable attention, against cold low-pressure or thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas, for multidisciplinary scientific fields such as material science and biomedicine, due to their unique compatible features. A key factor for the efficiency of most of these systems is the interaction between the noble-gas channel, where the ‘bullets’ (streamers) propagate, and the plasma itself. It is the object of this paper to demonstrate this interaction and to provide the explanation on the gas flow field modification induced by the plasma ignition. A three-dimensional numerical model incorporating most of the governing equations, schlieren imaging and UV–visible high-resolution optical emission spectroscopy are applied. In accordance with the present results, the mechanism leading to the flow field alteration is clearly related to the electrohydrodynamic force, while it is demonstrated that the gas temperature plays a minor role.

  14. Push-pull fatigue modifications to a Hounsfield tensometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A E King

    1968-01-01

    Modifications to a Hounsfield tensometer to enable specimens to be fatigued in push-pull motion, without the introduction of backlash, are described, together with facilities for surface examination (optical and electron microscopy) of specimens, without their removal from the apparatus. The modifications in no way inhibit the normal usage of the tensometer.

  15. Parallel anisotropic 3D mesh adaptation by mesh modification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frédéric Alauzet; Xiangrong Li; E. Seegyoung Seol; Mark S. Shephard

    2006-01-01

    Improvements to a local modification-based anisotropic mesh adaptation procedure are presented. The first improvement focuses on control of the local operations that modify the mesh to satisfy the given anisotropic mesh metric field. The second is the paral- lelization of the mesh modification procedures to support effective parallel adaptive analysis. The resulting proce- dures are demonstrated on general curved 3D

  16. Pain Processing in the Isolated Spinal Cord: Adaptive Nociceptive Modifications

    E-print Network

    Puga, Denise Alejandra

    2012-07-16

    PAIN PROCESSING IN THE ISOLATED SPINAL CORD: ADAPTIVE NOCICEPTIVE MODIFICATIONS A Dissertation by DENISE ALEJANDRA PUGA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2011 Major Subject: Psychology Pain Processing in the Isolated Spinal Cord: Adaptive Nociceptive Modifications Copyright 2011 Denise Alejandra...

  17. Using Behavior Modification Theory to Understand and Guide Technological Interventions

    E-print Network

    Connelly, Kay

    them as they take health actions to manage their disease and work to prevent long term complications behavior modification, each trying to explain why people take, or fail to take, health-related action of the three health behavior modification theories, utilizing the terminology and presentation from "Health

  18. Housing Modifications for Persons Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocke, Elizabeth A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines housing modification issues for both the housing consumer with visual impairments and the builder/remodeler, with emphasis on single-family housing. Suggested modifications are listed for the exterior, entrance, elevator, doors, floors, lighting and the electrical system, windows, room layout and shape, kitchen, and stairs and…

  19. 21 CFR 640.6 - Modifications of Whole Blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Modifications of Whole Blood. 640.6 Section 640.6 Food and Drugs FOOD...CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.6 Modifications...

  20. 21 CFR 640.6 - Modifications of Whole Blood.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Modifications of Whole Blood. 640.6 Section 640.6 Food and Drugs FOOD...CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.6 Modifications...