Science.gov

Sample records for united latin american

  1. The Effect of Religion on Latin American Migration to the United States

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey

    2015-05-31

    This paper explores the effects of religion on Latin American migration to the United States. It updates the existing literature on the effect of religion on the six stages of migration (decision, preparation, journey, arrival, settlement...

  2. Interaction of science and diplomacy: Latin American, the United States and nuclear energy, 1945-1955

    SciTech Connect

    Cabral, R.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear programs in Argentina and Brazil can be traced to August 1945 when their scientific communities articulated responses to the atomic bombings of Japan. They culminated in attempts to develop independent nuclear programs, sharply opposed by the United States, during the nationalist governments of Juan Peron and Getulio Vargas. This dissertation, based on primary sources from the three nations, analyzes these programs and the American responses. Latin America entered the nuclear age attempting to control natural resources, to improve scientific establishments, and to appraise Latin American-United States relations. Despite some clear warnings about nuclear dangers, the new form of energy was seen as the solution to industrial problems, poverty, and outside political interference. International opposition, which may have included nuclear threats from the United States, blocked Argentina's first attempt in 1947. After 1948, Peron wanted a nuclear program for cheap energy and prestige. The qualifications of the Brazilian scientists gave more substance to their program. The program originated in August, 1945, but assumed national proportion with the government of Vargas in 1951. Lack of American cooperation forced Vargas to establish a secret program with Germany. American troops intervened taking over the German equipment already completed. The final collapse came about with Vargas' suicide in August, 1954.

  3. Latin American cheeses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Latin American (or Hispanic-style) cheeses are a category of cheeses that were developed in Mexico, Latin America, and the Caribbean and have become increasingly popular in the U.S. Although research has been conducted on some of the cheeses, quantitative information on the quality traits of most L...

  4. Los Arboles Hablan: A Spanish Language Curriculum Unit Based on the Study of Latin American Rain Forests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuman, John P.

    "Los Arboles Hablan," a video-based curriculum that promotes the learning of Spanish as a second language through study of the Latin American rain forests is described. The 12-session unit was designed for use at the middle school level and integrates science, social science, and environmental education with content focusing on the Amazon rain…

  5. Mexican Celebrations. Latin American Culture Studies Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza-Lubeck, Maria; Salinas, Ana Maria

    Developed for elementary school children, this unit is designed to teach about Mexican American culture through the study of holidays celebrated throughout much of Latin America and the southwestern United States. The unit describes and provides background information about nine Mexican American holidays. Among the activities included are the…

  6. Migration from Latin American countries to the United States: the economic, social and reproductive lives of Hispanic female immigrants, 1980.

    PubMed

    Gorwaney, N; Van Arsdol, M D; Heer, D M; Schuerman, L A

    1991-12-01

    The authors describe the socioeconomic characteristics and fertility patterns of female immigrants from Latin America to the United States, with a focus on reasons for fertility differentials. "Using the one per cent public use sample from the 1970 and 1980 United States census, we first compare changes in socio economic characteristics from 1970 to 1980, and then examine the determinants of fertility of female immigrants to the United States, aged 16-49, from four Latin American areas or countries of birth.... The findings...suggest that there are direct effects of demographic, assimilation, and socioeconomic variables beyond those mediated by the variables in each of these sets. Further, regardless of the model, the effect of the clusters of demographic characteristics is most apparent. Age categories and marital status are the strongest indexed determinants of immigrant fertility.... The effect of education and employment is strong. Among assimilation variables, duration of residence and language ability are significant determinants of Hispanic immigrant fertility." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12159612

  7. LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN

    E-print Network

    Van Volkenburgh, Elizabeth

    International Political Economy of Latin America (5) I&S 16434 A 5 TTh 230-420 EXED 110 Exploration of politics to sustain, navigate, and challenge domination as well as to imagine alternative futures. Contemporary Latin of Public Health and International Health in the Global South (5) I&S 15724 A 5 MW 1130-120 LOW 105 WARREN

  8. Latin American Art and Music: A Handbook for Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Judith Page, Ed.

    This collection of essays, curriculum units, and study guides on Latin American art and musical traditions is designed to help interested teachers take a comprehensive approach to teaching these subjects. The introduction features the essay, "Media Resources Available on Latin American Culture: A Survey of Art, Architecture, and Music Articles…

  9. Latin American Folk Art Prints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navah, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Latin American customs and colors play an important role as second graders are introduced to multicultural experiences through food, music, dance, art, and craft. In this article, the author describes a printing project inspired by Guatemalan weavings and amate bark paintings. (Contains 2 online resources.)

  10. “Vulnerability, Resiliency, and Adaptation: The Health of Latin Americans during the Migration Process to the United States”*

    PubMed Central

    Riosmena, Fernando; Jochem, Warren C.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we offer a general outlook of the health of Latin Americans (with a special emphasis on Mexicans) during the different stages of the migration process to the U.S. given the usefulness of the social vulnerability concept and given that said vulnerability varies conspicuously across the different stages of the migration process. Severe migrant vulnerability during the transit and crossing has serious negative health consequences. Yet, upon their arrival to the U.S., migrant health is favorable in outcomes such as mortality by many causes of death and in several chronic conditions and risk factors, though these apparent advantages seem to disappear during the process of adaptation to the host society. We discuss potential explanations for the initial health advantage and the sources of vulnerability that explain its erosion, with special emphasis in systematic timely access to health care. Given that migration can affect social vulnerability processes in sending areas, we discuss the potential health consequences for these places and conclude by considering the immigration and health policy implications of these issues for the United States and sending countries, with emphasis on Mexico. PMID:24660053

  11. Education as Part of the Migratory Project of Latin American Migrant Women Traveling to the United States in Undocumented Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas-Rodríguez, Rocio; Terrón-Caro, Teresa; Vázquez Delgado, Blanca Delia; Cueva-Luna, Teresa Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Education is an indispensable element for the development of society. In Latin America, the point of origin of most of the undocumented immigrants to the United States, equal opportunity in access to education and educational achievement is still pending. The study presented here focuses on the analysis of the expectations of female migrants via…

  12. Crossroads: Identity struggles in Latin America and Latin American psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Renato D; Pérez-Rincón, Héctor

    2010-01-01

    Identity can be defined from different perspectives such as those from philosophy, social sciences and phenomenology. The latter entails sameness, uniqueness, distinctiveness, continuity, diversity, universality and equality connotations to define characteristics of the existence and action of individuals, institutions, entities, organizations and collectivities. In order to elaborate on the identity of Latin American Psychiatry, this chapter deals first with the identity of the Latin American continent, the result of a 'collision of cultures' with mestizaje as its most prominent collective contribution. In turn, the Latin American population (and its 'Hispanic' equivalent in other countries and regions of the world) has been the subject of a pluralistic search, and played a combined role of hope and conflict, advances and setbacks in a fascinating historical process. In such context, Latin American psychiatry offers a mixed identity, resulting from a succession of mythic-religious, moral, phenomenologico-existential, biological and social/community-based routes. Each of them are assessed, and the contributions of two eponymous figures, Honorio Delgado and Gregorio Bermann, are duly delineated. Current realities in Latin American psychiatry and mental health in socio-political, conceptual, professional, ideological, academic and heuristic areas, are examined. The chapter ends with considerations of the future of psychiatry in the continent, the postulation of a 'new synthesis' embracing the essence of contemporary neurobiological knowledge and a new, revitalized humanism in the context of a healthy eclecticism, progressive educational training and didactic programmes, and concrete contributions embodying the promise of well justified expectations. PMID:20874062

  13. Introduction Latin American Map: You set the

    E-print Network

    Lopez-Carr, David

    · Landscapes #12;Environmental Sub-regions II Middle American highlands · Climate - role of the "tropics (karstic) & tectonic (volcanic) #12;Middle American & Caribbean lowlands · Climate (Köppen class Aw & Af in Latin America · Climate (long term norms of weather) - temperature, precipitation, seasonality, etc

  14. Latin American USOMs Seminar on Agrarian Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Cooperation Administration (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This report of seminar proceedings discusses land reform policies and programs and their place in the economic development of Latin America. It analyzes experiences and current situations in Latin America, the United States, and elsewhere which shed light on the problems and possibilities of agrarian reform. An appraisal of existing physical,…

  15. The Legal Situation of Latin American and Caribbean Women as Defined according to the Resolutions and Mandates of the United Nations System. Volume II: File Sheets of Resolutions on the Legal Situation of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

    This document contains a systematized inventory of the measures relating to the legal and social status of women adopted in various regional and world forums. The inventory was used to study the legal situation of Latin American and Caribbean women, defined according to the resolutions and mandates of the United Nations system. Organized by forum…

  16. Latin American Immigrant Women and Intergenerational Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcalde, Maria Cristina; Quelopana, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    People of Latin American descent make up the largest and fastest-growing minority group in the USA. Rates of pregnancy, childbirth, and sexually transmitted infections among people of Latin American descent are higher than among other ethnic groups. This paper builds on research that suggests that among families of Latin American descent, mothers…

  17. Modern Latin American History History 315

    E-print Network

    Fletcher, Robin

    Find Background Information You may need to look up background information to help you understand your 1910 1920 Sources Revolutionaries Mexico Chiapas Correspondence B. Look up Historical Figures. Encyclopedia of Cuba: People, History, Culture REF F1754 .E53 2003 Encyclopedia of Latin American History

  18. Imagining Globalization through Latin American Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seminet, Georgia

    2009-01-01

    Through a combination of practical applications and theoretical underpinnings, this article explores the question of how to approach the teaching of Latin American Literature in the current period of globalization. Many theorists argue that we need new epistemologies in which to ground our pedagogy for the 21st century. Understanding the effects…

  19. The Bologna Process from a Latin American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Jose Joaquin

    2009-01-01

    Although Latin America's geography, history, and languages might seem a suitable foundation for a Bologna-type process, the development of a common Latin American higher education and research area meets predictable difficulties.The reasons are to be found in the continent's historic and modern institutional patterns. Latin American governments…

  20. Latin American traditions and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Celina

    1983-09-01

    Educational and related non-pedagogical issues are generally described and discussed. Implicitly or explicitly, the theology of liberation, educación popular and traditional education tend to perpetuate male/female roles and very often incite violence. Peace education in Latin America should concentrate more on the pathology of the violent man. The so-called `weaknesses' associated with women and their `powerlessness' in Western civilization are precisely those which are absolutely essential to our survival. It is important for women to reject Western patterns of violence and participate actively in finding a viable alternative.

  1. Inefficiency in Latin-American market indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zunino, L.; Tabak, B. M.; Pérez, D. G.; Garavaglia, M.; Rosso, O. A.

    2007-11-01

    We explore the deviations from efficiency in the returns and volatility returns of Latin-American market indices. Two different approaches are considered. The dynamics of the Hurst exponent is obtained via a wavelet rolling sample approach, quantifying the degree of long memory exhibited by the stock market indices under analysis. On the other hand, the Tsallis q entropic index is measured in order to take into account the deviations from the Gaussian hypothesis. Different dynamic rankings of inefficieny are obtained, each of them contemplates a different source of inefficiency. Comparing with the results obtained for a developed country (US), we confirm a similar degree of long-range dependence for our emerging markets. Moreover, we show that the inefficiency in the Latin-American countries comes principally from the non-Gaussian form of the probability distributions.

  2. Revolutions: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Teaching Printmaking and Latin American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiddy, Elizabeth; Woodward, Kristen T.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a U.S. Department of Education grant to expand Latin American and Caribbean Studies at Albright College, the authors of this article, one a historian and one an artist, teamed up to teach a course called Revolutions: Art and Revolution in Latin America. In the class, they proposed to combine a studio art printmaking class with Latin

  3. Learning Library Resources by Researching Latin American Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelston, Candace

    This document presents a module on learning library resources by researching Latin American topics to be used in the Use of Library Resources course at St. Louis Community College at Meramec (Missouri). The goal of the module (to give students a basic knowledge of library resources and to introduce them to Latin America by researching Latin

  4. A Brief History of International Latin American Student Fraternities: A Movement That Lasted 86 Years (1889-1975)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fajardo, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    An international Latin American student fraternity movement preceded the current Latino Greeks that are seen on college campuses today. This document provides new information that has not been published. The movement lasted 86 years and primarily served wealthy international Latin American students who came to the United States to study and, once…

  5. Montana State University 1 Latin American & Latino

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    language is required. Students with prior experience in Spanish language or heritage speakers may have some Modern Cultures Latin America SPNS 332 Contemp Latin Amer Literature SPNS 335IH Travel in Latin Am Lit

  6. Interethnic admixture and the evolution of Latin American populations

    PubMed Central

    Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Sans, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    A general introduction to the origins and history of Latin American populations is followed by a systematic review of the data from molecular autosomal assessments of the ethnic/continental (European, African, Amerindian) ancestries for 24 Latin American countries or territories. The data surveyed are of varying quality but provide a general picture of the present constitution of these populations. A brief discussion about the applications of these results (admixture mapping) is also provided. Latin American populations can be viewed as natural experiments for the investigation of unique anthropological and epidemiological issues. PMID:24764751

  7. Education and Globalisation: A Latin American Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineau, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the historical relationship between education and globalisation in Latin America. This is no straightforward task. Hegel's vision of a continent without history and the rapacious expansion of Western culture from the sixteenth century profoundly transformed Latin America, and in turn stimulated a search for a distinctive "Latin

  8. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 09, Number 1: Front Matter

    E-print Network

    1975-10-01

    OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS, LAWRENCE, KANSAS 66045, U.S.A. 2 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Abstracts Frank Dauster, "The Ritual Feast: A Study in Dramatic Forms." Theoretical criticism has been slow to apply recent developments...: More Greek than French." Antígona Velez (1968) is a patriotic appeal to an Argentina demoralized by prolonged political chaos produced by ephemeral dictatorships following the collapse of the Perón regime. Leopoldo Marechal relates the Antigone myth...

  9. Sickle cell in Latin America and the United States [corrected].

    PubMed

    Huttle, Alexandra; Maestre, Gladys E; Lantigua, Rafael; Green, Nancy S

    2015-07-01

    Latin Americans are an underappreciated population affected by sickle cell disease (SCD). Sickle trait and SCD exist throughout Latin America and U.S. Latino communities. We describe the epidemiology and genetic heterogeneity of SCD among Latin Americans, and fetal hemoglobin expression. National population-based newborn screening for SCD is limited to Brazil, Costa Rica, and the U.S. Available and extrapolated data suggest that over 6,000 annual births and 100,000-150,000 Latin Americans are affected by SCD. This comprehensive review highlights the substantial numbers and population distribution of SCD and sickle trait in Latin America, and where national newborn screening programs for SCD exist. PMID:25732067

  10. Basic space sciences: The Latin American experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahade, Jorge

    The paper reports on the extent basic space science is carried in Latin America and outlines the steps that may be taken to improve the situation. Member of the Carrera del Investigador Científico, CONICET, Argentina.

  11. Emotion Socialization and Ethnicity: An Examination of Practices and Outcomes in African American, Asian American, and Latin American Families

    PubMed Central

    Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

    2013-01-01

    The current review paper summarizes the literature on parental emotion socialization in ethnically diverse families in the United States. Models of emotion socialization have been primarily developed using samples of European American parents and children. As such, current categorizations of “adaptive” and “maladaptive” emotion socialization practices may not be applicable to individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The review examines current models of emotion socialization, with particular attention paid to the demographic breakdown of the studies used to develop these models. Additionally, the review highlights studies examining emotion socialization practices in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families. The review is synthesized with summarizing themes of similarities and differences across ethnic groups, and implications for culturally sensitive research and practice are discussed. PMID:23766738

  12. Intimate Partner Violence and Depression Among Latin American Women in Toronto.

    PubMed

    Godoy-Ruiz, Paula; Toner, Brenda; Mason, Robin; Vidal, Carolina; McKenzie, Kwame

    2015-12-01

    Research from the United States suggests that Latin American immigrant and refugee women are one of the groups most greatly impacted by intimate partner violence (IPV) and associated mental health consequences including higher rates of depression than women from other ethno-racial groups. In Canada, little is known about the experience of IPV and mental health among this population. Even in the broader North American context, how Latin American women themselves perceive the connection between IPV and depression is unknown. This paper presents the findings of a pilot study that examined the perceived relationship between IPV and depression among Spanish-Speaking Latin American Women in Toronto, Canada. The theoretical framework guiding this qualitative study combined an ecological model for understanding gender based violence and mental health with critical intersectionality theory. Using a convenience and snowball sampling method, semi-structured interviews (n = 12) were conducted and thematic content analysis was completed supported by Nvivo9(®) qualitative data management software. All participants had experienced some form of IPV in their adult lives, with psychological violence being the most common. Women perceived a powerful connection between IPV and depression, a link made stronger by the accumulation of other adverse life experiences including childhood abuse, war traumas and migration. The results suggest that IPV is just one of the challenges experienced by Latin American refugee and immigrant women. IPV is experienced in the context of other traumatic experiences and social hardships that may work to intensify the association of IPV and depression in this population. PMID:25472614

  13. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 14, Number 1: Performance reviews

    E-print Network

    1980-10-01

    transmiten lo que sobrevive de la herencia. Por eso hay que verlas. Genevieve Rozental París Paper Flowers ENJOYS WARM RECEPTION IN VANCOUVER, B.C. The first North American performance of Paper Flowers by the Chilean playwright, Egon Wolf! (translated... serious and in novative Chilean drama is yet another indication of the increasing popularity of the Latin American Theater in North America. Paper Flowers presents the step by step destruction (emotional, psychological, and perhaps eventual physical...

  14. Overview of Spanish and Latin American Distance Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Garrido, Jose Luis

    1991-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of Spanish and Latin American distance education programs for higher education and describes the three most important institutions: (1) the Spanish UNED (Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia); (2) the Costa Rican UNED (Universidad Estatal a Distancia); and (3) the Venezuelan UNA (Universidad Nacional Abierta).…

  15. Pedagogy of a Latin-American Festival: A Mojado Ethnography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murillo, Enrique G., Jr.

    This paper describes and reflects on the pedagogical meaning of a festival held to showcase and celebrate Latin American culture in a North Carolina town undergoing a cultural transition as its Latino population grows. Following a successful event the previous year, a 2-day festival was organized to include a soccer tournament, booths selling…

  16. Latin American Universities and the Bologna Process: From Commercialisation to the "Tuning" Competencies Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboites, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Through the "Tuning-Latin America" competencies project, Latin American universities have been incorporated into the Bologna Process. In 2003 the European Commission approved an initiative of this project for Latin America and began to promote it among ministries, university presidents' organisations and other institutions in Latin America. This…

  17. The cost of Latin American science Introduction for the second issue of CBP-Latin America.

    PubMed

    Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Beleboni, René Oliveira; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2007-04-01

    Latin American researchers in science and engineering (S&E), including those in biology and biomedical sciences, are frequently exposed to unstable conditions of financial support, material and human resources, and a limited number of positions at public and private institutions. Such uncertainties impose continuous challenges for the scientific community which, in the best of cases, responds with careful planning and creativity, and in the worst scenario endures the migration of scientists to the USA or Europe. Still, the number of scientific publications from Latin American institutions in the last decade increased at a much faster rate than publications from the USA and Canada. A brief analysis per country of the gross domestic product (GDP) spent in research and development (R&D) and the S&E production reported by the Pascal bibliographic database suggests that the number and quality of S&E publications is directly proportional to the financial support for R&D. However, the investment in R&D in Latin America did not increase at the same rate (from 0.49 to 0.55% of GDP, from 1990 to 2003) at which S&E publications did in the same period (2.9-fold increase, from 1988 to 2001). In Latin America, the traditional financial support for scientific research continues to be from federal and state government funds, associated in some cases with institutional funds that are mostly directed towards administrative costs and infrastructure maintenance. The aim of this introduction is to briefly discuss the production cost of articles published in refereed S&E journals, including the cost of the scientific research behind them, and, at the same time, to increase the awareness of the high quality of scientific research in Latin American institutions despite the many challenges, especially financial constraints, faced by their scientists. The second issue of Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology dedicated to Latin America ("The Face of Latin American Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology") celebrates, by means of 26 manuscripts from five countries, the diversity and quality of biological science in the continent. PMID:16962348

  18. The Latin American Consortium of Studies in Obesity (LASO)

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, L. E.; Casas, J. P.; Herrera, V. M.; Miranda, J. J.; Perel, P.; Pichardo, R.; González, A.; Sanchez, J. R.; Ferreccio, C.; Aguilera, X.; Silva, E.; Oróstegui, M.; Gómez, L. F.; Chirinos, J. A.; Medina-Lezama, J.; Pérez, C. M.; Suárez, E.; Ortiz, A. P.; Rosero, L.; Schapochnik, N.; Ortiz, Z.; Ferrante, D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Current, high-quality data are needed to evaluate the health impact of the epidemic of obesity in Latin America. The Latin American Consortium of Studies of Obesity (LASO) has been established, with the objectives of (i) Accurately estimating the prevalence of obesity and its distribution by sociodemographic characteristics; (ii) Identifying ethnic, socioeconomic and behavioural determinants of obesity; (iii) Estimating the association between various anthropometric indicators or obesity and major cardiovascular risk factors and (iv) Quantifying the validity of standard definitions of the various indexes of obesity in Latin American population. To achieve these objectives, LASO makes use of individual data from existing studies. To date, the LASO consortium includes data from 11 studies from eight countries (Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Peru, Puerto Rico and Venezuela), including a total of 32 462 subjects. This article describes the overall organization of LASO, the individual studies involved and the overall strategy for data analysis. LASO will foster the development of collaborative obesity research among Latin American investigators. More important, results from LASO will be instrumental to inform health policies aiming to curtail the epidemic of obesity in the region. PMID:19438980

  19. Chagas disease awareness among Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles, California.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Daniel R; Traina, Mahmoud I; Hernandez, Salvador; Smer, Aiman M; Khamag, Haneen; Meymandi, Sheba K

    2014-11-01

    Approximately 300,000 persons have Chagas disease in the United States, although almost all persons acquired the disease in Latin America. We examined awareness of Chagas disease among Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles, California. We surveyed 2,677 persons (age range = 18-60 years) in Los Angeles who resided in Latin America for at least six months. A total of 62% of the participants recalled seeing triatomines in Latin America, and 27% of the participants reported triatomine bites at least once per year while living abroad. A total of 86% of the participants had never heard of Chagas disease. Of persons who had heard of Chagas disease, 81% believed that it was not serious. More than 95% of those who had heard of Chagas disease would want to be tested and treated. Most Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles recalled exposure to vectors of Chagas disease. However, they have little knowledge of this disease. Increasing awareness of Chagas disease is needed in this high-risk population. PMID:25200261

  20. The Latin American Writer: Writing in English

    E-print Network

    Reyes, Guillermo

    1997-10-01

    stream_size 7947 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name latr.v31.n1.113-115.pdf.txt stream_source_info latr.v31.n1.113-115.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 FALL 1997 m The Latin... includes ways to communicate culturally beyond our subgroups. The challenge for any playwright of any group or race is that of finding an audience. Writers such as Eduardo Machado, writing in English about Cuban characters in their homeland or as exiles...

  1. New World Orders: Continuities and Changes in Latin American Migration

    PubMed Central

    DURAND, JORGE; MASSEY, DOUGLAS S.

    2010-01-01

    Although migration from Mexico to the United States is more than a century old, until recently most other countries in Latin America did not send out significant numbers of migrants to foreign destinations. Over the past thirty years, however, emigration has emerged as an important demographic force throughout the region. This article outlines trends in the volume and composition of the migrant outflows emanating from various countries in Latin America, highlighting their diversity with respect to country of destination; multiplicity of destinations; legal auspices of entry; gender and class composition; racial, ethnic, and national origins; and the mode of insertion into the receiving society. The review underscores the broadening of international migration away from unidirectional flows toward the United States to new streams going to Europe, Canada, Australia, and Japan, as well as to other countries in Latin America itself. PMID:20814591

  2. Latin American food sources of carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Amaya, D B

    1999-09-01

    Latin America has a wide variety of carotenogenic foods, notable for the diversity and high levels of carotenoids. A part of this natural wealth has been analyzed. Carrot, red palm oil and some cultivars of squash and pumpkin are sources of both beta-carotene and alpha-carotene. beta-carotene is the principal carotenoid of the palm fruits burití, tucumã and bocaiuva, other fruits such as loquat, marolo and West Indian cherry, and sweet potato. Buriti also has high amounts of alpha-carotene and gamma-carotene. beta-Cryptoxanthin is the major carotenoid in caja, nectarine, orange-fleshed papaya, orange, peach, tangerine and the tree tomato. Lycopene predominates in tomato, red-fleshed papaya, guava, pitanga and watermelon. Pitanga also has substantial amounts of beta-cryptoxanthin, gamma-carotene and rubixanthin. Zeaxanthin, principal carotenoid of corn, is also predominant only in piquí. delta-Carotene is the main carotenoid of the peach palm and zeta-carotene of passion fruit. Lutein and beta-carotene, in high concentrations, are encountered in the numerous leafy vegetables of the region, as well as in other green vegetables and in some varieties of squash and pumpkin. Violaxanthin is the principal carotenoid of mango and mamey and is also found in appreciable amounts in green vegetables. Quantitative, in some cases also qualitative, differences exist among cultivars of the same food. Generally, carotenoids are in greater concentrations in the peel than in the pulp, increase considerably during ripening and are in higher levels in foods produced in hot places. Other Latin America indigenous carotenogenic foods must be investigated before they are supplanted by introduced crops, which are often poorer sources of carotenoids. PMID:10971848

  3. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 24, Number 2: Performance reviews

    E-print Network

    1991-04-01

    Cuando Freud, a comienzos de siglo, publicó su famoso ensayo Tres ensayos sobre la teoría sexual el escándalo fue mayúsculo. Era el primer golpe a la visión moralista de concebir al niño como un idiota fantástico y la 160 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW... staged Morton's Johnny Tenorio. Also worthy of special mention were Elena Hurst (who played young Johnny Tenorio in a flashback scene) and Michael Comiskey (who played Johnny's long-time friend and sometimes rival Louie Majia). Irene Cortez, as Big...

  4. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 23, Number 2: Front Matter

    E-print Network

    1990-04-01

    , this study examines five of Canton's plays (Todos somos hermanos, Nota roja, Inolvidable, El juego sagrado, and Juegos de amor), showing how the author gradually developed his use of various elements of metatheatre until he wrote the last-mentioned work... such an endeavor. (In Spanish) (GD: BLK) 6 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Segundo Encuentro del Instituto Internacional de Teoría y Crítica de Teatro Latinoamericano El Instituto Internacional de Teoría y Crítica de Teatro Latinoamericano tendrá su segundo...

  5. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 31, Number 1: Front Matter

    E-print Network

    1997-10-01

    Camilla Stevens Sharon Feldman Michael J. Doudoroff Raymond D. Souza Editorial Assistant Publisher Center of Latin American Studies The University of Kansas Elizabeth Kuznesof, Director Subscription information: Individuals, $20.00 per year... word lengths: Critical Studies: 25 pages Interviews: 2000 words Festival Reports: 1500 words Reviews: 500 words for critical study 750 words for published play 1000 words for play collection Performance Reviews: 500 words plus photos Submissions...

  6. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 01, Number 1: Front Matter

    E-print Network

    1967-10-01

    at the University of Kentucky, completing his Ph.D. dissertation on the con temporary Peruvian theatre. Margaret Sayers Peden (Ph.D., Missouri) is Assistant Professor of Spanish at the University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri. She has worked extensively... in the Mexican theatre, and has published in Hispânia. Daniel R. Reedy (Ph.D., Illinois) is Associate Professor of Spanish at the University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. He is a Consulting Editor (Colonial Period) for the Handbook of Latin American...

  7. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 31, Number 1: Bibliography

    E-print Network

    1997-10-01

    1997). [Mauro Ferreira, "Os (Des)Caminhos da Dramaturgia"; Aderbal Freire-Filho, "Talvez a Ultima Crise"; João Bethencourt, "O Teatro Comercial"; Beth Néspoli, "Entrevista com Wilson Sayão"; Ana Maria Bulhões de Carvalho, "Nem Azorrague nem Luva de...', Dante del Castillo, El prendedor, Miguel 206 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Angel Tenorio, Un Banana Split; Pilar Campesino, Mi pequeño Tristan. Tu eres el amo; Román Calvo, El loco] Chesney Lawrence, Luis. Teatro. Caracas: Fondo Editorial Tropykos...

  8. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 13, Number 1: Front Matter

    E-print Network

    1979-10-01

    , must conform to the Modern Language Association Style Sheet, and should be sent to the Editors at the Center of Latin American Studies with a stamped envelope for return. Scholars may, without prior permission, quote from the Review to document... Teatro The Brazilian National Theatre Service (SNT) has undertaken an ambitious documentation project called Pro jeto Memoria. The SNT is soliciting donations or exchanges of posters, play programs, photographs, specialized journals, press releases...

  9. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 13, Number 3: Front Matter

    E-print Network

    1980-07-01

    be sent to the Editors at the Center of Latin American Studies with a stamped envelope for return. Scholars may, without prior permission, quote from the Review to document their own work, but it is their responsibility to make proper acknowledgment... atempera las crueldades: El campo de Gámbaro Evelyn Picón Garfield 95 Verbal and Dramatic Ambiguity in Pavlovsky's El señor Galíndez David William Poster 103 Religious Syncretism in Contemporary Brazilian Theatre Virginia Brownell-Levine Ill COPYRIGHT...

  10. Latin American Urbanization Presented as a Decision-Making Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rengert, Arlene C.; Monk, Janice J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a college-level geography unit on the socioeconomic influences affecting urban migration of women in Latin America. In role-playing modules, students explore dilemmas influencing individual migration decisions, Peace Corps project planning, and long-term international aid programs for urban Peruvian women. (AM)

  11. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 04, Number 1: Front Matter

    E-print Network

    1970-10-01

    frustrations in Argentine or Latin American society. A more universally human conflict, expressed as a kind of Cain and Abel myth, is presented in Los siameses. The most recent play, El campo, by evoking the brutalities of Nazi concentration camps, shows how.... The play is a heroic tragedy of situation rather than of inner psychological evolution. (DLS) Willis Knapp Jones, "Women in the Early Spanish American Theatre."* For 2,000 years the theatrical stage was a man's world. Boys played women's roles till...

  12. [Contributions from two Latin American psychiatric classifications to the development of ICD-11].

    PubMed

    Rivas Rodríguez, Mar; Reed, Geoffrey M; First, Michael B; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis

    2011-02-01

    In the context of the updating of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), this study conducted a code-by-code comparison between the ICD-10 chapter "Mental and Behavioural Disorders" and the diagnostic categories of two Latin American classification schemes: the Third Cuban Psychiatric Glossary (GC-3) and the Latin American Guide to Psychiatric Diagnosis (GLADP). The objective was to help define what categories in the current classification should be broadened and what new categories might be added to the future ICD-11 to make it more applicable in local sociocultural and clinical contexts that differ from those found in regions whose perspectives have historically dominated the ICD, namely, the United States and Europe. It is hoped that the results will contribute to the efforts under way to develop a genuinely international classification system. PMID:21437371

  13. Does Research on Education Fit the Development Needs of Latin America?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinn, Noel; Tatto, Maria Teresa

    Fitting educational research to Latin America's developmental needs is a political issue involving differences in perspectives of Latin American and United States researchers, Latin American governments, and agencies concerned with development outside Latin America. A comparison of ERIC's "Current Index to Journals in Education" with the Latin

  14. Canonizing Latin American Literature: Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Mario Vargas Llosa Enter the English Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cellini, Alva V.

    As Latin American literature progressively enters into the English curriculum, two writers deserve special commentary for their representative contribution to the literary world. Through their works, the Columbian author, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, and the Peruvian author, Mario Vargas Llosa clearly convey the Latin American writer's desire to be…

  15. Family Literacy Practices and Parental Involvement of Latin American Immigrant Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Lorna; Lavan, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    This article draws upon three years of interviews and participant observation research in the Chelsea Public Schools, to discuss the impact of the Chelsea Family Literacy Program on promoting Latin American immigrant mothers' involvement in their children's education. The authors present the voices of Latin American immigrant mothers who describe…

  16. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ DEPARTMENT OF LATIN AMERICAN AND LATINO STUDIES

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    area of study. PREFERRED QUALIFICATIONS: Ph.D. in relevant Social Sciences or Humanities area of studyUNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ DEPARTMENT OF LATIN AMERICAN AND LATINO STUDIES On-Going Lecturer Pool The Latin American and Latino Studies Department (LALS) at the University of California

  17. Highlights from the 1st ISCB Latin American Student Council Symposium 2014

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the scientific content and activities of the first edition of the Latin American Symposium organized by the Student Council of the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB), held in conjunction with the Third Latin American conference from the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB-LA 2014) in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, on October 27, 2014. PMID:25955751

  18. Quality of Life from the Point of View of Latin American Families: A Participative Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aznar, A. S.; Castanon, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    Background: To date, little research has focused on what factors constitute a quality of life (QOL) among Latin American families with a member who is intellectually disabled. Method: Total 180 Latin American families cooperated in a participative research project. During 18 months, the families and a team exchanged information about their QOL by…

  19. Ceftaroline activity tested against contemporary Latin American bacterial pathogens (2011).

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N

    2014-01-01

    A total of 2484 target bacterial pathogens were collected (one per patient episode) from patients in 16 Latin American medical centers located in seven nations during 2011. Isolate identity was confirmed at a coordinating laboratory and susceptibility testing was performed for ceftaroline and comparator agents according to reference broth microdilution methods. A total of 30.0% of isolates were from respiratory tract, 29.4% from skin and skin structure, 21.4% from blood stream, 7.9% from urinary tract and 11.3% from other sites. Ceftaroline was active against Staphylococcus aureus (42.8% MRSA) with 83.6% of the isolates at ? 1 mg/L and all isolates at ? 2 mg/L (MIC5090, 0.25/2mg/L). National MRSA rates ranged from a low of 28.8% in Colombia to a high of 68.1% in Chile. All Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus agalactiae were susceptible to ceftaroline (MIC50/90 values were at ? 0.015/? 0.015 mg/L for both). All Streptococcus pneumoniae were susceptible to ceftaroline, linezolid, tigecycline and vancomycin. Susceptibility to ceftriaxone was at 88.4% (CLSI non-meningitis interpretive criteria) and 73.9% (CLSI meningitis interpretive criteria) for all S. pneumoniae. Ceftriaxone susceptibility was only at 33.3% (CLSI non-meningitis interpretive criteria) and 0.0% (CLSI meningitis interpretive criteria) for penicillin-intermediate (penicillin MIC, 4 mg/L) strains. All Haemophilus influenzae (29.4% ?-lactamase-positive) isolates were susceptible to ceftaroline, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ceftriaxone, and levofloxacin. For the Latin American region, the ESBL-phenotype rate was 37.6% for Escherichia coli and 53.3% for Klebsiella pneumoniae. Ceftaroline was not active against ESBL-phenotype strains but was active against >90.0% of the non-ESBL-phenotype. The spectrum of activity of ceftaroline against pathogens from Latin America indicates that it merits further study for its potential use in the Latin American region. PMID:24513484

  20. Latin American Social Medicine and Global Social Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Seiji

    2003-01-01

    A fundamental change in the theory underlying public health and medicine is needed. Latin American social medicine (LASM), originating in a region of the world that has been subjected to colonial and postcolonial influence, will be part of this change. To the extent that the social production of disease among people in other regions is a consequence of various large-scale forms of domination, LASM offers a relevant analysis, models of resistance, and exemplars of social medicine in practice. I draw upon LASM to examine the social production of disease in the Marshall Islands and Iraq. I suggest a basis for a global social medicine in the shared experience of suffering and describe implications for public health theory and practice. PMID:14652319

  1. Latin American Social Medicine: Roots, Development During the 1990s, and Current Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Tajer, Débora

    2003-01-01

    Latin American social medicine arose during the 1950s and 1960s, drawing its inspiration from the social movements that emerged in France, Germany, and England in the mid-19th century. The Latin American movement of social medicine has clear ideological goals. It is organized around the Latin American Association of Social Medicine, which was founded in 1984 and is regarded as a social, political, and academic movement. This article takes a historical perspective and presents the reasons for the emergence and identity of the association, focusing on the main developments and contributions of this movement from the 1990s until the present time. PMID:14652326

  2. Schooling, Cognitive Skills, and the Latin American Growth Puzzle. NBER Working Paper No. 15066

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Woessmann, Ludger

    2009-01-01

    Economic development in Latin America has trailed most other world regions over the past four decades despite its relatively high initial development and school attainment levels. This puzzle can be resolved by considering the actual learning as expressed in tests of cognitive skills, on which Latin American countries consistently perform at the…

  3. LATIN AMERICAN THEATER FOR SOCIAL CHANGE: THE CASE OF AUGUSTO BOAL AND ENRIQUE BUENAVENTURA

    E-print Network

    Sandi Diaz, Gina

    2007-12-12

    that the Social Change movement in Latin America is not just "Brechtian-style" theater, but an original movement that developed an aesthetic of its own. This thesis focuses on the work of two Latin American artists: Brazilian theater maker Augusto Boal...

  4. Some Contributions from Latin American Career Counselling for Dealing with Situations of Psychosocial Vulnerability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Marcelo Afonso; da Conceição Coropos Uvaldo, Maria; da Silva, Fabiano Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    Facing a working world more flexible, unstable and potentially generator of vulnerabilities, the career counselling has required contemporary approaches that meet these demands, which ones have been present in Latin America for a long time. Thus, the present paper aimed to analyse some Latin American proposals and highlight general principles to…

  5. Latin American Studies at Stetson University is a multidisciplinary and experientially oriented program that develops students'

    E-print Network

    Miles, Will

    Studies. Beyond the Classroom Internships Students have the opportunity to work in the summer America and approved internships. Students in the Latin American minor have studied and completed internships in countries including Guatemala, Peru, Mexico, Belize, Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Ecuador

  6. PREFACE: XI Latin American Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anteneodo, Celia; da Luz, Marcos G. E.

    2010-09-01

    The XI Latin American Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena (LAWNP) has been held in Búzios-RJ, Brazil, from 5-9 October 2009. This international conference is one in a series that have gathered biennially, over the past 21 years, physicists and other scientists who direct their work towards several aspects of nonlinear phenomena and complex systems. The main purpose of LAWNP meetings is to create a friendly and motivating environment, such that researchers from Latin America and from other parts of the globe can discuss not only their own latest results but also the trends and perspectives in this very interdisciplinary field of investigation. Hence, it constitutes a forum for promoting scientific collaboration and fomenting the emergence of new ideas, helping to advance the field. The XI edition (LAWNP'09) has gathered more than 230 scientists and students (most from Latin America), covering all of the world (27 different countries from North and South America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania). In total there were 18 plenary lectures, 80 parallel talks, and 140 poster contributions. A stimulating round-table discussion also took place devoted to the present and future of the Latin American Institutions in Complex Phenomena (a summary can be found at http://lawnp09.fis.puc-rio.br, in the Round-Table report link). The 2009 workshop was devoted to a wide scope of themes and points of view, pursuing to include the latest trends and developments in the science of nonlinearity. In this way, we have a great pleasure in publishing this Proceedings volume based on the high quality scientific works presented at LAWNP'09, covering already established methods as well as new approaches, discussing both theoretical and practical aspects, and addressing paradigmatic systems and also completely new problems, in nonlinearity and complexity. In fact, the present volume may be a very valuable reference for those interested in an overview on how nonlinear interactions can affect different phenomena in nature, addressing: classical and quantum chaos; instability and bifurcation; cooperative behavior; self-organization; pattern formation and synchronization; far-from-equilibrium and fluctuation dynamics; nonlinearity in fluid, plasmas, granular media, optics, and wave propagation; turbulence onset; and complexity in natural and social systems. The success of the conference was possible thanks to the financial support from many agencies, especially the Brazilian agencies Capes and CNPq, and the international agencies, Binational Itaupú, ICTP-Trieste, and CAIS-Albuquerque. Equally very important was the support by the organizer's institutions PUC-Rio de Janeiro and UFPR-Curitiba. We also must thank Journal of Physics: Conference Series, for believing in the success and scientific quality of the conference, and to the journal staff, specially Anete Ashton, for the kind and prompt help during the whole production process of this publication. Finally, and most important, we acknowledge all the participants of the LAWNP'09, whose interest and enthusiasm in advancing the science of nonlinearity constitutes the true moto making the present Proceedings a very valuable scientific contribution. Celia Anteneodo (PUC-Rio, Brazil) and Marcos G E da Luz (UFPR-Curitiba, Brazil) Conference Chairs Conference photograph Some of the conference participants. CAPES logo This issue was supported by CAPES (Agency for Evaluation and Support of Graduate Studies Programs), Brazilian govern entity devoted to the formation of human resources. CA would like to thank CAPES for financial support.

  7. Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Studies Center for Latin American,

    E-print Network

    Artemov, Sergei N.

    & Latino Studies Graduate Center City University of New York 365 Fifth Avenue Room 5419 New York, New York' Parenthood and Income in New York City 1990 - 2010 Justine Calcagno Ph.D. Candidate Social & Personality population of the United States and especially New York City through the analysis of extant data available

  8. PREFACE: First Latin-American Conference on Bioimpedance (CLABIO 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertemes Filho, Pedro

    2012-12-01

    The past decade has witnessed an unprecedented growth in medical technologies and a new generation of diagnostics, characterized by mobility, virtualization, homecare and costs. The ever growing demand and the rapid need for low cost tools for characterizing human tissue, and supporting intelligence and technologies for non-invasive tissue cancer investigation raise unique and evolving opportunities for research in Electrical Bioimpedance. The CLABIO2012 - First Latin American Conference on Bioimpedance is a premier Latin-American conference on Bioimpedance for research groups working on Electrical Bioimpedance. It allows Latin American researchers to share their experiences with other groups from all over the world by presenting scientific work and potential innovations in this research area and also in the social events promoting informal get togethers in the Brazilian style. The work covers a broad range including Biomedical Engineering and Computing, Medical Physics and Medical Sciences, Environment, Biology and Chemistry. Also, the Conference is intended to give students and research groups the opportunity to learn more about Bioimpedance as an important tool in biological material characterization and also in diagnosis. The conference is designed to showcase cutting edge research and accomplishments, and to enrich the educational and industrial experience in this field. It also represents a unique opportunity to meet colleagues and friends, exchanging ideas, and learning about new developments and best practice, while working to advance the understanding of the knowledge base that we will collectively draw upon in the years ahead to meet future challenges. Participants will attend presentations by scholars representing both institutes and academia. The CLABIO2012 proceedings include over 25 papers selected via a peer review process. The conference program features tutorial talks by world-leading scholars and five sessions for regular paper oral presentations. In making this conference possible, we want to acknowledge our deep appreciation for the financial support of FAPESC (Foundation for Research and Innovation of Santa Catarina), CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level -or Education- Personnel) and also express our sincere thanks to the many individuals who contributed their time and diligence to making this conference possible. Our special thanks go to the Santa Catarina State University for contributing time and effort to organizing the conference. We also wish to express our thanks to Professors Ana Watanabe and Fabricio Noveletto for helping with the registration process, the conference desk and the diverse and sundry details that are the part of any event of this kind. We would like also to thank all of the invited speakers and the members of the Program Committee, and wopuld like to express our gratitude to the Technological Institute of Joinville (FITEJ) for their technical co-sponsorship. We very much appreciate Orjan Martinsen, Uwe Pliquett, Fernando Martinez Seoane, Raul Gonzalez Lima, Marcio Nogueira de Souza and Carlos Augusto Gonzalez Correa for delivering keynote talks at the conference. And we would like to extend an enthusiastic round of thanks to all of our conference authors for their excellent contributions; to all the session chairs for their effort and enthusiasm; and to all the International Program Committee members and referees for their time and expertise in the paper review. Particular thanks go to Emiliano Amarante Veiga and other members of the CLABIO2012 Secretariat and organizing team for their time and outstanding work. List of committees General Chair Professor Pedro Bertemes Filho (Santa Catarina State University) Pedro Bertemes Filho Technical Program Chairs Dr Marcio Nogueira de Souza (Rio de Janeiro Federal University) Local Arrangement Chair Professor Aleksander Paterno (Santa Catarina State University) Professor Fabrício Noveletto (Santa Catarina State University) Finance Chairman Professor Nilson Campos (Santa Catarina State University) Marketing & Corp

  9. Third special price report. [Latin American countries, USA, and Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-06

    Energy Detente's latest international price survey at midyear 1982 showed the average price of premium gasoline had fallen US $0.27 in the 11-month period since their first special report in July 1981. The biggest price drop occurred in Costa Rica, where prices in local currency increased slightly but in US dollars declined US $1.91 - due to the fall of the Colon against the US dollar. The case of Costa Rica exemplifies how the rise of the US dollar influenced the survey findings. Generally, the price drops showed that in several countries fuel prices haven't kept up with inflation and this shows up when prices are expressed in dollars. However, analysis of US prices, and prices in Guatemala where currency is at par with the dollar, shows prices fell (modestly) there too. Prices in Mexico and Venezuela doubled. Ecuador listed the lowest prices in the survey. Also included in this issue are brief energy notes from Mexico and other Latin American countries.

  10. Birth Outcomes of Latin Americans in Two Countries with Contrasting Immigration Admission Policies: Canada and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Urquia, Marcelo L.

    2015-01-01

    Background We delved into the selective migration hypothesis on health by comparing birth outcomes of Latin American immigrants giving birth in two receiving countries with dissimilar immigration admission policies: Canada and Spain. We hypothesized that a stronger immigrant selection in Canada will reflect more favourable outcomes among Latin Americans giving birth in Canada than among their counterparts giving birth in Spain. Materials and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional bi-national comparative study. We analyzed birth data of singleton infants born in Canada (2000–2005) (N = 31,767) and Spain (1998–2007) (N = 150,405) to mothers born in Spanish-speaking Latin American countries. We compared mean birthweight at 37–41 weeks gestation, and low birthweight and preterm birth rates between Latin American immigrants to Canada vs. Spain. Regression analysis for aggregate data was used to obtain Odds Ratios and Mean birthweight differences adjusted for infant sex, maternal age, parity, marital status, and father born in same source country. Results Latin American women in Canada had heavier newborns than their same-country counterparts giving birth in Spain, overall [adjusted mean birthweight difference: 101 grams; 95% confidence interval (CI): 98, 104], and within each maternal country of origin. Latin American women in Canada had fewer low birthweight and preterm infants than those giving birth in Spain [adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.94 for low birthweight, and 0.88; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.93 for preterm birth, respectively]. Conclusion Latin American immigrant women had better birth outcomes in Canada than in Spain, suggesting a more selective migration in Canada than in Spain. PMID:26308857

  11. Climate Change and Climate Variability in the Latin American Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrin, G. O.; Gay Garcia, C.; Cruz Choque, D.; Gimenez-Sal, J. C.; Moreno, A. R.; Nagy, G. J.; Nobre, C.; Villamizar, A.

    2007-05-01

    Over the past three decades LA was subjected to several climate-related impacts due to increased El Niño occurrences. Two extremely intense episodes of El Niño and other increased climate extremes happened during this period contributing greatly to augment the vulnerability of human systems to natural disasters. In addition to weather and climate, the main drivers of the increased vulnerability are demographic pressure, unregulated urban growth, poverty and rural migration, low investment in infrastructure and services, and problems in inter-sector coordination. As well, increases in temperature and increases/decreases in precipitation observed during the last part of 20th century have yet led to intensification of glaciers melting, increases in floods/droughts and forest fires frequency, increases in morbidity and mortality, increases in plant diseases incidence; lost of biodiversity, reduction in dairy cattle production, and problems with hydropower generation, highly affecting LA human system. For the end of the 21st century, the projected mean warming for LA ranges from 1 to 7.5ºC and the frequency of weather and climate extremes could increase. Additionally, deforestation is projected to continue leading to a reduction of 25 percent in Amazonia forest in 2020 and 40 percent in 2050. Soybeans planted area in South America could increase by 55 percent by 2020 enhancing aridity/desertification in many of the already water- stressed regions. By 2050 LA population is likely to be 50 percent larger than in 2000, and migration from the country sides to the cities will continue. In the near future, these predicted changes are very likely to severely affect a number of ecosystems and sectors distribution; b) Disappearing most tropical glaciers; c) Reducing water availability and hydropower generation; d) Increasing desertification and aridity; e) Severely affecting people, resources and economic activities in coastal areas; f) Increasing crop's pests and diseases; and g) Changing some human diseases distribution and provoking the emergence of new ones. The impact of climate change in Latin America's productive sectors is estimated to be of a 1.3 percent reduction of the region's GDP for a change of 2ºC in global temperature (without consider non market sectors and extremes events). Moreover, if the LA countries continue to follow the business as usual scenario, the wealth of natural resources that have supported economic and socio-cultural development in the region will be further degraded, reducing the regional potential for growth. Urgent measures must be taken to help bring environmental and social considerations from the margins to the decision-making and development strategies. This presentation is part of the revision done for the Latin American (LA) chapter under the IPCC WGII Fourth Assessment Report.

  12. The Status of Environmental Education in Latin American Middle and High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin-Jones, Linda; Penwell, Rebecca; Hakverdi, Meral; Cline, Shannon; Johnson, Courtney; Scales, Ingrid

    This research investigated the status of environmental education (EE) in private American and international middle and high schools throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. The study population consisted of all 50 dues-paying member schools in the Association of American Schools of Central America, Columbia-Caribbean, and Mexico (the…

  13. North and Latin American Business Negotiations: An Assessment of Differences in Interpersonal Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankis, Olaf E.; Biggers, J. Thompson

    Both North American and Latin American business professionals were investigated in a study that focused on the perceived communication problems between the two groups. A number of major areas of interest were considered, including the following: (1) source of credibility (what dimensions of personality were seen as most desirable in the…

  14. Wealth gradients in early childhood cognitive development in five Latin American countries

    PubMed Central

    Schady, Norbert; Behrman, Jere; Araujo, Maria Caridad; Azuero, Rodrigo; Bernal, Raquel; Bravo, David; Lopez-Boo, Florencia; Macours, Karen; Marshall, Daniela; Paxson, Christina; Vakis, Renos

    2014-01-01

    Research from the United States shows that gaps in early cognitive and non-cognitive ability appear early in the life cycle. Little is known about this important question for developing countries. This paper provides new evidence of sharp differences in cognitive development by socioeconomic status in early childhood for five Latin American countries. To help with comparability, we use the same measure of receptive language ability for all five countries. We find important differences in development in early childhood across countries, and steep socioeconomic gradients within every country. For the three countries where we can follow children over time, there are few substantive changes in scores once children enter school. Our results are robust to different ways of defining socioeconomic status, to different ways of standardizing outcomes, and to selective non-response on our measure of cognitive development. PMID:25983344

  15. Women in American History Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiferth, Berniece B.; Bennett, Barbara

    This teaching unit was developed to highlight the role of women in American history. Written for the junior and senior high school level, the unit examines how women's role has changed, what contributions were made by women in the almost 400 years of our history, effects of the women's rights and suffragist movement of the 19th century, and…

  16. Facial asymmetry and genetic ancestry in Latin American admixed populations.

    PubMed

    Quinto-Sánchez, Mirsha; Adhikari, Kaustubh; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Cintas, Celia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio Cesar; Ramallo, Virginia; Castillo, Lucia; Farrera, Arodi; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, Williams; Fuentes, Macarena; Everardo, Paola; de Avila, Francisco; Gomez-Valdés, Jorge; Hünemeier, Tábita; Gibbon, Shara; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Rosique, Javier; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; González-José, Rolando

    2015-05-01

    Fluctuating and directional asymmetry are aspects of morphological variation widely used to infer environmental and genetic factors affecting facial phenotypes. However, the genetic basis and environmental determinants of both asymmetry types is far from being completely known. The analysis of facial asymmetries in admixed individuals can be of help to characterize the impact of a genome's heterozygosity on the developmental basis of both fluctuating and directional asymmetries. Here we characterize the association between genetic ancestry and individual asymmetry on a sample of Latin-American admixed populations. To do so, three-dimensional (3D) facial shape attributes were explored on a sample of 4,104 volunteers aged between 18 and 85 years. Individual ancestry and heterozygosity was estimated using more than 730,000 genome-wide markers. Multivariate techniques applied to geometric morphometric data were used to evaluate the magnitude and significance of directional and fluctuating asymmetry (FA), as well as correlations and multiple regressions aimed to estimate the relationship between facial FA scores and heterozygosity and a set of covariates. Results indicate that directional and FA are both significant, the former being the strongest expression of asymmetry in this sample. In addition, our analyses suggest that there are some specific patterns of facial asymmetries characterizing the different ancestry groups. Finally, we find that more heterozygous individuals exhibit lower levels of asymmetry. Our results highlight the importance of including ancestry-admixture estimators, especially when the analyses are aimed to compare levels of asymmetries on groups differing on socioeconomic levels, as a proxy to estimate developmental noise. PMID:25582401

  17. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 31, Number 1: Performance reviews

    E-print Network

    1997-10-01

    roles y va transformándose como un camaleón, en las distintas figuras que compartieron subida: En tanto mujer, durante una medianoche calurosa, envuelta en una nube de nicotina gris recuerda su actuación de actriz en el club Medianoche 172 LATIN...

  18. Possible treatments for arsenic removal in Latin American waters for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Litter, Marta I; Morgada, Maria E; Bundschuh, Jochen

    2010-05-01

    Considering the toxic effects of arsenic, the World Health Organization recommends a maximum concentration of 10 microg L(-1) of arsenic in drinking water. Latin American populations present severe health problems due to consumption of waters with high arsenic contents. The physicochemical properties of surface and groundwaters are different from those of other more studied regions of the planet, and the problem is still publicly unknown. Methods for arsenic removal suitable to be applied in Latin American waters are here summarized and commented. Conventional technologies (oxidation, coagulation-coprecipitation, adsorption, reverse osmosis, use of ion exchangers) are described, but emphasis is made in emergent decentralized economical methods as the use of inexpensive natural adsorbents, solar light technologies or biological treatments, as essential to palliate the situation in poor, isolated and dispersed populations of Latin American regions. PMID:20189697

  19. Lupus in Latin-American patients: lessons from the GLADEL cohort.

    PubMed

    Pons-Estel, G J; Catoggio, L J; Cardiel, M H; Bonfa, E; Caeiro, F; Sato, E; Massardo, L; Molina-Restrepo, J F; Toledano, M Guibert; Barile-Fabris, L A; Amigo, M C; Acevedo-Vásquez, E M; Abadi, I; Wojdyla, D; Alarcón-Riquelme, M E; Alarcón, G S; Pons-Estel, B A

    2015-05-01

    The need for comprehensive published epidemiologic and clinical data from Latin American systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients motivated the late Dr Alarcón-Segovia and other Latin American professionals taking care of these patients to spearhead the creation of the G: rupo L: atino A: mericano D: e E: studio del L: upus (GLADEL) cohort in 1997. This inception cohort recruited a total of 1480 multiethnic (Mestizo, African-Latin American (ALA), Caucasian and other) SLE patients diagnosed within two years from the time of enrollment from 34 Latin American centers with expertise in the diagnosis and management of this disease. In addition to the initial 2004 description of the cohort, GLADEL has contributed to improving our knowledge about the course and outcome of lupus in patients from this part of the Americas. The major findings from this cohort are highlighted in this review. They have had important clinical implications for the adequate care of SLE patients both in Latin America and worldwide where these patients may have emigrated. PMID:25697768

  20. Latin American and Caribbean Conference for Engineering and Technology Medelln, Colombia WE1-1 August 3-5, 2011

    E-print Network

    Kalva, Hari

    9th Latin American and Caribbean Conference for Engineering and Technology Medellín, Colombia WE1-1 August 3-5, 2011 Ninth LACCEI Latin American and Caribbean Conference (LACCEI'2011), Engineering to meet the needs of biologists performing sea-turtle observation on the east coast of Florida

  1. To see and not be seen: Latin American illegal foreign workers in Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    Roer-strier, D; Olshtain-mann, O

    1999-01-01

    "This article describes the formation and characteristics of the new evolving community of illegal Latin American foreign workers in Jerusalem while adopting the ecological perspective, which examines human development and behaviour in various contexts of their social and cultural environments. We have looked specifically at illegal Latin American foreign workers' reasons for and process of migration, their accommodation and living conditions, allocation of employment, daily cultural and social conditions, education and health issues concerning children and families, perceptions of relations with host culture and perceptions of well-being and future expectations." (EXCERPT) PMID:12290422

  2. Multinational Corporations and Health Care in the United States and Latin America: Strategies, Actions, and Effects*

    PubMed Central

    JASSO-AGUILAR, REBECA; WAITZKIN, HOWARD; LANDWEHR, ANGELA

    2010-01-01

    In this article we analyze the corporate dominance of health care in the United States and the dynamics that have motivated the international expansion of multinational health care corporations, especially to Latin America. We identify the strategies, actions, and effects of multinational corporations in health care delivery and public health policies. Our methods have included systematic bibliographical research and in-depth interviews in the United States, Mexico, and Brazil. Influenced by public policy makers in the United States, such organizations as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and World Trade Organization have advocated policies that encourage reduction and privatization of health care and public health services previously provided in the public sector. Multinational managed care organizations have entered managed care markets in several Latin American countries at the same time as they were withdrawing from managed care activities in Medicaid and Medicare within the United States. Corporate strategies have culminated in a marked expansion of corporations’ access to social security and related public sector funds for the support of privatized health services. International financial institutions and multinational corporations have influenced reforms that, while favorable to corporate interests, have worsened access to needed services and have strained the remaining public sector institutions. A theoretical approach to these problems emphasizes the falling rate of profit as an economic motivation of corporate actions, silent reform, and the subordination of polity to economy. Praxis to address these problems involves opposition to policies that enhance corporate interests while reducing public sector services, as well as alternative models that emphasize a strengthened public sector. PMID:15779471

  3. Multinational corporations and health care in the United States and Latin America: strategies, actions, and effects.

    PubMed

    Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca; Waitzkin, Howard; Landwehr, Angela

    2004-01-01

    In this article we analyze the corporate dominance of health care in the United States and the dynamics that have motivated the international expansion of multinational health care corporations, especially to Latin America. We identify the strategies, actions, and effects of multinational corporations in health care delivery and public health policies. Our methods have included systematic bibliographical research and in-depth interviews in the United States, Mexico, and Brazil. Influenced by public policy makers in the United States, such organizations as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and World Trade Organization have advocated policies that encourage reduction and privatization of health care and public health services previously provided in the public sector. Multinational managed care organizations have entered managed care markets in several Latin American countries at the same time as they were withdrawing from managed care activities in Medicaid and Medicare within the United States. Corporate strategies have culminated in a marked expansion of corporations' access to social security and related public sector funds for the support of privatized health services. International financial institutions and multinational corporations have influenced reforms that, while favorable to corporate interests, have worsened access to needed services and have strained the remaining public sector institutions. A theoretical approach to these problems emphasizes the falling rate of profit as an economic motivation of corporate actions, silent reform, and the subordination of polity to economy. Praxis to address these problems involves opposition to policies that enhance corporate interests while reducing public sector services, as well as alternative models that emphasize a strengthened public sector PMID:15779471

  4. Latin American Political Trends and their Impact on the Future of U.S.-Latin American Relations 

    E-print Network

    Davis, Andrew Milton

    2010-07-14

    Recent political trends in Latin America have led to the election of a number of leftist presidents throughout the region. Some, such as Venezuela's Hugo Chavez and Ecuador's Rafael Correa, profess goals centered to varying ...

  5. Chagas disease: a Latin American health problem becoming a world health problem.

    PubMed

    Schmunis, Gabriel A; Yadon, Zaida E

    2010-01-01

    Political repression and/or economic stagnation stimulated the flow of migration from the 17 Latin American countries endemic for Chagas disease to developed countries. Because of this migration, Chagas disease, an autochthonous disease of the Continental Western Hemisphere is becoming a global health problem. In 2006, 3.8% of the 80,522 immigrants from those 17 countries to Australia were likely infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. In Canada in 2006, 3.5% of the 156,960 immigrants from Latin America whose country of origin was identified were estimated to have been infected. In Japan in 2007, there were 80,912 immigrants from Brazil, 15,281 from Peru, and 19,413 from other South American countries whose country of origin was not identified, a portion of whom may have been also infected. In 15 countries of Europe in 2005, excluding Spain, 2.9% of the 483,074 legal Latin American immigrants were estimated to be infected with T. cruzi. By 2008, Spain had received 1,678,711 immigrants from Latin American endemic countries; of these, 5.2% were potentially infected with T. cruzi and 17,390 may develop Chagas disease. Further, it was estimated that 24-92 newborns delivered by South American T. cruzi infected mothers in Spain may have been congenitally infected with T. cruzi in 2007. In the USA we estimated that 1.9% of approximately 13 million Latin American immigrants in 2000, and 2% of 17 million in 2007, were potentially infected with T. cruzi. Of these, 49,157 and 65,133 in 2000 and 2007 respectively, may have or may develop symptoms and signs of chronic Chagas disease. Governments should implement policies to prevent donations of blood and organs from T. cruzi infected donors. In addition, an infrastructure that assures detection and treatment of acute and chronic cases as well as congenital infection should be developed. PMID:19932071

  6. Repeating: An Overlooked Problem of Latin American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefelbein, Ernesto

    1975-01-01

    Typically, the cause of the low rate of retention in primary schools in Latin America is assumed to be socioeconomic. This paper attempted to show that this definition of retention is incorrect, that desertion is highly over-estimated, and that the root cause of low retention in primary education is repetition. (Author/RK)

  7. Income and beyond: Multidimensional Poverty in Six Latin American Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battiston, Diego; Cruces, Guillermo; Lopez-Calva, Luis Felipe; Lugo, Maria Ana; Santos, Maria Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies multidimensional poverty for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, El Salvador, Mexico and Uruguay for the period 1992-2006. The approach overcomes the limitations of the two traditional methods of poverty analysis in Latin America (income-based and unmet basic needs) by combining income with five other dimensions: school attendance for…

  8. LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES COURSES -SPRING 2015 Course Title Instructor

    E-print Network

    since Independence Joseph, Gilbert ER&M 370 Indians&theSpanishBorderlands Staff ER&M 384 US,Territory&Identity Rankin, William HSHM 466 GreatFlood &Other Catastrophes Dal Prete, Ivano HIST 130J, Gilbert HIST 361 History of Brazil Schwartz, Stuart HIST 363 LatinAmerica since

  9. Intercultural Education Series. Selected Latin American Literature for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Earl, Ed.

    The appearance of this collection of readings partially fulfills one of Programa de Educacion Interamericana's objectives described in SO 001 424: that of helping our students become better acquainted with the literature of Latin America. This volume was not prepared for just literature or Spanish classes; the introductions and the works cover a…

  10. Comparing Work-Life Balance in Spanish and Latin-American Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlier, Sandra Idrovo; Llorente, Consuelo Leon; Grau, Marc Grau

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to determine the level of awareness and implementation of family-responsible parameters: policies, enablers, practices, and culture, in Spanish and Latin-American companies, and how they impact work-life balance. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses data from different national IESE's Family-Responsible Employer…

  11. Education for Sustainability in University Studies: Experiences from a Project Involving European and Latin American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geli de Ciurana, Anna M.; Filho, Walter Leal

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To report on a project involving European and Latin American universities, focusing on curriculum greening. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents the experiences gained in connection with the "ACES Project" which is a model of the implementation of sustainability principles in higher education, with a special emphasis on…

  12. What are poverty maps telling us? An exploration of Latin American poverty small area estimates

    E-print Network

    Krivobokova, Tatyana

    What are poverty maps telling us? An exploration of Latin American poverty small area estimates, the study of the geographic dimension and distribution of poverty has gained considerable attention, the incorporation of the geographic dimension in the analysis of poverty is helpful for identifying and explaining

  13. In Search of the Orange Blossom and the Olive Branch: Reflections on Latin American Jewish Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agosin, Marjorie

    1999-01-01

    Reflects on the traditions of Jewish Latin American literature, with its roots in the culture of Sephardic Jews who left Europe. One of the central themes of this literature, which is frequently written in the traditional Judeo-Spanish "ladino," is migration. (SLD)

  14. The Educated Citizen: Cultural and Gender Capital in the Schooling of Latin American Children in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Vazquez, Genaro

    2011-01-01

    An ethnographic study on a Japanese language tutoring programme for foreign children was conducted from 2003 to 2006. The investigation attempted to shed light on issues of language acquisition among Latin American children who attended three public primary schools in Japan. This article combines extensive participant observation and in-depth…

  15. Linguistic Reception of Latin American Students in Catalonia and Their Responses to Educational Language Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Michael; Patino-Santos, Adriana; Trenchs-Parera, Mireia

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the connections between language policy implementation in three Barcelona-area secondary schools and the language attitudes and behaviors of Spanish-speaking Latin American newcomers. Data were collected through interviews and ethnographic participant observation document indexes of different forms of language socialization…

  16. LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 2010-2012 DEGREE PLAN (expires 08/2018)

    E-print Network

    Pillow, Jonathan

    LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 2010-2012 DEGREE PLAN (expires 08/2018) UNIVERSITY CORE REQUIREMENTS COLLEGE Requirement in Mathematics _______ Science & Technology, Part I (030) 6 hours in a single field of study A _______ _______ Science & Technology, Part II (031) 3 hours in a field of study different from that used in Part I

  17. The Importance of Negotiation for Policy Dialogue: Latin American Training Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Maria Clara

    2004-01-01

    Over the past several decades, Latin American countries have supported processes of bringing public policy decisions on education closer to the people concerned. Participation at all levels of decision-making processes has generally been highly valued. Nonetheless, these decentralization efforts came about without governments taking the necessary…

  18. The "Other" Internment: Teaching the Hidden Story of Japanese Latin Americans during WWII

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yonamine, Moe

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how the author teaches 8th graders to imagine the experiences of people from another time in history and make connections to today. Through a role play, the author teaches the hidden story of Japanese Latin Americans during WWII. The role play engages students in exploration of a little-known piece of history--the…

  19. Teacher Perceptions Regarding the Status of Environmental Education in Latin American Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penwell, Rebecca; Cronin-Jones, Linda; Hakverdi, Meral; Cline, Shannon; Johnson, Courtney

    This research, commissioned by the U.S. Department of State, Office of Overseas Schools, was designed to determine the status of environmental education in private U.S. and international elementary schools throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. The study population consisted of all 50 dues-paying member schools in the Association of American

  20. An Introduction to Latin American and Carribean Musics in Florida: Multicultural Approaches in the Music Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Dale A.

    Because of Florida's rapidly growing ethnic populations, public school teachers of music and other disciplines in the humanities and fine arts in Florida must assess and adjust their curricula to include Latin American and Caribbean music and cultures in their programs. This will give curricular representation to a large percentage of Florida's…

  1. Characteristics of La Literatura: A Reference Study of Spanish and Latin American Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, David S.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the characteristics of scholarly communication, with particular emphasis on the usage of the monograph, in the field of Spanish and Latin American literature over a 30-year period. In addition, this study examines the age of materials referenced in an effort to gain insight into the shelf-life of these…

  2. The ETK Model: Effects on Latin American Higher Education Faculty Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas, Jorge Alberto

    2009-01-01

    The problem. This study was designed to investigate emotional human, E, technology awareness, T, and knowledge management, K, competences or dimensions of Latin American public post-secondary educational institution departments; specifically how these ETK competences or dimensions affect faculty satisfaction. Method. Three-hundred and…

  3. Engaging Language and Cultural Spaces: Latin American Parents' Reflections on Language Loss and Maintenance in Vancouver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guardado, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to explore the loss and maintenance of Spanish in Latin American children in Vancouver from the perspective of parents. It focuses on the experiences of children either developing bilingually (Spanish-English) or monolingually (English). The participating families were from Colombia, Guatemala, and El Salvador, and had…

  4. CILA: A New Approach to Problems in the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clouston, John Samuel

    This paper attempts to provide a contextual study of CILA--Centro Interamericano de Libros Academicos--a new scheme for the distribution of scholarly books in the Americas. Because of the scheme's peculiar relevance to the needs of Canadian academic libraries, the status of Latin American studies and relevant library collections in Canada are…

  5. Availability and affordability of new medicines in Latin American countries where pivotal clinical trials were conducted

    PubMed Central

    Ugalde, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess whether new pharmaceutical products approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2011 and 2012 were registered, commercialized and sold at affordable prices in the Latin American countries where they were tested. Methods We obtained a list of new molecular entities (new pharmaceutical products) approved by the FDA in 2011 and 2012. FDA medical reviews indicated the countries where pivotal clinical trials had been conducted. The registration status of the products was obtained from pharmaceutical registers; pharmaceutical companies confirmed their availability in national markets and local pricing observatories provided the price of medicines in retail pharmacies. Affordability was assessed as the cost of a course of treatment as a proportion of monthly income. Information on safety and efficacy was gathered from independent drug bulletins. Findings Of an expected 114 registrations, if the 33 products had been registered in all the countries where tested, only 68 (60%) were completed. Eight products were registered and commercialized in all countries but 10 had not been registered in any of the countries. With one exception, products for which we obtained pricing information (n?=?18) cost more than the monthly minimum wage in all countries and 12 products cost at least five times the monthly minimum wage. Conclusion Many pharmaceutical products tested in Latin America are unavailable and/or unaffordable to most of the population. Ethical review committees should consider the local affordability and therapeutic relevance of new products as additional criteria for the approval of clinical trials. Finally, clinical trials have opportunity costs that need to be assessed. PMID:26600609

  6. Status of Proposed Repository for Latin-American Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.

    2004-10-04

    This report compiles preliminary information that supports the premise that a repository is needed in Latin America and analyzes the nuclear situation (mainly in Argentina and Brazil) in terms of nuclear capabilities, inventories, and regional spent-fuel repositories. The report is based on several sources and summarizes (1) the nuclear capabilities in Latin America and establishes the framework for the need of a permanent repository, (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) approach for a regional spent-fuel repository and describes the support that international institutions are lending to this issue, (3) the current situation in Argentina in order to analyze the Argentinean willingness to find a location for a deep geological repository, and (4) the issues involved in selecting a location for the repository and identifies a potential location. This report then draws conclusions based on an analysis of this information. The focus of this report is mainly on spent fuel and does not elaborate on other radiological waste sources.

  7. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 36, Number 1: Performance reviews

    E-print Network

    2002-10-01

    Performance Reviews Tres vidas Denise M. DiPuccio Tres vidas presents a triptych of three fascinating Latin women: Mexican painter Frida Kahlo, Argentine poet Alfonsina Storni, and Salvadoran peasant-activist Rufina Amaya. Although the three protagonists... woman: Kahlo's gusto for art, food, politics and life in the blue house in Coyoacán; Amaya's horrifying ordeal of witnessing the massacre of her family and friends in the small refugee village of El Mozote; and, finally, Storni's early feminist poetry...

  8. Treatment of Mentally Ill Offenders in Nine Developing Latin American Countries.

    PubMed

    Almanzar, Santiago; Katz, Craig L; Harry, Bruce

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric conditions among prisoners in Latin America is greatly underestimated, and because of the lack of awareness about mental illness among service providers in Latin American prisons, oftentimes these conditions go unrecognized or are not treated properly. In the worst-case scenarios, human rights violations occur. Despite the high levels of need, many prisoners have not received adequate or timely treatment. The sparse existing literature documents prison conditions throughout Latin American countries, ranging from poor to extremely harsh, overcrowded, and life threatening. Most prison systems do not meet international prison standards. The information on forensic mental health services and the treatment of offenders with mental illness have been less extensively studied and compared with forensic practices in developed American nations. This study analyzes the existing literature on forensic psychiatry, focusing on nine socioeconomically developing nations in Latin America, to improve understanding of treatment approaches for offenders with mental illness and identify emerging themes. A review was conducted and data were included in regression analyses to investigate information relative to the treatment of offenders with mental illness and its interaction with the mental health system. PMID:26438812

  9. The Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region: Summary. Bulletin 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and Caribbean.

    This UNESCO bulletin includes reports that focus on diagnoses and strategies that ratify the validity of the goals set by the Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. Four articles are featured: "Literacy, Human Rights and Democracy" (Jose Rivero H.); "Primary Schooling and Illiteracy in Latin America and…

  10. Antibiotic Prescriptions in Critically-Ill Patients: A Latin American Experience

    PubMed Central

    Curcio, D

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is widely acknowledged that the presence of infection is an important outcome determinant for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. In fact, antibiotics are one of the most common therapies administered in the ICU settings. Aim: To evaluate the current usage of antibiotics in Latin American ICUs. Subjects and Methods: A one-day p-oint prevalence study to investigate the patterns of antibiotic was undertaken in 72 Latin American (LA) ICUs. Data was analyzed using the Statistix 8 statistical software, version 2.0 (USA). Results were expressed as proportions. When applicable, two tailed hypothesis testing for difference in proportions was used (Proportion Test); a P value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of 704 patients admitted, 359 received antibiotic treatment on the day of the study (51%), of which 167/359 cases (46.5%) were due to hospital-acquired infections. The most frequent infection reorted was nosocomial pneumonia (74/359, 21%). Only in 264/359 patients (73.5%), cultures before starting antibiotic treatment were performed. Thirty-eight percent of the isolated microorganisms were Enterobacteriaceae extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing, 11% methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and 10% carbapenems-resistant non-fermentative Gram-negatives. The antibiotics most frequently prescribed were carbapenems (125/359, 35%), alone or in combination with vancomycin or other antibiotic. There were no significant differences in the “restricted” antibiotic prescription (carbapenems, vancomycin, piperacillin–tazobactam, broad-spectrum cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, tigecycline and linezolid) between patients with APACHE II score at the beginning of the antibiotic treatment <15 [83/114 (72.5%)] and ?15 [179/245 (73%)] (P = 0.96). Only 29% of the antibiotic treatments were cultured directed (104/359). Conclusion: Carbapenems (alone or in combination) were the most frequently prescribed antibiotics in LA ICUs. However, the problem of carbapenem resistance in LA requires that physicians improve the use of this class of antibiotics. Our findings show that our web-based method for collection of one-day point prevalence was implemented successfully. However, based on the limitations of the model used, the results of this study must be taken with caution. PMID:23919194

  11. PREFACE: 21st Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XXI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, J. Albino

    2014-04-01

    The Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES) started in Caracas-Venezuela, and over time the symposia have taken place in 9 different Latin American countries. The last five events took place in Mérida-Venezuela (2002), Havana-Cuba (2004), Puebla-Mexico (2006), Puerto Iguazú-Argentina (2008) and Maragogi-Brazil (2011). During the last years, in the different SLAFES editions, the aim has been to bring together researches from Latina America and invite renowned scientists from around the world to a unique forum to discuss the latest developments regarding Solid state Physics. The 21st Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XXI) was held in Villa de Leyva-Colombia, from September 30 to October 04, 2013. The 21st SLAFES version featured the participation of experts in various areas of Solid State Physics from countries such as Belgium, Germany, United States, Spain, Ireland, Chile, Argentina and Brazil, had 270 submitted works and was attended by 140 researchers. The development of this event was made possible by financial support from the Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Universidad del Norte-CO, Universidad de Magdalena-CO, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco-BR and the Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exatas, Naturales y Física. Editors Professor J Albino Aguiar Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: albino@df.ufpe.br Professor Jairo Roa-Rojas Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales Departamento de Física Universidad Nacional de Colombia A.A. 5997 Bogotá DC, Colombia e-mail: jroar@unal.edu.co Professor Carlos Arturo Parra Vargas Grupo Física de Materiales Escuela de Física Universidad Padagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia Tunja Colombia e-mail: carlos.parra@uptc.edu.co Professor David A Land\\'i nez Téllez Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales Departamento de Física Universidad Nacional de Colombia A.A. 5997 Bogotá DC Colombia e-mail: dalandinezt@unal.edu.co Professor Laura T Corredor Bohórquez Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: ltcorredorb@df.ufpe.br Professor Arkady Shanenko Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: arkadyshanenko@df.ufpe.br Professor Renato F Jardim Instituto de Física Universidade de S\\~ao Paulo CP 66318 S\\~ao Paulo SP Brazil e-mail: rjardim@if.usp.br Professor Francois Peeters Department Fysica Universiteit Antwerpen Groneneborgerlann 171 B-2020, Antwerpen Belgium e-mail: francois.peeters@uantwerpen.be Organizing committee ChairmanCarlos Arturo Parra Vargas Proceedings EditorJosé Albino Aguiar Program ChairJairo Roa-Rojas SecretaryAura Janeth Barón González TreasurerArmando Sarmiento Santos Speaker ChairRafael González Hernández Fernando Naranjo Mayorga David A Landínez Téllez Jesús Oswaldo Morán José Sierra Ortega

  12. 21F.084J / 21A.224J / 17.55 Introduction to Latin American Studies, Spring 2002

    E-print Network

    Lawson, Chappell H., 1967-

    This HASS-D/CI course is designed as an introduction to Latin American politics and society for undergraduates at MIT. No background on the region is required. Overall workload (reading, writing, class participation, and ...

  13. La Traduccion de la Nueva Novela Latinoamericana al Ingles (English Translation of the New Latin American Novel)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez-Ayona, Gerardo

    1978-01-01

    While distinguishing between literary criticism and the scientific study of translation, Latin American translations are analyzed according to the identification of "speech facts," levels of stylistic performance, translating from scratch, and the stylistic features of Rabassa. (NCR)

  14. Current status and expected developments in the area of satellite communications in the Latin American and Caribbean region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayala, S.

    1986-01-01

    The present capabilities of various Latin American countries in the area of satellite communications are discussed. Their current needs in this area are covered and how these needs are now being met, as well as prospects for future advancements.

  15. Transport and health: a look at three Latin American cities.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Janeth Mosquera; Reis, Rodrigo S; Frank, Lawrence D; Ramirez-Marrero, Farah A; Welle, Benjamin; Arriaga Cordero, Eugenio; Mendez Paz, Fabian; Crespo, Carlos; Dujon, Veronica; Jacoby, Enrique; Dill, Jennifer; Weigand, Lynn; Padin, Carlos M

    2013-04-01

    Transport is associated with environmental problems, economic losses, health and social inequalities. A number of European and US cities have implemented initiatives to promote multimodal modes of transport. In Latin America changes are occurring in public transport systems and a number of projects aimed at stimulating non-motorized modes of transport (walking and cycling) have already been implemented. Based on articles from peer-reviewed academic journals, this paper examines experiences in Bogotá (Colombia), Curitiba (Brazil), and Santiago (Chile), and identifies how changes to the transport system contribute to encourage active transportation. Bus rapid transit, ciclovias, bike paths/lanes, and car use restriction are initiatives that contribute to promoting active transportation in these cities. Few studies have been carried out on the relationship between transport and physical activity. Car ownership continues to increase. The public health sector needs to be a stronger activist in the transport policy decision-making process to incorporate health issues into the transport agenda in Latin America. PMID:23568296

  16. Current state and future perspectives of the Latin American Society for Immunodeficiencies (LASID).

    PubMed

    Condino-Neto, A; Sorensen, R U; Gómez Raccio, A C; King, A; Espinosa-Rosales, F J; Franco, J L

    2015-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are genetic diseases that affect the immune system and for the last 20 years, the Latin American Society for Immunodeficiencies (LASID) has been promoting initiatives in awareness, research, diagnosis, and treatment for the affected patients in Latin America. These initiatives have resulted in the development of programmes such as the LASID Registry (with 4900 patients registered as of January 2014), fellowships in basic and clinical research, PID summer schools, biannual meetings, and scientific reports, amongst others. These achievements highlight the critical role that LASID plays as a scientific organisation in promoting science, research and education in this field in Latin America. However, challenges remain in some of these areas and the Society must envision additional strategies to tackle them for the benefit of the patients. In June 2013, a group of experts in the field met to discuss the contributions of LASID to the initiatives of PID in Latin America, and this article summarises the current state and future perspectives of this society and its role in the advance of PIDs in Latin America. PMID:25294607

  17. The Color of Health: Skin Color, Ethnoracial Classification, and Discrimination in the Health of Latin Americans

    PubMed Central

    Perreira, Krista M.; Telles, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    Latin America is one of the most ethnoracially heterogeneous regions of the world. Despite this, health disparities research in Latin America tends to focus on gender, class and regional health differences while downplaying ethnoracial differences. Few scholars have conducted studies of ethnoracial identification and health disparities in Latin America. Research that examines multiple measures of ethnoracial identification is rarer still. Official data on race/ethnicity in Latin America are based on self-identification which can differ from interviewer-ascribed or phenotypic classification based on skin color. We use data from Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru to examine associations of interviewer-ascribed skin color, interviewer-ascribed race/ethnicity, and self-reported race/ethnicity with self-rated health among Latin American adults (ages 18-65). We also examine associations of observer-ascribed skin color with three additional correlates of health – skin color discrimination, class discrimination, and socio-economic status. We find a significant gradient in self-rated health by skin color. Those with darker skin colors report poorer health. Darker skin color influences self-rated health primarily by increasing exposure to class discrimination and low socio-economic status. PMID:24957692

  18. The color of health: skin color, ethnoracial classification, and discrimination in the health of Latin Americans.

    PubMed

    Perreira, Krista M; Telles, Edward E

    2014-09-01

    Latin America is one of the most ethnoracially heterogeneous regions of the world. Despite this, health disparities research in Latin America tends to focus on gender, class and regional health differences while downplaying ethnoracial differences. Few scholars have conducted studies of ethnoracial identification and health disparities in Latin America. Research that examines multiple measures of ethnoracial identification is rarer still. Official data on race/ethnicity in Latin America are based on self-identification which can differ from interviewer-ascribed or phenotypic classification based on skin color. We use data from Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru to examine associations of interviewer-ascribed skin color, interviewer-ascribed race/ethnicity, and self-reported race/ethnicity with self-rated health among Latin American adults (ages 18-65). We also examine associations of observer-ascribed skin color with three additional correlates of health - skin color discrimination, class discrimination, and socio-economic status. We find a significant gradient in self-rated health by skin color. Those with darker skin colors report poorer health. Darker skin color influences self-rated health primarily by increasing exposure to class discrimination and low socio-economic status. PMID:24957692

  19. First Meeting of Latin American Stage Directors Organized by the Argentinian Actors Association

    E-print Network

    1971-10-01

    Meeting of Latin American Stage Directors Organized by the Argentinian Actors Association We are men of the theatres of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Guatemala, Peru and Uruguay, convened in Buenos Aires for the purpose of exchanging ideas... Gene de Oliveira Carlos Dardon Jorge Hacker FALL 1971 85 Gerardo Huillier Onofre Lovero Walter Soubrie Manuel Iedvaeni Victor Jara Martínez David Stivel Marta LaPorte Luis Ordaz Dervy Vilas Contretas Domingo Piga Rubén Yáñez Antonio Larreta...

  20. Knowledge and attitudes of Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists regarding intrauterine contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Bahamondes, Luis; Makuch, Maria Y; Monteiro, Ilza; Marin, Victor; Lynen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background Intrauterine contraceptives (IUCs), including the copper intrauterine device and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), are among the reversible contraceptive methods with high effectiveness. However, use is low in many settings, including some Latin American countries, mainly due to the influences of myths, fears, and negative attitudes, not only of users and potential users, but also of different cadres of health care professionals. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of a group of Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists regarding IUCs. Methods A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting organized in Chile in 2014 to present and discuss updated information about contraception. Obstetricians and gynecologists from 12 Latin American countries, who reported that they provide daily contraception services in both the public and private sectors, participated in the meeting. Participants who agreed to take part in the survey responded to a multiple-choice questionnaire on issues regarding knowledge, use, and attitudes about IUCs. Results Of the 210 obstetricians and gynecologists participating in the meeting, the respondents to each question varied from 168 (80.0%) to 205 (97.6%). Almost 50% recognized that the failure rate of combined oral contraceptives, patches, and vaginal rings is 8%–10%. Furthermore, 10% of the participants did not recognize the high contraceptive effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods. Additionally, almost 80% of the respondents answered that they did not offer IUCs to nulligravidas and almost 10% did not offer IUCs to adolescents, albeit almost 90% of the respondents reported that nulligravidas are candidates for an LNG-IUS. Conclusion Some deficiencies and contradictions in terms of knowledge and attitudes were identified from the answers of the Latin American obstetricians and gynecologists who participated in the survey. The knowledge and attitudes of health care professionals about IUCs are important in order to provide adequate counseling and to expand the use of IUCs. PMID:26213479

  1. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 30, Number 2: Recent Publications, Materials Received and Current Bibliography

    E-print Network

    1997-04-01

    . Documenta CITRU (Teatro mexicano e investigación). Número 2 (mayo 1996). Carpeta especial: "Escuelas de Actuación." Escriben: Luis 188 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW de Tavira, Bruno Bert, Miguel Angel Vasquez, David Olguin, Emma Dib, Elka Fediuk, entre... Rubens Siqueira, "A Função do SPRING 1997 189 Teatro"; Luis Fernando Vianna, "O Bufão Brasileiro"; Adriana Pavlova, "Grupo Corpo"; Luiz Henriques Neto, A Vingança da Pizza (peça); João Bethencourt, "Curso de Dramaturgia"; Orlando Miranda, "Preferidos...

  2. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-01

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. PMID:25458716

  3. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS).

    PubMed

    Kovalskys, Irina; Fisberg, Mauro; Gómez, Georgina; Rigotti, Attilio; Cortés, Lilia Yadira; Yépez, Martha Cecilia; Pareja, Rossina G; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Zimberg, Ioná Z; Tucker, Katherine L; Koletzko, Berthold; Pratt, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region. PMID:26389952

  4. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS)

    PubMed Central

    Kovalskys, Irina; Fisberg, Mauro; Gómez, Georgina; Rigotti, Attilio; Cortés, Lilia Yadira; Yépez, Martha Cecilia; Pareja, Rossina G.; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Zimberg, Ioná Z.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Koletzko, Berthold; Pratt, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region. PMID:26389952

  5. Ethnic Differences in Profiles of Mother–Child Interactions and Relations to Emerging School Readiness in African American and Latin American Children

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Nazly; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Caughy, Margaret O’Brien

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective This article examines ethnic similarities and differences in profiles of mother–child interaction qualities for low-income African American and Latin American mothers and associations with preschoolers’ emerging school readiness. Design Videotaped mother–child interactions were collected at age 2.5 years from a sample of African American (n = 192) and Latin American (n = 210) families. Profiles of maternal behavior were identified in person-centered within-group analyses of five ratings of maternal behavior from the videotaped interactions. Mothering profile groups were examined for relations to child receptive language, behavior problems, and pre-academic school readiness measured at age 3.5 years. Results Latent class analyses yielded three similar profiles in the two ethnicities identified as Child-Oriented, Directive, and Harsh-Intrusive mothering, and a fourth profile of Withdrawn mothering only among the African American mothers. For African American children, Child-Oriented and Directive mothering were each associated with higher pre-academic school readiness and language scores than Harsh-Intrusive or Withdrawn mothering. For Latin American children, Child-Oriented mothering was associated with fewer child behavior problems than Harsh-Intrusive mothering, and higher school readiness scores than Directive mothering. Conclusions Both similarities and differences were found between African American and Latin American families in observation- based mothering profiles and their linkages with preschoolers’ school readiness. PMID:26120285

  6. High Energy Physics: Proceedings of the Fifth Latin American Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano Salinas, C. J.; Pereyra Ravinez, O.; Ochoa Jiménez, R.; Masperi, Luis

    2006-04-01

    Preface -- Series editorial board and other committees -- Local organizing committee -- Foreword by the editors -- Gallery -- Homages. In Memoriam Luis Masperi. Round table: collaborations in physics in Latin America -- Lectures. An introduction to strings and some of its phenomenological aspects / G. Aldazabal. Neutrino phenomenology / E. Roulet. An introduction to cosmology / D. J. H. Chung. Innovative experimental particle physics through technological advances-past, present and future / H. W. K. Cheung -- Seminars. Grand unification and physics beyond the standard model / E. Ma. QCD evolution in dense medium / M. B. Gay Ducati. Future experiments-GRID and LHC / A. Santoro. BTeV: using heavy quark decays to test the standard model / M. Sheaff. Recent results from CDF and DO experiments / C. Avila. Matter under extreme conditions the ALICE experiment / G. Herrera Corral and ALICE-Mexico. Recent results from PHOBOS at RHIC / E. Garcia -- Contributions. SO(10) as the minimal supersymmetric GUT / A. Melfo. A supersymmetric three-family model without Higgsinos / W. A. Ponce and L. A. Sánchez. Area-preserving diffeomorphisms groups, the Majorana representation of spins, and SU(N) / J. D. Swain. On the magnetized Kerr-Newman black hole electrodynamics / E. P. Esteban. Supernova neutrinos and the absolute scale of neutrino masses-a Bayesian approach / E. Nardi. Loop quantum gravity and ultra high energy cosmic rays / J. Alfaro and G. A. Palma. QQ¯ bound states in an extended QCD2 model / P. Labraña, J. Alfaro and A. A. Andrianov. Observational constraints on Lorentz symmetry deformation / J. Alfaro and M. Cambiaso. Variable-mass dark matter and the age of the universe / U. Franca and R. Rosenfeld. Dynamical study of spinodal decomposition in heavy ion collisions / A. Barra?n and J. A. López. Predictions for single spin asymmetries in inclusive reactions involving photons / V. Gupta, C. J. Solano Salinas and H. S. Mani. Bosonization and the generalized Mandelstam-Halpern operators / H. Blas. Is there really an entangled state for far away twin photons? / H. G. Valqui. Use of neural networks to classify cosmic-ray showers according to their Muon/EM ratio / H. Salazar and L. Villaseñor. [symbol] polarization in pp-->p[symbol]K+[symbol] at 27.5 GeV / J. Félix ... [et al.]. Definition of the polarization vector / V. M. Castillo-Vallejo and J. Félix. The MINOS experiment / M. Sanchez. Study of scintillating counters and their application to VO detector of ALICE / J. E. Ruiz and Tabasco. Data selection of [symbol] muon semileptonic decay in KTeV / R. A. Gomes. Chaotic properties of high energy cosmic rays / A. Ticona ... [et al.]. Energy spectrum of surviving protons / R. Calle ... [et al.]. Calculus of the ratio [symbol] in the K meson decay through the 331 model / J. C. Montero ... [et al.]. Use of a scintillator detector for luminosity measurements / G. Contreras, C. J. Solano Salinas and A. M. Gago. Simplified forms of a linear and exact set of equations for the gravitational field in the very early universe / E. Salinas -- Posters. Determination of the b-Mass using Renormalon Cancellation / C. Contreras. CP violation in B-->?K* decays: amplitudes, factorization and new physics / D. Gómez Dumm and A. Szynkman. Degeneracies in the measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters: problem and solution in neutrino factories / J. Jones and A. M. Gago. Revision of the neutrino oscillation probability in the supernovae / L. Aliaga and A. M. Gago. Consequences on the neutrino mixing matrix from two zero textures in the neutrino mass matrix / L. Stucchi, A. M. Gago and V. Gupta. Expected flux of high energy neutrinos from observed active galactic nuclei / J. L. Bazo and A. M. Gago. Masperi's Quasispin model of the scalar field [symbol] theory with soliton solutions / M. Agüero, G. Frias and F. Ongay. Nonstandard CP violation in B-->[symbol] decays / A. Szynkman. Spinor realization of the Skyrme Model / R. Ochoa Jimenez and Yu. P. Rybakov.

  7. [Equal rights for women and the United Nations convention in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Plata, M I

    1991-12-01

    Although Latin American institutions have, directly or indirectly, established the juridical equality of the sexes, institutional power continues to be concentrated in the hands of men. It is necessary that Latin American governments seek ways to eliminate the legal, cultural, economic, political and social discrimination that persists against women in these patriarchal societies if men and women are to enjoy equality of rights. Today, instruments such as the Convention of Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women approved by the UN in 1979 and ratified by all Latin American countries, have succeeded in establishing the concept of improvement of the status of women as a legislative right supported by international juridical principles. International recognition of human rights has meant that all restrictions against women in the public and private realms are to be regarded as discrimination. Previously, family law was based on traditional customs which accepted that the roles and obligations of men and women were different. Although most Latin American countries now have laws recognizing the equality of rights and obligations of men and women, women continue to be in a secondary position. Poverty, scarcity of resources, and the economic crisis not only impede improvement in the status of women but have led to increases in female unemployment. Another obstacle is the lack of a true political will to improve the status of women. The UN convention on elimination of discrimination obliges each ratifying nation to strive not just for equality or rights but for equality of enjoyment of these rights. Each government should adopt measures to overcome discrimination. Among measures adopted by governments to achieve equality have been incorporation of the principle of equality into the national constitution and creation of offices or ministries for women that are distinct from those for the family or youth. The Committee for Elimination of Discrimination Against Women established by the convention and composed of 23 expert members has had great difficulty in carrying out its mission due largely to the lack of acceptance of the goals of the convention. It will not be easy to modify a culture, acquire economic resources, and create political will. But almost all Latin American and Caribbean countries have used government programs to improve the status of women as smokescreens to hide their inaction. New strategies will be required that combine legal negotiation, political pressure, popular organization, and use of the mass media. PMID:12284754

  8. Immigrant advantage? Substance use among Latin American immigrant and native-born youth in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Kulis, Stephen; Luengo, Maria Ángeles; Nieri, Tanya; Villar, Paula

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the results of a descriptive study conducted with middle school and high school age youth residing in northwestern Spain. The main outcome of the study is to advance knowledge about the drug use attitudes and behaviors of immigrants versus native youth in a social context where Latin American immigrants share a common language and a set of core cultural norms with the host society. The research was conducted by a bi-national Spain–US research team as a preliminary study leading to the development of joint culturally appropriate prevention interventions for youth in the northern region of Galicia, Spain. Surveys were administered in Spring 2005 to 817 students in 7th to 10th grades in 10 urban, secondary schools with high immigrant enrollment. The sample included Spanish natives (two-thirds) and Latin American immigrants (one-third), mainly from Colombia, Argentina, and Venezuela. Multiple regression analyses predicted substance use intentions, and a composite variable measuring lifetime and last 30-day frequency and amount of alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use. Controlling for the fact that the immigrant students were generally older and performing less well academically than natives, and for other predictors, Latin American immigrant youth were less at risk than native youth on their intentions to use substances and on their reported actual substance use. In a mediational analysis, most of the key explanatory variables in youth substance use etiology failed to account for the immigrant versus native differences, including a range of risk and protective factors for substance use, substance use norms, strength of ethnic identity, and degree of social integration within native-born social networks. Differential access to drugs mediated the immigrant–native gap in substance use intentions but did not mediate differences in actual substance use. PMID:18425712

  9. Immigrant advantage? Substance use among Latin American immigrant and native-born youth in Spain.

    PubMed

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Kulis, Stephen; Luengo, Maria Angeles; Nieri, Tanya; Villar, Paula

    2008-04-01

    This article reports the results of a descriptive study conducted with middle school and high school age youth residing in northwestern Spain. The main outcome of the study is to advance knowledge about the drug use attitudes and behaviors of immigrants versus native youth in a social context where Latin American immigrants share a common language and a set of core cultural norms with the host society. The research was conducted by a bi-national Spain-US research team as a preliminary study leading to the development of joint culturally appropriate prevention interventions for youth in the northern region of Galicia, Spain. Surveys were administered in Spring 2005 to 817 students in 7th to 10th grades in 10 urban, secondary schools with high immigrant enrollment. The sample included Spanish natives (two-thirds) and Latin American immigrants (one-third), mainly from Colombia, Argentina, and Venezuela. Multiple regression analyses predicted substance use intentions, and a composite variable measuring lifetime and last 30-day frequency and amount of alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use. Controlling for the fact that the immigrant students were generally older and performing less well academically than natives, and for other predictors, Latin American immigrant youth were less at risk than native youth on their intentions to use substances and on their reported actual substance use. In a mediational analysis, most of the key explanatory variables in youth substance use etiology failed to account for the immigrant versus native differences, including a range of risk and protective factors for substance use, substance use norms, strength of ethnic identity, and degree of social integration within native-born social networks. Differential access to drugs mediated the immigrant-native gap in substance use intentions but did not mediate differences in actual substance use. PMID:18425712

  10. Bergen South: The Americanization of the Meteorology Profession in Latin America during World War II

    E-print Network

    Cushman, Gregory T.

    2005-01-01

    —now the director of the 3 MacLeod (1982,2000). 4 A fully independent Canadian Meteorological Society was formed on 1 Jan. 1967. The pro­ ceedings of this meeting were printed in Toronto and distributed as the Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society... limited by contract or law, Pan American Airways tended to employ U.S. pilots, aircraft, and meteorologists.16 But even rabid nationalists in Latin America had good reasons for support­ ing this neocolonial trend. Better transportation entailed...

  11. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 22, Number 1: Plays in Performance

    E-print Network

    1988-10-01

    to shake his hand as the adults smile and applaud their approval. Suddenly on top of an old rococo building across the street a man in a white shirt, black pants, and top hat lifts a trumpet to his lips and sounds a fanfare. As the last notes drift... across the barrio several black men on the balcony of an adjacent building begin singing a melody not unlike the samba. The crowd bursts into applause as the gentle rhythm of the 130 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW singers is taken over by a pounding...

  12. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 14, Number 2: Recent Publications, Materials Received and Current Bibliography

    E-print Network

    1981-04-01

    ," Cuadernos Universitarios, N°6 (enero-febrero 1980), 42-45. Callan, Richard J. "El misterio femenino en Los perros de Elena Garro," Revista Iberoamericana, Vol. XLVI, Núms. 110-111 (enero-junio 1980), 231-235. Carpenter, Charles A. "Latin American... (1979), 189-201. Schmidhuber de la Mora, Guillermo. Los herederos de Segismundo. Ms., 1980. . Perros bravos o el avance del ladrido. Ms., 1980. Skarmeta, Antonio. The Search. Trans. Evelyn Fishburn. Ms. . A Very Good Piece of Work. Trans, and adapt...

  13. Budget transparency on maternal health spending: a case study in five Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Malajovich, Laura; Alcalde, Maria Antonieta; Castagnaro, Kelly; Barroso, Carmen

    2012-06-01

    Progress in reducing maternal mortality has been slow and uneven, including in Latin America, where 23,000 women die each year from preventable causes. This article is about the challenges civil society organizations in Latin America faced in assessing budget transparency on government spending on specific aspects of maternity care, in order to hold them accountable for reducing maternal deaths. The study was carried out by the International Planned Parenthood, Western Hemisphere Region and the International Budget Partnership in five Latin American countries--Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama and Peru. It found that only in Peru was most of the information they sought available publicly (from a government website). In the other four countries, none of the information was available publicly, and although it was possible to obtain at least some data from ministry and health system sources, the search process often took a complex course. The data collected in each country were very different, depending not only on the level of budget transparency, but also on the existence and form of government data collection systems. The obstacles that these civil society organizations faced in monitoring national and local budget allocations for maternal health must be addressed through better budgeting modalities on the part of governments. Concrete guidelines are also needed for how governments can better capture data and track local and national progress. PMID:22789097

  14. El Que No Tiene Dingo, Tiene Mandingo: The Inadequacy of the "Mestizo" as a Theoretical Construct in the Field of Latin American Studies--The Problem and Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, Andrew Juan

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the "mestizo" paradigm as a theoretical construct used in Latin American studies denies the historical and cultural contributions of Africans to Latin American society and that it is fundamentally inaccurate and racist. Discusses ways of correcting these misconceptions. (GR)

  15. Teaching Afro-Latin American Culture through Film: "Raices de mi corazon" and Cuba's "Guerrita de los Negros"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown an absence of Afro-Latin American culture at all levels of Spanish instruction. In this essay, I propose the use of film to expand the undergraduate curriculum. Film provides both a visual and cultural narrative for the understanding of Latin American history, culture, and literature, and is an invaluable resource for teaching…

  16. Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials (13th, Lawrence, Kansas, June 20-22, 1968). Final Report and Working Papers. Vol. II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Alma; Rovira, Carmen

    The eight working papers used as documentation for the Thirteenth Seminar are included in volume II. They are: (1) "Progress Report on the Seminars on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials, 1968;" (2) "Significant Acquisitions of Latin American Material by U.S. Libraries, 1967/68;" (3) "A Report of Bibliographic Activities,…

  17. A Risk Assessment Tool (OsteoRisk) for Identifying Latin American Women with Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Shuvayu S; Rives, Vincent P; Messina, Osvaldo D; Morales-Torres, Jorge; Riera, Gregorio; Angulo-Solimano, Juan M; Neto, João FM; Frisoli, Alberto; Sáenz, Ricardo C; Geling, Olga; Ross, Philip D

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop a simple and easy-to-use tool for identifying osteoporotic women (femoral neck bone mineral density [BMD] T-scores??2.5) in Latin America. DESIGN Retrospective study involving review of medical records. SETTING Osteoporosis clinics in 6 Latin American countries. PATIENTS Postmenopausal women ages ?50 in Latin America who had femoral neck BMD measurements. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS A risk index was developed from 1,547 patients based on least square regression using age, weight, history of fractures, and other variables as predictors for BMD T-score. The final model was simplified by reducing the number of predictors; sensitivity and specificity were evaluated before and after reducing the number of predictors to assess performance of the index. The final model included age, weight, country, estrogen use, and history of fractures as significant predictors for T-score. The resulting scoring index achieved 91% sensitivity and 47% specificity. Simplifying the index by using only age and weight yielded similar performance (sensitivity, 92%; specificity, 45%). Three risk categories were identified based on OsteoRisk, the index using only age and body weight: high-risk patients (index <=?2; 65.6% were osteoporotic), moderate-risk patients (?2< index <=1; 26.7% were osteoporotic), and low-risk patients (index>1; 8% were osteoporotic). Similar results were seen in a validation sample of 279 women in Brazil. CONCLUSION Age and weight alone performed well for predicting the risk of osteoporosis among postmenopausal women. The OsteoRisk is an easy-to-use tool that effectively targets the vast majority of osteoporotic patients in Latin America for evaluation with BMD. PMID:15836528

  18. Immigrant health workers in Chile: is there a Latin American "brain drain"?

    PubMed

    Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena

    2012-08-01

    Most research on the phenomenon of "brain drain" (one-way flow of highly skilled/educated individuals) has focused on movement between the least developed and most highly developed countries. Therefore, the significance of patterns of migration to middle-income countries such as those in Latin America is less clear. The aim of this study was to outline key features of international health worker "brain drain" to Chile to promote discussion and further research on this phenomenon as it pertains to the Latin American region. The study compared immigrant health workers living in Chile to both Chilean-born health workers and other immigrants living in Chile using a qualitative nationwide dataset (the results of Chile's 2009 National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey). Demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables were included in the analyses, which were weighted by population to obtain nationally representative estimates. In 2009, immigrant health workers represented 2.2% of all health personnel and 2.6% of all resident immigrants in the country. While most immigrant health workers had a universitylevel education, about 25% had only a high school-level education or less. There was no statistically significant difference between the distribution of immigrant health workers' household income and that of Chilean-born health workers. A significantly higher proportion of the immigrant group reported no entitlement to health care provision. While the results of this study do not indicate a significant international health worker "brain drain" to Chile, they do suggest distinctive patterns of migration within the Latin American region. Future studies in Chile could confirm the validity of these results, using a larger sample of immigrant health workers. PMID:23099879

  19. Challenges and Solutions for Latin American-Trained International Medical Graduates in Psychiatry Residency

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Hauser, David; Carvajal, Carlos; Mejia, Carlina; Nieves, Delia

    2014-01-01

    Objective Latin American-trained IMGs in psychiatry face multiple challenges that go beyond their medical training. These challenges call for innovative problem-solving. Although the professional development of IMGs has been discussed in the professional literature, little is written about their experiences. In this case study report, a group of IMGs reflect on their experiences and describe how they solved challenges. Method Using cogenerative ethnography, four IMGs trained in Colombia, Dominican Republic and Mexico provided insights on their challenges and solutions while adapting to psychiatric residency training. Individual interviews, focused discussion, focus groups, and written reports were analyzed using data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing techniques. Results We illustrate the challenges of IMG training in psychiatry using their reflections and stories. We categorized these challenges into three domains: immigration and acculturation; social adjustment; and medical training. Quotes were selected to illustrate IMGs’ challenges and coping strategies. Conclusion Some of the combined cultural, social and academic challenges of Latin American-trained IMGs in psychiatry are described. Recognizing and planning for the personal challenges of IMGs in psychiatry can enhance the transition into psychiatric training. Ultimately, improvements in IMG training converts into improved healthcare for all patients. PMID:25673899

  20. [Nutritional Sciences' Journals in Ibero Latin American countries in the XXIst Century].

    PubMed

    Culebras, J M

    2012-11-01

    The presence of nutrition as an independent matter in the educational programs of the Spanish Faculties of Medicine has been scanty until the end of the XXth century. We have witnessed an important development of the specific opportunities for the nutritional sciences in terms of quality and quantity in the XXIst century. Only one Ibero Latin American journal, Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición (ALAN, ISSN 0004-0622), was present in the Journal Citation Reports, Science Edition among the 51 journals under the heading of Nutrition & Dietetics. Three more ibero latin American journals have been incorporated to JCR in the XXIst century, Nutrición Hospitalaria (Nutr Hosp, ISSN 0212-1611) in 2006, Revista de Nutricao (Rev Nutr, ISSN 1415-5273) and Revista Española de Nutrición Comunitaria (Rev Esp Nutr Comunit, ISSN 1135-3074) in 2007. The four journals are having a growing importance in other electronic platforms, rendering an important service to the scientific society, not only in their environment, but also in the rest of the world. Although English language dominates scientific communications, the critical mass of already existing journals in Spanish and the area of influence of this language is a good stimulus for continuing its utilization. PMID:23568391

  1. Immigration experience of Latin American working women in Alicante, Spain: an ethnographic study 1

    PubMed Central

    González-Juárez, Liliana; Noreña-Peña, Ana Lucía

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to describe the experience of Latin American working women regarding immigration, taking into account the expectations and conditions in which this process takes place. METHOD: ethnographic qualitative study. Data collection was performed by means of semi-structured interviews with 24 Latin American immigrant women in Spain. The information collected was triangulated through two focal groups. RESULTS: the expectations of migrant women focus on improving family living conditions. Social support is essential for their settling and to perform daily life activities. They declare they have adapted to the settlement country, although they live with stress. They perceive they have greater sexual freedom and power with their partners but keep greater responsibility in childcare, combining that with the role of working woman. CONCLUSIONS: migrant women play a key role in the survival of households, they build and create new meanings about being a woman, their understanding of life, their social and couple relationships. Such importance is shaped by their expectations and the conditions in which the migration process takes place, as well as their work integration. PMID:25493683

  2. The Latin American School of Human and Medical Genetics: promoting education and collaboration in genetics and ethics applied to health sciences across the continent.

    PubMed

    Giugliani, Roberto; Baldo, Guilherme; Vairo, Filippo; Lujan Lopez, Monica; Matte, Ursula

    2015-07-01

    The Latin American Network of Human Genetics (RELAGH) created the Latin American School of Human and Medical Genetics (ELAG) to prepare young researchers and professionals of Latin America to deal with the growing challenge of the genomic medicine. ELAG promotes an annually course since 2005, which received 838 students from 17 Latin American countries over these 10 years. ELAG plays an important role to provide education in genetics applied to health sciences to fellows who live in countries with a less favorable economic situation. Influenced, among others, by the humanitarian perspective of José Maria Cantú, one of its founders, ELAG has always favored the discussion of ethical and social issues related to genetics in Latin America. Few initiatives in Latin America lasted 10 consecutive years. One of the factors responsible for the ELAG's success has been its group of faculty members, who contribute to a friendly environment prone to facilitating the exchange of their own experiences with young researchers. PMID:26007289

  3. An Amerindian derivation for Latin American creole illnesses and their treatment.

    PubMed

    Colson, A B; de Armellada, C

    1983-01-01

    We present an extended argument which we consider to be sufficient demonstration that a humoral tradition, notably a hot and cold classification, underlies medical etiologies and treatments used by certain groups of South American Indians, and that this is indigenous. We argue that several major, widespread categories of illness and treatments also have a mainly indigenous, Amerindian derivation: that they have not been derived, as often assumed, from unique importations from Spain or other Old World countries, so dating only from the Conquest and surviving in Latin American folk systems up to the present. Our ethnographic data derive from the Akawaio and northern Pemon (Arekuna, Taurepan and Kamarakoto), Carib-speaking Indians in the Guiana Highlands of the border areas of Venezuela, Brazil and Guyana. We stress the following points: The existence amongst these Amerindians, as amongst many Latin American creole and peasant groups, of certain specific and distinctive forms and interpretations of illness, their causations and cures. These include the binary oppositions of hot and cold and the notion of imbalance accompanying the concept of the mediate and harmonious state: sould loss through shock and fright: the capture of soul: whirlwind or cold air sickness: illness from contagious and powerful forces. Similarities between practitioners and remedies also exist. An interdependent relationship between indigenous concepts and language relating to the medical system Is demonstrated. Close associations between the medical system and the physical environment and the depiction of these in metaphors and symbols are detailed. Historical evidence in 17th century literature on Carib peoples is taken into account as well as evidence from remote, mostly unacculturated Amerindian societies of the recent past and of today. In the case of the Akawaio and Pemon, only the beginnings of syncretism in the medical system have been discovered. If our ethnographic data and the conclusions we draw are accepted, then question arises as to whether the hot/cold opposition and other medical concepts and practices relating to a humoral tradition in other Latin American groups, Amerindian and creole, are not wholley or in the main indigenous--as some scholars have already begun to suggest. If they are indigenous then they should be studied as such. We consider that there is a case for studying syncretism in medicine. We see this as a process whereby adoptions and adaptations are made selectively from incoming systems; where essential, indigenous elements may be reinforced and modified by the incoming, but where basic structures, objectives and characteristics of the indigenous remain identifiable and a continuity is achieved. PMID:6314559

  4. Women's Theologies, Women's Pedagogies: Liberating Praxes of Latin American Women Educators in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lauren Ila

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the women…

  5. Planning, Re-Bordering and Setting Times: A Comparative Analysis of European and Latin American "Education Spaces"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambla, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    The article compares educational regionalisation in Europe and Latin America. This analysis unveils the influence of three social phenomena in the two case studies, namely power, fields of activity and knowledge. Mostly, it focuses on the initiatives led by the European Union and the Organisation of Ibero-American States in order to implement…

  6. Educating Counseling and Guidance Professionals from a Pedagogy Perspective: Experiences from a Latin American Undergraduate Academic Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, George Davy; Jiménez, Dorelys

    2015-01-01

    Specialized literature shows that counseling and guidance represents an interdisciplinary profession, practiced differently in various Latin American countries. Likewise, counseling and guidance is understood as being a multicontextual and politically worthy profession that is connected to the personal, socioeconomic, cultural, and collective…

  7. A Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Patterns of Learning and Academic Performance of Spanish and Latin-American Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez-Fernández, J. Reinaldo; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse and compare the learning patterns of higher education students from Spain and three Latin-American countries (Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela). For this purpose Vermunt's Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS) was translated into Spanish and tested. The participants were 456 undergraduates enrolled in a teacher…

  8. Group Violence and Migration Experience among Latin American Youths in Justice Enforcement Centers (Madrid, Spain).

    PubMed

    Martínez García, José Manuel; Martín López, María Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Group violence among Latin American immigrant youth has led to ongoing debates in political, legal, and media circles, yet none of those many perspectives has arrived at a solid, empirically supported definition for the phenomenon. This study aims to explore the relationship between the immigrant experience and violent group behavior in youths from Latin America serving prison sentences in Justice Enforcement Centers in the Community of Madrid. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 juveniles, and content analysis was applied to the resulting transcripts, employing Grounded Theory to create an axial codification of intra- and inter-categorical contents, and Delphi panels for quality control. The research team delved into 62 topics, addressing participants' perceptions of the immigrant experience and its effects on five socialization settings (neighborhood, school, family, peer group, and significant other), and each one's relationship to violent behavior. The results led us to believe the young people's immigration experiences had been systematically examined. Their personal and social development was influenced by negative socioeconomic conditions, ineffective parental supervision, maladjustment and conflict at school, and experiences of marginalization and xenophobia. All those conditions favored affiliation with violent groups that provided them instrumental (economic and material), expressive, or affective support. PMID:26514376

  9. Dyslipidemia in a Cohort of HIV-infected Latin American Children Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy*

    PubMed Central

    Brewinski, Margaret; Megazzini, Karen; Freimanis Hance, Laura; Cruz, Miguel Cashat; Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Della Negra, Marinella; Ferreira, Flavia Gomes Faleiro; Marques, Heloisa

    2011-01-01

    In order to describe the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in a cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents in Latin America and to determine associations with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we performed this cross-sectional analysis within the NICHD International Site Development Initiative pediatric cohort study. Eligible children had to be at least 2 years of age and be on HAART. Among the 477 eligible HIV-infected youth, 98 (20.5%) had hypercholesterolemia and 140 (29.4%) had hypertriglyceridemia. In multivariable analyses, children receiving protease inhibitor (PI)-containing HAART were at increased risk for hypercholesterolemia [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)?=?2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3–5.6] and hypertriglyceridemia (AOR?=?3.5, 95% CI 1.9–6.4) compared with children receiving non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-containing HAART. In conclusion, HIV-infected youth receiving PI-containing HAART in this Latin American cohort were at increased risk for hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia compared with those receiving NNRTI-containing HAART. PMID:20889625

  10. Merging Computers and Communication: A Case Study in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeffinger, John C.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses access to information through merging computers and new communications technology and its influence in developing nations. Highlights include a case study of InterNet/LACRIP (Latin American Cancer Research Information Project), a microcomputer-based international network involving institutions in the United States and Latin America that…

  11. Indigenous People and Development in Latin America: A Literature Survey and Recommendations. Latin American Monograph & Document Series 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, J. Montgomery; Frechione, John; DeWalt, Billie R.

    This report presents findings and conclusions gleaned from a review of 42 cases of indigenous development in Latin America. Findings indicate that the lack of a legal framework for indigenous rights presents a basic obstacle to indigenous self-development; the most common aspect of successful indigenous development was involvement of indigenous…

  12. Prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and street drugs consumption in adult Latin American immigrants.

    PubMed

    González-López, José Rafael; Rodríguez-Gázquez, María de Los Ángeles; Lomas-Campos, María de Las Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug consumption (through the self-report) in adult Latin-American immigrants of Seville, a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a representative sample of 190 immigrants. The results showed that 61.4% of the participants had consumed alcohol in previous month before data collection, although 13.2% of them were at risk of alcoholism. Moreover, 30.0% were smokers. In addition, 5.3% of the interviewed people had consumed illicit psychoactive substances in the previous six months (Marihuana: 3.7%, hashish: 1.1% and cocaine: 0.5%). For all substances under analysis, the consumption prevalence was much higher in men from 25 to 39 years of age. In conclusion, prevalence levels of this consumption were high among the studied immigrants. Nurses could train the population in the prevention of these risk behaviors through preventive practices. PMID:22991115

  13. Patentability of human genes: the conceptual differences between the industrialised and Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Bergel, Salvador Darío

    2015-07-01

    The patenting of human genes has generated considerable controversy, both in the doctrinal field and in the legal and administrative. In the core countries, particularly the USA and the European Union, a favourable criterion to patentability has been increasing, contrasting with the criteria adopted by Latin American countries, which almost unanimously banned the patentability of genes and gene sequences. This issue not only has legal connotations, but also ethical issues come into play. Particularly in the USA, the recent decision of the Supreme Court in the Myriad case is part of a pro-patent movement, even when its superficial reading seems to be oriented in the opposite direction. In the European Union, the criterion that favours human intervention, whatever its gravitation in the results, tips the balance in favour of patentability. PMID:25929592

  14. Energy profiles of selected Latin American and Caribbean countries. Report series No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.

    1994-07-01

    Countries in this report include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. These ten countries are the most important oil and gas producers in the Latin American and the Caribbean region. In the following sections, the primary energy supply (oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power whenever they are applicable), primary energy consumption, downstream oil sector development, gas utilization are discussed for each of the ten countries. The report also presents our latest forecasts of petroleum product consumption in each country toward 2000, which form the basis of the outlook for regional energy production and consumption outlined in Report No 1. Since the bulk of primary energy supply and demand is hydrocarbons for many countries, brief descriptions of the important hydrocarbons policy issues are provided at the end of the each country sections.

  15. Latin American Consensus on the use of transcranial Doppler in the diagnosis of brain death

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler evaluates cerebral hemodynamics in patients with brain injury and is a useful technical tool in diagnosing cerebral circulatory arrest, usually present in the brain-dead patient. This Latin American Consensus was formed by a group of 26 physicians experienced in the use of transcranial Doppler in the context of brain death. The purpose of this agreement was to make recommendations regarding the indications, technique, and interpretation of the study of transcranial ultrasonography in patients with a clinical diagnosis of brain death or in the patient whose clinical diagnosis presents difficulties; a working group was formed to enable further knowledge and to strengthen ties between Latin American physicians working on the same topic. A review of the literature, concepts, and experiences were exchanged in two meetings and via the Internet. Questions about pathophysiology, equipment, techniques, findings, common problems, and the interpretation of transcranial Doppler in the context of brain death were answered. The basic consensus statements are the following: cerebral circulatory arrest is the final stage in the evolution of progressive intracranial hypertension, which is visualized with transcranial Doppler as a "pattern of cerebral circulatory arrest". The following are accepted as the standard of cerebral circulatory arrest: reverberant pattern, systolic spikes, and absence of previously demonstrated flow. Ultrasonography should be used - in acceptable hemodynamic conditions - in the anterior circulation bilaterally (middle cerebral artery) and in the posterior (basilar artery) territory. If no ultrasonographic images are found in any or all of these vessels, their proximal arteries are acceptable to be studied to look for a a pattern of cerebral circulatory arrest. PMID:25295818

  16. Beliefs About Health and Illness in Latin-American Migrants with Diabetes Living in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Hjelm, Katarina; Bard, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The study explored beliefs about health and illness in Latin American migrants diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) living in Sweden, and investigated the influence on health-related behavior including self-care and care-seeking behavior. Migrants are particularly affected in the diabetes pandemia. Beliefs about health and illness determine health-related behaviour and health but no studies have been found on Latin American migrants with DM. An explorative study design with focus-group interviews of nine persons aged 36-77 years from a diabetes clinic was used. Health was described from a pathogenetic or a salutogenetic perspective: ‘freedom from disease or feeling of well-being’, and being autonomous and able to work. Economic hardship due to expenses for medications and food for DM affected health. Individual factors such as diet, exercise and compliance with advice, and social factors with good social relations and avoidance of stress, often caused by having experienced severe events related to migrational experiences, were considered important for maintaining health and could cause DM. Disturbed relations to others (social factors), punishment by God or Fate (supernatural factors), intake of diuretics and imbalance between warmth and cold (natural factors) were also perceived as causes. A mix of biomedical and traditional explanations and active self-care behaviour with frequent use of herbs was found. It is important to assess the individual’s beliefs, and health professionals, particularly nurses, should incorporate discussions of alternative treatments and other components of explanatory models and co-operate with social workers to consider influence of finances and migrational experiences on health. PMID:23802030

  17. Latin American consensus on the use of transcranial Doppler in the diagnosis of brain death.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler evaluates cerebral hemodynamics in patients with brain injury and is a useful technical tool in diagnosing cerebral circulatory arrest, usually present in the brain-dead patient. This Latin American Consensus was formed by a group of 26 physicians experienced in the use of transcranial Doppler in the context of brain death. The purpose of this agreement was to make recommendations regarding the indications, technique, and interpretation of the study of transcranial ultrasonography in patients with a clinical diagnosis of brain death or in the patient whose clinical diagnosis presents difficulties; a working group was formed to enable further knowledge and to strengthen ties between Latin American physicians working on the same topic. A review of the literature, concepts,and experiences were exchanged in two meetings and via the Internet. Questions about pathophysiology, equipment, techniques, findings, common problems, and the interpretation of transcranial Doppler in the context of brain death were answered. The basic consensus statements are the following: cerebral circulatory arrest is the final stage in the evolution of progressive intracranial hypertension, which is visualized with transcranial Doppler as a "pattern of cerebral circulatory arrest". The following are accepted as the standard of cerebral circulatory arrest: reverberant pattern, systolic spikes, and absence of previously demonstrated flow. Ultrasonography should be used - in acceptable hemodynamic conditions - in the anterior circulation bilaterally (middle cerebral artery) and in the posterior (basilar artery) territory. If no ultrasonographic images are found in any or all of these vessels, their proximal arteries are acceptable to be studied to look for a a pattern of cerebral circulatory arrest. PMID:25295818

  18. Screening of imported infectious diseases among asymptomatic sub-Saharan African and Latin American immigrants: a public health challenge.

    PubMed

    Monge-Maillo, Begoña; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Norman, Francesca F; Ferrere-González, Federico; Martínez-Pérez, Ángela; Pérez-Molina, José Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Migrants from developing countries are usually young and healthy but several studies report they may harbor asymptomatic infections for prolonged periods. Prevalence of infections were determined for asymptomatic immigrants from Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa who ettended to a European Tropical Medicine Referral Center from 2000 to 2009. A systematic screening protocol for selected infections was used. Data from 317 sub-Saharan Africans and 383 Latin Americans were analyzed. Patients were mostly young (mean age 29 years); there were significantly more males among sub-Saharan Africans (83% versus 31.6%) and pre-consultation period was longer for Latin Americans (5 versus 42 months). Diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), chronic hepatitis B and C virus infection, and latent tuberculosis were significantly more frequent in sub-Saharan Africans (2.3% versus 0.3%; 14% versus 1.6%; 1.3 versus 0%; 71% versus 32.1%). There were no significant differences in prevalence for syphilis and intestinal parasites. Malaria and schistosomiasis prevalence in sub-Saharan Africans was 4.6% and 5.9%, respectively, and prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin Americans was 48.5%. Identifying and treating asymptomatic imported infectious diseases may have an impact both for the individual concerned and for public health. Based on these results, a systematic screening protocol for asymptomatic immigrants is proposed. PMID:25646257

  19. The Latin American Journal of Astronomy Education (RELEA): contributions and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Jafelice, L. C.; Horvath, J. E.

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this work is to present an analysis of articles published by the Latin American Journal of Astronomy Education (RELEA) since its beginning (2004) to the present. We analyzed the 59 articles available on the website of the journal (http://www.relea.ufscar.br), published in 15 issues. The articles were classified by: year of publication, issue, author's institutions, grade level, focus of the study and content. The results show that the number of articles is still small - although the journal has been initially qualified as B3 within the Journal Ranking scheme Qualis CAPES and in the latest ranking (current) advanced to the concept B1 in the Qualis, it is too early to expect an increase in the number of articles submitted. Among the main factors for the relatively low number of articles we can mention that the initially nominated Editorial Board did not succeed in a proper dissemination of the journal and call for papers, the ongoing absence of a ``critical mass'' of astronomy education researchers and the lack of publishing tradition in the area. Important aspects of the writing of articles submitted are also discussed, such as refereeing, acceptance rate of articles, participation of authors from countries other than Brazil and theoretical and methodological frameworks, as well as the recent editorial restructuration of the international Editorial Board of the RELEA and the nomination of Associate Editors from Brazil. Concluding, it is possible to note the contribution to the field up to the moment through citations in other works in the field. However, it is necessary to advance with regard to: publishing more articles, articles from greater variety of Latin American countries, training of the community for a minimum quality of the writing of articles submitted for publication in a journal aimed at education research. In this sense, additional analyses of the published papers would be desirable. Finally, it is pointed out the need for greater dissemination of the journal to increase the number of submissions, encouraging the diversification of contents and methods and increase the participation of authors in general and from Latin America in particular, aiming to greater academic contribution for astronomy education at various levels and places.

  20. Latin American Marketing Project. Grade 10 Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antilla, Madeline; DeMonet, J.

    In this lesson, students work as marketing teams hired by a U.S. fast food company to study the feasibility of selling fast food in Latin America. Teams are composed of cultural, production, marketing, and advertising experts. Each marketing team will investigate a product and a Latin American country. Teams will present their research and…

  1. Breast cancer in Latin America: results of the Latin American and Caribbean Society of Medical Oncology/Breast Cancer Research Foundation expert survey.

    PubMed

    Cazap, Eduardo; Buzaid, Antonio Carlos; Garbino, Carlos; de la Garza, Jaime; Orlandi, Francisco Javier; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Vallejos, Carlos; Guercovich, Andres

    2008-10-15

    The incidence of breast cancer in Latin American countries is lower than that in more developed countries, whereas the mortality rate is higher. These differences probably are related to differences in screening strategies and access to treatment. Population-based data are needed to make informed decisions. A 65-question telephone survey that included 100 breast cancer experts from 12 Latin American countries was conducted in 2006 as an exploratory analysis of the current state of breast cancer treatment in these regions at both at the country level and at the center level. Greater than 90% of countries had no national law or guideline for mammography screening. The access rate to mammography was 66.3% at the country level and 47% at the center level. Variation in care based on level (country vs center) was indicated for the timing of treatment after diagnosis, timing from initial diagnosis to treatment, and the time from surgery to initial chemotherapy. However, the more sophisticated diagnostic testing for hormone receptors and biomarkers were available at most centers (>80%), and, overall, nearly 80% of patients started treatment within 3 months of diagnosis. Variation in care between breast cancer care at the center level versus the country level indicated a need for national cancer care programs. Alternative data collection strategies for understanding the state of breast cancer control programs in developing countries can help identify areas of improvement. PMID:18837031

  2. Regional overview of Latin American and Caribbean energy production, consumption, and future growth. Report series No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.

    1994-07-01

    The Latin American and Caribbean region - comprising Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean - is relatively well endowed with energy resources, although the distribution of these resources is uneven across countries. The region produces more energy than it consumes, and the surplus energy, which amounts to 3.6 million barrels of oil equivalent per day (boe/d), is mostly oil. While the region`s total oil (crude and products) exports decreased from 4.4 million barrels per day (b/d) in 1981 to 3.8 million b/d in 1992, its net oil exports increased from about 1.6 million b/d in 1981 to 2.8 million b/d in 1992. In 1993, the surplus oil in Latin America and the Caribbean remained at 2.8 million b/d. This report analyzes the key issues of the Latin American and Caribbean energy industry and presents the future outlook for oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power developments in the region. In addition, the status of biomass energy, geothermal, and other noncommercial energy in the region will be briefly discussed in the context of overall energy development. The rest of the report is organized as follows: Section II assesses the current situation of Latin American and Caribbean energy production and consumption, covering primary energy supply, primary energy consumption, downstream petroleum sector development, and natural gas utilization. Section III presents the results of our study of future energy growth in Latin America. Important hydrocarbons policy issues in the region are discussed in Section IV, and a summary and concluding remarks are provided in Section V.

  3. PREFACE: XII Latin American workshop on plasma physics (17-21 September 2007, Caracas, Venezuela)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puerta, Julio

    2008-10-01

    Some years ago a group of Latin American physicists took the initiative to consult about the viability of organizing a meeting on plasma physics for researchers and students of the region. The result was that it was not only a good idea, but a necessity in order to show and share everyone's work, and to keep updated on latest advances and technologies on plasma physics. It was decided that for new researchers as well as students of Physics, it would prove to be the best way to keep them posted on such matters. This was the birth of a series of meetings known as Latin American workshops on plasma physics that take place every two years in a different Latin American country. In Venezuela we have had the opportunity to organize two editions of this interesting and important reunion of physicists. The first of these Latin American workshops on plasma physics was held in Cambuquira (Brazil) in 1982. After organizing the first six editions of the workshop, the VII LAWPP meeting was realized in Caracas in January 1997. It was designed with a structure similar to the first edition. It developed in two stages, a first week devoted to short courses with lecturers in different fields of plasma physics and a second week for contributed and invited presentations. Participants from sixteen different countries were present, half of them from this continent and the other half from overseas, demonstrating the international character of this meeting. There have been four more editions of the workshop and once again, we have had the opportunity to organize this latest edition of the series: the XII Latin American workshop on plasma physics, which took place in Caracas, Venezuela from the 17th to the 21st of September 2007. The structure was modified, because contributed and review papers were together during the first stage, with short courses realized during the second one, called mini-courses, and given by several high level contributors such as José Boedo, Leopoldo Soto, Claude Deutsch, Ricardo Galvao, Carlos Hidalgo, Paulo Sakanaka, Konosuke Sato, Malcom Haines and Maher Boulos. The general feeling is that these mini-courses were very successful. As an original idea of Professor Ricardo Magnus Osorio Galvão, Director of Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, we saluted the creation of The Vladimir Tsypin Award to the best Poster in the meeting. This prize was presented by Professor Galvão in memoriam of Vladimir Semenovich Tsypin. It was suggested that the granting of this award be made in every meeting from now on. We think that it is very important to emphasise the mini-courses due to the necessity of increasing in the near future a better formation for our young scientists. The contributions of all the lecturers are greatly appreciated. We had the typical fields in plasma physics as in past meetings. We also appreciated very much the lectures of Professor Malcolm Haines, Professor Sergey Popel, Professor Claude Deutsch, and Professor Antony Peratt for their very interesting talks on the Z-Pinch recorded to prehistory. Special thanks again to these lecturers since they have joined and honoured our meetings in the past as well. As in the VII LAWPP, all the sessions of the workshop were held at the Universidad Simon Bolivar campus, located in the nice green Valley of Sartenejas near Caracas. We also appreciate the stimulus and the financial support that we have always had for the preparation of these workshops from our institution by means of its authorities: Professor Benjamin Sharifker (Rector), Professor Aura Lopez (Dean of Academic Activities), (Professor Jose Luis Paz (Dean of Research and Development), Professor Pedro Berrisbeitia (Dean of Postgraduate Studies) and Professor William Colmenares (Dean of Extended Activities). We must also mention and appreciate the collaboration of architect Alejandro Chataing Roncajolo as Secretary and Coordinator of the Congress, as well as the daily important collaborations of our students Anais Möller, Laura Beiras, Juan Contreras, Gabriel Torrente, Aimée Guerrero, Francisco Jose Blanco

  4. Latin American women’s experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA) refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used. Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades. This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women’s experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal. Women’s personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1) a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2) complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support. Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it might not be effective, and the fact that some women eventually need to seek medical care at a hospital where they might be sanctioned for having an abortion and even reported to the police. PMID:23259660

  5. 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics & 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo

    2014-05-01

    The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010), together agreed to carry out this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, on occasion of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. The ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of the official program within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial. The event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project ''Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4'', supported by National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya, in 1980, and followed by the Congresses: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006), and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss the recent progress and future views in plasma science, including fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, and plasma applications, and so forth. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by the Workshops: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005), and Caracas (2007). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is a communication forum of the achievements of the plasma-physics regional community, fostering collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The program of the ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included the topics: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics, Fusion Plasmas, Plasmas in Astrophysics and Space Physics, Plasma Applications and Technologies, Complex Plasmas, High Energy Density Plasmas, Quantum Plasmas, Laser-Plasma Interaction and among others. A total of 180 delegates from 34 different countries took part in the ICPP-LAWPP-2010. Sixty delegates received economical assistance from the local organized committee, thanks to the support of the International Union for Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) and the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN). The ICPP-LAWPP-2010 Program was elaborated by the following Program Committee: Carlos Alejaldre, ITER Maria Virginia Alves, Brazil Julio Herrera, Mexico Günter Mank, IAEA George Morales, USA Padma Kant Shukla, Germany Guido Van Oost, Belgium Leopoldo Soto, Chile (Chairman) This Program Committee was formed by selected members from the International Advisory Committee of the ICPP and by selected members from the International Advisory Committee of the LAWPP. In particular, Plenary Lectures and Invited Topical Lectures were selected by the Program Committee from a list of nominated presentations by the International Advisory Committees of both ICPP and LAWPP. Also, the classification of oral and poster presentations was elaborated by the Program Committee. The congress included: 15 invited plenary talks, 33 invited topical talks, 45 oral contributions, and 160 poster contributions. A major part of the plenary and topical lectures were published in a special issue of the Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, IOP Publishing (Plasma Phys. Control Fusion Volume 53, Number 7, July 2011: http://iopscience.iop.org/0741-3335/53/7). The papers were refereed according to the standards of the journal Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. An large number of the participants sent their contributions articles to this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series, IOP Publishing. The articles received were reviewed by the local organizing committee and by invited peers. The criteria for review focused on the demand for a consistent research and the c

  6. Insulin Resistance and Glucose and Lipid Concentrations in a Cohort of Perinatally HIV-Infected Latin American Children

    PubMed Central

    Hazra, Rohan; Hance, Laura Freimanis; Monteiro, Jacqueline Pontes; Ruz, Noris Pavia; Machado, Daisy Maria; Saavedra, Mariza; Motta, Fabrizio; Harris, D. Robert

    2013-01-01

    We measured glucose, insulin, and lipids in 249 perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children. Only one subject had impaired fasting glucose; 6.8% had insulin resistance. Abnormalities in total, LDL and HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were reported for 13%, 13%, 21%, and 34%, respectively. Continued follow up of this populationis necessary to characterize the evolution and clinical consequences of these findings. PMID:23360832

  7. PREFACE: 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilbao, Luis; Minotti, Fernando; Kelly, Hector

    2012-06-01

    These proceedings present the written contributions from participants of the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP), which was held in Mar del Plata, Argentina, on 20-25 November 2011. This was the 14th session of the series of LAWPP biennial meetings, which started in 1982. The five-day scientific program of LAWPP 2011 consisted of 32 talks and various poster sessions, with the participation of 135 researchers from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Puerto Rico, USA, Venezuela, as well as others from Europe and Asia. In addition, a School on Plasma Physics and a Workshop on Industrial Applications of Plasma Technology (AITP) were organized together with the main meeting. The five-day School held in the week previous to the meeting was intended for young scientists starting their research in Plasma Physics. On the other hand, the objective of the AITP Workshop was to enhance regional academic and industrial cooperation in the field of plasma assisted surface technology. Topics addressed at LAWPP 2011 included space plasmas, dusty plasmas, nuclear fusion, non-thermal plasmas, basic plasma processes, plasma simulation and industrial plasma applications. This variety of subjects is reflected in these proceedings, which the editors hope will result in enjoyable and fruitful reading for those interested in Plasma Physics. It is a pleasure to thank the Institutions that sponsored the meeting, as well as all the participants and collaborators for making this meeting possible. The Editors Luis Bilbao, Fernando Minotti and Hector Kelly LAWPP participants Participants of the 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics, 20-25 November 2011, Mar del Plata, Argentina International Scientific Committee Carlos Alejaldre, Spain María Virginia Alves, Brazil Ibere Caldas, Brazil Luis Felipe Delgado-Aparicio, Peru Mayo Villagrán, Mexico Kohnosuke Sato, Japan Héctor Kelly, Argentina Edberto Leal-Quirós, Puerto Rico George Morales, USA Julio Puerta, Venezuela Leopoldo Soto, Chile Michael Tendler, Sweden Carlos Varandas, Portugal Henry Riascos, Colombia Ivan Vargas-Blanco, Costa Rica Local Organizing Committee Luis Bilbao (Chairman) Fernando Minotti (Vice-Chairman) Luis Bernal, UNMDP Alejandro Clausse, PLADEMA-CNEA Graciela Gnavi, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Fausto Gratton, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Diana Grondona, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Héctor Kelly, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Adriana Márquez, INFIP, CONICET-UBA María Milanese, UNCPBA César Moreno, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Sponsors Instituto de Física del Plasma (INFIP) Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA) Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (ANPCyT) Centro Latino-Americano de Física (CLAF) Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMP) Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (UNICEN) Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Buenos Aires (ANCBA) Conference poster

  8. North American wood markets hit by United States housing crash North American wood markets hit by United States housing crash

    E-print Network

    -energy sector. Demand for processed fuels such as wood pellets is at record levels, resulting in shortagesNorth American wood markets hit by United States housing crash North American wood markets hit by United States housing crash North American wood markets hit by United States housing crash 19

  9. Admixture and genetic relationships of Mexican Mestizos regarding Latin American and Caribbean populations based on 13 CODIS-STRs.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Flores, J; Zuñiga-Chiquette, F; Rubi-Castellanos, R; Álvarez-Miranda, J L; Zetina-Hérnandez, A; Martínez-Sevilla, V M; González-Andrade, F; Corach, D; Vullo, C; Álvarez, J C; Lorente, J A; Sánchez-Diz, P; Herrera, R J; Cerda-Flores, R M; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2015-02-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) of the combined DNA index system (CODIS) are probably the most employed markers for human identification purposes. STR databases generated to interpret DNA profiles are also helpful for anthropological purposes. In this work, we report admixture, population structure, and genetic relationships of Mexican Mestizos with respect to Latin American and Caribbean populations based on 13 CODIS-STRs. In addition, new STR population data were included from Tijuana, Baja California (Northwest, Mexico), which represents an interesting case of elevated genetic flow as a bordering city with the USA. Inter-population analyses included CODIS-STR data from 11 Mexican Mestizo, 12 Latin American and four Caribbean populations, in addition to European, Amerindian, and African genetic pools as ancestral references. We report allele frequencies and statistical parameters of forensic interest (PD, PE, Het, PIC, typical PI), for 15 STRs in Tijuana, Baja California. This Mexican border city was peculiar by the increase of African ancestry, and by presenting three STRs in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium, probably explained by recurrent gene flow. The Amerindian ancestry in Central and Southeast of Mexico was the greatest in Latin America (50.9-68.6%), only comparable with the North of Central America and Ecuador (48.8-56.4%), whereas the European ancestry was prevalent in South America (66.7-75%). The African ancestry in Mexico was the smallest (2.2-6.3%) in Latin America (? 2.6%), particularly regarding Brazil (21%), Honduras (62%), and the Caribbean (43.2-65.2%). CODIS-STRs allowed detecting significant population structure in Latin America based on greater presence of European, Amerindian, and African ancestries in Central/South America, Mexican Mestizos, and the Caribbean, respectively. PMID:25435058

  10. Multiple reputation domains and cooperative behaviour in two Latin American communities.

    PubMed

    Macfarlan, Shane J; Lyle, Henry F

    2015-12-01

    Reputations are a ubiquitous feature of human social life, and a large literature has been dedicated to explaining the relationship between prosocial reputations and cooperation in social dilemmas. However, humans form reputations in domains other than prosociality, such as economic competency that could affect cooperation. To date, no research has evaluated the relative effects of multiple reputation domains on cooperation. To bridge this gap, we analyse how prosocial and competency reputations affect cooperation in two Latin American communities (Bwa Mawego, Dominica, and Pucucanchita, Peru) across a number of social contexts (Dominica: labour contracting, labour exchange and conjugal partnership formation; Peru: agricultural and health advice network size). First, we examine the behavioural correlates of prosocial and competency reputations. Following, we analyse whether prosocial, competency, or both reputation domains explain the flow of cooperative benefits within the two communities. Our analyses suggest that (i) although some behaviours affect both reputation domains simultaneously, each reputation domain has a unique behavioural signature; and (ii) competency reputations affect cooperation across a greater number of social contexts compared to prosocial reputations. Results are contextualized with reference to the social markets in which behaviour is embedded and a call for greater theory development is stressed. PMID:26503682

  11. Do Latin American Scientific Journals Follow Dual-Use Review Policies?

    PubMed Central

    Valles, Edith Gladys

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, a number of journals have implemented dual-use policies in order to analyze whether the papers submitted for publication could raise concern because of the potential for misuse of their content. In this context, an analysis was performed on Latin American scientific journals to examine whether they apply formal written dual-use review policies and whether they inform their authors and reviewers about potentially sensitive issues in this area, as other international journals do. Peer-reviewed life sciences journals indexed in Latindex from Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, and Chile were analyzed. The Guide for Authors and the Instructions to Referees of 216 journals included in the Latindex catalogue (which means that they meet the best quality standards of the Latindex system) were screened for biosecurity-related information using the keywords biosecurity, biological weapons, and dual-use research of concern. Results showed that the screened publications had a total lack of dual-use review policies, even though some of them pointed out ethical behaviors to be followed related to authorship, plagiarism, simultaneous submission, research results misappropriation, ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, guiding principles for the care and use of animals in research, research standard violations, and reviewer bias, among others. PMID:24693885

  12. Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Lankao, P.; Borbor Cordova, M.; Qin, H.

    2013-12-01

    We explore whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

  13. Environmental health literacy within the Italian Asbestos Project: experience in Italy and Latin American contexts. Commentary.

    PubMed

    Marsili, Daniela; Comba, Pietro; De Castro, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of multidisciplinary approaches to foster scientific research in public health and strengthen its impact on society is nowadays unavoidable. Environmental health literacy (EHL) may be defined as the ability to search for, understand, evaluate, and use environmental health information to promote the adoption of informed choices, the reduction of health risks, the improvement of quality of life and the protection of the environment. Both public health and environmental health literacy involve access to and dissemination of scientific information (including research findings), individual and collective decision-making and critical thinking. Specific experiences in environmental health literacy have been developed within the Italian National Asbestos Project (Progetto Amianto) in Latin American countries where the use of asbestos is still permitted, and in Italy where a specific effort in EHL has been dedicated to the risks caused by the presence of fluoro-edenite fibers in the town of Biancavilla (Sicily). Taking into account the different geographical and socio-economic contexts, both public health and environmental health literacy were addressed to a wide range of stakeholders, within and outside the health domain. PMID:26428039

  14. The Planning of Latin American Universities: In Search of Its Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escala, Miguel J.

    College planning in Latin America is discussed, with attention to underdevelopment, political instability, and the economic crisis of the 1980s. Alternative planning approaches used in U.S. higher education institutions are considered. Latin America refers to 18 Spanish-speaking republics of the Western Hemisphere, along with Brazil and Haiti. The…

  15. Knowledge and attitudes of Latin American gynecologists regarding unplanned pregnancy and use of combined oral contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Bahamondes, Luis; Lira-Plascencia, Josefina; Martin, Ricardo; Marin, Victor; Makuch, Maria Y

    2015-01-01

    Background Unintended pregnancy is a public health problem and unmet medical need worldwide. It is estimated that in the year 2012, almost 213 million pregnancies occurred, and the global pregnancy rate decreased only slightly from 2008 to 2012. It was also estimated that 85 million pregnancies (40% of all pregnancies) were unintended and that 38% ended in an unintended birth. Objectives To assess knowledge and attitudes of Latin American (LA) obstetricians and gynecologists (OBGYNs) regarding unintended pregnancies and aspects of combined oral contraceptive (COC) use. Methods A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting about contraception in 2014, in which OBGYNs from 12 LA countries who provide attention in contraception were invited to respond to a multiple-choice questionnaire to assess their knowledge and attitudes regarding unplanned pregnancy and some aspects regarding COC use. Results A total of 210 OBGYNs participated in the study. Their knowledge regarding COC failure was low. The participants reported they believed that their patients habitually forgot to take a pill and that their patients did not know what to do in these situations. They were aware of the benefits of COC use; however, they were less prone to prescribe COCs for the purpose of protecting against ovarian and endometrial cancer, and one-quarter of them had doubts about the association between COC use and cancer risk. Conclusion The interviewed LA OBGYNs showed some flaws in terms of knowledge of COC failure rates and the non-contraceptive benefits and risks of COCs. To adequately counsel their patients regarding COC intake, OBGYNs must be updated regarding all aspects of COC use. PMID:25999766

  16. Levels of insecticide resistance and resistance mechanisms in Aedes aegypti from some Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, María M; Bisset, Juan A; Fernández, Ditter

    2007-12-01

    Eight Latin American strains of Aedes aegypti were evaluated for resistance to 6 organophosphates (temephos, malathion, fenthion, pirimiphos-methyl, fenitrothion, and chlorpirifos) and 4 pyrethroids (deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, betacypermethrin, and cyfluthrin) under laboratory conditions. In larval bioassays, temephos resistance was high (resistance ratio [RR50], > or =10X) in the majority of the strains, except for the Nicaragua and Venezuela strains, which showed moderate resistance (RR50, between 5 and 10X). The majority of the strains were susceptible to malathion, fenthion, and fenitrothion. However, resistance to pirimiphos-methyl ranged from moderate to high in most of the strains. Larvae from Havana City were resistant to 3 of the pyrethroids tested and moderately resistant to cyfluthrin. The Santiago de Cuba strain showed high resistance to deltamethrin and moderate resistance to the other pyrethroids (lambdacyhalothrin, betacypermethrin, and cyfluthrin). The rest of the strains were susceptible to pyrethroids, except for the Jamaica and Costa Rica strains, which showed moderate resistance to cyfluthrin, and Peru and Venezuela, which showed resistance to deltamethrin. Adult bioassays showed that all the strains were resistant to dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane and to the majority of pyrethroids evaluated. The use of the synergists S,S,S,-tributyl phosphorotrithioate and piperonil butoxide showed that esterase and monooxygenases played an important role in the temephos, pirimiphos-methyl, and chlorpirifos resistance in some strains. Biochemical tests showed high frequencies of esterase and glutathione-S-transferase activity; however, the frequency of altered acetylcholinesterase mechanism was low. The polyacrylamide electrophoresis gel detected the presence of a strong band called Est-A4. Insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti is a serious problem facing control operations, and integrated control strategies are recommended to help prevent or delay the temephos resistance in larvae and pyrethroids resistance in adults. PMID:18240518

  17. A multiple indicators multiple causes model of late-life depression in Latin American countries

    PubMed Central

    Brailean, Anamaria; Guerra, Mariella; Chua, Kia-Chong; Prince, Martin; Prina, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Euro-D depression scale consists of symptom clusters that may be differentially related to demographic and cognitive characteristics in older adults. This hypothesis needs further investigation and the role of measurement bias on substantive conclusions remains to be established. Method The study sample comprised 10,405 community-dwelling older adults from six Latin American countries. We applied a Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model for a concurrent investigation of measurement bias and of the association between Euro-D symptom clusters and background variables. Results The factorial validity of Euro-D, with a two-dimensional structure – affective suffering and motivation disturbance, was consistently supported in all countries. Although complete measurement invariance could not be assumed across countries, measurement bias was minor. Both Euro-D factors were unrelated to age, but related to gender, as well as to impairment in memory and verbal fluency. Gender differences were larger for affective suffering than for motivation disturbance, whereas differences in verbal fluency impairment were more strongly related to motivation disturbance. Limitations Our analytic strategies could only examine invariance at the level of indicator thresholds. The generalisability of current findings needs to be examined in clinical populations. A wider set of cognitive tests is needed. We did not examine the compositional factors that could have accounted for the variation in Euro-D scores across countries, as this was beyond the aims of the paper. Conclusion The current study adds evidence for the construct validity of Euro-D and for the possible differential association of depression symptom-clusters with gender and verbal fluency in older adults. An understanding of the heterogeneity of late-life depression may carry clinical implications for the diagnosis and treatment of depression in old age. PMID:26092097

  18. Public Outreach and Educational Experiences in Mexico and Latin American communities in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres De Leo-Winkler, Mario; Canalizo, Gabriela; Pichardo, Barbara; Arias, Brenda

    2015-08-01

    I have created and applied diverse methods in public outreach at National Autonomous Univerisity of Mexico (UNAM) since 2001.A student-led volunteer astronomical club has been created, the biggest in Mexico. We serve over 10,000 people per year. We have created public outreach activities for the general audience: archeo-astronomical outings, scientific movie debates, conferences, courses, public telescope viewings. We have also worked with juvenile delinquents to offer them scientific opportunities when released from jail.I've also created and worked the social media for the Institute of Astronomy UNAM, which is currently the biggest social media site on astronomy in Spanish in the world. I've created and organized a mass photo exhibition (over 1 million people served) for the Institute of Astronomy, UNAM which was citizen-funded through an online platform, the first of its kind in the country. Together with my colleages, we created workshops on astronomy for children with the Mexican's government funding.I've participated in several radio and television programs/capsules designed to bring astronomy to the general audience, one in particular ("Astrophysics for Dummies") was very successful in nation-wide Mexican radio.I am currently applying all experiences to develop a new public outreach project on astronomy for the University of California - Riverside and its on-campus and surrounding Latin American communities. We are offering new workshops for blind and deaf children. We want to integrate the Latino community to our outreach activities and offer science in their language in a simple and entertaining fashion. We have also successfully applied astrophotography as a course which brings social-science and arts undergraduate students into natural sciences.Sharing experiences, success and failure stories will help new and experienced educators and public outreach professionals learn and better from past experiences.

  19. Educational Building in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baza, Jadille; Vaz, Rita de Cassia Alves; Millan, Eduardo; Almeida, Rodolfo

    2002-01-01

    Presents articles describing recent developments in three Latin American countries (Chile, Brazil, and Venezuela) to expand public education facilities, along with a report on UNESCO's recent seminar in Latin America on architecture for an inclusive education. (EV)

  20. Meaning in Life as a Mediator of Ethnic Identity and Adjustment Among Adolescents from Latin, Asian, and European American Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining associations between ethnic identity and adjustment were examined. Although no generational or gender differences were found, Asian Americans reported higher search for meaning than Latin and European Americans. Presence of meaning was positively associated with self-esteem, academic adjustment, daily well-being, and ethnic belonging and exploration, whereas search for meaning was related to lower self-esteem and less stability in daily well-being. Presence of meaning mediated associations between ethnic identity and adjustment, explaining 28–52% of ethnic identity’s protective effect on development. Ethnic identity thus appears to affect adjustment, in part, through its role in fostering a positive sense of meaning in adolescents’ lives. PMID:19915965

  1. "Carrying Ibuprofen in the Bag": Priority Health Concerns of Latin American Migrants in Spain- A Participatory Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Roura, Maria; Bisoffi, Federico; Navaza, Barbara; Pool, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background An estimated 2.7 million Latin Americans reside in Europe, mostly in Spain. Part of a broader project aimed at developing a research agenda on the health status and determinants of this population, this qualitative study engaged Latin American migrants in the identification of research priorities. Methods We conducted 30 group discussions between November 2012—March 2013 with 84 participants purposively selected for maximum diversity in Madrid and Barcelona (Spain). We facilitated sequences of task-oriented visual activities to explore their views on priority health concerns. We tape-recorded and transcribed discussions and developed a coding frame based on socio-ecological frameworks, which we applied to all the data using NVIVO-10. A final round of eight group discussions allowed us to triangulate and enrich interpretations by including participants’ insights. Findings The cumulative toll of daily stresses was the major health concern perceived by a population that conceptualised ill-health as a constellation of symptoms rather than as specific diseases. Work-related factors, legislative frameworks regulating citizenship entitlements and feeling ethnically discriminated were major sources of psycho-social strain. Except for sexually transmitted infections, participants rarely referred to communicable diseases as a concern. The perception that clinicians systematically prescribed painkillers discouraged health seeking and fostered self-medication. Participants felt that the medicalised, chemicalised, sexually liberal and accelerated culture of the host society damaged their own, and the local populations’ health. Conclusion Health systems bear a disproportionate responsibility in addressing health problems rooted in other sectors. Occupational and migration policies should be recognised explicitly as health policies. The mismatch between researchers’ emphasis on communicable infections and the health concerns of Latin American migrants highlights the need for greater interaction between different forms of knowledge. In this process, the biomedical culture of reliance on pharmacological solutions should not remain unquestioned. PMID:26317781

  2. THE AMERICAN SHAD UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

    E-print Network

    THE AMERICAN SHAD UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE BUREAU OF COMAAERCIAL FISHERIES Fishery Leaflet 614 #12;Cover. Adult (S-year-old) male and female American shad OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES THE AMERICAN SHAD By RANDALL P. CHEEK Fishery Leaflet 614 Washington, D.C. 20240 August

  3. Clandestine induced abortion: prevalence, incidence and risk factors among women in a Latin American country

    PubMed Central

    Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; White, Peter J.; Carcamo, Cesar P.; Hughes, James P.; Gonzales, Marco A.; Garcia, Patricia J.; Garnett, Geoff P.; Holmes, King K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Clandestine induced abortions are a public health problem in many developing countries where access to abortion services is legally restricted. We estimated the prevalence and incidence of, and risk factors for, clandestine induced abortions in a Latin American country. Methods We conducted a large population-based survey of women aged 18–29 years in 20 cities in Peru. We asked questions about their history of spontaneous and induced abortions, using techniques to encourage disclosure. Results Of 8242 eligible women, 7992 (97.0%) agreed to participate. The prevalence of reported induced abortions was 11.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.9%– 12.4%) among the 7962 women who participated in the survey. It was 13.6% (95% CI 12.8%– 14.5%) among the 6559 women who reported having been sexually active. The annual incidence of induced abortion was 3.1% (95% CI 2.9%– 3.3%) among the women who had ever been sexually active. In the multivariable analysis, risk factors for induced abortion were higher age at the time of the survey (odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% CI 1.07– 1.15), lower age at first sexual intercourse (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.84– 0.91), geographic region (highlands: OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.23– 1.97; jungle: OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.41– 2.31 [v. coastal region]), having children (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68– 0.98), having more than 1 sexual partner in lifetime (2 partners: OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.23– 2.09; ? 3 partners: OR 2.79, 95% CI 2.12– 3.67), and having 1 or more sexual partners in the year before the survey (1 partner: OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.01– 1.72; ? 2 partners: OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.14– 2.02). Overall, 49.0% (95% CI 47.6%– 50.3%) of the women who reported being currently sexually active were not using contraception. Interpretation The incidence of clandestine, potentially unsafe induced abortion in Peru is as high as or higher than the rates in many countries where induced abortion is legal and safe. The provision of contraception and safer-sex education to those who require it needs to be greatly improved and could potentially reduce the rate of induced abortion. PMID:19188628

  4. Perceived barriers in accessing food among recent Latin American immigrants in Toronto

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective In Canada, recent immigrant households experience more food insecurity than the general population, but limited information is available about the personal, cultural, and social factors that contribute to this vulnerability. This study focused on recent Latin American (LA) immigrants to explore their perceived barriers in acquiring safe, nutritious, and culturally-appropriate food. Design A cross-sectional mixed-method design was applied to collect information from a convenience sample of 70 adult Spanish/Portuguese speakers who had arrived in Toronto within the last five years. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with primary household caregivers to obtain responses about barriers to acquiring food for their households; data were analyzed using a thematic analysis technique. Results Four main categories of barriers were identified: limited financial resources; language difficulty; cultural food preferences; and poor knowledge of available community-based food resources and services. Inadequate income was the main impediment in accessing adequate food, and was related to affordability of food items, accessibility of food outlets and transportation cost, and limited time for grocery shopping due to work conditions. Language barriers affected participants’ ability to obtain well-paid employment and their awareness about and access to available community-based food resources. Cultural barriers were related to food preferences and limited access to culturally-appropriate foods and resources. Conclusion The main barrier to food security among our sample of LA newcomers to Toronto is limited financial resources, highlighting the need for policies and strategies that could improve their financial power to purchase sufficient, nutritious, and culturally-acceptable food. Linguistic barriers and limited information among newcomers suggest the need to provide linguistically- and culturally-appropriate information related to community-based food programs and resources, as well as accessible subsidized English language programs, in the community and at workplaces. Participatory community-based food programs can augment, in a socially acceptable manner, food resources and reduce the social stigma attached to food charity. Finally, it is crucial to monitor and evaluate existing social and community-based services for their accessibility, cultural appropriateness and diversity, and effectiveness. PMID:23286318

  5. Lead exposure in Latin America and the Caribbean. Lead Research Group of the Pan-American Health Organization.

    PubMed Central

    Romieu, I; Lacasana, M; McConnell, R

    1997-01-01

    As a result of the rapid industrialization of Latin America and the Caribbean during the second half of this century, exposure to lead has become an increasingly important problem. To obtain an estimate of the magnitude of lead exposure in the region, we carried out a survey and a literature search on potential sources of lead exposure and on blood lead concentrations. Sixteen out of 18 Latin American and 2 out of 10 Caribbean countries responded to the survey. Lead in gasoline remains a major problem, although the lead content has decreased in many countries in the last few years. The impact of leaded fuel is more important in urban settings, given their high vehicular density. Seventy-five percent of the population of the region lives in urban areas, and children younger than 15 years of age, the most susceptible group, comprise 30% of the population. Other sources of lead exposure identified in the region included industrial emissions, battery recycling, paint and varnishes, and contaminated food and water. Lead is recognized as a priority problem by national authorities in 72% of the countries that responded to the survey, and in 50% of the countries some legislation exists to regulate the lead content in certain products. However, compliance is low. There is an urgent need for a broad-based coalition between policy makers, industry, workers, unions, health care providers, and the community to take actions to reduce environmental and occupational lead exposures in all the Latin American and Caribbean countries. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9189704

  6. Educational Inequalities among Latin American Adolescents: Continuities and Changes over the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s

    PubMed Central

    Marteleto, Letícia; Gelber, Denisse; Hubert, Celia; Salinas, Viviana

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine recent trends in educational stratification for Latin American adolescents growing up in three distinct periods: the 1980s, during severe recession; the 1990s, a period of structural adjustments imposed by international organizations; and the late 2000s, when most countries in the region experienced positive and stable growth. In addition to school enrollment and educational transitions, we examine the quality of education through enrollment in private schools, an important aspect of inequality in education that most studies have neglected. We use nationally representative household survey data for the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s in Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Uruguay. Our overall findings confirm the importance of macroeconomic conditions for inequalities in educational opportunity, suggesting important benefits brought up by the favorable conditions of the 2000s. However, our findings also call attention to increasing disadvantages associated with the quality of the education adolescents receive, suggesting the significance of the EMI framework—Effectively Maintained Inequality—and highlighting the value of examining the quality in addition to the quantity of education in order to fully understand educational stratification in the Latin American context. PMID:22962512

  7. Chagas disease screening among HIV-positive Latin American immigrants: an emerging problem.

    PubMed

    Llenas-García, J; Hernando, A; Fiorante, S; Maseda, D; Matarranz, M; Salto, E; Rubio, R; Pulido, F

    2012-08-01

    Chagas disease (CD) is an emergent disease in Europe that can behave as an opportunistic infection in HIV positive patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a CD screening programme in an HIV unit. An immunochromatography (ICT) of Trypanosoma cruzi was performed as a screening tool in HIV-positive patients born in CD endemic countries. ELISA and IFAT were used to confirm the diagnosis. A total of 155 patients, 116 males and 38 females, were included. Mean age was 36.9 years (± 8.4) and mean length of stay in Spain at the screening was 7.1 years (± 4.7). T. cruzi ICT was positive in four cases (2.6%), being confirmed (by ELISA and IFAT) in three of those (1.9%). Factors associated with confirmed positive T.cruzi serology were: Bolivia origin (p=0.016), Bolivia or Argentina origin (p=0.002), Southern Cone origin (p=0.015), rural origin (p=0.023), previously living in an adobe-made (p=0.001) or thatch-roofed house (p<0.0001), having a previous CD test (p=0.015), previous knowledge about CD (p=0.019), about vector (p=0.009) or recorded seeing vectors at home (p=0.012). Units dealing with HIV patients from endemic areas of American trypanosomiasis should implement CD screening protocols. Interviews of patients coming from endemic areas should include CD epidemiological questions. PMID:22258424

  8. `Home Away From Home:' Migrant Organizations and Transnational Politics Among Latin American Migrants in Spain

    E-print Network

    Freudenburg, Kevin Michael

    2011-04-27

    Mass immigration into Spain is a relatively new phenomenon. Additionally, the country's recent economic boom and ties to Latin America put it in the unique position of being home to millions of Spanish-speaking migrants. This paper analyzes the role...

  9. Cite Globally, Analyze Locally: Citation Analysis from a Local Latin American Studies Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schadl, Suzanne M.; Todeschini, Marina

    2015-01-01

    This citation analysis examines the use of Spanish- and Portuguese-language books and articles in PhD dissertations on Latin America at the University of New Mexico between 2000 and 2009. Two sets of data are presented: The first identifies the use of Spanish- and Portuguese-language books and articles across 17 academic departments; and the…

  10. Supportive Adult Relationships and the Academic Engagement of Latin American Immigrant Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, G.; Rhodes, J.; Hirsch, A. H.; Suarez-Orozco, C.; Camic, P. M.

    2008-01-01

    The central aim of this study was to explore the academic engagement trajectories of a sample of recently arrived immigrant students from Latin America. Using an analytic framework that can dynamically model time-sensitive fluctuations (HLM; [Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchicical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis…

  11. The space transportation system and its impact on Latin American development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, F. R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The three components of the Space Transportation System: the space shuttle, the permanent orbital space station and the transorbital vehicle are described. The stages of completion of the various plans are discussed and the impact of the project's implementation is discussed with particular reference to Latin America and with special emphasis on the telecommunications sector.

  12. Stereotypes of the Latin Image in American Films: Silent Period to 1945.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svenningsen, Karen

    This paper presents a history of motion pictures that focuses on how motion pictures, from 1894 to the present, have portrayed Latins. The role that Hollywood has played in the perpetuation of stereotypes is illustrated. There is an explanation of how film has illuminated a world beyond everyday experiences and has introduced the movie-goer to new…

  13. Closing the Gap in Education and Technology. World Bank Latin American and Caribbean Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Ferranti, David; Perry, Guillermo E.; Gill, Indermit; Guasch, J. Luis; Maloney, William F.; Sanchez-Paramo, Carolina; Schady, Norbert

    This document examines the gap between the Latin America and Caribbean region and the world's developed nations in the areas of education and technology. It also examines policies and strategies to close the gap. The following are among the specific topics discussed: (1) skills upgrading and innovation policies (the major actors; the role of…

  14. A Latin American telemedicine social perspective from a Colombian telemedicine center initiative.

    PubMed

    Velez Beltran, Jorge Alberto; Newball, Andrés Adolfo Navarro

    2005-10-01

    This paper describes a collaborative initiative for developing a telemedicine model on for Colombia and Latin America from a social perspective. This was led by the Colombian Telemedicine Center (CTMC) with the participation of teams from Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, and Argentina, in addition to on-going interaction with academic institutions such as Javeriana University, Icesi University, and Murcia University. PMID:16250827

  15. "German / Latin American Cooperation in Business and Science" Launch Event of the Bayreuth International Alumni Network

    E-print Network

    Hanazaki, Natalia

    of the Bayreuth International Alumni Network in Latin America on 11th November 2015 Location: Auditorium 1 (Product Management & Marketing) 11.40 ­ 12.10 a.m. Funding and Ciência sem Fronteiras DAAD Serviço Alemão.20 1.40 p.m. Group Photo Business lunch Cooperation and Alumni Network Founding 3.00 ­ 3.30 p

  16. Emotions in the History of Latin American Popular Education: Constructions for a Thinking-Feeling Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streck, Danilo R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the presence of emotions in the constitution of popular education in Latin America, thus contributing to understand popular education as a thinking-feeling practice. It starts from the assumption that emotions are also historical and cultural expressions that mark societies and their understanding of…

  17. The Effects of Tougher Enforcement on the Job Prospects of Recent Latin American Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orrenius, Pia M.; Zavodny, Madeline

    2009-01-01

    Attempts to enforce immigration laws in the U.S. interior have proliferated in recent years, yet the effects of these laws on immigrants are largely unknown. This paper examines whether increases in immigration-related law enforcement since 2001 have adversely affected the labor market outcomes of low-education male immigrants from Latin America,…

  18. 75 FR 75708 - American United Life Insurance Company, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... COMMISSION American United Life Insurance Company, et al.; Notice of Application November 30, 2010. AGENCY... securities. Applicants: American United Life Insurance Company (``AUL''), AUL American Unit Trust (``AUL.... Applicants: c/o Richard M. Ellery, Esq., American United Life Insurance Company, One American...

  19. Latin American Literatures and Cultures: Self and Society. Papers from the National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute (La Jolla, California, August 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seabrook, John H., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This special issue contains the following articles: (1) "Critiquing the Center: Rigoberta Menchu and Enrique Dussel" (Joseph R. Hoff); (2) "Caroline Maria De Jesus: A Testimonial Voice in the Wilderness" (Eva Bueno); (3) "Latin American Women's Voices: La Malinche to Rigoberta Menchu" (Ana Maria Romo de Mease); (4) "China in Borges''The Garden of…

  20. 1969 MLA International Bibliography of Books and Articles on the Modern Languages and Literatures. Volume I: General, English, American, Medieval and Neo-Latin, and Celtic Literatures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meserole, Harrison T., Comp.

    Volume 1 of the 4-volume, international bibliography contains some 9,000 entries referring to books and articles which focus on general, English, American, medieval and neo-Latin, and Celtic literatures. The master list of the nearly 1,500 periodicals from which entries are derived is furnished at the beginning of the volume with a table of…

  1. Latin American Youth Entrepreneurs: Differences between Coached and Laissez-Faire Entrepreneurial Experiences in Their Employability Skills and Their Entrepreneurial Innovative Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman Maqueira, Juana

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between the development of employability skills and entrepreneurial innovative attitude in Latin American youth entrepreneurs 18-29 years of age after participating in at least 1 year of an entrepreneurship experience. The design involved analyzing two groups. The first was a coached group…

  2. A "Great Roads" Approach to Teaching Modern World History and Latin American Regional Survey Courses: A Veracruz to Mexico City Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James Seay, Jr.; Sullivan-Gonzalez, Douglass

    2002-01-01

    Outlines an innovative way of teaching "World History Since 1500" at Samford University (Birmingham, Alabama) called the "great roads" approach, centered upon important roads in a country's history. Presents the "Veracruz to Mexico City corridor" case study used to teach a Latin American modern history course. (CMK)

  3. Physical activity promotion in Latin American populations: a systematic review on issues of internal and external validity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to determine the degree to which physical activity interventions for Latin American populations reported on internal and external validity factors using the RE-AIM framework (reach & representativeness, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance). We systematically identified English (PubMed; EbscoHost) and Spanish (SCIELO; Biblioteca Virtual en Salud) language studies published between 2001 and 2012 that tested physical activity, exercise, or fitness promotion interventions in Latin American populations. Cross-sectional/descriptive studies, conducted in Brazil or Spain, published in Portuguese, not including a physical activity/fitness/exercise outcome, and with one time point assessment were excluded. We reviewed 192 abstracts and identified 46 studies that met the eligibility criteria (34 in English, 12 in Spanish). A validated 21-item RE-AIM abstraction tool was used to determine the quality of reporting across studies (0-7?=?low, 8-14?=?moderate, and 15-21?=?high). The number of indicators reported ranged from 3–14 (mean?=?8.1?±?2.6), with the majority of studies falling in the moderate quality reporting category. English and Spanish language articles did not differ on the number of indicators reported (8.1 vs. 8.3, respectively). However, Spanish articles reported more across reach indicators (62% vs. 43% of indicators), while English articles reported more across effectiveness indicators (69% vs 62%). Across RE-AIM dimensions, indicators for reach (48%), efficacy/effectiveness (67%), and implementation (41%) were reported more often than indicators of adoption (25%) and maintenance (10%). Few studies reported on the representativeness of participants, staff that delivered interventions, or the settings where interventions were adopted. Only 13% of the studies reported on quality of life and/or potential negative outcomes, 20% reported on intervention fidelity, and 11% on cost of implementation. Outcomes measured after six months of intervention, information on continued delivery and institutionalization of interventions, were also seldom reported. Regardless of language of publication, physical activity intervention research for Latin Americans should increase attention to and measurement of external validity and cost factors that are critical in the decision making process in practice settings and can increase the likelihood of translation into community or clinical practice. PMID:24938641

  4. Risk Factors for Postpartum Hemorrhage in Vaginal Deliveries in a Latin-American Population

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Claudio G.; Althabe, Fernando; Belizán, José M.; Buekens, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors for immediate postpartum hemorrhage after vaginal delivery in a South-American population. METHODS This was a prospective cohort study including all vaginal births (n=11,323) between October-December 2003 and October-December 2005 from 24 maternity units in two South-American countries: Argentina and Uruguay. Blood loss was measured in all births using a calibrated receptacle. Moderate postpartum hemorrhage and severe postpartum hemorrhage were defined as blood loss of at least 500 ml and at least 1,000 ml, respectively. RESULTS Moderate and severe postpartum hemorrhage occurred in 10.8% and 1.9% of deliveries, respectively. The risk factors more strongly associated and the incidence of moderate postpartum hemorrhage in women with each of these factors were: retained placenta (33.3%) (adjusted odds ratio – aOR: 6.02; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.50–10.36); multiple pregnancy (20.9%) (aOR:4.67; CI 2.41–9.05); macrosomia (18.6%) (aOR:2.36; CI 1.93–2.88), episiotomy (16.2%) (aOR:1.70; CI 1.15–2.50); and need for perineal suture (15.0%) (aOR:1.66; CI 1.11–2.49). Active management of third stage of labor, multiparity and a low birth weight baby, were found to be protective factors. Severe postpartum hemorrhage was associated with retained placenta (17.1%)(aOR:16.04; CI 7.15–35.99), multiple pregnancy (4.7%)(aOR:4.34; CI 1.46–12.87), macrosomia (4.9%)(aOR:3.48; CI 2.27–5.36), induced labor (3.5%)(aOR:2.00; CI 1.30–3.09), and need for perineal suture (2.5%) (aOR:2.50; CI 1.87–3.36). CONCLUSION Many of the risk factors for immediate postpartum hemorrhage in this South-American population are related to complications of the second and third stage of labor. PMID:19461428

  5. Unit 1101: Language Varies by Place: American English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English.

    This 11th-grade language unit focuses on dialectology, the regional variations of American English, and the causes for the differences and similarities in language usage in the United States. Issues surveyed in the unit are (1) the historical basis for dialect differences from the time of the early colonists, (2) current speech characteristics of…

  6. Mestizos with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Develop Renal Disease Early while Antimalarials Retard its Appearance: Data from a Latin American Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pons-Estel, Guillermo J.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Burgos, Paula I.; Hachuel, Leticia; Boggio, Gabriela; Wojdyla, Daniel; Nieto, Romina; Alvarellos, Alejandro; Catoggio, Luis J.; Guibert-Toledano, Marlene; Sarano, Judith; Massardo, Loreto; Vásquez, Gloria M.; Iglesias-Gamarra, Antonio; Lavras Costallat, Lilian T.; Da Silva, Nilzio A.; Alfaro, José L.; Abadi, Isaac; Segami, María I.; Huerta, Guillermo; Cardiel, Mario H.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the predictors of time-to-lupus renal disease in Latin American patients. Methods SLE patients (n=1480) from GLADEL’s (Grupo Latino Americano De Estudio de Lupus) longitudinal inception cohort were studied. Endpoint was ACR renal criterion development after SLE diagnosis (prevalent cases excluded). Renal disease predictors were examined by univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Antimalarials were considered time-dependent in alternative analyses. Results Of the entire cohort, 265 patients (17.9%) developed renal disease after entering the cohort. Of them, 88 (33.2%) developed persistent proteinuria, 44 (16.6%) cellular casts and 133 (50.2%) both; 233 patients (87.9%) were women; mean (± SD) age at diagnosis was 28.0 (11.9) years; 12.8% were African-Latin Americans, 52.5% Mestizos, 34.7% Caucasians (p=0.0016). Mestizo ethnicity (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.19–2.17), hypertension (HR 3.99, 95% CI 3.02–5.26) and SLEDAI at diagnosis (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01–1.06) were associated with a shorter time-to-renal disease occurrence; antimalarial use (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.43–0.77), older age at onset (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.85–0.95, for every 5 years) and photosensitivity (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.56–0.98) were associated with a longer time. Alternative model results were consistent with the antimalarial protective effect (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.50–0.99). Conclusions Our data strongly support the fact that Mestizo patients are at increased risk of developing renal disease early while antimalarials seem to delay the appearance of this SLE manifestation. These data have important implications for the treatment of these patients regardless of their geographic location. PMID:23857989

  7. Higher Education in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeao, Jose Raymundo Martins

    2003-01-01

    Presents an analysis of, and proposals for, international cooperation in higher education. Focuses on Latin American higher education, its current situation, and the expected transformation of the goals of higher education in the context of international cooperation. Describes the challenges that globalization poses to Latin American higher…

  8. The "New Cooperativism" in Latin America: Worker-Recuperated Enterprises and Socialist Production Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrabure, Manuel; Vieta, Marcelo; Schugurensky, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In the first decade of the 21st century, efforts to create alternatives to neoliberalism emerged in many parts of Latin America. Social movements across the region took to the streets, occupied abandoned factories, and started to create new democratic spaces, solidarity networks, and social economy initiatives. In one country after another,…

  9. United States-Latin America Cancer Research Network (US-LA CRN)

    Cancer.gov

    The US–LA CRN was established in 2009 to increase cancer research capacity in Latin America. NCI formalized bilateral agreements with the governments of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico, and Uruguay, to facilitate interactions at the government, institution, and investigator levels.

  10. Projected refined product balances in key Latin American countries: A preliminary examination

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Over the years, the East-West Center (EWC) has developed considerable expertise in refinery modeling, especially in the area of forecasting product balances for countries, given planned capacity changes, changes in product demand, changes in crude slates, and changes in product specifications. This expertise has been applied on an ongoing basis to the major refiners in the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region, along with the US West Coast as region in its own right. Refinery modeling in these three areas has been ongoing for nearly 15 years at the Center, and the tools and information sources are now well developed. To date, the EWC has not applied these tools to Latin America. Although research on Latin America has been an ongoing area of concern at the Center in recent years, the information gathered to date is still not of the level of detail nor quality available for other areas. The modeling efforts undertaken in this report are of a ``baseline`` nature, designed to outline the major issues, attempt a first cut at emerging product balances, and, above all, to elicit commentary from those directly involved in the oil industry in the key countries modeled. Our experience in other regions has shown that it takes a few years dialogue with refiners and government planner in individual countries to develop a reliable database, as well as the insights into operational constraints and practices that make accurate modeling possible. This report is no more than a first step down the road.

  11. A Shared Heritage: Afro-Latin@s and Black History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busey, Christopher L.; Cruz, Bárbara C.

    2015-01-01

    As the Latin@ population continues to grow in the United States, it is imperative that social studies teachers are aware of the rich history and sociocultural complexities of Latin@ identity. In particular, there is a large population of Latin@s of African descent throughout Latin America, the Caribbean, and North America. However, Afro-Latin@s…

  12. Association of the duration of residence with obesity-related eating habits and dietary patterns among Latin-American immigrants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Marín-Guerrero, A C; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Guallar-Castillón, P; López-García, Esther; Gutiérrez-Fisac, Juan L

    2014-11-24

    The dietary patterns of immigrants usually change with the duration of residence and progressively resemble those of the host country. However, very few studies have investigated individuals migrating to countries with a high-quality diet, such as the Mediterranean diet (MD), and none has yet focused on Latin-American immigrants. The present study examined the association of the duration of residence with obesity-related eating habits and dietary patterns among Latin-American immigrants residing in Spain. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008-10 in a representative sample of the adult population residing in Spain. Adherence to the MD was defined as a MD Adherence Screener score ? 9. Analyses were conducted by including 419 individuals aged 18-64 years born in Latin-American countries. Compared with immigrants residing in Spain for < 5 years, those residing for ? 10 years accounted for a lower percentage of individuals who habitually ate at fast-food restaurants and never trimmed visible fat from meat. Moreover, these immigrants were found to have a lower intake of sugary beverages and a higher intake of Na, saturated fat, fibre, olive oil, vegetables and fish and to more frequently strictly adhere to the MD. A longer duration of residence in Spain was found to be associated with both healthy and unhealthy changes in some eating habits and dietary patterns among Latin-American immigrants. Some of the healthy changes observed contrasted the 'Westernisation' of the diet reported in studies conducted in other Western countries. The results of the present study support the role of the food environment of the host country in the modification of the dietary patterns of immigrants. PMID:25418887

  13. CROSS CULTURAL ANALYSIS OF DETERMINANTS OF HOT FLASHES AND NIGHT SWEATS: LATIN-AMERICAN IMMIGRANTS TO MADRID AND THEIR SPANISH NEIGHBORS

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Alcalá, Irene; Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Reher, David Sven

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study applies a biocultural perspective to better understand the determinants of hot flashes and night sweats within immigrant and local populations in Madrid, Spain. Methods A combined sample of 575 women from Madrid, aged 45 to 55, was drawn from two studies. The Spanish sample (n=274) participated in the Decisions at Menopause Study (DAMES) in 2000–2002. The Latin-American sample (n=301) was drawn from immigrants to Madrid in 2010–2011. Chi square analyses and logistic regression models were carried out among the combined controlling by origin of provenance. Results Forty four percent of the women reported hot flashes, 36% reported night sweats and 26% both symptoms. Compared to Spanish women, Latin-American women were less likely to report hot flashes (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4–0.9) after controlling for demographic variables and menopausal status. The same was not found for night sweats and for both symptoms combined. Determinants of hot flashes differed from determinants of night sweats. Conclusions Because determinants differed, hot flashes and night sweats should be queried and analyzed separately. Latin-American women were less likely to report hot flashes, but not night sweats or both symptoms combined. More research is needed to clarify the differences in reported hot flashes as the lesser report among immigrants could have been a cultural rather than a biological phenomenon. PMID:23571525

  14. Asthma in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Forno, Erick; Gogna, Mudita; Cepeda, Alfonso; Yañez, Anahi; Solé, Dirceu; Cooper, Philip; Avila, Lydiana; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Castro-Rodriguez, Jose A; Celedón, Juan C

    2015-09-01

    Consistent with the diversity of Latin America, there is profound variability in asthma burden among and within countries in this region. Regional variation in asthma prevalence is likely multifactorial and due to genetics, perinatal exposures, diet, obesity, tobacco use, indoor and outdoor pollutants, psychosocial stress and microbial or parasitic infections. Similarly, non-uniform progress in asthma management leads to regional variability in disease morbidity. Future studies of distinct asthma phenotypes should follow-up well-characterised Latin American subgroups and examine risk factors that are unique or common in Latin America (eg, stress and violence, parasitic infections and use of biomass fuels for cooking). Because most Latin American countries share the same barriers to asthma management, concerted and multifaceted public health and research efforts are needed, including approaches to curtail tobacco use, campaigns to improve asthma treatment, broadening access to care and clinical trials of non-pharmacological interventions (eg, replacing biomass fuels with gas or electric stoves). PMID:26103996

  15. Neo-Latin News 

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Craig, et al

    2006-01-01

    , 4227 TAMU, College Station, Texas 77843-4227. NLN is the official publication of the American Association for Neo- Latin Studies. Edited by Craig Kallendorf, Texas A&M University; Western Euro- pean Editor: Gilbert Tournoy, Leuven; Eastern European... Studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. x + 207 pp. $70. In this erudite and absorbing book, Paul Botley provides a context for some of the seminal translations from Greek into Latin which were made in the fifteenth and sixteenth...

  16. Is the present cut-point to define type 2 diabetes appropriate in Latin-Americans?

    PubMed Central

    López-Jaramillo, Patricio; Velandia-Carrillo, Carlos; Gómez-Arbeláez, Diego; Aldana-Campos, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) is based either on increased plasma glucose or Glycated hemoglobin levels. Since these measures are the only means for diagnosis of DM2, they must be well adapted to each population according to their metabolic characteristics, given that these may vary in each population. The World Health Organization (WHO) determined the cut-points of plasma glucose levels for the diagnosis of DM2 by associating hyperglycemia with the risk of a specific microvascular complication-retinopathy. Cardiovascular diseases are however the principal causes of mortality in patients with DM2 and we reported that in the Colombo-Ecuadorian population impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance are both risk markers for myocardial infarction. We propose that the current cut-points accepted by the WHO need to be revaluated in populations such as Latin America and that there should be lower cut points for glycaemia in this population, to reduce the prevalence of cardiovascular complications associated with DM2. PMID:25512777

  17. Field research methodology for the study of Latin American ministries of education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, E. Mark

    1981-09-01

    In Third World countries a key to the course of nation-building is the modernization of the organizational and administrative infrastructures which drive the development process. Increasing the operational capabilities, effectiveness, and efficiency of the ministry of education, and hence the quality and quantity of school outcomes, is typically a high priority item in the development plans of a nation. In order to promote the modernization of management activities in ministries, however, it is first essential to understand their existing patterns of operation. Toward this objective, the paper presents a methodological framework for a field study approach to the examination of the working of a ministry of education in Latin America. Several issues are introduced which influence the process of inquiry, such as: (1) examining the impact of historical traditions on contemporary management procedures; (2) exploring concerns for ethics and academic colonialism; (3) distinguishing between anthropological and sociological participant-observation field methods; (4) gathering and analyzing data on complex ministries; and (5) exploring the task of Third World theory building.

  18. HIV Drug Resistance-Associated Mutations in Antiretroviral Naïve HIV-1-Infected Latin American Children

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Ramirez, Luis E.; Rodriguez-Diaz, Roberto; Harris, D. Robert; Hazra, Rohan

    2010-01-01

    Our goal was to describe the presence of HIV drug resistance among HIV-1-infected, antiretroviral (ARV) naïve children and adolescents in Latin America and to examine resistance in these children in relation to drug exposure in the mother. Genotyping was performed on plasma samples obtained at baseline from HIV-1-infected participants in a prospective cohort study in Brazil, Argentina, and Mexico (NISDI Pediatric Study). Of 713 HIV-infected children enrolled, 69 were ARV naïve and eligible for the analysis. At enrollment, mean age was 7.3 years; 81.2% were infected with HIV perinatally. Drug resistance mutations (DRMs) were detected in 6 (8.7%; 95% confidence interval 3.1–18.2%) ARV-naïve subjects; none of the mothers of these 6 received ARVs during their pregnancies and none of the children received ARV prophylaxis. Reverse transcriptase mutations K70R and K70E were detected in 3 and 2 subjects, respectively; protease mutation I50?V was detected in 1 subject. Three of the 6 children with DRMs initiated ARV therapy during followup, with a good response in 2. The overall rate of primary drug resistance in this pediatric HIV-infected population was low, and no subjects had more than 1 DRM. Mutations associated with resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were the most prevalent. PMID:22331986

  19. Health-Related Quality of Life of Latin-American Immigrants and Spanish-Born Attended in Spanish Primary Health Care: Socio-Demographic and Psychosocial Factors

    PubMed Central

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Bragado-Alvárez, Carmen; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Background This study compares the health-related quality of life of Spanish-born and Latin American-born individuals settled in Spain. Socio-demographic and psychosocial factors associated with health-related quality of life are analyzed. Methods A cross-sectional Primary Health Care multi center-based study of Latin American-born (n = 691) and Spanish-born (n = 903) outpatients from 15 Primary Health Care Centers (Madrid, Spain). The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess health-related quality of life. Socio-demographic, psychosocial, and specific migration data were also collected. Results Compared to Spanish-born participants, Latin American-born participants reported higher health-related quality of life in the physical functioning and vitality dimensions. Across the entire sample, Latin American-born participants, younger participants, men and those with high social support reported significantly higher levels of physical health. Men with higher social support and a higher income reported significantly higher mental health. When stratified by gender, data show that for men physical health was only positively associated with younger age. For women, in addition to age, social support and marital status were significantly related. Both men and women with higher social support and income had significantly better mental health. Finally, for immigrants, the physical and mental health components of health-related quality of life were not found to be significantly associated with any of the pre-migration factors or conditions of migration. Only the variable “exposure to political violence” was significantly associated with the mental health component (p = 0.014). Conclusions The key factors to understanding HRQoL among Latin American-born immigrants settled in Spain are age, sex and social support. Therefore, strategies to maintain optimal health outcomes in these immigrant communities should include public policies on social inclusion in the host society and focus on improving social support networks in order to foster and maintain the health and HRQoL of this group. PMID:25835714

  20. Cardiovascular Disease in Latin American Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Cross-Sectional Study and a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Caro-Moreno, Julián; Molano-González, Nicolás; Mantilla, Rubén D.; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of and associated risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Latin American (LA) patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods. First, a cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 310 Colombian patients with SLE in whom CVD was assessed. Associated factors were examined by multivariate regression analyses. Second, a systematic review of the literature on CVD in SLE in LA was performed. Results. There were 133 (36.5%) Colombian SLE patients with CVD. Dyslipidemia, smoking, coffee consumption, and pleural effusion were positively associated with CVD. An independent effect of coffee consumption and cigarette on CVD was found regardless of gender and duration of disease. In the systematic review, 60 articles fulfilling the eligibility criteria were included. A wide range of CVD prevalence was found (4%–79.5%). Several studies reported ancestry, genetic factors, and polyautoimmunity as novel risk factors for such a condition. Conclusions. A high rate of CVD is observed in LA patients with SLE. Awareness of the observed risk factors should encourage preventive population strategies for CVD in patients with SLE aimed at facilitating the suppression of cigarette smoking and coffee consumption as well as at the tight control of dyslipidemia and other modifiable risk factors. PMID:24294522

  1. Contributions of community psychology to rural advisory services: an analysis of latin american rural extensionists' point of view.

    PubMed

    Landini, Fernando

    2015-06-01

    During the last decade, rural extension has received interest as being a key tool for rural development. Despite rural extension being affected by many psychosocial processes, psychology has made scarce contributions to it. An investigation was conducted with the aim of gaining knowledge of rural extensionists' expectations of psychology, as well as to contribute to shaping community psychologists' role in the context of rural extension . 652 extensionists from 12 Latin American countries were surveyed. The survey included closed socio-demographic questions as well as open ones addressing extension practice and psychologists' potential contributions. 90.6 % of surveyed extensionists considered psychology could help them improve their practice. Most mentioned areas of contribution go in line with community psychology, including managing farmers groups, facilitating participatory processes and training extensionists; while others, such as the expectation of changing farmers' mindset and increasing the adoption of external technologies, go against its principles. Thus, in some cases, extensionists' expectations could help generate an interesting interaction between community psychology and rural extension, while in others, they need to be put up for discussion. In brief, community psychology has the potential to contribute to rural extension, but it needs to acknowledge extension practice as an interesting area for intervention. PMID:25761748

  2. Chinese Dragons in an American Science Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Lee Yuen; McLure, John W.

    2005-01-01

    Can art and science find a happy home in the same unit? We think the answer is yes, if the central problem interests the students and allows them to try out multiple abilities. The sixth-grade unit described in this article, which we called "The Dragon Project," grew mainly from two roots, a study of ancient China and a later probe into anatomy…

  3. Latin II--Advanced.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Thomas W.; Lenczewski, Leo

    Instructional materials for independent learning include two sample units taken from a full-year, 12-unit, Latin 2 course. The units direct the student in the study of irregular adjectives and adverbs, the passive tenses of regular verbs, indefinite pronouns, indirect commands, and descriptive clauses. The unit description lists the forms,…

  4. Serological response to Helicobacter pylori infection among Latin American populations with contrasting risks of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Camargo, M Constanza; Beltran, Mauricio; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Harris, Paul R; Michel, Angelika; Waterboer, Tim; Carolina Flórez, Astrid; Torres, Javier; Ferreccio, Catterina; Sampson, Joshua N; Pawlita, Michael; Rabkin, Charles S

    2015-12-15

    Gastric cancer is a rare outcome of chronic Helicobacter pylori infection. Serologic profiles may reveal bacterial, environmental and/or host factors associated with cancer risk. We therefore compared specific anti-H. pylori antibodies among populations with at least twofold differences in gastric cancer mortality from Mexico, Colombia and Chile. Our study included 1,776 adults (mean age 42 years) from three nationally representative surveys, equally divided between residents of high- and low-risk areas. Antibodies to 15 immunogenic H. pylori antigens were measured by fluorescent bead-based multiplex assays; results were summarized to identify overall H. pylori seropositivity. We used logistic regression to model associations between antibody seroreactivity and regional cancer risk (high vs. low), adjusting for country, age and sex. Both risk areas had similar H. pylori seroprevalence. Residents in high- and low-risk areas were seroreactive to a similar number of antigens (means 8.2 vs. 7.9, respectively; adjusted odds ratio, OR: 1.02, p?=?0.05). Seroreactivities to Catalase and the known virulence proteins CagA and VacA were each significantly (p?Latin America. Factors determining population variation of gastric cancer burden remain to be identified. PMID:26178251

  5. Latin American dose survey results in mammography studies under IAEA programme: radiological protection of patients in medical exposures (TSA3).

    PubMed

    Mora, Patricia; Blanco, Susana; Khoury, Helen; Leyton, Fernando; Cárdenas, Juan; Defaz, María Yolanda; Garay, Fernando; Telón, Flaviano; Aguilar, Juan Garcia; Roas, Norma; Gamarra, Mirtha; Blanco, Daniel; Quintero, Ana Rosa; Nader, Alejandro

    2015-03-01

    Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela) working under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Cooperation Programme: TSA3 Radiological Protection of Patients in Medical Exposures have joined efforts in the optimisation of radiation protection in mammography practice. Through surveys of patient doses, the region has a unique database of diagnostic reference levels for analogue and digital equipment that will direct future optimisation activities towards the early detection of breast cancer among asymptomatic women. During RLA9/057 (2007-09) 24 institutions participated with analogue equipment in a dose survey. Regional training on methodology and measurement equipment was addressed in May 2007. The mean glandular dose (DG) was estimated using the incident kerma in air and relevant conversion coefficients for both projections craneo caudal and mediolateral oblique (CC and MLO). For Phase 2, RLA9/067 (2010-11), it was decided to include also digital systems in order to see their impact in future dose optimisation activities. Any new country that joined the project received training in the activities through IAEA expert missions. Twenty-nine new institutions participated (9 analogue and 20 digital equipment). A total of 2262 patient doses were collected during this study and from them D(G) (mGy) for both projections were estimated for each institution and country. Regional results (75 percentile in mGy) show for CC and MLO views, respectively: RLA9/057 (analogue) 2.63 and 3.17; RLA/067: 2.57 and 3.15 (analogue) and 2.69 and 2.90 (digital). Regarding only digital equipment for CC and MLO, respectively, computed radiography systems showed 2.59 and 2.78 and direct digital radiography (DDR) systems 2.78 and 3.04. Based on the IAEA Basic Safety Standard (BSS) reference dose (3 mGy), it can be observed that there is enough room to start optimisation processes in Latin America (LA); several countries or even particular institutions have values much higher than the 3 mGy. The main issues to address are lack of well-established quality assurance programmes for mammography, not enough medical physicists with training in mammography, an increase in patient doses with the introduction of digital equipment and to create awareness on radiation risk and optimisation strategies. PMID:24993012

  6. A cost-effectiveness analysis of a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children in six Latin American countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A recently developed 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable H influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) is expected to afford protection against more than two thirds of isolates causing IPD in children in Latin America, and also against acute otitis media caused by both Spn and NTHi. The objective of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of PHiD-CV in comparison to non-vaccination in children under 10 years of age in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. Methods We used a static, deterministic, compartmental simulation model. The dosing regimen considered included three vaccine doses (at 2 months, 4 months and 6 months) and a booster dose (at 13 months) (3?+?1 schedule). Model outcomes included number of cases prevented, deaths averted, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained and costs. Discount for costs and benefits of long term sequelae was done at 3.5%, and currency reported in 2008-2009 U$S varying between countries. Results The largest effect in case prevention was observed in pneumococcal meningitis (from 27% in Peru to 47% in Colombia), neurologic sequelae after meningitis (from 38% in Peru to 65% in Brazil) and bacteremia (from 42% in Argentina to 49% in Colombia). The proportion of predicted deaths averted annually ranged from 18% in Peru to 33% in Brazil. Overall, the health benefits achieved with PHiD-CV vaccination resulted in a lower QALY loss (from 15% lower in Peru to 26% in Brazil). At a cost of USD 20 per vaccine dose, vaccination was cost-effective in all countries, from being cost saving in Chile to a maximum Incremental Cost-effectiveness Ratio of 7,088 US$ Dollars per QALY gained. Results were robust in the sensitivity analysis, and scenarios with indirect costs affected results more than those with herd immunity. Conclusions The incorporation of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into routine infant immunization programs in Latin American countries could be a cost-effective strategy to improve infant population health in the region. PMID:24004943

  7. Considerations for Integrating Technology in Developing Communities in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponte, Daniela Núñez; Cullen, Theresa A.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses issues related to introducing new information and communication technologies (ICT) into Latin American countries. Latin American countries are gaining world focus with political changes such as the death of Hugo Chavez in Venezuela and the election of the first Latin American Pope. This region will host the World Cup,…

  8. Lectura y Vida: Revista Latinoamericana de Lectura. (Reading and Life: Latin American Reading Magazine). 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lectura y Vida: Revista Latinoamericana de Lectura, 1998

    1998-01-01

    The four 1998 issues of the journal on literacy education, entirely in Spanish, include these articles: "The Inevitable Radical Weakness of Language: Some Reflections about Forming Readers and Citizens" (Daniel Goldin); "Relationships among Reading and Writing, Thematic Units, Learning Through Research...In Search of Effective Instruction for…

  9. TESTCROSS PERFORMANCE OF SEMIEXOTIC INBRED LINES DERIVED FROM LATIN AMERICAN MAIZE ACCESSIONS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity of commercial maize (Zea mays L.) in the United States is limited. Tropical maize represents the most diverse readily available source of germplasm with which to broaden the genetic base of temperate maize. One hundred sisty-four inbred lines were developed from crosses between t...

  10. Zebra chip disease: identification, epidemiology, control, and threat to Latin American potato industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zebra chip (ZC), a new and economically important disease of potato, has been documented to occur in commercial potato fields in the United States, Mexico, Central America, and New Zealand. This disease has caused millions of dollars in losses to the potato industry. Whole crops might be rejected be...

  11. Prevalence and Predictors of Elevated Aspartate Aminotransferase-to-Platelet Ratio Index in Latin American Perinatally HIV-infected Children

    PubMed Central

    Siberry, George K.; Cohen, Rachel A.; Harris, D. Robert; Cruz, Maria Leticia Santos; Oliveira, Ricardo; Peixoto, Mario F.; Cervi, Maria Celia; Hazra, Rohan; Pinto, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic liver disease has emerged as an important problem in adults with longstanding HIV infection, but data are lacking for children. We characterized elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-platelet ratio index (APRI ), a marker of possible liver fibrosis, in perinatally HIV-infected children. Methods NISDI [NICHD (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) International Site Development Initiative] enrolled HIV-infected children (ages 0.1-20.1 years) from five Latin American countries in an observational cohort from 2002–2009. Twice yearly visits included medical history, physical examination and laboratory evaluations. The prevalence (95% confidence interval [CI]) of APRI>1.5 was calculated and associations with demographic, HIV-related and liver-related variables were investigated in bivariate analyses. Results APRI was available for 1012 of 1032 children. APRI was >1.5 in 32 (3.2%, 95% CI: 2.2%-4.4%) including 2 of 4 participants with hepatitis B (HBV) infection. Factors significantly associated with APRI>1.5 (p<0.01 compared to APRI?1.5) included country, younger age, past or current HBV, higher alanine aminotransferase, lower total cholesterol, higher log10 current viral load, lower current CD4 count, lower nadir CD4 count, use of hepatotoxic non-antiretroviral (ARV) medications, and no prior ARV use. Rates of APRI>1.5 varied significantly by current ARV regimen (p=0.0002), from 8.0% for no ARV to 3.2% for non-protease inhibitor (PI) regimens to 1.5% for PI-based regimens. Conclusions Elevated APRI occurred in approximately 3% of perinatally HIV-infected children. PI-based ARVs appeared protective while inadequate HIV control appeared to increase risk of elevated APRI. Additional investigations are needed to better assess potential subclinical, chronic liver disease in HIV-infected children. PMID:23799515

  12. Bird Richness and Abundance in Response to Urban Form in a Latin American City: Valdivia, Chile as a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    García, Cristóbal E.; Estay, Sergio A.

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that urban areas influence biodiversity. Generalizations however require that multiple urban areas on multiple continents be examined. Here we evaluated the role of urban areas on avian diversity for a South American city, allowing us to examine the effects of urban features common worldwide, using the city of Valdivia, Chile as case study. We assessed the number of birds and their relative abundance in 152 grid cells of equal size (250 m2) distributed across the city. We estimated nine independent variables: land cover diversity (DC), building density (BD), impervious surface (IS),municipal green space (MG),non-municipal green space (NG), domestic garden space (DG), distance to the periphery (DP), social welfare index (SW), and vegetation diversity (RV). Impervious surface represent 41.8% of the study area, while municipal green, non-municipal green and domestic garden represent 11.6%, 23.6% and 16% of the non- man made surface. Exotic vegetation species represent 74.6% of the total species identified across the city. We found 32 bird species, all native with the exception of House Sparrow and Rock Pigeon. The most common species were House Sparrow and Chilean Swallow. Total bird richness responds negatively to IS and MG, while native bird richness responds positively to NG and negatively to BD, IS DG and, RV. Total abundance increase in areas with higher values of DC and BD, and decrease in areas of higher values of IS, SW and VR. Native bird abundance responds positively to NG and negatively to BD, IS MG, DG and RV. Our results suggest that not all the general patterns described in previous studies, conducted mainly in the USA, Europe, and Australia, can be applied to Latin American cities, having important implications for urban planning. Conservation efforts should focus on non-municipal areas, which harbor higher bird diversity, while municipal green areas need to be improved to include elements that can enhance habitat quality for birds and other species. These findings are relevant for urban planning in where both types of green space need to be considered, especially non-municipal green areas, which includes wetlands, today critically threatened by urban development. PMID:26422260

  13. Bird Richness and Abundance in Response to Urban Form in a Latin American City: Valdivia, Chile as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carmen Paz; García, Cristóbal E; Estay, Sergio A; Barbosa, Olga

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that urban areas influence biodiversity. Generalizations however require that multiple urban areas on multiple continents be examined. Here we evaluated the role of urban areas on avian diversity for a South American city, allowing us to examine the effects of urban features common worldwide, using the city of Valdivia, Chile as case study. We assessed the number of birds and their relative abundance in 152 grid cells of equal size (250 m2) distributed across the city. We estimated nine independent variables: land cover diversity (DC), building density (BD), impervious surface (IS),municipal green space (MG),non-municipal green space (NG), domestic garden space (DG), distance to the periphery (DP), social welfare index (SW), and vegetation diversity (RV). Impervious surface represent 41.8% of the study area, while municipal green, non-municipal green and domestic garden represent 11.6%, 23.6% and 16% of the non- man made surface. Exotic vegetation species represent 74.6% of the total species identified across the city. We found 32 bird species, all native with the exception of House Sparrow and Rock Pigeon. The most common species were House Sparrow and Chilean Swallow. Total bird richness responds negatively to IS and MG, while native bird richness responds positively to NG and negatively to BD, IS DG and, RV. Total abundance increase in areas with higher values of DC and BD, and decrease in areas of higher values of IS, SW and VR. Native bird abundance responds positively to NG and negatively to BD, IS MG, DG and RV. Our results suggest that not all the general patterns described in previous studies, conducted mainly in the USA, Europe, and Australia, can be applied to Latin American cities, having important implications for urban planning. Conservation efforts should focus on non-municipal areas, which harbor higher bird diversity, while municipal green areas need to be improved to include elements that can enhance habitat quality for birds and other species. These findings are relevant for urban planning in where both types of green space need to be considered, especially non-municipal green areas, which includes wetlands, today critically threatened by urban development. PMID:26422260

  14. In Vitro Activity of Ceftaroline against Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Collected in 2012 from Latin American Countries as Part of the AWARE Surveillance Program.

    PubMed

    Biedenbach, Douglas J; Hoban, Daryl J; Reiszner, Edina; Lahiri, Sushmita D; Alm, Richard A; Sahm, Daniel F; Bouchillon, Samuel K; Ambler, Jane E

    2015-12-01

    The in vitro activities of ceftaroline and comparators, using broth microdilution, were determined against 1,066 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from hospitalized patients. Seventeen medical centers from Latin American countries contributed isolates. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) percentages ranged from 46% (Brazil) to 62% (Argentina). All methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates were susceptible to ceftaroline. Ceftaroline activity against MRSA varied with MIC90s of 0.5 (Venezuela) to 2 (Brazil, Chile, and Colombia) ?g/ml, which was the highest MIC value. ST-5 was the most common sequence type. PMID:26416860

  15. Proceedings of the 2009 CERN-Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics, Recinto Quirama, Colombia, 15 - 28 March 2009

    E-print Network

    C. Grojean; M. Spiropulu

    2010-10-28

    The CERN-Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures on quantum field theory, quantum chromodynamics, physics beyond the Standard Model, neutrino physics, flavour physics and CP violation, particle cosmology, high-energy astro-particle physics, and heavy-ion physics, as well as trigger and data acquisition, and commissioning and early physics analysis of the ATLAS and CMS experiments. Also included are write-ups of short review projects performed by the student discussions groups.

  16. The role of the society of Latin American specialists on remote sensing (SELPER) in the analysis and actions related to the main advances and needs of spatial remote sensing for Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, Mauricio F.

    The existence of SELPER (Sociedad de Especialistas Latinoamericanos en Percepción Remota / Society of Latinamerican Specialists on Remote Sensing) has filled a great gap among latinamerican countries. SELPER was formed in 1980 and several important activities, having international support, have been performed and are planned in the near future. SELPER consolidation will help develop several important regional cooperation programs and the next years look very promisory in this sense. Different steps are planned but the most important is related with the formation of such a Latin American Council on Remote Sensing, having official support from different countries of the region; SELPER can help this important objective. Main advances and needs are summarized in this paper and it is possible to conclude that SELPER will be important for regional and inter-regional scientific and technical cooperation on remote sensing.

  17. The Genetic Ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y.; Macpherson, J. Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 500 years, North America has been the site of ongoing mixing of Native Americans, European settlers, and Africans (brought largely by the trans-Atlantic slave trade), shaping the early history of what became the United States. We studied the genetic ancestry of 5,269 self-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans who are 23andMe customers and show that the legacy of these historical interactions is visible in the genetic ancestry of present-day Americans. We document pervasive mixed ancestry and asymmetrical male and female ancestry contributions in all groups studied. We show that regional ancestry differences reflect historical events, such as early Spanish colonization, waves of immigration from many regions of Europe, and forced relocation of Native Americans within the US. This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry. PMID:25529636

  18. The genetic ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States.

    PubMed

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y; Macpherson, J Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 500 years, North America has been the site of ongoing mixing of Native Americans, European settlers, and Africans (brought largely by the trans-Atlantic slave trade), shaping the early history of what became the United States. We studied the genetic ancestry of 5,269 self-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans who are 23andMe customers and show that the legacy of these historical interactions is visible in the genetic ancestry of present-day Americans. We document pervasive mixed ancestry and asymmetrical male and female ancestry contributions in all groups studied. We show that regional ancestry differences reflect historical events, such as early Spanish colonization, waves of immigration from many regions of Europe, and forced relocation of Native Americans within the US. This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry. PMID:25529636

  19. Encouraging and Attracting Underrepresented Racial Minorities to the Field of Geosciences-A Latin American Graduate Student Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero Gill, R. P.; Herbert, T.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that interactions between same-race and same-gender faculty and graduate students are reported to have a greater impact on the future success of those students. In the same manner, I believe graduate students can play a pivotal role in training and attracting underrepresented racial minorities (URMs) at the high school and undergraduate level to pursue a career in geosciences. Working at Brown University for the last couple of years, I have been involved in a number of initiatives aimed at solidifying ties with the community. Most of my social work has revolved around mentoring underrepresented local minorities, as I feel that this area is where I can contribute the most. This year I began participating in the NSF funded Brown GK-12: "Physical Processes in the Environment" program. As a Latin American female graduate student in the geological sciences, I hope to teach the students-by example-that being a minority is not necessarily an obstacle, but rather an advantage that can offer a different, valuable point of view when pursuing their professional goals. I think that sharing part of my experiences and knowledge as a researcher with young minds contributes to the way they imagine themselves in the future, allowing them to believe that a career in science is within their reach and that higher education is a realistic option worth pursuing if they have the interest in doing so. From my short time as a graduate student, to have a greater impact in attracting URMs, it is critical to have the support of advisors and committee members. One must keep in mind that a graduate career is a time consuming commitment; therefore, it is necessary to undertake activities that will have the most impact on minority students in the short time available. The experience becomes even more effective if advisors are actively involved, particularly financially. Faculty advisors who can allocate funds to, for example support summer activities designed to involve URMs, are essentially leveraging funds because the overall return will be much greater than the initial investment.

  20. PREFACE: 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iván Vargas-Blanco, V.; Herrera-Velázquez, J. Julio E.

    2015-03-01

    Written contributions from participants of the Joint 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) - 21st IAEA Technical Meeting on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (21st IAEA TM RUSFD). The International Advisory Committees of the 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and the 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD), agreed to carry out together this Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD in San José, Costa Rica, on 27-31 January 2014. The Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD meeting, organized by the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, and Ad Astra Rocket Company in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP) is a series of events which has been held periodically since 1982, with the purpose of providing a forum in which the research of the Latin American plasma physics community can be displayed, as well as fostering collaborations among plasma scientists within the region and with researchers from the rest of the world. Recognized plasma scientists from developed countries are specially invited to the meeting to present the state of the art on several "hot" topics related to plasma physics. It is an open meeting, with an International Advisory Committee, in which the working language is English. It was firstly held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by workshops in Medellín, Colombia (1985), Santiago de Chile, Chile (1988), Buenos Aires, Argentina (1990), Mexico City, Mexico (1992), Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil (1994, combined with the International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP)), Caracas, Venezuela (1997), Tandil, Argentina (1998), La Serena, Chile (2000), Sao Pedro, Brazil (2003), Mexico City, Mexico (2005), Caracas, Venezuela (2007), Santiago de Chile, Chile (2010, combined with the ICPP) and Mar de Plata, Argentina (2011). The 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices is an ideal forum for small laboratory size fusion experiments, as compared to those of the larger laboratories, to report about their latest achievements working with medium size and small scale tokamaks, stellarators, compact tori, dense plasma focus, reversed field pinches, helical devices, linear machines, and other small plasma devices. The Technical Meeting aims at stimulating new synergies which can contribute to better streamline the research outputs to the mainstream fusion research. Previous meetings in the series were held in Budapest, Hungary (1985), Nagoya, Japan (1986), Nice, France (1988), Washington DC, USA (1990), Hefei, China (1991), Wuerzburg, Germany (1992), Campinas, Brazil (1993), Madrid, Spain (1994), Ahmedabad, India (1995), Prague, Czech Republic (1996), Cairo, Egypt (1997), Tokyo, Japan (1998) in Chengdu, China (1999), São Paulo, Brazil (2002), Vienna, Austria (2003) in Mexico City, Mexico (2005), Lisbon, Portugal (2007), in Alushta, Ukraine (2008), Kurchatov, Kazakhstan (2009) and Vienna, Austria (2011). The 1st Costa Rican Summer School on Plasma Physics was held a week before the Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st IAEA TM RUSFD, and the 2nd Latin American Workshop on Industrial Applications of Plasma Technology (AITP) was organized in parallel with the it. The objective of the AITP Workshop is to enhance the regional academic and industrial cooperation in the field of plasma assisted surface technology. The Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st IAEA TM RUSFD was held at the Crowne Plaza Corobici Hotel in San José from 27 to 31 January 2014. The LAWPP scientific programme, which was spread along the whole week, had 15 invited speakers, 126 participants from 20 countries around the world. It included 7 plenary talks, 8 invited talks and 12 oral contributed papers were chosen out of 92 submissions. 82 contributions in 25 topics were presented in poster sessions on Monday 27, Tuesday 28 and Thursday 30 January 2014. The 21st IAEA TM RUSFD was held along the LAWPP 2014 from 27 to 29 January 2014 and was attended by 37 participants formally registered with the IAEA, who j

  1. Internationalizing Business Education in Latin America: Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elahee, Mohammad; Norbis, Mario

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the extent of internationalization of business education in Latin America and identifies the key challenges facing the Latin American business schools. Based on a survey of the business schools that are members of CLADEA (Consejo Latinoamericano de Escuelas de Administracion--Latin American Council of Management Schools), and…

  2. Pedagogies of Resiliency and Hope in Response to the Criminalization of Latin@ Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the criminalization and demonization of Chican@/Latin@ youth has produced policies in the United States that have banned bilingual education, Mexican American Studies in Tucson, and undocumented students in Georgia from attending public universities. Furthermore, hundreds and thousands of youth in the U.S. are…

  3. Latin America and the Caribbean: Key Issues for the 113th Congress

    E-print Network

    media freedom, the rule of law, and political unrest in Venezuela; concerns about Iranian activities Summary Geographic proximity has ensured strong linkages between the United States and the Latin American economic and social opportunity; ensuring citizen security; strengthening effective democratic institutions

  4. The Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. OREALC Bulletin 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    The Major Project in the Field of Education in Latin America and the Caribbean has been undertaken by the governments of the countries of this region to foster educational development and to meet unsatisfied basic educational needs such that the individual efforts of each country may benefit from regional international cooperation. This bulletin,…

  5. School Infrastructure and Resources Do Matter: Analysis of the Incidence of School Resources on the Performance of Latin American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murillo, F. Javier; Roman, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine the incidence of school infrastructure and resources and its impact on the academic performance of primary education students in Latin America. A 4-level multilevel model was applied to the data of the Second Regional Comparative and Explanatory Study (SERCE) conducted by UNESCO, which researched…

  6. Update: Newsletter of the Outreach Services of the African, Asian, Latin American, and Russian Centers, No. 39, December, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Four papers in this issue focus on population and urban growth in: (1) sub-Saharan Africa; (2) Latin America; (3) the Soviet Union; and (4) Japan and China. While each region has unique population features, similarities exist based on northern or southern hemisphere geographic locations and on a communist or non-communist political orientation.…

  7. Exploring the Convergence of the Liberal Arts Model and the Ecuadorian Culture in a Latin American University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santana Paredes, Matias

    2013-01-01

    The replication of the U.S. cultural models in business and social organizations is a common practice in Latin America. In Ecuador, a university operates under the liberal arts model, understanding it as a replication of an U.S. cultural model, in an environment where the Ecuadorian cultural beliefs and values constitute the national cultural…

  8. University Requirements Writing, Rhetoric & American Culture (WRA) -http://www.msu.edu/unit/wrac/

    E-print Network

    and Justice in the United States WRA 145: Writing: Men in America WRA 125: Writing The American Ethnic A Courses (4 credits) IAH 201: United States and the World (D) IAH 207: Literatures, Cultures, Identities (I9 University Requirements Writing, Rhetoric & American Culture (WRA) - http://www.msu.edu/unit

  9. Breast Cancer in Young Women in Latin America: An Unmet, Growing Burden

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Christian; Magallanes-Hoyos, Maria C.; Mohar, Alejandro; Bargalló, Enrique; Meneses, Abelardo; Cazap, Eduardo; Gomez, Henry; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Chávarri-Guerra, Yanin; Murillo, Raúl; Barrios, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Background. Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of malignancy-related deaths among women aged ?45 years. There are unexplored and uncertain issues for BC in this particular group in Latin America. The aim of this study is to evaluate BC incidence and mortality among young women and related clinicopathological and survivorship aspects in this region. Materials and Methods. Data were obtained from Globocan 2008 and the International Agency for Research on Cancer's Cancer Incidence in Five Continents series plus databases. We requested collaboration from the 12 different national cancer institutes in Latin America through SLACOM, the Latin American and Caribbean Society of Medical Oncology, and conducted a systematic literature review to obtain local data regarding the prevalence of BC among young women and their characteristics, outcomes, and survivorship-related issues. Results. BC incidence and mortality proportions for Latin American women aged <44 years were higher when compared with those of developed countries (20% vs. 12% and 14% vs. 7%, respectively). We found only a few Latin American series addressing this topic, and prevalence varied between 8% and 14%. Stage II and III disease, high histological grade, and triple-negative and HER2 BC were features frequently observed among young Latin American BC patients. Conclusion. The rising incidence and mortality of BC in young Latin American women is a call to action in the region. It is necessary to monitor the epidemiological and clinical data through reliable cancer registries and to consider the implementation of protocols for education of patients and health professionals. This unmet, growing burden must be considered as a top priority of the national programs in the fight against BC, and models of specialized units should be implemented for this particular group of patients to provide better care for this emergent challenge. PMID:24277771

  10. 1973 ATLAS Curriculum Guide for Mexican-American and Puerto Rican Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Teachers of Latin American Studies, Brooklyn, NY.

    This curriculum guide, developed by the Association of Teachers of Latin American Studies, provides an interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented approach to Mexican-American and Puerto Rican Studies. Unit one contains a list of cognitive and affective objectives and evaluation suggestions. Units two through six provide content materials and include a…

  11. New man/new image culture/communication and Latin America identity

    E-print Network

    Mercado Cardona, Joaquin O

    1981-01-01

    This work attempts to present the development of a new self-image of Latin American identity as manifested in the New Latin American Cinema Movement. Also, it attempts to help articulate intentions, strategies, and final ...

  12. The Impact of Rural Residency on the Expression and Outcome of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Data From a Multiethnic Latin American Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pons-Estel, Guillermo J.; Saurit, Verónica; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Hachuel, Leticia; Boggio, Gabriela; Wojdyla, Daniel; Alfaro-Lozano, José L.; de la Torre, Ignacio García; Massardo, Loreto; Esteva-Spinetti, Maria H.; Guibert-Toledano, Marlene; Ramirez Gómez, Luis A.; Lavras Costallat, Lilian T.; Sauza del Pozo, María J.; Silveira, Luis H.; Cavalcanti, Fernando; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the role of place of residency in the expression and outcomes of SLE in a multi-ethnic Latin American cohort. Patients and Methods SLE patients (<2 years of diagnosis) from 34 centers constitute this cohort. Residency was dichotomized into rural and urban, cut-off: 10,000 inhabitants. Socio-demographic, clinical/laboratory, and mortality rates were compared between them using descriptive tests. The influence of place of residency on disease activity at diagnosis and renal disease was examined by multivariable regression analyses. Results 122 (8.6%) of 1426 patients were rural residents. Their median age (onset, diagnosis) were 23.5 and 25.5 years; 85 (69.7%) patients were Mestizos, 28 (22.9%) Caucasians and 9 (7.4%) African-Latin Americans. Rural residents were more frequently younger at diagnosis, Mestizo and uninsured; they also had fewer years of education and a lower socioeconomic status, exhibited hypertension and renal disease more frequently, and had higher levels of disease activity at diagnosis; they used methotrexate, cyclophosphamide pulses, and hemodialysis more frequently than urban patients. Disease activity over time, renal damage, overall damage and the proportion of deceased patients were comparable in both, rural and urban patients.. In multivariable analyses, rural residency was associated with high levels of disease activity at diagnosis (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.06–2.57) and renal disease occurrence (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.00–3.11). Conclusions Rural residency associates with Mestizo ethnicity, lower socioeconomic status, and renal disease occurrence. It also plays a role on disease activity at diagnosis and kidney involvement but not on the other end-points examined. PMID:22941567

  13. Latin and Cross Latin Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emanouilidis, Emanuel

    2008-01-01

    Latin squares were first introduced and studied by the famous mathematician Leonhard Euler in the 1700s. Through the years, Latin squares have been used in areas such as statistics, graph theory, coding theory, the generation of random numbers as well as in the design and analysis of experiments. Recently, with the international popularity of…

  14. Certificate Program in African American and Diaspora Studies Program Description

    E-print Network

    Ottino, Julio M.

    about the diverse experiences of African Americans in the United States and of African descended people, Native, and Asian American, etc.) and how it is shaped by gender, sexuality, and economic inequity;442-0 Africans in Colonial Latin America 443-0 Queer Looks: On Black Visual Culture 444-0 Civil Rights

  15. Why Do People Move? Migration from Latin America. A Curriculum Unit for History and Social Studies, Grades 6-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Lucia

    This resource packet looks at the migration flows from six countries in Latin America: Mexico, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, and Cuba. Students will develop an understanding of some of the conditions that exist in both sending and receiving communities, of the connections that facilitate migration, and of the causes of these…

  16. EDITORIAL: Invited papers from the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics combined with the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics Invited papers from the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics combined with the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo

    2011-07-01

    The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010) both agreed to hold this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, considering the celebration of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of its official program, within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial activities. This event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project `Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4', supported by the National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya in 1980, and was followed by: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006) and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss recent progress and outlooks in plasma science, covering fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, plasma applications, etc. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005) and Caracas (2007). The purpose of the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is to provide a forum in which the achievements of the Latin American plasma physics communities can be displayed, as well as to foster collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The Program of ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included, amongst others, the following topics: fundamentals of plasma physics, fusion plasmas, plasmas in astrophysics and space physics, plasma applications and technologies, complex plasmas, high energy density plasmas, quantum plasmas and laser-plasma interaction. A total of 180 delegates from 34 different countries took part in ICPP-LAWPP-2010, and 60 delegates received financial assistance from the Local Organizing Committee, thanks to the support granted by the International Union for Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) and by CCHEN. The ICPP-LAWPP-2010 Program was established by the following Program Committee: • Carlos Alejaldre, ITER • Maria Virginia Alves, Brazil • Julio Herrera, Mexico • Günter Mank, IAEA • George Morales, USA • Padma Kant Shukla, Germany • Guido Van Oost, Belgium • Leopoldo Soto, Chile (Chairman) This Program Committee was formed of selected members from the International Advisory Committee of the ICPP and from the International Advisory Committee of the LAWPP (http://www.icpp-lawpp-2010.cl/page/committees.php). In particular, plenary lectures and invited topical lectures were selected by the Program Committee from a list of nominated lectures presented by the International Advisory Committees of both ICPP and LAWPP. Also, the classification of oral and poster presentations was established by the Program Committee. The Congress included 15 invited plenary talks, 33 invited topical talks, 45 oral contributions, and 160 poster contributions. Most of the plenary and topical lectures are published in this special issue of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. The papers were refereed according to the usual standards of the journal. Prior to ICPP-LAWPP 2010, an important activity usually associated with the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics took place. This activity was the LAWPP School on Plasma Physics, which was open to participants from all over the world, providing basic training to students and young researchers. The School was attended by 44 participants and 7 lecturers from 11 different countries. All participants rec

  17. A cluster randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention to facilitate the development and implementation of clinical practice guidelines in Latin American maternity hospitals: the Guidelines Trial: Study protocol [ISRCTN82417627].

    PubMed

    Althabe, Fernando; Buekens, Pierre; Bergel, Eduardo; Belizán, José M; Kropp, Nora; Wright, Linda; Goco, Norman; Moss, Nancy

    2005-04-11

    BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of the health care administered to women in Latin American maternity hospitals during labor and delivery has been demonstrated to be ineffective or harmful, whereas effective interventions remain underutilized. The routine use of episiotomies and the failure to use active management of the third stage of labor are good examples. METHODS/DESIGN: The aim of this trial is to evaluate the effect of a multifaceted behavioral intervention on the use of two evidence-based birth practices, the selective use of episiotomies and active management of the third stage of labor (injection of 10 International Units of oxytocin). The intervention is based on behavioral and organizational change theories and was based on formative research. Twenty-four hospitals in three urban districts of Argentina and Uruguay will be randomized. Opinion leaders in the 12 intervention hospitals will be identified and trained to develop and implement evidence-based guidelines. They will then disseminate the guidelines using a multifaceted approach including academic detailing, reminders, and feedback on utilization rates. The 12 hospitals in the control group will continue with their standard in-service training activities. The main outcomes to be assessed are the rates of episiotomy and oxytocin use during the third stage of labor. Secondary outcomes will be perineal sutures, postpartum hemorrhages, and birth attendants' opinions. PMID:15823211

  18. A World of Hurt: Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2009-01-01

    Massive socioeconomic problems have left Latin American education in a dire condition, and decades behind the rest of the globe in integrating technology into teaching and learning. But a few spots in the region offer signs of hope. In this article, the author describes several efforts at tech-based educational reform in Latin America.

  19. The Genetic Ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States

    E-print Network

    Reich, David

    ARTICLE The Genetic Ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across Americans, European settlers, and Africans (brought largely by the trans-Atlantic slave trade), shaping-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans who are 23andMe customers and show

  20. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Latin American Variant in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis and HIV Infected in a Hospital in Bogotá, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Carvajal, Lina P.; Rincón, Sandra; Faccini-Martínez, Álvaro A.; Tres Palacios, Alba A.; Mercado, Marcela; Palomá, Sandra L.; Rayo, Leidy X.; Acevedo, Jessica A.; Reyes, Jinnethe; Panesso, Diana; García-Padilla, Paola; Alvarez, Carlos; Arias, Cesar A.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of MRSA colonization and examine the molecular characteristics of colonizing isolates in patients receiving hemodialysis and HIV-infected in a Colombian hospital. Patients on hemodialysis and HIV-infected were prospectively followed between July 2011 and June 2012 in Bogota, Colombia. Nasal and axillary swabs were obtained and cultured. Colonizing S. aureus isolates were identified by standard and molecular techniques. Molecular typing was performed by using pulse-field gel electrophoresis and evaluating the presence of lukF-PV/lukS-PV by PCR. A total of 29% (n = 82) of HIV-infected and 45.5% (n = 15) of patients on hemodialysis exhibited S. aureus colonization. MSSA/MRSA colonization was observed in 28% and 3.6% of the HIV patients, respectively and in 42.4% and 13.3% of the hemodialysis patients, respectively. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing showed that four MRSA isolates harbored the type IV cassette, and one type I. In the hemodialysis group, two MRSA isolates were classified as belonging to the USA300-LV genetic lineage. Conversely, in the HIV infected group, no colonizing isolates belonging to the USA300-Latin American Variant (UDA300-LV) lineage were identified. Colonizing isolates recovered from the HIV-infected group belonged to the prevalent hospital-associated clones circulating in Latin America (Chilean [n = 1] and Pediatric [n = 2]). The prevalence of MRSA colonization in the study groups was 3.6% (HIV) and 13.3% (hemodialysis). Surveillance programs should be implemented in this group of patients in order to understand the dynamics of colonization and infection in high-risk patients. PMID:26474075

  1. Laboratory-Based Surveillance of Neisseria meningitidis Isolates from Disease Cases in Latin American and Caribbean Countries, SIREVA II 2006–2010

    PubMed Central

    Ibarz-Pavón, Ana Belén; Lemos, Ana Paula; Gorla, Maria Cecilia; Regueira, Mabel; Gabastou, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    Background Published data on the epidemiology of meningococcal disease in Latin America and the Caribbean region is scarce and, when available, it is often published in Spanish and/or in non-peer-reviewed journals, making it difficult for the international scientific community to have access. Methods Laboratory data on 4,735 Neisseria meningitidis strains was collected and reported by the National Reference Laboratories in 19 Latin American countries and the Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (CAREC) between 2006 and 2010 as part of the work carried out by the SIREVA II network. Serogroup and MIC to penicillin, rifampin and chloramphenicol were determined. Results Isolates were mainly obtained from patients <5 years, but each year around 25% of isolates came from adult patients. Serogroup distribution was highly variable among countries. Serogroup C was the main cause of disease in Brazil; the majority of disease seen in the Southern cone was caused by serogroup B, but serogroup W135 strains have increased in recent years. In the Andean and Mexico, Central America and Caribbean regions, serogroups B and C were equally present, and serogroup Y was frequently isolated. Isolates were generally susceptible to chloramphenicol, penicillin and rifampin, but almost 60% of isolates characterized in Southern cone countries presented intermediate resistance to penicillin. Five rifampin-resistant isolates have been isolated in Uruguay and Brazil. Conclusions Serogroup distribution is highly variable among countries, but some geographic structuring can be inferred from these data. Epidemiological and laboratory data are scarce among Andean and Mexico, Central America and Caribbean countries. Evaluation and implementation of corrective measures on disease surveillance and reporting systems and the implementation of molecular diagnostic techniques and molecular characterization on meningococcal isolates are advised. PMID:22952888

  2. [Latin-American plants as a source of new antineoplastic drugs, current situation and new opportunities against cancer].

    PubMed

    Orrego Escobar, Eduardo Freddy

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most relevant pandemics in modern world. There is a clear predominance of this pathology with distinct epidemiological characteristics in developing and developed countries. Effective, low-cost treatment and prophylaxis strategies that also have minimal side effects are needed. The present work is a brief revision of research that show the great therapeutic potential of plants, highlighting those carried out in Latin America with local plants considering that this is a yet incipient field of study. The great pool of organic compounds and other substances such as proteins indicate that they might provide a reliable alternative in the search for new actors in the battle against cancer. PMID:25918942

  3. Socioeconomic and Nutritional Factors Account for the Association of Gastric Cancer with Amerindian Ancestry in a Latin American Admixed Population

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Latife; Zamudio, Roxana; Soares-Souza, Giordano; Herrera, Phabiola; Cabrera, Lilia; Hooper, Catherine C.; Cok, Jaime; Combe, Juan M.; Vargas, Gloria; Prado, William A.; Schneider, Silvana; Kehdy, Fernanda; Rodrigues, Maira R.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Berg, Douglas E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer and its incidence varies worldwide, with the Andean region of South America showing high incidence rates. We evaluated the genetic structure of the population from Lima (Peru) and performed a case-control genetic association study to test the contribution of African, European, or Native American ancestry to risk for gastric cancer, controlling for the effect of non-genetic factors. A wide set of socioeconomic, dietary, and clinic information was collected for each participant in the study and ancestry was estimated based on 103 ancestry informative markers. Although the urban population from Lima is usually considered as mestizo (i.e., admixed from Africans, Europeans, and Native Americans), we observed a high fraction of Native American ancestry (78.4% for the cases and 74.6% for the controls) and a very low African ancestry (<5%). We determined that higher Native American individual ancestry is associated with gastric cancer, but socioeconomic factors associated both with gastric cancer and Native American ethnicity account for this association. Therefore, the high incidence of gastric cancer in Peru does not seem to be related to susceptibility alleles common in this population. Instead, our result suggests a predominant role for ethnic-associated socioeconomic factors and disparities in access to health services. Since Native Americans are a neglected group in genomic studies, we suggest that the population from Lima and other large cities from Western South America with high Native American ancestry background may be convenient targets for epidemiological studies focused on this ethnic group. PMID:22870209

  4. Comprehensive Internationalisation in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gacel-Avila, Jocelyne

    2012-01-01

    The Latin American tertiary education (TE) sector is nowadays facing demands from globalisation and a knowledge-based society, while still dealing with challenges in terms of access, equity, quality and relevance. This new context has prompted a greater demand for TE and is forcing institutions to reconsider their mission, tasks and…

  5. Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soni, P. Sarita, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This serial issue features 6 members of the Indiana University System faculty who have focused their research on Latin America, past and present. The first article, "A Literature of Their Own," highlights Darlene Sadlier's research on Brazilian women's fiction and poetry that has led to an interest in the interplay of Brazilian and Portuguese…

  6. Prevalence, Severity, and Treatment of Recurrent Wheezing During the First Year of Life: A Cross-Sectional Study of 12,405 Latin American Infants

    PubMed Central

    Solé, Dirceu; Garcia-Marcos, Luis; Rosario, Nelson; Aguirre, Viviana; Chong, Herberto; Urrutia-Pereira, Marilyn; Szulman, Gabriela; Niederbacher, Jurg; Arruda-Chavez, Erika; Toledo, Eliana; Sánchez, Lillian; Pinchak, Catalina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of recurrent wheezing (RW) defined as ?3 episodes of wheezing, risk factors, and treatments prescribed during the first year of life in Latin American infants. Methods In this international, cross-sectional, and community-based study, parents of 12,405 infants from 11 centers in 6 South American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru, and Uruguay) completed a questionnaire about wheezing and associated risk/protective factors, asthma medications, and the frequency of and indications for the prescription of antibiotics and paracetamol during the first year of life. Results The prevalence of RW was 16.6% (95% CI 16.0-17.3); of the 12,405 infants, 72.7% (95% CI 70.7-74.6) visited the Emergency Department for wheezing, and 29.7% (27.7-31.7) was admitted. Regarding treatment, 49.1% of RW infants received inhaled corticosteroids, 55.7% oral corticosteroids, 26.3% antileukotrienes, 22.9% antibiotics ?4 times mainly for common colds, wheezing, and pharyngitis, and 57.5% paracetamol ?4 times. Tobacco smoking during pregnancy, household income per month <1,000 USD, history of parental asthma, male gender, and nursery school attendance were significant risk factors for higher prevalence and severity of RW, whereas breast-feeding for at least 3 months was a significant protective factor. Pneumonia and admissions for pneumonia were significantly higher in infants with RW as compared to the whole sample (3.5-fold and 3.7-fold, respectively). Conclusions RW affects 1.6 out of 10 infants during the first year of life, with a high prevalence of severe episodes, frequent visits to the Emergency Department, and frequent admissions for wheezing. Besides the elevated prescription of asthma medications, there is an excessive use of antibiotics and paracetamol in infants with RW and also in the whole sample, which is mainly related to common colds. PMID:26540498

  7. Clinical Practice and Knowledge in Caring: Breastfeeding Ties and the Impact on the Health of Latin-American Minor Migrants.

    PubMed

    Castaldo, Miriam; Marrone, Rosalia; Costanzo, Gianfranco; Mirisola, Concetta

    2015-10-01

    In the context of the project "Clinical and social evaluation of medical practices in the treatment of infectious diseases in pediatrics for children of vulnerable population" carried out in 2013 by a multidisciplinary team at the National Institute for Health, Migration and Poverty (NIHMP) in Rome, a study in medical anthropology on the incorporation of illnesses that mothers feel they transmit to their children through breastfeeding was conducted. The results of the anthropological study, that targeted 34 children and adolescents from the age of 3 to the age of 17, all immigrants from Latin America residing in Italy, show that some forms of suffering in minors are described by women as being connected to factors such as susto ("fright"), coraje, muina, enojo ("anger") and mal de ojo ("evil eye"), and are in relation to a specific cultural frame. It is clear that barriers that prevent the access to the healthcare system must be removed, barriers that are accentuated by linguistic and cultural incomprehension, through adequate multidisciplinary healthcare settings such as the one we are presenting, composed of a medical doctor, an anthropologist and a cultural mediator. PMID:25164619

  8. The Role of African-American Musicians in the Integration of the United States Navy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drane, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The service of blacks in the U.S. military can be traced back to the Revolutionary War. However, up to the end of World War I, African Americans in military branches were relegated to cooking and cleaning duties. As the United States prepared to enter World War II, pressure to admit African Americans into full service in the military increased due…

  9. Communication in Latin America: An Analysis of Guatemalan Business Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conaway, Roger N.; Wardrope, William J.

    2004-01-01

    The format and structure of 150 Spanish-language letters written by business administrators in Guatemalan firms were analyzed to help determine how Latin American business writers organize and present information in various types of routine letters. Findings suggest that Latin American businesspeople follow some, but not all, of the format…

  10. Regionalism and the Musical Heritage of Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbena, Joseph; And Others

    This essay presents background information and suggests teaching stragegies to aid community and junior college classroom teachers of history and civilization as they develop and implement educational programs on Latin American music. It is based on the premise that Latin American music can best be understood as a reflection of other historical…

  11. Survival and Clinical Behavior of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in a Latin American Cohort in Contrast to Cohorts from the Developed World

    PubMed Central

    Espinola-Zavaleta, Nilda; Vega, Antonio; Basto, Diego Martínez; Alcantar-Fernández, Ana Cecilia; Guarner Lans, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common hereditary heart disease with diverse phenotipyc, genetic expession and clinical presentations. The evolution of patients with HCM in Latin America has not been properly described being the frequency, the long-term prognosis as well as the predominant phenotypic expression still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the survival rate of HCM patients having different phenotypes in a Mexican cohort of patients. Methods Clinical and echocardiographic data obtained from 77 Mexican patients with recently diagnosed HCM were analyzed. The follow-up was of 12.5 years. Results 96.1% of patients were in functional class I/II according to the New York Heart Association, 2.6% in class III and 1.3% in class IV. Only 3.9% of them went to surgery for myectomy. During the follow-up, 17 patients (22%) died: 4/9 (44%) had apical HCM, 5/20 (25%) had obstructive septal asymmetric HCM, 6/35 (17%) had nonobstructive septal asymmetric HCM and 2/3 (15%) had concentric HCM. The survival rate was worse for patients with apical HCM, followed by those with obstructive and nonobstructive septal asymmetric HCM and patients showing concentric HCM had the best survival rates. There is significant difference in survival rates which declined in 65% in a 9 years-period. Log rank test showed significant differences (p < 0.002). Conclusion The survival rate of patients with HCM was worse in those with apical variety. The majority of patients received medical treatment. The indication for myectomy was below that observed in other international centers. PMID:25883752

  12. Perception of tobacco use prevention and cessation among faculty members in Latin American and Caribbean dental schools

    PubMed Central

    Tamí-Maury, Irene; Aigner, Carrie J.; Hong, Judy; Strom, Sara; Chambers, Mark S.; Gritz, Ellen R.

    2014-01-01

    Rates of tobacco use are increasing in regions of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Unfortunately, tobacco cessation education is not a standard component of dental curriculum in LAC dental schools. The objective of this study was to identify the perceptions of LAC dental faculty members regarding the tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC) competencies that should be addressed in dental curricula. Dental deans and faculty completed a web-based questionnaire in Spanish, Portuguese, French, or English. The questionnaire contained 32 competencies grouped into the 5A’s (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange) of tobacco cessation and 6 supplementary questions for identifying barriers to providing TUPAC education to dental students. Respondents indicated the degree to which they believed each competency should be incorporated into dental curricula using a 5-point Likert scale (“1”= strongly disagree to “5”=strongly agree). Responses were obtained from 390 faculty members (66% South America, 18% Mexico/Central America, 16% the Caribbean). Two%, 12%, and 83% of respondents reported that smoking was allowed in clinical environments, other indoor environments, and outdoor environments of their dental schools, respectively. Mean importance ratings for each of the competencies were as follows: Ask (4.71), Advise (4.54), Assess (4.41), Assist (4.07), and Arrange (4.01). Overall, LAC dental educators agree that TUPAC training should be incorporated in dental curricula. Assist and Arrange competencies were rated lower, relative to other competencies. Tobacco use among dental educators and high rates of on-campus smoking could potentially pose barriers to promoting cessation interventions in the LAC dental schools. PMID:24385339

  13. Energy efficiency business options for industrial end users in Latin American competitive energy markets: The case of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botero, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    Energy markets today in Latin America and worldwide are being restructured from monopolies, either state-owned or privately-owned, to be more openly competitive and incorporate more participation from the private sector. Thus, the schemes that were formerly developed to foster end use energy efficiency are no longer applicable because they were based on mandatory regulations made with political decisions, without sufficiently considering economic feasibility. A consensus exists that the only way energy efficiency could survive in this new paradigm is by being market oriented, giving better services, and additional options to users. However; there is very little information on what end users prefer, and which options would most satisfy customers. Using Colombia as a case study, this research determines and categorizes the energy efficiency business options for large energy end users that can freely participate in the competitive energy market. The energy efficiency market is understood as a market of services aiming to increase efficiency in energy use. These services can be grouped into seven business options. A survey, following the descriptive method, was sent to energy end users in order to determine their preferences for specific energy efficiency business options, as well as the decision-making criteria taken into account for such options. This data was categorized in ten industry groups. As a conclusion, energy efficiency providers should adapt not only to the economic activity or processes of each customer, but also to the potential business options. It was also found that not all industries consider performance contracting as their most preferred option, as a matter of fact, some industries show much higher preference for conventional business options. Among end users, the divergence in option preferences contrasted with the convergence in decision-making criteria. The decision-making criteria "cost-benefit ratio" overwhelmed all other criterion. End users appear to chose a specific energy efficiency option based mostly on obtaining better economic returns, giving low consideration to other criterion that feature differences among the energy efficiency options.

  14. PREVENTION OF WATERBORNE CHOLERA IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the outbreak of cholera in Peru in January 1991, the disease has spread to other Latin-American countries and on several occasions has been imported into the United States. n order to assess the risk of transmission of cholera by water in the United States, an ad hoc commit...

  15. Current trends in Latin America and the Argentine perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Laredo, V.G.

    1992-12-31

    The authors discusses the changes that are taking place in Argentina as well as in all of Latin America today -- privatization, deregulation, and the modernization of the economy, changes which will serve to strengthen the governments and provide a better quality of life for all of them. He gives an insight into the factors which helped bring about these changes, the support they are receiving, the problems which persist, and the measures that still must be taken so that these positive changes remain in place. He offers some useful information that will perhaps contribute to their understanding of the vast area which he refers to as Latin America, and more specifically, gives a thumbnail sketch of what is happening today in the Republic of Argentina. For many years now, Latin American leaders have travelled to other parts of the world and spoken about the plans and expectations for the region`s future. When these well-intentioned projects and plans never materialized, partners and supporters in the United States and other countries were frustrated and disappointed by the failure to make things work. The author`s intention here today is to describe things as they are, not as they might be, to tell about what is already happening in the sphere of business and growth of the economies in Latin America.

  16. 75 FR 2933 - Notification of Pricing for United States Mint 2010 Native American $1 Coin 25-Coin Rolls, 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Notification of Pricing for United States Mint 2010 Native American $1 Coin 25-Coin Rolls...25-Coin Rolls SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the prices of the 2010...

  17. Opportunistic and Other Infections in HIV-Infected Children in Latin America Compared to a Similar Cohort in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, Jorge O.; Freimanis-Hance, Laura; Krauss, Margot; Reyes, Mary F.; Cardoso, Claudete Aparecida Araújo; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Cardoso, Edmundo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Opportunistic and other infections have declined since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in developed countries but few studies have addressed the impact of HAART in HIV-infected children from developing countries. This study examines the prevalence and incidence of opportunistic and other infections in Latin America during the HAART era. Vertically HIV-infected children enrolled in a cohort study between 2002 and 2007 were followed for the occurrence of 29 targeted infections. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were performed to calculate the prevalence of infections before enrollment and the incidence rates of opportunistic and other infections after enrollment. Comparisons were made with data from a U.S. cohort (PACTG 219C). Of the 731 vertically HIV-infected children 568 (78%) had at least one opportunistic or other infection prior to enrollment. The most prevalent infections were bacterial pneumonia, oral candidiasis, varicella, tuberculosis, herpes zoster, and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. After enrollment, the overall incidence was 23.5 per 100 person-years; the most common infections (per 100 person-years) were bacterial pneumonia (7.8), varicella (3.0), dermatophyte infections (2.9), herpes simplex (2.5), and herpes zoster (1.8). All of these incidence rates were higher than those reported in PACTG 219C. The types and relative distribution of infections among HIV-infected children in Latin America in this study are similar to those seen in the United States but the incidence rates are higher. Further research is necessary to determine the reasons for these higher rates. PMID:21902581

  18. 21H.802 Modern Latin America, 1808-Present: Revolution, Dictatorship, Democracy, Fall 2002

    E-print Network

    Ravel, Jeffrey S.

    Selective survey of Latin American history from the wars of independence at the start of the nineteenth century to the present. Issues studied include: independence and its aftermath, slavery and its abolition, Latin America ...

  19. Learning More about Black Americans. An Instructional Unit for the Upper Elementary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    This instructional unit for grades 4-6 specifies objectives, resources, and lesson plans to help students develop knowledge and appreciation of contributions made by blacks to American society. The activities can be integrated with other program areas, such as language arts, music, and art. For each of four instructional objectives the unit

  20. Curriculum as Colonizer: (Asian) American Education in the Current U.S. Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, A. Lin

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: The United States is currently undergoing a period of unprecedented immigration, with the majority of new arrivals coming from Asia and Latin America, not Europe. Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (APIs) represent the fastest growing racial group in the United States, and schools are again being asked to socialize newcomer…

  1. American Nightmare: A Decade of Homelessness in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for the Homeless, Washington, DC.

    A 1989 national survey of the dimensions of homelessness found that at least three million Americans are homeless and that the shortage of affordable housing was cited as the chief cause. Information was gathered from a telephone survey of emergency shelter providers, housing advocacy organizations, and local governments in 26 communities, ranging…

  2. American moralism and the origin of bioethics in the United States.

    PubMed

    Jonsen, A R

    1991-02-01

    The theology of John Calvin has deeply affected the American mentality through two streams of thought, Puritanism and Jansenism. These traditions formulate moral problems in terms of absolute, clear principles and avoid casuistic analysis of moral problems. This approach is designated American moralism. This article suggests that the bioethics movement in the United States was stimulated by the moralistic mentality but that the work of the bioethics has departed from this viewpoint. PMID:2010718

  3. The social distribution of dietary patterns. Traditional, modern and healthy eating among women in a Latin American city.

    PubMed

    Bojorquez, Ietza; Unikel, Claudia; Cortez, Irene; Cerecero, Diego

    2015-09-01

    Popkin's nutrition transition model proposes that after the change from the traditional to the modern dietary pattern, another change toward "healthy eating" could occur. As health-related practices are associated with social position, with higher socioeconomic groups generally being the first to adopt public health recommendations, a gradient of traditional-modern-healthy dietary patterns should be observed between groups. The objectives of this article were: 1) to describe the dietary patterns of a representative sample of adult women; 2) to assess whether dietary patterns differentiate in traditional, modern and healthy; and 3) to evaluate the association of social position and dietary patterns. We conducted a survey in Tijuana, a Mexican city at the Mexico-United States (US) border. Women 18-65 years old (n = 2345) responded to a food frequency questionnaire, and questions about socioeconomic and demographic factors. We extracted dietary patterns through factor analysis, and employed indicators of economic and cultural capital, life course stage and migration to define social position. We evaluated the association of social position and dietary patterns with linear regression models. Three patterns were identified: "tortillas," "hamburgers" and "vegetables." Women in a middle position of economic and cultural capital scored higher in the "hamburgers" pattern, and women in upper positions scored higher in the "vegetables" pattern. Economic and cultural capitals and migration interacted, so that for women lower in economic capital, having lived in the US was associated with higher scores in the "hamburgers" pattern. PMID:25975967

  4. Latin and Magic Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emanouilidis, Emanuel

    2005-01-01

    Latin squares have existed for hundreds of years but it wasn't until rather recently that Latin squares were used in other areas such as statistics, graph theory, coding theory and the generation of random numbers as well as in the design and analysis of experiments. This note describes Latin and diagonal Latin squares, a method of constructing…

  5. Unit Detection in American Football TV Broadcasts Using Average Energy of Audio Mei-Ling Shyu, Guy Ravitz

    E-print Network

    Chen, Shu-Ching

    Unit Detection in American Football TV Broadcasts Using Average Energy of Audio Track Mei-Ling Shyu@cs.fiu.edu Abstract In this paper, we explore the domain of American Football TV broadcasting with respect or scene level in the American Football domain. The big amount of camera movement, such as tilting, zooming

  6. 77 FR 12102 - In the Matter of: American United Gold Corporation, AMS Homecare Inc., Aucxis Corp., and CYOP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of: American United Gold Corporation, AMS Homecare Inc., Aucxis Corp., and CYOP... securities of American United Gold Corporation because it has not filed any periodic reports since the...

  7. 77 FR 12102 - In the Matter of: American United Gold Corporation, AMS Homecare Inc., Aucxis Corp., and CYOP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ...COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] In the Matter of: American United Gold Corporation, AMS Homecare Inc., Aucxis Corp., and CYOP Systems...accurate information concerning the securities of American United Gold Corporation because it has not filed any periodic reports...

  8. Contemporary American Success Stories: Famous People of Hispanic Heritage. Volume I. A Mitchell Lane Multicultural Biography Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvis, Barbara J.

    This series presents biographical sketches of famous Americans of Hispanic descent. The biographies in the projected eight volume series for elementary school children represent the diversity of Hispanic heritage in the United States. Those featured are contemporary figures with national origins in the United States or Latin America, with careers…

  9. Ethnic Heritage Studies: German-American Profiles and Contributions--Levi Strauss. Experimental Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langnehs, Chic

    This teaching guide focuses on the German-American immigrant experiences and the contribution of Levi Strauss. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The project materials are designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines. The objective for this unit is to acquaint the…

  10. Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Edward E., Comp.

    To be used by researchers, this specialized supplement to the general "Guide to the National Archives of the United States" (1974) employs an historical approach to describe pre-federal, federal, and non-federal holdings relating to American Indians. Included are Continental Congress and Revolutionary War records. Records of the Bureau of Indian…

  11. Field of Bachelor's Degree in the United States: 2009. American Community Survey Reports. ACS-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebens, Julie; Ryan, Camille L.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides information on fields of bachelor's degrees in the United States using data from the 2009 American Community Survey (ACS). It includes estimates of fields of bachelor's degree by demographic characteristics including age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, nativity, and educational attainment. This report also looks at geographic and…

  12. The Americans with Disabilities Act Compliance and Academic Libraries in the Southeastern United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiler, Linda Lou; Lomax, Eleanor

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes results from a study of academic libraries in the Southeastern United States and their compliance to the Americans with Disabilities Act. A total of 136 community college, college, university, and special academic libraries, in both the private and public sector, completed the survey (24.68% response rate). Statements at the end of the…

  13. Educational Transitions in the United States: Reflections on the American Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Paul T.

    2012-01-01

    Education involves socialization so that individuals become productive members of society. At present, in the United States, educational transitions are primarily viewed in terms of their location in an outcomes-oriented process and framed as helping people achieve the American Dream, but in terms of the status quo national economic interest. But…

  14. American Imagination at Work: Colleges and Universities in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC.

    The role and importance of American colleges and universities in shaping the national experience within the United States is discussed. Noted is the value of having a college degree in today's society and how it affects family income. The report continues with an assessment of the scope of higher education institutions in America, considers the…

  15. E. Latunde Odeku: the first African-American neurosurgeon trained in the United States.

    PubMed

    McClelland, Shearwood; Harris, Kimbra S

    2007-04-01

    The advances of the Civil Rights movement in the mid-20th century and the success of the first African-American neurosurgeons trained at the Montreal Neurological Institute have led to a number of African-Americans receiving neurosurgery training within the United States. Unfortunately, the details regarding the first African-American neurosurgeon trained in the United States, E. Latunde Odeku, have largely remained in obscurity. Born on June 29, 1927 in Lagos, Nigeria, Dr. Odeku received his M.D. from the Howard University College of Medicine in 1954. He spent the next year at the University of Michigan under the tutelage of Edgar A. Kahn, chief of neurosurgery, and was impressive enough to be offered a residency position. From 1956 to 1960, he trained under Dr. Kahn at the University of Michigan. In 1961, he returned to Howard as a member of the neurosurgery faculty, during which time he became the second African-American to be certified by the American Board of Neurological Surgery. Although he received multiple job offers in the United States, he chose to return to Nigeria where he worked tirelessly, providing excellent neurosurgical care and discipleship until his death in 1974. The diligence and intelligence of E. Latunde Odeku, M.D., F.A.C.S., enabled him to become the first African-American neurosurgeon trained in the United States. A truly global pioneer, his selfless service in America and Nigeria opened the door for people from each country to enhance the field of neurosurgery. PMID:17415215

  16. Educational Television--A Phoenix in Latin America?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiffin, John

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the progress of educational television systems in Latin America. Three types of systems are identified and evaluated, one a direct import of the European or North American models of conventional schools instructional television, and two that have been developed in Latin America. (CHC)

  17. A.I.D. Economic Data Book: Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This data book, updating a December 1968 publication, is designed to serve the internal program and operational needs of the Agency for International Development. More than 19 Latin American republics are referred to in major sections on: (1) Latin America in the Free World: population and production, (2) summary of basic data, (3) population…

  18. International News in United States Media: Myths, Stereotypes and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, John A.

    Research conducted during the past 20 years reveals that, except for the "New York Times,""Christian Science Monitor," and "Wall Street Journal," United States daily newspapers are not known for outstanding international news coverage; that European, English, Canadian, Latin American, and Asian newspapers use disproportionately larger amounts of…

  19. 75 FR 2933 - Notification of Pricing for United States Mint 2010 Native American $1 Coin 25-Coin Rolls, 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... United States Mint Notification of Pricing for United States Mint 2010 Native American $1 Coin 25-Coin... Presidential $1 Coin 25-Coin Rolls SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the prices of the 2010 Native... both the United States Mint facilities at Philadelphia and Denver will be available. The 2010...

  20. The American Melting Pot? Miscegenation Laws in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Barbara C.; Berson, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Explores miscegenation in U.S. history, some motivations for anti-miscegenation policy, and the landmark decision of the 1967 case of "Loving v. Virginia." Includes three recent examples of miscegenation policy in the United States with questions for class discussion. (CMK)

  1. Latin American Theatre in Montreal

    E-print Network

    McCaffrey, Mark

    1986-04-01

    has the play done outside of Venezuela? I think we amount to a kind of exorcism of military juntas whenever we do Bolivar. Every time we perform the play in a country having a military dictatorship, they have elections there before the year is out... to the woman's role here, a real sympathy. I hadn't ever experienced it. It came out in the press, in the applauding, and in the attention I could feel as I performed the part. INTERVIEW WITH ROBERTO BLANCO María Antonia must have been a strenuous play...

  2. The Role of Disordered-Eating Cognitions and Psychological Flexibility on Distress in Asian American and European American College Females in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Akihiko; Le, Jane; Cohen, Lindsey L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated whether different forms of disordered-eating-related cognitions and psychological flexibility were associated with psychological distress among female Asian American and European American college students in the United States. Disordered-eating-related cognitions examined in the present study included thoughts (a)…

  3. Economic Outcomes among Latino Migrants to Spain and the United States: Differences by Source Region and Legal Status

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    Using representative national surveys, this paper compares economic outcomes among Latin American migrants to Spain and the United States in the first cross-national comparison using quantitative data. Considering the geographic location and social proximity of each country with respect to Latin America, we detect a critical selection effect whereby the majority of Latin American migrants to Spain originate in South America from middle class backgrounds, whereas most migrants to the United States are Central Americans of lower class origins. This selection effect accounts for cross-national differences in the probability of employment, occupational attainment, and wages earned. Despite differences in the origins and characteristics of Latino immigrants to each country, demographic and human and social capital factors appear to operate similarly in both places; and when models are estimated separately by legal status, we find that effects are more accentuated for undocumented compared with documented migrants, especially in the United States. PMID:21776179

  4. [Body dissatisfaction in Latin and Spanish adolescents].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Susana; Cruz, Soledad

    2008-02-01

    The present paper has two aims: firstly to analyse and compare body dissatisfaction of Spanish and Latin adolescents, and secondly to determine the impact of sociocultural factors and Body Mass Index (BMI) on dissatisfaction. The sample is made up of 403 adolescents, 191 Spaniards and 212 Latin-Americans, all of them students in Basque Country high schools. They were assessed by the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), the CIMEC-26 (a questionnaire designed to assess the influence of the aesthetic body model), and the BMI. The results show that the Latin adolescents have a higher level of body dissatisfaction than the Spanish. This is due to the greater influence in the Latin adolescents of sociocultural factors. PMID:18206075

  5. Comparison of Scores on the WAIS and Its Puerto Rican Counterpart, Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos, in an Institutionalized Latin American Psychiatric Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Todd McLin; Rodriguez, Vene L.

    1979-01-01

    Compared vocabulary and block design subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and its Puerto Rican counterpart, the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA), in hospitalized Latins and Trans-Caribbean Blacks. EIWA scores were significantly higher than WAIS scores. Equivalence of EIWA and WAIS estimates is questioned.…

  6. Re-Branding Neoliberalism and Systemic Dilemmas in Social Development: The Case of Education and School Fees in Latin American HIPCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson-Harden, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Using Latin America as a broad context and drawing on evidence from some of its most heavily indebted states as cases, this paper considers the example of Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) and education as a means of exploring the question of whether poverty reduction strategies of the Bretton Woods Institutions (the World Bank and the…

  7. Distribution strategies in emerging markets : case studies in Latin America

    E-print Network

    Garza Ramírez, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Defining sales and distribution schemes to serve a Latin American country is more of an art than science. The process of designing and selecting distribution channels is quite challenging and it demands an in-depth ...

  8. The spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 alleles in Latin America and the Caribbean: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Dutil, Julie; Golubeva, Volha A; Pacheco-Torres, Alba L; Diaz-Zabala, Hector J; Matta, Jaime L; Monteiro, Alvaro N

    2015-12-01

    Hereditary cancer predisposition gene testing allows the identification of individuals at high risk of cancer that may benefit from increased surveillance, chemoprevention, and prophylactic surgery. In order to implement clinical genetic strategies adapted to each population's needs and intrinsic genetic characteristic, this review aims to present the current status of knowledge about the spectrum of BRCA pathogenic variants in Latin American populations. We have conducted a comprehensive review of 33 studies published between 1994 and 2015 reporting the prevalence and/or spectrum of BRCA1 (OMIM 113705) and BRCA2 (OMIM 600185) variants. The combined sample size for these studies consisted of 4835 individuals from 13 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as in Hispanics in the United States. A total of 167 unique pathogenic variants have been reported in the existing literature. In unselected breast cancer cases, the prevalence ranged from 1.2 to 27.1 %. Some countries presented a few recurrent pathogenic variants, while others were characterized by diverse, non-recurrent variants. The proportion of BRCA pathogenic variants shared between Hispanics in the United States and Latin American populations was estimated at 10.4 %. Within Latin America and the Caribbean, 8.2 % of the BRCA variants reported were present in more than one country. Countries with high prevalence of BRCA pathogenic variants may benefit from more aggressive testing strategies, while testing of recurrent variant panels might present a cost-effective solution for improving genetic testing in some, but not all, countries. PMID:26564481

  9. Overall evaluation of Skylab imagery for mapping of Latin America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staples, J. E.; Eoldan, J. J. M.; Fernandez, O. W.; Alves, M.; Mutis, J.; Fletcher, A. G.; Ferrero, M. B.; Morell, J. J. H.; Romero, L. E.; Garcia, J. A. G. (principal investigators)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab imagery is both desired and needed by the Latin American catographic agencies. The imagery is cost beneficial for the production of new mapping and maintenance of existing maps at national topographic series scales. If this information was available on a near time routine coverage basis, it would provide an excellent additional data base to the Latin American cartographic community, specifically Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Venezuela.

  10. Mental health policy developments in Latin America.

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, R. D.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    New assessment guidelines for measuring the overall impact of mental health problems in Latin America have served as a catalyst for countries to review their mental health policies. Latin American countries have taken various steps to address long-standing problems such as structural difficulties, scarce financial and human resources, and social, political, and cultural obstacles in the implementation of mental health policies and legislation. These policy developments, however, have had uneven results. Policies must reflect the desire, determination, and commitment of policy-makers to take mental health seriously and look after people's mental health needs. This paper describes the development of mental health policies in Latin American countries, focusing on published data in peer-reviewed journals, and legislative change and its implementation. It presents a brief history of mental health policy developments, and analyzes the basis and practicalities of current practice. PMID:10885167

  11. Managed care in Latin America: the new common sense in health policy reform.

    PubMed

    Iriart, C; Merhy, E E; Waitzkin, H

    2001-04-01

    This article presents the results of the comparative research project, "Managed Care in Latin America: Its Role in Health System Reform." Conducted by teams in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, and the United States, the study focused on the exportation of managed care, especially from the United States, and its adoption in Latin American countries. Our research methods included qualitative and quantitative techniques. The adoption of managed care reflects the process of transnationalization in the health sector. Our findings demonstrate the entrance of the main multinational corporations of finance capital into the private sector of insurance and health services, and these corporations' intention to assume administrative responsibilities for state institutions and to secure access to medical social security funds. International lending agencies, especially the World Bank, support the corporatization and privatization of health care services, as a condition of further loans to Latin American countries. We conclude that this process of change, which involves the gradual adoption of managed care as an officially favored policy, reflects ideologically based discourses that accept the inexorable nature of managed care reforms. PMID:11281407

  12. Latin Curriculum Standards. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware State Dept. of Public Instruction, Dover.

    Delaware's state standards for the Latin curriculum in the public schools are presented. An introductory section outlines the goals of the Latin program for reading, cultural awareness, grammar, writing, and oral language and briefly discusses the philosophy of and approaches to Latin instruction in elementary and middle schools. Three subsequent…

  13. The Politics of Decentralisation in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefelbein, Ernesto

    2004-01-01

    Largely following the advice of loans from the World Bank, many Latin American countries decentralised education to the state, municipal and local levels. Such decentralisation was part of an effort to provide universal access to primary education with massive investments near one billion dollars per year during the 1990s. The rationale was simple…

  14. School Facility Projects in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Jeffrey; de Cassia Alves Vaz, Rita; Honorio, Joao; Baza, Jadille; Origel, Ricardo; Gomez, Fredys

    2004-01-01

    Many Latin American countries are undertaking projects, in line with practices disseminated by PEB, to share school facilities with the local community, to adapt traditional schools for students with disabilities, and to collaborate with private companies to finance educational buildings. The articles below describe current initiatives in five…

  15. Educational Neuromyths among Teachers in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Lira Luttges, Benjamin; Salvarezza, Florencia; Campos, Anna Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Neuroscientific knowledge has undeniably gained interest among educators worldwide. However, not all "brain facts" believed by teachers are supported by science. This study sought to evaluate the belief in these so-called "neuromyths" among 3,451 Latin American teachers. We found that, consistent with prior research among…

  16. OCLC in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krzyzanowski, Rosaly Favero; Imperatriz, Ines Maria de Morais

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on academic and research library networking in Latin American and Caribbean countries (LAC), where a high level of library service has been achieved. Discusses the information challenges of the 1980s and 1990s to LAC countries; networking in LAC; Brazilian information services; the University of Sao Paulo integrated library system…

  17. Latin America: population and internal unrest.

    PubMed

    Wiarda, J H; Siqueira Wiarda, I

    1985-09-01

    This discussion of population and internal unrest in Latin America covers the following: pressures on land and agriculture; economic frustrations; the youth and radicalism; rising social tensions; and political instability. At current growth rates, Latin America's population is projected to increases between 1981 2001 by 225 million people. This staggering population growth is likely to have serious political, economic, social, strategic, and other implications. The strong opposition to family planning which came principally from nationlists, the military, and the church during the 1960s has changed to general support for voluntary family planning programs in much of Latin America. Too rapid population growth now is viewed widely as aggravating the problems of development and putting severe strains on services and facilities. The wish to limit family size is particularly strong among women. Most of Latin America's untapped land is unusable, either so steeply mountainous, densely tropical, or barren of topsoil that it cannot support life at even the most meager level of subsistence. Food production in most of Latin America has not kept pace with population growth. Since most new agricultural production is oriented toward exports rather than home consumption, conditions for most rural populations are worsening. Economic dilemmas facing Latin America include widespread poverty, the world's highest per capita debt, unemployment and underemployment that may reach between 40-50% of the workforce, negative economic growth rates over the past 5 years, immense income inequalities, declining terms of trade, extensive capital flight, little new investment or foreign assistance, increased protectionism on the part of those countriews with whom Latin America must trade, rising prices for the goods Latin America must import, and (in some countries) devastation of the economic infrastrucutre by guerrilla forces. The unprecedent flow from the countryside has made Latin America the world's 3rd most highly urbanized region. Over 65% of its population reside in cities, particularly capital cities. Social services are breaking down in all Latin American capitals to the extent that over half the inhabitants lack water or sewage facilities. There is mixed evidence on the relationship between youth and radicalism, yet it is clear that in Latin America most of the generation of university-trained young people are Marxists. As many as 45% of college-aged people are activists. The implications of this disaffected group coming to power are enormous, particularly since the generation currently under 15 is likely to be even more embittered and radical. Tension, frustration, and violence in society all are likely to have a political impact. In sum, a close but indirect relationship exists between unchecked population growth, spiraling socioeconomic problems, and the potential for political breakdown, destabilization, and internal unrest in Latin America. PMID:12313942

  18. The Cocaine Connection: Drug Trafficking and Inter-American Relations. Headline Series No. 290.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collett, Merrill

    Traditionally U.S. drug policy and antidrug action has been focused on blaming traffickers and fighting suppliers. Only recently have people in the United States begun to acknowledge the part played by U.S. demand for illegal drugs. Past antidrug policy emphasized the foreign origin of the drugs, and tended to blame Latin American producers and…

  19. Repatriation in the United States: The Current State of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daehnke, Jon; Lonetree, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Repatriation in the United States today is synonymous with the passage of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Although repatriations of Native American ancestral remains and cultural objects certainly occurred--and continue to occur--outside of the purview of NAGPRA, this law remains the centerpiece of repatriation…

  20. Historic building documentation in the united states, 1933-2000: the historic american buildings survey, a case study 

    E-print Network

    Komas, Tanya Wattenburg

    2005-08-29

    The objective of the study was to gain new insight into archival building documentation in the United States since 1933 focusing on Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) as a case study. It sought to help explain how ...

  1. Tobacco industry success in preventing regulation of secondhand smoke in Latin America: the "Latin Project"

    PubMed Central

    Barnoya, J; Glantz, S

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the tobacco industry's strategy to avoid regulations on secondhand smoke exposure in Latin America. Methods: Systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet. All available materials, including confidential reports regarding research, lobbying, and internal memoranda exchanged between the tobacco industry representatives, tobacco industry lawyers, and key players in Latin America. Results: In Latin America, Philip Morris International and British American Tobacco, working through the law firm Covington & Burling, developed a network of well placed physicians and scientists through their "Latin Project" to generate scientific arguments minimising secondhand smoke as a health hazard, produce low estimates of exposure, and to lobby against smoke-free workplaces and public places. The tobacco industry's role was not disclosed. Conclusions: The strategies used by the industry have been successful in hindering development of public health programmes on secondhand smoke. Latin American health professionals need to be aware of this industry involvement and must take steps to counter it to halt the tobacco epidemic in Latin America. PMID:12432156

  2. African American women's experience of infection with HIV in the rural southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Mallory, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The design of effective behavioral interventions to prevent HIV infection among African American women requires a more complete understanding of the context and circumstances that precipitate infection with the virus. A descriptive study was designed to explore African American women's experiences of infection with HIV in the rural southeastern United States. Ten women living with HIV participated in interviews. All were infected through sex with a man or men; three had engaged in high-risk activities associated with HIV infection including sex trading; seven described themselves as at low risk for infection related to serial monogamy, no injection drug use, and no history of addiction. Participants reported that desire for intimacy coupled with inaccurate risk appraisal of sex partners contributed to their infection. These results provide insight into the role of intimacy in sexual risk taking. Inquiry into how women can be assisted to protect themselves in the context of intimate relationships may improve interventions to prevent HIV. PMID:18191766

  3. International health, the early cold war and Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cueto, Marcos

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a panoramic vision of the development of international health in Latin America during the late 1940s and the 1950s, when a series of bilateral and multilateral institutions, such as the World Health Organization and UNICEF, were founded and reshaped. The language, policies, and activities of these new institutional actors were heavily influenced by the context of the early Cold War between the era's superpowers: the United States and the Soviet Union. Vertical campaigns against yaws and malaria--implemented under the leadership of Fred L. Soper, director of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau--symbolized international health's technical orientation, as well as its contribution to the modernization of the countries of the region. The Cold War period has received little attention by historians of medicine, though it bears certain similarities to historiographical discussions of the relationship between tropical medicine and imperialism in the early 20th century. PMID:18831142

  4. African Americans. Grade Eight, Unit Three, 8.3 A & B. Comprehensive Social Studies Curriculum for the Inner City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachum, Locke; Horsky, Faith

    This eighth grade unit is one of a sequential learning series of the Focus on Inner City Social Studies (FICSS) project developed in accordance with the needs and problems of an urban society. A description of the project is provided in SO 008 271. This unit focuses on the history of African-Americans. Specific student inquiry areas include the…

  5. Carrs latins Plans fractionnaires

    E-print Network

    Historique Carrés latins Plans fractionnaires Propriétés Codes numériques : la méthode des plans d Industrielle et Appliquée, LSP , IMT Toulouse La méthode des plans d'expériences est en principe une méthode en possible Jean-Marc AZAÏS Codes numériques : la méthode des plans d'expériences #12;Historique Carrés latins

  6. The Benefits of Latin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Lisa R.

    2012-01-01

    Classicists have long claimed that the study of Latin has benefits that exceed knowledge of the language itself, and in the current economic times, these claims are made with urgency. Indeed, many contend that Latin improves English grammar and writing skills, cognitive abilities, and develops transferable skills necessary for success in the…

  7. A Bayesian spawning habitat suitability model for American shad in southeastern United States rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hightower, Joseph E.; Harris, Julianne E.; Raabe, Joshua K.; Brownell, Prescott; Drew, C. Ashton

    2012-01-01

    Habitat suitability index models for American shad Alosa sapidissima were developed by Stier and Crance in 1985. These models, which were based on a combination of published information and expert opinion, are often used to make decisions about hydropower dam operations and fish passage. The purpose of this study was to develop updated habitat suitability index models for spawning American shad in the southeastern United States, building on the many field and laboratory studies completed since 1985. We surveyed biologists who had knowledge about American shad spawning grounds, assembled a panel of experts to discuss important habitat variables, and used raw data from published and unpublished studies to develop new habitat suitability curves. The updated curves are based on resource selection functions, which can model habitat selectivity based on use and availability of particular habitats. Using field data collected in eight rivers from Virginia to Florida (Mattaponi, Pamunkey, Roanoke, Tar, Neuse, Cape Fear, Pee Dee, St. Johns), we obtained new curves for temperature, current velocity, and depth that were generally similar to the original models. Our new suitability function for substrate was also similar to the original pattern, except that sand (optimal in the original model) has a very low estimated suitability. The Bayesian approach that we used to develop habitat suitability curves provides an objective framework for updating the model as new studies are completed and for testing the model's applicability in other parts of the species' range.

  8. Intelligibility of American English vowels and consonants spoken by international students in the United States.

    PubMed

    Jin, Su-Hyun; Liu, Chang

    2014-04-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to examine the intelligibility of English consonants and vowels produced by Chinese-native (CN), and Korean-native (KN) students enrolled in American universities. METHOD 16 English-native (EN), 32 CN, and 32 KN speakers participated in this study. The intelligibility of 16 American English consonants and 16 vowels spoken by native and nonnative speakers of English was evaluated by EN listeners. All nonnative speakers also completed a survey of their language backgrounds. RESULTS Although the intelligibility of consonants and diphthongs for nonnative speakers was comparable to that of native speakers, the intelligibility of monophthongs was significantly lower for CN and KN speakers than for EN speakers. Sociolinguistic factors such as the age of arrival in the United States and daily use of English, as well as a linguistic factor, difference in vowel space between native (L1) and nonnative (L2) language, partially contributed to vowel intelligibility for CN and KN groups. There was no significant correlation between the length of U.S. residency and phoneme intelligibility. CONCLUSION Results indicated that the major difficulty in phonemic production in English for Chinese and Korean speakers is with vowels rather than consonants. This might be useful for developing training methods to improve English intelligibility for foreign students in the United States. PMID:24686793

  9. The distribution of leptospirosis in Latin America*†

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, A. D.

    1960-01-01

    Although many factors combine to make Latin America an apparently suitable region for the spread of the leptospiroses, the prevalence of these infections has been studied in relatively few areas of this part of the American continent. Of the 60 Leptospira serotypes described in the world, only seven have so far been definitively demonstrated in Middle America and five in South America. However, there is evidence to suggest that other and perhaps new serotypes may be found, and recent serological surveys indicate that there are loci of multiple leptospirosis affecting a large percentage of human or animal populations in at least five Latin American territories. The true prevalence of leptospirosis can only be ascertained by the proper application of reliable laboratory diagnostic methods. The limited value of certain techniques used heretofore makes a number of reports on the presence of this disease subject to question. PMID:13792576

  10. [Regional initiative on health care reform in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Crocco, P; Schroeder, P; Villen, M T; Yen, E

    2000-01-01

    Many countries throughout Latin America and the Caribbean are introducing reforms that can profoundly influence how health services are provided and who receives them. Governments in the region identified the need for a network to support health reform by building capacity in analysis and training, both at the Summit of the Americas in 1994 and at the Special Meeting on Health Sector Reform, which was convened in 1995 by an interagency committee of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, the Inter-American Development Bank, the World Bank, and other multilateral and bilateral agencies. In response, in 1997 the Pan American Health Organization and the United States Agency for the International Development launched the Latin America and Caribbean Regional Health Sector Reform Initiative. The Initiative has approximately US$ 10 million in funding through the year 2002 to support activities in Bolivia, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru. Now in its third year of implementation, the Initiative supports regional activities seeking to promote more equitable and effective delivery of basic health services. PMID:11026784

  11. Neo-Latin News 

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Craig et al

    2009-01-01

    -Universit?t Bochum in February of 2007. The subject was the Neo-Latin drama of the early modern period. neo-latin news 81 In ??Histrionum exercitus et scommata??Schauspieler, die Sp?che klopfen: Johannes Reuchlins Sergius und die Anf?nge der neulatein...- ischen Kom?die,? Matthias Dall?Asta focuses on Johannes Reuchlin (1455-1522), a man who stands in many ways at the beginning of Neo-Latin comedy in Germany, with a special focus on his Sergius, a play that had an unusually broad reception. Johannes...

  12. Educating cities in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messina, Graciela; Valdés-Cotera, Raúl

    2013-09-01

    This article considers the development of educating cities from a political perspective, illustrating in detail the diversity of organisations and individuals involved and the challenges they are facing. Bearing in mind that educating cities were established from the 1990s onwards in Europe and spread to other continents from there, the purpose of this article is to demonstrate how this proposal was adopted in Latin America. After discussing the basic aims of educating cities, the paper focuses on the Latin American experience, giving examples of existing projects within the educating cities initiative. The authors are particularly interested in the contrast between the political intentions of educating cities on the one hand and the social, economic, political and cultural world on the other hand. They observe that in this context there is a danger of the individual being forgotten, which contradicts the actual intention of the educating city concept. They also discuss the problem of who should carry out the realisation of educating cities and how the various stakeholders might coordinate their actions. Contemplating new directions at the end of their paper, the authors sum up a number of guidelines and offer recommendations for action in developing educating cities.

  13. Neo-Latin News 

    E-print Network

    Craig Kallendorf, et al

    2003-01-01

    ?vre and his Freiburg colleagues inau- gurated a series of conferences dedicated to Neo-Latin poetry. (The following meetings dealt with Petrus Lotichius Secundus and Neo- Latin elegy, Giovanni Pontano and Catullus, and Johannes Secundus and Roman love elegy..., Horace, and some of Celtis?s own poems (Epigr. 1, 43; 2, 60; 3, 37; Ode 3, 19) and draws an historical line to the contemporary disputes about occultism in poetry and science (Johannes Trithemius, Agrippa von Nettesheim). Finally Dieter Wuttke...

  14. Risky Business and the American Climate Prospectus: Economic Risks of Climate Change in the United States"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, K.; Houser, T.; Kopp, R. E., III; Hsiang, S. M.; Larsen, K.; Jina, A.; Delgado, M.; Muir-Wood, R.; Rasmussen, D.; Rising, J.; Mastrandrea, M.; Wilson, P. S.

    2014-12-01

    The United States faces a range of economic risks from global climate change - from increased flooding and storm damage, to climate-driven changes in crop yields and labor productivity, to heat-related strains on energy and public health systems. The Risky Business Project commissioned a groundbreaking new analysis of these and other climate risks by region of the country and sector of the economy. The American Climate Prospectus (ACP) links state-of-the-art climate models with econometric research of human responses to climate variability and cutting edge private sector risk assessment tools, the ACP offers decision-makers a data driven assessment of the specific risks they face. We describe the challenge, methods, findings, and policy implications of the national risk analysis, with particular focus on methodological innovations and novel insights.

  15. NEUTRALIZATION OF TWO NORTH AMERICAN CORAL SNAKE VENOMS WITH UNITED STATES AND MEXICAN ANTIVENOMS

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Elda E.; Lopez-Johnston, Juan C.; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Pérez, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Elapid snakes throughout the world are considered very lethal containing neurotoxic venoms that affect the nervous system. When humans are envenomated it is considered a serious medical emergency, and antivenom is the main form of treatment considered, in spite of the fact that some patients may only survive under intensive therapy treatment such as respiratory support. Coral snakes are part of the family Elapidae and envenomations by these snakes are very low (< 2% of total snakebites) in most countries from southeastern United States to Argentina. In the United States there are only two species of coral snakes of medical importance which belong to the Micrurus genera: Micrurus fulvius fulvius (Eastern coral snake) and M. tener tener (Texas coral snake). In 2006, Wyeth pharmaceutical notified customers that the production of the North American Coral Snake Antivenin (NACSA) in the U.S. was discontinued and adequate supplies were available to meet historical needs through the end of October 2008; and therefore, it is of utmost important to consider other antivenoms as alternatives for the treatment of coral snake envenoming. One logical alternative is the coral snake antivenom, Coralmyn, produced by the Mexican company, Bioclon. In order to compare neutralization between NACSA and Coralmyn antivenoms with the North American coral snake venoms, the venom lethal doses (LD50) and antivenom effective doses (ED50) were determined in 18–20 g, female, BALB/c mice. Additionally, venom comparisons were determined through a non reduced SDS-PAGE for M. f. fulvius, M. t. tener and the Mexican coral snake venom, M. nigrocinctus nigrocinctus. Coralmyn antivenom was able to effectively neutralize 3 LD50 doses of all venom from both M. t. tener and M. f. fulvius, while Wyeth antivenom only neutralized M. f. fulvius venom and was not effective in neutralizing 3 LD50 doses of M. t. tener venom. Coralmyn is effective in the neutralization of both clinically important coral snake venoms in the U.S. PMID:18054059

  16. West Nile Virus and its Theories, a Big Puzzle in Mexico and Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; Elizondo-Quiroga, Armando

    2013-01-01

    It has been 13 years since the first outbreak of West Nile Virus (WNV) occurred in the Americas. Since then, thousands of human cases have been reported in the United States. In contrast, there has not yet been an outbreak of WNV in any Latin American countries, including Mexico where <20 cases have been reported. We aimed to review publications to gather the main theories related to the fact that not all the countries of the continent reported human cases or that they have reported few cases since the introduction of WNV in the Western Hemisphere. We identified relevant publications using the PubMed database. Furthermore, we present on-line published information from Mexico. We found that researchers have tried to explain this phenomenon using several theories, like pre-existing antibodies against a heterotypical virus that have conferred cross protection in the population. Another explanation is that the strains circulating in Latin America are attenuated or that they came from a different origin of introduction in the continent. Another theory is that a conclusive diagnostic in regions where more than one Flavivirus is circulating results in cross-reaction in serological tests. Probably the sum of factors described by researchers in these theories in order to explain the behavior of the virus has resulted in the low number of reported cases in Latin America. PMID:24672180

  17. The Impact of Neoliberal Restructuring on Education and Poverty in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boron, Atilio Alberto; Torres, Carlos Alberto

    1996-01-01

    Examines the widening gap between rich and poor in Latin America, and the troubling performance of new Latin American democracies. Reviews human-capital, neoconservative, neoliberal, functionalist, and social democratic theories about education and poverty. Presents eight theses about the state, poverty, and education, and calls for education to…

  18. INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITIES Preamble: Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) originated in Latin America and are widely grown at

    E-print Network

    INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITIES Preamble: Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) originated in Latin America and are widely grown at mid- to higher elevations today from Chile to Canada. Brazil is the world's leading bean their importance as a food security crop in many Latin American countries, bean production has been relegated

  19. Engineers for Rural Development: Europe and Latin America Getting in Tune.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marechal, Gilles

    The European program Amerique Latine-Formation Academique (ALFA) has provided 12 Latin-American and 10 European universities and colleges with a framework for creating an International Master in Rural Development. Globalization, regional integration, and sustainability have created a new set of questions for rural areas, both in Europe and in…

  20. From Proposal to Policy: Social Movements and Teachers' Unions in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Leslie; Gindin, Julián

    2015-01-01

    Latin American teachers' unions have stepped into the policymaking sphere and shaped education policies unrelated to regular workplace priorities like salaries and class sizes at notable moments. The literature on teachers' unions in Latin America has not addressed this, tending to focus instead on those unions' history and role in social…

  1. Promoting Sexual Health Equity in the United States: Implications from Exploratory Research with African-American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Allison L.; Uhrig, Jennifer; Poehlman, Jon; Scales, Monica; Hogben, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to inform communication efforts to promote sexual health equity in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sought to explore African-Americans' perceptions of the sexually transmitted disease (STD) problem in their communities, reactions to racially comparative STD data and opinions about dissemination…

  2. An Analysis of the Treatment of Corporate Influence on Government by United States History and American Government High School Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation to explore the possibility that ideology might be expressed in the treatment of corporate influence on federal government by social studies textbooks. Two textbooks were examined in the study--United States history and American government. Corporate influence involves activities that affect election and…

  3. 77 FR 12102 - In the Matter of: American United Gold Corporation, AMS Homecare Inc., Aucxis Corp., and CYOP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of: American United Gold Corporation, AMS Homecare Inc., Aucxis Corp., and CYOP... current and accurate information concerning the securities of AMS Homecare Inc. because it has not...

  4. Historical Perspective on the United States Fusion Program Invited paper presented at American Nuclear Society 16th

    E-print Network

    Nuclear Society 16th Topical Meeting on the Technology of Fusion Energy 14-16 September, 2004 in Madison controlled thermonuclear reactions, or nuclear fusion as it is now more commonly called, has remained elusiveHistorical Perspective on the United States Fusion Program Invited paper presented at American

  5. Challenges of Cultural and Racial Diversity to Counseling: Volume 2. Latin America and the United States. Mexico City Conference Proceedings (June 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gerardo M., Ed.; and Others

    Papers from the second international conference of the American Counseling Association held in Mexico City in June 1990 are included in this book. The book is divided into four parts: community, diversity, communication, and spirituality. The following papers are included: (1) Myths, Realities, and Implications of the English Only Movement in the…

  6. Progress in a Moscow children's burn unit: a joint Russian-American collaboration.

    PubMed

    Remensnyder, J P; Astrozjnikova, S; Bell, L; Budkevich, L; Buletova, A A; DiCarlo, J; Featherston, D; Johnson, L; Kolotukin, A; Krassovsky, V

    1995-08-01

    A joint Russian-American paediatric burn programme involving Childrens Hospital No. 9 in Moscow and Project HOPE in Millwood, Virginia emerged from the efforts of burn professionals from both countries in caring for a group of children seriously burned as a result of the train-pipeline catastrophe that occurred in June 1989 in the Ural Mountains. This paper describes the burn unit and its activities during the years 1985-93 and includes: (1) a general description of the physical and administrative structure of the unit; (2) the demography of burn admissions; (3) clinical activities; (4) a comparison of the clinical results of the years before the institution of the combined programme (1985-89) with those achieved during the first 4 years of the combined collaboration (1990-93). Among the important changes that have occurred since the onset of the combined programme are: (1) overall reduction in the crude burn mortality rate; (2) decrease in burn deaths in all burn size groups; (3) dramatic reduction in the length of stay of children with the deepest burns; (4) marked improvement in the take of skin grafts applied to burn wounds and an almost total elimination of complete skin graft failures. PMID:7546252

  7. Bat-borne rabies in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Luis E; Peterson, A Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as "Least Concern". According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats. PMID:25651328

  8. BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Luis E.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats. PMID:25651328

  9. NEXO: Designing a community to foster high-impact entrepreneurship and innovation in Latin America

    E-print Network

    Guzman Mercado, Adriana Lucia

    2013-08-31

    Many Latin American governments have increased the number of programs to support entrepreneurs and encourage the creation and growth of small businesses. However, the results are still not satisfactory and many of these ...

  10. Representation of genomics research among Latin American laymen and bioethics: a inquiry into the migration of knowledge and its impact on underdeveloped communities

    SciTech Connect

    Fernando Lolas; Carolina Valdebenito; Eduardo Rodríguez; Irene Schiattino; Adelio Misseroni

    2007-07-09

    The effects of genetic knowledge beyond the scientific community depend on processes of social construction of risks and benefits, or perils and possibilities, which are different in different communities. In a globalized world, new developments affect societies not capable of technically replicating them and unaware of the very nature of the scientific process. Moral and legal consequences, however, diffuse rapidly and involve groups and persons with scant or no knowledge about the way scientific concepts are developed or perfected. Leading genomics researchers view their field as developing after a sharp break with that worldwide social movement of the 20´s and 30´s known as eugenics and its most radical expression in the Nazi efforts to destroy life “not worth living”. Manipulation, prejudice and mistrust, however, pervade non-expert accounts of current research. Researchers claim that the new knowledge will have a positive impact on medicine and serve as a foundation for informed social policy. Both types of applications depend on informed communities of non-scientists (physicians, policymakers), whose members may well differ on what constitutes burden and what is benefit, depending upon professional socialization and cultural bias. ELSI projects associated with genomic research are notable for the lack of minorities involved and for the absence of comparative analysis of data reception in different world communities. It may be contended also that the critical potential of philosophical or ethical analyses is reduced by their being situated within the scientific process itself and carried out by members of the expert community, thus reducing independence of judgment. The majority of those involved in such studies, by tradition, experience, and formative influences, share the same worldview about the nature of moral dilemmas or the feasibility of intended applications. The global effects of new knowledge when combined with other cultural or religious traditions are thus unknown. These effects are interesting on two accounts. First, even if underdeveloped countries cannot replicate the technical aspects of research, their influence on social practices is not kept within geographical or language barriers. The way they are handled in developed countries may become part of resistances to “ethical imperialism”. Second, these advances have economic consequences. Their full understanding and the creation of a scientific literacy essential for sound ethical analysis demand the creation of “receptive capacity” in developing countries. The morality of genomics research and its applications can be analyzed from two main vantage points. Some traditions stress the ethics of convictions (in Max Weber´s terms, Gesinnungsethik) while others rely on the ethics of responsibility (Verantwortungsethik). In different forms, the latter deals with the consequences of social action, scientific research in this case, and may or may not be related to utilitarian considerations. It may be hypothesized that convictions, mostly of a religious nature, dominate the argumentative preferences in Latin countries and continental European traditions which rely on virtues while responsibility is associated with a discourse based on rights prevalent in countries following the Anglo-Saxon pattern of thought. This finds expression in different legal systems (common law versus codes) and in the language used for deliberation and moral reasoning. Although results of US-based ELSI research may not be transferable to other cultural and economic contexts, they impact other societies and serve as models. Rarely do they apply completely in other settings. In a globalized world, both appropriate understanding of the scientific enterprise and its ethical or economic sustainability demand empirical analysis of the patterns of thought, main beliefs, and reactions toward the new knowledge and its applications. Anecdotal accounts show that expectations may be misleading and inadequate knowledge prevents appropriate appraisal of burdens and benefits in dif

  11. Promoting sexual health equity in the United States: implications from exploratory research with African-American adults.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Allison L; Uhrig, Jennifer; Poehlman, Jon; Scales, Monica; Hogben, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    In an effort to inform communication efforts to promote sexual health equity in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sought to explore African-Americans' perceptions of the sexually transmitted disease (STD) problem in their communities, reactions to racially comparative STD data and opinions about dissemination of such information. Semi-structured triads and individual interviews were conducted with African-American adults (N = 158) in the Southeastern and Midwestern United States. Most participants believed that STDs are a problem in their communities but were unaware of the extent to which STDs disproportionately affect African Americans. Once informed about racial differences in STD rates, participants commonly reacted with shock, fear and despair; a minority raised questions about the information's source and credibility. Most felt it was critical to get the information out to African-American communities as a 'wake-up call' to motivate change, though some raised concerns about its dissemination. Findings suggest that information about racial differences in STD rates must be strategically crafted and delivered through targeted channels to be acceptable to African Americans. So as not to further harm communities burdened by other social/health inequities, alternative (strength-based) approaches should be considered for motivating positive change. PMID:24584435

  12. Hispanic Americans living in the United States and their risk for obesity, diabetes and kidney disease: Genetic and environmental considerations.

    PubMed

    Yracheta, Joseph M; Alfonso, Javier; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos; Johnson, Sarah B; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G; Johnson, Richard J

    2015-06-01

    The Hispanic American, the largest minority population in the United States, is at increased risk for obesity, diabetes and end-stage renal disease. Here we review genetic and environmental factors that might account for their increased risk for these conditions. Whereas many environmental and genetic factors have important roles in driving the increased risk for obesity and kidney disease in this population, a case is made that excessive intake of sugary beverages is a contributory cause. Studies focusing on decreasing intake of sugary beverages among the Hispanic American could potentially reduce renal and cardiovascular complications in this population. PMID:25746679

  13. Social security reform in Latin America: policy challenges.

    PubMed

    Kay, Stephen J; Kritzer, Barbara E

    2002-01-01

    Over the last decade Latin American countries have served as the world's laboratory for pension systems based on individual retirement savings accounts. Some countries have adopted defined-contribution individual accounts as a replacement for state-run pension systems; other countries have embraced mixed systems of have made individual accounts optional and supplementary. This article outlines some of the most significant elements of recent Latin American pension reforms and examines some of the most serious policy challenges faced by governments implementing the new systems of individual accounts, including the need to reduce administrative costs, limit evasion, incorporate new categories of workers into the system, and improve competition in the pension fund industry. The authors conclude that there is no single Latin America model, and that reform itself has been and will continue to be an incremental process. PMID:12503326

  14. SCOOL: A NASA Geoscience Education Success in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Fischer, J. D.; Moore, S. W.; Rogerson, T. M.

    2006-12-01

    Students' Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL), better known to our Latin American participants as "Observaciones Estudiantiles de las Nubes", has been influencing the way some Latin American students learn to appreciate the geosciences since 1998. Through a collaborative effort between NASA and thousands of schools across the globe, a mutually beneficial relationship has been created that captures the essence of and serves as a model for programs that leverage opportunities between the scientific and education communities. S'COOL is one of a handful of programs that provides solutions to the needs voiced by Latin American educators for educational resources that stimulate student interest in the geosciences. S'COOL is a hands-on project that involves schools of every grade in collaborative Earth climate research with NASA scientists. Students make ground truth observations and record the type, amount, and features of clouds in the sky at the time a NASA satellite passes over their location. Aside from learning the basic cloud characteristics, students benefit by having access to experts in the field of atmospheric science and also to a database of information that can be utilized in analytical studies. Scientists benefit from tens of thousands of observations sent into the database and used to validate the Cloud and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument on-board the new generation NASA Earth Observing satellites: Terra and Aqua. To observe and send results to NASA, teachers and students go through the following three steps: 1) obtain the satellite overpass schedule, 2) observe the clouds and record the observation on the report form provided, 3) record the observations in the NASA database. To facilitate communication with many countries and to help teachers to prepare introductory lessons on clouds and meteorology, NASA provides educational materials and report forms in a number of languages including Spanish. As a result, schools from 68 countries are now registered S'COOL observers, including two thirds of Latin American countries. The spread of the project in Latin America has principally been through word of mouth, assisted by the efforts of several individuals who have developed in-country networks based on their own interests. Latin American participants have submitted nearly 9000 observations (constituting 40% of observations received from outside the US), and provide one of few sources of cloud observations during the summer months when northern hemisphere schools are mostly on vacation. Contributions from Latin American participants are also regularly featured in the S'COOL Cloud Photo of the Month. Over the course of eight years, S'COOL has amassed a wealth of knowledge pertaining to the implementation of collaborative projects in Latin America. This paper will report several key lessons learned.

  15. Telecom Privatization in Latin America: Trends in Competition & Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Norman C.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a country-by-country analysis of investment opportunities in Latin American telecommunications. Concludes: Brazil and Mexico are the major focus of interest and expectations; wireless and cellular are expanding rapidly; the expansion of regulatory reform, as promised to the World Trade Organization (WTO) should foster necessary monopolies…

  16. Teaching Asian Experiences in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesser, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development of the course, "The Minority Experience in Latin America and the Caribbean, 1998 Focus--Asian Experiences," which examines minority, ethnicity, and race from North and South American perspectives, discusses how the notion of ethnic history differs from other types of historical analysis, and looks at Asian and Asian…

  17. The Importance of University Incubators in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Garza, Guillermo Fernandez

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of "business incubators," enterprises bringing universities and businesses together for technological and scientific advancement, focuses on the benefits of such a relationship for both business and university and on the environment for and organization of such an undertaking in the Latin American context. (MSE)

  18. Latin America Curriculum. World Neighbors in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Neighbors, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK.

    This collection of lessons about the geography, languages, and social issues of several Latin American countries is intended for use with students in grades 6-12. The collection contains five lesson plans: (1) "Cold in the Tropics?" (Marilyn Kesler); (2) "Going beyond the Map: Comparing Geographic Characteristics and Related Social Issues in…

  19. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemes, Susanna; Libretto, Salvatore; Garrett, Gerald; Johansson, Anna Carin; Hess, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three Latin American countries--Brazil, Peru and Argentina--were examined to identify promising practices and to assess lessons…

  20. Policies for Higher Education in Latin America: The Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, Simon

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of the evolution of Latin American higher education policy focuses on historic and social factors. It is concluded that policies often fail because they shift control to one of three poles (government, academic oligarchy, or market) to the exclusion of the others or favor the wrong sector within each pole. (MSE)

  1. Teaching Ideas about Other Cultures: Africa, Latin America, Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casteel, J. Doyle; Guthrie, Charles

    This publication contains learning activities which can be used in secondary social studies classes to teach about African, Latin American, and Western European cultures. The activities, developed by teachers in a summer institute, are self contained. The information provided for each activity includes a focal idea, type of activity, title,…

  2. AMERICAN ELECTRIC POWER'S CONESVILLE POWER PLANT UNIT NO.5 CO2 CAPTURE RETROFIT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Carl R. Bozzuto; Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; Mark Palkes; John L. Marion

    2001-06-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with American Electric Power (AEP), ABB Lummus Global Inc. (ABB), the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration technologies applied to an existing US coal-fired electric generation power plant. The motivation for this study was to provide input to potential US electric utility actions concerning GHG emissions reduction. If the US decides to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, action would need to be taken to address existing power plants. Although fuel switching from coal to natural gas may be one scenario, it will not necessarily be a sufficient measure and some form of CO{sub 2} capture for use or disposal may also be required. The output of this CO{sub 2} capture study will enhance the public's understanding of control options and influence decisions and actions by government, regulators, and power plant owners in considering the costs of reducing greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} emissions. The total work breakdown structure is encompassed within three major reports, namely: (1) Literature Survey, (2) AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study, and (3) Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation. The report on the literature survey results was issued earlier by Bozzuto, et al. (2000). Reports entitled ''AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study'' and ''Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation'' are provided as companion volumes, denoted Volumes I and II, respectively, of the final report. The work performed, results obtained, and conclusions and recommendations derived therefrom are summarized.

  3. Bluetongue disease and seroprevalence in South American camelids from the northwestern region of the United States.

    PubMed

    Allen, Andrew J; Stanton, James B; Evermann, James F; Fry, Lindsay M; Ackerman, Melissa G; Barrington, George M

    2015-03-01

    In late summer/early fall of 2013, 2 South American camelids from central Washington were diagnosed with fatal bluetongue viral disease, an event which is rarely reported. A 9-year-old intact male llama (Lama glama), with a 1-day history of anorexia, recumbency, and dyspnea before death. Abundant foam discharged from the mouth and nostrils, and the lungs were severely edematous on postmortem examination. Histologically, there was abundant intra-alveolar edema with fibrin. Hemorrhage and edema disrupted several other organs. Bluetongue viral RNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and serotype 11 was identified by sequencing a segment of the VP2 outer capsid gene. Approximately 1 month later, at a site 150 miles north of the index case, a 2-year-old female alpaca with similar, acutely progressive clinical signs was reported. A postmortem examination was performed, and histologic lesions from the alpaca were similar to those of the llama, and again serotype 11 was detected by PCR. The occurrence of bluetongue viral infection and disease is described in the context of seasonal Bluetongue virus activity within the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada. PMID:25680921

  4. Incidence of notifiable diseases among American Indians/Alaska Natives - United States, 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Adekoya, Nelson; Truman, Benedict; Landen, Michael

    2015-01-16

    American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations experience substantial disparities in the incidence of multiple diseases compared with other racial/ethnic groups in the United States. A major goal of Healthy People 2020 is to eliminate health disparities, monitor disease trends, and identify population groups and diseases for targeted interventions. High rates of certain infectious diseases continue to be a major problem facing AI/AN populations. During 1990-2011, incidence rates for some infectious diseases declined among AI/AN populations, but disparities remain and AI/AN populations are still disproportionately affected. To describe disparities in selected notifiable diseases among AI/ANs, CDC analyzed data from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) for 2007-2011, the most recent 5 years for which data are available. The results of this analysis of 26 infectious diseases indicate that incidence rates of 14 diseases were higher for AI/ANs than for whites. Interventions are needed to address and reduce disparities in chlamydia, gonorrhea, West Nile virus, spotted fever rickettsiosis, and other infections among AI/ANs. PMID:25590681

  5. Latin for Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaude, Paul M.; And Others

    This updated Latin syllabus provides a framework for imparting an understanding of the Ancient World, more particularly of Roman civilization with its Grecian overtones, primarily through the development of reading skills. A chronological-historical approach has been chosen for the course of study from level 1 through level 5 courses of…

  6. Latin Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Agnes; Stevens, Patrick

    This guide delineates the scope and sequence of Latin instruction in levels 1-3 in terms of behavioral objectives. Following a review of the Bloomington, Minnesota, school philosophy and a discussion of the design of foreign language behavioral objectives on which the guide is based, the manual discusses expected terminal behavior in the level 1…

  7. Latin in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lister, Bob

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the challenges and demands--particularly those relating to the reading of Latin texts in the original--faced by Classics students in England in their first year of university study. Arguing that the examination system in schools encourages rote learning of texts rather than the development of reading skills, the article…

  8. Problems Facing Native American Youths. Hearing before the Committee on Indian Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session, on Oversight Hearing on Problems Facing Native American Youths (August 1, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.

    A Senate committee hearing received testimony on the problems of Native American youth and programs addressing those problems. Speakers included representatives of the American Academy of Pediatrics, United National Indian Tribal Youth (UNITY), Boys and Girls Clubs of America, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), and the Office of National Drug…

  9. Phylogeography of the American woodcock (Scolopax minor): Are management units based on band recovery data reflected in genetically based management units?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhymer, J.M.; McAuley, D.G.; Ziel, H.L.

    2005-01-01

    Information on population connectivity throughout the annual cycle has become more crucial, because populations of many migratory birds are in decline. One such species is the American Woodcock (Scolopax minor), which inhabits early-successional forests in eastern North America. Although band recoveries have proved useful for dividing populations of this game bird species into an Eastern Region and Central Region for management purposes, these data do not provide enough detail to determine the breeding population of origin of birds recovered on stopover and wintering areas. To obtain more fine-scale data, we undertook a phylogeographic study of American Woodcock populations throughout their primary breeding range in the eastern United States and Canada using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from the hypervariable control region I (CRI) and ND6 gene. Despite high haplotype diversity, nucleotide diversity was low and there was no phylogeographic structure among American Woodcock populations across the species range, with birds from many states and provinces in both management regions sharing identical haplotypes. Results suggest recent or ongoing gene flow among populations, with asymmetric movement of birds between migration flyways. As has been demonstrated for several other avian species in North America, American Woodcock appear to have undergone a rapid population expansion following the late Pleistocene glacial retreat. Thus, a combination of historical demographic factors and recent or ongoing gene flow mask any population structure based on mtDNA that might accrue from philopatry to breeding areas observed in studies of marked birds.

  10. Sociocultural Influences on Gambling and Alcohol Use Among Native Americans in the United States.

    PubMed

    Patterson-Silver Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, David A; Welte, John W; Barnes, Grace M; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O; Spicer, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Gambling opportunities on and near Native American lands have increased in recent decades; yet there is a lack of research examining the patterns of problem gambling and alcohol abuse among Native Americans in the US. Traditional Native American cultural identity may be a protective factor for problem gambling and alcohol abuse among Native Americans. Telephone interviews were conducted with 415 Native American adults aged 18 years and older across the US. The past-year prevalence of gambling among Native Americans is similar to the rate for non-Native Americans in the US (80 vs. 77 %). However, Native Americans have over twice the rate of problem gambling as the US sample (18 vs. 8 %). Although Native Americans have a lower rate of past-year alcohol use than the US population (47 vs. 68 %), they have a somewhat higher rate of alcohol abuse than their US counterparts (5.5 vs. 4.3 %). Logistic regression analysis, with problem gambling as the dependent variable, revealed that lower socioeconomic status is significantly associated with an increased odds of problem gambling for Native Americans. Counter to the hypothesis, the higher the score on the Native American orientation, the higher the odds of being a problem gambler. Further, living by the "White way of life" was associated with a decreased odds of being a problem gambler; and perceived gambling convenience was associated with an increased odds of being a problem gambler. None of the Native American factors was significant in predicting alcohol abuse. These findings highlight the need for further investigation into the influence of cultural factors on Native American gambling. PMID:25408467

  11. American Indian and Alaska native aboriginal use of alcohol in the United States.

    PubMed

    Abbott, P J

    1996-01-01

    Alcohol beverages prior to White contact originated with the Mayan and the Aztec Nations and spread to the American Indians of the Southwest. Surprisingly, there are a number of accounts of alcohol use among other American Indians and Alaska Natives. Beverages were limited to wine and beer, and included: balche, pulque, and "haren a pitahaya" wines, tulpi beer and other beverages. White contact brought dramatic shifts in the use and function of alcoholic beverages in American Indian and Alaska Native societies. PMID:8935245

  12. Information adapted from ADA American Dental Association Though requirements vary from state to state, all applicants for dental licensure in the United

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    Information adapted from ADA American Dental Association Though requirements vary from state to state, all applicants for dental licensure in the United States must meet three basic requirements-based dental education program accredited by the American Dental Association Commission on Dental Accreditation

  13. Drought Prediction over the United States Using the North American Multi Model Ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, K. C.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    We analyzed the skill of drought forecasts over the United States based on drought indices derived from the hydroclimate forecasts from the North American Multi model ensemble (NMME). The test period is from 1982-2010 and forecasts are initialized from the beginning of January, April, July and October. We analyzed the forecast skill of drought indices such as the 6-month standardized precipitation index (SPI6), monthly mean soil moisture percentiles (SMP) and the 3-month standardized runoff index (SRI3). The soil moisture and runoff were obtained by drive the Variable Infiltration Capacity land model with forcing derived from the NMME members (NMME_VIC). Drought indices from each member were computed and they were put into percentiles determined from all members in the training period at a given lead. We then formed an ensemble grand mean by averaging all indices together and determined the concurrence measure which is the extent to which all different members agree. We find that : 1) The grand mean has higher skill than individual member; 2) During winter, forecasts are skillful in the regimes where the initial conditions dominant contributions to skill, the agreement between the grand mean and members are above 70-80% . At high leads, the concurrence measure drops to 50-60%, even when forecasts are unskillful. 3) During summer, forecast skill is low and concurrence measure drops to 10-30%, 4). The skill of drought forecasts is regionally and seasonally dependent. The NMME_VIC forecasts tend to over forecast drought events with large false alarm rate. After lead-1, the low thread score indicates no skill. The forecast errors will be analyzed to determine the origin of forecast skill.

  14. Respiratory Health Equality in the United States. The American Thoracic Society Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Jesse; Schraufnagel, Dean E.; Thomas, Alvin; Samet, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Because the frequency of major risk factors for respiratory diseases (e.g., tobacco use) differs across demographic groups (defined by socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, health care access, occupation, or other characteristics), health disparities are commonly encountered in pediatric and adult pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine. As part of its policy on respiratory health disparities, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) Executive Committee created a Health Equality Subcommittee of the Health Policy Committee, with an initial mandate of defining respiratory health equality and, as a subsequent task, providing recommendations to the ATS leadership as to how our society may help attain such equality in the United States. After receiving input from the ATS assemblies and committees, the subcommittee developed this document on respiratory health equality. This document defines respiratory health disparities and respiratory health equality, and expands on a recent ATS and European Respiratory Society policy statement on disparities in respiratory health. Attainment of respiratory health equality requires the ending of respiratory health disparities, which can be achieved only through multidisciplinary efforts to eliminate detrimental environmental exposures while promoting a healthy lifestyle, implementing all components of high-quality health care (prevention, screening, diagnosis, and treatment), and conducting research that will lead to better prevention and management of respiratory diseases for everyone. The ATS recognizes that such efforts must include all stakeholders: members of society at large, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and other professional societies. The ATS urges all of its members and those of sister societies to work to achieve this laudable goal. PMID:24625275

  15. Neo-Latin News, Volume 60, Numbers 1 & 2 

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Craig

    2012-01-01

    -century news Vol. 60, Nos. 1 & 2. Jointly with SCN. NLN is the official publica- tion of the American Association for Neo-Latin Studies. Edited by Craig Kallendorf, Texas A&M University; Western European Editor: Gilbert Tournoy, Leuven; Eastern European... Association of Neo-Latin Studies, and we also have a growing number of special issues of journals devoted to the subject (e.g., ?Annotations manuscrites dans les livres da la Renaissance,? Bulletin du bibliophile 2010, issue 2), books on marginalia (e...

  16. n the United States, over 21 million Americans currently suffer from osteoarthritis. Due to limitations associated

    E-print Network

    Lu, Helen H.

    by the fact that there is an increase in the number of elderly Americans. By 2020, over 53 million Americans are major limiting fac- tors [4]. Another problem in utilizing biological or synthetic grafts, mineralized cartilage, and bone [22]. Chondrocytes and osteoblasts are the predominant cell types found

  17. The African Americanization of menthol cigarette use in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Phillip S

    2004-02-01

    Today, over 70% of African American smokers prefer menthol cigarettes, compared with 30% of White smokers. This unique social phenomenon was principally occasioned by the tobacco industry's masterful manipulation of the burgeoning Black, urban, segregated, consumer market in the 1960s. Through the use of television and other advertising media, coupled with culturally tailored images and messages, the tobacco industry "African Americanized" menthol cigarettes. The tobacco industry successfully positioned mentholated products, especially Kool, as young, hip, new, and healthy. During the time that menthols were gaining a large market share in the African American community, the tobacco industry donated funds to African American organizations hoping to blunt the attack on their products. Many of the findings in this article are drawn from the tobacco industry documents disclosed following the Master Settlement Agreement in 1998. After a short review of the origins and growth of menthols, this article examines some key social factors that, when considered together, led to disproportionate use of mentholated cigarettes by African Americans compared with other Americans. Unfortunately, the long-term impact of the industry's practice in this community may be partly responsible for the disproportionately high tobacco-related disease and mortality among African Americans generally and African American males particularly. PMID:14982709

  18. The United States in Comparative Perspective: A Cross-National Approach to American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebman, Robert C.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that not using a cross-cultural approach to American Studies is paradoxical, since comparative analysis is the principal sociological method of discovery and proof. Describes an American Studies course in which the core is comparative analyses of work and education in other countries. (CFR)

  19. Intelligibility of American English Vowels and Consonants Spoken by International Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Su-Hyun; Liu, Chang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the intelligibility of English consonants and vowels produced by Chinese-native (CN), and Korean-native (KN) students enrolled in American universities. Method: 16 English-native (EN), 32 CN, and 32 KN speakers participated in this study. The intelligibility of 16 American English consonants and 16…

  20. Ethnic Heritage Studies: German-American Profiles and Contributions--Major Figures. Experimental Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Talbott

    This teaching guide focuses on several prominent German-Americans and their contributions to American life, and provides some insights into German culture. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The project materials are designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines. The…

  1. NACSN, note 67--Application for revision of Articles 36 and 37, Lithodemic units of the North American stratigraphic code

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Easton, Robert M.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Duguet, Manuel; Ferrusquia-Villafranca, Ismael

    2015-01-01

    Currently the North American Stratigraphic Code, (NACSN 2005, Article 37) sets restrictions on the use of the term “complex” for lithodemic units. With exceptions for “volcanic complex” and “structural complex,” a complex must consist of more than one genetic class of rock (i.e., sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic). Thus, the use of the term “complex” to describe masses of intrusive rocks is not allowed. Asimilar restriction is also included in a recent British Geological Survey proposal for using lithodemic units to classify igneous rocks (Gillespie et al. 2008).Currently the North American Stratigraphic Code, (NACSN 2005, Article 37) sets restrictions on the use of the term “complex” for lithodemic units. With exceptions for “volcanic complex” and “structural complex,” a complex must consist of more than one genetic class of rock (i.e., sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic). Thus, the use of the term “complex” to describe masses of intrusive rocks is not allowed. Asimilar restriction is also included in a recent British Geological Survey proposal for using lithodemic units to classify igneous rocks (Gillespie et al. 2008).

  2. Making the Past Relevant to Future Generations. The Work of the Anne Frank House in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chyrikins, Mariela; Vieyra, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides the context and outlines the barriers and opportunities for developing promising Holocaust education programmes in Latin America, especially working with diverse communities and societies. In particular, the conflictual history of Latin American and recent democratization processes present opportunities for educational work. It…

  3. Theatre Notes: Latin American Theatre in Pittsburgh

    E-print Network

    1974-10-01

    Vilalta; O casi el alma, Luis Rafael Sánchez; Teoría juego del duende, programa con Pilar Rioja y poesía de Federico García Lorca; O.K., Isaac Chacrón; El lugar donde mueren los mamíferos, Jorge Díaz; La malquerida, Jacinto Benavente; y Los soles...

  4. Dissertations Recently Completed on Latin American Theatre

    E-print Network

    1980-04-01

    Salesman." (North Carolina) Giordano, Enrique. "El teatro hispanoamericano de la generación de 1927." (Pennsylvania) Hawley, Adrienne Piserchia. "The Great Round: Cyclical Patterns in the Works of Carlos Solorzano." (Rutgers) Sundberg, Sally Greymont... Salesman." (North Carolina) Giordano, Enrique. "El teatro hispanoamericano de la generación de 1927." (Pennsylvania) Hawley, Adrienne Piserchia. "The Great Round: Cyclical Patterns in the Works of Carlos Solorzano." (Rutgers) Sundberg, Sally Greymont...

  5. Transportation context of Latin American logistics

    E-print Network

    Sweat, Sean D. (Sean David)

    2008-01-01

    Through increasing globalization and trade liberalization, many third-world and developing countries are experiencing levels of growth that are quickly shifting the world's balance of political and economic power. China ...

  6. Perspectives for Teachers of Latin American Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seelye, H. Ned, Ed.

    Articles treating various aspects of the teaching of Hispanic culture at the secondary and junior high school levels are intended to improve methodology and facilitate the development of teacher-made instructional materials. An overview of the field relating problems and procedures in several areas is developed. Selections cover: (1) bilinguality,…

  7. Mosquito vector biology and control in Latin America - a 24th symposium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 24th Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 80th Annual Meeting in Seattle, WA in February 2014. The principal objective, as for the previous 23 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control spe...

  8. Mosquito Vector Control and Biology in Latin America - A 17th Symposium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 17th Annual Latin America American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 73rd Annual Meeting in Orlando, FL, in April 2007. The principal objective, as for the previous 16 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector cont...

  9. MOSQUITO VECTOR CONTROL AND BIOLOGY IN LATIN AMERICA- An 18TH SYMPOSIUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 18th Annual Latin American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 74th Annual Meeting in Sparks, NV, in March 2008. The principal objective, as for the previous 17 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control speci...

  10. Mosquito vector biology and control in Latin America - a 22nd Symposium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 22nd Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 78th Annual Meeting in Austin, TX in February 2012. The principal objective, as for the previous 21 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control spec...

  11. Mosquito vector biology and control in Latin America - A 21st symposium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 21st Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 77th Annual Meeting in Anaheim, CA in March 2011. The principal objective, as for the previous 20 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control specia...

  12. MOSQUITO VECTOR CONTROL AND BIOLOGY IN LATIN AMERICA - A 16TH SYMPOSIUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 16th Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 72nd Annual Meeting in Detroit, Michigan in February 2006. The principal objective, as for the previous 15 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector cont...

  13. MOSQUITO VECTOR CONTROL AND BIOLOGY IN LATIN AMERICA - A 19TH SYMPOSIUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 19th Annual Latin American symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 75th Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA, in April 2009. The principal objective, as for the previous 18 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control s...

  14. Mosquito vector biology and control in Latin America - a 23rd symposium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 23nd Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 79th Annual Meeting in Atlantic City, NJ in February 2013. The principal objective, as for the previous 22 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector contr...

  15. [Decriminalization of abortion: a common purpose in Latin America].

    PubMed

    1993-12-01

    In the conviction that abortion is a fundamental right of women and that its illegal practice constitutes a serious threat to life, several Latin American women's groups have united to work for decriminalization. The groups have been attempting to increase public awareness of the consequences of illegal abortion. Official silence on the topic appears to deny the existence of a problem. Proposals in the different Latin American countries are adapted to their political and legal circumstances. In Argentina, a campaign has been underway for nearly two years to collect signatures for a petition for a law concerning contraception and abortion. The National Network for Women's Health and other groups have held regional and national workshops on the issue. In Bolivia, radio and television programs have been broadcast in Spanish and indigenous languages on the right to choose, reproductive health, and sex education. Abortion was debated in Brazil during the process of constitutional reform, but it remains illegal. Illegal abortion continues to be a reality and women's groups are lobbying for decriminalization. Abortion is considered a crime in Colombia's penal code. Attempts to legalize abortion have been rejected by the legislature without debate. The practice of abortion under the circumstances has become a lucrative business whose lack of regulation has resulted in a growing number of maternal deaths. Attempts are underway in Costa Rica to legalize abortion in cases of rape or incest. Studies show that illegal abortion is the third most important cause of maternal death. A bill to legalize abortion is under study in Chile's Parliament but has not been approved. Abortion is illegal but common in Ecuador. Efforts are underway in Mexico and Nicaragua to encourage debate on abortion. Peru's Health Commission was recently prevented from classifying abortion for any reason other than grave congenital anomaly as homicide. Abortion has been legal in Puerto Rico since 1974, but amendments and laws to limit this right are under study. A bill to legalize abortion is under study in Venezuela and is being promoted by feminist groups. PMID:12287891

  16. Abortion in Latin America is a matter of desperation.

    PubMed

    Martinez, D

    1990-01-01

    For North Americans, the abortion debate is one of rights: the fetus' right to be born versus the mother's right to control her body. But for Latin American women, debating rights is a luxury that has little to do with the brutal reality of becoming pregnant and knowing it will be impossible to feed yet another child, says Sylvia Marcos. A Mexican psychotherapist who has taught at Harvard University, Marcos works with women in squatters' camps throughout Mexico. "If you want to end abortion in Latin America, you will have to change the whole economic system," said Marcos in an interview. Unfortunately, Marcos said, abortion foes have failed to come up with answers to the poverty that drives Latin American women to have what she estimates are 12 million illegal abortions a year. Women in Latin America, most of them Catholic, are expected to marry young and have many children. Most women choose abortion only after having many children and deciding it would be impossible to feed another, Marcos said. The combination of Catholicism and culture--extolling the virtues of large families--and women's utter lack of means to provide is devastating psychologically and physically, she said. Furthermore, about 1/2 of all Latin American women are raising children alone. "It's so unjust," said Marcos. The 12 million abortions reflect desperation--not an anti-life orientation, she said. "When you are hungry, you do not debate the ethics of when life begins," said Marcos. "If we had enough to eat, then we could care." Women who have abortions continue to call themselves Catholic but often quit going to communion. "Not only do they have a hard time recovering physically from illegal abortions, but they are denied spiritual enjoyment," Marcos said. Trapped in desperate situations, women ignore church teachings about abortion--particularly if they are Indians who still identify strongly with traditions that uphold different ideas about when life begins. Both prochoice and prolife forces in North America, said Marcos, have tended to look at the abortion issue from a North American perspective and have not formed a broader analysis that takes into account the concrete realities of poor women--the majority in Latin America. "It's very American to start with an abstract moral principle," she said. PMID:12178836

  17. Eugenics in the garden: architecture, medicine, and landscape from France to Latin America in the early twentieth century

    E-print Network

    López-Durán, Fabiola

    2009-01-01

    In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries--decades that saw the radical transformation of Latin American cities into metropolises-race and environment became social determinants of the modem utopian project of ...

  18. Institutions and national development in Latin America: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Portes, Alejandro; Smith, Lori D.

    2013-01-01

    We review the theoretical and empirical literatures on the role of institutions on national development as a prelude to present a more rigorous and measurable definition of the concept and a methodology to study this relationship at the national and subnational levels. The existing research literature features conflicting definitions of the concept of “institutions” and empirical tests based mostly on reputational indices, with countries as units of analysis. The present study’s methodology is based on a set of five strategic organizations studied comparatively in five Latin American countries. These include key federal agencies, public administrative organizations, and stock exchanges. Systematic analysis of results show a pattern of differences between economically-oriented institutions and those entrusted with providing basic services to the general population. Consistent differences in institutional quality also emerge across countries, despite similar levels of economic development. Using the algebraic methods developed by Ragin, we test six hypotheses about factors determining the developmental character of particular institutions. Implications of results for theory and for methodological practices of future studies in this field are discussed. PMID:26543407

  19. Hacia la creacion de una filosofia latinoamericana. Un ensayo nacionalista: El perfil del hombre y la cultura en Mexico (Toward the Creation of a Latin American Philosophy. An Essay on Nationalism: A Profile of the Mexicans and Their Culture).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Manuel

    An analysis of a Mexican essay by Samuel Ramos attempts to resolve the issue of whether or not there is a common philosophy in Latin America today. Manuel Mendoza concludes that no such philosophy exists, because the area has not had time to develop an internal character, and as a result, the intellectual and and philosophical concepts are based…

  20. Rechten Van Kinderen (Rights of Children) Lecture on the Ombudsman for Children in Costa Rica; Lecture on the Latin American Child and Family Network. Studie- en Documentatiecentrum voor Rechten van Kinderen Cahier 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiros, Rolando

    These two lectures discuss children's rights and the role that government can play in helping to alleviate some of the difficulties faced by children in developing nations, focusing on the situation in Costa Rica, specifically, and Latin America, in general. The first lecture examines some of the economic and social problems in Costa Rica, their…

  1. Diversity Resources at UNL African American & African Studies Program Native American Studies

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Diversity Resources at UNL June 2007 African American & African Studies Program Native American-472-1780 www.unl.edu/unlies/ Lincoln, NE 68588-0923 si.unl.edu/involved/east_campus/ Latino & Latin American American Student Association Culture Center, Rm. 202 402-472-0801 UNL Committee for Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual

  2. Neo-Latin News 

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Craig, et. al

    2010-01-01

    -sided as well. Eugenio Garin, for example, wrote that ?Filelfo always proposes to the powerful the same bargain: in exchange for writings in verse or prose, a certain number of zecchini, or florins, or ducats? (?L?opera di Francesco Filelfo,? in Storia di... Milano, vol. 7: L?et? sforzesca dal 1450 al 1500, Milan: Fondazione Treccani degli Alfieri, 1956, 545). Yet a neo-latin news 233 careful reading of Book 4 of the Odes reveals more than a simple hack for hire. The opening pair of poems...

  3. Neo-Latin News 

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Craig, et al.

    2007-01-01

    , Texas A&M University) ? ?uvres compl?tes, Tome I: Basiorum liber et Odarum liber. By Jean Second. Ed. and com. by Roland Guillot. Paris: Honor? Champion, 2005. The Basiorum liber of Johannes Secundus is among the most celebrated of all neo- Latin... scholars?indeed, there is material 80 SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY NEWS enough there for a book-length study of its own?his choice seems injudi- cious for what is meant to be a critical edition of the poetry of Johannes Secundus. Of course, any analysis...

  4. The history of electroconvulsive therapy in the United States and its place in American psychiatry: a personal memoir.

    PubMed

    Lebensohn, Z M

    1999-01-01

    The history of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in the United States is traced from its crude beginnings in 1940 to its emergence as a highly sophisticated and effective treatment for many severe psychiatric disorders. The general distrust of all somatic therapies in the 1930s and 1940s expressed by many prominent psychiatrists (both analysts and nonanalysts) contributed to an ambivalent relationship between ECT and the rest of American psychiatry. The media coverage of ECT is reviewed, and suggestions for dealing with the antipsychiatry movement and anti-ECT prejudice are discussed. PMID:10360611

  5. A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SPOKEN LATIN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KOBLER, JOHN F.

    BOOKS, ARTICLES, AND AUDIOVISUAL PROGRAMS USEFUL TO LATIN TEACHERS WISHING TO REVITALIZE THE STUDY OF LATIN ARE LISTED IN THIS CRITICAL, ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY. A FEW ITEMS FROM 1868 TO 1939 MERIT LISTING EVEN THOUGH OUT OF PRINT, BUT THE BULK OF THE MATERIAL DATES FROM THE 1950'S TO 1965 AND IS CONSIDERED AVAILABLE. THE SECTIONS OF THE…

  6. Overcoming social segregation in health care in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Cotlear, Daniel; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia; Atun, Rifat; Barreto, Ivana C H C; Cetrángolo, Oscar; Cueto, Marcos; Francke, Pedro; Frenz, Patricia; Guerrero, Ramiro; Lozano, Rafael; Marten, Robert; Sáenz, Rocío

    2015-03-28

    Latin America continues to segregate different social groups into separate health-system segments, including two separate public sector blocks: a well resourced social security for salaried workers and their families and a Ministry of Health serving poor and vulnerable people with low standards of quality and needing a frequently impoverishing payment at point of service. This segregation shows Latin America's longstanding economic and social inequality, cemented by an economic framework that predicted that economic growth would lead to rapid formalisation of the economy. Today, the institutional setup that organises the social segregation in health care is perceived, despite improved life expectancy and other advances, as a barrier to fulfilling the right to health, embodied in the legislation of many Latin American countries. This Series paper outlines four phases in the history of Latin American countries that explain the roots of segmentation in health care and describe three paths taken by countries seeking to overcome it: unification of the funds used to finance both social security and Ministry of Health services (one public payer); free choice of provider or insurer; and expansion of services to poor people and the non-salaried population by making explicit the health-care benefits to which all citizens are entitled. PMID:25458715

  7. American ginseng

    MedlinePLUS

    American ginseng (Panax quinquefolis) is an herb that grows mainly in North America. Wild American ginseng is in such high demand that it has ... states in the United States. People take American ginseng by mouth for stress, to boost the immune ...

  8. Knowledge and perceived implementation of food safety risk analysis framework in Latin America and the Caribbean region.

    PubMed

    Cherry, C; Mohr, A Hofelich; Lindsay, T; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Hueston, W; Sampedro, F

    2014-12-01

    Risk analysis is increasingly promoted as a tool to support science-based decisions regarding food safety. An online survey comprising 45 questions was used to gather information on the implementation of food safety risk analysis within the Latin American and Caribbean regions. Professionals working in food safety in academia, government, and private sectors in Latin American and Caribbean countries were contacted by email and surveyed to assess their individual knowledge of risk analysis and perceptions of its implementation in the region. From a total of 279 participants, 97% reported a familiarity with risk analysis concepts; however, fewer than 25% were able to correctly identify its key principles. The reported implementation of risk analysis among the different professional sectors was relatively low (46%). Participants from industries in countries with a long history of trade with the United States and the European Union, such as Mexico, Brazil, and Chile, reported perceptions of a higher degree of risk analysis implementation (56, 50, and 20%, respectively) than those from the rest of the countries, suggesting that commerce may be a driver for achieving higher food safety standards. Disagreement among respondents on the extent of the use of risk analysis in national food safety regulations was common, illustrating a systematic lack of understanding of the current regulatory status of the country. The results of this survey can be used to target further risk analysis training on selected sectors and countries. PMID:25474056

  9. China Unit and Resource Packet. The China Project of the American Forum for Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Julie; Dowling, Seamus

    This unit of study focuses on belief systems from China. It is crucial that students understand there are different ways of viewing the world, all of which may be valid. The 20 lessons in the unit stem from the presumptions that place students in the role of "historian" for the duration of these China studies. The unit is divided into the…

  10. Teaching America's Past to Our Newest Americans: Immigrant Students and United States History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Kerry A.; Martell, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    At one high school outside of Boston, most students look forward to their daily American history class. They love their teacher's regular pop culture references and arrive ready to participate in the lively and contentious debates. Yet, despite Almira's fondness for the teacher and deep commitment to academic success, this class causes…

  11. Junior High Unit Spans Five Disciplines: American History Comes Alive in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, Rosalind

    2004-01-01

    A time of upheaval and innovation, the American Colonial Period (1600-1775) was marked by New World settlers' struggles to adapt to a life that lacked anything familiar or prefabricated. The period provides a rich opportunity to study the contributions of the colonists across multiple disciplines. In the fall of 2003, a team of eighth-grade…

  12. American Indian Music for the Classroom: An Indian Education Curriculum Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stutzman, Esther

    This teaching guide, produced in cooperation with Indian parents, students and teachers, offers classroom material on the complex culture and history of American Indians. The guide suggests youngsters be taught that, contrary to stereotypes, there was a wide variation of Indian tribal groups and cultures in North America. A list of 14 "Stereotypes…

  13. EERE-Supported International Activities in Latin America (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-05-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is involved in a variety of international initiatives, partnerships, and events that promote greater understanding and use of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) worldwide. In support of the Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas (ECPA), EERE is working with several Latin American countries to advance EE and RE deployment for economic growth, energy security, poverty relief, and disaster recovery goals. This fact sheet highlights those activities.

  14. Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV Coinfection in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Lindoso, José Angelo; Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; da Cruz, Alda Maria; Goto, Hiro; Maia-Elkhoury, Ana Nilce Silveira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; de Sousa-Gomes, Márcia Leite; Santos-Oliveira, Joanna Reis; Rabello, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic zoonotic disease in Latin America caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, which is transmitted by sand flies from the genus Lutzomyia. VL occurs in 12 countries of Latin America, with 96% of cases reported in Brazil. Recently, an increase in VL, primarily affecting children and young adults, has been observed in urban areas of Latin America. The area in which this spread of VL is occurring overlaps regions with individuals living with HIV, the number of whom is estimated to be 1.4 million people by the World Health Organization. This overlap is suggested to be a leading cause of the increased number of reported VL-HIV coinfections. The clinical progression of HIV and L. infantum infections are both highly dependent on the specific immune response of an individual. Furthermore, the impact on the immune system caused by either pathogen and by VL-HIV coinfection can contribute to an accelerated progression of the diseases. Clinical presentation of VL in HIV positive patients is similar to patients without HIV, with symptoms characterized by fever, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, but diarrhea appears to be more common in coinfected patients. In addition, VL relapses are higher in coinfected patients, affecting 10% to 56.5% of cases and with a lethality ranging from 8.7% to 23.5% in Latin America, depending on the study. With regards to the diagnosis of VL, parasitological tests of bone marrow aspirates have proven to be the most sensitive test in HIV-infected patients. Serologic tests have demonstrated a variable sensitivity according to the method and antigens used, with the standard tests used for diagnosing VL in Latin America displaying lower sensitivity. For this review, few articles were identified that related to VL-HIV coinfections and originated from Latin America, highlighting the need for improving research within the regions most greatly affected. We strongly support the formation of a Latin American network for coinfections of Leishmania and HIV to improve the consistency of research on the current situation of VL-HIV coinfections. Such a network would improve the collection of vital data and samples for better understanding of the clinical manifestations and immunopathogenic aspects of VL in immunosuppressed patients. Ultimately, a concerted effort would improve trials for new diagnostic methodologies and therapeutics, which could accelerate the implementation of more specific and effective diagnosis as well as public policies for treatments to reduce the impact of VL-HIV coinfections on the Latin American population. PMID:25233461

  15. Latin America: Curriculum Materials for the Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Virginia G., Ed.

    Self-contained activities that will help social studies or Spanish foreign language students in grades 6-8 learn about the history and culture of Latin America are provided. Following an introductory unit, the activities, ranging from easy to complex, are organized by the following countries and areas: Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean,…

  16. University-Industry Entrepreneurship: The Organization and Management of American University Technology Transfer Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, David D.

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 289 university technology transfer units investigated their organization, management, and perceived performance effectiveness. Unit types studied included licensing and patent offices, small business development centers, research and technology centers, business facility incubators, and entrepreneurial investment/endowment offices.…

  17. Vocational Training in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallenborn, Manfred

    2001-01-01

    Explores historical development and weaknesses and change efforts in vocational training institutions in Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Peru. Identifies future directions for the training enterprise in Latin America. (SK)

  18. Latin Way Dorm Haskell Hall

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    Hall Pearson Hall Latin Way Dorm Haskell Hall TiltonHall POWDER HOUSE BLVD. LewisHall TEELE AVE. WHITFIELD RD Tilton Hall POWDER HOUSE BLVD. Lewis HallTEELE AVE. WHITFIELD RD. Hodgdon Hall Metcalf Hall TALBOT AVE

  19. Differences in hospital- and ventilator-associated pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant) between Europe and Latin America: A comparison of the EUVAP and LATINVAP study cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Rello, J.; Molano, D.; Villabon, M.; Reina, R.; Rita-Quispe, R.; Previgliano, I.; Afonso, E.; Restrepo, M.I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A comparison is made of epidemiological variables (demographic and clinical characteristics) and outcomes in patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA) in the Latin American VAP (LATINVAP) vs. the European Union VAP (EUVAP) cohorts of patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). Methods The EUVAP project was a prospective, multicenter observational study reporting 827 patients with HAP/VAP in 27 ICUs from 9 European countries. The LATINVAP project was a multicenter prospective observational study, with an identical design, performed in 17 ICUs from 4 Latin American countries involving 99 patients who developed HAP/VAP. Episodes of VAP/HAP caused by S. aureus, MSSA, and MRSA were compared in both cohorts. Results Forty-five patients had S. aureus HAP/VAP in the EUVAP cohort vs. 11 patients in the LATINVAP cohort. More patients had MRSA in the LATINVAP study than in the EUVAP (45% vs. 33%). ICU mortality among patients with MSSA HAP/VAP in EUVAP was 10% vs. 50% for LATINVAP (OR = 9.75, p = 0.01). Fifteen patients in the EUVAP cohort developed MRSA HAP/VAP as opposed to 5 in LATINVAP. In the EUVAP study there was an ICU mortality rate of 33.3%. In the LATINVAP cohort, the ICU mortality rate was 60% (OR for death = 3.0; 95%CI 0.24–44.7). Conclusion MRSA pneumonia was associated with poorer outcomes in comparison with MSSA. Our study suggests significant variability among European and Latin American ICU practices that may influence clinical outcomes. Furthermore, patients with pneumonia in Latin America have different outcomes. PMID:22749536

  20. American Black Bears as Hosts of Blacklegged Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Zolnik, Christine P; Makkay, Amanda M; Falco, Richard C; Daniels, Thomas J

    2015-09-01

    Ticks and whole blood were collected from American black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas) between October 2011 and October 2012 across four counties in northwestern New Jersey, an area where blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis Say) and their associated tick-borne pathogens are prevalent. Adult American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis Say) were the most frequently collected tick species in late spring, whereas adult and nymphal blacklegged ticks were found in both the late spring and fall months. Additionally, for blacklegged ticks, we determined the quality of bloodmeals that females acquired from black bears compared with bloodmeals from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman), the most important host for the adult stage of this tick species. Measures of fecundity after feeding on each host species were not significantly different, suggesting that the bloodmeal a female blacklegged tick acquires from a black bear is of similar quality to that obtained from a white-tailed deer. These results establish the American black bear as both a host and quality bloodmeal source to I. scapularis. Thus, black bears may help support blacklegged tick populations in areas where they are both present. In addition, samples of black bear blood were tested for DNA presence of three tick-borne pathogens. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Foggie and Babesia microti Franca were found in 9.2 and 32.3% of blood samples, respectively. All blood samples were quantitative polymerase chain reaction-negative for Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, & Brenner. Although circulating pathogens were found in blood, the status of black bears as reservoirs for these pathogens remains unknown. PMID:26336232

  1. [Adolescent sexual and reproductive behavior in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Pick De Weiss, S; Vargas-trujillo, E

    1990-01-01

    The Latin American literature on adolescent sexual and reproductive behavior is reviewed to provide professionals in the area with more relevant findings. The data demonstrates that sexually active adolescents of both gender are increasing and starting sexual activity at an earlier age. For example in Panama one out of every 5 births is from an adolescent 15-19 with 25% of these out of wedlock; in Chile, 44% of live births are illegitimate. Factors that are affecting these changes are the media, peer groups and other sources of information competing with parental discipline (TV, movies, music). In spite of the high incidence of out-of-wedlock pregnancies, the majority of pregnancies among adolescents in Latin America and the Caribbean take place in marriage with the average age of marriage at 20, with variation between the rural and urban areas. In 1978 the total fertility rate of El Salvador's urban areas was 3.3 as against 8.4 in the rural. Young girls in developing countries have few options for education, retaining their virginity and marriage, so when presented with the change early on, they marry and get pregnant. Cuba remains the only Latin American Country where abortion is offered (up to 10 weeks) within the context of health services; while illegal abortion in the majority of Latin American countries continues to increase. The proportion of complications due to abortion for those under 20 ranges from 11-20% in the region. Illegal abortions has become a major cause of maternal mortality constituting from 12-53% of deaths among the majority of women 15-24. Significant data is given for pregnancy, factors that influence knowledge and use of contraception, and available sex education programs, an extensive bibliography in these areas is included. PMID:12283397

  2. Advances in volcano monitoring and risk reduction in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCausland, W. A.; White, R. A.; Lockhart, A. B.; Marso, J. N.; Assitance Program, V. D.; Volcano Observatories, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    We describe results of cooperative work that advanced volcanic monitoring and risk reduction. The USGS-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) was initiated in 1986 after disastrous lahars during the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz dramatizedthe need to advance international capabilities in volcanic monitoring, eruption forecasting and hazard communication. For the past 28 years, VDAP has worked with our partners to improve observatories, strengthen monitoring networks, and train observatory personnel. We highlight a few of the many accomplishments by Latin American volcano observatories. Advances in monitoring, assessment and communication, and lessons learned from the lahars of the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz eruption and the 1994 Paez earthquake enabled the Servicio Geológico Colombiano to issue timely, life-saving warnings for 3 large syn-eruptive lahars at Nevado del Huila in 2007 and 2008. In Chile, the 2008 eruption of Chaitén prompted SERNAGEOMIN to complete a national volcanic vulnerability assessment that led to a major increase in volcano monitoring. Throughout Latin America improved seismic networks now telemeter data to observatories where the decades-long background rates and types of seismicity have been characterized at over 50 volcanoes. Standardization of the Earthworm data acquisition system has enabled data sharing across international boundaries, of paramount importance during both regional tectonic earthquakes and during volcanic crises when vulnerabilities cross international borders. Sharing of seismic forecasting methods led to the formation of the international organization of Latin American Volcano Seismologists (LAVAS). LAVAS courses and other VDAP training sessions have led to international sharing of methods to forecast eruptions through recognition of precursors and to reduce vulnerabilities from all volcano hazards (flows, falls, surges, gas) through hazard assessment, mapping and modeling. Satellite remote sensing data-sharing facilitatescross-border identification and warnings of ash plumes for aviation. Overall, long-term strategies of data collection and experience-sharing have helped Latin American observatories improve their monitoring and create informed communities cognizant of vulnerabilities inherent in living near volcanoes.

  3. Pacific island landbird monitoring annual report, National Park of American Samoa, Ta‘u and Tutuila units, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Judge, Seth W.; Camp, Richard J.; Vaivai, Visa; Hart, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    The National Park of American Samoa (NPSA) was surveyed for landbirds and habitat characteristics from June through August, 2011. This information provides the first data in the time-series of landbird monitoring for long-term trends in forest bird distribution, density, and abundance within the NPSA. The NPSA survey area was comprised of the terrestrial portions of the Ta‘u and Tutuila Units. Each Unit was surveyed using point-transect distance sampling to estimate bird abundance. Sampling was conducted using a split-panel design where legacy transects are visited during each sampling occasion and newly, randomly located transects are visited only during one sampling occasion. This design optimizes trend detection while allowing for measuring and correcting for estimator bias. A total of 2,516 birds was detected from 13 species in both Units. All species were either endemic or indigenous to the islands of American Samoa. Numbers of detections ranged from 7 to 1,111. Nearly every species detected was broadly distributed in the predominantly native forests of NPSA. Sufficient detections were made of seven species, allowing for density estimation. Densities of species were higher in the Tutuila Unit; with the exception of the Wattled Honeyeater (Foulehaio carunculata), which was the most abundant species in both Units. The species occurred at nearly every station sampled and had densities much higher than the Samoan Starling (Aplonis atrifusca), Polynesian Starling (Aplonis tabuensis), and Collared Kingfisher (Halcyon chloris) which occurred in modest densities. The remaining species detected occurred at less than 20% of stations sampled and we were only able to determine the number of birds per station and percent occurrence. The White-rumped Swiftlet (Aerodramus spodiopygius) and Cardinal Honeyeater (Myzomela cardinalis) were detected in small numbers, but both species can be difficult to detect in closed canopy forests. The Purple Swamphen (Porphyrio porphyrio) and Banded Rail (Gallirallus philippensis) were most often detected in areas close to villages and agroforestry plantations. The Blue-crowned Lorikeet (Vini australis) and Fiji Shrikebill (Clytorhynchus vitiensis) only occur in the Manu‘a Island Group. The former was detected in most survey areas and the latter was patchily distributed in the Ta‘u Unit. The Many-colored Fruit-dove (Ptilinopus perousii), a species of concern, was detected in very small numbers in both Units. The Spotless Crake (Porzana tabuensi), which is extirpated on Tutuila Island, has been incidentally detected in small numbers on Ta‘u Island. However, the species was neither seen nor heard during this survey and remains a species of concern. NPSA canopy and understory composition was predominantly native, and trees formed a dense closed canopy at nearly 90% of the stations sampled. More than half of the tree heights in both units were taller than 5 m and the majority of slopes were steeper than 20 degrees. There were no clear dominant tree species in the mixed native forests. The most common tree species documented included Syzygium spp., Dysoxylum spp., Ficus spp., Hibiscus tiliaceus and Rhus taitensis (among others). There were significant differences in the distribution of bird densities between legacy and random transects. Determining differences in detection probabilities cannot be definitively assessed from a single survey. We recommend both panels be sampled in the future until bias in density and abundance can be evaluated, or if sampling may be reduced.

  4. A Cluster Analytic Examination of Acculturation and Health Status among Asian Americans in the Washington DC Metropolitan Area, United States

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sunmin; Chen, Lu; He, Xin; Miller, Matthew J.; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies reported mixed findings on the relationship between acculturation and health status among Asian Americans due to different types of acculturation measures used or different Asian subgroups involved in various studies. We aim to fill the gap by applying multiple measures of acculturation in a diverse sample of Asian subgroups. A cross sectional study was conducted among Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese Americans in Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area to examine the association between health status and acculturation using multiple measures including the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation (SL-ASIA) scale, clusters based on responses to SL-ASIA, language preference, length of stay, age at arrival in the United Sates and self-identity. Three clusters (Asian (31%); Bicultural (47%); and American (22%)) were created by using a two-step hierarchical method and Bayesian Information Criterion values. Across all the measures, more acculturated individuals were significantly more likely to report good health than those who were less acculturated after adjusting for covariates. Specifically, those in the American cluster were 3.8 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.2, 6.6) more likely and those in the Bicultural cluster were 1.7 times more likely (95% CI: 1.1, 2.4) to report good health as compared to those in the Asian cluster. When the conventional standardized SL-ASIA summary score (range: ?1.4 to 1.4) was used, a one point increase was associated with 2.2 times greater odds of reporting good health (95% CI: 1.5, 3.2). However, the interpretation may be challenging due to uncertainty surrounding the meaning of a one point increase in SL-ASIA summary score. Among all the measures used, acculturation clusters better approximated the acculturation process and provided us with a more accurate test of the association in the population. Variables included in this measure were more relevant for our study sample and may have worked together to capture the multifaceted acculturation process. PMID:24034947

  5. Overrepresented Minorities in Special Education in the United States and Romania: Comparison between African-American and Roma Populations in Disability Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gabriela

    2008-01-01

    This manuscript briefly examines minority participation within the school population that is eligible for special education services--namely, African Americans in the United States and the Roma population in Romania. A large percentage of students from both minorities come to school unprepared to learn and they remain behind because of the…

  6. Attitudes of Members of the Midwest Unit of Catholic Library Association toward Recent Revisions of the Documents on Intellectual Freedom adopted by the American Library Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehoe, Sister Maureen

    This study was conducted to determine the attitudes toward intellectual freedom and censorship of Catholic Library Association (CLA) Midwest Unit members. Sixty of 77 members responded to a questionnaire based on principles from four American Library Association (ALA) documents on intellectual freedom: original and revised editions of "The Freedom…

  7. The Cold War Court: a rhetorical analysis of the Supreme Court's debate concerning the American Communist Party in Dennis v. United States, 1951 

    E-print Network

    Carcasson, Martin

    1998-01-01

    In the midst of the McCarthy era, eleven national leaders of the American Communist Party were arrested under the provisions of the Smith Act. Their case, Dennis v. United States, eventually rose to the Supreme Court, where a sharply divided Court...

  8. An Inquiry Lesson Plan for American History: Interpreting the Great Seal of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richburg, Robert W.

    1985-01-01

    The Great Seal of the United States is an important expression of the values of the Founding Fathers of our nation. This lesson will help students in grades 8-12 investigate the meaning of the symbols incorporated in the Great Seal and, thus, gain insights into the uniqueness of our national aspirations. (RM)

  9. vol. 163, no. 6 the american naturalist june 2004 Evolution of Morphological Integration. I. Functional Units

    E-print Network

    Badyaev, Alex

    . Functional Units Channel Stress-Induced Variation in Shrew Mandibles Alexander V. Badyaev1,* and Kerry R studied within-individual developmental variation (fluctuating asymmetry) in the mandible of four shrew explain the historical persistence of sets of traits involved in the same function in shrew jaws despite

  10. Optimizing Health Care for Foreign Students in the United States and American Students Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Coll. Health Association, Evanston, IL.

    This workbook is organized around 15 guidelines for improving health care for foreign students in the United States and U.S. students abroad. Each guideline is described in a chapter followed by self-assessment questions enabling the evaluation of the adequacy of campus health programs. Each chapter concludes with an invitation to outline goals…

  11. American Indian and Alaska Native Aboriginal Use of Alcohol in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Patrick J.

    1996-01-01

    The history of Aboriginal production and use of alcohol prior to white contact reveals that alcohol use originated in Central America and rapidly diffused to northern Mexico and the southwestern United States. However, Aboriginal alcohol use was generally controlled and supervised during ceremonies, and only after white contact did alcohol use…

  12. Seeking Safe Haven: A Congregational Guide to Helping Central American Refugees in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Friends Service Committee, Philadelphia, PA.

    Over the last three years, religious groups and communities around the United States have become increasingly aware of the arrival in this country of large numbers of Salvadorans and Guatemalans seeking refuge from violence and persecution but instead facing arrest and deportation as illegal aliens. This guide is an attempt to mobilize, orient,…

  13. American Museum Guides: Sciences. A Critical Handbook to the Finest Collections in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Paul, Ed.

    Descriptions of 93 museum collections and exhibit centers in the United States and Canada are provided. Entries are grouped into four categories: (1) air and space, (2) natural history, (3) science and technology, and (4) special topics museums. Within each category the museums have in turn been broken down into major ones (which have lengthy…

  14. School Violence in Japan and the United States: Sharing American Practice with Japanese Teacher Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picklesimer, Billie K.; Williams, Jane L.

    In December 1998, faculty from Middle Tennessee State University visited the Faculty of Education at Fukushima University in Fukushima, Japan. The purpose of the visit was to share with Japanese educators the processes through which school counselors are trained to deal with school violence in the United States. Because school staffing patterns…

  15. Influenza Hospitalizations Among American Indian/Alaska Native People and in the United States General Population

    PubMed Central

    Gounder, Prabhu P.; Callinan, Laura S.; Holman, Robert C.; Cheng, Po-Yung; Bruce, Michael G.; Redd, John T.; Steiner, Claudia A.; Bresee, Joseph; Hennessy, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Background. ?Historically, American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) people have experienced a disproportionate burden of infectious disease morbidity compared with the general US population. We evaluated whether a disparity in influenza hospitalizations exists between AI/AN people and the general US population. Methods. ?We used Indian Health Service hospital discharge data (2001–2011) for AI/AN people and 13 State Inpatient Databases (2001–2008) to provide a comparison to the US population. Hospitalization rates were calculated by respiratory year (July–June). Influenza-specific hospitalizations were defined as discharges with any influenza diagnoses. Influenza-associated hospitalizations were calculated using negative binomial regression models that incorporated hospitalization and influenza laboratory surveillance data. Results. ?The mean influenza-specific hospitalization rate/100 000 persons/year during the 2001–2002 to 2007–2008 respiratory years was 18.6 for AI/AN people and 15.6 for the comparison US population. The age-adjusted influenza-associated hospitalization rate for AI/AN people (98.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 51.6–317.8) was similar to the comparison US population (58.2; CI, 34.7–172.2). By age, influenza-associated hospitalization rates were significantly higher among AI/AN infants (<1 year) (1070.7; CI, 640.7–2969.5) than the comparison US infant population (210.2; CI, 153.5–478.5). Conclusions. ?American Indian/Alaska Native people had higher influenza-specific hospitalization rates than the comparison US population; a significant influenza-associated hospitalization rate disparity was detected only among AI/AN infants because of the wide CIs inherent to the model. Taken together, the influenza-specific and influenza-associated hospitalization rates suggest that AI/AN people might suffer disproportionately from influenza illness compared with the general US population. PMID:25734102

  16. Planning cancer control in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Goss, Paul E; Lee, Brittany L; Badovinac-Crnjevic, Tanja; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin; St Louis, Jessica; Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Ferreyra, Mayra; Debiasi, Márcio; Liedke, Pedro E R; Touya, Diego; Werutsky, Gustavo; Higgins, Michaela; Fan, Lei; Vasconcelos, Claudia; Cazap, Eduardo; Vallejos, Carlos; Mohar, Alejandro; Knaul, Felicia; Arreola, Hector; Batura, Rekha; Luciani, Silvana; Sullivan, Richard; Finkelstein, Dianne; Simon, Sergio; Barrios, Carlos; Kightlinger, Rebecca; Gelrud, Andres; Bychkovsky, Vladimir; Lopes, Gilberto; Stefani, Stephen; Blaya, Marcelo; Souza, Fabiano Hahn; Santos, Franklin Santana; Kaemmerer, Alberto; de Azambuja, Evandro; Zorilla, Andres Felipe Cardona; Murillo, Raul; Jeronimo, Jose; Tsu, Vivien; Carvalho, Andre; Gil, Carlos Ferreira; Sternberg, Cinthya; Dueñas-Gonzalez, Alfonso; Sgroi, Dennis; Cuello, Mauricio; Fresco, Rodrigo; Reis, Rui Manuel; Masera, Guiseppe; Gabús, Raúl; Ribeiro, Raul; Knust, Renata; Ismael, Gustavo; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Roth, Berta; Villa, Luisa; Solares, Argelia Lara; Leon, Marta Ximena; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Covarrubias-Gomez, Alfredo; Hernández, Andrés; Bertolino, Mariela; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Santillana, Sergio; Esteva, Francisco; Fein, Luis; Mano, Max; Gomez, Henry; Hurlbert, Marc; Durstine, Alessandra; Azenha, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    Non-communicable diseases, including cancer, are overtaking infectious disease as the leading health-care threat in middle-income and low-income countries. Latin American and Caribbean countries are struggling to respond to increasing morbidity and death from advanced disease. Health ministries and health-care systems in these countries face many challenges caring for patients with advanced cancer: inadequate funding; inequitable distribution of resources and services; inadequate numbers, training, and distribution of health-care personnel and equipment; lack of adequate care for many populations based on socioeconomic, geographic, ethnic, and other factors; and current systems geared toward the needs of wealthy, urban minorities at a cost to the entire population. This burgeoning cancer problem threatens to cause widespread suffering and economic peril to the countries of Latin America. Prompt and deliberate actions must be taken to avoid this scenario. Increasing efforts towards prevention of cancer and avoidance of advanced, stage IV disease will reduce suffering and mortality and will make overall cancer care more affordable. We hope the findings of our Commission and our recommendations will inspire Latin American stakeholders to redouble their efforts to address this increasing cancer burden and to prevent it from worsening and threatening their societies. PMID:23628188

  17. Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Studies Center for Latin American,

    E-print Network

    Artemov, Sergei N.

    ......................................................................................................7 Trends in Childhood Poverty Rates by Sex of Child.............................................................................7 Trends in Childhood Poverty Rates by Race/Ethnicity of Child............................................................8 Trends in Childhood Poverty Rates by Nativity of Child

  18. Adult education and indigenous peoples in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelkes, Sylvia

    2011-08-01

    This article describes the educational situation of indigenous peoples in Latin America, and in particular their scant participation in adult education activities. It analyses the historical, structural and institutional barriers to their greater involvement in adult education. The article proposes to look at indigenous demands on education as a potential way out of educational stagnation of indigenous adults, which is one of the challenges clearly formulated by UNESCO member states during CONFINTEA VI as a priority to be faced. The article concludes arguing the case for intercultural education, not only among indigenous peoples, but for the whole of the population, to be a guiding philosophy for education in general and adult education in particular in Latin American countries. It emphasises the fact that this cannot be achieved without the active participation of indigenous peoples themselves.

  19. United States and the New International Economic Order: an analysis of American foreign policy regarding the transfer of technology to the less-developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Asim, Z.M.

    1982-01-01

    An attempt has been made in this study to demonstrate that the concept of a New International Economic Order is not just a passing phase confined to verbal polemics in the United Nations, but that it is a highly serious effort to alter the existing global economic system of the non-Communist world. It is further maintained that while the New International Economic Order is not wholly what its title suggests, it is, nevertheless, a growing movement being pursued by the less-developed countries in numerous international fora. The role of the United States is the subject of a sharper focus, particularly in regard to its response to the New International Economic Order. A chronological survey of United States policies since the inception of the NIEO, indicates that the American response to Southern demands for a new order has been mostly negative, unimaginative, defensive, and contrary to often enunciated American ideals. The second facet of this study deals specifically with the issues pertaining to the transfer of technology to the LDCs. This phase attempts to show the potential problems and promises that such technology transfers might present. The study concludes with a set of proposals for an affirmative and globally-oriented American foreign policy toward the LDCs' economic agenda as envisioned in the NIEO, and toward their particular needs for American technology.

  20. Dietary Patterns and Sarcopenia in an Urban African American and White Population in the United States

    PubMed Central

    KUCZMARSKI, MARIE FANELLI; MASON, MARC A.; BEYDOUN, MAY A.; ALLEGRO, DEANNE; ZONDERMAN, ALAN B.; EVANS, MICHELE K.

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this cross-sectional study was to characterize dietary patterns of African Americans and Whites, 30 to 64 years, examined in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study. Other objectives of the study were to evaluate micronutrient adequacy of each pattern and to determine the association of diet with sarcopenia. Cluster analysis was used to determine patterns and mean adequacy ratio (MAR) to determine adequacy of 15 micmnutrients. Ten clusters were identified: sandwich, sweet drink, pizza, poultry, frozen meal, dessert, alcoholic drink, bread, starchy vegetables, and pasta/rice dish. MAR ranged from 69 for the sweet drink cluster to 82 for the pasta/rice dish cluster. Sarcopenia was present in 6.4% of the sample, ranging from 1.5% in the poultry cluster to 14.1% in the alcoholic drink cluster. This study is the first to report an association between diet and sarcopenia in people younger than 65 years. The identification of presarcopenia has important implications for dietary interventions that might delay age-associated loss of lean mass. PMID:24224938

  1. Latin America: how a region surprised the experts.

    PubMed

    De Sherbinin, A

    1993-02-01

    In 1960-1970, family planning specialists and demographers worried that poverty, limited education, Latin machismo, and strong catholic ideals would obstruct family planning efforts to reduce high fertility in Latin America. It had the highest annual population growth rate in the world (2.8%), which would increase the population 2-fold in 25 years. Yet, the UN's 1992 population projection for Latin America and the Caribbean in the year 2000 was about 20% lower than its 1963 projection (just over 500 vs. 638 million). Since life expectancy increased simultaneously from 57 to 68 years, this reduced projection was caused directly by a large decline in fertility from 5.9 to 3. A regression analysis of 11 Latin American and Caribbean countries revealed that differences in the contraceptive prevalence rates accounted for 90% of the variation in the total fertility rate between countries. Thus, contraception played a key role in the fertility decline. The second most significant determinant of fertility decline was an increase in the average age at first marriage from about 20 to 23 years. Induced abortion and breast feeding did not contribute significantly to fertility decline. The major socioeconomic factors responsible for the decline included economic development and urbanization, resulting in improvements in health care, reduced infant and child mortality, and increases in female literacy, education, and labor force participation. Public and private family planning programs also contributed significantly to the decline. They expanded from cities to remote rural areas, thereby increasing access to contraception. By the early 1990s, Brazil, Mexico, and Colombia had among the lowest levels of unmet need (13-24%) in developing countries. Other key factors of fertility decline were political commitment, strong communication efforts, and stress on quality services. Latin America provides hope to other regions where religion and culture promote a large family size. PMID:12286199

  2. Characterization of major lithologic units underlying the lower American River using water-borne continuous resistivity profiling, Sacramento, California, June 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Teeple, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    The levee system of the lower American River in Sacramento, California, is situated above a mixed lithology of alluvial deposits that range from clay to gravel. In addition, sand deposits related to hydraulic mining activities underlie the floodplain and are preferentially prone to scour during high-flow events. In contrast, sections of the American River channel have been observed to be scour resistant. In this study, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, explores the resistivity structure of the American River channel to characterize the extent and thickness of lithologic units that may impact the scour potential of the area. Likely lithologic structures are interpreted, but these interpretations are non-unique and cannot be directly related to scour potential. Additional geotechnical data would provide insightful data on the scour potential of certain lithologic units. Additional interpretation of the resistivity data with respect to these results may improve interpretations of lithology and scour potential throughout the American River channel and floodplain. Resistivity data were collected in three profiles along the American River using a water-borne continuous resistivity profiling technique. After processing and modeling these data, inverted resistivity profiles were used to make interpretations about the extent and thickness of possible lithologic units. In general, an intermittent high-resistivity layer likely indicative of sand or gravel deposits extends to a depth of around 30 feet (9 meters) and is underlain by a consistent low-resistivity layer that likely indicates a high-clay content unit that extends below the depth of investigation (60 feet or 18 meters). Immediately upstream of the Watt Avenue Bridge, the high-resistivity layer is absent, and the low-resistivity layer extends to the surface where a scour-resistant layer has been previously observed in the river bed.

  3. Word Power through Latin; A Curriculum Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciantonio, Rudolph

    This curriculum guide is intended to assist Latin teachers in the School District of Philadelphia in achieving one of the goals of Latin instruction: the development of word power in English through a structured study of Latin roots and affixes. The guide may be used in two different ways. First, it may form the basis for a separate…

  4. American Indian Methamphetamine and other Drug use in the Southwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Forcehimes, A.A.; Venner, K.L; Bogenschutz, M.P.; Foley, K.; Davis, M. P.; Houck, J. M.; Willie, E. L.; Begaye, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background To investigate the extent of methamphetamine and other drug use among American Indians (AI) in the Four Corners region, we developed collaborations with Southwestern tribal entities and treatment programs in and around New Mexico. Methods (1) We held nine focus groups, mostly with Southwest AI participants (N=81) from three diverse New Mexico communities to understand community members, treatment providers, and clients/relatives views on methamphetamine (2) We conducted a telephone survey of staff (N=100) from agencies across New Mexico to assess perceptions of methamphetamine use among people working with AI populations. (3) We collected and analyzed self-reported drug use data from 300 AI clients/relatives who completed the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) in the context of treatment at three diverse addiction treatment programs. Results Each focus group offered a unique perspective about the effect of drugs and alcohol on each respective community. Though data from the phone surveys and ASIs suggested concerning rates of methamphetamine use, with women more adversely affected by substance use in general, alcohol was identified as the biggest substance use problem for AI populations in the Southwest. Conclusions There appears to be agreement that methamphetamine use is a significant problem in these communities, but that alcohol is much more prevalent and problematic. There was less agreement about what should be done to prevent and treat methamphetamine use. Future research should attend to regional and tribal differences due to variability in drug use patterns, and should focus on identifying and improving dissemination of effective substance use interventions. PMID:21988577

  5. American Indian and Alaska Native Infant and Pediatric Mortality, United States, 1999–2009

    PubMed Central

    Gachupin, Francine C.; Holman, Robert C.; MacDorman, Marian F.; Cheek, James E.; Holve, Steve; Singleton, Rosalyn J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We described American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) infant and pediatric death rates and leading causes of death. Methods. We adjusted National Vital Statistics System mortality data for AI/AN racial misclassification by linkage with Indian Health Service (IHS) registration records. We determined average annual death rates and leading causes of death for 1999 to 2009 for AI/AN versus White infants and children. We limited the analysis to IHS Contract Health Service Delivery Area counties. Results. The AI/AN infant death rate was 914 (rate ratio [RR]?=?1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.55, 1.67). Sudden infant death syndrome, unintentional injuries, and influenza or pneumonia were more common in AI/AN versus White infants. The overall AI/AN pediatric death rates were 69.6 for ages 1 to 4 years (RR?=?2.56; 95% CI?=?2.38, 2.75), 28.9 for ages 5 to 9 years (RR?=?2.12; 95% CI?=?1.92, 2.34), 37.3 for ages 10 to 14 years (RR?=?2.22; 95% CI?=?2.04, 2.40), and 158.4 for ages 15 to 19 years (RR?=?2.71; 95% CI?=?2.60, 2.82). Unintentional injuries and suicide occurred at higher rates among AI/AN youths versus White youths. Conclusions. Death rates for AI/AN infants and children were higher than for Whites, with regional disparities. Several leading causes of death in the AI/AN pediatric population are potentially preventable. PMID:24754619

  6. ACCESSING OVERSEAS MARKETS ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS AND APPLIANCE LABELING IN ASIA AND LATIN AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the project is to reduce pollution and environmental degradation by increasing the efficiency of energy end-uses in the industrial and household sectors of key Asian and Latin American countries. This will be accomplished by encouraging the adoption and harmo...

  7. Smoking and smoking cessation in Latin America: a review of the current situation and available treatments

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Fernando; Wehbe, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a growing problem throughout Latin American countries, especially in underdeveloped countries where poverty and lack of education about the dangers of smoking may make people more susceptible to becoming smokers. Moreover, the economies of many Latin American countries have become dependent on the production of tobacco. Furthermore, because of the associated promotion of tobacco, smoking has integrated into many Latin American cultures. Nevertheless, the harmful health effects of tobacco use are well documented, including greatly increased risks of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, and many forms of cancer. The medical costs associated with treating these diseases far outweigh the economic benefits of producing and selling this deadly crop. To control the tobacco pandemic in Latin American countries, nicotine addiction must be recognized and treated as a disease. Governments, both national and local, need to be more involved in enacting anti-smoking policies such as higher tobacco taxation, control of illegal tobacco smuggling, and reimbursement of medical smoking cessation interventions. The training of health professions in the area of nicotine addiction must also be improved, so that they may better assist smokers in their quit attempts and advise patients on, and prescribe, effective smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. PMID:18686737

  8. Postcolonial Models, Cultural Transfers and Transnational Perspectives in Latin America: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ossenbach, Gabriela; del Pozo, Maria del Mar

    2011-01-01

    In this article we wish to propose a debate on postcolonialism and its role in the history of Latin American education. Our starting point is the acknowledgement of the reality that postcolonial historiographic perspectives have yet to be applied in studies of one of history's great empires, namely, the Spanish Empire. This is surprising for…

  9. Inequality of Opportunity for Educational Achievement in Latin America: Evidence from PISA 2006-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamboa, Luis Fernando; Waltenberg, Fabio D.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate how far away six Latin American countries stand from a normative goal of equality of opportunity for educational achievement in PISA 2006-2009. We work with alternative characterizations of types: gender, school type (public or private), parental education, and their combinations. Following Checchi-Peragine's (2010) non-parametric…

  10. Reflections from Latin America for Strengthening Youth and Adult Educational Policy and Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mera, Carlos Zarco

    2004-01-01

    This article stems from the author's personal experience promoting processes in favour of youth and adult education as Secretary General of the Latin American Council for Adult Education. The author draws from the analyses and considerations presented in documents developed over the past seven years that reflect collective thinking and the…

  11. Poverty and Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank Technical Paper No. 467.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodon, Quentin T.

    Although the progress toward poverty reduction remains sluggish, other dimensions of social welfare in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region show signs of improvement. Adult literacy and school enrollment rates, life expectancy at birth, access to safe water, and nutrition indicators are improving. However, other factors demonstrate that…

  12. High prevalence of multiple syndemic conditions associated with sexual risk behavior and HIV infection among a large sample of Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking men who have sex with men in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Biello, Katie B; Robertson, Angela M; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Rosenberger, Joshua G; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Novak, David S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A

    2015-10-01

    The HIV epidemic in Latin America is highly concentrated in men who have sex with men (MSM). In the United States, multiple co-occurring psychosocial conditions have been shown to act as intertwined epidemics to potentiate HIV transmission among MSM. To date, no study has examined the role of syndemics and condomless sex among MSM in Latin America. In 2012, an online survey was conducted among members of the largest social/sexual networking website for MSM in Latin America. Participants were asked about demographics, sexual behaviors, HIV/STI diagnoses, and psychosocial well-being, including depression, suicidal ideation, hazardous alcohol use, hard drug use during sex, history of childhood/adolescent sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, and sexual compulsivity. Multivariable logistic generalized estimation equations were used to assess the relationship of syndemic factors and (1) engagement in higher risk condomless anal sex and (2) self-report of prior HIV diagnosis. Among 24,274 survey respondents, 74.6 % of the sample had at least one syndemic factor. In an additive model, syndemics were associated with increased odds of higher risk condomless anal sex, ranging from adjusted odds ratio of 1.31 (95 % CI 1.20, 1.43) for one syndemic factor to 4.06 (95 % CI 3.25, 5.09) for 6/7 syndemic factors. Similarly, syndemics were associated with increased odds of HIV infection (p < .0001). This study provides initial evidence that intertwined syndemics increase HIV risk behavior and HIV infection among MSM in Latin America. In the Latin American context, comprehensive HIV prevention interventions for MSM should be developed and tested that simultaneously address co-occurring psychosocial conditions and HIV risk. PMID:26159862

  13. COMMISSION FOR LATIN AMERICA

    E-print Network

    of Washington from the late 19th century to the Second World War, characterized by two contradictory water Nations #12;CEPAL REVIEW 49 75 Water property rights and the State: The United States experience Carl J on patterns of water and other natural resource development, and hence on economic development in general

  14. Language Politics in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopalan, Kanavillil

    2005-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to take stock of the politics of language as it has been playing out in Latin America, ever since the countries in this region were colonized by European powers, mainly Spain and Portugal. Linguistic imperialism is by no means a new phenomenon in this part of the world. In more recent times, the relentless advance of…

  15. Building ESD in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2007

    2007-01-01

    To encourage efforts for furthering the UN DESD agenda in Latin America, a meeting titled "Building Education for Sustainable Development" was held in Costa Rica from 31 October to 2 November 2006. Plenary sessions were interspersed with working groups to look at how ESD can be integrated in formal and non-formal education systems, and to make…

  16. HIV testing and service delivery among Blacks or African Americans--61 health department jurisdictions, United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Seth, Puja; Walker, Tanja; Hollis, NaTasha; Figueroa, Argelia; Belcher, Lisa

    2015-02-01

    In the United States, approximately 1.2 million persons are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), of whom approximately 14.0% have not received a diagnosis. Some groups are disproportionately affected by HIV, such as persons who self-identify as blacks or African Americans (in this report referred to as blacks). Blacks accounted for 12.0% of the United States' population but accounted for 41.0% of persons living with HIV in 2011. HIV testing is critical to identify those who are infected and link them to HIV medical care for their own health and to reduce transmission to partners. To assess progress toward increasing HIV testing and service delivery among blacks in 2013, CDC analyzed national-level program data submitted by 61 health departments and 151 directly funded community-based organizations through the National HIV Prevention Program Monitoring and Evaluation system. This report describes the results of that analysis, which found that, in 2013, blacks accounted for 45.0% of CDC-funded HIV testing events (TEs) and more than half (54.9%) of all newly identified HIV-positive persons (in this report referred to as new positives). Among blacks, gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (collectively referred to as MSM) had the highest percentage of new positives (9.6%). Broader implementation of routine HIV screening and HIV testing targeted towards populations at high risk can help identify persons with undiagnosed HIV infection and link these persons to HIV medical care and prevention services. Linkage to medical care and referrals to HIV partner services and HIV prevention services among blacks could be improved. PMID:25654608

  17. The health of Arab-Americans living in the United States: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M; Galea, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite substantial attention paid to Arab-Americans (AAs) in the media and in public discourse, there is limited research about the health of AAs in the United States (US) in the public health literature. This review aims to synthesize the extant peer-reviewed literature concerned with the health of AAs living in the US. Methods We summarize existing research on the prevalence, relative burden compared to other ethnic and racial groups, and determinants of diseases within each morbidity cluster among AAs living in the US. Results Available evidence suggests that the health of AAs may differ from that of other ethnic and racial groups in the US, and that exposures specific to this ethnic group, such as immigration, acculturation, and discrimination may be important in the etiology of several diseases among AAs. Conclusion Given the growth of this ethnic group and its marginalization in the current sociopolitical climate, more research about the health of AAs in the US seems warranted. We summarize relevant methodological concerns and suggest avenues for future research. PMID:19643005

  18. The Relationship Between the American Board of Anesthesiology Part 1 Certification Examination and the United States Medical Licensing Examination

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Gerard F.; Swanson, David B.; McClintock, Joseph C.; Gravlee, Glenn P.

    2013-01-01

    Background The graduate medical education community uses results from the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) to inform decisions about individuals' readiness for postgraduate training. Objective We sought to determine the relationship between performance on the USMLE and the American Board of Anesthesiology (ABA) Part 1 Certification Examination using a national sample of examinees, and we considered the relationship in the context of undergraduate medical education location and examination content. Methods Approximately 7800 individuals met inclusion criteria. The relationships between USMLE scores and ABA Part 1 pass rates were examined, and predictions for the strength of the relationship between USMLE content areas and ABA performance were compared with observed relationships. Results Pearson correlations between ABA Part 1 scores and USMLE Steps 1, 2 (clinical knowledge), and 3 scores for first-taker US/Canadian graduates were .59, .56, and .53, respectively. A clear relationship was demonstrated between USMLE scores and pass rates on ABA Part 1, and content experts were able to successfully predict the USMLE content categories that would least or most likely relate to ABA Part 1 scores. Conclusions The analysis provided evidence on a national scale that results from the USMLE and the ABA Part 1 were correlated and that success on the latter examination was associated with level of USMLE performance. Both testing programs have been successful in conceptualizing many of the knowledge areas of interest and in developing test content to reflect those areas. PMID:24404273

  19. A comprehensive protocol to evaluate the use of blood and its components in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Ana E del; Pérez-Rosales, Maria D; Almeida-Neto, Cesar de; Remesar, Mirta C; Cortes, Armando D; Delgado, Raquel Baumgratz; Mendrone, Alfredo; Sabino, Ester

    2015-06-01

    Blood transfusion safety is a critical part of appropriate health care. Considering the limited information available on the use of blood and its components in Latin America and the Caribbean, the Grupo Cooperativo iberoamericano de Medicina Transfusional (Ibero-American Cooperative Group for Transfusion Medicine; GCIAMT), through its Research and International Affairs committees, carried out a project to develop a protocol that would facilitate the evaluation of blood usage at the country, jurisdiction, and institutional levels in varied country contexts. Experts in blood safety from the Pan American Health Organization (Washington, DC, United States), the University of São Paulo (São Paulo, Brazil), the Hemocentro of São Paulo (São Paulo, Brazil), and GCIAMT designed a 2-step comprehensive blood-use evaluation protocol: step 1 collects data from blood requests, and step 2, from medical charts. At a minimum, 1 000 analyzed requests are necessary; as such, study periods vary depending on the number of transfusion requests issued. An Internet-based application, the Modular Research System-Study Management System (MRS-SMS), houses the data and produces reports on how hospitals request blood, how blood is issued, who requires blood and blood components, and as an added benefit, how many blood units are wasted and what the real demand for blood is. PMID:26245180

  20. Meeting health and family planning needs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    The operations research and technical assistance (OR/TA) project in The Population Council has concentrated on fertility and infant mortality issues in Latin American and the Caribbean for more than a decade through INOPAL. INOPAL is an acronym for Investigacion Operacional en Planificacion Familiar y Atencion Materno-Infantil para America Latina y el Caribe (Operations Research in Family Planning and Maternal-Child Health in Latin America and the Caribbean). In March 1995, the project entered its third phase, INOPAL III, with the renewal of its contract from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). To facilitate communication between INOPAL, collaborating agencies, and USAID, INOPAL Director James Foreit moved from Peru to a Council office in Washington, D.C. INOPAL has six objectives: 1) to test the integration of family planning and reproductive health services; 2) to increase access to family planning; 3) to develop strategies to reach special populations; 4) to improve the sustainability of family planning programs; 5) to improve service quality; and 6) to institutionalize operations research capability in the region. INOPAL II conducted 61 subprojects in 12 countries in collaboration with 24 USAID cooperating agencies and other international organizations. The project established new services for postpartum women, adolescents, and rural women; improved program quality and financial sustainability; increased vasectomy promotion and the range of available contraceptives; and developed new modes of service delivery. A key finding of INOPAL II operations research was the importance of increasing cost-effectiveness to ensure program sustainability. INOPAL III will work toward all six objectives, with an emphasis on integrating reproductive health and family planning services. Operations research and technical assistance (OR/TA) subprojects will focus on the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, perinatal and postpartum care, and postabortion care. PMID:12319543

  1. Children’s Health in Latin America: The Influence of Environmental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Laborde, Amalia; Tomasina, Fernando; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Bruné, Marie-Noel; Buka, Irena; Comba, Pietro; Corra, Lilian; Cori, Liliana; Duffert, Christin Maria; Harari, Raul; Iavarone, Ivano; McDiarmid, Melissa A.; Gray, Kimberly A.; Sly, Peter D.; Soares, Agnes; Suk, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are increasing among children in Latin America. Objective and Methods To examine environmental risk factors for chronic disease in Latin American children and to develop a strategic initiative for control of these exposures, the World Health Organization (WHO) including the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the Collegium Ramazzini, and Latin American scientists reviewed regional and relevant global data. Results Industrial development and urbanization are proceeding rapidly in Latin America, and environmental pollution has become widespread. Environmental threats to children’s health include traditional hazards such as indoor air pollution and drinking-water contamination; the newer hazards of urban air pollution; toxic chemicals such as lead, asbestos, mercury, arsenic, and pesticides; hazardous and electronic waste; and climate change. The mix of traditional and modern hazards varies greatly across and within countries reflecting industrialization, urbanization, and socioeconomic forces. Conclusions To control environmental threats to children’s health in Latin America, WHO, including PAHO, will focus on the most highly prevalent and serious hazards—indoor and outdoor air pollution, water pollution, and toxic chemicals. Strategies for controlling these hazards include developing tracking data on regional trends in children’s environmental health (CEH), building a network of Collaborating Centres, promoting biomedical research in CEH, building regional capacity, supporting development of evidence-based prevention policies, studying the economic costs of chronic diseases in children, and developing platforms for dialogue with relevant stakeholders. Citation Laborde A, Tomasina F, Bianchi F, Bruné MN, Buka I, Comba P, Corra L, Cori L, Duffert CM, Harari R, Iavarone I, McDiarmid MA, Gray KA, Sly PD, Soares A, Suk WA, Landrigan PJ. 2015. Children’s health in Latin America: the influence of environmental exposures. Environ Health Perspect 123:201–209;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408292 PMID:25499717

  2. Cartographic experiment for Latin America. [Santa Cruz, Bolivia and Concepcion, Paraguay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staples, J. E. (principal investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The two experiments clearly demonstrate the practical application of the Skylab photography to update existing maps at an optimum scale of 1:100,000. The photography can even be used, by employing first order photogrammetric instruments, for updating the cultural features in 1:50,000 scale mapping. The S190A imagery has also shown itself to be most economical in preparing new photomap products over previously unmapped areas, such as Concepcion, Paraguay. These maps indicate that Skylab quality imagery is invaluable to the Latin American cartographers in their efforts to provide the mapping products required to develop their countries. In Latin America, where over 5,000 people are employed in map production and where the Latin American governments are expending over $20 million in this effort, the use of such systems to maintain existing mapping and publish new mapping over previously unmapped areas, is of great economic value and could release the conventional Latin American mapping resources to be utilized to produce large scale 1:25,000 and 1:1,000 scale mapping that is needed for specific development projects.

  3. Union Formation Implications of Race and Gender Gaps in Educational Attainment: The Case of Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Esteve, Albert; López, Luis Ángel

    2012-01-01

    We use census microdata to assess the levels of educational homogamy in six Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador and Mexico. This paper contributes to the literature on homogamy in three ways. First, by conducting a comparative analysis between countries belonging to the still little-studied region of Latin America, which is still undergoing intense and varied processes of demographic, economic, social, and political modernization. Second, by simultaneously including variables of structural and individual nature. Finally, by making progress with respect to the interactions between educational homogamy and other important variables associated with high levels of social inequality in the region: race, ethnicity and birthplace. PMID:23172982

  4. Pinta: Latin America's Forgotten Disease?

    PubMed

    Stamm, Lola V

    2015-11-01

    Pinta is a neglected, chronic skin disease that was first described in the sixteenth century in Mexico. The World Health Organization lists 15 countries in Latin America where pinta was previously endemic. However, the current prevalence of pinta is unknown due to the lack of surveillance data. The etiological agent of pinta, Treponema carateum, cannot be distinguished morphologically or serologically from the not-yet-cultivable Treponema pallidum subspecies that cause venereal syphilis, yaws, and bejel. Although genomic sequencing has enabled the development of molecular techniques to differentiate the T. pallidum subspecies, comparable information is not available for T. carateum. Because of the influx of migrants and refugees from Latin America, U.S. physicians should consider pinta in the differential diagnosis of skin diseases in children and adolescents who come from areas where pinta was previously endemic and have a positive reaction in serological tests for syphilis. All stages of pinta are treatable with a single intramuscular injection of penicillin. PMID:26304920

  5. Kissing Bugs in the United States: Risk for Vector-Borne Disease in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Klotz, Stephen A; Dorn, Patricia L; Mosbacher, Mark; Schmidt, Justin O

    2014-01-01

    Eleven species of kissing bugs are found in the United States. Their home ranges may be expanding northward, perhaps as a consequence of climate change. At least eight of the species, perhaps all, are reported to harbor Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease. Because humans are encroaching on kissing bug habitat, there is concern for vector-transmitted Chagas disease in the United States. To date, documented autochthonous cases of Chagas in humans in the United States are rare. Kissing bugs are capable of adapting to new habitats such as human domiciles; however, they do not colonize homes in the United States as in Central and South America. We review the biology, behavior, and medical importance of kissing bugs and the risk they pose for transmission of Chagas disease in the United States. Where possible, descriptions of US species are compared to the epidemiologically important Latin American species. PMID:25574143

  6. 10x10 comes full circle: Spanish version back to United States in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Alvaro; Joglar, Francisco; de Quirós, Fernán González Bernaldo; Baum, Analía; Fernández, Antonio; García, Sofía; Arredondo, Antonio López; Hersh, William R

    2013-01-01

    The adaptation of the 10x10 certificate program in health information systems for a Puerto Rican audience is described. The 10x10 program was initially developed in the USA by the Oregon Health Sciences University (OHSU), then adapted to Latin America by Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires. Puerto Rico is in the intersection of the United States and Latin America, in terms of government, health care system, culture and language. Therefore, it seemed reasonable to re-adapt the program back to the USA, in Spanish, taking into account these facts and the experience of the team in delivering blended learning adapted to local needs. Forty professionals from Puerto Rico are currently taking the first version of the course, supported by the Regional Extension Center for Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands, and endorsed by the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA). PMID:23920908

  7. The Digestive System and Alcohol Use. Science of Alcohol Curriculum for American Indians. Training Unit [and] Participant Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Cecelia; And Others

    The Science of Alcohol Curriculum for American Indians uses the Medicine Circle and the "new science paradigm" to study the science of alcohol through a culturally relevant holistic approach. Intended for teachers and other educational personnel involved with American Indians, this curriculum presents a framework for alcohol education that…

  8. Hard Bigotry, Low Expectations and Soft Support: Educating American African Boys in the United States with the Warrior Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winbush, Raymond A.

    2013-01-01

    Educating American Africans boys has been a mixture of political rhetoric, educational pedagogy, and historical neglect. Although American African educators have produced several models for effectively educating Black boys, most of them are dismissed as too "radical" by White researchers who have little understanding or experience in…

  9. The Central Nervous System and Alcohol Use. Science of Alcohol Curriculum for American Indians. Training Unit [and] Participant Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Cecelia; And Others

    The Science of Alcohol Curriculum for American Indians uses the Medicine Circle and the "new science paradigm" to study the science of alcohol through a culturally relevant holistic approach. Intended for teachers and other educational personnel involved with American Indians, this curriculum aims to present a framework for alcohol education that…

  10. Neighbors United for Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westhoff, Wayne W.; Corvin, Jaime; Virella, Irmarie

    2009-01-01

    Modeled upon the ecclesiastic community group concept of Latin America to unite and strengthen the bond between the Church and neighborhoods, a community-based organization created Vecinos Unidos por la Salud (Neighbors United for Health) to bring health messages into urban Latino neighborhoods. The model is based on five tenants, and incorporates…

  11. The Politics of Decentralisation in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiefelbein, Ernesto

    2004-07-01

    Largely following the advice of and loans from the World Bank, many Latin American countries decentralised education to the state, municipal and local levels. Such decentralisation was part of an effort to provide universal access to primary education with massive investments near one billion dollars per year during the 1990s. The rationale was simple and appealing: The more local the decision, the greater the voice of the voter-consumer was supposed to be; while the larger number of suppliers was assumed to lead to greater variety. Research documented here shows that while authority and resources could be transferred downward in the system in a short amount of time, the so-called `autonomous schools programs' failed to generate significant improvement in pupils' achievement. Decentralisation could be successful, however, when combined with reliable strategies such as good initial teacher-training employing a wide set of teaching models; the use of well-tested scripts, guides or frameworks; and the systematic assignment of the best teachers to first grade.

  12. Optimizing surveillance for South American origin influenza A viruses along the United States Gulf Coast through genomic characterization of isolates from blue-winged teal (Anas discors)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Walther, Patrick; Link, Paul Karl; Poulson, Rebecca L.; Wilcox, Benjamin R.; Newsome, George M.; Spackman, Erica; Brown, J.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Relative to research focused on intercontinental viral exchange between Eurasia and North America, less attention has been directed towards understanding the redistribution of influenza A viruses (IAVs) by wild birds between North America and South America. In this study, we genomically characterized 45 viruses isolated from blue-winged teal (Anas discors) along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast during March of 2012 and 2013, coincident with northward migration of this species from Neotropical wintering areas to breeding grounds in the United States and Canada. No evidence of South American lineage genes were detected in IAVs isolated from blue-winged teal supporting restricted viral gene flow between the United States and southern South America. However, it is plausible that blue-winged teal redistribute IAVs between North American breeding grounds and wintering areas throughout the Neotropics, including northern South America, and that viral gene flow is limited by geographical barriers further south (e.g. the Amazon Basin). Surveillance for the introduction of IAVs from Central America and northern South America into the United States may be further optimized through genomic characterization of viruses resulting from coordinated, concurrent sampling efforts targeting blue-winged teal and sympatric species throughout the Neotropics and along the United States Gulf Coast.

  13. Sets of Mutually Orthogonal Sudoku Latin Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vis, Timothy; Petersen, Ryan M.

    2009-01-01

    A Latin square of order "n" is an "n" x "n" array using n symbols, such that each symbol appears exactly once in each row and column. A set of Latin squares is c ordered pairs of symbols appearing in the cells of the array are distinct. The popular puzzle Sudoku involves Latin squares with n = 9, along with the added condition that each of the 9…

  14. The role of globalization in drug development and access to orphan drugs: orphan drug legislation in the US/EU and in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Renée J.G.; Bighash, Lida; Bryón Nieto, Alejandro; Tannus Branco de Araújo, Gabriela; Gay-Molina, Juan Gabriel; Augustovski, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Compared to a decade ago, nearly three times as many drugs for rare diseases are slated for development. This article addresses the market access issues associated with orphan drug status in Europe and the United States in contrast to the legislation in five Latin American (LA) countries that have made strides in this regard--Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, Chile and Argentina. Based on the success of orphan drug legislation in the EU and US, LA countries should strive to adopt similar strategies with regard to rare diseases and drug development. With the implementation of new targeted regulations, reimbursement strategies, and drug approvals, accessibility to treatment will be improved for people afflicted with rare diseases in these developing countries. PMID:25844162

  15. Beyond prejudice and pride: The human sciences in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Latin America.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Julia

    2013-12-01

    Grappling with problematics of status and hierarchy, recent literature on the history of the human sciences in Latin America has gone through three overlapping phases. First, the scholarship has reflected a dialogue between Latin American scientists and their European colleagues, characterized by the "center/periphery" model of scientific diffusion. Next, scholars drew on postcolonial theory to undermine the power of the "center" and to recover the role of local agents, including both elites and subalterns. In the wake of numerous studies embracing both models, the way has been cleared to look at multiple dimensions simultaneously. Histories of the human sciences in the complex multicultural societies of Latin America provide an unusually direct path to integration. Moreover, this dynamic and multilayered approach has the potential to address ambivalences about authority and power that have characterized previous analyses of the production and application of knowledge about the human condition. PMID:24783497

  16. From upstream to downstream: Megatrends and latest developments in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kang; Pezeshki, S.; McMahon, J.

    1995-08-01

    In recent years, Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector has been characterized by reorganization, revitalization, regional cooperation, environmental awakening, and steady expansion. The pattern of these changes, which appear to be the megatrends of the region`s hydrocarbons sector development, will continue during the rest of the 1990s. To further study the current situation and future prospects of Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector, we critically summarize in this short article the key issues in the region`s oil and gas development. These megatrends in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector development will impact not only the future energy demand and supply in the region, but also global oil flows in the North American market and across the Pacific Ocean. Each country is individually discussed; pipelines to be constructed are discussed also.

  17. American leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Garnham, P. C. C.

    1971-01-01

    The origin of leishmaniasis in the New World is discussed, and the numerous forms of the disease are briefly described. The epidemological pattern of American leishmaniasis is clearly that of a zoonosis in various stages of development. Nine geographical types of cutaneous leishmaniasis are recognized, and probably others exist also; the visceral disease is of the well known Mediterranean type and of a uniform type throughout the Americas. The prevalence of human infection in the different regions is discussed with particular reference to the animal reservoirs. Disturbances of the terrain for agricultural development, road construction, etc., lead to epidemics and there is some evidence that the disease is now spreading in Latin America. PMID:5316253

  18. An exploration of the impact of family background factors on the science achievement of Afro-Caribbean and African American students in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinder, Patrice J.

    Ogbu and Simons (1998) defined voluntary immigrants as individuals who chose to migrate to the United States (U.S.). Involuntary immigrants are defined as individuals whose ancestors were brought to the U.S. by force (Obgu & Simons, 1998). There have been recent reports indicating that voluntary immigrants are outperforming involuntary immigrants (Fisher, 2005; Williams, Fleming, Jones, & Griffin, 2007). There seems to be a trend in voluntary immigrants exhibiting a higher academic achievement pattern than involuntary immigrants (Fisher, 2005; Rong & Preissle, 1998; Williams et al., 2007). However, the reason for the groups' differences in achievement has not been extensively explored. The primary objective of this research study was to explore the impact of family background on the academic achievement patterns of Afro-Caribbean and African American students in the United States. The study utilized two research designs; a causal-comparative and a correlational design. A questionnaire was distributed to a sample of eighty-seven high school students. Eighteen of the participants were Afro-Caribbean students, and sixty-seven were African American students. Chemistry test scores for the students were also provided. The results of the study indicated that Afro-Caribbean students outperformed African American students on the test of science achievement. The difference was statistically significant (t= 2.43, p<0.05). Additionally, results suggested that there were a few significant differences in Afro-Caribbean and African American students' family backgrounds. Moreover, the findings of this study suggest that the positive impact of arrival status on the first-generation of Afro-Caribbean immigrants may be influencing their children's academic success in science. The present study holds a few implications for parents and teachers of immigrant minority students. Additionally, the current researcher has offered several implications for future research on ethnicity, immigration pattern, parenting, and achievement.

  19. [Latin America: reasons for hope].

    PubMed

    Orrego, F

    1993-08-01

    According to official figures, Latin America is almost an empty continent. The low population density, the decrease in population growth, the low use of the land and the improvement in the availability of food, health and education indexes, point to the fact that restrictive politics in population growth are not of interest to this region. On the contrary, an increase in population density is important in the development of this new civilization. In order to avoid the defects found in some industrialized countries, the anthropocetrism has to be linked to reality which is transcendent and has God as his foundation. PMID:8296106

  20. Using non-local databases for the environmental assessment of industrial activities: The case of Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Osses de Eicker, Margarita; Hischier, Roland; Hurni, Hans; Zah, Rainer

    2010-04-15

    Nine non-local databases were evaluated with respect to their suitability for the environmental assessment of industrial activities in Latin America. Three assessment methods were considered, namely Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and air emission inventories. The analysis focused on data availability in the databases and the applicability of their international data to Latin American industry. The study showed that the European EMEP/EEA Guidebook and the U.S. EPA AP-42 database are the most suitable ones for air emission inventories, whereas the LCI database Ecoinvent is the most suitable one for LCA and EIA. Due to the data coverage in the databases, air emission inventories are easier to develop than LCA or EIA, which require more comprehensive information. One strategy to overcome the limitations of non-local databases for Latin American industry is the combination of validated data from international databases with newly developed local datasets.

  1. Latin Vibes Curriculum: Sixth and Seventh Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederer, Debra; And Others

    A sixth- and seventh-grade program "Latin Vibes," developed in response to a rising demand within the community for more student understanding of the evolution of the English language, is outlined. The courses for each grade chronicle the influences of Latin and the romance languages on the development of English over the centuries. The program…

  2. Health and social security reforms in Latin America: the convergence of the World Health Organization, the World Bank, and transnational corporations.

    PubMed

    Armada, F; Muntaner, C; Navarro, V

    2001-01-01

    International financial institutions have played an increasing role in the formation of social policy in Latin American countries over the last two decades, particularly in health and pension programs. World Bank loans and their attached policy conditions have promoted several social security reforms within a neoliberal framework that privileges the role of the market in the provision of health and pensions. Moreover, by endorsing the privatization of health services in Latin America, the World Health Organization has converged with these policies. The privatization of social security has benefited international corporations that become partners with local business elites. Thus the World Health Organization, international financial institutions, and transnational corporations have converged in the neoliberal reforms of social security in Latin America. Overall, the process represents a mechanism of resource transfer from labor to capital and sheds light on one of the ways in which neoliberalism may affect the health of Latin American populations. PMID:11809007

  3. Comprehensive Energy Assessment: EE and RE Project Optimization Modeling for United States Pacific Command (USPACOM) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance

    SciTech Connect

    Brigantic, Robert T.; Papatyi, Anthony F.; Perkins, Casey J.

    2010-09-30

    This report summarizes a study and corresponding model development conducted in support of the United States Pacific Command (USPACOM) as part of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA). This research was aimed at developing a mathematical programming framework and accompanying optimization methodology in order to simultaneously evaluate energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy (RE) opportunities. Once developed, this research then demonstrated this methodology at a USPACOM installation - Camp H.M. Smith, Hawaii. We believe this is the first time such an integrated, joint EE and RE optimization methodology has been constructed and demonstrated.

  4. Urban sprawl and fragmentation in Latin America: a dynamic quantification and characterization of spatial patterns.

    PubMed

    Inostroza, Luis; Baur, Rolf; Csaplovics, Elmar

    2013-01-30

    South America is one of the most urbanized continents in the world, where almost 84% of the total population lives in cities, more urbanized than North America (82%) and Europe (73%). Spatial dynamics, their structure, main features, land consumption rates, spatial arrangement, fragmentation degrees and comparability, remain mostly unknown for most Latin American cities. Using satellite imagery the main parameters of sprawl are quantified for 10 Latin American cities over a period of 20 years by monitoring growth patterns and identifying spatial metrics to characterize urban development and sprawling features measured with GIS tools. This quantification contributes to a better understanding of urban form in Latin America. A pervasive spatial expansion has been observed, where most of the studied cities are expanding at fast rates with falling densities trend. Although important differences in the rates of land consumption and densities exist, there is an underlying fragmentation trend towards increasing sprawl. These trends of spatial discontinuity may eventually be intensified by further economic development. Urban Sprawl/Latin America/GIS metrics/spatial development. PMID:23246769

  5. Gastroenterology training in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Henry; Saenz, Roque; de Almeida Troncon, Luiz E; Lizarzabal, Maribel; Olano, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Latin America is characterized by ethnic, geographical, cultural, and economic diversity; therefore, training in gastroenterology in the region must be considered in this context. The continent’s medical education is characterized by a lack of standards and the volume of research continues to be relatively small. There is a multiplicity of events in general gastroenterology and in sub-disciplines, both at regional and local levels, which ensure that many colleagues have access to information. Medical education programs must be based on a clinical vision and be considered in close contact with the patients. The programs should be properly supervised, appropriately defined, and evaluated on a regular basis. The disparity between the patients’ needs, the scarce resources available, and the pressures exerted by the health systems on doctors are frequent cited by those complaining of poor professionalism. Teaching development can play a critical role in ensuring the quality of teaching and learning in universities. Continuing professional development programs activities must be planned on the basis of the doctors’ needs, with clearly defined objectives and using proper learning methodologies designed for adults. They must be evaluated and accredited by a competent body, so that they may become the basis of a professional regulatory system. The specialty has made progress in the last decades, offering doctors various possibilities for professional development. The world gastroenterology organization has contributed to the speciality through three distinctive, but closely inter-related, programs: Training Centers, Train-the-Trainers, and Global Guidelines, in which Latin America is deeply involved. PMID:21633594

  6. Control #: SF 6432-LA Title: Standard Terms & Conditions for Fixed Price Contracts/Renewable Energy Programs in Latin

    E-print Network

    Siefert, Chris

    Control #: SF 6432-LA Title: Standard Terms & Conditions for Fixed Price Contracts/Renewable Energy Price Contracts/Renewable Energy Programs in Latin American Countries Owner: Procurement Policy CORPORATION SF 6432-LA (07/2013) SECTION II STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR FIXED PRICE CONTRACTS/ RENEWABLE

  7. Social Spending in Latin America: The Story of the 1980s. World Bank Discussion Papers No. 106.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosh, Margaret E.

    This study traces public sector expenditures for nine Latin American countries in the 1980s in order to determine how social services and social well-being fared during the economic stringencies of the decade. The countries included are Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Jamaica, and Venezuela. The…

  8. Whatever Became of "The Pursuit of Happiness"? The U.S. Press and Social Revolution in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Jerry

    This paper examines treatment by the U.S. press of the Mexican, Cuban, and Chilean revolutions from a historical perspective, both using original research and synthesizing the research of others. On balance, the U.S. media have reported or commented on Latin American social revolutions mainly by exploiting sensation and ridicule. Economic…

  9. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW COST, MULTIFUNCTION, REGIONALLY APPROPRIATE SOLAR OVEN FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN LATIN AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the average Latin American country, 45% of the population is below the poverty line and 36% live in rural settings (CIA World Factbook). For these sectors, solar ovens might represent their only affordable means of cooking and sterilization. Significant research efforts i...

  10. American Indian Education Foundation. Hearing before the Committee on Indian Affairs on S. 1290 To Amend Title 36 of the United States Code To Establish the American Indian Education Foundation. United States Senate, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.

    A Senate committee hearing received testimony on the creation of an American Indian Education Foundation. The foundation will be a charitable, nonprofit corporation authorized to accept and administer private gifts in support of the Bureau of Indian Affairs' (BIA) Office of Education and to conduct activities that further educational opportunities…

  11. Implementation of virtual patients in the training for occupational health in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Radon, Katja; Carvalho, Denise; Calvo, Maria Julia; Struempell, Stephanie; Herrera, Veronica; Wengenroth, Laura; Kausel, Gudrun; Marchetti, Nella; Rojas, Daniel Segura; Russ, Paul; Hege, Inga

    2011-01-01

    Health professionals trained in occupational health are essential to reduce the burden of occupational accidents and diseases. However, training resources are limited globally. We aimed to promote occupational health and safety (OHS) using virtual patients (VPs) in Brazil, Chile, and Germany. Virtual patients were created in three Latin-American health centers. So-called "partner VPs" comparing the distinct health care systems were designed. Translation, adaptation to different medical and legal systems, expert review, implementation into under- and postgraduate teaching, and user evaluation were performed. Twelve VPs covering traditional and contemporary OHS issues are available in Spanish, Portuguese, and English. Overall, 2371 students used the VPs. The number of Latin American users who evaluated VP content and relevance for their professional career was statistically significantly higher than the number of German students. VPs are a feasible learning method for OHS in middle-income countries. Partner VPs seem to be useful for teaching global aspects. PMID:21344821

  12. Native American Healing Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portman, Tarrell A. A.; Garrett, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous healing practices among Native Americans have been documented in the United States since colonisation. Cultural encapsulation has deterred the acknowledgement of Native American medicinal practices as a precursor to folk medicine and many herbal remedies, which have greatly influenced modern medicine. Understanding Native American

  13. 76 FR 27182 - Pricing for American Eagle and American Buffalo Bullion Presentation Cases

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for American Eagle and American...Presentation Cases AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION...SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price increase of...

  14. Dietary Interventions and Blood Pressure in Latin America - Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mazzaro, Caroline Cantalejo; Klostermann, Flávia Caroline; Erbano, Bruna Olandoski; Schio, Nicolle Amboni; Guarita-Souza, Luiz César; Olandoski, Marcia; Faria-Neto, José Rocha; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino

    2014-01-01

    Background High blood pressure is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Low blood pressure control rates in Latin American populations emphasize the need for gathering evidence on effective therapies. Objective To evaluate the effects of dietary interventions on blood pressure in Latin American populations. Methods Systematic review. Electronic databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS and VHL) were searched and manual search for studies published up to April 2013 was performed. Parallel studies about dietary interventions in Latin American adult populations assessing arterial blood pressure (mm Hg) before and after intervention were included. Results Of the 405 studies identified, 10 randomized controlled trials were included and divided into 3 subgroups according to the proposed dietary intervention. There was a non-significant reduction in systolic blood pressure in the subgroups of mineral replacement (-4.82; 95% CI: -11.36 to 1.73) and complex pattern diets (-3.17; 95% CI: -7.62 to 1.28). Regarding diastolic blood pressure, except for the hyperproteic diet subgroup, all subgroups showed a significant reduction in blood pressure: -4.66 mmHg (95% CI: -9.21 to -0.12) and -4.55 mmHg (95% CI: -7.04 to -2.06) for mineral replacement and complex pattern diets, respectively. Conclusion Available evidence on the effects of dietary changes on blood pressure in Latin American populations indicates a homogeneous effect of those interventions, although not significant for systolic blood pressure. Samples were small and the quality of the studies was generally low. Larger studies are required to build robust evidence. PMID:24676220

  15. Short Communication: Kidney Dysfunction Among HIV-Infected Children in Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Harris, D. Robert; de Oliveira, Ricardo Hugo; de Abreu, Thalita F.; Kakehasi, Fabiana; Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Ruz, Noris Pavia; Krauss, Margot R.; Hazra, Rohan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Renal toxicity is a concern in HIV-infected children receiving antiretrovirals. However, the prevalence [1.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0–2.6%] and incidence of kidney dysfunction (0.17 cases/100 person-years; 95% CI: 0.04–0.30) were rare in this multicenter cohort study of 1,032 perinatally HIV-infected Latin American and Caribbean children followed from 2002 to 2011. PMID:24866283

  16. Native American Archaeological Sites: An Annotated Bibliography Relating to Indian Archaeological Sites in the Southeastern United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelbarger, Johnny J.

    Thirty-six American Indian archaeological sites located in the southeastern states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, and Tennessee are cited. Included are some of the very early sites, some of the larger and better known sites, and some that are being developed as state-owned archaeological parks in Tennessee. Information…

  17. Readings in American History (In Their Own Words), Book IV. The United States in the Twentieth Century and Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramowitz, Jack

    This skills-text is one of four books in the series "Readings in American History." The materials allow opportunities to improve reading and comprehension skills in a subject matter context by using certain primary sources related to the topic. Book 4 covers the period from World War I through the Reagan years. Each lesson includes short readings…

  18. Adolescent Drug Use in Mexico and among Mexican American Adolescents in the United States: Environmental Influences and Individual Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix-Ortiz, Maria; Velazuez, Jorge A Villatoro; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Newcomb, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    Compares cigarette, alcohol, and illegal drug use among high school students in Baja California Norte (BCN), Mexico with Mexican American students in Los Angeles (LA), California (N=516). Demographic variables, individual characteristics, and environmental influences were considered. Reports that more BCN students used alcohol and more LA students…

  19. Star Trek with Latin. Teacher's Guide. Tentative Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciantonio, Rudolph; And Others

    The purpose of this guide is to assist Latin and English teachers with some background in Latin to expand the English vocabulary and reading skills of students through the study of Latin roots, prefixes, and suffixes. The introductory material in the guide provides general notes on the teaching of Latin in the Philadelphia School District,…

  20. Dynamics of Private Sector Support for Education: Experiences in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Kristin; Galisson, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    Recognizing the diversity of models and strategies for private sector participation in education that have emerged in Latin America, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) requested the Academy for Educational Development (AED) to conduct research with leaders in the public and private sectors in several countries. While…