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1

Interaction of science and diplomacy: Latin American, the United States and nuclear energy, 1945-1955  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear programs in Argentina and Brazil can be traced to August 1945 when their scientific communities articulated responses to the atomic bombings of Japan. They culminated in attempts to develop independent nuclear programs, sharply opposed by the United States, during the nationalist governments of Juan Peron and Getulio Vargas. This dissertation, based on primary sources from the three nations, analyzes these programs and the American responses. Latin America entered the nuclear age attempting to control natural resources, to improve scientific establishments, and to appraise Latin American-United States relations. Despite some clear warnings about nuclear dangers, the new form of energy was seen as the solution to industrial problems, poverty, and outside political interference. International opposition, which may have included nuclear threats from the United States, blocked Argentina's first attempt in 1947. After 1948, Peron wanted a nuclear program for cheap energy and prestige. The qualifications of the Brazilian scientists gave more substance to their program. The program originated in August, 1945, but assumed national proportion with the government of Vargas in 1951. Lack of American cooperation forced Vargas to establish a secret program with Germany. American troops intervened taking over the German equipment already completed. The final collapse came about with Vargas' suicide in August, 1954.

Cabral, R.

1986-01-01

2

Latin American cheeses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Latin American (or Hispanic-style) cheeses are a category of cheeses that were developed in Mexico, Latin America, and the Caribbean and have become increasingly popular in the U.S. Although research has been conducted on some of the cheeses, quantitative information on the quality traits of most L...

3

United States and Four Latin American Countries Partner to Battle Cancer  

Cancer.gov

The United States National Cancer Institute formalized bilateral partnerships this week with the governments of Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and Uruguay, to accelerate progress against cancer in Hispanic populations in the United States and Latin America and improve cancer research.

4

Los Arboles Hablan: A Spanish Language Curriculum Unit Based on the Study of Latin American Rain Forests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Los Arboles Hablan," a video-based curriculum that promotes the learning of Spanish as a second language through study of the Latin American rain forests is described. The 12-session unit was designed for use at the middle school level and integrates science, social science, and environmental education with content focusing on the Amazon rain…

Zuman, John P.

5

Latin American Travelogues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The John Hay Library at Brown University has an impressive array of collections related to Latin America and the Caribbean. These collections include the Schirmer Collection on Anti-Imperialism and the Paul R. Dupee Mexican History Collection. Recently, Professor James Green and Patricia Figueroa, the librarian and subject specialist for Iberia and Latin America worked together to create this compelling digital library of Latin American travel accounts which span the 16th through 19th centuries. Visitors can browse through these accounts at their leisure, and they will find everything from Louis Aggasiz's "A Journey in Brazil" to Johann Baptist von Spix's "Travels in Brazil in the Years 1817-1820". Additionally, visitors can also read some rather thoughtful essays offered by Professor Green's students that draw on these travel narratives for academic inspiration and contemplation.

6

Latin American History: Concerns and Conflicts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines increased interest in Latin American studies initiated by Cuban Revolution of Fidel Castro. Identifies and compares older historiography which evolved in Latin America and newer efforts which have emanated from the United States. Suggests that a changing political and economic climate and different emphasis in methodology are affecting…

Grover, Mark L.

1988-01-01

7

UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST  

E-print Network

at the UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST FALL 2013 (2141) #12;2 The Center for Latin American Studies ­Fall Course list--2013 Center for Latin American to enroll in courses on Latin America/the Caribbean or to participate in the programs of Latin American

Machery, Edouard

8

THE CENTER FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES (CLAS),  

E-print Network

PRESENT THE CENTER FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES (CLAS), THE LATIN AMERICAN CULTURAL UNION (LACU & William Pitt Union University of Pittsburgh #12;A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE LATIN AMERICAN & CARIBBEAN FESTIVAL In 1979, members of the Center for Latin American Studies (CLAS) were discussing ideas on how to promote

Machery, Edouard

9

UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST  

E-print Network

at the UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST FALL (2131) #12;2 The Center for Latin American Studies ­Fall Course list--2012 Center for Latin American Studies (CLAS) University of Pittsburgh/the Caribbean or to participate in the programs of Latin American Studies--Related Concentration, Undergraduate

Machery, Edouard

10

UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST  

E-print Network

at the UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST FALL (2121) #12;2 The Center for Latin American Studies ­Fall Course list--2011 Center for Latin American Studies (CLAS) University of Pittsburgh/the Caribbean or to participate in the programs of Latin American Studies--Related Concentration, Undergraduate

Machery, Edouard

11

LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES CURRICULUM COMMITTEE  

E-print Network

(Political Science, on leave Fall 2014) Olivia Navarro-Farr (Anthropology and Archaeology) Jimmy A. Noriega AND PERFORMANCE [AH, C] THTD 24700. LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE AND PERFORMANCE Fall. [AH, C] WOMEN'S, GENDER

Wilson, Mark A.

12

UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST  

E-print Network

at the UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST SPRING (2134) #12;Center for Latin American Studies (CLAS) University of Pittsburgh University Center for International Studies 4200 Posvar to enroll in courses on Latin America/the Caribbean or to participate in the programs of Latin American

Machery, Edouard

13

UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST  

E-print Network

at the UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST SPRING (2144) #12; Center for Latin American Studies (CLAS) University of Pittsburgh University Center for International Studies 4200 Posvar to enroll in courses on Latin America/the Caribbean or to participate in the programs of Latin American

Sibille, Etienne

14

UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST  

E-print Network

at the UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST SPRING (2114) #12;Center for Latin American Studies (CLAS) University of Pittsburgh University Center for International Studies 4200 Posvar to enroll in courses on Latin America/the Caribbean or to participate in the programs of Latin American

Machery, Edouard

15

Latin American Cancer Research Coalition  

Cancer.gov

Established to address the unique needs of Latinos in the Washington-Baltimore metropolitan area, the Latin American Cancer Research Coalition (LACRC)1 at the MedStar Research Institute serves the largest urban concentration of Latinos in the country. Latinos in this region are predominantly of Central and South American ancestry, recently immigrated, uninsured, and largely monolingual.

16

LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES MINOR REQUIREMENTS CHECKLIST  

E-print Network

in Latin American Literature SPAN 346 Evil in Latin American, Hispanic and Latino Literature SPAN 360 Writer Partial Coverage Courses LAS 210/MUS 210 Music of the Americas CD, F LAS 350/MS 350 Human Rights

Galles, David

17

Latin American Theology and Religious Pluralism: A Latin American Voice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes recent efforts by Latin-American theologians concerned with developing a pluralist theology of liberation. The author highlights some of the most significant issues and themes of this emerging theological reflection among liberation theologians. Finally, he identifies some of the challenges a pluralist theology of…

Cascante-Gomez, Fernando A.

2009-01-01

18

UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST  

E-print Network

at the UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST SUMMER (2137) #12;S u m m e r C o u r American Studies (CLAS) University Center for International Studies 4200 Posvar Hall Pittsburgh, PA 15260 on Latin America/the Caribbean or to participate in the programs of Latin American Studies

Machery, Edouard

19

Annual Report Center for Latin American Studies  

E-print Network

2007-08 Annual Report Center for Latin American Studies University Center for International Studies for the Center for Latin American Studies abound! During the 2007-2008 academic year, we reached the 40th anniversary of the Latin American certificate pro- grams that are the cornerstone of our training program

Machery, Edouard

20

Annual Report Center for Latin American Studies  

E-print Network

Annual Report Center for Latin American Studies University Center for International Studies academic year 2009-10, and some of their outstanding accomplishments. As a center for Latin American as an NRC in Latin American Studies continuously since 1979, and is proud to note that we are now funded

Machery, Edouard

21

UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST  

E-print Network

at the UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST SUMMER (2117) #12;S u m m e r C o u r American Studies (CLAS) University Center for International Studies 4200 Posvar Hall Pittsburgh, PA 15260 on Latin America/the Caribbean or to participate in the programs of Latin American Studies

Machery, Edouard

22

UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST  

E-print Network

at the UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST SUMMER (2147) #12;S u m m e r C o u r American Studies (CLAS) University Center for International Studies 4200 Posvar Hall Pittsburgh, PA 15260 on Latin America/the Caribbean or to participate in the programs of Latin American Studies

Machery, Edouard

23

UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST  

E-print Network

at the UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST SUMMER (2107) #12;S u m m e r C o u r American Studies (CLAS) University Center for International Studies 4200 Posvar Hall Pittsburgh, PA 15260 on Latin America/the Caribbean or to participate in the programs of Latin American Studies

Machery, Edouard

24

UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST  

E-print Network

at the UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST SUMMER (2127) #12;S u m m e r C o u r American Studies (CLAS) University Center for International Studies 4200 Posvar Hall Pittsburgh, PA 15260 on Latin America/the Caribbean or to participate in the programs of Latin American Studies

Machery, Edouard

25

Latin American Network Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1992 and affiliated with the Lozano Long Institute of Latin American Studies at the University of Texas at Austin, the Latin American Network Information Center (LANIC) is designed to "facilitate access to Internet-based information to, from, or on Latin America." Their site was redesigned in the spring of 2008, and currently their various directories contain over 12,000 unique URLs for use by the general public. These links can be browsed by subject headings or by country, and visitors can look into more discrete topical headings like "food", "political science", and "social work". Along with these high-quality links, visitors can then click on over to their "Digital Initiatives" area. Here they will find digital collections that cover documents from the New Mexican Revolution and the full-text Fidel Castro Speech database. Visitors will also appreciate that many of the site's resources are available in Spanish and Portuguese.

26

Latin American Folk Art Prints  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latin American customs and colors play an important role as second graders are introduced to multicultural experiences through food, music, dance, art, and craft. In this article, the author describes a printing project inspired by Guatemalan weavings and amate bark paintings. (Contains 2 online resources.)

Navah, Jan

2011-01-01

27

LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES CURRICULUM COMMITTEE  

E-print Network

(History, on leave 2013-2014) Michele Leiby (Political Science) Olivia Navarro-Farr (Anthropology toward C] THEATER AND DANCE THTD 24100. LATINA/O DRAMA AND PERFORMANCE [AH, C] THTD 24700. LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE AND PERFORMANCE Fall. [AH, C] WOMEN'S, GENDER, AND SEXUALITY STUDIES WGSS 20400. GLOBAL FEMINISMS

Wilson, Mark A.

28

Social Studies: Economics, International Relations, and Political Science. Latin American Curriculum Units for Junior and Community Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These three self-contained units of study will help community college students learn about the economics, international relations, and politics of Latin America. Each unit can be used independently and contains introductory notes for instructors, student materials, and a bibliography. Students are expected to read and discuss the reading…

Glade, William P.; Baldwin, Emily

29

Brazil & the Latin American Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News follows repercussions of world financial crises in the key Latin American economy of Brazil. The nine resources discussed provide background information, press coverage, and economic data on Brazil and related economies. With a population of 164 million and GDP of $480 billion, Brazil represents Latin America's largest economic force. Heavy US financial investments, however, tie Brazil directly to Dow Jones Industrial Average falls (reviewed in the September 10, 1998 Scout for Business & Economics) and their Asian and Russian causes (reviewed in the July 16, 1998 _Scout Report for Business & Economics_--http://scout.cs.wisc.edu/report/bus-econ/1998/be-980716txt.html#22). International concern for Latin America grew when Brazil lost $1.8 billion in foreign capital following drops in the Dow, September 10, 1998--a decisive factor in stock tumbles in Mexico and Venezuela as well. Such damaging results led to a bold rise in interest rates from the Banco Central do Brasil and negotiations with the IMF. A US and Brazilian market rally since September 11, however, leaves many officials hopeful for a stable Latin American future.

Waters, Megan.

1998-01-01

30

“Vulnerability, Resiliency, and Adaptation: The Health of Latin Americans during the Migration Process to the United States”*  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we offer a general outlook of the health of Latin Americans (with a special emphasis on Mexicans) during the different stages of the migration process to the U.S. given the usefulness of the social vulnerability concept and given that said vulnerability varies conspicuously across the different stages of the migration process. Severe migrant vulnerability during the transit and crossing has serious negative health consequences. Yet, upon their arrival to the U.S., migrant health is favorable in outcomes such as mortality by many causes of death and in several chronic conditions and risk factors, though these apparent advantages seem to disappear during the process of adaptation to the host society. We discuss potential explanations for the initial health advantage and the sources of vulnerability that explain its erosion, with special emphasis in systematic timely access to health care. Given that migration can affect social vulnerability processes in sending areas, we discuss the potential health consequences for these places and conclude by considering the immigration and health policy implications of these issues for the United States and sending countries, with emphasis on Mexico. PMID:24660053

Riosmena, Fernando; Jochem, Warren C.

2013-01-01

31

LATIN--Latin American Regional News Agency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The establishment of a regional news agency for Latin America to improve the balance of news flow and increase the transmission of news more applicable to regional problems has often been proposed. Despite wide acceptance of the concept, the birth of the Third World's first regional news agency, Agencia Latinoamericana de Informacion (LATIN), has…

Nichols, John Spicer

32

North American adult literacy programs and Latin American immigrants: how critical pedagogy can help nonprofit literacy programming in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

As nonprofit adult literacy programs are often the only options for low-income Latin American immigrants in North America, problems accompanying these programs affect the ability of immigrants to benefit from them. North American nonprofit adult literacy programs often struggle due to the difficulties inherent in using volunteer instructors (often from different cultural backgrounds than participants) who use curricula that often

Rolf Straubhaar

2012-01-01

33

North American Adult Literacy Programs and Latin American Immigrants: How Critical Pedagogy Can Help Nonprofit Literacy Programming in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As nonprofit adult literacy programs are often the only options for low-income Latin American immigrants in North America, problems accompanying these programs affect the ability of immigrants to benefit from them. North American nonprofit adult literacy programs often struggle due to the difficulties inherent in using volunteer instructors (often…

Straubhaar, Rolf

2013-01-01

34

Policy Shocks: On the Legal Auspices of Latin American Migration to the United States  

PubMed Central

In this paper, I compare the transition into legal permanent residence (LPR) of Mexicans, Dominicans, and Nicaraguans. Dominicans had the highest likelihood of obtaining residence, mostly sponsored by parents and spouses. Mexicans had the lowest LPR transition rates and presented sharp gender differentials in modes: women mostly legalized through husbands while men were sponsored through IRCA, parents. Nicaraguans stood in-between, presenting few gender differences in rates and modes of transition and a heavy dependence on asylum and special provisions such as IRCA and NACARA. I argue these patterns stem from the interplay of conditions favoring the emigration of and the specific immigration policy context faced by migrant pioneers; the influence of social networks in reproducing the legal character of flows; and differences in the actual use of kinship ties as sponsors. I discuss the implications of these trends on the observed gendered patterns of migration from Latin America. PMID:21921965

Riosmena, Fernando

2011-01-01

35

Latin American Public Opinion Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started by Mitchell A. Seligson, the Latin American Public Opinion Project is based at Vanderbilt University. The Project has engaged in research on a variety of issues that resonate with the region, including the public's trust of local municipal government and related matters. First-time visitors to the homepage can click on different parts of the Americas to view technical information, reports, and questionnaires from these areas. Moving on, visitors can scroll down to the "AmericasBarometer Insights Series" section to view recent reports in both Spanish and English. Recent works include "Crime and Support for Coups in Latin America" and "Public Insecurity in Central America and Mexico". Visitors should also look over the "Questionnaires, Studies & Publications" area to search papers in a more organized fashion. Scholars will definitely want to check out their data sets and analytical tools in the "Data & On-Line Analysis" area. Finally, visitors can also sign up for their RSS feed on the site.

36

CRCHD SPN Publications: Latin American Cancer Research Coalition (LACRC)  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD SPN Publications: Latin American Cancer Research Coalition (LACRC)  Back to CRCHD Completed Research SPN Publications Latin American Cancer Research Coalition (LACRC) Latin American Cancer Research Coalition (LACRC) Principal Investigator:

37

Pedagogy of a Latin American Festival.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies the cultural images and knowledge produced by a Latin American organization in the U.S. south as it plans and produces a Latin American festival. In addition, the complexity of the ethnographic portrayal of the festival is described, with implications drawn for other ethnographic studies. (SLD)

Murillo, Enrique G., Jr.

1997-01-01

38

Sport Psychology Consulting with Latin American Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper was to provide the sport psychology consultant with information about Latin American cultural groups in relation to sport psychology consulting. The paper contains a review of key multicultural terms and concepts, such as worldview and acculturation. This is followed by a brief overview of the various historical influences on Latin American culture. Next, we discussed

Anthony P. Kontos; Erick Arguello

2005-01-01

39

Updated: 4/12 Latin American Studies  

E-print Network

Updated: 4/12 Latin American Studies Contact Maria Matz, Department of Cultural Studies 978-934-4364 Office: Coburn Hall 113C Courses for a minor field in Latin American Studies are selected from a list of approved courses in Languages, History, Art History, Political Science, and Cultural Studies. Six credits

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

40

Crossroads: Identity struggles in Latin America and Latin American psychiatry.  

PubMed

Identity can be defined from different perspectives such as those from philosophy, social sciences and phenomenology. The latter entails sameness, uniqueness, distinctiveness, continuity, diversity, universality and equality connotations to define characteristics of the existence and action of individuals, institutions, entities, organizations and collectivities. In order to elaborate on the identity of Latin American Psychiatry, this chapter deals first with the identity of the Latin American continent, the result of a 'collision of cultures' with mestizaje as its most prominent collective contribution. In turn, the Latin American population (and its 'Hispanic' equivalent in other countries and regions of the world) has been the subject of a pluralistic search, and played a combined role of hope and conflict, advances and setbacks in a fascinating historical process. In such context, Latin American psychiatry offers a mixed identity, resulting from a succession of mythic-religious, moral, phenomenologico-existential, biological and social/community-based routes. Each of them are assessed, and the contributions of two eponymous figures, Honorio Delgado and Gregorio Bermann, are duly delineated. Current realities in Latin American psychiatry and mental health in socio-political, conceptual, professional, ideological, academic and heuristic areas, are examined. The chapter ends with considerations of the future of psychiatry in the continent, the postulation of a 'new synthesis' embracing the essence of contemporary neurobiological knowledge and a new, revitalized humanism in the context of a healthy eclecticism, progressive educational training and didactic programmes, and concrete contributions embodying the promise of well justified expectations. PMID:20874062

Alarcón, Renato D; Pérez-Rincón, Héctor

2010-01-01

41

UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST  

E-print Network

at the UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST FALL (2111) #12;Center University 4200 American Stud duate courses o ulture requirem rmation about @pitt.edu or ph also are welcom tin American w.ucis.pitt.edu Registration: n for admissio American relate enrolls, the soo le Certificate erican Studies nal courses in ards

Machery, Edouard

42

Latin American Outlook April 1, 2000: Chile Moves On  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The April 2000 issue of Latin American Outlook from the AEI consists of the article "Chile Moves On," by Mark Folcoff. Latin American Outlook is a monthly newsletter on political and economic developments in Latin America.

Folcoff, Mark.

2000-01-01

43

[Toward a Latin Americanization of North American culture?].  

PubMed

"The author analyses [U.S. census data,] which demonstrate that [the] Latin American population is growing very fast. The research shows interesting contributions of the Latin American culture to different aspects of the American life style like music, movies, food and language." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12319008

Altamirano, T

1993-01-01

44

Latin American & Caribbean Studies Seminar Series  

E-print Network

S Latin American & Caribbean Studies Seminar Series Learn more: www.LatinAmerica.isp.msu.edu All-sponsors: CLACS, MSU Alumni Association, CIBER, VIPP, CASID, IPPSR, and International Studies and Programs Engineering; Violeta Nieves, Nursing; Isabel Montemayor, Anthropology; and Edith Torres-Chavolla, Biosystems

Liu, Taosheng

45

UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST  

E-print Network

at the UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST SPRING (2124) #12; Center University Center for I var Hall h, PA 15260 s.pitt.edu/clas are encouraged American Stud duate courses o ern culture req n or want info senjo@pitt.ed also are welcom tin American w.ucis.pitt.edu Impo Registration: n

Machery, Edouard

46

Latin American Plays in English Translation  

E-print Network

34 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Latin American Plays in English Translation Aguilera Malta, Demetrio. Infierno negro (Blac\\ Hell). Trans. Elizabeth Lowe. Andrade, Jorge. A Moratória (Time of the Harvest). Trans. Donald C. Robinson. Cantón... Rosenberg. Dragún, Osvaldo. Milagro en el mercado viejo (Miracle in the Old Market). Trans. Joe and Graciela Rosenberg, TAIUS (Texas A&I University Studies), Vol. XII, No. 1 (Nov. 1979). Garro, Elena. La señora en su balcón (The Woman on the Balcony...

Editors

1980-10-01

47

APPLICATION FOR ADMISSION UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS IN LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES  

E-print Network

APPLICATION FOR ADMISSION UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS IN LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES Name: Student SELECTION I am applying to the: G Related Concentration in Latin American Studies (on-campus course work) G Undergraduate Certificate in Latin American Studies (requires a minimum of six weeks' study in Latin America

Machery, Edouard

48

Latin American Business History: Resources and Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Starting in December 2007, a team of researchers at the Harvard Business School began interviewing 21 leading business practitioners from Argentina and Chile for their Latin American business history initiative. The hope is that these oral histories will serve as a valuable resource for research on the business history of these two countries since the 1960s. On this site, visitors can listen to the interviews (in Spanish) and also read transcripts in English. Each profile contains a brief biography of each businessperson, along with material on their service to their respective industry. Moving on, visitors can also look through the rest of the Baker Library Historical Collections, which include collection of Brazilian railroad company records and the photographic records of the United Fruit Company.

49

SDSU General Catalog 2013-2014 321 Latin American Studies  

E-print Network

SDSU General Catalog 2013-2014 321 LATAM Latin American Studies In the College of Arts and Letters American studies is administered by the Latin American Studies Committee. Faculty assigned to teach courses in Latin American studies are drawn from Anthropology, Art and Design, Chicana and Chicano Studies

Gallo, Linda C.

50

316 SDSU General Catalog 2012-2013 Latin American Studies  

E-print Network

316 SDSU General Catalog 2012-2013 Latin American Studies In the College of Arts and Letters OFFICE American studies is administered by the Latin American Studies Committee. Faculty assigned to teach courses in Latin American studies are drawn from Anthropology, Art, Design, and Art History, Chicana and Chicano

Gallo, Linda C.

51

SDSU General Catalog 2010-2011 315 Latin American Studies  

E-print Network

SDSU General Catalog 2010-2011 315 LATAM Latin American Studies In the College of Arts and Letters American studies is administered by the Latin American Studies Committee. Faculty assigned to teach courses in Latin American studies are drawn from Anthropology, Art, Design, and Art History, Chicana and Chicano

Gallo, Linda C.

52

SDSU General Catalog 2011-2012 313 Latin American Studies  

E-print Network

SDSU General Catalog 2011-2012 313 LATAM Latin American Studies In the College of Arts and Letters American studies is administered by the Latin American Studies Committee. Faculty assigned to teach courses in Latin American studies are drawn from Anthropology, Art, Design, and Art History, Chicana and Chicano

Gallo, Linda C.

53

"The South American Way": Hollywood Looks at Latins and at Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latin elements or themes made for the North American market have been used in American films, but at the same time these films have been playing in a Latin American market, making it useful to examine how Latin America has been portrayed in these films. The taste for exotic locales and themes is an element that has been present since the…

Aiex, Nola Kortner

54

Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 26, Number 2: Front Matter  

E-print Network

TEUCH Domingo Piga 197 La escena española Sharon G. Feldman 199 Plays in Performance 201 Book Reviews 203 Bibliography 219 4 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Abstracts George Woodyard and Vicky Unruh, "Latin American Theatre Today" The several...

Editors

1993-04-01

55

Transnational Ties, Poverty, and Identity: Latin American Immigrant Women in Public Housing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used ethnographic data to examine the nature and functions of transnational relationships of low-income Latin American women who had immigrated to the United States and were living in areas of extreme poverty. Findings indicated that these Latin American mothers utilized transnational ties to help maintain the cultural identities of…

Dominguez, Silvia; Lubitow, Amy

2008-01-01

56

Latin American Immigrant Women and Intergenerational Sex Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People of Latin American descent make up the largest and fastest-growing minority group in the USA. Rates of pregnancy, childbirth, and sexually transmitted infections among people of Latin American descent are higher than among other ethnic groups. This paper builds on research that suggests that among families of Latin American descent, mothers…

Alcalde, Maria Cristina; Quelopana, Ana Maria

2013-01-01

57

Center for Latin American Studies University Center for International Studies  

E-print Network

Center for Latin American Studies University Center for International Studies University of Pittsburgh Annual Report 2002-03 December 2003 #12;Message from the Director In 1964, a Latin American, Pitt's Center for Latin American Studies (CLAS) has become internationally recognized for excellence

Machery, Edouard

58

Winter 2005 57 Page 6--Latin American Social and  

E-print Network

Winter 2005 · 57 Inside ·Page 6--Latin American Social and Public Policy Conference ·Page 9 Years of Excellence in Scholarship and Training in Latin American Studies: 1964-2004 Left to right. Seligson, Cole Blasier, Eduardo Lozano, Billie R. DeWalt. The Center for Latin American Studies celebrated

Machery, Edouard

59

College of Arts and Sciences LAS Latin American Studies  

E-print Network

College of Arts and Sciences LAS Latin American Studies KEY: # = new course * = course changed INDEPENDENT WORK IN LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES. (3) Directed study for students wishing to do specialized work on a topic related to the Latin American Studies area. May be repeated to a maximum of six credits. Prereq

MacAdam, Keith

60

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ Latin American and Latino Studies  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ Latin American and Latino Studies Ongoing Lecturer Pool The Latin American and Latino Studies Department at the University of California, Santa Cruz, invites available), and samples of course syllabi to: Latin American and Latino Studies Department Merrill College

California at Santa Cruz, University of

61

Imagining Globalization through Latin American Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through a combination of practical applications and theoretical underpinnings, this article explores the question of how to approach the teaching of Latin American Literature in the current period of globalization. Many theorists argue that we need new epistemologies in which to ground our pedagogy for the 21st century. Understanding the effects…

Seminet, Georgia

2009-01-01

62

A Latin American perspective of periodontology.  

PubMed

Periodontal diseases occur worldwide, and Latin American populations are significantly affected by different manifestations of periodontal disease. The interest in periodontics and periodontal therapy first developed in the early 1930s in the southernmost countries of Latin America, and spread, as the years went by, throughout the region. Today, periodontal research is vibrant in Latin America. The aim of this volume of Periodontology 2000 was to present an overview of the periodontal research currently being performed in different countries of Latin America. The epidemiology of periodontal diseases in adults, children and adolescents, and the pathogenesis of such diseases (including microbiological characteristics and risk factors), are discussed. The role of systemic antibiotic therapy and the effect of smoking are discussed in relation to the progression and the treatment of periodontitis. In addition, the benefit of lasers in periodontal therapy is evaluated. Latin American research groups have been active in exploring new venues of regenerative periodontal treatment, addressing the role of cementum proteins, growth factors and oral mesenchymal stem cells in tissue engineering. Finally, basic research to study cancerization is reported. PMID:25494595

Caffesse, Raúl G

2015-02-01

63

Latin American oil companies and the politics of energy  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on Latin American energy policy. Topics considered include the politics of Latin American oil production, historical aspects, the formative years of Latin America's pioneer state oil company, setting the Brazilian agenda, the trajectory of a national oil policy, the politics of energy in Venezuela, and a public policy perspective on the state companies.

Worth, J.D.

1985-01-01

64

Latin American Pamphlet Digital Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the centuries, thousands of pamphlets have been published to serve various purposes. Some have been preserved by individuals and prescient institutions, but countless others have disappeared forever. Harvard University's Widener Library has over 5000 pamphlets from 19th and 20th century Latin America, and until recently, they remained uncataloged and mostly inaccessible. Visitors to this site can browse the collection by title, subject, name, and genre. The materials offered here range from documents on accounting practices to those dealing with yellow fever. Additionally, visitors looking for descriptive documents that describe unexplored territories and the relationship between church and state will not be disappointed. The site also contains a nice help feature and visitors can also email questions to staff members at the library.

65

A New Populism in Latin American?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolfo Gilly, Department of Political Science, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), talked about neo-liberalism and the emergence of a “new populism†in many Latin American countries. Alfredo Saad Filho, Department of History, School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), talked about the political and economic transition to liberalism in Brazil. He discussed the Worker’s Party (PT), the administration of

Adolfo Gilly; Alfredo S Filho

2006-01-01

66

Building a Latin American cancer patient advocacy movement: Latin American cancer NGO regional overview.  

PubMed

The objective of the this paper is to assess and identify the key strengths and weaknesses for cancer control NGOs in Latin America, with the goal to make recommendations about how to improve thev impact of the patient advocacy movement as it pertains to cancer. The methods included literature review, expert interviews and site visits to Latin American cancer hospitals and NGOs. The overall findings conclude that NGOs currently do not take a leadership role in cancer control in Latin America. The lack of a survivorship movement, faulty patient information services and failure of the governments to include NGOs in policy creation are identified as areas for further project work and collaboration. The stigma of cancer still remains and a burgeoning patient movement can be created to help destigmatize and debunk the myths that surround cancer. PMID:19967288

Durstine, Alessandra; Leitman, Elizabeth

2009-01-01

67

Interethnic admixture and the evolution of Latin American populations  

PubMed Central

A general introduction to the origins and history of Latin American populations is followed by a systematic review of the data from molecular autosomal assessments of the ethnic/continental (European, African, Amerindian) ancestries for 24 Latin American countries or territories. The data surveyed are of varying quality but provide a general picture of the present constitution of these populations. A brief discussion about the applications of these results (admixture mapping) is also provided. Latin American populations can be viewed as natural experiments for the investigation of unique anthropological and epidemiological issues. PMID:24764751

Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Sans, Mónica

2014-01-01

68

AFTER LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES: A GUIDE TO GRADUATE STUDY AND  

E-print Network

AFTER LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES: A GUIDE TO GRADUATE STUDY AND EMPLOYMENT FOR LATIN AMERICANISTS to this edition, the job market for college graduates could not have been better. Within the past month or two Nallim is a doctoral student in the Department of History and a recipient of the Graduate Certificate

Machery, Edouard

69

Education and Globalisation: A Latin American Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the historical relationship between education and globalisation in Latin America. This is no straightforward task. Hegel's vision of a continent without history and the rapacious expansion of Western culture from the sixteenth century profoundly transformed Latin America, and in turn stimulated a search for a distinctive "Latin…

Pineau, Pablo

2008-01-01

70

Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 33, Number 2: Bibliography  

E-print Network

, treinta años autor"; Alejandro Licona, La que hubiera amado tanto; Socorro Merlin, "Un acercamiento del teatro a la teoría de sistemas 202 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW de Niklas Luhmann"; Hugo Salcedo, El árbol del deseo; Francisco Beverido Duhalt...

Editors

2000-04-01

71

Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 27, Number 1: Back Matter  

E-print Network

of the Blacksmith. Old Globe Theatre. FALL 1993 167 n n Ballad of the Blacksmith. Old Globe Theatre. 168 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Solicitud de colaboraciones UN ESCENARIO PROPIO SIMPOSIO/FESTIVAL DE TEATRO dedicado a LAS MUJERES ESPAÑOLAS...FALL 1993 159 ,S^%r m ::^0"^WÍ;f'' ¡sis y Osiris de Carlos Cueva. XV Muestra Nacional de Teatro Peruano. Qosqo, Perú. 160 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW GESTOS- Teoría y práctica del teatro hispánico Director: Juan Villegas GESTOS is a...

Editors

1993-10-01

72

Female Wage Inequality in Latin American Labor Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

December 2001In three Latin American countries that introduced structural reforms, quantile regression results show, female workers with less human capital saw wage gains relative to female workers with more human capital.Saavedra uses quantile regression to document the evolution of the earnings structure of salaried and self-employed female workers in urban areas in three Latin American countries?Argentina, Brazil, and Costa Rica?after

Luz A. Saavedra

2001-01-01

73

Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Studies Center for Latin American,  

E-print Network

, New York 10016 212-817-8438 clacls@gc.cuny.edu http://web.gc.cuny.edu/lastudies Trends in Poverty for the advancement of the study of Latin America, the Caribbean, and Latinos in the United States in the doctoral://web.gc.cuny.edu/lastudies #12;Poverty Rates Among Latinos in New York City and the U.S. 3 Latino Data Project Report 55 October

Rosen, Jay

74

Native American Interdisciplinary Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a cross-graded, thematic, interdisciplinary unit which grew from a Native American humanities unit. The 9-week unit addresses the plurality of intelligences, allows for cognitive bypassing and challenges students in critical thinking modalities. With a focus on the five groups of Native Americans (The Eastern Woodlands, Plains,…

Sorensen, Carol; Hoffmann, Donald; Boinczan, Joseph

75

Latin American Theatre Activities in the U.S. and Canada  

E-print Network

64 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Latin American Theatre Activities in the U.S. and Canada There was a special session on Brazilian Contemporary Theater at the AATSP meetings in Toronto last August. The session was chaired by Oscar Fernández...

Editors

1980-04-01

76

Latin American Independence: Education and the Invention of New Polities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latin American independence from Spain and Portugal in the first decades of the nineteenth century was a process of global relevance. A considerable number of new polities emerged that had to deal with radically new political situations. Particularly in the case of the former Spanish colonies, a general rejection of the colonial past determined…

Caruso, Marcelo

2010-01-01

77

The Secret Lives of Roses: The Latin American Flower Industry  

E-print Network

The Secret Lives of Roses: The Latin American Flower Industry By Sheila Jarnes www 2009 #12;(Environmental Health Perspectives 2002) #12;(Environmental Health Perspectives 2002) #12;(War on Want 2007) #12;(Environmental Health Perspectives 2002) #12;(War on Want 2007) #12;(NYU 2008) #12;(Fair

New Hampshire, University of

78

APPLICATION FOR ADMISSION GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES  

E-print Network

in Latin American Social and Public Policy. FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE G I have applied to my major school or department for financial assistance. G I am a recipient of the following financial assistance: for the time, please list countries visited, dates, and purpose of stay. PUBLICATIONS, CONFERENCE PAPERS, MASTER

Machery, Edouard

79

2012 Teacher Training Network Latin American & Caribbean Studies  

E-print Network

1 2012 Teacher Training Network Latin American & Caribbean Studies Selected Summer Institutes/Travel Programs for Educators June 4-8, 2012 Teacher Institute (Vanderbilt University) Maya 2012: Modern Maya about this event? How do modern Maya live today? This institute introduces teachers to Maya culture from

Saldin, Dilano

80

BERKELEY REVIEW OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 6 Switching to Sustainability  

E-print Network

's governments will need to develop new energy sources and pay more attention to sustainability. By some measures. Developing alternative forms of sustainable energy will require focused effort. Challenges includeBERKELEY REVIEW OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 6 Switching to Sustainability The Sustainable Energy

Kammen, Daniel M.

81

Pedagogy of a Latin-American Festival: A Mojado Ethnography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes and reflects on the pedagogical meaning of a festival held to showcase and celebrate Latin American culture in a North Carolina town undergoing a cultural transition as its Latino population grows. Following a successful event the previous year, a 2-day festival was organized to include a soccer tournament, booths selling…

Murillo, Enrique G., Jr.

82

Pedagogy of Human Rights Education: A Latin American Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because we started to work with teachers on human rights education in Latin American in the middle of the 1980s, with dictatorial regimes in power, we understood that our pedagogical approach needed to be a critical one. This transformative process of change has not been easy. Many personal, social, political and cultural challenges have been…

Magendzo, Abraham

2005-01-01

83

Overview of Spanish and Latin American Distance Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a brief overview of Spanish and Latin American distance education programs for higher education and describes the three most important institutions: (1) the Spanish UNED (Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia); (2) the Costa Rican UNED (Universidad Estatal a Distancia); and (3) the Venezuelan UNA (Universidad Nacional Abierta).…

Garcia Garrido, Jose Luis

1991-01-01

84

Advocating feminism: The Latin American Feminist NGO 'Boom'  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latin American feminist NGOs have played a critical role in 'advocating feminism' by advancing a progressive policy agenda while simultaneously articulating vital linkages among larger women's movement and civil society constituencies. However, three recent developments potentially undermine NGOs' ability to promote feminist-inspired policies and social change. First, States and inter-governmental organizations (IGOs) increasingly have turned to feminist NGOs as gender

Sonia E. Alvarez

1999-01-01

85

ICT and Marketing Challenges in Latin American Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latin American libraries have experienced an important development in the last two decades. Telecommunications and Information Technologies (ITC) have been key elements in this process. There are leading institutions with remarkable programs; nevertheless it is necessary to design marketing strategies to improve their benefits. A case study based…

Feria, Lourdes

86

Internet Lessons for Brazilian Portuguese and Latin American Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of the Internet for teaching Brazilian Portuguese and Latin American Studies. Includes descriptions of 16 self-directed lesson plans, as well as a link for access to download and use any or all of the plans. (Author/VWL)

Berry-Bravo, Judy

2002-01-01

87

Training on Eastern Pacific tropical cyclones for Latin American students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical cyclones are one of the most impressive atmospheric phenomena and their development in the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific basins has potential to affect several Latin-American and Caribbean countries, where human resources are limited. As part of an international research project, we are offering short courses based on the current understanding of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific basin. Our main goal is to train students from higher-education institutions from various countries in Latin America. Key aspects are tropical cyclone formation and evolution, with particular emphasis on their development off the west coast of Mexico. Our approach includes lectures on tropical cyclone climatology and formation, dynamic and thermodynamic models, air-sea interaction and oceanic response, ocean waves and coastal impacts as well as variability and climate-related predictions. In particular, we use a best-track dataset issued by the United States National Hurricane Center and satellite observations to analyze convective patterns for the period 1970-2006. Case studies that resulted in landfall over northwestern Mexico are analyzed in more detail; this includes systems that developed during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 seasons. Additionally, we have organized a human-dimensions symposium to discuss socio-economic issues that are associated with the landfall of tropical cyclones. This includes coastal zone impact and flooding, the link between cyclones and water resources, the flow of weather and climate information from scientists to policy- makers, the role of emergency managers and decision makers, impact over health issues and the viewpoint of the insurance industry.

Farfán, L. M.; Raga, G. B.

2009-05-01

88

Attitudes toward Family Obligations among American Adolescents with Asian, Latin American, and European Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the attitudes toward family obligations among over 800 American tenth ( M age 5 15.7 years) and twelfth ( M age 5 17.7 years) grade students from Filipino, Chinese, Mexican, Central and South American, and European backgrounds. Asian and Latin American adolescents possessed stronger values and greater expectations regarding their duty to assist, respect,

Andrew J. Fuligni; Vivian Tseng; May Lam

1999-01-01

89

STOCKHOLM REVIEW OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES Issue No. 9, December 2013  

E-print Network

in Latin America Editors: Laura Álvarez López, Silje Lundgren & Thaïs Machado-Borges Institute of Latin OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES Issue No. 9, December 2013 Contemporary Struggles in Latin America Introduction of the borders between Argentina and Uruguay. Maria Padrón Hernández discusses the concept of poverty

90

Satellite systems for Latin American telecommunication requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aspects of satellite telecommunications systems of interest to Latin America are discussed. Presently existing systems are described, including both state-run and international services. Services planned for the region are examined, including Geostar, a service that provides satellite radio determination and message services, a system which will provide a high-capacity digital voice and data service for airlines, and direct broadcast satellites. Applications of these systems in education, rural telephony, data transmission, news services, publishing, emergency communications, and mobile communications are addressed.

Elizondo, Eduardo L.

91

Chagas disease awareness among Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles, California.  

PubMed

Approximately 300,000 persons have Chagas disease in the United States, although almost all persons acquired the disease in Latin America. We examined awareness of Chagas disease among Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles, California. We surveyed 2,677 persons (age range = 18-60 years) in Los Angeles who resided in Latin America for at least six months. A total of 62% of the participants recalled seeing triatomines in Latin America, and 27% of the participants reported triatomine bites at least once per year while living abroad. A total of 86% of the participants had never heard of Chagas disease. Of persons who had heard of Chagas disease, 81% believed that it was not serious. More than 95% of those who had heard of Chagas disease would want to be tested and treated. Most Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles recalled exposure to vectors of Chagas disease. However, they have little knowledge of this disease. Increasing awareness of Chagas disease is needed in this high-risk population. PMID:25200261

Sanchez, Daniel R; Traina, Mahmoud I; Hernandez, Salvador; Smer, Aiman M; Khamag, Haneen; Meymandi, Sheba K

2014-11-01

92

Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 09, Number 1: Front Matter  

E-print Network

with that of Anouilh and Sophocles, establishes affinity in tone and structure with its ancient Greek prototype. Marechal reverently echos philosophical concepts of Sophocles. However, he makes a radical departure from the Sophoclean concept of tyranny in reconciling...LATIN a Journal devoted to AMERICAN the Theatre and Drama THEATRE of Spanish and Portuguese REVIEW America Editor GEORGE W. WOODYARD Associate Editor JOHN S. BRUSHWOOD Assistant Editors WILLIAM R. BLUE RAYMOND D. SOUZA MICHAEL J. DOUDOROFF...

Editors

1975-10-01

93

ECLAMC: The Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Definition: ECLAMC (‘Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformaciones Congénitas’) is a program for the clinical and epidemiological investigation of risk factors in the etiology of congenital anomalies in Latin-American hospitals, using a case-control methodological approach. It is a voluntary agreement among professionals lacking institutional base as well as designated budgets. ECLAMC has been usually funded by research-funding agencies rather than

Eduardo E. Castilla; Iêda M. Orioli

2004-01-01

94

Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 28, Number 2: Front Matter  

E-print Network

. This essay discusses how Boullosa's play, Aura y las once mil vírgenes, actively participates in both debates and engages in a reformulation of the very categories and critical tools with which we approach the text and its context—that is, contemporary...LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW a Journal devoted to the Theatre and Drama of Spanish and Portuguese America Editor Associate Editor Assistant Editors Book Review Editor Editorial Assistant George Woodyard Vicky Unruh Danny Anderson...

Editors

1995-04-01

95

Biological And Cultural Diversity of a Latin American Country  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students conduct an 8 hour Annual Summit Meeting on the Cultural and Biological Diversity of a Latin American Country. Students construct a Rainforest in the school's Media Center, coffee and banana plantations in the hallway, and a street scene of a typical large city in a classroom. Students assume roles of native people or scientists and share information and ideas with formal presentation. Social interactions occur at coffee breaks, taste-testing luncheon, and games/dance finale.

Marianne Anderson (Pocatello High School REV)

1995-06-30

96

Food Insecurity Among Latin American Recent Immigrants in Toronto  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food security is an important social determinant of health. The 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2 reported\\u000a high prevalence of food insecurity among low income households and those formed by recent immigrants. Exploration of the extent\\u000a and correlates of food insecurity among recent Latin Americans (LA) immigrants is essential considering they encompasses an\\u000a increasing number of young immigrants, many

Mandana Vahabi; Cynthia Damba; Cecilia Rocha; Elizabeth Cristina Montoya

97

14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2011)  

Microsoft Academic Search

These proceedings present the written contributions from participants of the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP), which was held in Mar del Plata, Argentina, on 20–25 November 2011. This was the 14th session of the series of LAWPP biennial meetings, which started in 1982. The five-day scientific program of LAWPP 2011 consisted of 32 talks and various poster sessions,

Luis Bilbao; Fernando Minotti; Hector Kelly

2012-01-01

98

An Assessment of Current American Influence in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influence is quite distinct from popularity or image. Our firm stance in the Dominican Republic last year was not popular in Latin America, but it had profound influence, and probably cleared up any remaining doubt as to the serious view taken by the United States toward the threat of another Communist takeover in a neighboring area by indirect aggres sion.

R. Richard Rubottom

1966-01-01

99

University of Pittsburgh Summer Library Research Fellowships in Latin American Studies  

E-print Network

University of Pittsburgh Summer Library Research Fellowships in Latin American Studies 2013 American library resources. Several grants ranging from $500 to $1,500 will be awarded. The awards are designed to enable scholars to come to Pitt to use its outstanding Latin American library collection

Machery, Edouard

100

Never tested for HIV in Latin-American migrants and Spaniards: prevalence and perceived barriers  

PubMed Central

Introduction Increasing the uptake of HIV testing and decreasing the number of undiagnosed people is a priority for HIV prevention. Understanding the barriers that hinder people from testing is vital, particularly when working with especially vulnerable populations like migrants. Most data available on migrants are based on African migrants in the UK, while barriers to HIV testing in Latin-American migrants living in Europe remain unexplored. Still, they account for a quarter of new diagnosis in Spain and suffer higher rates of delayed diagnosis. Methods Between May 2008 and March 2011, a mobile unit offered free rapid HIV tests in different Spanish cities. We compared the prevalence of no previous testing, adjusting for potential confounders by two multivariate logistic models, and described differences in perceived barriers to testing in Latin-American migrants living in Spain versus Spaniards. Participants included men who have sex with men (MSM), men who have sex exclusively with women (MSW), and women. Results Of the 5920 individuals who got tested and answered a self-administered questionnaire, 36.5% were MSM (20.4% previously untested), 28.9% were MSW (49% previously untested) and 34.6% were women (53% previously untested). Almost one quarter were Latin-American, of whom 30% had never been tested versus 45% of untested Spaniards. After adjusting for potential confounders, Spaniards were more likely to report no previous testing than Latin-Americans among women and MSW all together (Odds Ratio (OR)=2.0; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.7–2.4) and among MSM (OR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.2–2.0). Among the 2455 who had never undergone an HIV test before, main barriers to testing were low perceived risk (54% Spaniards vs. 47% Latin-American) and concerns arising from the loss of anonymity (19.5% vs. 16.9%). Fear of rejection or discrimination and fear of legal problems were a barrier for <2%. Conclusions Latin-American migrants living in Spain were more likely to get tested than Spaniards. Regardless of nationality, low perceived risk was the main barrier to testing whereas fear of stigma or discrimination and fear of legal problems were merely incidental. However, new Spanish austerity policies regarding healthcare for migrants in response to the economic crisis may reverse this situation. PMID:23663441

Hoyos, Juan; Fernández-Balbuena, Sonia; de la Fuente, Luis; Sordo, Luis; Ruiz, Mónica; Barrio, Gregorio; José Belza, María

2013-01-01

101

Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 35, Number 1: Book Reviews  

E-print Network

notes, Merlin Forster is a descendant of Guadalupe Miranda, the first Mexican consul in El Paso, Texas. This genetic link with Mexico points to an academic genealogy that connects intellectuals from Latin America and the United States. The ties... essay "Regarding Merlin," as well as Forster's curriculum vitae - ten packed pages that reveal only a small part of Forster's contribution to the field of Hispanic literary criticism. Stuart Day University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill El teatro...

Editors

2001-10-01

102

PREFACE: XIX Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XIX)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume contains selected papers which have been presented at the XIX Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XIX) held at Puerto Iguazú, Argentina, from 5--10 October 2008. The conference, covering all areas of Solid State Physics, is one of the most important and traditional meetings in Physics in our region. The Latin American Symposium on Solid State

Adriana Serquis; Carlos Balseiro; Pablo Bolcatto

2009-01-01

103

BERKELEY REVIEW OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 56 A Magical Cactus Trip  

E-print Network

BERKELEY REVIEW OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 56 A Magical Cactus Trip Michael Cera clutches a San Pedro cactus, the object of his character's quest. (Photo courtesy of Diroriro Production Company.) #12;CENTER FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES, UC BERKELEY 57Spring 2014 A Magical Cactus Trip by James Gerardo Lamb

Kammen, Daniel M.

104

Food insecurity among Latin American recent immigrants in Toronto.  

PubMed

Food security is an important social determinant of health. The 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2 reported high prevalence of food insecurity among low income households and those formed by recent immigrants. Exploration of the extent and correlates of food insecurity among recent Latin Americans (LA) immigrants is essential considering they encompasses an increasing number of young immigrants, many of whom, despite relatively high education, are unemployed or have low wage positions. This study examines the extent of food insecurity and its correlates among recent Latin American (LA) immigrants in Toronto. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenience sample of 70 adult LA recent immigrants. Participants were recruited from selected community health centres across Toronto using snow ball sampling. Data were collected using questionnaires in face-to-face interviews with primary household care givers. A considerably high rate of food insecurity (56%) was found among participants. Household food insecurity was highly related to: being on social assistance; limited proficiency in English; and the use of foodbanks. Our findings indicate that the primary correlate of a household's food security status is income, which suggests the potential for strategies to improve the financial power of new immigrants to purchase sufficient, nutritious, and culturally acceptable food. Enhancing the employability of new immigrants, reforming the income structure for working adults beyond social assistance, and providing more subsidized English language and housing programs may be effective. PMID:20803253

Vahabi, Mandana; Damba, Cynthia; Rocha, Cecilia; Montoya, Elizabeth Cristina

2011-10-01

105

Anaphylaxis in Latin America: a report of the online Latin American survey on anaphylaxis (OLASA)  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The aims of the Online Latin American Survey of Anaphylaxis (OLASA) were to identify the main clinical manifestations, triggers, and treatments of severe allergic reactions in patients who were seen by allergists from July 2008 to June 2010 in 15 Latin American countries and Portugal (n?=?634). RESULTS: Of all patients, 68.5% were older than 18 years, 41.6% were male, and 65.4% experienced the allergic reaction at home. The etiologic agent was identified in 87.4% of cases and predominantly consisted of drugs (31.2%), foods (23.3%), and insect stings (14.9%). The main symptom categories observed during the acute episodes were cutaneous (94.0%) and respiratory (79.0%). The majority of patients (71.6%) were treated initially by a physician (office/emergency room) within the first hour after the reaction occurred (60.2%), and 43.5% recovered in the first hour after treatment. Most patients were treated in an emergency setting, but only 37.3% received parenteral epinephrine alone or associated with other medication. However, 80.5% and 70.2% were treated with corticosteroids or antihistamines (alone or in association), respectively. A total of 12.9% of the patients underwent reanimation maneuvers, and 15.2% were hospitalized. Only 5.8% of the patients returned to the emergency room after discharge, with 21.7% returning in the first 6 hours after initial treatment. CONCLUSION: The main clinical manifestations of severe allergic reactions were cutaneous. The etiologic agents that were identified as causing these acute episodes differed according to age group. Following in order: drugs (31.2%), foods (23.3% and insect stings (14.9%) in adults with foods predominance in children. Treatment provided for acute anaphylactic reactions was not appropriate. It is necessary to improve educational programs in order to enhance the knowledge on this potentially fatal emergency. PMID:21808856

Solé, Dirceu; Ivancevich, Juan Carlos; Borges, Mario Sánchez; Coelho, Magna Adaci; Rosário, Nelson A; Ardusso, Ledit Ramón Francisco; Bernd, Luis Antônio Guerra

2011-01-01

106

Clinical management of Helicobacter pylori: the Latin American perspective.  

PubMed

In most South American countries, Helicobacter pylori infection prevalence is high, affecting over 70% in populations with precarious living conditions. It is worth pointing out that there is initial evidence of a decline in prevalence of H. pylori infection at least in some more privileged fragments of the population. It is estimated that gastric cancer, the main clinical sequela of H. pylori infection, has an average incidence rate of 12.4 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (8.4 cases per 100,000 inhabitants for women and 17.3 cases per 100,000 for men) in the region. Classical triple therapy [proton pump inhibitor (PPI), amoxicillin and clarithromycin] is still the most used regimen with eradication rates around 80%. The rates of resistance to clarithromycin range from 2 to 24%. Recurrence rates of the infection are described as 2.9% in Argentina, 4.2% in Chile, 2-7% in Brazil, and 11.5% in a trial involving 7 Latin American countries. After failure of clarithromycin-containing regimens, second- and third-line therapies using PPI, amoxicillin and levofloxacin and quadruple therapy with PPI, colloidal bismuth subcitrate, tetracycline hydrochloride and metronidazole are recommended. Due to the high rates of primary resistance to metronidazole in the Latin American countries, use of the quadruple therapy, replacing metronidazole for furazolidone, is a frequent option. Rescue triple therapy regimens using furazolidone in association with levofloxacin and PPI have also been used. Most recommended rescue therapies reach eradication rates close to 80%. PMID:24732197

Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga; Coelho, Maria Clara

2014-01-01

107

Stability and Change in Ethnic Labeling among Adolescents from Asian and Latin American Immigrant Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An important question for the acculturation of adolescents from immigrant families is whether they retain ethnic labels that refer to their national origin (e.g., Mexican, Chinese) or adopt labels that are dominant in American society (e.g., Latino, Asian American, American). Approximately 380 adolescents from Asian and Latin American immigrant…

Fuligni, Andrew J.; Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R.; Baldelomar, Oscar

2008-01-01

108

The Latin American contribution to the psychoanalytic concept of phantasy.  

PubMed

The author argues that the ubiquity of phantasies at various levels of mental functioning is undisputed in the current schools of psychoanalytic thought; however, she demonstrates some variations in their understanding of how the psychotherapeutic access to different configurations occurs. In the process of examining and acknowledging the central role played by unconscious phantasies in his patients' symptoms, Freud gradually broadened the vernacular meaning of the German word 'Phantasie' that refers to imagination and the world of imagination, conferring on it the specific features that came to characterize its use in the psychoanalytic vocabulary. Later, the expansion of the concept derived from Melanie Klein's clinical material obtained from child analyses gave rise to important debates. The author discusses the main points of disagreement that led to these debates, as well as their various theoretical and technical implications. Psychoanalytic associations in Latin America were strongly influenced by Klein and her followers. Thus, most of their scientific writings use the concept of unconscious phantasy put forward by the Kleinian school. Taking Kleinian principles as their starting point, Baranger and Baranger made the most original Latin American contribution to the concept of unconscious phantasy with their works on the unconscious phantasies generated by the analytic pair. PMID:23278202

de Barros, Izelinda Garcia

2012-12-01

109

Latin American Social Medicine and Global Social Medicine  

PubMed Central

A fundamental change in the theory underlying public health and medicine is needed. Latin American social medicine (LASM), originating in a region of the world that has been subjected to colonial and postcolonial influence, will be part of this change. To the extent that the social production of disease among people in other regions is a consequence of various large-scale forms of domination, LASM offers a relevant analysis, models of resistance, and exemplars of social medicine in practice. I draw upon LASM to examine the social production of disease in the Marshall Islands and Iraq. I suggest a basis for a global social medicine in the shared experience of suffering and describe implications for public health theory and practice. PMID:14652319

Yamada, Seiji

2003-01-01

110

Latin American Social Medicine: Roots, Development During the 1990s, and Current Challenges  

PubMed Central

Latin American social medicine arose during the 1950s and 1960s, drawing its inspiration from the social movements that emerged in France, Germany, and England in the mid-19th century. The Latin American movement of social medicine has clear ideological goals. It is organized around the Latin American Association of Social Medicine, which was founded in 1984 and is regarded as a social, political, and academic movement. This article takes a historical perspective and presents the reasons for the emergence and identity of the association, focusing on the main developments and contributions of this movement from the 1990s until the present time. PMID:14652326

Tajer, Débora

2003-01-01

111

Is Spanish Pragmatic Instruction Necessary in the L2 Classroom If Latin American Speakers of Spanish Take on American English Pragmatic Norms Once Prolonged Exposure in the United States Occurs? A Study on Refusal Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As educators of foreign and second languages debate the most efficient methods of implementing pragmatic instruction in the L2 classroom, is it possible that Spanish pragmatic instruction is not necessary if American Spanish pragmatic norms are no different than American English norms? The present investigation studies the pragmatic norms in…

Bachelor, Jeremy W.; Hernandez, Lydia; Shively, Rachel L.

2012-01-01

112

Science in Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief history of science and technology in Latin America that begins with the Mayan civilization and progresses through the colonial period to the present. Compares increased scientific productivity in the Latin American and Caribbean regions to productivity in the United States and European Union. (LZ)

Ayala, Francisco J.

1995-01-01

113

Special Article Situational study of seven Latin-American pulmonology journals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To characterize the situation of pulmonology journals published in Latin America. Methods: A survey was conducted in a meeting sponsored by the Latin American Thoracic Society. Each journal editor presented a report and answered a questionnaire. Results: Improving information acquisition is the main motivation for pulmonology societies to edit their own journals, whereas disseminating medical knowledge and reporting experiences

Manuel Oyarzún Gómez; Alejandra Ramírez Venegas; Adalberto Agüero Fernández; José Antônio Baddini Martínez; Mary Bermúdez Gómez; Jorge O. Cáneva; Jaime E. Morales Blandir; Rogelio Pérez-Padilla

2007-01-01

114

Latin American Studies, developed in the 1960s, is a cross-disciplinary program aimed at giving stu-dents knowledge about the peoples, languages, and cultures of Latin America. Students who pursue  

E-print Network

outside the United States or in U.S. companies with Latin American clients. A number of faculty members faculty scholarship focuses on immigration, homeless youth, and literary and historical studies. Study faculty scholarship focuses on immigration, homeless youth, and literary and historical studies

Logan, David

115

Do Latin American Central Bankers Behave NonLinearly? The Experience of Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This papers estimates unrestricted monetary reaction functions for four Latin American countries (Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico) and tests for the presence of non-linear eects in central bank behaviour. The analysis covers the post-1999 ination-targetin g period. We deal with the presence of unit roots in the data by es- timating the policy rules in a cointegration setting. We test

Luiz de Mello; Diego Moccero; Matteo Mogliani

116

PREFACE: XI Latin American Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The XI Latin American Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena (LAWNP) has been held in Búzios-RJ, Brazil, from 5-9 October 2009. This international conference is one in a series that have gathered biennially, over the past 21 years, physicists and other scientists who direct their work towards several aspects of nonlinear phenomena and complex systems. The main purpose of LAWNP meetings is to create a friendly and motivating environment, such that researchers from Latin America and from other parts of the globe can discuss not only their own latest results but also the trends and perspectives in this very interdisciplinary field of investigation. Hence, it constitutes a forum for promoting scientific collaboration and fomenting the emergence of new ideas, helping to advance the field. The XI edition (LAWNP'09) has gathered more than 230 scientists and students (most from Latin America), covering all of the world (27 different countries from North and South America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania). In total there were 18 plenary lectures, 80 parallel talks, and 140 poster contributions. A stimulating round-table discussion also took place devoted to the present and future of the Latin American Institutions in Complex Phenomena (a summary can be found at http://lawnp09.fis.puc-rio.br, in the Round-Table report link). The 2009 workshop was devoted to a wide scope of themes and points of view, pursuing to include the latest trends and developments in the science of nonlinearity. In this way, we have a great pleasure in publishing this Proceedings volume based on the high quality scientific works presented at LAWNP'09, covering already established methods as well as new approaches, discussing both theoretical and practical aspects, and addressing paradigmatic systems and also completely new problems, in nonlinearity and complexity. In fact, the present volume may be a very valuable reference for those interested in an overview on how nonlinear interactions can affect different phenomena in nature, addressing: classical and quantum chaos; instability and bifurcation; cooperative behavior; self-organization; pattern formation and synchronization; far-from-equilibrium and fluctuation dynamics; nonlinearity in fluid, plasmas, granular media, optics, and wave propagation; turbulence onset; and complexity in natural and social systems. The success of the conference was possible thanks to the financial support from many agencies, especially the Brazilian agencies Capes and CNPq, and the international agencies, Binational Itaupú, ICTP-Trieste, and CAIS-Albuquerque. Equally very important was the support by the organizer's institutions PUC-Rio de Janeiro and UFPR-Curitiba. We also must thank Journal of Physics: Conference Series, for believing in the success and scientific quality of the conference, and to the journal staff, specially Anete Ashton, for the kind and prompt help during the whole production process of this publication. Finally, and most important, we acknowledge all the participants of the LAWNP'09, whose interest and enthusiasm in advancing the science of nonlinearity constitutes the true moto making the present Proceedings a very valuable scientific contribution. Celia Anteneodo (PUC-Rio, Brazil) and Marcos G E da Luz (UFPR-Curitiba, Brazil) Conference Chairs Conference photograph Some of the conference participants. CAPES logo This issue was supported by CAPES (Agency for Evaluation and Support of Graduate Studies Programs), Brazilian govern entity devoted to the formation of human resources. CA would like to thank CAPES for financial support.

Anteneodo, Celia; da Luz, Marcos G. E.

2010-09-01

117

PREFACE: First Latin-American Conference on Bioimpedance (CLABIO 2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past decade has witnessed an unprecedented growth in medical technologies and a new generation of diagnostics, characterized by mobility, virtualization, homecare and costs. The ever growing demand and the rapid need for low cost tools for characterizing human tissue, and supporting intelligence and technologies for non-invasive tissue cancer investigation raise unique and evolving opportunities for research in Electrical Bioimpedance. The CLABIO2012 - First Latin American Conference on Bioimpedance is a premier Latin-American conference on Bioimpedance for research groups working on Electrical Bioimpedance. It allows Latin American researchers to share their experiences with other groups from all over the world by presenting scientific work and potential innovations in this research area and also in the social events promoting informal get togethers in the Brazilian style. The work covers a broad range including Biomedical Engineering and Computing, Medical Physics and Medical Sciences, Environment, Biology and Chemistry. Also, the Conference is intended to give students and research groups the opportunity to learn more about Bioimpedance as an important tool in biological material characterization and also in diagnosis. The conference is designed to showcase cutting edge research and accomplishments, and to enrich the educational and industrial experience in this field. It also represents a unique opportunity to meet colleagues and friends, exchanging ideas, and learning about new developments and best practice, while working to advance the understanding of the knowledge base that we will collectively draw upon in the years ahead to meet future challenges. Participants will attend presentations by scholars representing both institutes and academia. The CLABIO2012 proceedings include over 25 papers selected via a peer review process. The conference program features tutorial talks by world-leading scholars and five sessions for regular paper oral presentations. In making this conference possible, we want to acknowledge our deep appreciation for the financial support of FAPESC (Foundation for Research and Innovation of Santa Catarina), CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level -or Education- Personnel) and also express our sincere thanks to the many individuals who contributed their time and diligence to making this conference possible. Our special thanks go to the Santa Catarina State University for contributing time and effort to organizing the conference. We also wish to express our thanks to Professors Ana Watanabe and Fabricio Noveletto for helping with the registration process, the conference desk and the diverse and sundry details that are the part of any event of this kind. We would like also to thank all of the invited speakers and the members of the Program Committee, and wopuld like to express our gratitude to the Technological Institute of Joinville (FITEJ) for their technical co-sponsorship. We very much appreciate Orjan Martinsen, Uwe Pliquett, Fernando Martinez Seoane, Raul Gonzalez Lima, Marcio Nogueira de Souza and Carlos Augusto Gonzalez Correa for delivering keynote talks at the conference. And we would like to extend an enthusiastic round of thanks to all of our conference authors for their excellent contributions; to all the session chairs for their effort and enthusiasm; and to all the International Program Committee members and referees for their time and expertise in the paper review. Particular thanks go to Emiliano Amarante Veiga and other members of the CLABIO2012 Secretariat and organizing team for their time and outstanding work. List of committees General Chair Professor Pedro Bertemes Filho (Santa Catarina State University) Pedro Bertemes Filho Technical Program Chairs Dr Marcio Nogueira de Souza (Rio de Janeiro Federal University) Local Arrangement Chair Professor Aleksander Paterno (Santa Catarina State University) Professor Fabrício Noveletto (Santa Catarina State University) Finance Chairman Professor Nilson Campos (Santa Catarina State University) Marketing & Corp

Bertemes Filho, Pedro

2012-12-01

118

Certificate in Latin American Studies for M.Ed. and Ph.D. Students in the Peabody College of Education  

E-print Network

Certificate in Latin American Studies for M.Ed. and Ph.D. Students in the Peabody College of Education The Center for Latin American Studies allows students to document their regional specialization American Studies for graduate students in the Peabody College of Education has four basic requirements: 1

Bordenstein, Seth

119

Teaching about Women and Underdevelopment in Latin American History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latin America, the most advanced of the underdeveloped regions of the world, is a perfect showcase for exploring the contradictions that come into play when the historical construction of gender clashes with economic practice. The history of modern Latin America shows that economic development can actually work to the detriment of women. The most…

Pino, Julio Cesar

2001-01-01

120

Latin American Youth in a Time of Change and Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 4-part study reaffirms the concepts of a previous study entitled "Situation and Prospects of Youth in Latin America" and approved in 1983, and on the basis of new knowledge explores more deeply national situations and their diversity. It offers new conceptual and theoretical contributions on the condition of youth in Latin America and its…

United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

121

The Status of Environmental Education in Latin American Middle and High Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigated the status of environmental education (EE) in private American and international middle and high schools throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. The study population consisted of all 50 dues-paying member schools in the Association of American Schools of Central America, Columbia-Caribbean, and Mexico (the…

Cronin-Jones, Linda; Penwell, Rebecca; Hakverdi, Meral; Cline, Shannon; Johnson, Courtney; Scales, Ingrid

122

Participant Interaction in a Latin American Online Leadership Training Course. INDES Working Paper Series. I-61  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws on current research and analyzes participant interactions in a 12-week leadership online training course with students from 14 Latin American countries. The paper systematizes the experience of the Inter-American Institute for Social Development (INDES) and constitutes a case study of an experience in a regional, non-academic…

Contreras, Manuel E.; Dolan, Mary

2006-01-01

123

Latin America: Sights and Sounds; A Guide to Motion Pictures and Music for College Courses. Consortium of Latin American Studies Programs: Publication No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first section of this guide discusses topics such as the methods used to select educational films, their quality, the uses and values of films in the college classroom. After a brief section covering how to use the guide, 65 films that deal with Latin America and are recommended for use in conjunction with college courses in Latin American…

Loy, Jane M.

124

An American Genocide: A Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents methods for motivating, developing, and applying a lesson on genocide as it relates to the American Indian. Argues that according to the United Nations Genocide Convention, the U.S. government's actions toward the Indians constitute genocide. Includes a list of quotations pertinent to the subject which can be used as a student handout.…

Lankiewicz, Donald

1987-01-01

125

La escuela latinoamericana de pensamiento en ciencia, tecnología y desarrollo Latin American school of thought in science, technology and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyze the main ideas of the Latin American School of Thought in Science, Technology and Development (ELAPCYTED), from now onwards nominated the The School, a network of thought that arose in several Latin American countries among the years 1950 and 1970, and that proposed, to leave the vicious circle of \\

Oscar Horacio Galante; Alejandro Luis de Jesus Lugones

126

Submission Number:EB-08C20075 Stock market integration in the Latin American markets: further evidence from  

E-print Network

Submission Number:EB-08C20075 Stock market integration in the Latin American markets: further of Hansen and Seo (2002), we show significant threshold stock market linkages between Mexico, Chile hédi Arouri, (2009) ''Stock market integration in the Latin American markets: further evidence from

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

127

Multinational corporations and health care in the United States and Latin America: strategies, actions, and effects.  

PubMed

In this article we analyze the corporate dominance of health care in the United States and the dynamics that have motivated the international expansion of multinational health care corporations, especially to Latin America. We identify the strategies, actions, and effects of multinational corporations in health care delivery and public health policies. Our methods have included systematic bibliographical research and in-depth interviews in the United States, Mexico, and Brazil. Influenced by public policy makers in the United States, such organizations as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and World Trade Organization have advocated policies that encourage reduction and privatization of health care and public health services previously provided in the public sector. Multinational managed care organizations have entered managed care markets in several Latin American countries at the same time as they were withdrawing from managed care activities in Medicaid and Medicare within the United States. Corporate strategies have culminated in a marked expansion of corporations' access to social security and related public sector funds for the support of privatized health services. International financial institutions and multinational corporations have influenced reforms that, while favorable to corporate interests, have worsened access to needed services and have strained the remaining public sector institutions. A theoretical approach to these problems emphasizes the falling rate of profit as an economic motivation of corporate actions, silent reform, and the subordination of polity to economy. Praxis to address these problems involves opposition to policies that enhance corporate interests while reducing public sector services, as well as alternative models that emphasize a strengthened public sector PMID:15779471

Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca; Waitzkin, Howard; Landwehr, Angela

2004-01-01

128

Multinational Corporations and Health Care in the United States and Latin America: Strategies, Actions, and Effects*  

PubMed Central

In this article we analyze the corporate dominance of health care in the United States and the dynamics that have motivated the international expansion of multinational health care corporations, especially to Latin America. We identify the strategies, actions, and effects of multinational corporations in health care delivery and public health policies. Our methods have included systematic bibliographical research and in-depth interviews in the United States, Mexico, and Brazil. Influenced by public policy makers in the United States, such organizations as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and World Trade Organization have advocated policies that encourage reduction and privatization of health care and public health services previously provided in the public sector. Multinational managed care organizations have entered managed care markets in several Latin American countries at the same time as they were withdrawing from managed care activities in Medicaid and Medicare within the United States. Corporate strategies have culminated in a marked expansion of corporations’ access to social security and related public sector funds for the support of privatized health services. International financial institutions and multinational corporations have influenced reforms that, while favorable to corporate interests, have worsened access to needed services and have strained the remaining public sector institutions. A theoretical approach to these problems emphasizes the falling rate of profit as an economic motivation of corporate actions, silent reform, and the subordination of polity to economy. Praxis to address these problems involves opposition to policies that enhance corporate interests while reducing public sector services, as well as alternative models that emphasize a strengthened public sector. PMID:15779471

JASSO-AGUILAR, REBECA; WAITZKIN, HOWARD; LANDWEHR, ANGELA

2010-01-01

129

International training programs in reproductive sciences for conservation of Latin American felids.  

PubMed

Survival of the ten non-domestic felid species endemic to Latin America is imperiled by habitat loss, poaching and poor captive management. Over the past 10 years, conservation of these felids has been the primary focus of a reproductive research and training program conducted in Brazil, Mexico, and the USA. The objectives of this program were to: (1) provide intensive training in reproductive sciences to Latin American scientists, (2) conduct collaborative studies investigating basic and applied reproduction in endangered felids, and (3) establish a highly-trained scientific cohort to conduct independent conservation-based research. Four formal training courses, consisting of didactic lectures and hands-on instruction in research techniques, including semen collection, sperm cryopreservation and laparoscopic artificial insemination (AI), were taught in Brazil and Mexico between 1995 and 1998. Several of these scientists received further training in conducting fecal hormone analysis in the USA, and a number of research studies, many in collaboration with American scientists, were initiated in Latin American felids. Research findings have characterized basal reproductive traits in several felid species, including ocelots, margay, tigrinas and jaguars, and established that Latin American felids exhibit only minimal seasonal variation in most reproductive traits. Other studies have explored the impact of acute and chronic stressors on adrenocortical activity and demonstrated the importance of environmental enrichment in captivity, especially in small felids. Additional research has examined ovarian and immunological responsiveness of Latin American felids to exogenous gonadotropins and assessed the impact of nutrition on sperm production and oocyte quality. Applied reproductive studies have investigated sperm cryopreservation in both captive and wild felid populations and demonstrated the production of viable offspring in ocelots and tigrinas following laparoscopic AI. Ongoing studies are investigating the potential of in vitro fertilization (IVF), embryo cryopreservation and embryo transfer for genetic management of ocelots and tigrinas. To date, over 75 Brazilian ocelot and 50 tigrina IVF embryos have been cryopreserved and two pregnancies have been established in ocelots following transfer of frozen-thawed embryos. Findings from these studies are helping to improve husbandry, population management, and breeding of Latin American felids in captivity. Continued advances in assisted reproduction eventually may provide an alternative route for exchanging genetic material among Latin American felid populations. Most importantly, this collaborative program has been essential for building scientific capacity, within Brazil and Mexico, in establishing a core group of highly-trained reproductive biologists that will continue applying their new knowledge and skills to the conservation of Latin American felids. PMID:15271441

Swanson, W F; Brown, J L

2004-07-01

130

A Comparison of North American and Latin American Societies and Their Social-Political Pressures: A Preliminary Statement for Instructional Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, a comparison of the Latin American and the North American society is presented as a preliminary to future refinement of the concepts into instructional devices for secondary students. Following discussion of the distinctions between the two general societal types (Latin America as organic-centripetal and North America as…

McDonald, Ronald H.

131

ReVistaReVistaharvard review of Latin america faLL 2007 david rockefeller center for latin american studies, Harvard university  

E-print Network

american studies, Harvard university Dance! Global Transformations of Latin American Culture #12;book Talk to this innumerable other invertebrates such as spiders, scorpions, plus lizards, plants and fossil specimens, and you in september 2003 at the age of 80. Known as the godfather of Dominican natural history stud- ies, Marcano

Farrell, Brian D.

132

The "Other" Internment: Teaching the Hidden Story of Japanese Latin Americans during WWII  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how the author teaches 8th graders to imagine the experiences of people from another time in history and make connections to today. Through a role play, the author teaches the hidden story of Japanese Latin Americans during WWII. The role play engages students in exploration of a little-known piece of history--the…

Yonamine, Moe

2010-01-01

133

Education for Sustainability in University Studies: Experiences from a Project Involving European and Latin American Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To report on a project involving European and Latin American universities, focusing on curriculum greening. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents the experiences gained in connection with the "ACES Project" which is a model of the implementation of sustainability principles in higher education, with a special emphasis on…

Geli de Ciurana, Anna M.; Filho, Walter Leal

2006-01-01

134

Afro-Brazilian Literature: A New Dimension for Black and Latin American Studies Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles representative Afro-Brazilian writers and provides a guide to English language translations and critical studies of their work. The aim is to encourage instructors to broaden the scope of current curricula in black and Latin American studies courses. Recent studies estimate that more than 40 percent of Brazil's inhabitants are…

Kennedy, James H.

135

Linguistic Reception of Latin American Students in Catalonia and Their Responses to Educational Language Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the connections between language policy implementation in three Barcelona-area secondary schools and the language attitudes and behaviors of Spanish-speaking Latin American newcomers. Data were collected through interviews and ethnographic participant observation document indexes of different forms of language socialization…

Newman, Michael; Patino-Santos, Adriana; Trenchs-Parera, Mireia

2013-01-01

136

Teacher Perceptions Regarding the Status of Environmental Education in Latin American Elementary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research, commissioned by the U.S. Department of State, Office of Overseas Schools, was designed to determine the status of environmental education in private U.S. and international elementary schools throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. The study population consisted of all 50 dues-paying member schools in the Association of American…

Penwell, Rebecca; Cronin-Jones, Linda; Hakverdi, Meral; Cline, Shannon; Johnson, Courtney

137

Latin American stock markets’ volatility spillovers during the financial crises: a multivariate FIAPARCH-DCC framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the volatility spillovers in Latin American emerging stock markets. A multivariate Fractionally Integrated Asymmetric Power ARCH model with dynamic conditional correlations of Engle (1982) with a Student-t distribution is employed. We examine whether considering for long memory and asymmetry in emerging stock markets behaviour may provide more insights into the volatility

Chaker Aloui

2011-01-01

138

Comparing Work-Life Balance in Spanish and Latin-American Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to determine the level of awareness and implementation of family-responsible parameters: policies, enablers, practices, and culture, in Spanish and Latin-American companies, and how they impact work-life balance. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses data from different national IESE's Family-Responsible Employer…

Carlier, Sandra Idrovo; Llorente, Consuelo Leon; Grau, Marc Grau

2012-01-01

139

Adult Education as a Human Right: The Latin American Context and the Ecopedagogic Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well…

Gadotti, Moacir

2011-01-01

140

An Introduction to Latin American and Carribean Musics in Florida: Multicultural Approaches in the Music Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of Florida's rapidly growing ethnic populations, public school teachers of music and other disciplines in the humanities and fine arts in Florida must assess and adjust their curricula to include Latin American and Caribbean music and cultures in their programs. This will give curricular representation to a large percentage of Florida's…

Olsen, Dale A.

141

PREDICTING PERFORMANCE AND QUANTIFYING CORPORATE GOVERNANCE RISK FOR LATIN AMERICAN ADRS AND BANKS  

E-print Network

model for evaluating whether a company's (ADR) performance or a bank's ef- ficiency is above or below. We expect the principal agent problem to have an important effect on company performancePREDICTING PERFORMANCE AND QUANTIFYING CORPORATE GOVERNANCE RISK FOR LATIN AMERICAN ADRS AND BANKS

Freund, Yoav

142

What are poverty maps telling us? An exploration of Latin American poverty small area estimates  

E-print Network

What are poverty maps telling us? An exploration of Latin American poverty small area estimates, the study of the geographic dimension and distribution of poverty has gained considerable attention, the incorporation of the geographic dimension in the analysis of poverty is helpful for identifying and explaining

Krivobokova, Tatyana

143

[Social perceptions on genomics in four Latin American countries. Ethical-legal implications].  

PubMed

The authors analyze under an ethical and legal perspective the consequences and anxieties generated by the human genome project in the population of four Latin American countries: Argentine, Chile, México and Perú, through bibliographical analysis and interviews done to biomedical researches, lawyers and legislators, students and lay civilians. PMID:15832806

Rodríguez Yunta, Eduardo; Valdebenito Herrera, Carolina; Misseroni, Adelio; Fernández Milla, Lautaro; Outomuro, Delia; Schiattino Lemus, Irene; Lolas Stepke, Fernando

2004-01-01

144

The Latin American Journal of Astronomy Education (RELEA): contributions and perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this work is to present an analysis of articles published by the Latin American Journal of Astronomy Education (RELEA) since its beginning (2004) to the present. We analyzed the 59 articles available on the website of the journal

Bretones, P. S.; Jafelice, L. C.; Horvath, J. E.

2014-10-01

145

In Search of the Orange Blossom and the Olive Branch: Reflections on Latin American Jewish Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflects on the traditions of Jewish Latin American literature, with its roots in the culture of Sephardic Jews who left Europe. One of the central themes of this literature, which is frequently written in the traditional Judeo-Spanish "ladino," is migration. (SLD)

Agosin, Marjorie

1999-01-01

146

THE COMOVEMENTS IN INTERNATIONAL STOCK MARKETS: NEW EVIDENCE FROM LATIN AMERICAN EMERGING COUNTRIES  

E-print Network

1 THE COMOVEMENTS IN INTERNATIONAL STOCK MARKETS: NEW EVIDENCE FROM LATIN AMERICAN EMERGING stock market to further shed light on the issues of capital market inte- gration and portfolio changing nature of stock market comovements. Main findings of the paper are as follows. First, the degree

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

147

Graduate Program in International Affairs COURSE: Issues in Latin American Development  

E-print Network

the last three decades spanning right-wing coups and dictatorships, U.S. interventions, democratic to an introductory critique of regional ideological-political trends and theories for sustainable and just social some specificity with which to judge theories about "Latin American development," we must first ground

O'Donnell, Tom

148

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ DEPARTMENT OF LATIN AMERICAN AND LATINO STUDIES  

E-print Network

candidates whose research focuses on political economy from an interdisciplinary perspective or Associate Professor, Political Economy The Latin American and Latino Studies Department at the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) invites applications for a position in Political Economy, at the Full

California at Santa Cruz, University of

149

Women Academic Leaders in a Latin American University: Reconciling the Paradoxes of Professional Lives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 18 female academic leaders at the University of Costa Rica investigated factors in the women's professional success, career paths and obstacles, and the role of Latin American and institutional culture in their professional choices and lives. Results suggest an alternative to traditional Western theory of women's careers, focusing on…

Twombly, Susan B.

1998-01-01

150

Mean and Variance Causality between Official and Parallel Currency Markets: Evidence from Four Latin American Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the issue of mean and variance causality across four Latin American official and black markets for foreign currency using monthly data for the period 1976-1993. We apply a recent test developed by Cheung and Ng (1996) in order to test for mean and variance spillovers. The main findings are: (1) In contrast to the findings of previous

Angelos Kanas; Georgios P. Kouretas

2002-01-01

151

No Tours beyond This Point: From Service to Civic Learning in Latin American Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the design and implementation of a new course in Latin American Studies that sought to integrate traditional elements of undergraduate education with a more progressive pedagogical approach stressing experiential applications of classroom education. Civic engagement seemed particularly well suited to the course because of…

Bromberg, Shelly Jarrett

2008-01-01

152

Gender Quotas, Electoral Laws, and the Election of WomenEvidence From the Latin American Vanguard  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses district-level data from national legislative elections in 19 Latin American countries to evaluate the effect of gender quota legislation, in concert with other electoral rules, on the election of women legislators. Well-designed quota legislation has a profound positive impact on the election of women, regardless of the type of party list (closed or open). Where quota legislation

Mark P. Jones

2009-01-01

153

Sectoral Allocation by Gender of Latin American Workers over the Liberalization Period of the 1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

December 2001Did the types of jobs that men and women hold change during the recent period of economic reforms in Argentina, Brazil, and Costa Rica? Among both men and women in all three countries (except Brazilian men), workers have become more likely to hold informal wage jobs and less likely to hold formal sector jobs.The recent restructuring of Latin American

Wendy V. Cunningham

2001-01-01

154

Engaging Language and Cultural Spaces: Latin American Parents' Reflections on Language Loss and Maintenance in Vancouver  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study aims to explore the loss and maintenance of Spanish in Latin American children in Vancouver from the perspective of parents. It focuses on the experiences of children either developing bilingually (Spanish-English) or monolingually (English). The participating families were from Colombia, Guatemala, and El Salvador, and had…

Guardado, Martin

2006-01-01

155

BERKELEY REVIEW OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 44 Finding Room to Pardon  

E-print Network

IvánJereJota. #12;CENTER FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES, UC BERKELEY 45Spring 2014 The poverty rate, national debt and guerrillas. "We Colombians are not used to being a source of good news," the ambassador noted during his talk that provided aid in combatting drug cartels and left-wing guerrillas. "In 1999, when nobody wanted to know

Kammen, Daniel M.

156

Detection of Latin American strains of Histoplasma in a murine model by use of a commercially available antigen test.  

PubMed

During a Histoplasma outbreak in a colony of fruit bats at a southern United States zoo, it was observed that although Histoplasma was recovered in culture from multiple sites at necropsy, none of the samples collected from those bats tested positive for Histoplasma antigen (HAg). Five of the Histoplasma isolates from the bats were subsequently identified as Latin American (LA) clade A, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) class 6. These observations raised concern as to whether the commercially available HAg test could detect Histoplasma antigen not of the North American clade upon which the HAg test had been developed. To evaluate this concern, a murine model of disseminated histoplasmosis was established, and mice were infected with multiple LA Histoplasma isolates, including clinical isolates recovered from Brazilian AIDS patients (RFLP class 5 and class 6) and isolates recovered from the bats during the outbreak (RFLP class 6). Histoplasma antigen was detected in all infected mice in our experiments, even when Histoplasma was not recovered in culture. Because the currently available HAg test is able to detect Histoplasma antigen in mice infected with Latin American isolates, this suggests that bat host factors rather than differences among Histoplasma RFLP classes were responsible for the inability to detect HAg in infected bats. PMID:20357054

Allton, David R; Rivard, Robert G; Connolly, Patricia A; McCall, Suzanne; Durkin, Michelle M; Boyd, Tonya M; Flanagan, Joseph P; Wheat, L Joseph; Hospenthal, Duane R

2010-05-01

157

ITI/US Acquires Latin American Theatre Collection  

E-print Network

Collection consists of 2,650 items documenting modern theatre in 20 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. A grant of $23,280 from the Ford Foundation sup ported the six-month process of cataloguing and housing 466 books; 1,277 plays (including 455..., in addition to the play collection, 5,100 volumes, 11,000 programs/playbills, and 250 periodicals on the performing arts around the world. The theatre of 145 countries on five continents is documented not only by plays, books, and periodicals, but also...

Editors

1988-10-01

158

Threats in Latin American and Caribbean countries: How do inequality and the asymmetries of rules affect tax morale?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latin America is well known as the most inequitable region. As it is recognized, inequality and corruption perception weaken the way that political institutions works and the democratic system. Focusing on Latin American and Caribbean countries, we analyze what are the elements that shape tax morale. In particular, we analyze how the context influences on ethic decisions such as the

Mariana Gerstenblüth; Natalia Melgar; Juan Pablo Pagano; Máximo Rossi

2009-01-01

159

Threats in Latin American and Caribbean countries: how do inequality and the asymmetries of rules affect tax morale?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latin America is well known as the most inequitable region. As it is recognized, inequality and corruption perception weaken the way that political institutions works and the democratic system. Focusing on Latin American and Caribbean countries, we analyze what are the elements that shape tax morale. In particular, we analyze how the context influences on ethic decisions such as the

Mariana Gerstenblüth; Natalia Melgar; Juan Pablo Pagano; Máximo Rossi

2008-01-01

160

Zebrafish invade Valparaiso: third meeting and symposium of the latin american zebrafish network.  

PubMed

Zebrafish are an excellent model system for research and teaching. Because of their relatively low maintenance costs, beautiful and bountiful embryos, and tool box of molecular genetic technique, zebrafish are ideal for countries with smaller research budgets and less well-developed science infrastructure. For these reasons, zebrafish are growing in popularity as a model system for research in Latin America. In response to this growing need, we held the Third Latin American Zebrafish Network (LAZEN) Course and Symposium in Valparaiso, Chile, in April 4-13, 2014. The course covered a wide variety of topics from fish husbandry to outreach and ended with a symposium hosting excellent scientists from Latin America and beyond. PMID:25470532

Whitlock, Kathleen E

2014-12-01

161

Zebrafish Invade Valparaiso: Third Meeting and Symposium of the Latin American Zebrafish Network.  

PubMed

Abstract Zebrafish are an excellent model system for research and teaching. Because of their relatively low maintenance costs, beautiful and bountiful embryos, and tool box of molecular genetic technique, zebrafish are ideal for countries with smaller research budgets and less well-developed science infrastructure. For these reasons, zebrafish are growing in popularity as a model system for research in Latin America. In response to this growing need, we held the Third Latin American Zebrafish Network (LAZEN) Course and Symposium in Valparaiso, Chile, in April 4-13, 2014. The course covered a wide variety of topics from fish husbandry to outreach and ended with a symposium hosting excellent scientists from Latin America and beyond. PMID:25372497

Whitlock, Kathleen E

2014-11-01

162

Antibiotic Prescriptions in Critically-Ill Patients: A Latin American Experience  

PubMed Central

Background: It is widely acknowledged that the presence of infection is an important outcome determinant for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. In fact, antibiotics are one of the most common therapies administered in the ICU settings. Aim: To evaluate the current usage of antibiotics in Latin American ICUs. Subjects and Methods: A one-day p-oint prevalence study to investigate the patterns of antibiotic was undertaken in 72 Latin American (LA) ICUs. Data was analyzed using the Statistix 8 statistical software, version 2.0 (USA). Results were expressed as proportions. When applicable, two tailed hypothesis testing for difference in proportions was used (Proportion Test); a P value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of 704 patients admitted, 359 received antibiotic treatment on the day of the study (51%), of which 167/359 cases (46.5%) were due to hospital-acquired infections. The most frequent infection reorted was nosocomial pneumonia (74/359, 21%). Only in 264/359 patients (73.5%), cultures before starting antibiotic treatment were performed. Thirty-eight percent of the isolated microorganisms were Enterobacteriaceae extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing, 11% methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and 10% carbapenems-resistant non-fermentative Gram-negatives. The antibiotics most frequently prescribed were carbapenems (125/359, 35%), alone or in combination with vancomycin or other antibiotic. There were no significant differences in the “restricted” antibiotic prescription (carbapenems, vancomycin, piperacillin–tazobactam, broad-spectrum cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, tigecycline and linezolid) between patients with APACHE II score at the beginning of the antibiotic treatment <15 [83/114 (72.5%)] and ?15 [179/245 (73%)] (P = 0.96). Only 29% of the antibiotic treatments were cultured directed (104/359). Conclusion: Carbapenems (alone or in combination) were the most frequently prescribed antibiotics in LA ICUs. However, the problem of carbapenem resistance in LA requires that physicians improve the use of this class of antibiotics. Our findings show that our web-based method for collection of one-day point prevalence was implemented successfully. However, based on the limitations of the model used, the results of this study must be taken with caution. PMID:23919194

Curcio, D

2013-01-01

163

PREFACE: 21st Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XXI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES) started in Caracas-Venezuela, and over time the symposia have taken place in 9 different Latin American countries. The last five events took place in Mérida-Venezuela (2002), Havana-Cuba (2004), Puebla-Mexico (2006), Puerto Iguazú-Argentina (2008) and Maragogi-Brazil (2011). During the last years, in the different SLAFES editions, the aim has been to bring together researches from Latina America and invite renowned scientists from around the world to a unique forum to discuss the latest developments regarding Solid state Physics. The 21st Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XXI) was held in Villa de Leyva-Colombia, from September 30 to October 04, 2013. The 21st SLAFES version featured the participation of experts in various areas of Solid State Physics from countries such as Belgium, Germany, United States, Spain, Ireland, Chile, Argentina and Brazil, had 270 submitted works and was attended by 140 researchers. The development of this event was made possible by financial support from the Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Universidad del Norte-CO, Universidad de Magdalena-CO, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco-BR and the Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exatas, Naturales y Física. Editors Professor J Albino Aguiar Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: albino@df.ufpe.br Professor Jairo Roa-Rojas Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales Departamento de Física Universidad Nacional de Colombia A.A. 5997 Bogotá DC, Colombia e-mail: jroar@unal.edu.co Professor Carlos Arturo Parra Vargas Grupo Física de Materiales Escuela de Física Universidad Padagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia Tunja Colombia e-mail: carlos.parra@uptc.edu.co Professor David A Land\\'i nez Téllez Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales Departamento de Física Universidad Nacional de Colombia A.A. 5997 Bogotá DC Colombia e-mail: dalandinezt@unal.edu.co Professor Laura T Corredor Bohórquez Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: ltcorredorb@df.ufpe.br Professor Arkady Shanenko Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: arkadyshanenko@df.ufpe.br Professor Renato F Jardim Instituto de Física Universidade de S\\~ao Paulo CP 66318 S\\~ao Paulo SP Brazil e-mail: rjardim@if.usp.br Professor Francois Peeters Department Fysica Universiteit Antwerpen Groneneborgerlann 171 B-2020, Antwerpen Belgium e-mail: francois.peeters@uantwerpen.be Organizing committee ChairmanCarlos Arturo Parra Vargas Proceedings EditorJosé Albino Aguiar Program ChairJairo Roa-Rojas SecretaryAura Janeth Barón González TreasurerArmando Sarmiento Santos Speaker ChairRafael González Hernández Fernando Naranjo Mayorga David A Landínez Téllez Jesús Oswaldo Morán José Sierra Ortega

Aguiar, J. Albino

2014-04-01

164

21F.084J / 21A.224J / 17.55 Introduction to Latin American Studies, Spring 2002  

E-print Network

This HASS-D/CI course is designed as an introduction to Latin American politics and society for undergraduates at MIT. No background on the region is required. Overall workload (reading, writing, class participation, and ...

Lawson, Chappell H., 1967-

165

Current state and future perspectives of the Latin American Society for Immunodeficiencies (LASID).  

PubMed

Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are genetic diseases that affect the immune system and for the last 20 years, the Latin American Society for Immunodeficiencies (LASID) has been promoting initiatives in awareness, research, diagnosis, and treatment for the affected patients in Latin America. These initiatives have resulted in the development of programmes such as the LASID Registry (with 4900 patients registered as of January 2014), fellowships in basic and clinical research, PID summer schools, biannual meetings, and scientific reports, amongst others. These achievements highlight the critical role that LASID plays as a scientific organisation in promoting science, research and education in this field in Latin America. However, challenges remain in some of these areas and the Society must envision additional strategies to tackle them for the benefit of the patients. In June 2013, a group of experts in the field met to discuss the contributions of LASID to the initiatives of PID in Latin America, and this article summarises the current state and future perspectives of this society and its role in the advance of PIDs in Latin America. PMID:25294607

Condino-Neto, A; Sorensen, R U; Gómez Raccio, A C; King, A; Espinosa-Rosales, F J; Franco, J L

2014-10-01

166

Ayurveda in Argentina and other Latin American countries  

PubMed Central

Over the past 20 years the Fundacion Salud de Ayurved Prema Argentina has spread the knowledge of Ayurveda throughout Latin America. The Fundacion is based in Buenos Aires in the Argentine Republic, where it now runs courses in two of the country’s major medical schools - at the School of Medicine of the University of Buenos Aires, and the National University of Cordoba’s School of Medicine. Based on an MoU with Gujarat Ayurveda University, at Jamnagar, Gujarat, the Fundacion has been accredited as a Collaborating Center for teaching, assistance and research in the field of Ayurvedic Medicine in Argentina. This has led to successful missions to other countries in the region where the Fundacion and its associates have been able to start dialogues with governments, and in places hold sizeable courses. The knowledge of Ayurveda is now spreading throughout South and Central America and hardly a country remains untouched by it. PMID:21547054

Berra, Jorge Luis; Molho, Rosana

2010-01-01

167

[The new biological revolution in psychiatry: a Latin American point of view (1st part)].  

PubMed

Several aspects of the new biological revolution in contemporary psychiatry are examined. The process originated around the mid-70's. The clinico-nosological bases, provided by advances such as DSM-III and the work on ICD-10 are described, as well as the most recent laboratory accomplishments: neuroendocrine tests and neuro-radiological techniques. These events are all analyzed from a Latin American perspective, which will be more extensively elaborated on in the second part of the paper. PMID:3937440

Alarcón, R

1985-06-01

168

A new organization comprised of students and members of the Latin American community. VISIONS provides a forum for elaborating ideas and concepts relevant to Latin America through a  

E-print Network

Zuluaga faz13@pitt.edu On May 22, 2005 the President of Venezuela, Hugo Chavez, declared his country in Venezuela is for the sole purpose of improving the country's energy capacity and advancing Venezuela with Venezuela on issues of nuclear investigations while encouraging other Latin American countries to follow his

Machery, Edouard

169

Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.  

PubMed

Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. PMID:25458716

de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Filho, Alberto Pellegrini; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

2014-10-15

170

Gram-Negative Infections in Adult Intensive Care Units of Latin America and the Caribbean  

PubMed Central

This review summarizes recent epidemiology of Gram-negative infections in selected countries from Latin American and Caribbean adult intensive care units (ICUs). A systematic search of the biomedical literature (PubMed) was performed to identify articles published over the last decade. Where appropriate, data also were collected from the reference list of published articles, health departments of specific countries, and registries. Independent cohort data from all countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela) signified a high rate of ICU infections (prevalence: Argentina, 24%; Brazil, 57%). Gram-negative pathogens, predominantly Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli, accounted for >50% of ICU infections, which were often complicated by the presence of multidrug-resistant strains and clonal outbreaks. Empirical use of antimicrobial agents was identified as a strong risk factor for resistance development and excessive mortality. Infection control strategies utilizing hygiene measures and antimicrobial stewardship programs reduced the rate of device-associated infections. To mitigate the poor health outcomes associated with infections by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, urgent focus must be placed on infection control strategies and local surveillance programs. PMID:25525515

Luna, Carlos M.; Rodriguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Bavestrello, Luis; Guzmán-Blanco, Manuel

2014-01-01

171

The tuition dilemma in the Latin American University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Governments in Latin America appear to have reached the limits of public subsidy of higher education and they are searching for funding alternatives. Tuition is viewed as one of the means of diversifying support and thereby of reducing the financial pressures on the budgets of these countries. In addition to the economic rationale, advocates of tuition base their arguments on the inequities of public subsidy, on the concept of `the ability to pay', and the need to redirect public subsidy to the elementary and secondary levels. Opposition to tuition is led by the students, with support from faculty and administration in higher education. Opposition is based on the ideology of `free' education, which views higher education as a basic societal obligation and fears the `privatization' of universities if governments do not fulfill their obligations. Tuition is much more than an economic issue and reflects a traditional distrust of government motives within higher education. Without additional sources of funds, however, it is likely that opportunity for higher education will be denied large numbers of students. It is ironic that expansion of opportunity may depend on the implementation of tuition as one method of raising financial support.

Adrian, William

1983-12-01

172

Evaluation of Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA), Lugol's iodine (VILI), Cervical Cytology and HPV Testing as Cervical Screening Tools in Latin America. This Report Refers to Partial Results from the LAMS (Latin AMerican Screening) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess the performance indicators of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI) in four Latin American centres participating in the ongoing Latin AMerican Screening (LAMS) study, in settings with moderate incidence of cervical disease and with poorly to moderately well-organized cervical cancer screening. Setting: Three Brazilian centres (Sao Paulo, Campinas and Porto

LO Sarian; SF Derchain; P Naud; C Roteli-Martins; A Longatto-Filho; S Tatti; M Branca; M Erzen; L Serpa-Hammes; J Matos; R C Gontijo; JF Braganca; TP Lima; M Y S Maeda; A Lorincz; GB Dores; S Costa; S Syrjanen; K Syrjanen

2006-01-01

173

A Bibliography of Latin American Plays in English Translation.  

E-print Network

Deus Dormiu lá en Casa). Trans, by John Fostini and Lloyd F. George. Rio de Janeiro: Ministerio da Educação e Cultura, Serviço de Documentação, 1957. . The Fox and the Grapes (A Raposa e as Uvas). Trans, by John Fostini. MS. Machado, Maria Clara... In Spanish American Literature in Translation. Vol. 1. Bejore 1888, ed. by W. K. Jones. New York: Ungar, 1966. Farias de Isassi, Teresa. The Sentence of Death (La sentencia de muerte). Trans. by Lilian Saunders. In Twenty-Five Short Plays, ed. by Frank...

Christensen, George K.

1973-04-01

174

Latin American Political Trends and their Impact on the Future of U.S.-Latin American Relations  

E-print Network

, Venezuela). FLN Frente de Liberaci?n Nacional (National Liberation Front, Venezuela) FTAA Free Trade Area of the Americas MBR-200 Movimiento Bolivariano Revolucionario-200 (Bolivarian Revolutionary Movement, Venezuela). OAS The Organization of American... president,?(Tarver and Frederick 2005: 115). Failure would turn Betancourt?s term into yet another Venezuelan democratic experiment, relegated to the history books. The impressive 92% voter turnout greatly strengthened democracy?s position in Venezuela...

Davis, Andrew Milton

2010-07-14

175

United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Santiago, Chile, The United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America was founded in 1948 to promote economic and social development throughout Latin America and to collect, study, and disseminate economic research in the region. ECLAC's Website offers a wealth of information about the commission and its work and research. The main page features the newest publications, activities, and news. Users should be aware, however, that many of the publications are available only in Spanish. The library provides three searchable databases consisting of ECLAC documentation, external publications of ECLAC authors, and ECLAC Projects publications.

176

Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 11, Number 2: Front Matter  

E-print Network

States' vanguard theatre, such as Julian Beck's Living Theatre and Richard Schechner's Environment Theatre: the use of space and actor-audience relationships. Gámbaro uses the chronicle as a way of organizing material. Most interesting, however... Editor, In Entrevista con el dramaturgo argentino Osvaldo Dragan, Román V. de la Campa of SUNY Stony Brook mentions the tour Dragún made in the United States and that he was invited to various university centers—Houston, Chicago, Kansas, and various...

Editors

1977-04-01

177

The glans penes and bacula in Latin American taxa of the Peromyscus boylii group  

E-print Network

of Committee) John W. Bickham (Member) Ira ee baum (M be Fred S. Hendr icks (Member) Davi J Schmidly (Head f Department May 1986 ABSTRACT The Glans Penes and Bacula in Latin American Taxa of th ~9~bi'' 8 p. (11 y 1986) Robert Dean Bradley, B. S...thtP. b. ~l*' y tb . l*ly related to other subspecies of P. ~bo lii as previously reported. Finally, results of the phenetic and phylogenetic analyses indicate that two distinct types of phalli are evident among taxa in the P. ~bo lii species group...

Bradley, Robert Dean

1986-01-01

178

Buruli Ulcer in United Kingdom Tourist Returning from Latin America  

PubMed Central

We report a case of Buruli ulcer in a tourist from the United Kingdom. The disease was almost certainly acquired in Brazil, where only 1 case had previously been reported. The delay in diagnosis highlights the need for physicians to be aware of the disease and its epidemiology. PMID:19891876

Stragier, Pieter; Portaels, Françoise; Gascoyne-Binzi, Deborah; Collyns, Timothy; Lucas, Sebastian; Mawer, Damian

2009-01-01

179

El Que No Tiene Dingo, Tiene Mandingo: The Inadequacy of the "Mestizo" as a Theoretical Construct in the Field of Latin American Studies--The Problem and Solution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the "mestizo" paradigm as a theoretical construct used in Latin American studies denies the historical and cultural contributions of Africans to Latin American society and that it is fundamentally inaccurate and racist. Discusses ways of correcting these misconceptions. (GR)

Rosa, Andrew Juan

1996-01-01

180

U.S. AGRICULTURAL TRADE WITH LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES AND EFFECTS OF THE FREE TRADE AREA OF THE AMERICAS ON SPECIFIC COMMODITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trade with Latin American countries is an increasingly important issue, as negotiations progress for a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA). The objectives of this study are to analyze U.S. agricultural trade with Latin American countries, determine factors influencing agricultural trade with these countries, and estimate possible effects of trade liberalization under the FTAA on U.S. agricultural trade. This

Jeremy W. Mattson; Won W. Koo

2003-01-01

181

Immigration experience of Latin American working women in Alicante, Spain: an ethnographic study 1  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: to describe the experience of Latin American working women regarding immigration, taking into account the expectations and conditions in which this process takes place. METHOD: ethnographic qualitative study. Data collection was performed by means of semi-structured interviews with 24 Latin American immigrant women in Spain. The information collected was triangulated through two focal groups. RESULTS: the expectations of migrant women focus on improving family living conditions. Social support is essential for their settling and to perform daily life activities. They declare they have adapted to the settlement country, although they live with stress. They perceive they have greater sexual freedom and power with their partners but keep greater responsibility in childcare, combining that with the role of working woman. CONCLUSIONS: migrant women play a key role in the survival of households, they build and create new meanings about being a woman, their understanding of life, their social and couple relationships. Such importance is shaped by their expectations and the conditions in which the migration process takes place, as well as their work integration. PMID:25493683

González-Juárez, Liliana; Noreña-Peña, Ana Lucía

2014-01-01

182

Challenges and Solutions for Latin American-Trained International Medical Graduates in Psychiatry Residency  

PubMed Central

Objective Latin American-trained IMGs in psychiatry face multiple challenges that go beyond their medical training. These challenges call for innovative problem-solving. Although the professional development of IMGs has been discussed in the professional literature, little is written about their experiences. In this case study report, a group of IMGs reflect on their experiences and describe how they solved challenges. Method Using cogenerative ethnography, four IMGs trained in Colombia, Dominican Republic and Mexico provided insights on their challenges and solutions while adapting to psychiatric residency training. Individual interviews, focused discussion, focus groups, and written reports were analyzed using data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing techniques. Results We illustrate the challenges of IMG training in psychiatry using their reflections and stories. We categorized these challenges into three domains: immigration and acculturation; social adjustment; and medical training. Quotes were selected to illustrate IMGs’ challenges and coping strategies. Conclusion Some of the combined cultural, social and academic challenges of Latin American-trained IMGs in psychiatry are described. Recognizing and planning for the personal challenges of IMGs in psychiatry can enhance the transition into psychiatric training. Ultimately, improvements in IMG training converts into improved healthcare for all patients.

Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Hauser, David; Carvajal, Carlos; Mejia, Carlina; Nieves, Delia

2014-01-01

183

You may be familiar with The Center for Latin American Studies University at the Pittsburgh's longstanding outreach program that send college students into K-12 classrooms to share their knowledge  

E-print Network

You may be familiar with The Center for Latin American Studies University at the Pittsburgh America. In fall 2012, The Center for Latin American Studies (CLAS) is now launching a "Virtual School to introduce a Latin American topic as an enrichment activity for a diversity of classes and ages. In the past

Machery, Edouard

184

Perceptions of Latin American scientists about science and post-graduate education: Introduction to the 5th issue of CBP-Latin America.  

PubMed

Although science and engineering (S&E) publications and doctoral degree awards in Latin America had experienced an impressive growth in the past decades, a qualitative evaluation of this increased output must be performed. Previous studies have indicated that growth in visibility of Latin American science - determined by ratio of citations per paper - has not kept pace with the increase in number of publications. In the present editorial, we analyzed - by means of a 12-item questionnaire - the individual perceptions of forty senior researchers involved in CBP-Latin America (29 Brazilians and 11 non-Brazilians) plus a special group composed by six extraordinary Latin American scientists (the "masters"). The questionnaire - using 6-point Likert-like scale for quantification of perception - focused on issues surrounding doctoral educational system as well as the governmental educational policies and publication pressure from funding agencies. In general, the most striking result was the perception (by 82% of respondents) of lack of job opportunities for people holding a PhD diploma in the field of comparative biochemistry and physiology. Other major trends include (i) lack of satisfaction with governmental policies for science and post-graduate education due to policies promoting mass production for papers and PhD diplomas (65-77% of respondents felt that way) (ii) that current PhD students are doing an adequate job, but have not improved in quality as compared to those from 10 years ago (the same was observed for PhD thesis in terms of present versus past), and (iii) that research infrastructure and the curricula of post-graduate courses do not constitute a problem, but (iv) recent-PhDs are not as fit as they should be in paper-writing skills, especially as perceived by Brazilian respondents. The general perceptions were very similar among Brazilians, non-Brazilians and "masters". The use of a larger study-population, with scientists of more diverse fields is the next logical step to best evaluate the level of satisfaction about science and post-graduate policies in the continent. Finally, this fifth and last special issue of CBP-Latin America celebrates the contribution of 20 new manuscripts, which adds up to 118 published studies highlighting the depth, breadth and enthusiasm of Latin American comparative biochemistry and physiology - enjoy. PMID:18721892

Hermes-Lima, Marcelo; Polcheira, Cássia; Trigueiro, Michelangelo; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira

2008-11-01

185

Report from the First Latin American Urological Oncology Symposium (SLAURO) 19–21 June 2014, Viña del Mar, Chile  

PubMed Central

Cancer is one of the most important diseases in Chile, with alarming incidence and mortality rates that are among the highest in Latin America. Economic growth in South America has led to demographic change, with an aging population typical of developed countries, but also a growing population with cancer. The incidence and mortality of urological cancers in Chile is significant, and has led to the formulation of health laws and policies promoting the early treatment of urological cancers. It is also well known that there are regions of Chile with extremely high incidence and mortality of bladder cancer caused by arsenic exposure. SLAURO (Simposio Latinoamericano de Urología Oncológica [Latin American Oncological Urology Symposium]) is a new Latin American forum for discussing and promoting knowledge of urological cancers across the region.

Caglevic, Christian; Pinto, Ivàn; Altamirano, Jaime; Vilches, Roberto; Martìn, Eu Marìa Eliana San; Gallardo, Jorge

2014-01-01

186

[The challenge of changing the inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine in Latin America: Declaration of the Latin American Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (SLIPE)].  

PubMed

Even though we have already covered 99% of the path to eradicate poliomyelitis from the world, this disease is still causing paralysis in children. Its eradication means not only the end of wild poliovirus circulation, but vaccine-derived poliovirus circulation as well. Taking into account different factors such as: current epidemiological data, adverse events of the attenuated oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV), the availability of an injectable inactivated vaccine (IPV) without the potential of causing the severe adverse events of the oral vaccine (OPV), the efficacy and effectiveness of the IPV in several countries of the world where it has been used for several years, the rationale of changing the vaccination schedule in different Latin American countries; the Latin American Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (SLIPE) announces its recommendation of switching to IPV in Latin America, by this Declaration, with an Action Plan for 2014-2015 period as regards vaccination against polio policies in Latin America. 1. The optimal proposed schedule consists of four IPV doses (three doses in the primary schedule plus a booster dose), whether IPV is combined or not with other indicated vaccines in the immunization program of the country. During the OPV to IPV transition phase, an alternative schedule is acceptable; 2. Countries should set optimal strategies in order to maintain and improve vaccination coverage, and implement a nominal immunization registry; 3. Improving the Epidemiological Surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) and setting up an environmental surveillance program; 4. Setting up strategies for introducing IPV in National Immunization Programs, such as communicating properly with the population, among others; 5. Bringing scientific societies closer to decision makers; 6. Ensuring optimal supply and prices for IPV introduction; 7. Training vaccination teams; 8. Enhancing the distribution and storing logistics of vaccines. In addition to the scientific evidence, the countries that have not yet decided to switch to IPV should consider the implications of equity and social justice. PMID:25491459

Falleiros-Arlant, Luiza Helena; Avila-Agüero, María Luisa; Brea Del Castillo, José; Mariño, Cristina

2014-10-01

187

Covariates of Subjective Well-Being among Latin American Immigrants in Spain: The Role of Social Integration in the Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to test the influence that social integration in the community might have on subjective well-being (SWB) beyond the influence of sociodemographic characteristics, self-esteem, stressful life events, and social support from intimate and confidant relationships. We explore this set of relationships among Latin American…

Herrero, Juan; Fuente, Asur; Gracia, Enrique

2011-01-01

188

A Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Patterns of Learning and Academic Performance of Spanish and Latin-American Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to analyse and compare the learning patterns of higher education students from Spain and three Latin-American countries (Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela). For this purpose Vermunt's Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS) was translated into Spanish and tested. The participants were 456 undergraduates enrolled in a teacher…

Martínez-Fernández, J. Reinaldo; Vermunt, Jan D.

2015-01-01

189

Domestic Abuse and HIV-Risk Behavior in Latin American Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted with 273 Latin American men who have sex with men living in the New York metropolitan area. The results show that 51% of the men reported having experienced domestic abuse at least once in their relationships. Up to 12% of these men had been forced to have receptive anal sex without condoms by one of their

Luis E. Nieves-Rosa; Alex Carballo-Dieguez; Curtis Dolezal

2000-01-01

190

Learning Environments with Technological Resources: A Look at Their Contribution to Student Performance in Latin American Elementary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that computer access and use has a positive effect on the performance reached by Latin American schoolchildren in sixth grade. This is supported by Multilevel models of 4 and 3 levels with data from the Second Regional Comparative and Explanatory Study, developed by UNESCO (2008) in 16 countries and analyzing around 3,000 schools,…

Carrasco, Marcela Roman; Torrecilla, F. Javier Murillo

2012-01-01

191

Energy profiles of selected Latin American and Caribbean countries. Report series No. 2  

SciTech Connect

Countries in this report include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. These ten countries are the most important oil and gas producers in the Latin American and the Caribbean region. In the following sections, the primary energy supply (oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power whenever they are applicable), primary energy consumption, downstream oil sector development, gas utilization are discussed for each of the ten countries. The report also presents our latest forecasts of petroleum product consumption in each country toward 2000, which form the basis of the outlook for regional energy production and consumption outlined in Report No 1. Since the bulk of primary energy supply and demand is hydrocarbons for many countries, brief descriptions of the important hydrocarbons policy issues are provided at the end of the each country sections.

Wu, K.

1994-07-01

192

Pig islet xenotransplantation acceptance in a Latin-American diabetic population.  

PubMed

Progress in porcine islet xenotransplantation has been accompanied by studies on acceptance of this new procedure by patients, health professionals or the general public. Such studies have not been done in the Latin-American population. We conducted a questionnaire in 108 diabetes patients (insulin-dependent, n = 53; insulin-independent, n = 55) in a public hospital in Argentina. The questions addressed the general perception of the xenotransplant procedure and specific items related to the outcome (achieving insulin independence, improvement in metabolic control, delay in emergence of diabetic complications, need for repeat procedures, potential of transfer of infectious viruses, association with psychological problems, and anticipated success in relation to achieving a cure). Eighty-six (79%) of the patients accepted islet xenotransplantation; this incidence was not different for insulin-dependent or insulin-independent patients, patients with or without complications, or patients with good or poor metabolic control. Also, over 75% of patients accepted the procedure if this is only associated with a reduction in insulin requirement, if the procedure just delays but not prevents the onset of complications, or if the procedure needs to be performed every 6 months. Fifty-seven percent of patients indicated acceptance even if the potential transmission of a virus infection cannot be completely ruled out: this outcome was not affected by the outbreak of the H1N1 flu epidemic during the conduct of this study. Forty percent of patients indicated that living with porcine cells in their body could give psychological problems. We conclude that this population of Latin-American diabetic patients shows a high acceptance rate of a porcine islet xenotransplantation product. PMID:20723198

Abalovich, Adrián; Wechsler, Carlos; Lara, Silvia; Bervottini, Miguel

2010-01-01

193

Beliefs About Health and Illness in Latin-American Migrants with Diabetes Living in Sweden  

PubMed Central

The study explored beliefs about health and illness in Latin American migrants diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) living in Sweden, and investigated the influence on health-related behavior including self-care and care-seeking behavior. Migrants are particularly affected in the diabetes pandemia. Beliefs about health and illness determine health-related behaviour and health but no studies have been found on Latin American migrants with DM. An explorative study design with focus-group interviews of nine persons aged 36-77 years from a diabetes clinic was used. Health was described from a pathogenetic or a salutogenetic perspective: ‘freedom from disease or feeling of well-being’, and being autonomous and able to work. Economic hardship due to expenses for medications and food for DM affected health. Individual factors such as diet, exercise and compliance with advice, and social factors with good social relations and avoidance of stress, often caused by having experienced severe events related to migrational experiences, were considered important for maintaining health and could cause DM. Disturbed relations to others (social factors), punishment by God or Fate (supernatural factors), intake of diuretics and imbalance between warmth and cold (natural factors) were also perceived as causes. A mix of biomedical and traditional explanations and active self-care behaviour with frequent use of herbs was found. It is important to assess the individual’s beliefs, and health professionals, particularly nurses, should incorporate discussions of alternative treatments and other components of explanatory models and co-operate with social workers to consider influence of finances and migrational experiences on health. PMID:23802030

Hjelm, Katarina; Bard, Karin

2013-01-01

194

Latin American Consensus on the use of transcranial Doppler in the diagnosis of brain death  

PubMed Central

Transcranial Doppler evaluates cerebral hemodynamics in patients with brain injury and is a useful technical tool in diagnosing cerebral circulatory arrest, usually present in the brain-dead patient. This Latin American Consensus was formed by a group of 26 physicians experienced in the use of transcranial Doppler in the context of brain death. The purpose of this agreement was to make recommendations regarding the indications, technique, and interpretation of the study of transcranial ultrasonography in patients with a clinical diagnosis of brain death or in the patient whose clinical diagnosis presents difficulties; a working group was formed to enable further knowledge and to strengthen ties between Latin American physicians working on the same topic. A review of the literature, concepts, and experiences were exchanged in two meetings and via the Internet. Questions about pathophysiology, equipment, techniques, findings, common problems, and the interpretation of transcranial Doppler in the context of brain death were answered. The basic consensus statements are the following: cerebral circulatory arrest is the final stage in the evolution of progressive intracranial hypertension, which is visualized with transcranial Doppler as a "pattern of cerebral circulatory arrest". The following are accepted as the standard of cerebral circulatory arrest: reverberant pattern, systolic spikes, and absence of previously demonstrated flow. Ultrasonography should be used - in acceptable hemodynamic conditions - in the anterior circulation bilaterally (middle cerebral artery) and in the posterior (basilar artery) territory. If no ultrasonographic images are found in any or all of these vessels, their proximal arteries are acceptable to be studied to look for a a pattern of cerebral circulatory arrest. PMID:25295818

2014-01-01

195

PREFACE: XIX Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XIX)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume contains selected papers which have been presented at the XIX Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XIX) held at Puerto Iguazú, Argentina, from 5--10 October 2008. The conference, covering all areas of Solid State Physics, is one of the most important and traditional meetings in Physics in our region. The Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics is a forum where researchers and students from Latin America as well as leading scientists from other parts of the world get together to exchange information, strengthen collaborations and identify new challenges in Solid State Physics. This successful series of meetings has been organised in eight different countries, the last three held in Mérida, Venezuela (2002), La Habana, Cuba (2004) and Puebla, México (2006). Following the trends of previous events, SLAFES XIX included seven plenary talks, eighteen invited talks and contributions, and 28 oral and 255 poster presentations, covering mostly the latest experimental and theoretical advances in Nanophysics, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Spintronics, Magnetism, New Materials, Superconductivity, Surfaces and Interfaces, Low-Dimensional Systems, Materials Preparation and Characterization, Theory and Computing Simulations of Materials among other topics. The group of scientists participating had come from Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Brazil, France, Spain, Switzerland and the USA We are indebted to all participants for their enthusiasm and contributions and to the members of the International Advisory Commitees. We also wish to thank to the rest of the Organizing Committee: Gustavo Lozano, Ana María Llois, Laura Steren and Edith Goldberg and very specially to Javier Schmidt, Gustavo Ruano, Marcelo Romero, Lucila Cristina and Juan Carlos Moreno for their invaluable assistance during the event. Finally we gratefully aknowledge the financial support the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina, Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (ANPCyT), Argentina, Secretaría de Estado de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación, Provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina, Centro Latinoamericano de Física (CLAF), Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina, Institute of Physics (IOP) Publishing, The European Physical Journal (EPJ), EDP Science, Societa Italiana di Fisica and Springer. Adriana Serquis, Carlos Balseiro and Pablo Bolcatto

Serquis, Adriana; Balseiro, Carlos; Bolcatto, Pablo

2009-07-01

196

Renal replacement therapy in Latin American end-stage renal disease.  

PubMed

The Latin American Dialysis and Renal Transplant Registry (RLADTR) was founded in 1991; it collects data from 20 countries which are members of Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nefrología e Hipertension. This paper presents the results corresponding to the year 2010. This study is an annual survey requesting data on incident and prevalent patients undergoing renal replacement treatment (RRT) in all modalities: hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) and living with a functioning graft (LFG), etc. Prevalence and incidence were compared with previous years. The type of renal replacement therapy was analyzed, with special emphasis on PD and transplant (Tx). These variables were correlated with the gross national income (GNI) and the life expectancy at birth. Twenty countries participed in the surveys, covering 99% of the Latin American. The prevalence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) under RRT in Latin America (LA) increased from 119 patients per million population (pmp) in 1991 to 660 pmp in 2010 (HD 413 pmp, PD 135 pmp and LFG 111 pmp). HD proportionally increased more than PD, and Tx HD continues to be the treatment of choice in the region (75%). The kidney Tx rate increased from 3.7 pmp in 1987 to 6.9 pmp in 1991 and to 19.1 in 2010. The total number of Tx's in 2010 was 10 397, with 58% deceased donors. The total RRT prevalence correlated positively with GNI (r (2) 0.86; P < 0.05) and life expectancy at birth (r (2) 0.58; P < 0.05). The HD prevalence and the kidney Tx rate correlated significantly with the same indexes, whereas the PD rate showed no correlation with these variables. A tendency to rate stabilization/little growth was reported in the most regional countries. As in previous reports, the global incidence rate correlated significantly only with GNI (r (2) 0.63; P < 0.05). Diabetes remained the leading cause of ESRD. The most frequent causes of death were cardiovascular (45%) and infections (22%). Neoplasms accounted for 10% of the causes of death. The prevalence of RRT continues to increase, particularly in countries with 100% public health or insurance coverage for RRT, where it approaches rates comparable to those displayed by developed countries with a better GNI. The incidence also continues to increase in both countries that have not yet extended its coverage to 100% of the population as well as in those that have an adequate program for timely detection and treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its associated risk factors. PD is still an underutilized strategy for RRT in the region. Even though renal Tx is feasible, its growth rate is still not as fast as it should be in order to compensate for the increased prevalence of patients on waiting lists. Diagnostic and prevention programs for hypertension and diabetes, appropriate policies promoting the expansion of PD and organ procurement as well as transplantation as cost-effective forms of RRT are needed in the region. Regional cooperation among Latin American countries, allowing the more developed to guide and train others in starting registries and CKD programs, may be one of the key initiatives to address this deficit. PMID:25349696

Rosa-Diez, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Bedat, Maria; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Marinovich, Sergio; Fernandez, Sdenka; Lugon, Jocemir; Poblete-Badal, Hugo; Elgueta-Miranda, Susana; Gomez, Rafael; Cerdas-Calderon, Manuel; Almaguer-Lopez, Miguel; Freire, Nelly; Leiva-Merino, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Gaspar; Luna-Guerra, Jorge; Bochicchio, Tomasso; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Cano, Nuria; Iron, Norman; Cuero, Cesar; Cuevas, Dario; Tapia, Carlos; Cangiano, Jose; Rodriguez, Sandra; Gonzalez, Haydee; Duro-Garcia, Valter

2014-08-01

197

Renal replacement therapy in Latin American end-stage renal disease  

PubMed Central

The Latin American Dialysis and Renal Transplant Registry (RLADTR) was founded in 1991; it collects data from 20 countries which are members of Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nefrología e Hipertension. This paper presents the results corresponding to the year 2010. This study is an annual survey requesting data on incident and prevalent patients undergoing renal replacement treatment (RRT) in all modalities: hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) and living with a functioning graft (LFG), etc. Prevalence and incidence were compared with previous years. The type of renal replacement therapy was analyzed, with special emphasis on PD and transplant (Tx). These variables were correlated with the gross national income (GNI) and the life expectancy at birth. Twenty countries participed in the surveys, covering 99% of the Latin American. The prevalence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) under RRT in Latin America (LA) increased from 119 patients per million population (pmp) in 1991 to 660 pmp in 2010 (HD 413 pmp, PD 135 pmp and LFG 111 pmp). HD proportionally increased more than PD, and Tx HD continues to be the treatment of choice in the region (75%). The kidney Tx rate increased from 3.7 pmp in 1987 to 6.9 pmp in 1991 and to 19.1 in 2010. The total number of Tx's in 2010 was 10 397, with 58% deceased donors. The total RRT prevalence correlated positively with GNI (r2 0.86; P < 0.05) and life expectancy at birth (r2 0.58; P < 0.05). The HD prevalence and the kidney Tx rate correlated significantly with the same indexes, whereas the PD rate showed no correlation with these variables. A tendency to rate stabilization/little growth was reported in the most regional countries. As in previous reports, the global incidence rate correlated significantly only with GNI (r2 0.63; P < 0.05). Diabetes remained the leading cause of ESRD. The most frequent causes of death were cardiovascular (45%) and infections (22%). Neoplasms accounted for 10% of the causes of death. The prevalence of RRT continues to increase, particularly in countries with 100% public health or insurance coverage for RRT, where it approaches rates comparable to those displayed by developed countries with a better GNI. The incidence also continues to increase in both countries that have not yet extended its coverage to 100% of the population as well as in those that have an adequate program for timely detection and treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its associated risk factors. PD is still an underutilized strategy for RRT in the region. Even though renal Tx is feasible, its growth rate is still not as fast as it should be in order to compensate for the increased prevalence of patients on waiting lists. Diagnostic and prevention programs for hypertension and diabetes, appropriate policies promoting the expansion of PD and organ procurement as well as transplantation as cost-effective forms of RRT are needed in the region. Regional cooperation among Latin American countries, allowing the more developed to guide and train others in starting registries and CKD programs, may be one of the key initiatives to address this deficit. PMID:25349696

Rosa-Diez, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Bedat, Maria; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Marinovich, Sergio; Fernandez, Sdenka; Lugon, Jocemir; Poblete-Badal, Hugo; Elgueta-Miranda, Susana; Gomez, Rafael; Cerdas-Calderon, Manuel; Almaguer-Lopez, Miguel; Freire, Nelly; Leiva-Merino, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Gaspar; Luna-Guerra, Jorge; Bochicchio, Tomasso; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Cano, Nuria; Iron, Norman; Cuero, Cesar; Cuevas, Dario; Tapia, Carlos; Cangiano, Jose; Rodriguez, Sandra; Gonzalez, Haydee; Duro-Garcia, Valter

2014-01-01

198

Latin American Marketing Project. Grade 10 Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this lesson, students work as marketing teams hired by a U.S. fast food company to study the feasibility of selling fast food in Latin America. Teams are composed of cultural, production, marketing, and advertising experts. Each marketing team will investigate a product and a Latin American country. Teams will present their research and…

Antilla, Madeline; DeMonet, J.

199

PREFACE: XII Latin American workshop on plasma physics (17-21 September 2007, Caracas, Venezuela)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some years ago a group of Latin American physicists took the initiative to consult about the viability of organizing a meeting on plasma physics for researchers and students of the region. The result was that it was not only a good idea, but a necessity in order to show and share everyone's work, and to keep updated on latest advances and technologies on plasma physics. It was decided that for new researchers as well as students of Physics, it would prove to be the best way to keep them posted on such matters. This was the birth of a series of meetings known as Latin American workshops on plasma physics that take place every two years in a different Latin American country. In Venezuela we have had the opportunity to organize two editions of this interesting and important reunion of physicists. The first of these Latin American workshops on plasma physics was held in Cambuquira (Brazil) in 1982. After organizing the first six editions of the workshop, the VII LAWPP meeting was realized in Caracas in January 1997. It was designed with a structure similar to the first edition. It developed in two stages, a first week devoted to short courses with lecturers in different fields of plasma physics and a second week for contributed and invited presentations. Participants from sixteen different countries were present, half of them from this continent and the other half from overseas, demonstrating the international character of this meeting. There have been four more editions of the workshop and once again, we have had the opportunity to organize this latest edition of the series: the XII Latin American workshop on plasma physics, which took place in Caracas, Venezuela from the 17th to the 21st of September 2007. The structure was modified, because contributed and review papers were together during the first stage, with short courses realized during the second one, called mini-courses, and given by several high level contributors such as José Boedo, Leopoldo Soto, Claude Deutsch, Ricardo Galvao, Carlos Hidalgo, Paulo Sakanaka, Konosuke Sato, Malcom Haines and Maher Boulos. The general feeling is that these mini-courses were very successful. As an original idea of Professor Ricardo Magnus Osorio Galvão, Director of Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, we saluted the creation of The Vladimir Tsypin Award to the best Poster in the meeting. This prize was presented by Professor Galvão in memoriam of Vladimir Semenovich Tsypin. It was suggested that the granting of this award be made in every meeting from now on. We think that it is very important to emphasise the mini-courses due to the necessity of increasing in the near future a better formation for our young scientists. The contributions of all the lecturers are greatly appreciated. We had the typical fields in plasma physics as in past meetings. We also appreciated very much the lectures of Professor Malcolm Haines, Professor Sergey Popel, Professor Claude Deutsch, and Professor Antony Peratt for their very interesting talks on the Z-Pinch recorded to prehistory. Special thanks again to these lecturers since they have joined and honoured our meetings in the past as well. As in the VII LAWPP, all the sessions of the workshop were held at the Universidad Simon Bolivar campus, located in the nice green Valley of Sartenejas near Caracas. We also appreciate the stimulus and the financial support that we have always had for the preparation of these workshops from our institution by means of its authorities: Professor Benjamin Sharifker (Rector), Professor Aura Lopez (Dean of Academic Activities), (Professor Jose Luis Paz (Dean of Research and Development), Professor Pedro Berrisbeitia (Dean of Postgraduate Studies) and Professor William Colmenares (Dean of Extended Activities). We must also mention and appreciate the collaboration of architect Alejandro Chataing Roncajolo as Secretary and Coordinator of the Congress, as well as the daily important collaborations of our students Anais Möller, Laura Beiras, Juan Contreras, Gabriel Torrente, Aimée Guerrero, Francisco Jose Blanco

Puerta, Julio

2008-10-01

200

Regional overview of Latin American and Caribbean energy production, consumption, and future growth. Report series No. 1  

SciTech Connect

The Latin American and Caribbean region - comprising Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean - is relatively well endowed with energy resources, although the distribution of these resources is uneven across countries. The region produces more energy than it consumes, and the surplus energy, which amounts to 3.6 million barrels of oil equivalent per day (boe/d), is mostly oil. While the region`s total oil (crude and products) exports decreased from 4.4 million barrels per day (b/d) in 1981 to 3.8 million b/d in 1992, its net oil exports increased from about 1.6 million b/d in 1981 to 2.8 million b/d in 1992. In 1993, the surplus oil in Latin America and the Caribbean remained at 2.8 million b/d. This report analyzes the key issues of the Latin American and Caribbean energy industry and presents the future outlook for oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power developments in the region. In addition, the status of biomass energy, geothermal, and other noncommercial energy in the region will be briefly discussed in the context of overall energy development. The rest of the report is organized as follows: Section II assesses the current situation of Latin American and Caribbean energy production and consumption, covering primary energy supply, primary energy consumption, downstream petroleum sector development, and natural gas utilization. Section III presents the results of our study of future energy growth in Latin America. Important hydrocarbons policy issues in the region are discussed in Section IV, and a summary and concluding remarks are provided in Section V.

Wu, K.

1994-07-01

201

Latin American women’s experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted  

PubMed Central

Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA) refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used. Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades. This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women’s experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal. Women’s personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1) a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2) complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support. Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it might not be effective, and the fact that some women eventually need to seek medical care at a hospital where they might be sanctioned for having an abortion and even reported to the police. PMID:23259660

2012-01-01

202

Genome-Wide Study of the Defective Sucrose Fermenter Strain of Vibrio cholerae from the Latin American Cholera Epidemic  

PubMed Central

The 7th cholera pandemic reached Latin America in 1991, spreading from Peru to virtually all Latin American countries. During the late epidemic period, a strain that failed to ferment sucrose dominated cholera outbreaks in the Northern Brazilian Amazon region. In order to understand the genomic characteristics and the determinants of this altered sucrose fermenting phenotype, the genome of the strain IEC224 was sequenced. This paper reports a broad genomic study of this strain, showing its correlation with the major epidemic lineage. The potentially mobile genomic regions are shown to possess GC content deviation, and harbor the main V. cholera virulence genes. A novel bioinformatic approach was applied in order to identify the putative functions of hypothetical proteins, and was compared with the automatic annotation by RAST. The genome of a large bacteriophage was found to be integrated to the IEC224's alanine aminopeptidase gene. The presence of this phage is shown to be a common characteristic of the El Tor strains from the Latin American epidemic, as well as its putative ancestor from Angola. The defective sucrose fermenting phenotype is shown to be due to a single nucleotide insertion in the V. cholerae sucrose-specific transportation gene. This frame-shift mutation truncated a membrane protein, altering its structural pore-like conformation. Further, the identification of a common bacteriophage reinforces both the monophyletic and African-Origin hypotheses for the main causative agent of the 1991 Latin America cholera epidemics. PMID:22662140

Garza, Daniel Rios; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Loureiro, Edvaldo Carlos Brito; Dutilh, Bas E.; Inada, Davi Toshio; Junior, Edivaldo Costa Sousa; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Nunes, Márcio Roberto T.; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; Silvestre, Rodrigo Vellasco Duarte; Nunes, Keley Nascimento Barbosa; Santos, Elisabeth C. O.; Edwards, Robert A.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; de Sá Morais, Lena Lillian Canto

2012-01-01

203

15th International Congress on Plasma Physics & 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010), together agreed to carry out this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, on occasion of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. The ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of the official program within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial. The event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project ''Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4'', supported by National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya, in 1980, and followed by the Congresses: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006), and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss the recent progress and future views in plasma science, including fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, and plasma applications, and so forth. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by the Workshops: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005), and Caracas (2007). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is a communication forum of the achievements of the plasma-physics regional community, fostering collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The program of the ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included the topics: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics, Fusion Plasmas, Plasmas in Astrophysics and Space Physics, Plasma Applications and Technologies, Complex Plasmas, High Energy Density Plasmas, Quantum Plasmas, Laser-Plasma Interaction and among others. A total of 180 delegates from 34 different countries took part in the ICPP-LAWPP-2010. Sixty delegates received economical assistance from the local organized committee, thanks to the support of the International Union for Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) and the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN). The ICPP-LAWPP-2010 Program was elaborated by the following Program Committee: Carlos Alejaldre, ITER Maria Virginia Alves, Brazil Julio Herrera, Mexico Günter Mank, IAEA George Morales, USA Padma Kant Shukla, Germany Guido Van Oost, Belgium Leopoldo Soto, Chile (Chairman) This Program Committee was formed by selected members from the International Advisory Committee of the ICPP and by selected members from the International Advisory Committee of the LAWPP. In particular, Plenary Lectures and Invited Topical Lectures were selected by the Program Committee from a list of nominated presentations by the International Advisory Committees of both ICPP and LAWPP. Also, the classification of oral and poster presentations was elaborated by the Program Committee. The congress included: 15 invited plenary talks, 33 invited topical talks, 45 oral contributions, and 160 poster contributions. A major part of the plenary and topical lectures were published in a special issue of the Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, IOP Publishing (Plasma Phys. Control Fusion Volume 53, Number 7, July 2011: http://iopscience.iop.org/0741-3335/53/7). The papers were refereed according to the standards of the journal Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. An large number of the participants sent their contributions articles to this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series, IOP Publishing. The articles received were reviewed by the local organizing committee and by invited peers. The criteria for review focused on the demand for a consistent research and the c

Soto, Leopoldo

2014-05-01

204

PREFACE: 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2011)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These proceedings present the written contributions from participants of the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP), which was held in Mar del Plata, Argentina, on 20-25 November 2011. This was the 14th session of the series of LAWPP biennial meetings, which started in 1982. The five-day scientific program of LAWPP 2011 consisted of 32 talks and various poster sessions, with the participation of 135 researchers from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Puerto Rico, USA, Venezuela, as well as others from Europe and Asia. In addition, a School on Plasma Physics and a Workshop on Industrial Applications of Plasma Technology (AITP) were organized together with the main meeting. The five-day School held in the week previous to the meeting was intended for young scientists starting their research in Plasma Physics. On the other hand, the objective of the AITP Workshop was to enhance regional academic and industrial cooperation in the field of plasma assisted surface technology. Topics addressed at LAWPP 2011 included space plasmas, dusty plasmas, nuclear fusion, non-thermal plasmas, basic plasma processes, plasma simulation and industrial plasma applications. This variety of subjects is reflected in these proceedings, which the editors hope will result in enjoyable and fruitful reading for those interested in Plasma Physics. It is a pleasure to thank the Institutions that sponsored the meeting, as well as all the participants and collaborators for making this meeting possible. The Editors Luis Bilbao, Fernando Minotti and Hector Kelly LAWPP participants Participants of the 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics, 20-25 November 2011, Mar del Plata, Argentina International Scientific Committee Carlos Alejaldre, Spain María Virginia Alves, Brazil Ibere Caldas, Brazil Luis Felipe Delgado-Aparicio, Peru Mayo Villagrán, Mexico Kohnosuke Sato, Japan Héctor Kelly, Argentina Edberto Leal-Quirós, Puerto Rico George Morales, USA Julio Puerta, Venezuela Leopoldo Soto, Chile Michael Tendler, Sweden Carlos Varandas, Portugal Henry Riascos, Colombia Ivan Vargas-Blanco, Costa Rica Local Organizing Committee Luis Bilbao (Chairman) Fernando Minotti (Vice-Chairman) Luis Bernal, UNMDP Alejandro Clausse, PLADEMA-CNEA Graciela Gnavi, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Fausto Gratton, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Diana Grondona, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Héctor Kelly, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Adriana Márquez, INFIP, CONICET-UBA María Milanese, UNCPBA César Moreno, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Sponsors Instituto de Física del Plasma (INFIP) Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA) Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (ANPCyT) Centro Latino-Americano de Física (CLAF) Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMP) Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (UNICEN) Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Buenos Aires (ANCBA) Conference poster

Bilbao, Luis; Minotti, Fernando; Kelly, Hector

2012-06-01

205

Articles by Latin American Authors in Prestigious Journals Have Fewer Citations  

PubMed Central

Background The journal Impact factor (IF) is generally accepted to be a good measurement of the relevance/quality of articles that a journal publishes. In spite of an, apparently, homogenous peer-review process for a given journal, we hypothesize that the country affiliation of authors from developing Latin American (LA) countries affects the IF of a journal detrimentally. Methodology/Principal Findings Seven prestigious international journals, one multidisciplinary journal and six serving specific branches of science, were examined in terms of their IF in the Web of Science. Two subsets of each journal were then selected to evaluate the influence of author's affiliation on the IF. They comprised contributions (i) with authorship from four Latin American (LA) countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico) and (ii) with authorship from five developed countries (England, France, Germany, Japan and USA). Both subsets were further subdivided into two groups: articles with authorship from one country only and collaborative articles with authorship from other countries. Articles from the five developed countries had IF close to the overall IF of the journals and the influence of collaboration on this value was minor. In the case of LA articles the effect of collaboration (virtually all with developed countries) was significant. The IFs for non-collaborative articles averaged 66% of the overall IF of the journals whereas the articles in collaboration raised the IFs to values close to the overall IF. Conclusion/Significance The study shows a significantly lower IF in the group of the subsets of non-collaborative LA articles and thus that country affiliation of authors from non-developed LA countries does affect the IF of a journal detrimentally. There are no data to indicate whether the lower IFs of LA articles were due to their inherent inferior quality/relevance or psycho-social trend towards under-citation of articles from these countries. However, further study is required since there are foreseeable consequences of this trend as it may stimulate strategies by editors to turn down articles that tend to be under-cited. PMID:19030227

Meneghini, Rogerio; Packer, Abel L.; Nassi-Calò, Lilian

2008-01-01

206

Insulin resistance and glucose and lipid concentrations in a cohort of perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children.  

PubMed

We measured glucose, insulin and lipids in 249 perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children. Only 1 subject had impaired fasting glucose; 6.8% had insulin resistance. Abnormalities in total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were reported for 13%, 13%, 21% and 34%, respectively. Continued follow-up of this population is necessary to characterize the evolution and clinical consequences of these findings. PMID:23360832

Hazra, Rohan; Hance, Laura Freimanis; Monteiro, Jacqueline Pontes; Ruz, Noris Pavia; Machado, Daisy Maria; Saavedra, Mariza; Motta, Fabrizio; Harris, D Robert

2013-07-01

207

Meaning in Life as a Mediator of Ethnic Identity and Adjustment Among Adolescents from Latin, Asian, and European American Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using\\u000a data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning\\u000a in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining associations between ethnic\\u000a identity and adjustment were examined. Although

Lisa KiangAndrew; Andrew J. Fuligni

2010-01-01

208

Insulin Resistance and Glucose and Lipid Concentrations in a Cohort of Perinatally HIV-Infected Latin American Children  

PubMed Central

We measured glucose, insulin, and lipids in 249 perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children. Only one subject had impaired fasting glucose; 6.8% had insulin resistance. Abnormalities in total, LDL and HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were reported for 13%, 13%, 21%, and 34%, respectively. Continued follow up of this populationis necessary to characterize the evolution and clinical consequences of these findings. PMID:23360832

Hazra, Rohan; Hance, Laura Freimanis; Monteiro, Jacqueline Pontes; Ruz, Noris Pavia; Machado, Daisy Maria; Saavedra, Mariza; Motta, Fabrizio; Harris, D. Robert

2013-01-01

209

Admixture and genetic relationships of Mexican Mestizos regarding Latin American and Caribbean populations based on 13 CODIS-STRs.  

PubMed

Short tandem repeats (STRs) of the combined DNA index system (CODIS) are probably the most employed markers for human identification purposes. STR databases generated to interpret DNA profiles are also helpful for anthropological purposes. In this work, we report admixture, population structure, and genetic relationships of Mexican Mestizos with respect to Latin American and Caribbean populations based on 13 CODIS-STRs. In addition, new STR population data were included from Tijuana, Baja California (Northwest, Mexico), which represents an interesting case of elevated genetic flow as a bordering city with the USA. Inter-population analyses included CODIS-STR data from 11 Mexican Mestizo, 12 Latin American and four Caribbean populations, in addition to European, Amerindian, and African genetic pools as ancestral references. We report allele frequencies and statistical parameters of forensic interest (PD, PE, Het, PIC, typical PI), for 15 STRs in Tijuana, Baja California. This Mexican border city was peculiar by the increase of African ancestry, and by presenting three STRs in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium, probably explained by recurrent gene flow. The Amerindian ancestry in Central and Southeast of Mexico was the greatest in Latin America (50.9-68.6%), only comparable with the North of Central America and Ecuador (48.8-56.4%), whereas the European ancestry was prevalent in South America (66.7-75%). The African ancestry in Mexico was the smallest (2.2-6.3%) in Latin America (?2.6%), particularly regarding Brazil (21%), Honduras (62%), and the Caribbean (43.2-65.2%). CODIS-STRs allowed detecting significant population structure in Latin America based on greater presence of European, Amerindian, and African ancestries in Central/South America, Mexican Mestizos, and the Caribbean, respectively. PMID:25435058

Salazar-Flores, J; Zuñiga-Chiquette, F; Rubi-Castellanos, R; Álvarez-Miranda, J L; Zetina-Hérnandez, A; Martínez-Sevilla, V M; González-Andrade, F; Corach, D; Vullo, C; Álvarez, J C; Lorente, J A; Sánchez-Diz, P; Herrera, R J; Cerda-Flores, R M; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Rangel-Villalobos, H

2015-02-01

210

Universal health coverage in Latin American countries: how to improve solidarity-based schemes.  

PubMed

In this Health Policy we examine the association between the financing structure of health systems and universal health coverage. Latin American health systems encompass a wide range of financial sources, which translate into different solidarity-based schemes that combine contributory (payroll taxes) and non-contributory (general taxes) sources of financing. To move towards universal health coverage, solidarity-based schemes must heavily rely on countries' capacity to increase public expenditure in health. Improvement of solidarity-based schemes will need the expansion of mandatory universal insurance systems and strengthening of the public sector including increased fiscal expenditure. These actions demand a new model to integrate different sources of health-sector financing, including general tax revenue, social security contributions, and private expenditure. The extent of integration achieved among these sources will be the main determinant of solidarity and universal health coverage. The basic challenges for improvement of universal health coverage are not only to spend more on health, but also to reduce the proportion of out-of-pocket spending, which will need increased fiscal resources. PMID:25458734

Titelman, Daniel; Cetrángolo, Oscar; Acosta, Olga Lucía

2014-10-15

211

[The anatomical pathology, an indispensable discipline, and its only Latin American journal].  

PubMed

As a medical discipline, pathological anatomy was born between the 16th and 17th centuries, when the bases for scientific and technological development, as we know them today, were established. Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771), one of the greatest clinicians of the 18th century, introduced the concept of correlation between clinical manifestations and pathological anatomic structures. Just like that the pathology has contributed to the characterization of many diseases. Correlation of anatomopathological changes with signs and symptoms of disease is still common practice to date, which constitutes the basis for one of the most relevant pedagogical activities in medicine: the clinical pathological conference. The American Society of Investigative Pathology describes pathology as "the medical specialty that provides the scientific foundation of medical practice". Advances in this discipline have been transmitted mainly in periodical publications as early as the 19th century, and many scientific journals dedicated to communication of relevant findings from all over the world have been created since. The uninterrupted publication of a scientific journal for 51 years, the journal Patología. Revista Latinoamericana, dedicated to one of the most important medical disciplines is, undoubtedly, an achievement worthy of celebration, for being the only one in Spanish in Latin America. PMID:24758866

Rodríguez-Velasco, Alicia; Valencia-Mayoral, Pedro

2014-01-01

212

Workplace abuse and economic exploitation of children working in the streets of Latin American cities.  

PubMed

This study presents the prevalence of, and factors associated with workplace abuse and economic exploitation among 584 children ages 5 to 17 working in the streets of the Latin American cities of Bogotá, Lima, Quito, and São Paulo. Each additional 10 hours/week of children's work in the streets increased workplace abuse prevalence by 8% (odds ratio [OR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.01-1.19). Suffering an occupational injury was associated with abuse (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.13-2.57). Participation in begging was associated with an almost five-fold increase in economic exploitation (OR, 4.94; 95% CI, 1.96-12.48). Children residing with their mothers were 2.6 times more likely to experience economic exploitation (OR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.58-4.33), reflecting our definition of economic exploitation in which a child's income is confiscated by parents, even if used for basic family needs. Increased health care coverage and conditional cash transfer programs are recommended to improve the situation. PMID:20465061

Pinzon-Rondon, Angela Maria; Botero, Juan Carlos; Benson, Lisa; Briceno-Ayala, Leonardo; Kanamori, Mariano

2010-01-01

213

Adult education as a human right: The Latin American context and the ecopedagogic perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well as technical. All along the history of contemporary education it is essential to highlight the importance of the CONFINTEA conferences for the construction of an expanded vision of this concept. Adult education is understood as a human right. The right to education does not end when a person has reached the so-called "proper" age; it continues to be a right for the duration of everyone's entire life. This article explores Paulo Freire's contribution, particularly the methodology of MOVA (Youth and Adult Literacy Movement). It also presents the ecopedagogic perspective, which was inspired by Paulo Freire's legacy. Finally, this article stresses the need to support a long-term policy for adult education, following the recommendations of the Civil Society International Forum (FISC) and CONFINTEA VI, both held in Belém, Brazil, in 2009.

Gadotti, Moacir

2011-08-01

214

Atrophic gastritis: Risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a Latin-American population  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the association between atrophic gastritis (AG) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a Latin-America population. METHODS: A case-control study was performed at two reference Brazilian hospitals including patients diagnosed with advanced ESCC and dyspeptic patients who had been subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with biopsies of the gastric antrum and body. All cases with ESCC were reviewed by a single pathologist, who applied standard criteria for the diagnosis of mucosal atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia, all classified as AG. The data on the patients’ age, sex, smoking status, and alcohol consumption were collected from clinical records, and any missing information was completed by telephone interview. The association between AG and ESCC was assessed by means of univariate and multiple conditional logistic regressions. RESULTS: Most patients were male, and the median age was 59 years (range: 37-79 years) in both the ESCC and control groups. Univariate analysis showed that an intake of ethanol greater than 32 g/d was an independent risk factor that increased the odds of ESCC 7.57 times (P = 0.014); upon multiple analysis, alcohol intake of ethanol greater than 32 g/d exhibited a risk of 4.54 (P = 0.081), as adjusted for AG and smoking. Smoking was shown to be an independent risk factor that increased the odds of ESCC 14.55 times (P = 0.011) for individuals who smoked 0 to 51 packs/year and 21.40 times (P = 0.006) for those who smoked more than 51 packs/year. Upon multiple analyses, those who smoked up to 51 packs/year exhibited a risk of 7.85 (P = 0.058), and those who smoked more than 51 packs/ year had a risk 11.57 times higher (P = 0.04), as adjusted for AG and alcohol consumption. AG proved to be a risk factor that increased the odds of ESCC 5.33 times (95%CI: 1.55-18.30, P = 0.008) according to the results of univariate conditional logistic regression. CONCLUSION: There was an association by univariate conditional logistic regression between AG and ECSS in this sample of Latin-American population. PMID:23599625

Almodova, Emiliano de Carvalho; de Oliveira, Walmar Kerche; Machado, Lucas Faria Abrahão; Grejo, Juliana Rigotto; da Cunha, Thiago Rabelo; Colaiacovo, Wagner; Ortolan, Erika Veruska Paiva

2013-01-01

215

Report from the Latin American Spondyloarthritis Society for Education and Research in Immunology and Medicine organization 2012 workshop.  

PubMed

The first annual meeting of the Latin American Spondyloarthritis Society for Education and Research in Immunology and Medicine (LASSERIM) was held in Bogotá, Colombia, in September 2012 and was attended by key opinion leaders, researchers, and rheumatologists. The meeting included presentations and discussions from renowned speakers during 2 days and a coaching leadership exercise led by an expert in the field followed by an open forum. Two groups defined a priori discussed the establishment of a professional network and organization to be involved in the identification, assessment, and effective resolution of health care issues in Latin America.A broad spectrum of topics were discussed but focused on the following: pharmacoeconomics in general rheumatology, spondyloarthritis and chronic back pain, therapeutic interventions in rheumatoid arthritis, ultrasonography in spondyloarthritis, impact of social media in medicine and global trends in leadership, quality of life, and innovation. A special workshop on coaching in health care and coaching as a tool to implement LASSERIM goals was part of the 2-day conference.LASSERIM will be working in the future on education, research, and innovation in the field of rheumatology and immunology. A special focus will be on spondyloarthritis, by promoting research, open discussions, and by conducting carefully planned research studies to impact on the quality of life of patients and doctors from Latin American countries. PMID:23965483

Bautista-Molano, Wilson; Toloza, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Marwin; Uribe, Carlos Vinicio Caballero; Pineda, Carlos; Londoño, John; Santos, Pedro; Jaimes, Diego; Diaz, Mario; Chalem, Phillipe; Villota, Orlando; Sierra, Rita; Puche, William; Salas, José; Yara, José; Hamilton, Gordon; Pardo, Carlos; Mercado, Beatriz; Valle-Oñate, Rafael

2013-09-01

216

WHY BASIC INCOME IS BETTER THAN RENEWED POLICY PROMISES FOR LATIN AMERICAN INFORMAL SECURITY REGIMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The Institutional Responsibility Matrix in Latin America: informal welfare regimes Latin America (LA) lives in a permanent tension between contradictory discourses and practices related to social issues. The public discourse (not only from the government but also from NGOs, the media, etc.) talks about what people could demand, using words like citizenship, rights, universalism, social justice, etc. In practice,

Rubén M. Lo Vuolo

2008-01-01

217

Incidence and risk factors of aplastic anemia in Latin American countries: the LATIN case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background Associations between aplastic anemia and numerous drugs, pesticides and chemicals have been reported. However, at least 50% of the etiology of aplastic anemia remains unexplained. Design and Methods This was a case-control, multicenter, multinational study, designed to identify risk factors for agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia. The cases were patients with diagnosis of aplastic anemia confirmed through biopsy or bone marrow aspiration, selected through an active search of clinical laboratories, hematology clinics and medical records. The controls did not have either aplastic anemia or chronic diseases. A total of 224 patients with aplastic anemia were included in the study, each case was paired with four controls, according to sex, age group, and hospital where the case was first seen. Information was collected on demographic data, medical history, laboratory tests, medications, and other potential risk factors prior to diagnosis. Results The incidence of aplastic anemia was 1.6 cases per million per year. Higher rates of benzene exposure (?30 exposures per year) were associated with a greater risk of aplastic anemia (odds ratio, OR: 4.2; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.82–9.82). Individuals exposed to chloramphenicol in the previous year had an adjusted OR for aplastic anemia of 8.7 (CI: 0.87–87.93) and those exposed to azithromycin had an adjusted OR of 11.02 (CI 1.14–108.02). Conclusions The incidence of aplastic anemia in Latin America countries is low. Although the research study centers had a high coverage of health services, the underreporting of cases of aplastic anemia in selected regions can be discussed. Frequent exposure to benzene-based products increases the risk for aplastic anemia. Few associations with specific drugs were found, and it is likely that some of these were due to chance alone. PMID:19734415

Maluf, Eliane; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Júnior, Álvaro Avezum; Eluf-Neto, José; Falcão, Roberto Passetto; Lorand-Metze, Irene G.; Goldenberg, Daniel; Santana, Cézar Leite; de Oliveira Werneck Rodrigues, Daniela; da Motta Passos, Leny Nascimento; Rosenfeld, Luis Gastão Mange; Pitta, Marimilia; Loggetto, Sandra; Feitosa Ribeiro, Andreza A.; Velloso, Elvira Deolinda; Kondo, Andrea Tiemi; de Miranda Coelho, Erika Oliveira; Pintão, Maria Carolina Tostes; de Souza, Hélio Moraes; Borbolla, José Rafael; Pasquini, Ricardo

2009-01-01

218

Pneumocystis and Pneumocystosis: first meeting of experts from Latin-American and Portuguese-speaking countries - a mini-review.  

PubMed

The Pneumocystis and Pneumocystosis: first meeting of experts from Latin-American and Portuguese-speaking countries was held in Lisbon, Portugal, on 24-26 October 2013. A total of 20 speakers from Latin America, Africa and Europe participated in the meeting. The epidemiological studies presented in this meeting begin to change the misconception that since the AIDS epidemic, Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) has become an infrequent disease, showing that today PcP remains a major opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients in both developed and developing countries and an emerging problem in immunocompromised patients without HIV infection worldwide. PcP management remains a challenge. Right now, the combination of caspofungin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is a promising therapeutic approach that needs to be assessed in controlled clinical trials. PMID:24617414

Esteves, Francisco; Medrano, Francisco J; de Armas, Yaxsier; Wissmann, Gustavo; Calderón, Enrique J; Matos, Olga

2014-05-01

219

Twelve Years of Scientific Production on Medline by Latin American Spine Surgeons  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the small contribution of LA in the Science Citation Index (SCI), a growing contribution by LA research to international literature has been observed in recent years. Study Design Systematic review. Purpose To evaluate the scientific contribution of Latin American (LA) Spine Surgeons in the last decade. Methods A literature search of publications by LA spinal surgeons on topics concerning the spine or spinal cord was performed using an online database; Pubmed.gov. The results were limited to articles published from January 2000 to December 2011. The quality of the publication was evaluated with the journal impact factor (IF), Oxford classification and number of citations. Results This study comprised 320 articles published in the Medline database by LA spine surgeons from 2000 to 2011. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of publications by LA spine surgeons. It was observed that 38.4% of LA papers were published in LA journals. 46.6% of the articles were published in journals with an IF lower than 1, and there was no statistically significant difference in the number of articles published in journals with a higher IF during the period. Linear-by-linear association analysis demonstrated an improvement in the level of evidence provided by LA articles published in recent years. Conclusions This study showed a growth in the number of publications in last 12 years by LA spinal surgeons. It is necessary to discuss a way to increase quantity and quality of scientific publications, mainly through a better education in research. PMID:24505336

Falavigna, Asdrubal; Botelho, Ricardo Vieira; Teles, Alisson Roberto; Guarise da Silva, Pedro; Martins, Delio; Guyot, Juan Pablo; Gonzalez, Alvaro Silva; Avila, José Maria Jiménez; Defino, Helton Luiz Aparecido

2014-01-01

220

Latin American Community Psychology: Development, Implications, and Challenges Within a Social Change Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief history of the development of community psychology (CP) and of its academic evolution in Latin America is presented,\\u000a highlighting its roots in Paulo Freire’s adult education model, in critical sociology, and in social psychology. The main\\u000a theoretical influences and topics are discussed, showing how CP embraced a line of research and action engaged with social\\u000a change for Latin

Maritza Montero; NELSON VARAS DÍAZ

221

Educational Building in Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents articles describing recent developments in three Latin American countries (Chile, Brazil, and Venezuela) to expand public education facilities, along with a report on UNESCO's recent seminar in Latin America on architecture for an inclusive education. (EV)

Baza, Jadille; Vaz, Rita de Cassia Alves; Millan, Eduardo; Almeida, Rodolfo

2002-01-01

222

La Capacitacion de Docentes Como Prioridad de los Sistemas Educativos de America Latino y al Caribe (In-Service Teacher Training as a Priority of Latin American and Caribbean Educational Systems).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whenever top-level officials in Latin American and Caribbean educational systems are approached, the topic of inservice teacher training is presented as a major priority. This paper outlines some ideas about the subject of inservice teacher training as a priority of educational systems in Latin American and Caribbean countries. The most frequent…

Valle, Victor M.

223

Clandestine induced abortion: prevalence, incidence and risk factors among women in a Latin American country  

PubMed Central

Background Clandestine induced abortions are a public health problem in many developing countries where access to abortion services is legally restricted. We estimated the prevalence and incidence of, and risk factors for, clandestine induced abortions in a Latin American country. Methods We conducted a large population-based survey of women aged 18–29 years in 20 cities in Peru. We asked questions about their history of spontaneous and induced abortions, using techniques to encourage disclosure. Results Of 8242 eligible women, 7992 (97.0%) agreed to participate. The prevalence of reported induced abortions was 11.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.9%– 12.4%) among the 7962 women who participated in the survey. It was 13.6% (95% CI 12.8%– 14.5%) among the 6559 women who reported having been sexually active. The annual incidence of induced abortion was 3.1% (95% CI 2.9%– 3.3%) among the women who had ever been sexually active. In the multivariable analysis, risk factors for induced abortion were higher age at the time of the survey (odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% CI 1.07– 1.15), lower age at first sexual intercourse (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.84– 0.91), geographic region (highlands: OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.23– 1.97; jungle: OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.41– 2.31 [v. coastal region]), having children (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68– 0.98), having more than 1 sexual partner in lifetime (2 partners: OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.23– 2.09; ? 3 partners: OR 2.79, 95% CI 2.12– 3.67), and having 1 or more sexual partners in the year before the survey (1 partner: OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.01– 1.72; ? 2 partners: OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.14– 2.02). Overall, 49.0% (95% CI 47.6%– 50.3%) of the women who reported being currently sexually active were not using contraception. Interpretation The incidence of clandestine, potentially unsafe induced abortion in Peru is as high as or higher than the rates in many countries where induced abortion is legal and safe. The provision of contraception and safer-sex education to those who require it needs to be greatly improved and could potentially reduce the rate of induced abortion. PMID:19188628

Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; White, Peter J.; Carcamo, Cesar P.; Hughes, James P.; Gonzales, Marco A.; Garcia, Patricia J.; Garnett, Geoff P.; Holmes, King K.

2009-01-01

224

Perceived barriers in accessing food among recent Latin American immigrants in Toronto  

PubMed Central

Objective In Canada, recent immigrant households experience more food insecurity than the general population, but limited information is available about the personal, cultural, and social factors that contribute to this vulnerability. This study focused on recent Latin American (LA) immigrants to explore their perceived barriers in acquiring safe, nutritious, and culturally-appropriate food. Design A cross-sectional mixed-method design was applied to collect information from a convenience sample of 70 adult Spanish/Portuguese speakers who had arrived in Toronto within the last five years. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with primary household caregivers to obtain responses about barriers to acquiring food for their households; data were analyzed using a thematic analysis technique. Results Four main categories of barriers were identified: limited financial resources; language difficulty; cultural food preferences; and poor knowledge of available community-based food resources and services. Inadequate income was the main impediment in accessing adequate food, and was related to affordability of food items, accessibility of food outlets and transportation cost, and limited time for grocery shopping due to work conditions. Language barriers affected participants’ ability to obtain well-paid employment and their awareness about and access to available community-based food resources. Cultural barriers were related to food preferences and limited access to culturally-appropriate foods and resources. Conclusion The main barrier to food security among our sample of LA newcomers to Toronto is limited financial resources, highlighting the need for policies and strategies that could improve their financial power to purchase sufficient, nutritious, and culturally-acceptable food. Linguistic barriers and limited information among newcomers suggest the need to provide linguistically- and culturally-appropriate information related to community-based food programs and resources, as well as accessible subsidized English language programs, in the community and at workplaces. Participatory community-based food programs can augment, in a socially acceptable manner, food resources and reduce the social stigma attached to food charity. Finally, it is crucial to monitor and evaluate existing social and community-based services for their accessibility, cultural appropriateness and diversity, and effectiveness. PMID:23286318

2013-01-01

225

Toxocara Seropositivity, Atopy and Wheezing in Children Living in Poor Neighbourhoods in Urban Latin American  

PubMed Central

Background Toxocara canis and T. cati are parasites of dogs and cats, respectively, that infect humans and cause human toxocariasis. Infection may cause asthma-like symptoms but is often asymptomatic and is associated with a marked eosinophilia. Previous epidemiological studies indicate that T. canis infection may be associated with the development of atopy and asthma. Objectives To investigate possible associations between Toxocara spp. seropositivity and atopy and childhood wheezing in a population of children living in non-affluent areas of a large Latin American city. Methods The study was conducted in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Data on wheezing symptoms were collected by questionnaire, and atopy was measured by the presence of aeroallergen-specific IgE (sIgE). Skin prick test (SPT), total IgE and peripheral eosinophilia were measured. Toxocara seropositivity was determined by the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies, and intestinal helminth infections were determined by stool microscopy. Findings Children aged 4 to 11 years were studied, of whom 47% were seropositive for anti-Toxocara IgG; eosinophilia >4% occurred in 74.2% and >10% in 25.4%; 59.6% had elevated levels of total IgE; 36.8% had sIgE?0.70 kU/L and 30.4% had SPT for at least one aeroallergen; 22.4% had current wheezing symptoms. Anti-Toxocara IgG was positively associated with elevated eosinophils counts, total IgE and the presence of specific IgE to aeroallergens but was inversely associated with skin prick test reactivity. Conclusion The prevalence of Toxocara seropositivity was high in the studied population of children living in conditions of poverty in urban Brazil. Toxocara infection, although associated with total IgE, sIgE and eosinophilia, may prevent the development of skin hypersensitivity to aeroallergens, possibly through increased polyclonal IgE and the induction of a modified Th2 immune reaction. PMID:23133689

Mendonça, Lívia Ribeiro; Veiga, Rafael Valente; Dattoli, Vitor Camilo Cavalcante; Figueiredo, Camila Alexandrina; Fiaccone, Rosemeire; Santos, Jackson; Cruz, Álvaro Augusto; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Cooper, Philip John; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain Carlos; Barreto, Maurício Lima; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza Maria

2012-01-01

226

Constrasting Ways of Life in Latin America; Sample Lessons for the Intermediate Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of several sequential units developed by the Latin American Curriculum Project. The primary objective was to promote pupil understanding of the social and cultural patterns (ways of living) of Latin America. Appreciation of the diversity in the area is developed by comparing four different families, and contrasting these with life in…

Gill, Clark C.; Conroy, William B.

227

Lead exposure in Latin America and the Caribbean. Lead Research Group of the Pan-American Health Organization.  

PubMed Central

As a result of the rapid industrialization of Latin America and the Caribbean during the second half of this century, exposure to lead has become an increasingly important problem. To obtain an estimate of the magnitude of lead exposure in the region, we carried out a survey and a literature search on potential sources of lead exposure and on blood lead concentrations. Sixteen out of 18 Latin American and 2 out of 10 Caribbean countries responded to the survey. Lead in gasoline remains a major problem, although the lead content has decreased in many countries in the last few years. The impact of leaded fuel is more important in urban settings, given their high vehicular density. Seventy-five percent of the population of the region lives in urban areas, and children younger than 15 years of age, the most susceptible group, comprise 30% of the population. Other sources of lead exposure identified in the region included industrial emissions, battery recycling, paint and varnishes, and contaminated food and water. Lead is recognized as a priority problem by national authorities in 72% of the countries that responded to the survey, and in 50% of the countries some legislation exists to regulate the lead content in certain products. However, compliance is low. There is an urgent need for a broad-based coalition between policy makers, industry, workers, unions, health care providers, and the community to take actions to reduce environmental and occupational lead exposures in all the Latin American and Caribbean countries. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9189704

Romieu, I; Lacasana, M; McConnell, R

1997-01-01

228

Chagas Disease among the Latin American Adult Population Attending in a Primary Care Center in Barcelona, Spain  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims The epidemiology of Chagas disease, until recently confined to areas of continental Latin America, has undergone considerable changes in recent decades due to migration to other parts of the world, including Spain. We studied the prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin American patients treated at a health center in Barcelona and evaluated its clinical phase. We make some recommendations for screening for the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed an observational, cross-sectional prevalence study by means of an immunochromatographic test screening of all continental Latin American patients over the age of 14 years visiting the health centre from October 2007 to October 2009. The diagnosis was confirmed by serological methods: conventional in-house ELISA (cELISA), a commercial kit (rELISA) and ELISA using T cruzi lysate (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics) (oELISA). Of 766 patients studied, 22 were diagnosed with T. cruzi infection, showing a prevalence of 2.87% (95% CI, 1.6–4.12%). Of the infected patients, 45.45% men and 54.55% women, 21 were from Bolivia, showing a prevalence in the Bolivian subgroup (n?=?127) of 16.53% (95% CI, 9.6–23.39%). All the infected patients were in a chronic phase of Chagas disease: 81% with the indeterminate form, 9.5% with the cardiac form and 9.5% with the cardiodigestive form. All patients infected with T. cruzi had heard of Chagas disease in their country of origin, 82% knew someone affected, and 77% had a significant history of living in adobe houses in rural areas. Conclusions We found a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in immigrants from Bolivia. Detection of T. cruzi–infected persons by screening programs in non-endemic countries would control non-vectorial transmission and would benefit the persons affected, public health and national health systems. PMID:21572511

Roca, Carme; Pinazo, María Jesús; López-Chejade, Paolo; Bayó, Joan; Posada, Elizabeth; López-Solana, Jordi; Gállego, Montserrat; Portús, Montserrat; Gascón, Joaquim

2011-01-01

229

Risk perception and vulnerability to STIs and HIV/AIDS among immigrant Latin-American women in Canada.  

PubMed

This paper describes the migratory experiences of Latin American migrant women living in Canada, their perceptions of the risk of HIV, AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and barriers to accessing healthcare services. We conducted 25 in-depth interviews with Latin American migrant women living in Montreal, Canada. The majority of participants were permanent residents and refugee status claimants. Women's experiences in Canada were characterised by uncertainty, deception and fraud, separation from their families and feelings of discrimination. Women's risk perception of HIV/AIDS/STIs involved relations of gender inequalities of power. Women who did not perceive themselves to be at risk were those who had a stable partner who they felt they could trust. The majority of women reported difficulties in accessing sexual and reproductive health services. Women's vulnerability to HIV/AIDS/STIs was determined by: experiences during their lifecourse; their migratory status, which was associated with sexual abuse, abuse at work, language barriers and lack of social support networks; and their ability to access health services. The provision of health services to this population must focus on sexual and reproductive health needs and should do so from a multicultural perspective that takes into account the changes associated with the migration process. PMID:24697557

Ochoa, Sandra Catalina; Sampalis, John

2014-01-01

230

Latin America Research Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the Macropolicy group at the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, the Latin America Research Group (LARG) monitors financial systems and provides general assessments of macroeconomic conditions in Latin America and the Caribbean. Recent staff papers and economic analyses are posted on-site in addition to speeches and presentations. A well-organized Internet resource page also offers links to Latin American government, media, and stock exchange sites as well as multilateral institutions and research organizations.

231

Social welfare reform in the context of economic-political liberalization: Latin American cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1980s most of Latin America suffered a fiscal crisis resulting from the heavy debt burden and the halting of external credit, and a deep recession induced by the implementation of structural adjustment policies. Both phenomena provoked social costs with divergent degrees of severity. The existing social welfare system (in particular social security) was incapable of coping with the

Carmelo Mesa-Lago

1997-01-01

232

Supportive adult relationships and the academic engagement of Latin American immigrant youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central aim of this study was to explore the academic engagement trajectories of a sample of recently arrived immigrant students from Latin America. Using an analytic framework that can dynamically model time-sensitive fluctuations (HLM; [Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchicical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods (2nd Edition ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications]), we

Gillian Green; Jean Rhodes; Abigail Heitler Hirsch; Carola Suárez-Orozco; Paul M. Camic

2008-01-01

233

`Home Away From Home:' Migrant Organizations and Transnational Politics Among Latin American Migrants in Spain  

E-print Network

Mass immigration into Spain is a relatively new phenomenon. Additionally, the country's recent economic boom and ties to Latin America put it in the unique position of being home to millions of Spanish-speaking migrants. This paper analyzes the role...

Freudenburg, Kevin Michael

2011-04-27

234

The space transportation system and its impact on Latin American development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The three components of the Space Transportation System: the space shuttle, the permanent orbital space station and the transorbital vehicle are described. The stages of completion of the various plans are discussed and the impact of the project's implementation is discussed with particular reference to Latin America and with special emphasis on the telecommunications sector.

Diaz, F. R. C.

1985-01-01

235

Seminario latinoamericano de didactica de los medios audiovisuales (Latin American Seminar on Teaching with Audiovisual Aids).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This seminar on the use of audiovisual aids reached several conclusions on the need for and the use of such aids in Latin America. The need for educational innovation in the face of a new society, a new type of communication, and a new vision of man is stressed. A new definition of teaching and learning as a fundamental process of communication is…

Eduplan Informa, 1971

1971-01-01

236

The Structural Pension Reform in Chile: Effects, Comparisons with Other Latin American Reforms, and Lessons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chile pioneered a structural reform in Latin America that privatized its public pension system and influenced similar reforms in another nine countries. Twenty-five years later, this article evaluates the macroeconomic, microeconomic, and social effects of this reform in Chile and the other countries in the region, and extracts lessons from those experiences. Fiscal costs of the reform have been high

Alberto Arenas de Mesa; Carmelo Mesa-Lago

2006-01-01

237

Supportive Adult Relationships and the Academic Engagement of Latin American Immigrant Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central aim of this study was to explore the academic engagement trajectories of a sample of recently arrived immigrant students from Latin America. Using an analytic framework that can dynamically model time-sensitive fluctuations (HLM; [Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchicical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis…

Green, G.; Rhodes, J.; Hirsch, A. H.; Suarez-Orozco, C.; Camic, P. M.

2008-01-01

238

The Effects of Tougher Enforcement on the Job Prospects of Recent Latin American Immigrants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to enforce immigration laws in the U.S. interior have proliferated in recent years, yet the effects of these laws on immigrants are largely unknown. This paper examines whether increases in immigration-related law enforcement since 2001 have adversely affected the labor market outcomes of low-education male immigrants from Latin America,…

Orrenius, Pia M.; Zavodny, Madeline

2009-01-01

239

Latin American Literatures and Cultures: Self and Society. Papers from the National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute (La Jolla, California, August 1996).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special issue contains the following articles: (1) "Critiquing the Center: Rigoberta Menchu and Enrique Dussel" (Joseph R. Hoff); (2) "Caroline Maria De Jesus: A Testimonial Voice in the Wilderness" (Eva Bueno); (3) "Latin American Women's Voices: La Malinche to Rigoberta Menchu" (Ana Maria Romo de Mease); (4) "China in Borges''The Garden of…

Seabrook, John H., Ed.

1996-01-01

240

Latin American Youth Entrepreneurs: Differences between Coached and Laissez-Faire Entrepreneurial Experiences in Their Employability Skills and Their Entrepreneurial Innovative Attitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between the development of employability skills and entrepreneurial innovative attitude in Latin American youth entrepreneurs 18-29 years of age after participating in at least 1 year of an entrepreneurship experience. The design involved analyzing two groups. The first was a coached group…

Roman Maqueira, Juana

2011-01-01

241

Las historias de la narrativa hispanoamericana: Criterios, metodos y ausencias. (Histories of the Latin-American Narrative: Criteria, Methods, and Absences).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explains that materials on the teaching of Latin-American literature are sparse, even though most researchers in the field will dedicate much of their time to teaching. The paper adds that, in scholarly journals, little attention is given to teaching literature, and the topic is also absent from most academic congresses. The paper then…

Zavalo, Lauro

242

Physical activity promotion in Latin American populations: a systematic review on issues of internal and external validity.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review was to determine the degree to which physical activity interventions for Latin American populations reported on internal and external validity factors using the RE-AIM framework (reach & representativeness, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance). We systematically identified English (PubMed; EbscoHost) and Spanish (SCIELO; Biblioteca Virtual en Salud) language studies published between 2001 and 2012 that tested physical activity, exercise, or fitness promotion interventions in Latin American populations. Cross-sectional/descriptive studies, conducted in Brazil or Spain, published in Portuguese, not including a physical activity/fitness/exercise outcome, and with one time point assessment were excluded. We reviewed 192 abstracts and identified 46 studies that met the eligibility criteria (34 in English, 12 in Spanish). A validated 21-item RE-AIM abstraction tool was used to determine the quality of reporting across studies (0-7?=?low, 8-14?=?moderate, and 15-21?=?high). The number of indicators reported ranged from 3-14 (mean?=?8.1?±?2.6), with the majority of studies falling in the moderate quality reporting category. English and Spanish language articles did not differ on the number of indicators reported (8.1 vs. 8.3, respectively). However, Spanish articles reported more across reach indicators (62% vs. 43% of indicators), while English articles reported more across effectiveness indicators (69% vs 62%). Across RE-AIM dimensions, indicators for reach (48%), efficacy/effectiveness (67%), and implementation (41%) were reported more often than indicators of adoption (25%) and maintenance (10%). Few studies reported on the representativeness of participants, staff that delivered interventions, or the settings where interventions were adopted. Only 13% of the studies reported on quality of life and/or potential negative outcomes, 20% reported on intervention fidelity, and 11% on cost of implementation. Outcomes measured after six months of intervention, information on continued delivery and institutionalization of interventions, were also seldom reported. Regardless of language of publication, physical activity intervention research for Latin Americans should increase attention to and measurement of external validity and cost factors that are critical in the decision making process in practice settings and can increase the likelihood of translation into community or clinical practice. PMID:24938641

Galaviz, Karla I; Harden, Samantha M; Smith, Erin; Blackman, Kacie Ca; Berrey, Leanna M; Mama, Scherezade K; Almeida, Fabio A; Lee, Rebecca E; Estabrooks, Paul A

2014-01-01

243

Introduction: science, technology and society studies - from the European and American north to the Latin American south  

Microsoft Academic Search

This introduction has two intentions. First, against a broad science, technology, and society (STS) studies background, it provides a brief description of state-of-the-art of STS studies in Ibero-America (that is, Latin America plus Spain and Portugal), as well as a reflection on some difficulties and recent initiatives linked to the promotion of such studies in the region. STS is a

José A. López Cerezo; Carlos Verdadero

2003-01-01

244

BANKING SPREADS IN LATIN AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intermediation spreads in Latin America are high by international standards. This paper examines the determinants of bank interest margins in that region using bank- and country-level data from 85 countries, including 14 Latin American economies. The results suggest that Latin America has higher interest rates, less efficient banks, and larger reserve requirements than other regions and that these factors have

R. GASTON GELOS

2009-01-01

245

Foundations in periods of political and economic uncertainty: The Latin American link and the Argentine case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foundations — or proto-foundations — that had their roots in the western world in the Greek and Roman civilisations later\\u000a found their way into ancient Spanish law. The early historical inheritance was transferred by Spain and Portugal to Latin\\u000a America. Those first foundations were dedicated to a few activities in the areas of health, education and community services.\\u000a In this

Rodolfo S. Goncebate

1995-01-01

246

Mestizos with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Develop Renal Disease Early while Antimalarials Retard its Appearance: Data from a Latin American Cohort  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the predictors of time-to-lupus renal disease in Latin American patients. Methods SLE patients (n=1480) from GLADEL’s (Grupo Latino Americano De Estudio de Lupus) longitudinal inception cohort were studied. Endpoint was ACR renal criterion development after SLE diagnosis (prevalent cases excluded). Renal disease predictors were examined by univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Antimalarials were considered time-dependent in alternative analyses. Results Of the entire cohort, 265 patients (17.9%) developed renal disease after entering the cohort. Of them, 88 (33.2%) developed persistent proteinuria, 44 (16.6%) cellular casts and 133 (50.2%) both; 233 patients (87.9%) were women; mean (± SD) age at diagnosis was 28.0 (11.9) years; 12.8% were African-Latin Americans, 52.5% Mestizos, 34.7% Caucasians (p=0.0016). Mestizo ethnicity (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.19–2.17), hypertension (HR 3.99, 95% CI 3.02–5.26) and SLEDAI at diagnosis (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01–1.06) were associated with a shorter time-to-renal disease occurrence; antimalarial use (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.43–0.77), older age at onset (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.85–0.95, for every 5 years) and photosensitivity (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.56–0.98) were associated with a longer time. Alternative model results were consistent with the antimalarial protective effect (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.50–0.99). Conclusions Our data strongly support the fact that Mestizo patients are at increased risk of developing renal disease early while antimalarials seem to delay the appearance of this SLE manifestation. These data have important implications for the treatment of these patients regardless of their geographic location. PMID:23857989

Pons-Estel, Guillermo J.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Burgos, Paula I.; Hachuel, Leticia; Boggio, Gabriela; Wojdyla, Daniel; Nieto, Romina; Alvarellos, Alejandro; Catoggio, Luis J.; Guibert-Toledano, Marlene; Sarano, Judith; Massardo, Loreto; Vásquez, Gloria M.; Iglesias-Gamarra, Antonio; Lavras Costallat, Lilian T.; Da Silva, Nilzio A.; Alfaro, José L.; Abadi, Isaac; Segami, María I.; Huerta, Guillermo; Cardiel, Mario H.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.

2014-01-01

247

The "New Cooperativism" in Latin America: Worker-Recuperated Enterprises and Socialist Production Units  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the first decade of the 21st century, efforts to create alternatives to neoliberalism emerged in many parts of Latin America. Social movements across the region took to the streets, occupied abandoned factories, and started to create new democratic spaces, solidarity networks, and social economy initiatives. In one country after another,…

Larrabure, Manuel; Vieta, Marcelo; Schugurensky, Daniel

2011-01-01

248

United States-Latin America Cancer Research Network (US-LA CRN)  

Cancer.gov

The US–LA CRN was established in 2009 to increase cancer research capacity in Latin America. NCI formalized bilateral agreements with the governments of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico, and Uruguay, to facilitate interactions at the government, institution, and investigator levels.

249

Combining latin hypercube designs and discrete event simulation in a study of a surgical unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form given only:In this article experiments on a discrete event simulation model for an orthopedic surgery are considered. The model is developed as part of a larger project in co-operation with Copenhagen University Hospital in Gentofte. Experiments on the model are performed by using Latin hypercube designs. The parameter set consists of system settings such as use of preparation

C. Dehlendorff; M. Kulahci; K. K. Andersen

2007-01-01

250

Shifting Turkish American Identity Formations in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation examines Turkish-American identity formations in the United States. Through a case study based in the New York metropolitan area, this study explores how the contestation and negotiation of Turkish ethnicity and Turkish-American identity is grounded in place and across space. It examines Turkish-Americaness in relation to Westerness, Muslimness, Arabness, Americaness, and Turkishness. The study problematizes ethnic and racial

Ilhan Kaya

2003-01-01

251

Valuation of Latin-American stock prices with alternative versions of the Ohlson model: An investigation of cointegration relationships with time-series and panel-data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop an investigation regarding the determinants of the stock prices in six Latin American emerging markets (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru). We test the traditional Ohlson model and an international version of it. The international model includes the Dow Jones index as an additional explanatory variable. We use time-series and panel-data cointegration methodologies to assess the long-run

Rocio Duran-Vazquez; Arturo Lorenzo-Valdes; Antonio Ruiz-Porras

2011-01-01

252

Association of the duration of residence with obesity-related eating habits and dietary patterns among Latin-American immigrants in Spain.  

PubMed

The dietary patterns of immigrants usually change with the duration of residence and progressively resemble those of the host country. However, very few studies have investigated individuals migrating to countries with a high-quality diet, such as the Mediterranean diet (MD), and none has yet focused on Latin-American immigrants. The present study examined the association of the duration of residence with obesity-related eating habits and dietary patterns among Latin-American immigrants residing in Spain. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008-10 in a representative sample of the adult population residing in Spain. Adherence to the MD was defined as a MD Adherence Screener score ? 9. Analyses were conducted by including 419 individuals aged 18-64 years born in Latin-American countries. Compared with immigrants residing in Spain for < 5 years, those residing for ? 10 years accounted for a lower percentage of individuals who habitually ate at fast-food restaurants and never trimmed visible fat from meat. Moreover, these immigrants were found to have a lower intake of sugary beverages and a higher intake of Na, saturated fat, fibre, olive oil, vegetables and fish and to more frequently strictly adhere to the MD. A longer duration of residence in Spain was found to be associated with both healthy and unhealthy changes in some eating habits and dietary patterns among Latin-American immigrants. Some of the healthy changes observed contrasted the 'Westernisation' of the diet reported in studies conducted in other Western countries. The results of the present study support the role of the food environment of the host country in the modification of the dietary patterns of immigrants. PMID:25418887

Marín-Guerrero, A C; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Guallar-Castillón, P; López-García, Esther; Gutiérrez-Fisac, Juan L

2014-11-24

253

Gains for the United States from Hemispheric Free Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

If the prospective North American Free Trade Area can be extended to the rest of Latin America and the Caribbean, the United States will gain from increased exports and employment in about the same dimensions as the benefits of free trade with Mexico alone. Ironically, however, the United States should want Latin America to keep its tariffs toward the rest

Paul H. Boeker

1993-01-01

254

Field research methodology for the study of Latin American ministries of education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Third World countries a key to the course of nation-building is the modernization of the organizational and administrative infrastructures which drive the development process. Increasing the operational capabilities, effectiveness, and efficiency of the ministry of education, and hence the quality and quantity of school outcomes, is typically a high priority item in the development plans of a nation. In order to promote the modernization of management activities in ministries, however, it is first essential to understand their existing patterns of operation. Toward this objective, the paper presents a methodological framework for a field study approach to the examination of the working of a ministry of education in Latin America. Several issues are introduced which influence the process of inquiry, such as: (1) examining the impact of historical traditions on contemporary management procedures; (2) exploring concerns for ethics and academic colonialism; (3) distinguishing between anthropological and sociological participant-observation field methods; (4) gathering and analyzing data on complex ministries; and (5) exploring the task of Third World theory building.

Hanson, E. Mark

1981-09-01

255

Is the present cut-point to define type 2 diabetes appropriate in Latin-Americans?  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) is based either on increased plasma glucose or Glycated hemoglobin levels. Since these measures are the only means for diagnosis of DM2, they must be well adapted to each population according to their metabolic characteristics, given that these may vary in each population. The World Health Organization (WHO) determined the cut-points of plasma glucose levels for the diagnosis of DM2 by associating hyperglycemia with the risk of a specific microvascular complication-retinopathy. Cardiovascular diseases are however the principal causes of mortality in patients with DM2 and we reported that in the Colombo-Ecuadorian population impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance are both risk markers for myocardial infarction. We propose that the current cut-points accepted by the WHO need to be revaluated in populations such as Latin America and that there should be lower cut points for glycaemia in this population, to reduce the prevalence of cardiovascular complications associated with DM2. PMID:25512777

López-Jaramillo, Patricio; Velandia-Carrillo, Carlos; Gómez-Arbeláez, Diego; Aldana-Campos, Martin

2014-01-01

256

Keys to Latin America and the Caribbean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Keys to Latin America and the Caribbean, supported by the Latin American Economic System (SELA), is a summary of the economic situation in Latin America and the Caribbean. Information in this study ranges from population and land area to more specific data about the economy of this region. While this information tends to be very broad-based, the site provides extensive charts and graphs and offers a good general overview of the economy of Caribbean and Latin American countries.

1999-01-01

257

Cardiovascular disease in latin american patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a cross-sectional study and a systematic review.  

PubMed

Objective. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of and associated risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Latin American (LA) patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods. First, a cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 310 Colombian patients with SLE in whom CVD was assessed. Associated factors were examined by multivariate regression analyses. Second, a systematic review of the literature on CVD in SLE in LA was performed. Results. There were 133 (36.5%) Colombian SLE patients with CVD. Dyslipidemia, smoking, coffee consumption, and pleural effusion were positively associated with CVD. An independent effect of coffee consumption and cigarette on CVD was found regardless of gender and duration of disease. In the systematic review, 60 articles fulfilling the eligibility criteria were included. A wide range of CVD prevalence was found (4%-79.5%). Several studies reported ancestry, genetic factors, and polyautoimmunity as novel risk factors for such a condition. Conclusions. A high rate of CVD is observed in LA patients with SLE. Awareness of the observed risk factors should encourage preventive population strategies for CVD in patients with SLE aimed at facilitating the suppression of cigarette smoking and coffee consumption as well as at the tight control of dyslipidemia and other modifiable risk factors. PMID:24294522

Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Sarmiento-Monroy, Juan Camilo; Caro-Moreno, Julián; Molano-González, Nicolás; Mantilla, Rubén D; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

2013-01-01

258

Cardiovascular Disease in Latin American Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Cross-Sectional Study and a Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objective. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of and associated risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Latin American (LA) patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods. First, a cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 310 Colombian patients with SLE in whom CVD was assessed. Associated factors were examined by multivariate regression analyses. Second, a systematic review of the literature on CVD in SLE in LA was performed. Results. There were 133 (36.5%) Colombian SLE patients with CVD. Dyslipidemia, smoking, coffee consumption, and pleural effusion were positively associated with CVD. An independent effect of coffee consumption and cigarette on CVD was found regardless of gender and duration of disease. In the systematic review, 60 articles fulfilling the eligibility criteria were included. A wide range of CVD prevalence was found (4%–79.5%). Several studies reported ancestry, genetic factors, and polyautoimmunity as novel risk factors for such a condition. Conclusions. A high rate of CVD is observed in LA patients with SLE. Awareness of the observed risk factors should encourage preventive population strategies for CVD in patients with SLE aimed at facilitating the suppression of cigarette smoking and coffee consumption as well as at the tight control of dyslipidemia and other modifiable risk factors. PMID:24294522

Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Caro-Moreno, Julián; Molano-González, Nicolás; Mantilla, Rubén D.; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

2013-01-01

259

Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 12, Number 2: Recent Publications, Materials Received and Current Bibliography  

E-print Network

L. "Spanish American Literary Bibliography—1974," His panófila, Num. 64 (1978), 93-99. Johnson, Harvey L. "Bibliografía literaria hispanoamericana 1976," Revista Iberoamericana, Nos. 102-103 (enero-jun 1978), 221-229. Lorenzo, Ana María y Orbit E...), 39-47. Matas, Julio. Penelope Inside, Out [El cambio], Trans. Sylvia J. Brann. Ms. Melchinger, Siegfried. El teatro en la actualidad. Buenos Aires: Ediciones SPRING 1979 101 Galatea Nueva Visión S.R.L., 1958. Traducción por José María Coco...

Editors

1979-04-01

260

Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 14, Number 1: Recent Publications, Materials Received and Current Bibliography  

E-print Network

), 13-28. Cantón, Wilberto. Two Plays of Wilberto Cantón. Trans, and intro. by Carl R. Shirley. Ardmore, Penn: Dorrance & Co., 1980. [Unforgettable and The Sacred Game.] Carvalho-Neto, Paulo de. Salvador Allende: Session in the Tribunal of History... motif of the quest: the metaphysical structure of Jorge Andrade's cycle, Marta, a árvore e o relógio." (North Carolina) Reynolds, Bonnie Hildebrand. "Tragedy and contemporary Spanish American theatre." (Kansas) Tous, Adriana L. "El teatro de Sergio...

Editors

1980-10-01

261

Neo-Latin News  

E-print Network

was continued by Dr. Jonathan S. neo-latin news 65 Rose, an active member of the American Association for Neo-Latin Studies who brought the project to its successful conclusion in the volume under review here. Everyone who works in Neo-Latin studies... to philosophy, mathematics, the sciences, literature, law, the arts, business, and travel. The wide range of topics treated leads in turn to a surprising lexical breadth, so that it is not unreasonable for Dr. Rose to note that the lexicon can also serve...

Kallendorf, Craig et al

2009-01-01

262

United States History in the Secondary School. American People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of the series described in SO 000 378. When the student of American History seeks beneath the surface of the Dream of the Golden Door, the story he unearths is often one of prejudice, bigotry, and quiet tragedy. For the sake of relevance, the specific objectives of this unit y are: 1) to study the student's ancestors and their struggle…

Point Pleasant Beach Board of Education, NJ.

263

Detection of Onchocerca volvulus in Latin American black flies for pool screening PCR using high-throughput automated DNA isolation for transmission surveillance.  

PubMed

The posttreatment entomological surveillance (ES) of onchocerciasis in Latin America requires quite large numbers of flies to be examined for parasite infection to prove that the control strategies have worked and that the infection is on the path of elimination. Here, we report a high-throughput automated DNA isolation of Onchocerca volvulus for PCR using a major Latin American black fly vector of onchocerciasis. The sensitivity and relative effectiveness of silica-coated paramagnetic beads was evaluated in comparison with phenol chloroform (PC) method which is known as the gold standard of DNA extraction for ES in Latin America. The automated method was optimized in the laboratory and validated in the field to detect parasite DNA in Simulium ochraceum sensu lato flies in comparison with PC. The optimization of the automated method showed that it is sensitive to detect O. volvulus with a pool size of 100 flies as compared with PC which utilizes 50 flies pool size. The validation of the automated method in comparison with PC in an endemic community showed that 5/67 and 3/134 heads pools were positive for the two methods, respectively. There was no statistical variation (P < 0.05) in the estimation of transmission indices generated by automated method when compared with PC method. The fact that the automated method is sensitive to pool size up to 100 confers advantage over PC method and can, therefore, be employed in large-scale ES of onchocerciasis transmission in endemic areas of Latin America. PMID:24030195

Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Gopal, Hemavathi; Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; De Luna-Santillana, Erick Jesús; Gurrola-Reyes, J Natividad; Guo, Xianwu

2013-11-01

264

Population, Ecology, and the American Indian: A Native American Curriculum Unit for Middle and High School. NATAM XII.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As one of the units on Native Americans developed by public school teachers enrolled in a University of Minnesota extension course on American Indian education, this middle- and high-school unit has as its overall objective to illustrate 2 concepts: (1) the need for careful population planning and (2) how the American Indian--a model of…

Raveling, Ronald R.

265

LATIN AMERICAN DOSE SURVEY RESULTS IN MAMMOGRAPHY STUDIES UNDER IAEA PROGRAMME: RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION OF PATIENTS IN MEDICAL EXPOSURES (TSA3).  

PubMed

Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela) working under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Cooperation Programme: TSA3 Radiological Protection of Patients in Medical Exposures have joined efforts in the optimisation of radiation protection in mammography practice. Through surveys of patient doses, the region has a unique database of diagnostic reference levels for analogue and digital equipment that will direct future optimisation activities towards the early detection of breast cancer among asymptomatic women. During RLA9/057 (2007-09) 24 institutions participated with analogue equipment in a dose survey. Regional training on methodology and measurement equipment was addressed in May 2007. The mean glandular dose (DG) was estimated using the incident kerma in air and relevant conversion coefficients for both projections craneo caudal and mediolateral oblique (CC and MLO). For Phase 2, RLA9/067 (2010-11), it was decided to include also digital systems in order to see their impact in future dose optimisation activities. Any new country that joined the project received training in the activities through IAEA expert missions. Twenty-nine new institutions participated (9 analogue and 20 digital equipment). A total of 2262 patient doses were collected during this study and from them DG (mGy) for both projections were estimated for each institution and country. Regional results (75 percentile in mGy) show for CC and MLO views, respectively: RLA9/057 (analogue) 2.63 and 3.17; RLA/067: 2.57 and 3.15 (analogue) and 2.69 and 2.90 (digital). Regarding only digital equipment for CC and MLO, respectively, computed radiography systems showed 2.59 and 2.78 and direct digital radiography (DDR) systems 2.78 and 3.04. Based on the IAEA Basic Safety Standard (BSS) reference dose (3 mGy), it can be observed that there is enough room to start optimisation processes in Latin America (LA); several countries or even particular institutions have values much higher than the 3 mGy. The main issues to address are lack of well-established quality assurance programmes for mammography, not enough medical physicists with training in mammography, an increase in patient doses with the introduction of digital equipment and to create awareness on radiation risk and optimisation strategies. PMID:24993012

Mora, Patricia; Blanco, Susana; Khoury, Helen; Leyton, Fernando; Cárdenas, Juan; Defaz, María Yolanda; Garay, Fernando; Telón, Flaviano; Aguilar, Juan Garcia; Roas, Norma; Gamarra, Mirtha; Blanco, Daniel; Quintero, Ana Rosa; Nader, Alejandro

2014-07-01

266

Trends and heterogeneity of cardiovascular disease and risk factors across Latin American and Caribbean countries.  

PubMed

Aging, globalization and urbanization in Latina America and the Caribbean (LAC) have made cardiovascular disease (CVD) the number one cause of death and disability, while communicable diseases have decreased. This epidemiological transition has been more heterogeneous than in other areas of the world. While countries like Argentina, Chile, Brazil and Colombia have seen a significant decrease in CVD mortality, the rest of the countries have seen an increase, particularly Central American and Caribbean countries. These latter countries have now coexisting high prevalence of communicable and non-communicable diseases, threatening the socioeconomic development. Recent multinational cross sectional studies have provided a better perspective of the prevalence and distribution of cardiovascular risk factors in the region. While there has been a decrease in prevalence of smoking in the region, obesity, diabetes and physical inactivity continue to increase the CVD disease burden in LAC. PMID:25218566

Rivera-Andrade, Alvaro; Luna, Max A

2014-01-01

267

Prevalence and Predictors of Elevated Aspartate Aminotransferase-to-Platelet Ratio Index in Latin American Perinatally HIV-infected Children  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic liver disease has emerged as an important problem in adults with longstanding HIV infection, but data are lacking for children. We characterized elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-platelet ratio index (APRI ), a marker of possible liver fibrosis, in perinatally HIV-infected children. Methods NISDI [NICHD (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) International Site Development Initiative] enrolled HIV-infected children (ages 0.1-20.1 years) from five Latin American countries in an observational cohort from 2002–2009. Twice yearly visits included medical history, physical examination and laboratory evaluations. The prevalence (95% confidence interval [CI]) of APRI>1.5 was calculated and associations with demographic, HIV-related and liver-related variables were investigated in bivariate analyses. Results APRI was available for 1012 of 1032 children. APRI was >1.5 in 32 (3.2%, 95% CI: 2.2%-4.4%) including 2 of 4 participants with hepatitis B (HBV) infection. Factors significantly associated with APRI>1.5 (p<0.01 compared to APRI?1.5) included country, younger age, past or current HBV, higher alanine aminotransferase, lower total cholesterol, higher log10 current viral load, lower current CD4 count, lower nadir CD4 count, use of hepatotoxic non-antiretroviral (ARV) medications, and no prior ARV use. Rates of APRI>1.5 varied significantly by current ARV regimen (p=0.0002), from 8.0% for no ARV to 3.2% for non-protease inhibitor (PI) regimens to 1.5% for PI-based regimens. Conclusions Elevated APRI occurred in approximately 3% of perinatally HIV-infected children. PI-based ARVs appeared protective while inadequate HIV control appeared to increase risk of elevated APRI. Additional investigations are needed to better assess potential subclinical, chronic liver disease in HIV-infected children. PMID:23799515

Siberry, George K.; Cohen, Rachel A.; Harris, D. Robert; Cruz, Maria Leticia Santos; Oliveira, Ricardo; Peixoto, Mario F.; Cervi, Maria Celia; Hazra, Rohan; Pinto, Jorge A.

2013-01-01

268

Considerations for Integrating Technology in Developing Communities in Latin America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses issues related to introducing new information and communication technologies (ICT) into Latin American countries. Latin American countries are gaining world focus with political changes such as the death of Hugo Chavez in Venezuela and the election of the first Latin American Pope. This region will host the World Cup,…

Ponte, Daniela Núñez; Cullen, Theresa A.

2013-01-01

269

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Latin American-Mediterranean Family and Its Sublineages in the Light of Robust Evolutionary Markers  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a clonal population structure, and the Latin American-Mediterranean (LAM) family is one of the largest and most widespread within this species, showing evidence for remarkable pathobiology and a confusing phylogeny. Here, we applied robust phylogenetic markers to study the evolution of the LAM family and its major sublineages circulating in Russia and neighboring countries. A total of 250 M. tuberculosis isolates were confirmed to belong to the LAM family based on the analysis of the LAM-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Rv3062 and Rv0129c genes. At this stage, the family status was rectified for 121 isolates misleadingly assigned by CRISPR spoligotyping to non-LAM families (T1- or T5-RUS1). Consequently, the reestimated LAM prevalence rate increased 2-fold in Russia and Kazakhstan and 4-fold in Belarus. The majority (91.8 to 98.7%) of the LAM isolates from all three countries belonged to the LAM-RUS sublineage. In contrast, the Ibero-American LAM RD-Rio sublineage was identified in only 7 Russian isolates. Taken together, our findings and further analyses suggest a monophyletic origin of LAM-RUS: at a historically distant time, in Russia, in a small founding bacterial/human population. Its dissemination pattern and high prevalence rate in Northern Eurasia may indicate a long-term coexistence of the LAM-RUS sublineage and local human populations hypothetically leading to coadaptation and reduced pathogenicity of the relatively more ancient clones, such as spoligotype international type 254 (SIT254), compared to the more recent SIT252 and SIT266 clones. In contrast, rare LAM RD-Rio isolates were likely brought to Russia through occasional human contact. The spread of RD-Rio strains is not as global as commonly claimed and is determined largely by human migration flows (rather than by pathobiological properties of these strains). Consequently, a host population factor appears to play a major role in shaping the in situ dissemination pattern of the imported strains in an autochthonous population. PMID:24584500

Vyazovaya, Anna; Narvskaya, Olga

2014-01-01

270

Internet Resources for Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory compiles information products and services and other resources pertaining to Latin America that were available on the Internet as of February 1996. Part 1 lists 15 World Wide Web (WWW) URLs that link to other subject or geographical lists of Internet sites providing Latin American resources. Part 2 lists approximately 115…

Molloy, Molly E., Comp.

271

Organ Donation in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently in Latin America, there has been a strong influence of the “Spanish model” of organ procurement. In 2001, The “Punta Cana Group” was created by Latin American transplantation coordinators with the objective of registering and improving the system of donation and procurement. In many countries there is no universal financial support from the government for medical treatment, including dialysis

R. Mizraji; I. Alvarez; R. I. Palacios; C. Fajardo; C. Berrios; F. Morales; E. Luna; C. Milanés; M. Andrade; E. Duque; F. Giron; J. Alfonso; S. Herra; C. Soratti; R. Ibar; V. D. Garcia

2007-01-01

272

Chagas disease: don't forget it in Latin American patients with heart block!  

PubMed

Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, and mostly affects poor rural populations of central and south America. It is mainly acquired by bugs (triatoma) but also by ingestion of the parasite (fresh fruit juices) or by foetal-maternal blood passing. Despite an important decrease in transmission during the last decades in several countries, millions of patients are still chronically infected and most of them are asymptomatic. In 2012-2013, two cases were admitted in our cardiac intensive care unit (ICU) with heart block due to Chagas cardiomyopathy. Diagnosis was established by echocardiography and positive serological results for Trypanosoma cruzi. This report underlines that in cases of heart failure and conduction abnormalities of unclear aetiology, Chagas disease should be taken into consideration, even in patients originating from non-endemic countries. PMID:24783476

Bimbi, Baby Jean-Marc Bantu; Unger, Philippe; Vandenbossche, Jean-Luc; Silance, Paul-Gaël; Van Laethem, Yves

2014-04-01

273

Dynamic Stereotypes about Women and Men in Latin America and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that a group undergoing social change is believed to adopt traits associated with its new roles, this study examined perceptions of women and men of the past, present, and future in Brazil, Chile, and the United States. These dynamic stereotypes, which are present-day beliefs about a group as changing its characteristics, followed the specific profile of

Amanda B. Diekman; Alice H. Eagly; Antonio Mladinic; Maria Cristina Ferreira

2005-01-01

274

Risk of Recurrent Helicobacter pylori Infection 1 Year After Initial Eradication Therapy in 7 Latin American Communities  

PubMed Central

Importance The long-term effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication programs for preventing gastric cancer will depend on recurrence risk and individual and community factors. Objective To estimate risk of H pylori recurrence and assess factors associated with successful eradication 1 year after treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants Cohort analysis of 1463 randomized trial participants aged 21 to 65 years from 7 Latin American communities, who were treated for H pylori and observed between September 2009 and July 2011. Interventions Randomization to 1 of 3 treatment groups: 14-day lansoprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin (triple therapy); 5-day lansoprazole and amoxicillin followed by 5-day lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (sequential); or 5-day lansoprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (concomitant). Participants with a positive (13) C-urea breath test (UBT) 6 to 8 weeks posttreatment were offered voluntary re-treatment with 14-day bismuth-based quadruple therapy. Measurements Recurrent infection after a negative posttreatment UBT and factors associated with successful eradication at 1-year follow-up. Results Among participants with UBT-negative results who had a 1-year follow-up UBT (n=1091), 125 tested UBT positive, a recurrence risk of 11.5% (95% CI, 9.6%–13.5%). Recurrence was significantly associated with study site (P=.03), nonadherence to initial therapy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.94; 95% CI, 1.31–6.13; P=.01), and children in the household (AOR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01–1.35 per child; P=.03). Of the 281 with positive posttreatment UBT results, 138 completed re-treatment, of whom 93 tested UBT negative at 1 year. Among the 1340 who had a 1-year UBT, 80.4% (95% CI, 76.4%–83.9%), 79.8% (95% CI, 75.8%–83.5%), and 77.8% (95% CI, 73.6%–81.6%) had UBT-negative results in the triple, sequential, and concomitant groups, respectively (P=.61), with 79.3% overall effectiveness (95% CI, 77.1%–81.5%). In a single-treatment course analysis that ignored the effects of re-treatment, the percentage of UBT-negative results at 1 year was 72.4% (95% CI, 69.9%–74.8%) and was significantly associated with study site (P<.001), adherence to initial therapy (AOR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.15–0.42; P<.001), male sex (AOR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.25–2.13; P<.001), and age (AOR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02–1.27 per decade; P=.02). One-year effectiveness among all 1463 enrolled participants, considering all missing UBT results as positive, was 72.7% (95% CI, 70.3%–74.9%). Conclusions and Relevance One year after treatment for H pylori infection, recurrence occurred in 11.5% of participants who had negative posttreatment UBT results. Recurrence determinants (ie, nonadherence and demographics) may be as important as specific antibiotic regimen in determining the long-term success of H pylori eradication interventions. Study findings are relevant to the feasibility of programs for the primary prevention of gastric cancer in high-incidence regions of Latin America. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01061437 PMID:23403682

Morgan, Douglas R.; Torres, Javier; Sexton, Rachael; Herrero, Rolando; Salazar-Martínez, Eduardo; Robert Greenberg, E.; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Dominguez, Ricardo L.; Ferreccio, Catterina; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo C.; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Peña, Edgar M.; Peña, Rodolfo; Correa, Pelayo; Martínez, María Elena; Chey, William D.; Valdivieso, Manuel; Anderson, Garnet L.; Goodman, Gary E.; Crowley, John J.; Baker, Laurence H.

2013-01-01

275

The Genetic Ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States.  

PubMed

Over the past 500 years, North America has been the site of ongoing mixing of Native Americans, European settlers, and Africans (brought largely by the trans-Atlantic slave trade), shaping the early history of what became the United States. We studied the genetic ancestry of 5,269 self-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans who are 23andMe customers and show that the legacy of these historical interactions is visible in the genetic ancestry of present-day Americans. We document pervasive mixed ancestry and asymmetrical male and female ancestry contributions in all groups studied. We show that regional ancestry differences reflect historical events, such as early Spanish colonization, waves of immigration from many regions of Europe, and forced relocation of Native Americans within the US. This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry. PMID:25529636

Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y; Macpherson, J Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L

2015-01-01

276

Encouraging and Attracting Underrepresented Racial Minorities to the Field of Geosciences-A Latin American Graduate Student Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have shown that interactions between same-race and same-gender faculty and graduate students are reported to have a greater impact on the future success of those students. In the same manner, I believe graduate students can play a pivotal role in training and attracting underrepresented racial minorities (URMs) at the high school and undergraduate level to pursue a career in geosciences. Working at Brown University for the last couple of years, I have been involved in a number of initiatives aimed at solidifying ties with the community. Most of my social work has revolved around mentoring underrepresented local minorities, as I feel that this area is where I can contribute the most. This year I began participating in the NSF funded Brown GK-12: "Physical Processes in the Environment" program. As a Latin American female graduate student in the geological sciences, I hope to teach the students-by example-that being a minority is not necessarily an obstacle, but rather an advantage that can offer a different, valuable point of view when pursuing their professional goals. I think that sharing part of my experiences and knowledge as a researcher with young minds contributes to the way they imagine themselves in the future, allowing them to believe that a career in science is within their reach and that higher education is a realistic option worth pursuing if they have the interest in doing so. From my short time as a graduate student, to have a greater impact in attracting URMs, it is critical to have the support of advisors and committee members. One must keep in mind that a graduate career is a time consuming commitment; therefore, it is necessary to undertake activities that will have the most impact on minority students in the short time available. The experience becomes even more effective if advisors are actively involved, particularly financially. Faculty advisors who can allocate funds to, for example support summer activities designed to involve URMs, are essentially leveraging funds because the overall return will be much greater than the initial investment.

Caballero Gill, R. P.; Herbert, T.

2010-12-01

277

Persistent poverty among Africans Americans in the United States: the impact of public policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the persistent poverty that exists among African Americans in the United States. It explains why African Americans in the United States are much more likely to live and\\/or remain in poverty than any other population group. This study is based on the premise that the governmental system has affected African Americans through the use of public policies.

Daphne M Cooper

2011-01-01

278

75 FR 75708 - American United Life Insurance Company, et al.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...o Richard M. Ellery, Esq., American United Life Insurance Company, One American Square, Indianapolis...prices and periods of falling prices. Investment style risk, Investment style which is the chance that returns risk, which...

2010-12-06

279

Internationalizing Business Education in Latin America: Issues and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the extent of internationalization of business education in Latin America and identifies the key challenges facing the Latin American business schools. Based on a survey of the business schools that are members of CLADEA (Consejo Latinoamericano de Escuelas de Administracion--Latin American Council of Management Schools), and…

Elahee, Mohammad; Norbis, Mario

2009-01-01

280

The House, the Street, Global Society: Latin American Families and Childhood in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the colonial period (1492 to approximately 1826), children have constituted a large proportion of the population of Latin America, with approximately thirty to fifty percent under age twenty in the eighteenth century. Public health campaigns in the early twentieth century improved child survival rates and resulted in the substantial expansion of the proportion under age twenty by the 1960s.

Elizabeth Anne Kuznesof

2005-01-01

281

The Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. Bulletin 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The initiative and activities carried out by 29 countries in Latin and South America and the Caribbean in the UNESCO Major Project in the Field of Education to correct deficiencies and meet unsatisfied basic educational needs are summarized. Many summaries reflect revisions made during 1983 in National Plans of Action with respect to enhancing…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and Caribbean.

282

Update: Newsletter of the Outreach Services of the African, Asian, Latin American, and Russian Centers, No. 39, December, 1987.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four papers in this issue focus on population and urban growth in: (1) sub-Saharan Africa; (2) Latin America; (3) the Soviet Union; and (4) Japan and China. While each region has unique population features, similarities exist based on northern or southern hemisphere geographic locations and on a communist or non-communist political orientation.…

Update, 1987

1987-01-01

283

Environmental Health in the Latin American and Caribbean Region: Use of Water Storage Containers, Water Quality, and Community Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality and availability are important issues in many developing countries where portions of populations still lack access to potable water. Throughout the English-speaking Caribbean and parts of Latin America, households and businesses invest in water supply systems even when they are connected to and pay for water services from a private or state owned provider. Inconsistent supplies of water

Erlande Omisca

2011-01-01

284

The SeroPrevalence of Antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi in Latin American Refugees and Immigrants to Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Chagas’ disease is caused by infection with the protozoan agent Trypanosoma cruzi. An estimated sixteen to eighteen million people are infected in Latin America. Outside of endemic regions, Chagas’ disease may be transmitted through the transfusion of infected blood components, congenital infection and organ transplantation. We sought to determine the sero-prevalence of antibodies to T. cruzi in a community

L. S. Steele; D. W. MacPherson; J. Kim; J. S. Keystone; B. D. Gushulak

2007-01-01

285

Tuberculosis among American Indians of the contiguous United States.  

PubMed

Paleopathologic findings provide strong evidence for the existence of tuberculosis in Andean populations of pre-Columbian America. Indirect evidence is available also to suggest its possible endemicity among some American Indian tribes who lived within the present-day contiguous United States before the arrival of Europeans. The available data suggest that tuberculosis became a major health problem in some tribes with increased population density and cultural changes after increased contact with European civilization, paralleling the deterioration in living conditions after relocation of the tribes to reservations. By 1900, tuberculosis had become one of the most serious health problems among North American Indians. Tuberculosis control was hampered by the lack of a specific treatment, and only the advent of specific chemotherapy in an ambulatory setting brought a breakthrough. Mortality, morbidity, and risk of infection have all sharply decreased over the past three decades. However, tuberculosis incidence rates among American Indians remain well above rates in the white population. An intensified effort to identify those with tuberculosis and those at risk of tuberculosis as well as to develop compliance-enhancing strategies with treatment regimens will be necessary to eliminate tuberculosis from Indian reservations. PMID:2511601

Rieder, H L

1989-01-01

286

Pedagogies of Resiliency and Hope in Response to the Criminalization of Latin@ Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last two decades, the criminalization and demonization of Chican@/Latin@ youth has produced policies in the United States that have banned bilingual education, Mexican American Studies in Tucson, and undocumented students in Georgia from attending public universities. Furthermore, hundreds and thousands of youth in the U.S. are…

Acosta, Curtis

2013-01-01

287

Addressing Gender-Based Violence in the Latin American and Caribbean Region: A Critical Review of Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morrison, Ellsberg, and Bott present an overview of gender-based violence (GBV) in Latin America, with special emphasis on good practice interventions to prevent GBV or offer services to its survivors or perpetrators. Intimate partner violence and sexual coercion are the most common forms of GBV, and these are the types of GBV that they analyze.GBV has serious consequences for women?s

Andrew Morrison; Mary Ellsberg; Sarah Bott

2004-01-01

288

The Impact of Rural Residency on the Expression and Outcome of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Data From a Multiethnic Latin American Cohort  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the role of place of residency in the expression and outcomes of SLE in a multi-ethnic Latin American cohort. Patients and Methods SLE patients (<2 years of diagnosis) from 34 centers constitute this cohort. Residency was dichotomized into rural and urban, cut-off: 10,000 inhabitants. Socio-demographic, clinical/laboratory, and mortality rates were compared between them using descriptive tests. The influence of place of residency on disease activity at diagnosis and renal disease was examined by multivariable regression analyses. Results 122 (8.6%) of 1426 patients were rural residents. Their median age (onset, diagnosis) were 23.5 and 25.5 years; 85 (69.7%) patients were Mestizos, 28 (22.9%) Caucasians and 9 (7.4%) African-Latin Americans. Rural residents were more frequently younger at diagnosis, Mestizo and uninsured; they also had fewer years of education and a lower socioeconomic status, exhibited hypertension and renal disease more frequently, and had higher levels of disease activity at diagnosis; they used methotrexate, cyclophosphamide pulses, and hemodialysis more frequently than urban patients. Disease activity over time, renal damage, overall damage and the proportion of deceased patients were comparable in both, rural and urban patients.. In multivariable analyses, rural residency was associated with high levels of disease activity at diagnosis (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.06–2.57) and renal disease occurrence (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.00–3.11). Conclusions Rural residency associates with Mestizo ethnicity, lower socioeconomic status, and renal disease occurrence. It also plays a role on disease activity at diagnosis and kidney involvement but not on the other end-points examined. PMID:22941567

Pons-Estel, Guillermo J.; Saurit, Verónica; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Hachuel, Leticia; Boggio, Gabriela; Wojdyla, Daniel; Alfaro-Lozano, José L.; de la Torre, Ignacio García; Massardo, Loreto; Esteva-Spinetti, Maria H.; Guibert-Toledano, Marlene; Ramirez Gómez, Luis A.; Lavras Costallat, Lilian T.; Sauza del Pozo, María J.; Silveira, Luis H.; Cavalcanti, Fernando; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.

2013-01-01

289

Culture-sensitive adaptation and validation of the community-oriented program for the control of rheumatic diseases methodology for rheumatic disease in Latin American indigenous populations.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study is to validate a culturally sensitive adaptation of the community-oriented program for the control of rheumatic diseases (COPCORD) methodology in several Latin American indigenous populations. The COPCORD Spanish questionnaire was translated and back-translated into seven indigenous languages: Warao, Kariña and Chaima (Venezuela), Mixteco, Maya-Yucateco and Raramuri (Mexico) and Qom (Argentina). The questionnaire was administered to almost 100 subjects in each community with the assistance of bilingual translators. Individuals with pain, stiffness or swelling in any part of the body in the previous 7 days and/or at any point in life were evaluated by physicians to confirm a diagnosis according to criteria for rheumatic diseases. Overall, individuals did not understand the use of a 0-10 visual analog scale for pain intensity and severity grading and preferred a Likert scale comprising four items for pain intensity (no pain, minimal pain, strong pain, and intense pain). They were unable to discriminate between pain intensity and pain severity, so only pain intensity was included. For validation, 702 subjects (286 male, 416 female, mean age 42.7 ± 18.3 years) were interviewed in their own language. In the last 7 days, 198 (28.2 %) subjects reported having musculoskeletal pain, and 90 (45.4 %) of these had intense pain. Compared with the physician-confirmed diagnosis, the COPCORD questionnaire had 73.8 % sensitivity, 72.9 % specificity, a positive likelihood ratio of 2.7 and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.73. The COPCORD questionnaire is a valid screening tool for rheumatic diseases in indigenous Latin American populations. PMID:24682426

Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Granados, Ysabel; Silvestre, Adriana; Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Valls, Evart; Quintana, Rosana; Figuera, Yemina; Santiago, Flor Julian; Goñi, Mario; González, Rosa; Santana, Natalia; Nieto, Romina; Brito, Irais; García, Imelda; Barrios, Maria Cecilia; Marcano, Manuel; Loyola-Sánchez, Adalberto; Stekman, Ivan; Jorfen, Marisa; Goycochea-Robles, Maria Victoria; Midauar, Fadua; Chacón, Rosa; Martin, Maria Celeste; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A

2014-09-01

290

North African and Latin American parents' and adolescents' perceptions of physical discipline and physical abuse: when dysnormativity begets exclusion.  

PubMed

This research documents the cultural norms around physical discipline and physical abuse among immigrant parents and youth, and assesses the impact that perceived divergences in these norms have on the relation between the family and the outer social world. Interviews were conducted with 10 parents and 10 adolescents from North African Arab countries, and 10 parents and 10 adolescents from Latin America living in Canada. Results highlight that divergent discipline practices were perceived by participants as an important source of tension when they were accompanied with a demeaning image, projected by the host society onto the immigrant family. PMID:20695289

Hassan, Ghayda; Rousseau, Cécile

2009-01-01

291

Why has productivity growth stagnated in most Latin-American countries since the neo-liberal reforms?  

E-print Network

is always ephemeral, but also that [...] we can always start all over again [and again]. Leo Valiani [Latin America] has a narcissistic tendency to use reality as a mirror for self-contemplation. [... Yet] human history is the product... . As had happened in the 1930s, these laid the foundations for a radical ideological transformation that led to the new paradigm along the lines of Anglo-Saxon neo-liberalism and US neo-conservatism, and quite distinct from what was happening in Asia...

Palma, J G

292

The Story of a Center: 1964-2004 Latin America Invades Pittsburgh  

E-print Network

, Anthropology) On the Occasion of the Center's 40th Anniversary Center for Latin American Studies University Center for International Studies University of Pittsburgh Latin American Monograph & Document Series 13, Anthropology) On the Occasion of the Center's 40th Anniversary Center for Latin American Studies University

Machery, Edouard

293

Laboratory-Based Surveillance of Neisseria meningitidis Isolates from Disease Cases in Latin American and Caribbean Countries, SIREVA II 2006–2010  

PubMed Central

Background Published data on the epidemiology of meningococcal disease in Latin America and the Caribbean region is scarce and, when available, it is often published in Spanish and/or in non-peer-reviewed journals, making it difficult for the international scientific community to have access. Methods Laboratory data on 4,735 Neisseria meningitidis strains was collected and reported by the National Reference Laboratories in 19 Latin American countries and the Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (CAREC) between 2006 and 2010 as part of the work carried out by the SIREVA II network. Serogroup and MIC to penicillin, rifampin and chloramphenicol were determined. Results Isolates were mainly obtained from patients <5 years, but each year around 25% of isolates came from adult patients. Serogroup distribution was highly variable among countries. Serogroup C was the main cause of disease in Brazil; the majority of disease seen in the Southern cone was caused by serogroup B, but serogroup W135 strains have increased in recent years. In the Andean and Mexico, Central America and Caribbean regions, serogroups B and C were equally present, and serogroup Y was frequently isolated. Isolates were generally susceptible to chloramphenicol, penicillin and rifampin, but almost 60% of isolates characterized in Southern cone countries presented intermediate resistance to penicillin. Five rifampin-resistant isolates have been isolated in Uruguay and Brazil. Conclusions Serogroup distribution is highly variable among countries, but some geographic structuring can be inferred from these data. Epidemiological and laboratory data are scarce among Andean and Mexico, Central America and Caribbean countries. Evaluation and implementation of corrective measures on disease surveillance and reporting systems and the implementation of molecular diagnostic techniques and molecular characterization on meningococcal isolates are advised. PMID:22952888

Ibarz-Pavón, Ana Belén; Lemos, Ana Paula; Gorla, Maria Cecilia; Regueira, Mabel; Gabastou, Jean-Marc

2012-01-01

294

First report of the Hyper-IgM syndrome Registry of the Latin American Society for Immunodeficiencies: novel mutations, unique infections, and outcomes.  

PubMed

Hyper-IgM (HIGM) syndrome is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by normal or elevated serum IgM levels associated with absent or decreased IgG, IgA and IgE. Here we summarize data from the HIGM syndrome Registry of the Latin American Society for Immunodeficiencies (LASID). Of the 58 patients from 51 families reported to the registry with the clinical phenotype of HIGM syndrome, molecular defects were identified in 37 patients thus far. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical, immunological and molecular data from these 37 patients. CD40 ligand (CD40L) deficiency was found in 35 patients from 25 families and activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) deficiency in 2 unrelated patients. Five previously unreported mutations were identified in the CD40L gene (CD40LG). Respiratory tract infections, mainly pneumonia, were the most frequent clinical manifestation. Previously undescribed fungal and opportunistic infections were observed in CD40L-deficient patients but not in the two patients with AID deficiency. These include the first cases of pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens or Aspergillus sp. and diarrhea caused by Microsporidium sp. or Isospora belli. Except for four CD40L-deficient patients who died from complications of presumptive central nervous system infections or sepsis, all patients reported in this study are alive. Four CD40L-deficient patients underwent successful bone marrow transplantation. This report characterizes the clinical and genetic spectrum of HIGM syndrome in Latin America and expands the understanding of the genotype and phenotype of this syndrome in tropical areas. PMID:24402618

Cabral-Marques, Otavio; Klaver, Stefanie; Schimke, Lena F; Ascendino, Évelyn H; Khan, Taj Ali; Pereira, Paulo Vítor Soeiro; Falcai, Angela; Vargas-Hernández, Alexander; Santos-Argumedo, Leopoldo; Bezrodnik, Liliana; Moreira, Ileana; Seminario, Gisela; Di Giovanni, Daniela; Raccio, Andrea Gómez; Porras, Oscar; Weber, Cristina Worm; Ferreira, Janaíra Fernandes; Tavares, Fabiola Scancetti; de Carvalho, Elisa; Valente, Claudia França Cavalcante; Kuntze, Gisele; Galicchio, Miguel; King, Alejandra; Rosário-Filho, Nelson Augusto; Grota, Milena Baptistella; dos Santos Vilela, Maria Marluce; Di Gesu, Regina Sumiko Watanabe; Lima, Simone; de Souza Moura, Leiva; Talesnik, Eduardo; Mansour, Eli; Roxo-Junior, Pérsio; Aldave, Juan Carlos; Goudouris, Ekaterine; Pinto-Mariz, Fernanda; Berrón-Ruiz, Laura; Staines-Boone, Tamara; Calderón, Wilmer O Córdova; del Carmen Zarate-Hernández, María; Grumach, Anete S; Sorensen, Ricardo; Durandy, Anne; Torgerson, Troy R; Carvalho, Beatriz Tavares Costa; Espinosa-Rosales, Francisco; Ochs, Hans D; Condino-Neto, Antonio

2014-02-01

295

Undocumented Migration from Latin America in an Era of Rising U.S. Enforcement  

PubMed Central

Available data have consistently pointed up the failure of U.S. policies to reduce undocumented migration from Latin America. To shed light on the reasons for this failure, we estimated a series of dynamic models of undocumented entry into and exit from the United States. Our estimates suggest that undocumented migration is grounded more in mechanisms posited by social capital theory and the new economics of labor migration rather than neoclassical economics. As a result, U.S. efforts to increase the costs of undocumented entry and reduce the benefits of undocumented labor have proven unsuccessful given the widespread access of Latin Americans to migrant networks. The main effect of U.S. enforcement efforts has been to reduce the circularity of Latin American migration. PMID:20824109

MASSEY, DOUGLAS S.; RIOSMENA, FERNANDO

2010-01-01

296

Evolution of Framingham cardiovascular risk score in HIV-infected patients initiating EFV- and LPV/r-based HAART in a Latin American cohort  

PubMed Central

Introduction Epidemiological studies suggest that some antiretroviral drugs may contribute to increase cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients. However, data from Latin American countries are limited, as impact of HAART on cardiovascular risk remains understudied. In this context, we aimed to evaluate if 10-year Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Score (FCRS) increases in patients following exposure to EFV- and LPV/r-based HAART in a Latin American cohort. Materials and Methods Retrospective 48-week cohort study. We reviewed clinical charts of randomly selected samples of patients initiating (according to national guidelines) EFV first-line HAART and LPV/r first- or second-line (but first PI-based) HAART assisted at a reference HIV centre in Buenos Aires, Argentina (period 2004–2012). Each patient could only be included in one arm. FCRS was calculated according to National Institutes of Health risk assessment tool (http://cvdrisk.nhlbi.nih.gov/). Results A total of 357 patients were included: 249 in EFV arm and 108 in LPV/r arm (80 as first line and 28 as second line, but first PI-based HAART). Baseline characteristics (median, interquartile range): age, 38 (33–45) years; male, 247 (69%); viral load, 98200 (20550–306000) copies/mL; CD4 T-cell count, 115 (60–175) cel/µL; total cholesterol, 159 (135–194) mg/dL; HDL: 39 (31–41) mg/dL; LDL: 94 (72–123) mg/dL; current smoker, 29%; on antihypertensive drugs: 14 (4%), diabetic: 4 (1%). Most frequent accompanying nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) were 3TC (92%) and zidovudine (AZT; 76%). Baseline FCRS was low, moderate and high for 93%, 7% and 0% of patients on EFV arm and 96.7%, 1.7% and 1.7% on LPV/r arm. On EFV arm, an increase in FCRS category (low to moderate or moderate to high) was observed in 1 patient (0.9%) at 24 weeks and 6 (5,6%) at 48 weeks; 5 (4.7%) decreased category. On LPV/r arm no one varied FCRS category at 24 weeks and 2 (3.4%) increased from low to moderate at 48 weeks (no patient decreased FCRS category). Cumulative incidence of overall cardiovascular events was 1.6% on EFV and 1.8% on LPV/r arms respectively. Probability of increasing FCRS category or having a cardiovascular event did not differ between arms at a significance level of 5%. Conclusions Probability of increasing FCRS category and cardiovascular events was low and similar in patients exposed to EFV versus LPV/r-based HAART in a Latin American cohort. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01705873. PMID:25394054

Cecchini, Diego; Ines Mattioli, Maria; Cassetti, Julia; Chan, Debora; Cassetti, Isabel

2014-01-01

297

[Ruling of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, the Case of Artavia Murillo et al (in vitro fertilization) v. Costa Rica; new hopes for the reproductive freedom in Latin America].  

PubMed

Modern reproductive technology has not been completely accepted and, especially in-vitro fertilization, IVF has generated serious social, political and legal controversies in Latin America. We may distinguish two trends that show us the oppositions; on one hand, the primacy of the embryo's live and its protection during artificial reproductive process and on the other, the primacy of liberal access to assisted reproduction techniques. The debate came to the fore, after a ruling by the Costa Rica's Constitutional Chamber who banned de IVF in 2000. The damaged couples after fulfilling the process toward the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, present a petition to the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. The Court's sentence and its arguments will be the subject of these comments as well that will allow to considered that both of them should be considered as a very important step towards the construction of a secular liberal vision over the assisted reproduction in Latin America. PMID:24340830

Brena, Ingrid

2013-01-01

298

Effects observed in the Latin American sector ionospheric F region during the intense geomagnetic disturbances in the early part of November 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sun was very active in the early part of November 2004. During the period of 8-10 November 2004, intense geomagnetic disturbances with two superstorms were observed. In this paper, we have investigated the generation and suppression of equatorial ionospheric irregularities and the daytime changes in the F region electron density in the Latin American sector during the period of intense geomagnetic disturbances. We present the ionospheric sounding observations carried out at Manaus and Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil, during this geomagnetically disturbed period. Also, GPS observations obtained from several stations in Brazil, Argentina, and St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, during the disturbed period are presented. During the main phase of the first superstorm, around the prereversal enhancement time (night of 7-8 November), prompt penetration of electric field was observed and the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities was detected from St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands (in the northern hemisphere) to Bahia Blanca, Argentina (in the southern hemisphere). The ionospheric sounding observations at Manaus indicate inhibition of prereversal enhancement on the nights of 9-10 and 10-11 November, possibly due to the disturbed thermospheric winds or disturbance electric fields. Virtually no phase fluctuations on the nights of 9-10 and 10-11 November were observed in the Latin American sector. During the daytime on 8 November, the vertical total electron content (VTEC) observations show a negative storm phase at Porto Alegre (Brazil) and Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Again during the daytime on 10 November, the VTEC observations show a negative storm phase from Brasilia (Brazil) to Bahia Blanca. These negative storm phases are associated with a decrease in the O/N2 ratio. During the daytime on 9 November, the VTEC observations show a positive storm phase extending from St. Croix to Porto Alegre, and again on 10 November, VTEC observations show a positive storm phase. These positive storm phases observed are possibly due to changes in large-scale wind circulation and an increase in the O/N2 ratio.

Sahai, Y.; Becker-Guedes, F.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Jesus, R.; de Abreu, A. J.; Paxton, L. J.; Goncharenko, L. P.; Brunini, C.; Gende, M.; Ferreira, A. S.; Lima, N. S.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Pillat, V. G.; Bittencourt, J. A.; Candido, C. M. N.

2009-03-01

299

Socioeconomic and Nutritional Factors Account for the Association of Gastric Cancer with Amerindian Ancestry in a Latin American Admixed Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer and its incidence varies worldwide, with the Andean region of South America showing high incidence rates. We evaluated the genetic structure of the population from Lima (Peru) and performed a case-control genetic association study to test the contribution of African, European, or Native American ancestry to risk for gastric

Latife Pereira; Roxana Zamudio; Giordano Soares-Souza; Phabiola Herrera; Lilia Cabrera; Catherine C. Hooper; Jaime Cok; Juan M. Combe; Gloria Vargas; William A. Prado; Silvana Schneider; Fernanda Kehdy; Maira R. Rodrigues; Stephen J. Chanock; Douglas E. Berg; Robert H. Gilman; Eduardo Tarazona-Santos

2012-01-01

300

University Requirements Writing, Rhetoric & American Culture (WRA) -http://www.msu.edu/unit/wrac/  

E-print Network

requirement: WRA 110: Writing: Science and Technology WRA 140: Writing: Women in America WRA 115: Writing: Law9 University Requirements Writing, Rhetoric & American Culture (WRA) - http://www.msu.edu/unit/wrac/ WRA stands for Writing, Rhetoric & American Culture. Courses in WRA satisfies the Tier One writing

301

Native American Arts and Crafts of the United States. Bibliography 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The selected readings listed in this annotated bibliography are suggested as an introduction to the varied arts and crafts created from prehistoric to modern times by Native American peoples of the United States. The publications are organized by culture area to encompass major media practiced by Native American artists and craftsmen of these…

Indian Arts and Crafts Board, Washington, DC.

302

The Challenge of the American Dream: The Chinese in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the situation of the Chinese in the United States in terms of contact and conflict between two vastly different ways of life: how Chinese and white Americans conduct themselves under the circumstances; the effect of such contact and conflict on the behavior patterns of the individual; and, what future course Chinese-Americans…

Hsu, Francis L. K.

303

Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This serial issue features 6 members of the Indiana University System faculty who have focused their research on Latin America, past and present. The first article, "A Literature of Their Own," highlights Darlene Sadlier's research on Brazilian women's fiction and poetry that has led to an interest in the interplay of Brazilian and Portuguese…

Soni, P. Sarita, Ed.

1993-01-01

304

Collaboration Networks for Innovation and Socio-economic Development: European and Latin American Perspectives on Digital Ecosystems Research, Local Readiness, Deployment Strategies and Their Policy Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International cooperation and knowledge transfer among countries has become increasingly important in the last decades, giving opportunity to a set of multiple interaction programs particularly amongst developed and developing regions. This paper discusses the feasibility of the adoption of Digital Ecosystems (DEs) in the Latin American context, based on the experience of deployment of DEs in the European Union. Different deployment experiences in the European context revealed the need of a methodology for planning and implementing DEs that resulted in a set of tools for measuring the maturity grade of localities related to the deployment of DEs and the need of an impact index for understanding its long-term implications of the dynamics of their implementation. This paper proposes a new methodological framework that integrates concepts related to ICT adoption, connectivity and absorption capacities and recognises the strong influence of social capital over these. The paper concludes with the description of a methodological tool oriented towards the mapping, evaluation and modification of scenarios related to ICT adoption process among multiple agents.

Rivera León, Lorena; Kataishi, Rodrigo

305

Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in pregnant Latin American women and congenital transmission rate in a non-endemic area: the experience of the Valencian Health Programme (Spain).  

PubMed

This study describes the results of the health programme implemented in the Valencian Community (Spain) to achieve an early diagnosis of Chagas disease in pregnant Latin American women and their newborns. During 2009 and 2010, 1975 women living in the health districts of three university hospitals were enrolled via midwives or at the time of delivery. Diagnosis of disease was performed using two serological tests with different antigens. Congenital infection was diagnosed by parasitological, molecular or serological methods from blood samples obtained at birth or in subsequent controls. The overall seroprevalence of Chagas infection in pregnant women from 16 different endemic countries was 11·4%. Infection was higher in those from countries in the Gran Chaco Region (Bolivia, 34·1%; Paraguay, 7·4%; Argentina, 5·3%). Eight newborn infants from Bolivian mothers had congenital Chagas which represents a vertical transmission rate of 3·7%. In conclusion, this work supports the benefits of offering an early diagnosis to pregnant women and newborns during routine prenatal healthcare. PMID:22129521

Barona-Vilar, C; Giménez-Martí, M J; Fraile, T; González-Steinbauer, C; Parada, C; Gil-Brusola, A; Bravo, D; Gómez, M D; Navarro, D; Perez-Tamarit, A; Fernandez-Silveira, L; Fullana-Montoro, A; Borrás, R

2012-10-01

306

Primary and booster vaccination in Latin American children with a DTPw-HBV/Hib combination: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis (DTPw)-based combination vaccines are an attractive option to rapidly achieve high coverage and protection against other important pathogens, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib). To ensure adequate antigen supply, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals has introduced a new DTPw antigen source and developed a new DTPw-HBV/Hib combination vaccine containing a reduced amount of Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP). This study was undertaken to compare the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of this new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine with a licensed DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine (Tritanrix™-HBV/Hib). Methods This was a randomized, partially-blind, multicenter study in three countries in Latin America (Argentina, Chile and Nicaragua). Healthy children received either the new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine (1 of 3 lots; n = 439; double-blind) or Tritanrix™-HBV/Hib (n = 146; single-blind) co-administered with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) at 2, 4 and 6 months, with a booster dose at 18-24 months. Results One month after the end of the 3-dose primary vaccination course, the new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine was non-inferior to Tritanrix™-HBV/Hib in terms of seroprotection/vaccine response rates for all component antigens; ?97.3% and ?93.9% of subjects in the two groups, respectively, had seroprotective levels of antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, hepatitis B and Hib and a vaccine response to the pertussis component. Persistence of antibodies against all vaccine antigens was comparable between groups, with marked increases in all antibody concentrations after booster administration in both groups. Both vaccines were generally well-tolerated as primary and booster doses. Conclusions Results confirm the suitability of this new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine comprising antigens from a new source and a reduced PRP content for inclusion into routine childhood vaccination programs. Trial registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00332566 PMID:20950456

2010-01-01

307

A Randomised Trial of empiric 14-day Triple, five-day Concomitant, and ten-day Sequential Therapies for Helicobacter pylori in Seven Latin American Sites  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Evidence from Europe, Asia, and North America suggests that standard three-drug regimens of a proton pump inhibitor plus amoxicillin and clarithromycin are significantly less effective for eradicating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection than five-day concomitant and ten-day sequential four-drug regimens that include a nitroimidazole. These four-drug regimens also entail fewer antibiotic doses and thus may be suitable for eradication programs in low-resource settings. Studies are limited from Latin America, however, where the burden of H. pylori-associated diseases is high. Methods We randomised 1463 men and women ages 21–65 selected from general populations in Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Mexico (two sites) who tested positive for H. pylori by a urea breath test (UBT) to: 14 days of lansoprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin (standard therapy); five days of lansoprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (concomitant therapy); or five days of lansoprazole and amoxicillin followed by five of lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (sequential therapy). Eradication was assessed by UBT six–eight weeks after randomisation. Findings In intention-to-treat analyses, the probability of eradication with standard therapy was 82·2%, which was 8·6% higher (95% adjusted CI: 2·6%, 14·5%) than with concomitant therapy (73·6%) and 5·6% higher (95% adjusted CI: ?0·04%, 11·6%) than with sequential therapy (76·5%). In analyses limited to the 1314 participants who adhered to their assigned therapy, the probabilities of eradication were 87·1%, 78·7%, and 81·1% with standard, concomitant, and sequential therapies, respectively. Neither four-drug regimen was significantly better than standard triple therapy in any of the seven sites. Interpretation Standard 14-day triple-drug therapy is preferable to five-day concomitant or ten-day sequential four-drug regimens as empiric therapy for H. pylori among diverse Latin American populations. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and US National Institutes of Health. PMID:21777974

Greenberg, E. Robert; Anderson, Garnet L.; Morgan, Douglas R.; Torres, Javier; Chey, William D.; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Dominguez, Ricardo L.; Ferreccio, Catterina; Herrero, Rolando; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo C.; Meza-Montenegro, Mercedes María; Peña, Rodolfo; Peña, Edgar M.; Salazar-Martínez, Eduardo; Correa, Pelayo; Martínez, María Elena; Valdivieso, Manuel; Goodman, Gary E.; Crowley, John J.; Baker, Laurence H.

2011-01-01

308

Latin-Focus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Launched in 1998, Latin-Focus "enables executives and research analysts alike to find the latest available data from government sources, economic forecasts, market analysis covering economic performance, political risk assessments and financial market developments" in Latin American countries. The front page of the site offers current data as well as daily news and commentary. In the News and Commentary section, the title and source of the article are given, along with the subject country and language. Past articles are archived by date, although the site does note that news briefs may have expired. News may also be searched by country. Along the left side of the screen, eight countries, including Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela, are highlighted. Clicking on one of these countries will bring up a menu consisting of Economic Indicators, Economic Forecasts, Release Calendar, Economic Briefing, Fact Sheet, and Web Directory. Each of these topics links to further subtopics or a variety of short online reports and graphs. This well-designed site offers clear, basic information for those studying economic issues in Latin America.

309

Exchange market pressure, commodity prices, and contagion in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades, Latin American currencies have faced not only pressure to devalue but also periods of uncomfortable appreciation. Domestic macroeconomic factors, as well as global events and contagion, might bear part of the responsibility. This study constructs a monthly index of exchange market pressure (EMP) for four Latin American countries before using vector autoregressive methods to test

Scott W. Hegerty

2012-01-01

310

Taking the China Challenge: China and the Future of Latin  

E-print Network

Taking the China Challenge: China and the Future of Latin American Economic Development Kevin P-author of the new book, The Dragon in the Room: China and the Future of Latin American Industrialization, Stanford University Press. The author would like to thank Elen Shrethsa for research as- sistance #12;Taking the China

Tufts University

311

ICT's for democracy in Latin America?1 Yanina Welp  

E-print Network

political party system institutionalization, high volatility of voters preferences from one election.welp@zda.uzh.ch Abstract. Should Latin American governments concentrate their efforts in improving efficiency of the sort that prevail in many Latin American countries today? Based on previous research

Boyer, Edmond

312

Current trends in Latin America and the Argentine perspective  

SciTech Connect

The authors discusses the changes that are taking place in Argentina as well as in all of Latin America today -- privatization, deregulation, and the modernization of the economy, changes which will serve to strengthen the governments and provide a better quality of life for all of them. He gives an insight into the factors which helped bring about these changes, the support they are receiving, the problems which persist, and the measures that still must be taken so that these positive changes remain in place. He offers some useful information that will perhaps contribute to their understanding of the vast area which he refers to as Latin America, and more specifically, gives a thumbnail sketch of what is happening today in the Republic of Argentina. For many years now, Latin American leaders have travelled to other parts of the world and spoken about the plans and expectations for the region`s future. When these well-intentioned projects and plans never materialized, partners and supporters in the United States and other countries were frustrated and disappointed by the failure to make things work. The author`s intention here today is to describe things as they are, not as they might be, to tell about what is already happening in the sphere of business and growth of the economies in Latin America.

Laredo, V.G. [SOCMA Americana, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

1992-12-31

313

Opportunistic and Other Infections in HIV-Infected Children in Latin America Compared to a Similar Cohort in the United States  

PubMed Central

Abstract Opportunistic and other infections have declined since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in developed countries but few studies have addressed the impact of HAART in HIV-infected children from developing countries. This study examines the prevalence and incidence of opportunistic and other infections in Latin America during the HAART era. Vertically HIV-infected children enrolled in a cohort study between 2002 and 2007 were followed for the occurrence of 29 targeted infections. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were performed to calculate the prevalence of infections before enrollment and the incidence rates of opportunistic and other infections after enrollment. Comparisons were made with data from a U.S. cohort (PACTG 219C). Of the 731 vertically HIV-infected children 568 (78%) had at least one opportunistic or other infection prior to enrollment. The most prevalent infections were bacterial pneumonia, oral candidiasis, varicella, tuberculosis, herpes zoster, and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. After enrollment, the overall incidence was 23.5 per 100 person-years; the most common infections (per 100 person-years) were bacterial pneumonia (7.8), varicella (3.0), dermatophyte infections (2.9), herpes simplex (2.5), and herpes zoster (1.8). All of these incidence rates were higher than those reported in PACTG 219C. The types and relative distribution of infections among HIV-infected children in Latin America in this study are similar to those seen in the United States but the incidence rates are higher. Further research is necessary to determine the reasons for these higher rates. PMID:21902581

Alarcón, Jorge O.; Freimanis-Hance, Laura; Krauss, Margot; Reyes, Mary F.; Cardoso, Claudete Aparecida Araújo; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Cardoso, Edmundo

2012-01-01

314

Application of Sensitive and Specific Molecular Methods To Uncover Global Dissemination of the Major RDRio Sublineage of the Latin American-Mediterranean Mycobacterium tuberculosis Spoligotype Family? ‡  

PubMed Central

The Latin American-Mediterranean (LAM) family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is believed to be the cause of ?15% of tuberculosis cases worldwide. Previously, we defined a prevalent sublineage of the LAM family in Brazil by a single characteristic genomic deletion designated RDRio. Using the Brazilian strains, we pinpoint an Ag85C103 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (screened by restriction fragment length polymorphism [RFLP] analysis) that correctly identified all LAM family strains. Importantly, all RDRio strains concomitantly possessed the RD174 deletion. These genetic signatures, along with a newly developed multiplex PCR for rapid differentiation between “wild-type” and RDRio strains, were then used to analyze an international collection of M. tuberculosis strains. RDRio M. tuberculosis was identified from four continents involving 11 countries. Phylogenetic analysis of the IS6110-RFLP patterns from representative RDRio and LAM strains from Brazil, along with all representative clusters from a South African database, confirmed their genetic relatedness and transcontinental transmission. The Ag85C103 SNP RFLP, as compared to results obtained using a PCR method targeting a LAM-restricted IS6110 element, correctly identified 99.8% of LAM spoligotype strains. Together, these tests were more accurate than spoligotyping at categorizing strains with indefinable spoligotypes and segregated true LAM strains from those with convergent spoligotypes. The fact that RDRio strains were identified worldwide highlights the importance of this LAM family sublineage and suggests that this strain is a global threat that should be specifically targeted by public health resources. Our provision of simple and robust molecular methods will assist the evaluation of the LAM family and the RDRio sublineage. PMID:18234868

Gibson, Andrea L.; Huard, Richard C.; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C.; Lazzarini, Luiz Claudio Oliveira; Driscoll, Jeffrey; Kurepina, Natalia; Zozio, Thierry; Sola, Christophe; Spindola, Silvana Miranda; Kritski, Afrânio L.; Fitzgerald, Daniel; Kremer, Kristin; Mardassi, Helmi; Chitale, Poonam; Brinkworth, Jessica; Garcia de Viedma, Dario; Gicquel, Brigitte; Pape, Jean W.; van Soolingen, Dick; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Warren, Robin M.; van Helden, Paul D.; Rastogi, Nalin; Suffys, Philip N.; Lapa e Silva, Jose; Ho, John L.

2008-01-01

315

American Nightmare: A Decade of Homelessness in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 1989 national survey of the dimensions of homelessness found that at least three million Americans are homeless and that the shortage of affordable housing was cited as the chief cause. Information was gathered from a telephone survey of emergency shelter providers, housing advocacy organizations, and local governments in 26 communities, ranging…

National Coalition for the Homeless, Washington, DC.

316

AMERICAN STUDIES &AMERICAN STUDIES &AMERICAN STUDIES & ETHNICITYETHNICITYETHNICITY  

E-print Network

AMERICAN STUDIES &AMERICAN STUDIES &AMERICAN STUDIES & ETHNICITYETHNICITYETHNICITY This major of the United States with a particular emphasis on comparative study of the peoples, cultures, history: Introduction to American Studies and Ethnicity -- Introduction to American studies and ethnic studies. Provides

Krylov, Anna I.

317

Hispanic-Americans in the Eastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eastern part of the United States contains a large and growing Hispanic minority. If present trends con tinue, all Hispanics will constitute the largest minority in the United States by the year 2000. Their influence is already felt in the social and political life of the nation. The largest con centration of Hispanics, mainly Puerto Ricans, in the East

Joseph P. Fitzpatrick; Lourdes Travieso Parker

1981-01-01

318

VET in the United States of American and Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structures of and issues facing vocational education and training (VET) in the United States and Canada were compared. Selected findings were as follows: (1) VET in the United States is shifting focus from preparing students for entry-level jobs to greater emphasis on academic preparation and a wider range of career choices; (2) U.S. community…

Blom, Kaaren

2001-01-01

319

21H.802 Modern Latin America, 1808-Present: Revolution, Dictatorship, Democracy, Fall 2002  

E-print Network

Selective survey of Latin American history from the wars of independence at the start of the nineteenth century to the present. Issues studied include: independence and its aftermath, slavery and its abolition, Latin America ...

Ravel, Jeffrey S.

320

Anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders in United States African-American public housing residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  African-Americans experience considerable mental healthcare disparities in the United States, but little is known about sensitive\\u000a subgroups within this population. To better understand healthcare disparities within African-Americans communities, we characterized\\u000a anxiety, mood, and substance use disorder prevalence and associated service utilization among public and non-public housing\\u000a residents.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We used data from a nationally representative sample of African-Americans recruited as part

Adam Simning; Edwin van Wijngaarden; Yeates Conwell

321

American Holidays for Spanish Students in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three handouts give the history of three holidays celebrated in the United States: Christmas, Halloween, and St. Valentine's Day. Each holiday is described in Spanish and in English for use in bilingual classrooms. (CFM)

Lancaster County School Board, PA.

322

Multiple sclerosis care in Latin America.  

PubMed

Before the advent of diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS), it was reported that the prevalence of MS in Mexico was "one of the lowest in the world" (1.6/100,000).(1) The notion that MS was a rare neurologic disease among those living in the tropics of the Americas and Southern latitudes was widely accepted. The geopolitical boundaries of the region identified as Latin America (LA) extend from the southern border of United States with Mexico (32° North latitude) to the Argentinian and Chilean Patagonia in South America (56° South latitude). The largest Spanish-speaking island countries in the Caribbean-Cuba, Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico-are also traditionally considered part of LA. The continental mass includes 17 countries with a population of more than 550 million. Due to centuries of racial intermixing, it is a heterogeneous and genetically complex population. The blended cultures of native Amerindians with white Caucasian Europeans and black Africans has resulted in the predominant ethnic Latin American Mestizo. The influence of African genetics is notable in many areas of the subcontinent and the Caribbean. A common observation across LA is the absence of identification of MS in non-mixed Amerindians(2); the reason for this phenomenon is unclear. PMID:24799516

Rivera, Victor M; Medina, Marco Tulio; Duron, Reyna M; Macias, Miguel Angel

2014-05-01

323

History of primary vasculitis in Latin America.  

PubMed

A literature review utilizing Fepafem, Bireme, LiLacs, Scielo Colombia, Scielo Internacional, former MedLine, Pubmed, and BVS Colombia as well as manual searches in the libraries of major Latin American universities was performed to study vasculitis in Latin America. Since 1945, a total of 752 articles have been published by Latin American authors. However, only a minority are devoted to primary vasculitides, and even fewer have been published in indexed journals. Approximately 126 are in OLD, Medline, Pubmed, Bireme, and Scielo. Most publications are from Mexico, followed by Brazil and Colombia. Systematic studies of the epidemiology of primary idiopathic vasculitis are available for a few countries, i.e. Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Chile, and Peru. Takayasu arteritis and ANCA-associated vasculitis are the best studied forms of vasculitis in Latin America. Interest and expertise in vasculitis is growing in Latin America, as reflected in the increased number of published articles from this region of the world in the last decade. Racial and environmental factors are possibly responsible for the differential expression of various types of primary vasculitis observed in Latin America. With time, the unique features, epidemiology, and better treatment strategies for idiopathic vasculitides in Latin America will emerge. PMID:20190698

Iglesias Gammara, Antonio; Coral, Paola; Quintana, Gerardo; Toro, Carlos E; Flores, Luis Felipe; Matteson, Eric L; Restrepo, José Félix

2010-03-01

324

This major offers courses in ancient, medieval, and modern European history, including Russian history; in both North and Latin American history; in the  

E-print Network

(1) HIST course elective Upper Division Courses** HIST 312: The Age of the French Revolution: Urbanization in the American Experience HIST 351: The American Revolution HIST 352: The American Civil War

Rohs, Remo

325

This major offers courses in ancient, medieval, and modern European history, including Russian history; in both North and Latin American history; in the  

E-print Network

) HIST course elective Upper Division Courses** HIST 312: The Age of the French Revolution and Napoleon: Urbanization in the American Experience HIST 351: The American Revolution HIST 352: The American Civil War

Rohs, Remo

326

Curriculum as Colonizer: (Asian) American Education in the Current U.S. Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: The United States is currently undergoing a period of unprecedented immigration, with the majority of new arrivals coming from Asia and Latin America, not Europe. Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (APIs) represent the fastest growing racial group in the United States, and schools are again being asked to socialize newcomer…

Goodwin, A. Lin

2010-01-01

327

The 2014 FIFA World Cup: communicable disease risks and advice for visitors to Brazil--a review from the Latin American Society for Travel Medicine (SLAMVI).  

PubMed

The next FIFA World Cup will be held in Brazil in June-July 2014. Around 600,000 international visitors and participants (as well over 3 million domestic travelers) are expected. This event will take place in twelve cities. This event poses specific challenges, given its size and the diversity of attendees, including the potential for the transmission of imported or endemic communicable diseases, especially those that have an increased transmission rate as a result of close human proximity, eg, seasonal influenza, measles but also tropical endemic diseases. In anticipation of increased travel, a panel of experts from the Latin American Society for Travel Medicine (SLAMVI) developed the current recommendations regarding the epidemiology and risks of the main communicable diseases in the major potential destinations, recommended immunizations and other preventives measures to be used as a basis for advice for travelers and travel medicine practitioners. Mosquito-borne infections also pose a challenge. Dengue poses a significant risk in all states, including the host cities. Vaccination against yellow fever is recommended except for travelers who will only visit coastal areas. Travelers visiting high-risk areas for malaria (Amazon) should be assessed regarding the need for chemoprophylaxis. Chikunguya fever may be a threat for Brazil, given the presence of Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue, and the possibility of travelers bringing the virus with them when attending the event. Advice on the correct timing and use of repellents and other personal protection measures is key to preventing these vector-borne infections. Other important recommendations for travelers should focus on preventing water and food-borne diseases such as hepatitis A, typhoid fever, giardiasis and traveler's diarrhea. Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) should be also mentioned and the use of condoms advocated. This review addresses pre-travel, preventive strategies to reduce the risk of acquiring communicable diseases during a mass gathering such as the World Cup and also reviews the spectrum of endemic infections in Brazil to facilitate the recognition and management of infectious diseases in travelers returning to their countries of origin. PMID:24821081

Gallego, Viviana; Berberian, Griselda; Lloveras, Susana; Verbanaz, Sergio; Chaves, Tania S S; Orduna, Tomas; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

2014-01-01

328

The American Melting Pot? Miscegenation Laws in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores miscegenation in U.S. history, some motivations for anti-miscegenation policy, and the landmark decision of the 1967 case of "Loving v. Virginia." Includes three recent examples of miscegenation policy in the United States with questions for class discussion. (CMK)

Cruz, Barbara C.; Berson, Michael J.

2001-01-01

329

Identity Formation of United States American and Asian Indian Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Extended Version of the Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status-II was completed by 434 high school students from the United States and India. Students were male and female between the ages of 13 and 18 years. Asian Indian adolescents were found to be more diffused, foreclosed, and in moratorium in identity formation than adolescents in the…

Graf, Shruti C.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Mullis, Ann K.

2008-01-01

330

The American Government Information Unit: Curriculum Alternatives for Secondary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The laboratory has created this information unit to help answer curriculum planning questions for secondary school curriculum decision makers. It tells about the products and activities of nine selected curriculum development programs by organizing the following information in chart, summary, then complete report form for quick and easy review and…

Adelson, Nancy C.; Crosby, Sandra G.

331

77 FR 12102 - In the Matter of: American United Gold Corporation, AMS Homecare Inc., Aucxis Corp., and CYOP...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] In the Matter of: American United Gold Corporation, AMS Homecare Inc., Aucxis Corp., and CYOP Systems...accurate information concerning the securities of American United Gold Corporation because it has not filed any periodic reports...

2012-02-28

332

The American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, occurs throughout most of the southeastern United States. Alligators  

E-print Network

The American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, occurs throughout most of the southeastern United States. Alligators were once hunted primarily to produce leather products, which became to be poached. As a result, alligator numbers were dramatically reduced and in some regions it was feared

Georgia, University of

333

United Airlines’ and American Airlines’ online crisis communication following the September 11 terrorist attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, provided a challenging series of events for the crisis communication efforts of American Airlines and United Airlines. Based on crisis communication theory and organizational use of the Web, this study examined how the two companies used their Web sites during the first three weeks after the incidents as one means of conveying information

Clark F. Greer; Kurt D. Moreland

2003-01-01

334

Ethnic Heritage Studies: German-American Profiles and Contributions--Levi Strauss. Experimental Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching guide focuses on the German-American immigrant experiences and the contribution of Levi Strauss. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The project materials are designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines. The objective for this unit is to acquaint the…

Langnehs, Chic

335

Environmental Problems of the United States, Teacher's Guide. Environmental Education Unit, Eleventh Grade American History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of a sequential series of curriculum units in environmental education for grades 4 through 12, this curriculum guide focuses on environmental problems in the United States for eleventh grade students. This unit is designed to make the student aware of how the problems of the past become critical problems of the present. Activities foster an…

Little Rock School District, AR.

336

Fermilab and Latin America  

SciTech Connect

As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet.

Lederman, Leon M. [Illinois Institute of Technology, P. O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy, P. O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P. O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

2006-09-25

337

The Role of Disordered-Eating Cognitions and Psychological Flexibility on Distress in Asian American and European American College Females in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated whether different forms of disordered-eating-related cognitions and psychological flexibility were associated with psychological distress among female Asian American and European American college students in the United States. Disordered-eating-related cognitions examined in the present study included thoughts (a)…

Masuda, Akihiko; Le, Jane; Cohen, Lindsey L.

2014-01-01

338

University research in the global environment, the challenges of the science & technology policies in Latin America, 1990–2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this research is to analyze how research activities have been modified in Latin American Universities, considering foreign pressures of the globalization besides science and technology policies implemented in Latin American; thus, we try to identify the strategies and advances reached by universities in relation to this policies. It is necessary to know that in Latin America

G. S. Daza; H. O. Moranchel

2009-01-01

339

Immigration Policy and the Skills of Immigrants to Australia, Canada, and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Census data for 1990\\/91 indicate that Australian and Canadian immigrants have higher levels of English fluency, education, and income (relative to natives) than do U.S. immigrants. This skill deficit for U.S. immigrants arises primarily because the United States receives a much larger share of immigrants from Latin America than do the other two countries. After excluding Latin American immigrants, the

Heather Antecol; Deborah A. Cobb-Clark; Stephen Trejo

2001-01-01

340

Re-Branding Neoliberalism and Systemic Dilemmas in Social Development: The Case of Education and School Fees in Latin American HIPCs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Latin America as a broad context and drawing on evidence from some of its most heavily indebted states as cases, this paper considers the example of Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) and education as a means of exploring the question of whether poverty reduction strategies of the Bretton Woods Institutions (the World Bank and the…

Davidson-Harden, Adam

2008-01-01

341

Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1948, the Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA) is part of the United Nationsâ broader initiative to foster coordinated economic development schemes and relationships among Latin American nations. Their web presence is quite formidable, and for persons interested in these types of policy endeavors, this site warrants several visits. First-time visitors can get an accurate sense of ECLAâÂÂs overall mission by reading the headlines on the homepage, which draw attention to their economic analyses and monitoring of the UNâÂÂs Millennium Development Goals. Visitors looking for reports and publications can take a look at some of their more recent works, such as the economic survey of Latin America and the Caribbean as well as papers on foreign investment in the region. The site is rounded out by a very helpful interactive database which provides information on trade for 33 of the regionâÂÂs countries, along with 15 members of the European Union.

2000-01-01

342

Diagnosing the California Electricity "Crisis": Lessons for Latin America  

E-print Network

1 Diagnosing the California Electricity "Crisis": Lessons for Latin America Frank A. Wolak risk ­ Asymmetric treatment of load and generation · Lessons for Latin American · How symmetric treatment of load and generation could have prevented crisis #12;2 Industry Before March 31, 1998 · Three

Rudnick, Hugh

343

Education, Policy, and Social Change: Experiences from Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using both a retrospective and a prospective view, this book examines the links joining research, policy, and change in education in Latin America. It inquires about the relationships among the economy, politics, and the state. It reviews the praxis of education in Latin American countries and in the context of the development trends of the 1980s.…

Morales-Gomez, Daniel A., Ed.; Torres, Carlos Alberto, Ed.

344

Population Declines and Priorities for Amphibian Conservation in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although dramatic amphibian population declines have been reported worldwide, our under- standing of the extent of the declines in Latin America, where amphibian diversity is high, is limited to a few well-documented studies. To better understand the geographic extent of declines, their possible causes, and the measures needed to improve Latin American scientists' ability to research the phenomenon and make

Bruce E. Young; Karen R. Lips; Jamie K. Reaser; Roberto Ibanez; Antonio W. Salas; J. Rogelio Cedeno; Luis A. Coloma; Santiago Ron; Enrique La Marca; John R. Meyer; Antonio Munoz; Federico Bolanos; Gerardo Chaves; David Romo

2001-01-01

345

Opioid availability in latin america: The declaration of florianopolis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between March 27 and 29, 1994, a group of representatives of 32 palliative care programs from eight Latin American countries met under the auspices of the World Health Organization (WHO) Palliative Care Program for Latin America in Florianopolis, Brazil. The participants included physicians, nurses, psychologists, volunteers, drug regulators, hospital administrators, and representatives from the pharmaceutical industry. A comprehensive report by

Jan Stjernswärd; Eduardo Bruera; David Joranson; Silvia Allende; Gustavo Montejo; Lisbeth Quesada Tristan; Gloria Castillo; Teresa Schoeller; Maria Antonieta Rico Pazos; Roberto Wenk; Maria Pruvost; Liliana De Lima; Eduardo Mendez; Juan Núñez Olarte; José Felix Olalla; Guillermo Vanegas

1995-01-01

346

International News in United States Media: Myths, Stereotypes and Realities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research conducted during the past 20 years reveals that, except for the "New York Times,""Christian Science Monitor," and "Wall Street Journal," United States daily newspapers are not known for outstanding international news coverage; that European, English, Canadian, Latin American, and Asian newspapers use disproportionately larger amounts of…

Lent, John A.

347

Mental health policy developments in Latin America.  

PubMed Central

New assessment guidelines for measuring the overall impact of mental health problems in Latin America have served as a catalyst for countries to review their mental health policies. Latin American countries have taken various steps to address long-standing problems such as structural difficulties, scarce financial and human resources, and social, political, and cultural obstacles in the implementation of mental health policies and legislation. These policy developments, however, have had uneven results. Policies must reflect the desire, determination, and commitment of policy-makers to take mental health seriously and look after people's mental health needs. This paper describes the development of mental health policies in Latin American countries, focusing on published data in peer-reviewed journals, and legislative change and its implementation. It presents a brief history of mental health policy developments, and analyzes the basis and practicalities of current practice. PMID:10885167

Alarcón, R. D.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. A.

2000-01-01

348

Teacher Salaries in Latin America: A Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses household survey data from 12 Latin American countries to assess how teacher salaries compare to other workers' salaries. Results show great variability from one country to another. When statistical controls are introduced for the differential education, hours worked, and gender composition, the earnings differential between the two groups…

Psacharopoulos, George; And Others

1996-01-01

349

School Facility Projects in Latin America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many Latin American countries are undertaking projects, in line with practices disseminated by PEB, to share school facilities with the local community, to adapt traditional schools for students with disabilities, and to collaborate with private companies to finance educational buildings. The articles below describe current initiatives in five…

Berk, Jeffrey; de Cassia Alves Vaz, Rita; Honorio, Joao; Baza, Jadille; Origel, Ricardo; Gomez, Fredys

2004-01-01

350

Revision Planned for the Cambridge Latin Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes a discussion on the revision of the Cambridge Latin Course (CLC) held during the 1980 ACL Institute at the University of New Hampshire by CLC users and Cambridge University Press representatives. Emphasizes suggestions by users on grammar instruction strategies better suited to American students' needs. (MES)

Sebesta, Judith Lynn

1980-01-01

351

‘The Right to Enter Every Other State’ – The Supreme Court and African American Mobility in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1857, U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger B. Taney stated in the Dred Scott case that if one African American was free to move unhindered throughout the United States, then all African Americans, enslaved or otherwise, would have ‘the right to enter every other State’. Such a situation, he argued, was untenable. The Supreme Court thus suggested that if

Euan Hague

2010-01-01

352

Repatriation in the United States: The Current State of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Repatriation in the United States today is synonymous with the passage of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Although repatriations of Native American ancestral remains and cultural objects certainly occurred--and continue to occur--outside of the purview of NAGPRA, this law remains the centerpiece of repatriation…

Daehnke, Jon; Lonetree, Amy

2011-01-01

353

The Meanings of Universal Health Care in Latin America.  

PubMed

In Latin America, competing definitions of universal health care are found. Variants include traditional universalism, basic universalism, and minimal or residual universalism. These definitions are informed by European traditions, a renewed emphasis on equity among Latin American social policy experts, and World Bank strategy. This essay explores these definitions as well as areas of overlap and points of difference between and among them using examples from several Latin American countries. The most important difference concerns the preventive and curative services not covered by the benefits packages of minimal universal programs, a gap expected to grow increasingly costly for patients. PMID:25480852

Clark, Mary A

2014-12-01

354

Latin America: population and internal unrest.  

PubMed

This discussion of population and internal unrest in Latin America covers the following: pressures on land and agriculture; economic frustrations; the youth and radicalism; rising social tensions; and political instability. At current growth rates, Latin America's population is projected to increases between 1981 2001 by 225 million people. This staggering population growth is likely to have serious political, economic, social, strategic, and other implications. The strong opposition to family planning which came principally from nationlists, the military, and the church during the 1960s has changed to general support for voluntary family planning programs in much of Latin America. Too rapid population growth now is viewed widely as aggravating the problems of development and putting severe strains on services and facilities. The wish to limit family size is particularly strong among women. Most of Latin America's untapped land is unusable, either so steeply mountainous, densely tropical, or barren of topsoil that it cannot support life at even the most meager level of subsistence. Food production in most of Latin America has not kept pace with population growth. Since most new agricultural production is oriented toward exports rather than home consumption, conditions for most rural populations are worsening. Economic dilemmas facing Latin America include widespread poverty, the world's highest per capita debt, unemployment and underemployment that may reach between 40-50% of the workforce, negative economic growth rates over the past 5 years, immense income inequalities, declining terms of trade, extensive capital flight, little new investment or foreign assistance, increased protectionism on the part of those countriews with whom Latin America must trade, rising prices for the goods Latin America must import, and (in some countries) devastation of the economic infrastrucutre by guerrilla forces. The unprecedent flow from the countryside has made Latin America the world's 3rd most highly urbanized region. Over 65% of its population reside in cities, particularly capital cities. Social services are breaking down in all Latin American capitals to the extent that over half the inhabitants lack water or sewage facilities. There is mixed evidence on the relationship between youth and radicalism, yet it is clear that in Latin America most of the generation of university-trained young people are Marxists. As many as 45% of college-aged people are activists. The implications of this disaffected group coming to power are enormous, particularly since the generation currently under 15 is likely to be even more embittered and radical. Tension, frustration, and violence in society all are likely to have a political impact. In sum, a close but indirect relationship exists between unchecked population growth, spiraling socioeconomic problems, and the potential for political breakdown, destabilization, and internal unrest in Latin America. PMID:12313942

Wiarda, J H; Siqueira Wiarda, I

1985-09-01

355

A Retrospective Examination of a University's Thirteen Years in Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The context of educational reform within which U.S. higher education has worked in selected Latin American countries is examined, with attention directed to the specific experience of the University of New Mexico. The evolution of the Latin American Programs in Education office (LAPE) in the university setting, the organizational milieu in which…

Blood, Ronald E.; And Others

356

The Cocaine Connection: Drug Trafficking and Inter-American Relations. Headline Series No. 290.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally U.S. drug policy and antidrug action has been focused on blaming traffickers and fighting suppliers. Only recently have people in the United States begun to acknowledge the part played by U.S. demand for illegal drugs. Past antidrug policy emphasized the foreign origin of the drugs, and tended to blame Latin American producers and…

Collett, Merrill

357

Field Stations Compliance CommitteesAdministrative Units Research Units  

E-print Network

Museum of Anthropology UC Museum of Paleontology UC Botanical Garden University & Jepson Herbaria Center Planetary Science Center for Latin American Studies Center for Medicine, the Humanities & Law Center

Jacobs, Lucia

358

Field Stations Compliance CommitteesAdministrative Units Research Units  

E-print Network

of Paleontology UC Botanical Garden University & Jepson Herbaria Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI) Helen Wills) Center for Integrative Planetary Science Center for Latin American Studies Center for Medicine

Walker, Matthew P.

359

Ethnic Labels, Latino Lives. Identity and the Politics of (Re)Presentation in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history and current use of the label "Hispanic" are discussed in this exploration of the myth of cultural and national homogeneity among people of Latin American descent in the United States. The historical process of labeling groups of individuals is discussed, and how ethnic labels affect the meaning of citizenship and the struggle for full…

Oboler, Suzanne

360

Mental health services development in Latin America and the Caribbean: achievements, barriers and facilitating factors.  

PubMed

Mental health services reforms in Latin America and the Caribbean in the last 20 years have led to a significant improvement of mental health services. They also contributed to the development of new evidence that may help the implementation of future reforms. These advances, however, were clearly insufficient to respond to the huge challenges countries of Latin American and the Caribbean face to improve mental health services. Insufficient funding, one of the most important barriers to mental health services development found in most countries, was related to the absence of a strong consensus among all stakeholders and the weakness of user and family associations. Other barriers were the lack of technical capacity of the coordination unit responsible for development of services in the ministries of health, resistance from professionals towards changing to new models of care and lack of human resources. Transition to democracy in some countries and natural disasters proved to be windows of opportunity for mental health services reform. Facilitating factors included alliance with the human rights defence movement, development of research capacity in Latin American and the Caribbean countries, and international cooperation. PMID:24029840

Caldas de Almeida, J M

2013-03-01

361

International health, the early cold war and Latin America.  

PubMed

This article offers a panoramic vision of the development of international health in Latin America during the late 1940s and the 1950s, when a series of bilateral and multilateral institutions, such as the World Health Organization and UNICEF, were founded and reshaped. The language, policies, and activities of these new institutional actors were heavily influenced by the context of the early Cold War between the era's superpowers: the United States and the Soviet Union. Vertical campaigns against yaws and malaria--implemented under the leadership of Fred L. Soper, director of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau--symbolized international health's technical orientation, as well as its contribution to the modernization of the countries of the region. The Cold War period has received little attention by historians of medicine, though it bears certain similarities to historiographical discussions of the relationship between tropical medicine and imperialism in the early 20th century. PMID:18831142

Cueto, Marcos

2008-01-01

362

Community Colleges: A Viable Solution for Latin America?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes the United States community college as a model for adaptation in Latin America. The author argues that there is a growing frustration with the lack of responsiveness of universities to the development needs of societies in Latin America. Higher education continues to be accessible only to the privileged segments of society…

Castro, Claudio de Moura; Bernasconi, Andres

363

Social Capital and International Migration from Latin America  

PubMed Central

We combine data from the Latin American Migration Project and the Mexican Migration Project to estimate models predicting the likelihood of taking of first and later trips to the United States from five nations: Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Peru. The models test specific hypotheses about the effects of social capital on international migration and how these effects vary with respect to contextual factors. Our findings confirm the ubiquity of migrant networks and the universality of social capital effects throughout Latin America. They also reveal how the sizes of these effects are not uniform across settings. Social capital operates more powerfully on first as opposed to later trips and interacts with the cost of migration. In addition, effects are somewhat different when considering individual social capital (measuring strong ties) and community social capital (measuring weak ties). On first trips, the effect of strong ties in promoting migration increases with distance whereas the effect of weak ties decreases with distance. On later trips, the direction of effects for both individual and community social capital is negative for long distances but positive for short distances. PMID:21915379

Massey, Douglas S.; Aysa-Lastra, María

2011-01-01

364

[Bibliometry of biological systematics in Latin America during the twentieth century in three global databases].  

PubMed

We present a review of the biological systematic research in Latin America during the twentieth century, applying a bibliometric analysis to the information contained in international databases with the largest number of biological records: Biosis (since 1969), CAB (since 1910) and Science Citation Index (since 1900), to recognize certain patterns and trends regarding the document production. We obtained 19079 documents and 1387 journals for Biosis, 14326 and 2537 for CAB, 3257 and 1636 for SCI. Of the documents, 54.6% related to new species, 15.3% dealt with morphology, 14.9% keys, 12.5% descriptions, 10.6% cases of synonymies, 6% new genera, 4.9% new geographical records, 23.6% geographical distribution, 4.2% redescriptions, and 3.6% with new nomenclatural combinations. The regions mentioned were South America with 11.9%, Central America with 4% and America (all) with 2.56%. Nineteen Latin American countries appear, whereas outside this region we found the United States of America with 12.6% of representation and Canada with 3%. Animals (65.6%) were the most studied taxa, which was 1.7 times higher than what was published for plants (37%), 11 times higher than fungi (6%) and nearly 30 times higher than microorganisms (2.3%). Out of the 155 journals that produced 66% of the papers, 76.5% were better represented in Biosis, 21.4% in CAB and 2% in SCI. Twenty-nine journals published 33% of the articles, the maximum number of records obtained was 69% for Biosis, CAB 24% and 6.9% for SCI, three (10.3%) are in biology, 11 (37.9%) in botany, 13 (44.8%) zoology, and two (6.9%) paleontology; eight of these journals (27.5%) were published in Latin America and twenty were indexed in the Science Citation Index. In the last two years more journals of the region that publish on taxonomy have been indexed, but their impact factor is still low. However, the impact factor of a number of Latin American journals that published biodiversity increased with time. Countries that are more interested in studying the Latin American biota from the taxonomic point of view are Brazil, the United States, Argentina and Mexico. The most active institutions in this discipline were the Universidade de São Paulo, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, and the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; together they produced 24% of the documents. PMID:20527457

Michán, Layla; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge

2010-06-01

365

The distribution of leptospirosis in Latin America*†  

PubMed Central

Although many factors combine to make Latin America an apparently suitable region for the spread of the leptospiroses, the prevalence of these infections has been studied in relatively few areas of this part of the American continent. Of the 60 Leptospira serotypes described in the world, only seven have so far been definitively demonstrated in Middle America and five in South America. However, there is evidence to suggest that other and perhaps new serotypes may be found, and recent serological surveys indicate that there are loci of multiple leptospirosis affecting a large percentage of human or animal populations in at least five Latin American territories. The true prevalence of leptospirosis can only be ascertained by the proper application of reliable laboratory diagnostic methods. The limited value of certain techniques used heretofore makes a number of reports on the presence of this disease subject to question. PMID:13792576

Alexander, A. D.

1960-01-01

366

Correlates of HIV Infection Among African American Women from 20 Cities in the United States.  

PubMed

Little research has been conducted to investigate multiple levels of HIV risk-individual risk factors, sex partner characteristics, and socioeconomic factors-among African American women, who, in 2010, comprised 64 % of the estimated 9,500 new infections in women. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit and interview women in 20 cities with high AIDS prevalence in the United States through the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System. We assessed individual risk factors, sex partner characteristics, and socioeconomic characteristics associated with being HIV-positive but unaware of the infection among African American women. Among 3,868 women with no previous diagnosis of HIV, 68 % had high school education or more and 84 % lived at or below the poverty line. In multivariable analysis, women who were 35 years or older, homeless, received Medicaid, whose last sex partner ever used crack cocaine or was an exchange sex partner were more likely to be HIV-positive-unaware. Developing and implementing strategies that address socioeconomic factors, such as homelessness and living in poverty, as well as individual risk factors, can help to maximize the effectiveness of the public health response to the HIV epidemic. PMID:24077972

Ivy, Wade; Miles, Isa; Le, Binh; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

2013-09-28

367

American Studies Module Information  

E-print Network

: American Security Policy in the Post-Cold War Era PO-237 The Politics of Latin America on Film HUA-206 culture including film, art, photography and pop culture. This approach seeks to situate AmericanBA American Studies Module Information 2014-2015 www.swansea.ac.uk/artsandhumanities Department

Harman, Neal.A.

368

Challenges of Cultural and Racial Diversity to Counseling: Volume 2. Latin America and the United States. Mexico City Conference Proceedings (June 1990).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers from the second international conference of the American Counseling Association held in Mexico City in June 1990 are included in this book. The book is divided into four parts: community, diversity, communication, and spirituality. The following papers are included: (1) Myths, Realities, and Implications of the English Only Movement in the…

Gonzalez, Gerardo M., Ed.; and Others

369

Korean Nobi in American Mirror: Yi Dynasty Coerced Labor in Comparison to the Slavery in the Antebellum Southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to critically respond to the recent research trends in the United States which define the nobi in the Korean history as slaves and Koryo and Choson as slave societies. Our comparative study of the nobi system in the 15-17th century Choson and the black slavery in the American South has found several common features

Young-hoon Rhee; Donghyu Yang

1999-01-01

370

An Analysis of the Treatment of Corporate Influence on Government by United States History and American Government High School Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on an investigation to explore the possibility that ideology might be expressed in the treatment of corporate influence on federal government by social studies textbooks. Two textbooks were examined in the study--United States history and American government. Corporate influence involves activities that affect election and…

Neumann, Richard

2014-01-01

371

American Rivers * Friends of the Earth * Idaho Rivers United * Institute for Fisheries Resources * National Wildlife Federation * Northwest Sportfishing  

E-print Network

American Rivers * Friends of the Earth * Idaho Rivers United * Institute for Fisheries Resources. Through these hearings, we have also learned new information about a proposal submitted by public that these customers will pay under the new contracts."2 SOS is particularly concerned about the lack of clarity

372

Threads of Change in 19th Century American Literature: A Language Arts Unit for Grades 7-9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit of study for junior-high level high-ability language arts students explores five themes in 19th century American history through literature of the times: romanticism, transcendentalism, abolitionism, industrialism, and feminism. Each of the five "isms" has its own "literature box" that contains appropriate documents to serve as a…

Crossett, Becky F.; And Others

373

Historic building documentation in the united states, 1933-2000: the historic american buildings survey, a case study  

E-print Network

) __________________________ Vivian Paul (Member) May 2005 Major Subject: Architecture iii ABSTRACT Historic Building Documentation in the United States, 1933-2000: The Historic American Buildings Survey, A... to several individuals who participated on this project. Endless thanks are extended to Mardelle Shepley, Yvonna Lincoln, Vivian Paul, Richard Anderson, staff and former staff of HABS, and other respondents for their time, insight, and friendship during...

Komas, Tanya Wattenburg

2005-08-29

374

Secondary Schools and the Transition To Work in Latin America and the Caribbean. Sustainable Development Department Technical Papers Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

U.S. and European models of delivering secondary education were examined to identify ways of improving Latin American and Caribbean secondary schools and easing Latin American and Caribbean students' transition from school to work. The following delivery options were considered: (1) separate job training from formal secondary education; (2) move…

Castro, Claudio de Moura; Carnoy, Martin; Wolff, Laurence

375

Community Colleges: Is There a Lesson in Them for Latin America? Sustainable Development Department Technical Papers Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the potential the North American community college model holds for Latin America as a means of responding to the expansion of secondary education in this region. The authors propose learning from, not imitating, experiences found in North America and Europe and discuss how these lessons may be of used to inform Latin American…

Castro, Claudio de Moura; Bernasconi, Andres; Verdisco, Aimee

376

Position of the American Dietetic Association: food insecurity in the United States.  

PubMed

It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that systematic and sustained action is needed to achieve food and nutrition security for all in the United States. To eliminate food insecurity, interventions are needed, including adequate funding for and increased utilization of food and nutrition assistance programs, inclusion of food and nutrition education in such programs, and innovative programs to promote and support individual and household economic self-sufficiency. More than 49 million individuals living in the United States experienced food insecurity in 2008. Negative nutrition and non-nutrition-related outcomes have been associated with food insecurity in children, adolescents, and adults, including substandard academic achievement, inadequate intake of key nutrients, poor health, increased risk for and development of chronic disease, poor disease management, and poor psychological and cognitive functioning. Registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, can play key roles in ending food insecurity and are uniquely positioned to make valuable contributions through provision of comprehensive food and nutrition education; competent and collaborative practice; innovative research related to accessing a safe, secure, and sustainable food supply; and advocacy efforts at the local, state, regional, and national levels. PMID:20821887

Holben, David H

2010-09-01

377

Horizonte, International Festival of Culture/Latin America  

E-print Network

long journey through life and experience. He is naive and cunning, cowardly, lazy and endowed with an insatiable sexual appetite: a child of mythology. He marries 86 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW the Queen of the Amazons and has to leave her again...-feed the audience with the information that the church plays a dubious role in Latin American history, the Colombian cardinal of La Candalaria needs no more than a benevolent smile with which he takes a little bow in the direction of the powerful, while his eyes...

Adler, Heidrun

1982-10-01

378

Representation of genomics research among Latin American laymen and bioethics: a inquiry into the migration of knowledge and its impact on underdeveloped communities  

SciTech Connect

The effects of genetic knowledge beyond the scientific community depend on processes of social construction of risks and benefits, or perils and possibilities, which are different in different communities. In a globalized world, new developments affect societies not capable of technically replicating them and unaware of the very nature of the scientific process. Moral and legal consequences, however, diffuse rapidly and involve groups and persons with scant or no knowledge about the way scientific concepts are developed or perfected. Leading genomics researchers view their field as developing after a sharp break with that worldwide social movement of the 20´s and 30´s known as eugenics and its most radical expression in the Nazi efforts to destroy life “not worth living”. Manipulation, prejudice and mistrust, however, pervade non-expert accounts of current research. Researchers claim that the new knowledge will have a positive impact on medicine and serve as a foundation for informed social policy. Both types of applications depend on informed communities of non-scientists (physicians, policymakers), whose members may well differ on what constitutes burden and what is benefit, depending upon professional socialization and cultural bias. ELSI projects associated with genomic research are notable for the lack of minorities involved and for the absence of comparative analysis of data reception in different world communities. It may be contended also that the critical potential of philosophical or ethical analyses is reduced by their being situated within the scientific process itself and carried out by members of the expert community, thus reducing independence of judgment. The majority of those involved in such studies, by tradition, experience, and formative influences, share the same worldview about the nature of moral dilemmas or the feasibility of intended applications. The global effects of new knowledge when combined with other cultural or religious traditions are thus unknown. These effects are interesting on two accounts. First, even if underdeveloped countries cannot replicate the technical aspects of research, their influence on social practices is not kept within geographical or language barriers. The way they are handled in developed countries may become part of resistances to “ethical imperialism”. Second, these advances have economic consequences. Their full understanding and the creation of a scientific literacy essential for sound ethical analysis demand the creation of “receptive capacity” in developing countries. The morality of genomics research and its applications can be analyzed from two main vantage points. Some traditions stress the ethics of convictions (in Max Weber´s terms, Gesinnungsethik) while others rely on the ethics of responsibility (Verantwortungsethik). In different forms, the latter deals with the consequences of social action, scientific research in this case, and may or may not be related to utilitarian considerations. It may be hypothesized that convictions, mostly of a religious nature, dominate the argumentative preferences in Latin countries and continental European traditions which rely on virtues while responsibility is associated with a discourse based on rights prevalent in countries following the Anglo-Saxon pattern of thought. This finds expression in different legal systems (common law versus codes) and in the language used for deliberation and moral reasoning. Although results of US-based ELSI research may not be transferable to other cultural and economic contexts, they impact other societies and serve as models. Rarely do they apply completely in other settings. In a globalized world, both appropriate understanding of the scientific enterprise and its ethical or economic sustainability demand empirical analysis of the patterns of thought, main beliefs, and reactions toward the new knowledge and its applications. Anecdotal accounts show that expectations may be misleading and inadequate knowledge prevents appropriate appraisal of burdens and benefits in dif

Fernando Lolas; Carolina Valdebenito; Eduardo Rodríguez; Irene Schiattino; Adelio Misseroni

2007-07-09

379

The Political Economy of U.S. Foreign Direct Investment in Latin America: A Reappraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the political and economic determinants of U.S. foreign direct investment (FDI) in Latin America. The analysis focuses on fifteen Latin American and Caribbean countries for the period of 1979 to 1996. Market size, workers' skill levels, and political instability are found to have a statistically significant effect on the investment behavior of U.S. multinational firms. In addi-

John Peter Tuman; Craig F. Emmert

2004-01-01

380

Beyond the Folkloric and Indigenous in Multicultural Thinking about Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrates the epistemology of cultural syncretism or "mestizaje" into multicultural thinking, instructional materials, and teaching about Latin America. Discusses the origins of white and black myths of the conquest; the centrality of "mestizaje" in Latin American culture; "mestizaje's" origins from the 16th-century spiritual conquest of Mexico;…

Jupp, James C.

2002-01-01

381

A 2020 vision for food, agriculture, and the environment in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a thoughtful statement representing a genuine Latin American perspective of the goals and strategies relating to food, agriculture, and the environment as we head toward the year 2020. This document represents a synthesis of documents prepared by three working groups participating in a workshop on Latin America, jointly sponsored by IFPRI, the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT)

James L. Garrett

1995-01-01

382

Engineers for Rural Development: Europe and Latin America Getting in Tune.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The European program Amerique Latine-Formation Academique (ALFA) has provided 12 Latin-American and 10 European universities and colleges with a framework for creating an International Master in Rural Development. Globalization, regional integration, and sustainability have created a new set of questions for rural areas, both in Europe and in…

Marechal, Gilles

383

China’s Emergence in the World Economy and Business Cycles in Latin America  

E-print Network

shows that the long-term impact of a China GDP shock on the typical Latin American economy has increased by three times since mid-1990s. At the same time, the long-term impact of a US GDP shock has halved, while the transmission of shocks to Latin...

Cesa-Bianchi, Ambrogio; Pesaran, M. Hashem; Rebucci, Alessandro; Xu, TengTeng

384

Latin America's influence and role in the third conference on the law of the sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a general outline of Latin America's claims, positions, and struggle for more than a quarter of a century in matters dealing with the new Law of the Sea. It emphasizes what in some way might be called the original Latin American contribution to the new Law, but it also deals with the support given to the ideas

Reynaldo Galindo Pohl

1979-01-01

385

Bat-borne rabies in latin america.  

PubMed

The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as "Least Concern". According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats. PMID:25651328

E Escobar, Luis; Peterson, A Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

2015-02-01

386

BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA  

PubMed Central

The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats. PMID:25651328

Escobar, Luis E.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

2015-01-01

387

AMERICAN ELECTRIC POWER'S CONESVILLE POWER PLANT UNIT NO.5 CO2 CAPTURE RETROFIT STUDY  

SciTech Connect

ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with American Electric Power (AEP), ABB Lummus Global Inc. (ABB), the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration technologies applied to an existing US coal-fired electric generation power plant. The motivation for this study was to provide input to potential US electric utility actions concerning GHG emissions reduction. If the US decides to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, action would need to be taken to address existing power plants. Although fuel switching from coal to natural gas may be one scenario, it will not necessarily be a sufficient measure and some form of CO{sub 2} capture for use or disposal may also be required. The output of this CO{sub 2} capture study will enhance the public's understanding of control options and influence decisions and actions by government, regulators, and power plant owners in considering the costs of reducing greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} emissions. The total work breakdown structure is encompassed within three major reports, namely: (1) Literature Survey, (2) AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study, and (3) Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation. The report on the literature survey results was issued earlier by Bozzuto, et al. (2000). Reports entitled ''AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study'' and ''Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation'' are provided as companion volumes, denoted Volumes I and II, respectively, of the final report. The work performed, results obtained, and conclusions and recommendations derived therefrom are summarized.

Carl R. Bozzuto; Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; Mark Palkes; John L. Marion

2001-06-30

388

Liquid real estate investment fund in Latin America : analysis of worldwide best practices and portfolio proposal  

E-print Network

This work was inspired by three factors: as real estate increasingly becomes a global investment option, investors around the world turn their attention to real estate emerging markets, such as the Latin American one, ...

Martinez, Andres (Martinez Sanchez Hidalgo)

2011-01-01

389

Capacity-building programmes in Latin America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"If we do not support basic science, we might as well give up our idea of living in a civilized country". These words by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, President of Argentina, are from a speech he delivered in 1871, at the inauguration of the Córdoba Astronomical Observatory, first in Latin America. It contained in this way a response to critics saying that there were more pressing matters where to spend public funds than promoting scientific research and education. It also marked the beginning of capacity-building activities in Argentina. We shall review how these activities have developed in Argentina as well as the other Latin American countries, current programmes and the role that space activities play and can play in the future.

Machado, M. E.

390

Latin Pilot Study. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Latin Pilot Study was initiated by the Alexandria City Schools in the school year 1972-73 and continued in 1973-74 in an attempt to increase the English reading skills of elementary students. It was proposed that Latin instruction with strong emphasis on relating English words to their Latin roots and affixes would strengthen reading skills, in…

Payne, Jean W.

391

SCOOL: A NASA Geoscience Education Success in Latin America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students' Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL), better known to our Latin American participants as "Observaciones Estudiantiles de las Nubes", has been influencing the way some Latin American students learn to appreciate the geosciences since 1998. Through a collaborative effort between NASA and thousands of schools across the globe, a mutually beneficial relationship has been created that captures the essence of and serves as a model for programs that leverage opportunities between the scientific and education communities. S'COOL is one of a handful of programs that provides solutions to the needs voiced by Latin American educators for educational resources that stimulate student interest in the geosciences. S'COOL is a hands-on project that involves schools of every grade in collaborative Earth climate research with NASA scientists. Students make ground truth observations and record the type, amount, and features of clouds in the sky at the time a NASA satellite passes over their location. Aside from learning the basic cloud characteristics, students benefit by having access to experts in the field of atmospheric science and also to a database of information that can be utilized in analytical studies. Scientists benefit from tens of thousands of observations sent into the database and used to validate the Cloud and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument on-board the new generation NASA Earth Observing satellites: Terra and Aqua. To observe and send results to NASA, teachers and students go through the following three steps: 1) obtain the satellite overpass schedule, 2) observe the clouds and record the observation on the report form provided, 3) record the observations in the NASA database. To facilitate communication with many countries and to help teachers to prepare introductory lessons on clouds and meteorology, NASA provides educational materials and report forms in a number of languages including Spanish. As a result, schools from 68 countries are now registered S'COOL observers, including two thirds of Latin American countries. The spread of the project in Latin America has principally been through word of mouth, assisted by the efforts of several individuals who have developed in-country networks based on their own interests. Latin American participants have submitted nearly 9000 observations (constituting 40% of observations received from outside the US), and provide one of few sources of cloud observations during the summer months when northern hemisphere schools are mostly on vacation. Contributions from Latin American participants are also regularly featured in the S'COOL Cloud Photo of the Month. Over the course of eight years, S'COOL has amassed a wealth of knowledge pertaining to the implementation of collaborative projects in Latin America. This paper will report several key lessons learned.

Chambers, L. H.; Fischer, J. D.; Moore, S. W.; Rogerson, T. M.

2006-12-01

392

Problems Facing Native American Youths. Hearing before the Committee on Indian Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session, on Oversight Hearing on Problems Facing Native American Youths (August 1, 2002).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Senate committee hearing received testimony on the problems of Native American youth and programs addressing those problems. Speakers included representatives of the American Academy of Pediatrics, United National Indian Tribal Youth (UNITY), Boys and Girls Clubs of America, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), and the Office of National Drug…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.

393

Teaching About Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is offered as a resource guide for teachers rather than as a prescriptive syllabus. No course of study is delineated and no course objectives are spelled out. Instead there are illustrative examples for applying discovery techniques to the study of Latin America, suggestions of various themes useful in organizing a course of study…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

394

Afro-Latin Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of Afro-Latin studies is reviewed, starting with questions about terminology and racial classification, then exploring issues of racism and the relation between race and class. The impact of black (and indigenous) social movements on the field of study is then examined and this raises the question of how ideologies and practices of mestizaje have changed in the wake

Peter Wade

2006-01-01

395

Housing in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

INDES provides training programmes for public officials in Latin America and the Caribbean .Its current courses currently emphasize strategies for poverty reduction and the provision of social services, particularly education and health. INDES is considering extending its programme to include discussion of a current orphan of social policy, housing and shelter. This poses three questions. First, why is housing deserving

Alan Gilbert

2001-01-01

396

Latin: Horseshoe Style.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides a description of how to conduct a learning program for Latin I - IV in order to set in motion a student-operated class with total involvement. The students without intervention from the teacher perform, each one making his/her contribution to the class on the basis of his/her particular interest and motivation. From…

Bensen, Anna Roberta

397

Pronunciation of Biological Latin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Peter Ommundsen, instructor at Selkirk College (Canada), has put together this online resource targeting undergraduates. The site introduces the reader to the pronunciation of biological Latin -- a handy reference for newcomers to the language of science. It is concise and serves as a helpful introduction to the topic.

Ommundsen, Peter.

398

Higher Education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Strategy Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the views of the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) on higher education in Latin America and the Caribbean and offers a strategy for how it can promote improvement. The paper attempts to produce an accurate assessment and useful policy implications. The first chapter, "A Mixed Performance," contains a general assessment of…

de Moura Castro, Claudio; Levy, Daniel C.

399

AHEC MEXICO / LATIN AMERICA MARKET REPORT August -September, 2004  

E-print Network

AHEC MEXICO / LATIN AMERICA MARKET REPORT August - September, 2004 AMERICAN HARDWOOD EXPORT COUNCIL US Agricultural Trade Office Jaime Balmes No.8, Piso 2 Col. Los Morales Polanco 11510 Mexico, D.F., Mexico TEL: +(52) 55 5282-0909 FAX: +(52) 55 5282-0919 e-mail: ahecmx@infosel.net.mx 1 #12;AHEC Mexico

400

Is There a Feminization of Poverty in Latin America?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. — We propose two different concepts of the feminization of poverty and analyze house- hold survey data to verify if there is an ongoing feminization of poverty in eight Latin American countries according to each of these concepts. We also verify if our results respond to changes in values of poverty lines and to different scenarios of intra-household inequalities,

Marcelo Medeiros; Joana Costa

2008-01-01

401

FIGHTING RURAL POVERTY IN LATIN AMERICA: NEW EVIDENCE AND POLICY  

Microsoft Academic Search

We synthesize recent case studies on rural poverty in six Latin American countries, plus two thematic studies. We find that the return to education in farming is surprisingly small; land redistribution increases total farm output, but has mixed effects on income; and urban economic growth significantly reduces rural poverty.

Alberto Valdes; Ramon E. Lopez

1999-01-01

402

Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Latin America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three Latin American countries--Brazil, Peru and Argentina--were examined to identify promising practices and to assess lessons…

Nemes, Susanna; Libretto, Salvatore; Garrett, Gerald; Johansson, Anna Carin; Hess, Lauren

2005-01-01

403

Mortality Among Blacks or African Americans with HIV Infection - United States, 2008-2012.  

PubMed

A primary goal of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy is to reduce HIV-related health disparities, including HIV-related mortality in communities at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. As a group, persons who self-identify as blacks or African Americans (referred to as blacks in this report), have been affected by HIV more than any other racial/ethnic population. Forty-seven percent of persons who received an HIV diagnosis in the United States in 2012 and 43% of all persons living with diagnosed HIV infection in 2011 were black. Blacks also experienced a low 3-year survival rate among persons with HIV infection diagnosed during 2003-2008. CDC and its partners have been pursuing a high-impact prevention approach and supporting projects focusing on minorities to improve diagnosis, linkage to care, and retention in care, and to reduce disparities in HIV-related health outcomes. To measure trends in disparities in mortality among blacks, CDC analyzed data from the National HIV Surveillance System. The results of that analysis indicated that among blacks aged ?13 years the death rate per 1,000 persons living with diagnosed HIV decreased from 28.4 in 2008 to 20.5 in 2012. Despite this improvement, in 2012 the death rate per 1,000 persons living with HIV among blacks was 13% higher than the rate for whites and 47% higher than the rate for Hispanics or Latinos. These data demonstrate the need for implementation of interventions and public health strategies to further reduce disparities in deaths. PMID:25654607

Siddiqi, Azfar-E-Alam; Hu, Xiaohong; Hall, H Irene

2015-02-01

404

Intelligibility of American English Vowels and Consonants Spoken by International Students in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the intelligibility of English consonants and vowels produced by Chinese-native (CN), and Korean-native (KN) students enrolled in American universities. Method: 16 English-native (EN), 32 CN, and 32 KN speakers participated in this study. The intelligibility of 16 American English consonants and 16…

Jin, Su-Hyun; Liu, Chang

2014-01-01

405

Ethnic Heritage Studies: German-American Profiles and Contributions--Major Figures. Experimental Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching guide focuses on several prominent German-Americans and their contributions to American life, and provides some insights into German culture. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The project materials are designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines. The…

Allen, Talbott

406

International Migration and Gender in Latin America: A Comparative Analysis.  

PubMed

We review census data to assess the standing of five Latin American nations on a gender continuum ranging from patriarchal to matrifocal. We show that Mexico and Costa Rica lie close to one another with a highly patriarchal system of gender relations whereas Nicaragua and the Dominican Republic are similar in having a matrifocal system. Puerto Rico occupies a middle position, blending characteristics of both systems. These differences yield different patterns of female relative to male migration. Female householders in the two patriarchal settings displayed low rates of out-migration compared with males, whereas in the two matrifocal countries the ratio of female to male migration was much higher, in some case exceeding their male counterparts. Multivariate analyses showed that in patriarchal societies, a formal or informal union with a male dramatically lowers the odds of female out-migration, whereas in matrifocal societies marriage and cohabitation have no real effect. The most important determinants of female migration from patriarchal settings are the migrant status of the husband or partner, having relatives in the United States, and the possession of legal documents. In matrifocal settings, however, female migration is less related to the possession of documents, partner's migrant status, or having relatives in the United States and more strongly related to the woman's own migratory experience. Whereas the process of cumulative causation appears to be driven largely by men in patriarchal societies, it is women who dominate the process in matrifocal settings. PMID:21399742

Massey, Douglas S; Fischer, Mary J; Capoferro, Chiara

2006-12-01

407

Periodontal disease in children and adolescents of Latin America.  

PubMed

Periodontal diseases are a group of infectious diseases that mainly include gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis is the most prevalent form of periodontal disease in subjects of all ages, including children and adolescents. Less frequent types of periodontal disease include aggressive periodontitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and various diseases of herpesviral and fungal origin. This review aimed to retrieve relevant information from Latin America on the prevalence of periodontal diseases among children and adolescents of the region. Gingivitis was detected in 35% of young Latin American subjects and showed the highest frequencies in Colombia (77%) and Bolivia (73%) and the lowest frequency in Mexico (23%). The frequency of gingivitis in subjects from other Latin American countries was between 31% and 56%. Periodontitis may affect <10% of the young population in Latin America, but the data are based on only a few studies. A more precise assessment of the distribution and severity of periodontal disease in children and adolescents of Latin America may help policy makers and dentists to institute more effective public health measures to prevent and treat the disease at an early age to avoid major damage to the permanent dentition. PMID:25494597

Botero, Javier E; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Duque, Andres; Jaramillo, Adriana; Contreras, Adolfo

2015-02-01

408

Mapping Latin America for Grades Six to Ten. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit, to be used with students in grades 6-10, has been designed to serve three purposes. First, the unit acts as an introduction to, or review of, fundamental geographic concepts and vocabulary. Second, it teaches students about the basic physical and political geography of Latin America. Third, students learn to examine maps with a critical…

Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

409

Neo-Latin News  

E-print Network

del Rinascimento. Florence: Olschki, 2000; Franco Bacchelli. Giovanni Pico e Pier Leone da Spoleto: tra filosofia dell?amore e tradizione cabalistica. Florence: Olschki, 2001. Pierleone da Spoleto (ca. 1440-1492) is NEO-LATIN NEWS 133 best known... sources, printed and manuscript; in this she is quite successful. A useful bibliography is included, but no indices whatsoever, an unfortunate omission. ? Franco Bacchelli?s Giovanni Pico e Pier Leone da Spoleto: tra filosofia dell?amore e tradizione...

Craig Kallendorf, et al

2004-01-01

410

Neo-Latin News  

E-print Network

image of her dead husband carried by a different widow in the companion epigram. The conclusions which Neagu reaches after 250 pages largely given over to critical analysis hardly justify the effort: Olahus, we learn, had ?a keen eye for... articles based on talks given by German and Austrian scholars at a conference held in Bad Homberg, Germany, in 2001. Arranged chronologically, the essays cover Neo-Latin poets from Italy, France, Germany, and England. Since most of the poems are hard...

Craig Kallendorf, et al

2005-01-01

411

Science in Latin America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Nature_ special feature (April supplement) "Science in Latin America" is freely available in HTML or .pdf (157 K) at the Website. The supplement "attempts to collate and analyze the common challenges and opportunities facing science policy makers across the region." The report emphasizes "Brazil, Argentina and Mexico as the three dominant scientific powers in the region, Chile as an innovator, and Cuba as an exception, the island nation that is still engaged in a Cold War."

412

Neo-Latin News  

E-print Network

curious history that has impeded in some remarkable ways the production of a critical edition. It was dedicated to Cardinal Domenico Grimani, bishop of Porto and patriarch of Aquileia, but did not meet with the approval of the cardinal, who.... (Stephen Murphy, Wake Forest University) ? Milton?s Cambridge Latin Performing in the Genres 1625-1632. By John K. Hale. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 289. Tempe, Ariz.: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2005. xii...

Kallendorf, Craig et al

2008-01-01

413

Argentine, Kansas: The Evolution of a Mexican American Community, 1905-1940  

E-print Network

in helping me to sharpen my perceptions of urban history, methodology and sociological theory, respectively* Pro- fessors William J* Griffith and Charles L* Stansifer, former Director and Director, respectively, of the Latin American Studies Center, helped... in the United States began in the 1920s. Sociologists in that decade probed Mexican barrios in the fashion of the "Chicago School" of sociology of Robert E . Park and E. W . Burgess. Barrios became urban observatories. Many of these seminal con- temporary...

Laird, Judith Fincher

1975-10-01

414

[Obesity prevalence in Latin America].  

PubMed

Obesity is a public health problem that affects both the developed and the developing countries. Its aetiology includes genetic factors and lifestyle (diet and physical activity). The studies of its prevalence in different strata and localisations of the Latin American countries varied between 22-26% in Brazil, 21% in Mexico, 10% in Ecuador, 3-22% in Peru, 22-35% in Paraguay and 24-27% in Argentina, although these data should not be extrapolated to the general population. The comparative national studies made it possible to establish that: 1.- The prevalence of preobesity plus obesity was above 20% in 17 of the 20 countries. 2.- There is a trend to increase in the prevalence of obesity. 3.- The relation of obesity between women/men is significantly higher in females in the majority of countries. In any case, although the validity of these rates must be examined with care, since the goals of evaluation and comparison with the corresponding patterns might differ, it can be observed that the epidemiological transition in these countries leads to a growing number of persons with obesity. PMID:12861275

Braguinsky, J

2002-01-01

415

Transportation context of Latin American logistics  

E-print Network

Through increasing globalization and trade liberalization, many third-world and developing countries are experiencing levels of growth that are quickly shifting the world's balance of political and economic power. China ...

Sweat, Sean D. (Sean David)

2008-01-01

416

Latin American Debt: Opportunities for Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The debt crisis of the lesser developed countries (LDCs) may provide opportunities for educational institutions. Through debt-for-education programs, a part of the huge debt load can be channelled into financing various educational programs sponsored by U.S. higher education institutions. Private commercial banks and multinational corporations are…

Garg, Ramesh C.

417

[Latin American malacology. Freshwater mollusks from Argentina].  

PubMed

A report and an updated list with comments on the species of freshwater molluscs of Argentina which covers an area of 2 777 815 km2 is presented. Distributions of Gastropoda and Bivalvia families, endemic, exotic, invasive as well as entities of sanitary importance are also studied and recommendations on their conservation are provided. Molluscs related to the Del Plata Basin have been thoroughly studied in comparison to others areas of the country. This fauna exhibits relatively the biggest specific richness and keeps its affinity with the fauna of other regions of the basin in areas of Paraguay and Brasil. The 4 500 records of molluscs considered in this paper arise from the study of the collections of Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires; Museo de La Plata, La Plata and Fundación "Miguel Lillo", Tucumán. These institutions keep very important collections of molluscs in southern South America. Field information has recently been obtained and localities cited by other authors are also included in the data base. Until today, 166 species have been described, 101 belonging to 10 families of Gastropoda and 65 to 7 of Bivalvia. Families with highest specific richness are Lithoglyphidae (22) and Sphaeriidae (25), respectively. The number of endemic species (those present only in Argentina) by family is: Gastropoda: Ampullariidae (1), Cochliopidae (10), Lithoglyphidae (11), Thiariidae (3), Chilinidae (11), Lymnaeidae (2) and Physidae (2?); Bivalvia: Hyriidae (1?); Etheriidae (1?) and Sphaeriidae (10). Families with a distribution that comprise almost the whole country are: the Sphaeriidae and the gastropods Cochliopidae, Chilinidae and Lymnaeidae. Families Erodonidae and Solecurtidae (Bivalvia) were registered in mixohaline environments from Buenos Aires province. Gastropod families Thiaridae and Glacidorbiidae show a very restricted distribution. The rest of the families are present mainly in the center and north of the country. Species of sanitary interest are the propagators of: schistosomiasis -Biomphalaria peregrina, B. straminea y B. tenagophila, Planorbidae-, fasciolasis -Lymnaea viatrix and L. columnella, Lymnaeidae- and dermatitis -Chilina gibbosa and C. fluminea, Chilinidae. Invasive species are: Corbicula fluminea (Corbiculidae) and Limnoperna fortunei (Mytilidae). The construction of new areas for the protection and conservation of the high risk endemic species of freshwater molluscs is a priority. It is necessary to give special attention to the species of the patagonic mountain range and of the mesopotamic area of the Del Plata Basin. PMID:18624229

Rumi, Alejandra; Gregoric, Diego E Gutiérrez; Núñez, Verónica; Darrigran, Gustavo A

2008-03-01

418

GEOGRAPHY 155: Latin American Geography Paper Assignment  

E-print Network

occupation (%), GDP - composition by sector (%), GNP per capita, Percent of population below the poverty line Write a research report, maximum of 2 pages single-spaced in Times 12 point font, addressing an issue and cite at least 2 sources relating to the topic of choice. Potential topics include: migration

Lopez-Carr, David

419

Root Words- Greek and Latin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Greek and Latin are parts of many of the words you use every day. Using the links provided create 10 new words. Also figure out what the 5 words below mean. Check out these links for help in creating your new words. Sometimes you will need to scroll down to find the information. Latin and Greek Word Elements Greek and Latin Root Words List Latin Greek Roots Index Take Our Word For It Word Translation 1. Chromophobe 2. Loqumal 3. Rogospath 4. Hypnoliver 5. Aquaport Root Words Quiz Select one of the sections one-six and see how well you do now that you have become better acquainted with Greek and ...

Miss B

2007-06-21

420

China Unit and Resource Packet. The China Project of the American Forum for Global Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit of study focuses on belief systems from China. It is crucial that students understand there are different ways of viewing the world, all of which may be valid. The 20 lessons in the unit stem from the presumptions that place students in the role of "historian" for the duration of these China studies. The unit is divided into the…

Larkin, Julie; Dowling, Seamus

421

The role of labour market and social protection in reducing inequality and eradicating poverty in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latin America has experienced an unprecedented period of macroeconomic stability and high economic growth between 2003 and 2008. The main aim of this paper is to analyse to what extent these more favourable conditions have been an opportunity for Latin American countries to recover their labour markets and conduct a more active social policy. The paper discusses the contribution of

Bertranou Fabio; Maurizio Roxana

2011-01-01

422

D I S U N I T y I N D I V E R S I T y Party System Fragmentation and the Dynamic Effect of Ethnic Heterogeneity on Latin American Legislatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates that in Latin America a significant portion of the increased legislative party system fragmentation since the 1980s is explained by the recent political incorporation of ethnic populations. Until now, scholars have likely not identified this relationship because they have not used the nuanced measures of ethnic fractionalization that account for internal diversity of indig- enous populations and

Jóhanna Kristín Birnir; Donna Lee Van Cott

2007-01-01

423

Geriatric education in undergraduate and graduate levels in latin america.  

PubMed

A recent dramatic increase in the elderly population has not been accompanied by a parallel increase in specialized health care professionals in Latin America. The main purpose of this work was to determine the stage of geriatrics teaching for undergraduate and graduate medical levels in Latin America. Using a questionnaire given in person and online, the authors surveyed geriatricians from 16 countries: eight from South America and eight from Central America. Among 308 medical schools, 35% taught undergraduate geriatrics, ranging from none in Uruguay, Venezuela, and Guatemala to 82% in Mexico. The authors identified 36 programs in 12 countries with graduate medical education in geriatrics, ranging from 2 to 5 years of training. The authors conclude that although the population is aging rapidly in Latin American countries, there has been a slow development of geriatrics teaching at undergraduate and postgraduate levels in the region. PMID:24717013

López, Jorge H; Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A

2015-01-01

424

Field Stations Compliance CommitteesAdministrative Units Research Units  

E-print Network

Zoology Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology UC Museum of Paleontology UC Botanical Garden University for Integrative Planetary Science Center for Latin American Studies Center for Medicine, the Humanities & Law

Doudna, Jennifer A.

425

Field Stations Compliance CommitteesAdministrative Units Research Units  

E-print Network

Zoology Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology UC Museum of Paleontology UC Botanical Garden University for Latin American Studies Center for Medicine, the Humanities & Law Center for Middle Eastern Studies

Walker, Matthew P.

426

Field Stations Compliance CommitteesAdministrative Units Research Units  

E-print Network

of Paleontology UC Botanical Garden University & Jepson Herbaria Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI) Helen Wills Center for Latin American Studies Center for Medicine, the Humanities & Law Center for Middle Eastern

Jacobs, Lucia

427

Neo-Latin News  

E-print Network

lived in Aix-la-Chapelle as an administrative clerk and wrote occasional po- etry in German and Latin. The poems, most of them commissioned (549), are displayed in chronological order of composition against the background of the vicissitudes... of the history of Aix-la-Chapelle during v.A.?s lifetime. They are counted in roman numerals: 32 individual poems as no. II-XXXIII, a series of elegiac couplets written for prize-distributions at the local school as no. I, and 10 chronograms as no. XXXIV, a...

Kallendorf, Craig, et al

2006-01-01

428

Neo-Latin News  

E-print Network

: Franciscus Colonna the member of a collateral branch of the patrician family of this name in Rome, Franciscus Colonna the Dominican monk at the convent of Sts. Giovanni and Paolo in Venice, or another writer using Franciscus Colonna as a pseudonym, Felice... Feliciano, perhaps, or Leon Battista Alberti? And what does this mysterious text, written in a mysterious language, mean? NEO-LATIN NEWS 121 Starting in the 1970s, scholars like Giovanni Pozzi have tried to shift atten- tion away from the woodcuts, which...

Craig Kallendorf, et al

2006-01-01

429

Neo-Latin News  

E-print Network

?opera di Francesco Filelfo,? in Storia di Milano, vol. 7: L?et? sforzesca dal 1450 al 1500, Milan: Fondazione Treccani degli Alfieri, 1956, 545). Yet a neo-latin news 233 careful reading of Book 4 of the Odes reveals more than a simple hack... and the Repastinatio dialecticae et philosophiae. The latter title suggests what he is up to, a ?replowing? or ?retilling? of what he presented as the barren, infertile soil of late medieval philosophy and theology, a ?repair? or ?rebuild- ing? of Aristotelian...

Kallendorf, Craig, et. al

2010-01-01

430

MOSQUITO VECTOR CONTROL AND BIOLOGY IN LATIN AMERICA - A 16TH SYMPOSIUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 16th Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 72nd Annual Meeting in Detroit, Michigan in February 2006. The principal objective, as for the previous 15 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector cont...

431

Mosquito vector biology and control in Latin America - a 24th symposium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 24th Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 80th Annual Meeting in Seattle, WA in February 2014. The principal objective, as for the previous 23 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control spe...

432

Junior High Unit Spans Five Disciplines: American History Comes Alive in Ohio  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A time of upheaval and innovation, the American Colonial Period (1600-1775) was marked by New World settlers' struggles to adapt to a life that lacked anything familiar or prefabricated. The period provides a rich opportunity to study the contributions of the colonists across multiple disciplines. In the fall of 2003, a team of eighth-grade…

Needham, Rosalind

2004-01-01

433

Building Native American Houses Using the Super3: A Collaborative Unit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Super3 research process equips students with their own set of handy tools so that they can take the most ordinary facts and transform them into amazing research projects. The second grade students have created Native American homes by applying the Super3 process and its tools such as graphic organizers, trash and treasure note taking, and the…

Lieser, Emmy

2005-01-01

434

American Indian Methamphetamine and Other Drug Use in the Southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the extent of methamphetamine and other drug use among American Indians (AIs) in the Four Corners region, we developed collaborations with Southwestern tribal entities and treatment programs in and around New Mexico. We held nine focus groups, mostly with Southwestern AI participants (N = 81) from three diverse New Mexico communities to understand community members, treatment providers, and

Alyssa A. Forcehimes; Kamilla L. Venner; Michael P. Bogenschutz; Kevin Foley; Meredith P. Davis; Jon M. Houck; Ericke L. Willie; Peter Begaye

2011-01-01

435

Comparing Health And Health Care Use In Canada And The United States A survey conducted on both sides of the border finds that insured Americans and Canadians have much in common, but uninsured Americans lag behind  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from the Joint Canada\\/United States Survey of Health (2002-2003) reveal that health status is relatively similar in the two countries, but income-related health disparities exist. Americans in the poorest income quintile are more likely to have poor health than their Canadian counterparts; there were no differences between the rich. In general, Canadians were more like insured Americans regarding access

Claudia Sanmartin; Jean-Marie Berthelot; Edward Ng; Kellie Murphy; Debra L. Blackwell; Jane F. Gentleman; Michael E. Martinez; Catherine M. Simile

436

Inflation Targeting in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes Latin America’s recent experience with the use of inflation targeting (IT) while the region has made substantial progress toward eradicating high inflation. The paper assesses the implementation and results of inflation targeting in Latin America from a broad perspective. It starts by reviewing the issues relevant for the choice of exchange-rate regimes and monetary frameworks, documenting the

Vittorio Corbo; Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel

2001-01-01

437

Inflation Targeting in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes Latin America’s recent experience with the use of inflation targeting (IT) while the region has made substantial progress toward eradicating high inflation. The paper assesses the implementation and results of inflation targeting in Latin America from a broad perspective. It starts by reviewing the issues relevant for the choice of exchange-rate regimes and monetary frameworks, documenting the

Vittorio Corbo; Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel

2002-01-01

438

Eugenics in the garden: architecture, medicine, and landscape from France to Latin America in the early twentieth century  

E-print Network

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries--decades that saw the radical transformation of Latin American cities into metropolises-race and environment became social determinants of the modem utopian project of ...

López-Durán, Fabiola

2009-01-01

439

Overcoming social segregation in health care in Latin America.  

PubMed

Latin America continues to segregate different social groups into separate health-system segments, including two separate public sector blocks: a well resourced social security for salaried workers and their families and a Ministry of Health serving poor and vulnerable people with low standards of quality and needing a frequently impoverishing payment at point of service. This segregation shows Latin America's longstanding economic and social inequality, cemented by an economic framework that predicted that economic growth would lead to rapid formalisation of the economy. Today, the institutional setup that organises the social segregation in health care is perceived, despite improved life expectancy and other advances, as a barrier to fulfilling the right to health, embodied in the legislation of many Latin American countries. This Series paper outlines four phases in the history of Latin American countries that explain the roots of segmentation in health care and describe three paths taken by countries seeking to overcome it: unification of the funds used to finance both social security and Ministry of Health services (one public payer); free choice of provider or insurer; and expansion of services to poor people and the non-salaried population by making explicit the health-care benefits to which all citizens are entitled. PMID:25458715

Cotlear, Daniel; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia; Atun, Rifat; Barreto, Ivana C H C; Cetrángolo, Oscar; Cueto, Marcos; Francke, Pedro; Frenz, Patricia; Guerrero, Ramiro; Lozano, Rafael; Marten, Robert; Sáenz, Rocío

2014-10-15

440

Mental disorders and mental health service use across asian american subethnic groups in the United States.  

PubMed

This study analyzed the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions data, 2001-2002, to compare the prevalence and odds of DSM-IV mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders and mental health service use across Asian American subethnic groups (648 East Asians, 485 Southeast Asians, 298 South Asians). Asian American subethnic groups varied in lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders (p = 0.004), mainly due to differences in the presence of any substance use disorder (p = 0.06), and specifically, drug use disorders (p = 0.02). While Southeast Asians had the highest prevalence of substance use disorders (16.7 %), fewer Southeast Asians with substance use disorders used mental health services (11.1 %) compared to South Asians with substance use disorders (24.2 %). East Asians compared to South Asians had significantly lower odds of mental health service use for substance use disorders (confidence interval = 0.08-0.84). Asian American subethnic groups vary in the prevalence of mental disorders and in mental health service use, especially for substance use disorders. PMID:24957253

Lee, Su Yeon; Martins, Silvia S; Lee, Hochang B

2015-02-01

441

Knowledge and perceived implementation of food safety risk analysis framework in latin america and the Caribbean region.  

PubMed

Risk analysis is increasingly promoted as a tool to support science-based decisions regarding food safety. An online survey comprising 45 questions was used to gather information on the implementation of food safety risk analysis within the Latin American and Caribbean regions. Professionals working in food safety in academia, government, and private sectors in Latin American and Caribbean countries were contacted by email and surveyed to assess their individual knowledge of risk analysis and perceptions of its implementation in the region. From a total of 279 participants, 97% reported a familiarity with risk analysis concepts; however, fewer than 25% were able to correctly identify its key principles. The reported implementation of risk analysis among the different professional sectors was relatively low (46%). Participants from industries in countries with a long history of trade with the United States and the European Union, such as Mexico, Brazil, and Chile, reported perceptions of a higher degree of risk analysis implementation (56, 50, and 20%, respectively) than those from the rest of the countries, suggesting that commerce may be a driver for achieving higher food safety standards. Disagreement among respondents on the extent of the use of risk analysis in national food safety regulations was common, illustrating a systematic lack of understanding of the current regulatory status of the country. The results of this survey can be used to target further risk analysis training on selected sectors and countries. PMID:25474056

Cherry, C; Mohr, A Hofelich; Lindsay, T; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Hueston, W; Sampedro, F

2014-12-01

442

American  

E-print Network

Obesity is linked to chronic conditions such as high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, and stroke. 19 Women who are obese prior to pregnancy are at increased risk of developing gestational diabetes, pregnancy-related hypertension, preeclampsia, and labor complications; and their infants are at increased risk for neonatal death. 19,20,21 More than one-third (36.3 percent) of Oregon births in 2004 were to women who were overweight or obese prior to pregnancy. • Almost half (47.1 percent) of American Indian/Alaska Native women were overweight/obese prior to pregnancy. This percentage was significantly higher than that of white (36.0 percent) or Asian/ Pacific Islander (20.1 percent) women. • Asian/Pacific Islander women were significantly less likely than any other race/ethnic group to be overweight/obese before pregnancy (20.1 percent). Pre-pregnancy Body Mass Index (BMI), the ratio of a person’s height to weight before the woman became pregnant, is calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. PRAMS calculates BMI from self-reported height and weight just before pregnancy. The BMI cut-off values specified by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 1990 for women prior to pregnancy are as follows 22:

Pre-pregnancy Obesity

443

Union Formation Implications of Race and Gender Gaps in Educational Attainment: The Case of Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use census microdata to assess the levels of educational homogamy in six Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile,\\u000a Costa Rica, Ecuador and Mexico. This paper contributes to the literature on homogamy in three ways. First, by conducting a\\u000a comparative analysis between countries belonging to the still little-studied region of Latin America, which is still undergoing\\u000a intense and varied processes

Albert Esteve; Luis López-Ruiz

2010-01-01

444

African Americans Studies W111: Race, Class and Gender in the United Preliminary Syllabus  

E-print Network

for the reduction of violence Describe the main contours of mass incarceration in the United States and the feminization of poverty. Lecture 4. Mass incarceration and the social tentacles of the prison. MODULE TWO: RACE

Doudna, Jennifer A.

445

The Determinants Policy Convergence in Latin America and the Caribbean  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been numerous attempts at the formation of regional policy groupings within Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). This paper analyses whether or not there has been any convergence in the macroeconomic policies pursued by member countries using realised correlation analysis and panel unit root tests of convergence for 26 LAC countries and observations covering the period 1970 to

Mahalia Jackman; Winston Moore

446

Did African Americans experience the 'Antebellum Puzzle'? Evidence from the United States Colored Troops during the Civil War.  

PubMed

The "Antebellum Puzzle" has been the subject of comment since the 1980s. It involves the paradox that, although the American economy was experiencing rapid economic growth in the several decades prior to the Civil War (1861-1865), the stature of native-born white males had been declining for the birth cohorts from the late 1820s. This was also true for free blacks (Komlos, 1992), but was apparently not true for slaves. This paper uses a sample of 8592 adult back males who were recruits to the United States Colored Troops during the Civil War. They were recruited significantly among ex-slaves. Recruits from the birth cohorts of 1838-1842 were then linked to characteristics of their counties of birth from the 1840 and 1850 U.S. Censuses. Unlike slaves in the coastal manifests, these African American recruits showed evidence of a decline in heights from the birth cohorts of the 1820s onwards. Unlike the native-white recruits, however, the characteristics of their counties of birth had relatively less power in explaining differences in heights. There was some support for the mortality hypothesis, but the nutrition hypothesis needs to be interpreted in light of the fact that slave owners has a strong interest in monitoring and controlling the diet of their slaves. PMID:20719584

Haines, Michael R; Craig, Lee A; Weiss, Thomas

2011-01-01

447

Latin America: A Different Reality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the diversity of contexts faced by higher education in Latin America, and the measurement of its quality. Describes a proposal designed by the Catholic University of Argentina whereby the indicators used in developed countries are applied. (EV)

Ledesma, Joaquin Rafael

2002-01-01

448

Periodontal microbiology in Latin America.  

PubMed

This review article describes the microbiota associated with periodontal disease in Latin America. This vast territory includes 22 nations, which show great ethnic diversity, with large groups of White people, Black people, Mestizo people and Native people. Widespread poverty and limited access to education and health-care services, including periodontal care, are prominent predisposing factors for destructive periodontal disease in Latin America. Black people and Mestizo people seem to have particularly severe periodontal disease and are frequently colonized by the major periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The 'red complex' bacterial pathogens and A. actinomycetemcomitans predominate in chronic and aggressive periodontitis, but gram-negative enteric rods and herpesviruses can also play important periodontopathic roles in Latin America. The key to minimizing the risk of periodontal disease is control of the pathogens, and new low-cost periodontal treatments deserve serious consideration in Latin America. PMID:25494598

Contreras, Adolfo; Moreno, Sandra M; Jaramillo, Adriana; Pelaez, Melissa; Duque, Andres; Botero, Javier E; Slots, Jørgen

2015-02-01

449

Vocational Training in Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores historical development and weaknesses and change efforts in vocational training institutions in Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Peru. Identifies future directions for the training enterprise in Latin America. (SK)

Wallenborn, Manfred

2001-01-01

450

African American Studies & Research Center and Latin American & Latino Studies  

E-print Network

of St. Thomas, St. Paul, MN Evolving Radical Thought: Politics, Culture, and Black Transnational Space Lansing, MI Elizabeth Canela, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN New Portrayals of Black Identity, Binghamton Monika Gosin, Duke University, Durham, NC The Blackness of Invisibility: Afro-Cuban Immigrants

Pittendrigh, Barry

451

Diversity in United States Forensics: A Report of Research Conducted for the American Forensic Association.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the participation of women and minorities in the United States forensic community. Surveys sent to a large cross-section of the college and university forensic community examined such issues as: academic mission; funding sources for the forensic program; program evaluation; program size; program activities; program records…

Allen, Mike; Ulrich, Tammie; Trejo, Mary; Bartanen, Michael; Schroeder, Anthony

452

School Violence in Japan and the United States: Sharing American Practice with Japanese Teacher Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In December 1998, faculty from Middle Tennessee State University visited the Faculty of Education at Fukushima University in Fukushima, Japan. The purpose of the visit was to share with Japanese educators the processes through which school counselors are trained to deal with school violence in the United States. Because school staffing patterns…

Picklesimer, Billie K.; Williams, Jane L.

453

Optimizing Health Care for Foreign Students in the United States and American Students Abroad.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook is organized around 15 guidelines for improving health care for foreign students in the United States and U.S. students abroad. Each guideline is described in a chapter followed by self-assessment questions enabling the evaluation of the adequacy of campus health programs. Each chapter concludes with an invitation to outline goals…

American Coll. Health Association, Evanston, IL.

454

A Comparative Study of Taoism and American Transcendentalism: A Humanities Teaching Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching unit, designed for advanced high school students and average junior college students in a humanities oriented literature course, has one primary objective: to correlate similar thinking in two different time periods and locales. The philosophy of Taoism in ancient China and the philosophy of transcendentalism in nineteenth century…

Womack, Nancy

455

Captured by the American Dream: Vocational Education in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since its creation by federal legislation in 1917, vocational education in U.S. high schools has enjoyed a high level of public support. Recently, an increasing number of studies have begun to question the degree to which vocational education in the United States has had an economic payoff for its students. The fact that vocational education…

Wilms, Wellford W.

456

Growing Up American: How Vietnamese Children Adapt to Life in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book tells the story of America's single largest group of refugee children, the children of Vietnamese refugees, as they have experienced growing up in the United States. Although a significant minority of these children lags behind, for the most part Vietnamese children's school success suggests that ethnic progress depends on more than the…

Zhou, Min; Bankston, Carl L., III

457

The Mary McLeod Bethune Council House: African American Women Unite For Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During her long life, Mary McLeod Bethune was an educator, social activist, and prominent leader in the women's rights movement. This latest installment in the National Park Service's "Teaching with Historic Places Lesson Plans" centers on her council House in Washington, D.C., and is a fine resource for history teachers and those with a general interest in American history. The Council House happens to be where the National Council of Negro Women (NCNW) was located for over twenty years, and a number of important discussions regarding the integration of the military took place here. Visitors to the site will want to take a look at the historical essay on the house before getting started, and then they will want to look at the readings on Bethune and the NCNW. The lesson also includes a host of visual images along with some fine classroom activities and discussion questions.

458

Afro-Caribbean and African American Students, Family Factors, and the Influence on Science Performance in the United States: The Untold Story  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary objectives of this research were to explore achievement pattern differences and the influence of family factors on the achievement patterns of Afro-Caribbean and African American students within the United States (U.S.). The study utilized two research designs; a causal-comparative and a correlational design. A student family…

Pinder, Patrice Juliet

2012-01-01

459

Overrepresented Minorities in Special Education in the United States and Romania: Comparison between African-American and Roma Populations in Disability Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manuscript briefly examines minority participation within the school population that is eligible for special education services--namely, African Americans in the United States and the Roma population in Romania. A large percentage of students from both minorities come to school unprepared to learn and they remain behind because of the…

Walker, Gabriela

2008-01-01

460

Fears of Children in the United States: An Examination of the American Fear Survey Schedule with 20 New Contemporary Fear Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty contemporary fears (e.g., terrorist attacks, drive-by shootings, having to fight in a war) were added to E. Gullone and N. J. King's (1992) Australian Fear Survey Schedule for Children-II for use in the United States. The revised survey, the American Fear Survey Schedule for Children (J. J. Burnham, 1995), was investigated. The component…

Burnham, Joy J.

2005-01-01

461

The American Space of Hunger: Geographic, Political, and Economic Change and the Ability to Eat in the United States in the Late 1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this dissertation I examine the United States as a space of hunger. While geographers have analyzed hunger in other places around the world, especially in the Third World, they have generally neglected to explain its occurrence in the American context. I begin by taking to heart Sayer’s observation that social objects are intrinsically meaningful and examine the ways in

Nathan Andrew Walter

2004-01-01

462

Correlates of Spirituality among African Americans and Caribbean Blacks in the United States: Findings from the National Survey of American Life  

PubMed Central

The present study examined differences in reports of spirituality among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks (Black Caribbeans), and non-Hispanic whites using data from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Bivariate analyses indicated that African Americans were most likely to endorse statements regarding the importance of spirituality in their lives (“How important is spirituality in your life?”) and self-assessments of spirituality (“How spiritual would you say you are?”), followed by Caribbean Blacks and non-Hispanic whites. Regression analyses indicated that African Americans and Caribbean Blacks had significantly higher levels of spirituality than did non-Hispanic whites. However, there were no significant differences in spirituality between African Americans and Caribbean Blacks. Separate regression analyses for African Americans and Caribbean Blacks indicated distinctive patterns of sociodemographic and denominational correlates of spiritual sentiments. Findings are discussed in relation to available survey and ethnographic data on self-assessments of spirituality. PMID:21031157

Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M.; Jackson, James S.

2010-01-01

463

Differences in hospital- and ventilator-associated pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant) between Europe and Latin America: A comparison of the EUVAP and LATINVAP study cohorts  

PubMed Central

Purpose A comparison is made of epidemiological variables (demographic and clinical characteristics) and outcomes in patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA) in the Latin American VAP (LATINVAP) vs. the European Union VAP (EUVAP) cohorts of patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). Methods The EUVAP project was a prospective, multicenter observational study reporting 827 patients with HAP/VAP in 27 ICUs from 9 European countries. The LATINVAP project was a multicenter prospective observational study, with an identical design, performed in 17 ICUs from 4 Latin American countries involving 99 patients who developed HAP/VAP. Episodes of VAP/HAP caused by S. aureus, MSSA, and MRSA were compared in both cohorts. Results Forty-five patients had S. aureus HAP/VAP in the EUVAP cohort vs. 11 patients in the LATINVAP cohort. More patients had MRSA in the LATINVAP study than in the EUVAP (45% vs. 33%). ICU mortality among patients with MSSA HAP/VAP in EUVAP was 10% vs. 50% for LATINVAP (OR = 9.75, p = 0.01). Fifteen patients in the EUVAP cohort developed MRSA HAP/VAP as opposed to 5 in LATINVAP. In the EUVAP study there was an ICU mortality rate of 33.3%. In the LATINVAP cohort, the ICU mortality rate was 60% (OR for death = 3.0; 95%CI 0.24–44.7). Conclusion MRSA pneumonia was associated with poorer outcomes in comparison with MSSA. Our study suggests significant variability among European and Latin American ICU practices that may influence clinical outcomes. Furthermore, patients with pneumonia in Latin America have different outcomes. PMID:22749536

Rello, J.; Molano, D.; Villabon, M.; Reina, R.; Rita-Quispe, R.; Previgliano, I.; Afonso, E.; Restrepo, M.I.

2014-01-01

464

Dietary patterns and sarcopenia in an urban African American and White population in the United States.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this cross-sectional study was to characterize dietary patterns of African Americans and Whites, 30 to 64 years, examined in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study. Other objectives of the study were to evaluate micronutrient adequacy of each pattern and to determine the association of diet with sarcopenia. Cluster analysis was used to determine patterns and mean adequacy ratio (MAR) to determine adequacy of 15 micronutrients. Ten clusters were identified: sandwich, sweet drink, pizza, poultry, frozen meal, dessert, alcoholic drink, bread, starchy vegetables, and pasta/rice dish. MAR ranged from 69 for the sweet drink cluster to 82 for the pasta/rice dish cluster. Sarcopenia was present in 6.4% of the sample, ranging from 1.5% in the poultry cluster to 14.1% in the alcoholic drink cluster. This study is the first to report an association between diet and sarcopenia in people younger than 65 years. The identification of presarcopenia has important implications for dietary interventions that might delay age-associated loss of lean mass. PMID:24224938

Fanelli Kuczmarski, Marie; Mason, Marc A; Beydoun, May A; Allegro, Deanne; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K

2013-01-01

465

Dynamics of the pacific-north american plate boundary in the western united states  

PubMed

The vertically averaged deviatoric stress tensor field within the western United States was determined with topographic data, geoid data, recent global positioning system observations, and strain rate magnitudes and styles from Quaternary faults. Gravitational potential energy differences control the large fault-normal compression on the California coast. Deformation in the Basin and Range is driven, in part, by gravitational potential energy differences, but extension directions there are modified by plate interaction stresses. The California shear zone has relatively low vertically averaged viscosity of about 10(21) pascal.seconds, whereas the Basin and Range has a higher vertically averaged viscosity of 10(22) pascal.seconds. PMID:10657292

Flesch; Holt; Haines; Shen-Tu

2000-02-01

466

Regional Currencies and Regional Monetary Zones in Latin America: What Prospects? Claude Gnos (CEMF-LEG, University of Burgundy) and Jean-Franois Ponsot (LEPII,  

E-print Network

or ALADI, the `Peso Andino" set up by the Latin American Reserve Fund (FLAR) and the Payment System Payments Agreements in Latin America Regional payments agreements are international systems set up of Grenoble) Paper presented at the Eastern Economic Association Annual Conference, New York City, February 27

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

467

Reforming Primary and Secondary Education in Latin America and the Caribbean: An IDB Strategy. Sustainable Development Department Sector Strategy and Policy Papers Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes what is known about educational improvement in Latin America and provides objectives and strategies to guide the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) in supporting primary and secondary education in Latin America and the Caribbean over the next decade. It is based on six background papers as well as a review of the lessons…

Castro, Claudio de Moura; Navarro, Juan Carlos; Wolff, Laurence; Carnoy, Martin

468

Social Medicine Then and Now: Lessons From Latin America  

PubMed Central

The accomplishments of Latin American social medicine remain little known in the English-speaking world. In Latin America, social medicine differs from public health in its definitions of populations and social institutions, its dialectic vision of “health–illness,” and its stance on causal inference. A “golden age” occurred during the 1930s, when Salvador Allende, a pathologist and future president of Chile, played a key role. Later influences included the Cuban revolution, the failed peaceful transition to socialism in Chile, the Nicaraguan revolution, liberation theology, and empowerment strategies in education. Most of the leaders of Latin American social medicine have experienced political repression, partly because they have tried to combine theory and political practice—a combination known as “praxis.” Theoretic debates in social medicine take their bearings from historical materialism and recent trends in European philosophy. Methodologically, differing historical, quantitative, and qualitative approaches aim to avoid perceived problems of positivism and reductionism in traditional public health and clinical methods. Key themes emphasize the effects of broad social policies on health and health care; the social determinants of illness and death; the relationships between work, reproduction, and the environment; and the impact of violence and trauma. PMID:11574316

Waitzkin, Howard; Iriart, Celia; Estrada, Alfredo; Lamadrid, Silvia

2001-01-01

469

Smoking in Latin America: a major public health problem.  

PubMed

Smoking has become a major public health problem in Latin America, and its scope varies from country to country. Despite difficulty in obtaining methodologically consistent data for the region, we analyzed the results from prevalence surveys in 14 Latin American countries. We observed that smoking prevalence among men varied from 24.1% (Paraguay) to 66.3% (Dominican Republic) and among women from 5.5% (Paraguay) to 26,6% (Uruguay). By applying point prevalence data to the stage model of the tobacco epidemic in developed countries, we concluded that the Latin American countries are in stage 2, i.e., with a clearly rising prevalence among men, a prevalence for women that is beginning to increase, and mortality attributable to smoking among men still not reflecting peak prevalence. None of the countries analyzed appeared to have reached stage 3, in which one observes a downward trend in prevalence of smoking among men and peak prevalence among women, with broad impact on tobacco-related mortality. The only exception appears to be Paraguay, which is still emerging from stage 1, i.e., with low prevalence rates among men, too. Nevertheless, high lung cancer mortality rates in Uruguay and Argentina are comparable to those of the developed countries. PMID:9819468

da Costa e Silva, V L; Koifman, S

1998-01-01

470

Optimizing outcomes in multiple sclerosis: consensus guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of multiple sclerosis in Latin America  

PubMed Central

Objective: The prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Latin America varies across different studies but an intermediate risk and increased frequency of the disease have been reported in recent years. The circumstances of Latin American countries are different from those of Europe and North America, both in terms of differential diagnoses and disease management. Methods: An online survey on MS was sent to 855 neurologists in nine Latin American countries. A panel of nine experts in MS analyzed the results. Results: Diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations were outlined with special emphasis on the specific needs and circumstances of Latin America. The experts proposed guidelines for MS diagnosis, treatment, and follow up, highlighting the importance of considering endemic infectious diseases in the differential diagnoses of MS, the identification of patients at high risk of developing MS in order to maximize therapeutic opportunities, early treatment initiation, and cost-effective control of treatment efficacy, as well as global assessment of disability. Conclusions: The experts recommended that healthcare systems allocate a longer consultation time for patients with MS, which must be conducted by neurologists trained in the management of the disease. All drugs currently approved must be available in all Latin American countries and must be covered by healthcare plans. The expert panel supported the creation of a permanent forum to discuss future clinical and therapeutic recommendations that may be useful in Latin American countries. PMID:22164189

Macías-Islas, Miguel Ángel; Gabbai, Alberto Alan; Correale, Jorge; Bolaña, Carlos; Sotelo, Eduardo Duriez; Bonitto, Juan García; Vergara-Edwards, Fernando; Vizcarra-Escobar, Darwin

2011-01-01

471

[Intellectual exchange between Germany and Latin America: an interview with Stefan Rinke].  

PubMed

Current and former students of the Casa de Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz interviewed German historian Stefan Rinke, of the Freie Universität Berlin, who specializes in examining the historical development of Latin America as it fits into the international context. Rinke's work uses dimensions such as economic and diplomatic relations, migratory flows, and ethnic conflict as tools in his analyses of the networks of interdependence that have tied Latin America to Europe and the USA. His lens goes beyond the Latin American continent to approach globalization as a historical process, with national and regional contexts placed within a general framework. In this interview, Rinke talks about his academic career, global and transnational history, and joint projects between Germany and Latin America. PMID:24789489

Rinke, Stefan; da Silva, André Felipe Cândido; Junghans, Miriam; Cavalcanti, Juliana Manzoni; de Muñoz, Pedro Felipe Neves

2014-01-01

472

Training the biomedical informatics workforce in Latin America: results of a needs assessment  

PubMed Central

Objective To report the results of a needs assessment of research and training in Medical Informatics (MI) and Bioinformatics (BI) in Latin America. Methods and results This assessment was conducted by QUIPU: The Andean Global Health Informatics Research and Training Center. After sending email invitations to MI–BI related professionals from Latin America, 142 surveys were received from 11 Latin American countries. The following were the top four ranked MI-related courses that a training programme should include: introduction to biomedical informatics; data representation and databases; mobile health; and courses that address issues of security, confidentiality and privacy. Several new courses and topics for research were suggested by survey participants. The information collected is guiding the development of curricula and a research agenda for the MI and BI QUIPU multidisciplinary programme for the Andean Region and Latin America. PMID:22080537

Blas, Magaly M; Curioso, Walter H; Zimic, Mirko; Carcamo, Cesar P; Castagnetto, Jesus M; Lescano, Andres G; Lopez, Diego M

2011-01-01

473

HIV Testing and Service Delivery Among Blacks or African Americans - 61 Health Department Jurisdictions, United States, 2013.  

PubMed

In the United States, approximately 1.2 million persons are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), of whom approximately 14.0% have not received a diagnosis. Some groups are disproportionately affected by HIV, such as persons who self-identify as blacks or African Americans (in this report referred to as blacks). Blacks accounted for 12.0% of the United States' population but accounted for 41.0% of persons living with HIV in 2011. HIV testing is critical to identify those who are infected and link them to HIV medical care for their own health and to reduce transmission to partners. To assess progress toward increasing HIV testing and service delivery among blacks in 2013, CDC analyzed national-level program data submitted by 61 health departments and 151 directly funded community-based organizations through the National HIV Prevention Program Monitoring and Evaluation system. This report describes the results of that analysis, which found that, in 2013, blacks accounted for 45.0% of CDC-funded HIV testing events (TEs) and more than half (54.9%) of all newly identified HIV-positive persons (in this report referred to as new positives). Among blacks, gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (collectively referred to as MSM) had the highest percentage of new positives (9.6%). Broader implementation of routine HIV screening and HIV testing targeted towards populations at high risk can help identify persons with undiagnosed HIV infection and link these persons to HIV medical care and prevention services. Linkage to medical care and referrals to HIV partner services and HIV prevention services among blacks could be improved. PMID:25654608

Seth, Puja; Walker, Tanja; Hollis, NaTasha; Figueroa, Argelia; Belcher, Lisa

2015-02-01

474

The Relationship Between the American Board of Anesthesiology Part 1 Certification Examination and the United States Medical Licensing Examination  

PubMed Central

Background The graduate medical education community uses results from the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) to inform decisions about individuals' readiness for postgraduate training. Objective We sought to determine the relationship between performance on the USMLE and the American Board of Anesthesiology (ABA) Part 1 Certification Examination using a national sample of examinees, and we considered the relationship in the context of undergraduate medical education location and examination content. Methods Approximately 7800 individuals met inclusion criteria. The relationships between USMLE scores and ABA Part 1 pass rates were examined, and predictions for the strength of the relationship between USMLE content areas and ABA performance were compared with observed relationships. Results Pearson correlations between ABA Part 1 scores and USMLE Steps 1, 2 (clinical knowledge), and 3 scores for first-taker US/Canadian graduates were .59, .56, and .53, respectively. A clear relationship was demonstrated between USMLE scores and pass rates on ABA Part 1, and content experts were able to successfully predict the USMLE content categories that would least or most likely relate to ABA Part 1 scores. Conclusions The analysis provided evidence on a national scale that results from the USMLE and the ABA Part 1 were correlated and that success on the latter examination was associated with level of USMLE performance. Both testing programs have been successful in conceptualizing many of the knowledge areas of interest and in developing test content to reflect those areas. PMID:24404273

Dillon, Gerard F.; Swanson, David B.; McClintock, Joseph C.; Gravlee, Glenn P.

2013-01-01

475

American Revolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Were the colonist justified in rebelling against Great Britain? 1. The United States was not created over night. Many causes of the revolution began back in the 1760's, over ten years before the war. Many causes date before the 1760's. Click here American Revolution Timeline to view a timeline of the events leading to the American Revolution and major events during ...

Coker, Mr.

2010-03-24

476

Suggestions for the Teaching of Latin Composition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Common pitfalls encountered in the teaching of Latin composition are attributed variously to inadequate grammar-explanation approaches, ill-planned textbooks, and certain translation exercises from English to Latin. Other weaknesses, particularly the English-Latin vocabulary problem, are discussed. The author resolves problematic areas through the…

Clay, Jenny

477

Musculoskeletal evaluation in severe haemophilia A patients from Latin America.  

PubMed

There is a paucity of literature on haemophilia treatment in Latin American countries, a region characterized by rapidly improving systems of care, but with substantial disparities in treatment between countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal status of haemophilia patients from Latin America and to examine the relationship between musculoskeletal status and treatment practices across countries. The Committee of Latin America on the Therapeutics of Inhibitor Groups conducted a survey of its member country representatives on key aspects of haemophilia treatment in 10 countries. Musculoskeletal status of patients was obtained during routine comprehensive evaluations between March 2009 and March 2011. Eligible patients had severe haemophilia A (factor VIII <1%) without inhibitors (<0.6 BU mL(-1) ) and were ?5 years of age. Musculoskeletal status was compared between three groups of countries, based primarily on differences in the availability of long-term prophylaxis. Overall, 143 patients (5-66 years of age) were enrolled from nine countries. In countries where long-term prophylaxis had been available for at least 10 years (Group A), patients aged 5-10 years had significantly better mean World Federation of Hemophilia clinical scores, fewer target joints and fewer affected joints than patients from countries where long-term prophylaxis has been available for about 5 years (Group B) or was not available (Group C). In Latin America, the musculoskeletal status of patients with severe haemophilia without inhibitors has improved significantly in association with the provision of long-term prophylaxis. As more countries in Latin America institute this practice, further improvements are anticipated. PMID:24354487

Ozelo, M C; Villaça, P R; Pérez-Bianco, R; Candela, M; Garcia-Chavez, J; Moreno-Rodriguez, B; Rodrigues, M B; Rodriguez-Grecco, I; Solano, M H; Chumpitaz, G; Morales-Gana, M M; Ruiz-Sáez, A

2014-01-01

478

Musculoskeletal evaluation in severe haemophilia A patients from Latin America  

PubMed Central

Summary There is a paucity of literature on haemophilia treatment in Latin American countries, a region characterized by rapidly improving systems of care, but with substantial disparities in treatment between countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal status of haemophilia patients from Latin America and to examine the relationship between musculoskeletal status and treatment practices across countries. The Committee of Latin America on the Therapeutics of Inhibitor Groups conducted a survey of its member country representatives on key aspects of haemophilia treatment in 10 countries. Musculoskeletal status of patients was obtained during routine comprehensive evaluations between March 2009 and March 2011. Eligible patients had severe haemophilia A (factor VIII <1%) without inhibitors (<0.6 BU mL?1) and were ?5 years of age. Musculoskeletal status was compared between three groups of countries, based primarily on differences in the availability of long-term prophylaxis. Overall, 143 patients (5–66 years of age) were enrolled from nine countries. In countries where long-term prophylaxis had been available for at least 10 years (Group A), patients aged 5–10 years had significantly better mean World Federation of Hemophilia clinical scores, fewer target joints and fewer affected joints than patients from countries where long-term prophylaxis has been available for about 5 years (Group B) or was not available (Group C). In Latin America, the musculoskeletal status of patients with severe haemophilia without inhibitors has improved significantly in association with the provision of long-term prophylaxis. As more countries in Latin America institute this practice, further improvements are anticipated. PMID:24354487

Ozelo, M C; Villaça, P R; Pérez-Bianco, R; Candela, M; Garcia-Chavez, J; Moreno-Rodriguez, B; Rodrigues, M B; Rodriguez-Grecco, I; Solano, M H; Chumpitaz, G; Morales-Gana, M M; Ruiz-Sáez, A

2013-01-01

479

Population genetic analysis of cat populations from Mexico, Colombia, Bolivia, and the Dominican Republic: Identification of different gene pools in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we identify new genetic profiles of eight Latin American cat populations. In addition, we combine data from\\u000a the present study and previously published data on 70 other American and European populations to discuss (1) the points of\\u000a introduction of mutant alleles for cat coat phenotypes from Europe into Latin America, (2) the heterozygosity levels at these\\u000a loci

Manuel Ruiz-Garcia; Diana Alvarez; Joseph M. Shostell

2005-01-01

480

ADVANCED PLACEMENT PROGRAM IN LATIN.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE STEPS NECESSARY IN ESTABLISHING AN ADVANCED PLACEMENT PROGRAM IN LATIN ARE DISCUSSED IN THIS BULLETIN FOR TEACHERS AND ADMINISTRATORS. GUIDELINES ARE SUGGESTED FOR SELECTING STUDENTS, ASSIGNING TEACHERS, DESIGNING THE COURSE, ADMINISTERING THE PROGRAM, AND DEVELOPING METHODOLOGY FOR IMPROVING STUDENTS' LANGUAGE SKILLS AND TEACHING LITERATURE.…

DECKER, RICHARD G.; AND OTHERS

481

Internet Accessibility in Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the problems that prohibit expanded Internet access and possible solutions to these problems, particularly with respect to the country of Chile. The three main problems that block Internet usage in Latin America are high demand and poor infrastructure; high costs for Internet access; and high preliminary costs for computers, modems, and…

Haymond, Ruel

1998-01-01

482

Rural poverty in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

While rural poverty in Latin America has declined over the last three decades, success has been uneven across countries and rural poverty remains huge. Reduction in the number of rural relative to urban poor has been mainly the outcome of migration, not of successful rural development. We show that rural incomes are explained by the asset position of households and

Alain de Janvry; Elisabeth Sadoulet

2000-01-01

483

Building ESD in Latin America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To encourage efforts for furthering the UN DESD agenda in Latin America, a meeting titled "Building Education for Sustainable Development" was held in Costa Rica from 31 October to 2 November 2006. Plenary sessions were interspersed with working groups to look at how ESD can be integrated in formal and non-formal education systems, and to make…

Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2007

2007-01-01

484

International migration within Latin America  

E-print Network

destinations ·Rural origin to urban destination #12;International to and from Latin America · Colonial · TODAY 3rd type rural => rural migration 4th type rural => urban migration #12;Permanent: rural => rural => urban migration · What is it? rural to urban migration => permanent change of residence · Why migrate

Lopez-Carr, David