Sample records for united latin american

  1. Manual for Reducing Educational Unit Costs in Latin American Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centro Multinacional de Investigacion Educativa, San Jose (Costa Rica).

    Designed for educational administrators, this manual provides suggestions for reducing educational unit costs in Latin America without reducing the quality of the education. Chapter one defines unit cost concepts and compares the costs of the Latin American countries. Chapter two deals with the different policies which could affect the principal…

  2. A Comparison of Latin American and United States Bilingual Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minaya-Rowe, Liliana

    Bilingual programs and the socio-cultural circumstances surrounding the programs of the United States are compared with the programs and socio-cultural circumstances of three Latin American countries: Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia. The legal frameworks are different. In the United States, bilingual education acts and subsequent programs came as a…

  3. The Latin American University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Joseph, Ed.; Weatherhead, Richard W., Ed.

    A comparative overview is presented of the Latin American university, which is seen as an institution with a particular history and definite role. Chapters are as follows: "The Latin American University: An Introduction," by Joseph Maier and Richard W. Weatherhead; "Origin and Philosophy of the Spanish American University," by Mario Gongora;…

  4. Civilization and Barbarism. A Guide to the Teaching of Latin American Literature. Latin American Curriculum Units for Junior and Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliphant, Dave

    This guide was developed as part of a project to encourage more, and more accurate, teaching about Latin America in U.S. community colleges. The specific purpose of the guide is to survey the range of 20th century Latin American literature in order to suggest various ways in which works from Latin American countries may be integrated into any…

  5. Latin American cheeses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Latin American (or Hispanic-style) cheeses are a category of cheeses that were developed in Mexico, Latin America, and the Caribbean and have become increasingly popular in the U.S. Although research has been conducted on some of the cheeses, quantitative information on the quality traits of most L...

  6. Los Arboles Hablan: A Spanish Language Curriculum Unit Based on the Study of Latin American Rain Forests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuman, John P.

    "Los Arboles Hablan," a video-based curriculum that promotes the learning of Spanish as a second language through study of the Latin American rain forests is described. The 12-session unit was designed for use at the middle school level and integrates science, social science, and environmental education with content focusing on the Amazon rain…

  7. Latin American and Caribbean Studies

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    Latin American and Caribbean Studies Certificate About Us UWM graduates in the 21st century American and Caribbean Studies Certificate Program (LACS) will be especially well-prepared for careers academic focus in Latin American and Caribbean languages, histories, and cultures. However, the LACS

  8. The Latin American Development Archive (LADARK)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Latin American Development Archive (LADARK) was developed by the Program in Comparative International Development, Johns Hopkins University to provide research resources on Latin American development. The site features papers presented at the Guatamalan conference on development and democracy, SPSS data sets and working papers on Latin America. Educators will also find the collection of syllabi for Latin American courses and bibliographies useful.

  9. Latin American Art and Music: A Handbook for Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Judith Page, Ed.

    This collection of essays, curriculum units, and study guides on Latin American art and musical traditions is designed to help interested teachers take a comprehensive approach to teaching these subjects. The introduction features the essay, "Media Resources Available on Latin American Culture: A Survey of Art, Architecture, and Music Articles…

  10. Introduction Latin American Map: You set the

    E-print Network

    Lopez-Carr, David

    ;TODAY · Latin American Diversity: Introduction · What is Geography? · Physical Geography of Mexico, Caribbean, and Central America: 1. Mexican drylands 2. Mesoamerican Highlands 3. Coastal Lowlands #12;What;Middle America Environmental Zones #12;Latin American Environmental Subregions: Northern Mexican drylands

  11. UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST

    E-print Network

    Machery, Edouard

    for the course under GSPIA or PS. A course taught by Prof. John Beverley that is cross-listed in Spanish, English at the UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST FALL 2013 (2141) #12;2 The Center for Latin American Studies ­Fall Course list--2013 Center for Latin American

  12. Latin American Theology and Religious Pluralism: A Latin American Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cascante-Gomez, Fernando A.

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes recent efforts by Latin-American theologians concerned with developing a pluralist theology of liberation. The author highlights some of the most significant issues and themes of this emerging theological reflection among liberation theologians. Finally, he identifies some of the challenges a pluralist theology of…

  13. Latin American Network Information Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Started in 1992 and affiliated with the Lozano Long Institute of Latin American Studies at the University of Texas at Austin, the Latin American Network Information Center (LANIC) is designed to "facilitate access to Internet-based information to, from, or on Latin America." Their site was redesigned in the spring of 2008, and currently their various directories contain over 12,000 unique URLs for use by the general public. These links can be browsed by subject headings or by country, and visitors can look into more discrete topical headings like "food", "political science", and "social work". Along with these high-quality links, visitors can then click on over to their "Digital Initiatives" area. Here they will find digital collections that cover documents from the New Mexican Revolution and the full-text Fidel Castro Speech database. Visitors will also appreciate that many of the site's resources are available in Spanish and Portuguese.

  14. A Latin American Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estep, Raymond

    This bibliography, compiled for the purpose of affording students and faculty members of Air University a quick-reference tool for making use of the vast and growing collection of materials in the unclassified holdings of the Air University Library that relate to Latin America, contains 2,929 annotated entries. Although the bulk of the references…

  15. Latin American Folk Art Prints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navah, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Latin American customs and colors play an important role as second graders are introduced to multicultural experiences through food, music, dance, art, and craft. In this article, the author describes a printing project inspired by Guatemalan weavings and amate bark paintings. (Contains 2 online resources.)

  16. Social Studies: Economics, International Relations, and Political Science. Latin American Curriculum Units for Junior and Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glade, William P.; Baldwin, Emily

    These three self-contained units of study will help community college students learn about the economics, international relations, and politics of Latin America. Each unit can be used independently and contains introductory notes for instructors, student materials, and a bibliography. Students are expected to read and discuss the reading…

  17. Latin american and caribbean StudieS

    E-print Network

    Dresden, Gregory

    209 Latin american and caribbean StudieS (LacS) cOre FacuLtY: Professor barnett AssociAte Professor MAyock AssistAnt Professors BottA, cArey, Dickovick, eAstwooD the Program in Latin american and caribbean, culture, and society as applied to the region of Latin America and the caribbean. the program's curriculum

  18. “Vulnerability, Resiliency, and Adaptation: The Health of Latin Americans during the Migration Process to the United States”*

    PubMed Central

    Riosmena, Fernando; Jochem, Warren C.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we offer a general outlook of the health of Latin Americans (with a special emphasis on Mexicans) during the different stages of the migration process to the U.S. given the usefulness of the social vulnerability concept and given that said vulnerability varies conspicuously across the different stages of the migration process. Severe migrant vulnerability during the transit and crossing has serious negative health consequences. Yet, upon their arrival to the U.S., migrant health is favorable in outcomes such as mortality by many causes of death and in several chronic conditions and risk factors, though these apparent advantages seem to disappear during the process of adaptation to the host society. We discuss potential explanations for the initial health advantage and the sources of vulnerability that explain its erosion, with special emphasis in systematic timely access to health care. Given that migration can affect social vulnerability processes in sending areas, we discuss the potential health consequences for these places and conclude by considering the immigration and health policy implications of these issues for the United States and sending countries, with emphasis on Mexico. PMID:24660053

  19. "Vulnerability, Resiliency, and Adaptation: The Health of Latin Americans during the Migration Process to the United States"

    PubMed

    Riosmena, Fernando; Jochem, Warren C

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we offer a general outlook of the health of Latin Americans (with a special emphasis on Mexicans) during the different stages of the migration process to the U.S. given the usefulness of the social vulnerability concept and given that said vulnerability varies conspicuously across the different stages of the migration process. Severe migrant vulnerability during the transit and crossing has serious negative health consequences. Yet, upon their arrival to the U.S., migrant health is favorable in outcomes such as mortality by many causes of death and in several chronic conditions and risk factors, though these apparent advantages seem to disappear during the process of adaptation to the host society. We discuss potential explanations for the initial health advantage and the sources of vulnerability that explain its erosion, with special emphasis in systematic timely access to health care. Given that migration can affect social vulnerability processes in sending areas, we discuss the potential health consequences for these places and conclude by considering the immigration and health policy implications of these issues for the United States and sending countries, with emphasis on Mexico. PMID:24660053

  20. Latin American Public Opinion Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Started by Mitchell A. Seligson, the Latin American Public Opinion Project is based at Vanderbilt University. The Project has engaged in research on a variety of issues that resonate with the region, including the public's trust of local municipal government and related matters. First-time visitors to the homepage can click on different parts of the Americas to view technical information, reports, and questionnaires from these areas. Moving on, visitors can scroll down to the "AmericasBarometer Insights Series" section to view recent reports in both Spanish and English. Recent works include "Crime and Support for Coups in Latin America" and "Public Insecurity in Central America and Mexico". Visitors should also look over the "Questionnaires, Studies & Publications" area to search papers in a more organized fashion. Scholars will definitely want to check out their data sets and analytical tools in the "Data & On-Line Analysis" area. Finally, visitors can also sign up for their RSS feed on the site.

  1. Crossroads: Identity struggles in Latin America and Latin American psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Renato D; Pérez-Rincón, Héctor

    2010-01-01

    Identity can be defined from different perspectives such as those from philosophy, social sciences and phenomenology. The latter entails sameness, uniqueness, distinctiveness, continuity, diversity, universality and equality connotations to define characteristics of the existence and action of individuals, institutions, entities, organizations and collectivities. In order to elaborate on the identity of Latin American Psychiatry, this chapter deals first with the identity of the Latin American continent, the result of a 'collision of cultures' with mestizaje as its most prominent collective contribution. In turn, the Latin American population (and its 'Hispanic' equivalent in other countries and regions of the world) has been the subject of a pluralistic search, and played a combined role of hope and conflict, advances and setbacks in a fascinating historical process. In such context, Latin American psychiatry offers a mixed identity, resulting from a succession of mythic-religious, moral, phenomenologico-existential, biological and social/community-based routes. Each of them are assessed, and the contributions of two eponymous figures, Honorio Delgado and Gregorio Bermann, are duly delineated. Current realities in Latin American psychiatry and mental health in socio-political, conceptual, professional, ideological, academic and heuristic areas, are examined. The chapter ends with considerations of the future of psychiatry in the continent, the postulation of a 'new synthesis' embracing the essence of contemporary neurobiological knowledge and a new, revitalized humanism in the context of a healthy eclecticism, progressive educational training and didactic programmes, and concrete contributions embodying the promise of well justified expectations. PMID:20874062

  2. LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES MINOR REQUIREMENTS CHECKLIST

    E-print Network

    Galles, David

    *Global Economic Justice POLS 450 *Political Economy of Developing Nations SOC 233 Gender, Development Writer Partial Coverage Courses LAS 210/MUS 210 Music of the Americas CD, F LAS 350/MS 350 Human Rights 313 /SOC 313 Latin@-Chican@ Culture and Society CD LAS 331/POLS 331 Latin American Politics CD LAS 396

  3. The Latin American Mössbauer research community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, John G.

    1994-12-01

    Interest in Mössbauer spectroscopy among the Latin American countries has increased in the last five years. Two-thirds of the published research is coming from the Mössbauer research groups in Brazil. Other Latin American countries with active Mössbauer research include Argentina, Chile, Columbia, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela. In recent years, the area having the most interest has been the investigation of minerals and high temperature superconductors.

  4. Latin American Business History: Resources and Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Starting in December 2007, a team of researchers at the Harvard Business School began interviewing 21 leading business practitioners from Argentina and Chile for their Latin American business history initiative. The hope is that these oral histories will serve as a valuable resource for research on the business history of these two countries since the 1960s. On this site, visitors can listen to the interviews (in Spanish) and also read transcripts in English. Each profile contains a brief biography of each businessperson, along with material on their service to their respective industry. Moving on, visitors can also look through the rest of the Baker Library Historical Collections, which include collection of Brazilian railroad company records and the photographic records of the United Fruit Company.

  5. A Senior High School Social Studies Unit on Latin American History. World History Series, Bulletin No. 257.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magee, Paul

    This secondary level curriculum guide provides a program and identifies materials for the history and culture of Latin America. The primary purpose of the course is to stimulate throught and to encourage students to make valid generalizations and intelligent assessments of the forces and events that have shaped the history and culture of Latin

  6. "The South American Way": Hollywood Looks at Latins and at Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiex, Nola Kortner

    Latin elements or themes made for the North American market have been used in American films, but at the same time these films have been playing in a Latin American market, making it useful to examine how Latin America has been portrayed in these films. The taste for exotic locales and themes is an element that has been present since the…

  7. Latin American & Caribean Government Documents Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Block, David.

    1996-01-01

    The Latin American and Carribean Government Documents Project, provided by David Block of the Olin Library of Cornell University, attempts to "organize and describe the many Latin American official documents now appearing on the Internet." The site is organized by country and agency, within subject themes that include statistical sources, executive documents, national legislative documents, national judicial documents, and subnational documents. The contents of each site are briefly summarized. This is a very well organized, concise pointer site that should be very useful to interested Internauts. Note that most of the pointers are to Spanish language sites.

  8. The Latin American Writer: Writing in English

    E-print Network

    Reyes, Guillermo

    1997-10-01

    . I refuse to believe in the foreignness of our experience. I believe in the uniqueness of our American experience, both an emigrant and immigrant experience. My new play, A Southern Christmas, takes place in the South, in Chile to be exact where... in either the US Latin American immigrant communities or in Latin America itself. But so much for genres and genders. I cover several of them. I'm a subgenrist, and proud. My theory is: in the age of e-mail, cellular phones, faxes and satellites...

  9. LATIN AMERICAN TECHNICAL,RESEARCH

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    is committed to diversifying the graduate student population,and inte- grating them into the Purdue community. INTERNATIONALLY RECOGNIZED GRADUATE PROGRAMS IN MANY AREAS, INCLUDING: Food / Health / Energy / Environment faculty,corporate,entrepreneurial and community leaders ready to meet Latin America's innovation, research

  10. Library Guide: Latin American Literature, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sumar, Juanita Jara, Comp.

    Intended for use by those conducting research in Latin American literature written in Spanish, this guide contains annotations for a wide range of selected works. The guide is divided into the seven sections: (1) General Encyclopedias (1 annotation); (2) Guides to the Literature (4 annotations); (3) Literary Encyclopedias, Dictionaries and…

  11. Geography 155, Latin American Geography Editorial Assignment Due March 2

    E-print Network

    Lopez-Carr, David

    a research question or argument that is of significance to the human and physical geography of Latin AmericaGeography 155, Latin American Geography Editorial Assignment Due March 2 This assignment will require each student to synthesize and apply the knowledge gained of Latin American geography, culture

  12. HLAS Online: Handbook of Latin American Studies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The U.S. Library of Congress Hispanic Division has recently made all volumes from 1935 onward of its Handbook of Latin American Studies available for searching on the web. "The multidisciplinary Handbook alternates annually between the social sciences and the humanities. Each year, more than 130 academics from around the world choose over 5,000 works for inclusion in the Handbook." Users can search by subject, author, or title in basic search mode, and there is also a more powerful expert searching mode available. Retrieval includes complete bibliographic information, and subject listings are linked to other citations related to that subject. This is an exhaustive, authoritative source of Latin American Studies information.

  13. Latin American Pamphlet Digital Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Over the centuries, thousands of pamphlets have been published to serve various purposes. Some have been preserved by individuals and prescient institutions, but countless others have disappeared forever. Harvard University's Widener Library has over 5000 pamphlets from 19th and 20th century Latin America, and until recently, they remained uncataloged and mostly inaccessible. Visitors to this site can browse the collection by title, subject, name, and genre. The materials offered here range from documents on accounting practices to those dealing with yellow fever. Additionally, visitors looking for descriptive documents that describe unexplored territories and the relationship between church and state will not be disappointed. The site also contains a nice help feature and visitors can also email questions to staff members at the library.

  14. UNDERGRADUATE The Latin American and Caribbean Area Studies

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    332 UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS The Latin American and Caribbean Area Studies (LACAS) program offers an interdisciplinary approach to the study of Latin America, the Caribbean and Latinos in the U.S. By combining interdisciplinary coursework with fieldwork in Latin America, the Caribbean or among Latinos in the U.S., students

  15. A CLASSIFICATIONOF LATIN AMERICAN POLITICAL PARTIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Coppedge; Alejandra Grosse; Adrian Hurditch; Carlos Lozada; Ronna Montgomery; John Carey; Brian Crisp; Carol Graham; Jonathan Hartlyn; Richard Katz; Joseph Klesner; Alonso Lujambio; Scott Mainwaring; Esperanza Palma; Timothy Power; Manuel Rojas Bolaños; D Charles

    Abstract This working,paper,reports the percentage,of the total valid vote won,by various ideological blocs in twentieth-century Latin American,elections. Those,included,are lower-chamber,or constituent assembly elections for Argentina 1912?95, Bolivia 1956?93, Brazil 1945?94, Chile 1915?93, Colombia 1931?94, Costa Rica 1948?94, Ecuador 1947?94, Mexico 1961?94, Peru 1978?95, Uruguay 1917?94, and Venezuela 1947?93. The paper also provides detailed documentation for the classification of the 97 percent

  16. College of Letters and Science Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    College of Letters and Science Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies 2012 Professional Development Opportunity for Wisconsin K-12 teachers The Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies (CLACS for Latin American and Caribbean Studies) Vanderbilt University (Center for Latin American Studies) Yale

  17. Quality management: the way to improve Latin American public libraries?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Waldomiro C. S. Vergueiro

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on public libraries in Latin America as one important means of information provision at the end of the twentieth century, discussing how they can improve their effectiveness. Defends the view that Latin American countries can use quality management to improve the services they provide through their public libraries. Suggests that, to receive the most benefit from this management theory,

  18. Supplement: Proceedings XIth Latin American Congress of Surface Science and Its Applications (XI CLACSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häberle, Patricio; Fuenzalida, Victor

    2004-07-01

    The 2003 Congreso Latinoamericano de Ciencia de Superficies y sus Aplicaciones (Latin American Congress of Surface Science and Its Applications) was held in Pucón, Chile, 7-12 December 2003. XI CLACSA is the continuation of a series of events that started in 1980. Until 1992, this series was called Simposio Latinoamericano de Física de Superficies (SLAFS). In recognition of the interdisciplinary nature of the field, starting in 1994 the meeting became CLACSA. The conference was organized by the Sociedad Latinoamericana de Ciencia de Superficies (SLACS) with the purpose of becoming a forum for the exchange of information associated with scientific research carried out in Latin America in the field of surface physics, systems of low dimensionality and areas related to condensed matter physics and science of materials. This scientific event has enjoyed a large participation from Latin American scientists, and has helped to stimulate the collaboration between researchers from Europe, Latin America and the United States.

  19. A Virtuoso Performance: George Woodyard and Latin American Theatre

    E-print Network

    Unruh, Vicky

    1997-04-01

    SPRING 1997 7 A Virtuoso Performance: George Woodyard and Latin American Theatre Vicky Unruh George Woodyard impresses those who meet him with his unpretentious lucidity and down-to-earth good humor and with the warm engagement of his... knowledge of Latin America and of every aspect of theatrical activity; lucid and accessible critical writing grounded in a genuine desire to communicate with an interested audience; and a strong commitment to the close ties between research and teaching...

  20. Intimate Partner Violence and Depression Among Latin American Women in Toronto.

    PubMed

    Godoy-Ruiz, Paula; Toner, Brenda; Mason, Robin; Vidal, Carolina; McKenzie, Kwame

    2014-12-01

    Research from the United States suggests that Latin American immigrant and refugee women are one of the groups most greatly impacted by intimate partner violence (IPV) and associated mental health consequences including higher rates of depression than women from other ethno-racial groups. In Canada, little is known about the experience of IPV and mental health among this population. Even in the broader North American context, how Latin American women themselves perceive the connection between IPV and depression is unknown. This paper presents the findings of a pilot study that examined the perceived relationship between IPV and depression among Spanish-Speaking Latin American Women in Toronto, Canada. The theoretical framework guiding this qualitative study combined an ecological model for understanding gender based violence and mental health with critical intersectionality theory. Using a convenience and snowball sampling method, semi-structured interviews (n = 12) were conducted and thematic content analysis was completed supported by Nvivo9(®) qualitative data management software. All participants had experienced some form of IPV in their adult lives, with psychological violence being the most common. Women perceived a powerful connection between IPV and depression, a link made stronger by the accumulation of other adverse life experiences including childhood abuse, war traumas and migration. The results suggest that IPV is just one of the challenges experienced by Latin American refugee and immigrant women. IPV is experienced in the context of other traumatic experiences and social hardships that may work to intensify the association of IPV and depression in this population. PMID:25472614

  1. Unique among undergraduate programs offered nationally, the major in Latin American, Caribbean and

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    Unique among undergraduate programs offered nationally, the major in Latin American, Caribbean and U.S. Latino Studies (LACUSL) integrates the study of the Latin American and Caribbean region knowledge of U.S. Latino, Latin American and Caribbean history and culture · develop analytical and critical

  2. Latin Holidays: Mexican Americans, Latin Music, and Cultural Identity in Postwar Los Angeles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macias, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    This essay recreates the exciting Latin music and dance scenes of post-World War II Southern California, showing how Mexican Americans produced and consumed a range of styles and, in the process, articulated their complex cultural sensibilities. By participating in a Spanish-language expressive culture that was sophisticated and cosmopolitan,…

  3. THE CENTER FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES (CLAS),

    E-print Network

    Machery, Edouard

    by a women's cooperative in Bahia de Caraquez, Ecuador. The products include stationary folders, journals, picture frames, and cards. All proceeds benefit the women of Arte Papel. llfleischer@hotmail.com AWAMAKI U and merchandise for sale. Music from Colombia and Latin America. jdelgado4501@yahoo.com.ar BLACK BEAN features

  4. Instructional Technology Research in Latin American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Clifton B.

    Both the broad field of educational technology and research activities in the more limited area of instructional technology in Latin America are examined. Research studies, the current situation, and/or research needs are reviewed briefly for each of the following areas: distance education; microcomputers; educational radio; learning strategies…

  5. international migration: the Latin American experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrés Solimano

    2003-01-01

    The first wave of globalization, lasting approximately from 1870 to 1913, included large flows of migration from Europe to the countries of the New World. In the second globalization wave of the late twentieth century, by contrast, international migration was subject to more restrictive immigration regimes, especially in the developed countries. In Latin America, Argentina was the largest recipient of

  6. Winter 2005 57 Page 6--Latin American Social and

    E-print Network

    Machery, Edouard

    Festival (which, coincidentally, was celebrating its 25th anniversary). The Festival transformed K's Korner University Center for International StudiesUniversity of Pittsburgh Celebrating Forty. Seligson, Cole Blasier, Eduardo Lozano, Billie R. DeWalt. The Center for Latin American Studies celebrated

  7. Proceedings of the Latin American Shrimp Culture Congress

    E-print Network

    Proceedings of the 1st Latin American Shrimp Culture Congress Panama, October 6-10, 1998 Environmental factors affecting burrowing of brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus and white shrimp Litopenaeus Burrowing in the substrate by penaeid shrimps is a common behavior that appears to increase survival rates

  8. FACTORS INFLUENCING ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN CARIBBEAN AND LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carel Ligeon; Philip Gregorowicz; Curtis M. Jolly

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is considered an important social activity but a major health risk in Latin American and Caribbean countries (LAC). Alcohol consumption net benefits are doubtful and the factors influencing alcohol consumption in the LAC countries are not well documented. In this study, we use secondary data and Ordinary Least Squares Regression models to evaluate the factors influencing alcohol consumption

  9. Perceptions of Political Corruption in Latin American Democracies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damarys Canache; Michael E. Allison

    2008-01-01

    Political corruption poses a serious threat to the stability of developing democracies by eroding the links between citizens and governments. Using data on national levels of corruption (Transparency International 1997 CPI index) and individual opinion (1995?97 World Values Survey), this study finds that Latin Americans are quite aware of the seriousness of corruption in their countries. The ensuing question is

  10. Center for Latin American Studies University Center for International Studies

    E-print Network

    Machery, Edouard

    1 Center for Latin American Studies University Center for International Studies University-Colombian Dance Ensemble is a traveling dance group that brings Colombian culture through dance to the Western PA ALPHA Pittsburgh The largest Latino association for business professionals and students. info

  11. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 33, Number 1: Front Matter

    E-print Network

    1999-10-01

    STUDIES THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS, LAWRENCE, KANSAS 66045, U.S.A. 2 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Usina do Trabalho o Ator: um teatro caníbal Gilberto lele 97 XII (1997) y XIII (1998) edición del Festival Iberoamericano de Teatro de Cádiz Concepción...

  12. PREFACE: XI Latin American Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Celia Anteneodo; Marcos G. E. da Luz

    2010-01-01

    The XI Latin American Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena (LAWNP) has been held in Búzios-RJ, Brazil, from 5-9 October 2009. This international conference is one in a series that have gathered biennially, over the past 21 years, physicists and other scientists who direct their work towards several aspects of nonlinear phenomena and complex systems. The main purpose of LAWNP meetings is

  13. Latin American nephrology: Scientific production and impact of the publications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose R. Weisinger

    1999-01-01

    Latin American nephrology: Scientific production and impact of the publications.BackgroundDuring the last two decades, there has been a significant change in the origin and impact of the world's biomedical scientific production, particularly in countries in which the investment in research accounts for an important portion of the gross national product (GNP). However, in less developed countries, budget restrictions and the

  14. Columbia University Libraries Call Number Ranges for Latin American Studies

    E-print Network

    Salzman, Daniel

    American History F1201-F3799 (Breakdown Below) F1201-3799 Latin America. Spanish America F1201-1392 Mexico-1854.9 Cuba F1788-1788.22 Communist regime F1861-1896 Jamaica F1900-1941 Haiti (Island). Hispaniola F1912 Antilles #12;3 Groups of islands, by geographical distribution F2006 Leeward islands F2011 Windward Islands

  15. Cultural Values in Latin and North American Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manaster, Guy J.; Ahumada, Isa

    1971-01-01

    Study was conducted among adolescents in Puerto Rico, and replicated earlier studies in Buenos Aires and Chicago. Implications were drawn from frequencies in San Juan and compared with the Latin passive" pattern in Buenos Aires and the North American active" pattern in Chicago. (DM)

  16. Latin American Universities and the Bologna Process: From Commercialisation to the "Tuning" Competencies Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboites, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Through the "Tuning-Latin America" competencies project, Latin American universities have been incorporated into the Bologna Process. In 2003 the European Commission approved an initiative of this project for Latin America and began to promote it among ministries, university presidents' organisations and other institutions in Latin America. This…

  17. On helping Latin American countries in education in acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raichel, Daniel R.

    2002-11-01

    The science and applications of acoustics are just as important in Latin America as they are in North America and elsewhere. However, resources in academia are harder to come by in nearly all of the Central American and South American nations; and therefore it would behoove U.S. and European acousticians to help their Latin-American counterparts in achieving their goals of quality education in acoustics, particularly in architectural acoustics, noise control, biomedical usages of ultrasound, signal analyses, and measurement techniques. Among the means of helping are scholarly exchanges, more support by the U.S. government for such exchanges (particularly through Fulbright programs--it is unfortunate that the Fulbright Senior Specialist Program does not recognize acoustics as being one of the environmental sciences), collaboration on research projects, long-term equipment loans and/or outright donations, etc. Advice by experienced practitioners in establishing or improving acoustics laboratories can optimize equipment selection and development of the curriculum.

  18. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 35, Number 2: Front Matter

    E-print Network

    2002-04-01

    KKa: Entrevista a Isaac Goldemberg Lydia M.Gil 85 Conversaciones sobre vida y teatro con Susana Torres Molina María Claudia André 89 COPYRIGHT 2002 BY THE CENTER OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS, LAWRENCE, KANSAS 66045, U.S.A. 2 LATIN... 137 Performance Reviews 143 Book Reviews 151 Index for LATR 31.1 to 35.2 177 SPRING 2002 3 Abstracts Patricia Rosas Lopátegui, "El rastro de Elena Garro: una mirada feminista." Elena Garro maps out roles, fears, and expectations so the reader...

  19. Satellite systems for Latin American telecommunication requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizondo, Eduardo L.

    Aspects of satellite telecommunications systems of interest to Latin America are discussed. Presently existing systems are described, including both state-run and international services. Services planned for the region are examined, including Geostar, a service that provides satellite radio determination and message services, a system which will provide a high-capacity digital voice and data service for airlines, and direct broadcast satellites. Applications of these systems in education, rural telephony, data transmission, news services, publishing, emergency communications, and mobile communications are addressed.

  20. New World Orders: Continuities and Changes in Latin American Migration

    PubMed Central

    DURAND, JORGE; MASSEY, DOUGLAS S.

    2010-01-01

    Although migration from Mexico to the United States is more than a century old, until recently most other countries in Latin America did not send out significant numbers of migrants to foreign destinations. Over the past thirty years, however, emigration has emerged as an important demographic force throughout the region. This article outlines trends in the volume and composition of the migrant outflows emanating from various countries in Latin America, highlighting their diversity with respect to country of destination; multiplicity of destinations; legal auspices of entry; gender and class composition; racial, ethnic, and national origins; and the mode of insertion into the receiving society. The review underscores the broadening of international migration away from unidirectional flows toward the United States to new streams going to Europe, Canada, Australia, and Japan, as well as to other countries in Latin America itself. PMID:20814591

  1. Dear 1Ls and LLMs: The Harvard Latin American Law Society (HLALS) exists to promote dialogue of Latin

    E-print Network

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    Dear 1Ls and LLMs: The Harvard Latin American Law Society (HLALS) exists to promote dialogue exciting and successful year. 1Ls and LLM students in particular are invited to participate in our buddy program, which pairs new students with an interest or background in Latin America with 2Ls and 3Ls

  2. Latin American food sources of carotenoids.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Amaya, D B

    1999-09-01

    Latin America has a wide variety of carotenogenic foods, notable for the diversity and high levels of carotenoids. A part of this natural wealth has been analyzed. Carrot, red palm oil and some cultivars of squash and pumpkin are sources of both beta-carotene and alpha-carotene. beta-carotene is the principal carotenoid of the palm fruits burití, tucumã and bocaiuva, other fruits such as loquat, marolo and West Indian cherry, and sweet potato. Buriti also has high amounts of alpha-carotene and gamma-carotene. beta-Cryptoxanthin is the major carotenoid in caja, nectarine, orange-fleshed papaya, orange, peach, tangerine and the tree tomato. Lycopene predominates in tomato, red-fleshed papaya, guava, pitanga and watermelon. Pitanga also has substantial amounts of beta-cryptoxanthin, gamma-carotene and rubixanthin. Zeaxanthin, principal carotenoid of corn, is also predominant only in piquí. delta-Carotene is the main carotenoid of the peach palm and zeta-carotene of passion fruit. Lutein and beta-carotene, in high concentrations, are encountered in the numerous leafy vegetables of the region, as well as in other green vegetables and in some varieties of squash and pumpkin. Violaxanthin is the principal carotenoid of mango and mamey and is also found in appreciable amounts in green vegetables. Quantitative, in some cases also qualitative, differences exist among cultivars of the same food. Generally, carotenoids are in greater concentrations in the peel than in the pulp, increase considerably during ripening and are in higher levels in foods produced in hot places. Other Latin America indigenous carotenogenic foods must be investigated before they are supplanted by introduced crops, which are often poorer sources of carotenoids. PMID:10971848

  3. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 36, Number 1: Front Matter

    E-print Network

    2002-10-01

    mixed audience of whites and Latinos, he seems to perpetuate negative images of Latinos in order to mock them. However, Leguizamo's goal is to create "prototypes," characters whose cultural cues make them easily recognizable, and then to encourage... people to see behind these characters' masks. Rather than shun negative racial depictions, he renders them more human through their individual stories. (MMC) 4 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Polly J. Hodge, "Metáforas literarias: el escenario...

  4. Growth and Human Development: Comparative Latin American Experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustav Ranis; Frances Stewart

    2001-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the interdependence between economic growth (EG) and human development (HD). It is concerned with changes in per capita income and its two-way relationship with the basic societal objective of human development. Regressions across various Latin American countries are run for 1960-92. Country performance is separated into virtuous\\/vicious cycles or HD\\/EG lopsidedness. The study makes an

  5. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 25, Number 2: Front Matter

    E-print Network

    1992-04-01

    Frank Dauster Miriam Balboa Echeverria Merlin H. Forster C. Lucia Garavito Tamara Holzapfel Jorge Huerta Nicolas Kanellos Alyce de Kuehne Catherine Larson Ram6n Layera Leon F. Lyday Sharon Magnarelli Priscilla Melendez Robert J. Morris Kirsten F. Nigro... William I. Oliver Margaret Sayers Peden L. Howard Quackenbush Joan Rea Bonnie H. Reynolds Diana Taylor Jose Juan Arrom Editors Emeriti John S. Brushwood Fredric M. Litto Publisher Center of Latin American Studies The University of Kansas Jon S. Vincent...

  6. ECLAMC: The Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo E. Castilla; Iêda M. Orioli

    2004-01-01

    Definition: ECLAMC (‘Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformaciones Congénitas’) is a program for the clinical and epidemiological investigation of risk factors in the etiology of congenital anomalies in Latin-American hospitals, using a case-control methodological approach. It is a voluntary agreement among professionals lacking institutional base as well as designated budgets. ECLAMC has been usually funded by research-funding agencies rather than

  7. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 23, Number 2: Front Matter

    E-print Network

    1990-04-01

    Sandra Messinger Cypess Frank Dauster Miriam Balboa Echeverría Merlin H. Forster C. Lucia Garavito Támara Holzapfel Jorge Huerta Nicolás Kanellos Alyce de Kuehne Catherine Larson Ramón Layera Leon F. Lyday Sharon Magnarelli Priscilla Meléndez... are requested on diskette labeled by program and title, Word Perfect preferred. LATIN AMERICAN O O /r THEATRE ¿Olá RFX/IFW SPRING 1990 Contents Flores de papel as Criticism: The Artist and the Tradition Jennifer Boyd 7 Politics as Metatheatre: A Cuban...

  8. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 33, Number 2: Front Matter

    E-print Network

    2000-04-01

    William R. Blue Lee Skinner Sarah M. Misemer Sharon Feldman Michael J. Doudoroff Raymond D. Souza Editorial Assistant Publisher Center of Latin American Studies The University of Kansas Elizabeth Kuznesof, Director Subscription information... Montañés, Chiqui Vicioso, Sabrina Román, Luisa Calcumil, Beatriz Camargo and Astrid Hadad, I explore the many avenues taken by women in order to transgress the prevailing gender and sexual codes and to provide different views of their position...

  9. Latin American History and Critical Media Studies: Curricular Explorations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott L. Baugh

    2004-01-01

    The time has arrived to assess critical pedagogical methodologies for teaching Latin American history incorporating movingimage and sound media. The larger tradition of using film and video in humanities university classrooms is a much more welllaid path. Teaching-scholars who are readers of this journal are no doubt aware of the defining works: John E. O’Connor’s Film and the Humanities and

  10. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 24, Number 1: Book Reviews

    E-print Network

    1990-10-01

    una publicación del Instituto Internacional de Teoría y Crítica del Teatro Latinoamericano; su material está dividido en siete secciones de temas específicos. 176 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW La sección "Acercamientos teóricos al teatro... metateatral" de J. Villegas, que propone estudiar los textos de autores y grupos teatrales que contengan reflexiones críticas sobre el teatro latinoamericano, con miras a establecer una "teoría del teatro" o "teoría dramática." Afirma que sólo después de...

  11. Institutions and human development in the Latin American informal economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Dell’Anno

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the causes of the Informal Economy (IE) in Latin American countries. By including indicators\\u000a of institutional framework such as human development, marginal tax rate, public social spending, and unemployment rate in\\u000a panel regressions, we find empirical evidence that the institutional background is a key indicator of the size of the IE in

  12. Biological And Cultural Diversity of a Latin American Country

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marianne Anderson (Pocatello High School REV)

    1995-06-30

    Students conduct an 8 hour Annual Summit Meeting on the Cultural and Biological Diversity of a Latin American Country. Students construct a Rainforest in the school's Media Center, coffee and banana plantations in the hallway, and a street scene of a typical large city in a classroom. Students assume roles of native people or scientists and share information and ideas with formal presentation. Social interactions occur at coffee breaks, taste-testing luncheon, and games/dance finale.

  13. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 26, Number 1: Front Matter

    E-print Network

    1992-10-01

    accepted for publication are requested on diskette labeled by program and title, WordPerfect preferred. LATIN AMERICAN — — /a4 THEATRE ¿O/ I REVIEW FALL 1992 Contents Lo uno y lo múltiple: Farsa e incesto en Quintuples de Sánchez Priscilla Meléndez... Abstracts Priscilla Meléndez, Lo uno y lo múltiple: Farsa e incesto en Quintuples de Sánchez Framed within a system of contradictions, of structures that are constructed and dismantled in the process of being represented, Luis Rafael Sanchez's Quintuples...

  14. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ Latin American and Latino Studies

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    /os in the United States, Latin America and the Caribbean · Political Economy and Resistance · Cultural Expressions, Cultural Productions, Cultural Flows · Latina/o History RANK: Lecturer SALARY: $5,260 ­ $7,431 per course Opportunity Employer, committed to excellence through diversity. We strive to establish a climate

  15. Disruption, yet community reconstitution: subverting the privatization of Latin American plazas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veronica Crossa

    Latin American scholars have recently discussed the privatization of urban public space. A fundamental aspect of this process\\u000a is the disintegration of communities because it often targets and affects a peculiarly Latin American kind of public space:\\u000a the plaza. Plazas have traditionally functioned as cultural centres in Latin American cites. They are central meeting points\\u000a for political groups, sites of

  16. Never tested for HIV in Latin-American migrants and Spaniards: prevalence and perceived barriers

    PubMed Central

    Hoyos, Juan; Fernández-Balbuena, Sonia; de la Fuente, Luis; Sordo, Luis; Ruiz, Mónica; Barrio, Gregorio; José Belza, María

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Increasing the uptake of HIV testing and decreasing the number of undiagnosed people is a priority for HIV prevention. Understanding the barriers that hinder people from testing is vital, particularly when working with especially vulnerable populations like migrants. Most data available on migrants are based on African migrants in the UK, while barriers to HIV testing in Latin-American migrants living in Europe remain unexplored. Still, they account for a quarter of new diagnosis in Spain and suffer higher rates of delayed diagnosis. Methods Between May 2008 and March 2011, a mobile unit offered free rapid HIV tests in different Spanish cities. We compared the prevalence of no previous testing, adjusting for potential confounders by two multivariate logistic models, and described differences in perceived barriers to testing in Latin-American migrants living in Spain versus Spaniards. Participants included men who have sex with men (MSM), men who have sex exclusively with women (MSW), and women. Results Of the 5920 individuals who got tested and answered a self-administered questionnaire, 36.5% were MSM (20.4% previously untested), 28.9% were MSW (49% previously untested) and 34.6% were women (53% previously untested). Almost one quarter were Latin-American, of whom 30% had never been tested versus 45% of untested Spaniards. After adjusting for potential confounders, Spaniards were more likely to report no previous testing than Latin-Americans among women and MSW all together (Odds Ratio (OR)=2.0; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.7–2.4) and among MSM (OR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.2–2.0). Among the 2455 who had never undergone an HIV test before, main barriers to testing were low perceived risk (54% Spaniards vs. 47% Latin-American) and concerns arising from the loss of anonymity (19.5% vs. 16.9%). Fear of rejection or discrimination and fear of legal problems were a barrier for <2%. Conclusions Latin-American migrants living in Spain were more likely to get tested than Spaniards. Regardless of nationality, low perceived risk was the main barrier to testing whereas fear of stigma or discrimination and fear of legal problems were merely incidental. However, new Spanish austerity policies regarding healthcare for migrants in response to the economic crisis may reverse this situation. PMID:23663441

  17. Conference scene: Latin American Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine Conference.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2012-10-01

    There are nearly 600 million people living in 24 Latin American countries, speaking two major languages (Portuguese and Spanish) and sharing ancestral roots in America, Europe and Africa. Ethnic and cultural diversity, socioeconomical, scientific and technological disparities across Latin America must be taken into account in the design, interpretation and implications of pharmacogenomic studies in this region. The conference covered some of these aspects, but also took on a more global approach on the growing contribution of genomic information and biotechnological tools to the way medicines are developed, regulated and prescribed to patients. Translation of pharmacogenomics into clinical practice was the topic of a keynote lecture and two debate sessions. A preconference Introductory Course of Pharmacogenomics was offered. PMID:23057544

  18. Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Studies Center for Latin American,

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jay

    in New York City Changes in the Structure of Household Income by Race/Ethnic Groups and Latino institute that works for the advancement of the study of Latin America, the Caribbean, and Latinos.S. Census Bureau, the National Institute for Health, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and state and local

  19. Join us on Tuesday, October 14, 2014 as we bring Latin American Cuisine to Mizzou. Latin America is a very diverse area consisting of several nations. However, no matter where you are in Latin America you

    E-print Network

    Noble, James S.

    Join us on Tuesday, October 14, 2014 as we bring Latin American Cuisine to Mizzou. Latin America is a very diverse area consisting of several nations. However, no matter where you are in Latin America you on a culi- nary adventure through several nations of Latin America. Plan to make stops in places

  20. Latin American Theatre Today: A 1992 Conference in Kansas

    E-print Network

    Woodyard, George; Unruh, Vicky

    1993-04-01

    April to 2 May of 1992. The primary objective of the conference was to study growth and change during the ten years since the time of our 1982 conference. The four days were devoted to intensive and in-depth scrutiny of four topic areas: history..., gender, genre and performance. A keynote speaker each day set the stage for papers and discussions in each area. Panels of Latin American playwrights discussed each tqpic from their personal perspectives. Finally, as a corollary to the academic...

  1. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 04, Number 2: Front Matter

    E-print Network

    1971-04-01

    , Kansas 66044 U.S.A. 4/2 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW SPRING1971 Contents Solórzano's Tormented Puppets Douglas Radcliff-Umstead 5 Rodolfo Usigli's Idea of Mexican Theatre R. Vance Savage 13 Algunos aspectos en el arte dramático de Luis Enrique... Existentialism. The article shows how Solórzano transcends the folkloric back ground of his play in the festival of the Burning of Judas to impart a universal message about man's destiny. (DR-U) R. Vance Savage, "Rodolfo Usigli's Idea of Mexican Theatre." One...

  2. Co-operation between European and Latin American Universities in Scientific and Technological Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottifredi, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    Major differences between European and Latin American universities are examined, and resulting differences in motivations and restrictions regarding cooperative programs are discussed. It is concluded that, although Latin American institutions stand to gain from educational and technical assistance of European institutions, they be prepared to be…

  3. Highlights from the 1st ISCB Latin American Student Council Symposium 2014

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the scientific content and activities of the first edition of the Latin American Symposium organized by the Student Council of the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB), held in conjunction with the Third Latin American conference from the International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB-LA 2014) in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, on October 27, 2014. PMID:25955751

  4. Anaphylaxis in Latin America: a report of the online Latin American survey on anaphylaxis (OLASA)

    PubMed Central

    Solé, Dirceu; Ivancevich, Juan Carlos; Borges, Mario Sánchez; Coelho, Magna Adaci; Rosário, Nelson A; Ardusso, Ledit Ramón Francisco; Bernd, Luis Antônio Guerra

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aims of the Online Latin American Survey of Anaphylaxis (OLASA) were to identify the main clinical manifestations, triggers, and treatments of severe allergic reactions in patients who were seen by allergists from July 2008 to June 2010 in 15 Latin American countries and Portugal (n?=?634). RESULTS: Of all patients, 68.5% were older than 18 years, 41.6% were male, and 65.4% experienced the allergic reaction at home. The etiologic agent was identified in 87.4% of cases and predominantly consisted of drugs (31.2%), foods (23.3%), and insect stings (14.9%). The main symptom categories observed during the acute episodes were cutaneous (94.0%) and respiratory (79.0%). The majority of patients (71.6%) were treated initially by a physician (office/emergency room) within the first hour after the reaction occurred (60.2%), and 43.5% recovered in the first hour after treatment. Most patients were treated in an emergency setting, but only 37.3% received parenteral epinephrine alone or associated with other medication. However, 80.5% and 70.2% were treated with corticosteroids or antihistamines (alone or in association), respectively. A total of 12.9% of the patients underwent reanimation maneuvers, and 15.2% were hospitalized. Only 5.8% of the patients returned to the emergency room after discharge, with 21.7% returning in the first 6 hours after initial treatment. CONCLUSION: The main clinical manifestations of severe allergic reactions were cutaneous. The etiologic agents that were identified as causing these acute episodes differed according to age group. Following in order: drugs (31.2%), foods (23.3% and insect stings (14.9%) in adults with foods predominance in children. Treatment provided for acute anaphylactic reactions was not appropriate. It is necessary to improve educational programs in order to enhance the knowledge on this potentially fatal emergency. PMID:21808856

  5. Latin American Social Medicine and Global Social Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Seiji

    2003-01-01

    A fundamental change in the theory underlying public health and medicine is needed. Latin American social medicine (LASM), originating in a region of the world that has been subjected to colonial and postcolonial influence, will be part of this change. To the extent that the social production of disease among people in other regions is a consequence of various large-scale forms of domination, LASM offers a relevant analysis, models of resistance, and exemplars of social medicine in practice. I draw upon LASM to examine the social production of disease in the Marshall Islands and Iraq. I suggest a basis for a global social medicine in the shared experience of suffering and describe implications for public health theory and practice. PMID:14652319

  6. Latin American Social Medicine: Roots, Development During the 1990s, and Current Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Tajer, Débora

    2003-01-01

    Latin American social medicine arose during the 1950s and 1960s, drawing its inspiration from the social movements that emerged in France, Germany, and England in the mid-19th century. The Latin American movement of social medicine has clear ideological goals. It is organized around the Latin American Association of Social Medicine, which was founded in 1984 and is regarded as a social, political, and academic movement. This article takes a historical perspective and presents the reasons for the emergence and identity of the association, focusing on the main developments and contributions of this movement from the 1990s until the present time. PMID:14652326

  7. Is Spanish Pragmatic Instruction Necessary in the L2 Classroom If Latin American Speakers of Spanish Take on American English Pragmatic Norms Once Prolonged Exposure in the United States Occurs? A Study on Refusal Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachelor, Jeremy W.; Hernandez, Lydia; Shively, Rachel L.

    2012-01-01

    As educators of foreign and second languages debate the most efficient methods of implementing pragmatic instruction in the L2 classroom, is it possible that Spanish pragmatic instruction is not necessary if American Spanish pragmatic norms are no different than American English norms? The present investigation studies the pragmatic norms in…

  8. Latin America: Introduction and Summary. Grade Five (Unit 7). Resource Unit. Project Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    The last of three main parts designed for fifth grade students, resource unit seven provides an overview of patterns of Latin America and a system of regionalization for the total area on the basis of population composition. Following the overview, a series of case studies arranged in separate sub-units on Buenos Aires, Manaus, Sao Paulo, Chile,…

  9. Urban Growth in Latin American Cities Exploring urban dynamicsthrough agent-basedsimulation

    E-print Network

    Guillas, Serge

    Urban Growth in Latin American Cities Exploring urban dynamicsthrough agent-basedsimulation Joana The high rates of urban growth in Latin America during the 1960sand 1970s produced rapid urbanisationand staticproblem rather than asa spatial form that emergesfrom the urban developmentprocessand that is part

  10. Summary of the Fifth Latin American Workshop on Phenomenology of the Fundamental Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia Canal, C. A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Teorica, Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata C.C. 67-1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    1996-02-20

    The Fifth Latin American Workshop on Phenomenology took place at Universidad Autonoma de Puebla in Puebla, Mexico from October 30 to November 3, 1995. A brief resume of the topics covered in the Workshop is given.

  11. [The history of genetics in Latin American countries during the twentieth century].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Coke, R

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this historical review is to evaluate the evolution of genetics in the context of Latin American scientific culture, to value foreign influences and to highlight the discoveries and contributions of Latin American geneticists. During the first third of the twentieth century, local naturalists, botanists and physicians understood the chromosomal theory of heredity and Mendelian theory of evolution and begun research and teaching on these new theories and technologies. During the thirties and forties, North American geneticists visited South America and formed development poles on cytogenetics and population genetics in Brazil and Argentina. During the fifties and sixties, human genetics was formally established in Brazil, Argentina and Chile. Genetics teaching became generalized in universities and national Genetics Societies were formed. In 1969, the Latin American Genetics Society was created, unifying the efforts of zoologists, botanists, physicians and anthropologists in an unique Latin American cultural space, organizing 11 meetings between 1972 and 1994. Latin Americans have made a great contribution in genome discovery of animal, vegetable and human species in their territory. They explored the great genetic diversity of the continent, discovering new genes and diseases. The biomedical area had the greatest development. In 1997, there were 130 medical genetics centers, 120 hospitals specialized in congenital malformations, 56 molecular biology centers and 26 molecular genetics centers. At the end of the twentieth century, human genetics is completely integrated to medical sciences in Latin America. PMID:10835762

  12. Diagnosis and treatment of congenital hemophilia with inhibitors a Latin American perspective.

    PubMed

    Pérez Bianco, Raúl; Ozelo, Margareth Castro; Villaça, Paula Ribeiro; Solano, Maria Helena; Jimenez Cruze, Guillermo; Martinez Murillo, Carlos; Garcia Chavez, Jaime; Mendoza, Saul; Rodriguez Grecco, Ismael; Ruiz-Saez, Arlette

    2008-01-01

    The Committee of Latin America on the Therapeutics of Inhibitor Groups (CLOTTING) is composed of a number of hemophilia specialists from Latin America. The group aims to encourage the adoption of a good standard of care for Latin American patients with hemophilia. The occurrence of inhibitors in patients with hemophilia poses clinical challenges, and it is estimated that between 1000 and 3000 patients in Latin America are affected by hemophilia with inhibitors. There is an urgent need to establish a regional consensus and clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. We present an extensive review based on best current clinical practice and published literature, as seen from a Latin American perspective, taking into account the variable nature of hemophilia care available in the various countries in this Region. PMID:18689157

  13. The later evolution of modern sport in Latin America: the North American influence.

    PubMed

    Arbena, J L

    2001-01-01

    American impact on modern sports in Latin America overlaps geographically and chronologically with the European, especially British, impact. Principally baseball in the Caribbean basin, more recently basketball and volleyball across the hemisphere and occasionally American football in more limited areas illustrate a north-to-south movement executed by businessmen, educators, missionaries, military personnel, returning travelers (often students), sports entrepreneurs and television. Often initially supported by promoters of development within Latin America, this transfer has altered local recreational patterns and attracted Latin athletes to pursue careers in North America, provoking accusations of cultural imperialism and exploitation. PMID:18592684

  14. Latin America: A Filmic Approach. Latin American Studies Program, Film Series No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Leon G.; And Others

    This document describes a university course designed to provide an historical understanding of Latin America through feature films. The booklet contains an introductory essay on the teaching of a film course on Latin America, a general discussion of strengths and weaknesses of student analyses of films, and nine analyses written by students during…

  15. Third special price report. [Latin American countries, USA, and Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-06

    Energy Detente's latest international price survey at midyear 1982 showed the average price of premium gasoline had fallen US $0.27 in the 11-month period since their first special report in July 1981. The biggest price drop occurred in Costa Rica, where prices in local currency increased slightly but in US dollars declined US $1.91 - due to the fall of the Colon against the US dollar. The case of Costa Rica exemplifies how the rise of the US dollar influenced the survey findings. Generally, the price drops showed that in several countries fuel prices haven't kept up with inflation and this shows up when prices are expressed in dollars. However, analysis of US prices, and prices in Guatemala where currency is at par with the dollar, shows prices fell (modestly) there too. Prices in Mexico and Venezuela doubled. Ecuador listed the lowest prices in the survey. Also included in this issue are brief energy notes from Mexico and other Latin American countries.

  16. Climate Change and Climate Variability in the Latin American Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrin, G. O.; Gay Garcia, C.; Cruz Choque, D.; Gimenez-Sal, J. C.; Moreno, A. R.; Nagy, G. J.; Nobre, C.; Villamizar, A.

    2007-05-01

    Over the past three decades LA was subjected to several climate-related impacts due to increased El Niño occurrences. Two extremely intense episodes of El Niño and other increased climate extremes happened during this period contributing greatly to augment the vulnerability of human systems to natural disasters. In addition to weather and climate, the main drivers of the increased vulnerability are demographic pressure, unregulated urban growth, poverty and rural migration, low investment in infrastructure and services, and problems in inter-sector coordination. As well, increases in temperature and increases/decreases in precipitation observed during the last part of 20th century have yet led to intensification of glaciers melting, increases in floods/droughts and forest fires frequency, increases in morbidity and mortality, increases in plant diseases incidence; lost of biodiversity, reduction in dairy cattle production, and problems with hydropower generation, highly affecting LA human system. For the end of the 21st century, the projected mean warming for LA ranges from 1 to 7.5ºC and the frequency of weather and climate extremes could increase. Additionally, deforestation is projected to continue leading to a reduction of 25 percent in Amazonia forest in 2020 and 40 percent in 2050. Soybeans planted area in South America could increase by 55 percent by 2020 enhancing aridity/desertification in many of the already water- stressed regions. By 2050 LA population is likely to be 50 percent larger than in 2000, and migration from the country sides to the cities will continue. In the near future, these predicted changes are very likely to severely affect a number of ecosystems and sectors distribution; b) Disappearing most tropical glaciers; c) Reducing water availability and hydropower generation; d) Increasing desertification and aridity; e) Severely affecting people, resources and economic activities in coastal areas; f) Increasing crop's pests and diseases; and g) Changing some human diseases distribution and provoking the emergence of new ones. The impact of climate change in Latin America's productive sectors is estimated to be of a 1.3 percent reduction of the region's GDP for a change of 2ºC in global temperature (without consider non market sectors and extremes events). Moreover, if the LA countries continue to follow the business as usual scenario, the wealth of natural resources that have supported economic and socio-cultural development in the region will be further degraded, reducing the regional potential for growth. Urgent measures must be taken to help bring environmental and social considerations from the margins to the decision-making and development strategies. This presentation is part of the revision done for the Latin American (LA) chapter under the IPCC WGII Fourth Assessment Report.

  17. Illicit drug use in seven Latin American countries: critical perspectives of families and familiars.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jaqueline da; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa; Loyola, Cristina Maria Douat; Albarracín, Daniel Gonzalo Eslava; Diaz, Jorge; Funes, Gladys Magdalena Rodríguez; Hernández, Mabell Granados; Torres, Ruth Magdalena Gallegos; Rodriguez, Ruth Jakeline Oviedo

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional multi-centre study explored how family members and friends of illicit drug users perceived protective and risk factors, treatment facilities and policies and laws regarding illicit drug use. Family members and friends of illicit drug users were recruited in 10 urban health care outpatient units in 7 Latin American countries (Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico) to complete a questionnaire. The majority of the respondents chose psycho-social factors over genetic or biological explanations as causes of drug problems. Respondents felt that families and governments were responsible for preventing drug problems. Church/religious institutions were most often mentioned in the context of accessible treatment. When asked about access to treatment facilities, the majority said that there were not enough. Shame about drug use, cost, and limited treatment options were most often cited as barriers to treatment. PMID:20011899

  18. North and Latin American Business Negotiations: An Assessment of Differences in Interpersonal Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankis, Olaf E.; Biggers, J. Thompson

    Both North American and Latin American business professionals were investigated in a study that focused on the perceived communication problems between the two groups. A number of major areas of interest were considered, including the following: (1) source of credibility (what dimensions of personality were seen as most desirable in the…

  19. Participant Interaction in a Latin American Online Leadership Training Course. INDES Working Paper Series. I-61

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, Manuel E.; Dolan, Mary

    2006-01-01

    This paper draws on current research and analyzes participant interactions in a 12-week leadership online training course with students from 14 Latin American countries. The paper systematizes the experience of the Inter-American Institute for Social Development (INDES) and constitutes a case study of an experience in a regional, non-academic…

  20. Constitutional Prospects for the Implementation of Funding and Governance Reforms in Latin American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernasconi, Andres

    2007-01-01

    The rationale for comprehensive reform of Latin American higher education crystallized in the mid-1990s in policy documents published by the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank. This "Washington consensus" of the multilateral banks advocated, among other measures, greater reliance on private sources of funding, increased…

  1. Lupus in Latin-American patients: lessons from the GLADEL cohort.

    PubMed

    Pons-Estel, G J; Catoggio, L J; Cardiel, M H; Bonfa, E; Caeiro, F; Sato, E; Massardo, L; Molina-Restrepo, J F; Toledano, M Guibert; Barile-Fabris, L A; Amigo, M C; Acevedo-Vásquez, E M; Abadi, I; Wojdyla, D; Alarcón-Riquelme, M E; Alarcón, G S; Pons-Estel, B A

    2015-05-01

    The need for comprehensive published epidemiologic and clinical data from Latin American systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients motivated the late Dr Alarcón-Segovia and other Latin American professionals taking care of these patients to spearhead the creation of the G: rupo L: atino A: mericano D: e E: studio del L: upus (GLADEL) cohort in 1997. This inception cohort recruited a total of 1480 multiethnic (Mestizo, African-Latin American (ALA), Caucasian and other) SLE patients diagnosed within two years from the time of enrollment from 34 Latin American centers with expertise in the diagnosis and management of this disease. In addition to the initial 2004 description of the cohort, GLADEL has contributed to improving our knowledge about the course and outcome of lupus in patients from this part of the Americas. The major findings from this cohort are highlighted in this review. They have had important clinical implications for the adequate care of SLE patients both in Latin America and worldwide where these patients may have emigrated. PMID:25697768

  2. GEOG 155: LATIN AMERICAN GEOGRAPHY Class: Monday 5PM-7:50PM: Phelps Hall, Room 3505

    E-print Network

    Lopez-Carr, David

    language and methods of human and physical geography. You correctly describe terms and concepts related to Latin American Geography. You apply the appropriate methods to questions of human and physical dynamics1 GEOG 155: LATIN AMERICAN GEOGRAPHY Class: Monday 5PM-7:50PM: Phelps Hall, Room 3505 Labs

  3. Latin American and Caribbean Conference for Engineering and Technology Medelln, Colombia WE1-1 August 3-5, 2011

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    9th Latin American and Caribbean Conference for Engineering and Technology Medellín, Colombia WE1, August 3-5, 2011, Medellín, Colombia. 3D Visualization of particle system with extracted data from sensor American and Caribbean Conference for Engineering and Technology, Medellin : Colombia (2011)" #12;9th Latin

  4. Stereotypes and Beliefs about Different Ethnic Groups in Spain: A Study with Spanish and Latin American Children Living in Madrid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enesco, Ileana; Navarro, Alejandra; Paradela, Isabel; Guerrero, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    96 Spanish and Latin American children from 3 grades in Madrid reported their knowledge of positive and negative stereotypes regarding Spaniards, Gypsies, Latin American and Chinese people. Their personal beliefs about these four ethnic groups were also assessed. Stereotypes about Spaniards were perceived as overwhelmingly positive and least…

  5. Vaccine-preventable diseases and their impact on Latin American children.

    PubMed

    Ulloa-Gutierrez, Rolando; Miño, Greta; Odio, Carla; Avila-Aguero, María L; Brea, José

    2011-12-01

    A joint meeting of the Latin American Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, the Dominican Society of Pediatrics and the Dominican Society of Vaccinology was held in the Dominican Republic. This report highlights the most relevant issues that were presented and discussed about vaccine-preventable diseases, their epidemiology and impact in Latin American children, the need to move forward and expand national immunization programs and the economical and political obstacles to introduce 'new' vaccines. These include those against Streptococcus pneumoniae, rotavirus, hepatitis A, varicella, Neisseria meningitidis, Bordetella pertussis, influenza and human papillomavirus, among others. PMID:22085169

  6. LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION, Vol. 5(2), 20101 1 On the Teaching of the Lumped Model for Unsteady

    E-print Network

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION, Vol. 5(2), 20101 1 On the Teaching on November 5, 2011. This paper is part of the Latin American and Caribbean Journal of Engineering Education, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 1-5, 2011. © LACCEI, ISSN 1935-0295 #12;LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN JOURNAL

  7. Latin American Political Trends and their Impact on the Future of U.S.-Latin American Relations 

    E-print Network

    Davis, Andrew Milton

    2010-07-14

    Recent political trends in Latin America have led to the election of a number of leftist presidents throughout the region. Some, such as Venezuela's Hugo Chavez and Ecuador's Rafael Correa, profess goals centered to varying degrees in socialism...

  8. ReVistaReVistaharvard review of Latin america faLL 2007 david rockefeller center for latin american studies, Harvard university

    E-print Network

    Farrell, Brian D.

    american studies, Harvard university Dance! Global Transformations of Latin American Culture #12;book Talk corresponded regularly with curators at Harvard and the smithsonian institution and elsewhere. Known to all- ing. in La Cueva we spoke of his links to Harvard and of our growing effort to digitize the natural

  9. Democratization and the Institutionalization of Latin American Political Parties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT H. DIX

    1992-01-01

    In this article, the author assesses the prospects for the consolidation of democracy in Latin America in the 1990s, compared with the failure to achieve that goal in the 1960s, by examining the institutionalization of political parties in the two time periods. Samuel Huntington's criteria of institutionalization (adaptability, complexity, autonomy, and coherence) are used and employ a variety of indicators

  10. Six Latin American countries could join in new gas market

    SciTech Connect

    Bechelli, C.M. (Destileria Argentina de Petroles S.A., Buenos Aires (AR)); Brandt, R.D. (Ecoenergia S.A., Buenos Aires (AR))

    1991-10-21

    The development of a regional natural gas market in southern Latin America based on a common pipeline network is a clear possibility in the medium term. This paper is, therefore, important to summarize precisely the present status and outlook for the natural gas industry in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay, and Paraguay.

  11. BERKELEY REVIEW OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 24 Starving, Stunted... Obese?

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    and fiber to diets high in sugar, fat, and animal protein. Where undernutrition was once the primary concern, lower school achievement, lower capacity to manage stress, reduced labor-force participation, lower for nearly half of the 19 leading risk factors responsible for years of life lost. In Latin America

  12. Basic Documents of the Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organization of American States, Washington, DC.

    At its eleventh annual meeting in 1966 the Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials decided that the activity carried on principally by informal cooperation up to that time should be brought into a more formal organizational pattern. Draft texts of the Constitution, By-Laws, and Articles of Incorporation were prepared and…

  13. The ETK Model: Effects on Latin American Higher Education Faculty Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas, Jorge Alberto

    2009-01-01

    The problem. This study was designed to investigate emotional human, E, technology awareness, T, and knowledge management, K, competences or dimensions of Latin American public post-secondary educational institution departments; specifically how these ETK competences or dimensions affect faculty satisfaction. Method. Three-hundred and…

  14. HomeSchool Conflicts and Barriers to the Academic Achievement of Children of Latin American Immigrants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn Sattin Bajaj

    This paper explores the role of home-school conflicts in the educational failure of children of Latin American immigrants and examines how these conflicts have been framed and understood in the existing research literature. It argues that structural analyses of barri- ers to educational attainment alone fail to capture the multiplicity of forces that contrib- ute to negative academic outcomes. Instead,

  15. Teacher Perceptions Regarding the Status of Environmental Education in Latin American Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penwell, Rebecca; Cronin-Jones, Linda; Hakverdi, Meral; Cline, Shannon; Johnson, Courtney

    This research, commissioned by the U.S. Department of State, Office of Overseas Schools, was designed to determine the status of environmental education in private U.S. and international elementary schools throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. The study population consisted of all 50 dues-paying member schools in the Association of American

  16. The Importance of Negotiation for Policy Dialogue: Latin American Training Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, Maria Clara

    2004-01-01

    Over the past several decades, Latin American countries have supported processes of bringing public policy decisions on education closer to the people concerned. Participation at all levels of decision-making processes has generally been highly valued. Nonetheless, these decentralization efforts came about without governments taking the necessary…

  17. Differences in Long Run Growth Path Between Latin American and Developed Countries: Empirical Evidences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronaldo A. Arraes; Vladimir Kühl Teles

    2003-01-01

    Comparing the long run growth paths between regions of Latin American countries and developed countries is the main focus of this paper. Exogenous and endogenous growth models provide the theoretical background. Simulations of growth rates for developing and selected developed countries are made based upon explanatory variables, using the US as the benchmark. Data for the period 1950-1992 were applied

  18. Latin American Cities and Globalisation: Change and Permanency in the Context of Development Expectations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan A. Cordoba Ordonez; Candida Gago Garcia

    2010-01-01

    Some interesting changes have been taking place in the urbanisation processes of Latin American countries in the past few decades, some of which are definitely related to global processes. The empirical evidence of this relation is hard to pin down due to the lack of data sources, but in this paper it is suggested that the growth in volume and

  19. Latin American debt, the IMF, and Adam Smith: A proposal for ethical reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary M. Woller; David Kirkwood Hart

    1995-01-01

    We examine the role of the IMF orthodox paradigm, and the value system upon which it rests, in the Latin American debt crisis. We conclude that the IMF orthodoxy is an inappropriate basis for international transactions because of the a priori utilitarian value assumptions on which it is based. Furthermore, those value premises have hardened into a narrow and inflexible

  20. Educational Marketing in the Latin American Context: An Executive MBA Case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José I. Rojas-Méndez; Sadrudin A. Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides Latin American Executive MBA students' approaches to studying, achieving profile, preferences and perceptions of instructional methods used in teaching marketing courses and educational marketing segments based on their preference ranking of instructional methods and approaches to studying. Results indicate that, in general, these students have a strong need for excellence, and for gaining status with experts. Their

  1. The Impact of the Regulatory Process and Price Cap Regulation in Latin American Telecommunications Markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agustin J. Ros

    2003-01-01

    I empirically examine the impact of the liberalization and regulatory process on the Latin American telecommunications sector during the period 1990-1998. I find that privatisation and the existence of an independent regulator are positively associated with teledensity and operating efficiency while competition and price cap regulation are strongly positively associated with teledensity. This study confirms results in previous research that

  2. Trade Liberalization and Productivity Growth in Latin American Manufacturing, 1970-98

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Paus; Nola Reinhardt; Michael Robinson

    2003-01-01

    We examine the relationship between trade liberalization and manufacturing labor productivity growth for 27 industries in seven Latin American countries from 1970 to 1998. Our trade variables are export and import growth and a commercial reform index, which capture the various channels through which productivity and trade liberalization may be related. Using the Arellano-Bond GMM estimator, we find a significant

  3. Linguistic Reception of Latin American Students in Catalonia and Their Responses to Educational Language Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Michael; Patino-Santos, Adriana; Trenchs-Parera, Mireia

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the connections between language policy implementation in three Barcelona-area secondary schools and the language attitudes and behaviors of Spanish-speaking Latin American newcomers. Data were collected through interviews and ethnographic participant observation document indexes of different forms of language socialization…

  4. Engaging Language and Cultural Spaces: Latin American Parents' Reflections on Language Loss and Maintenance in Vancouver

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guardado, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to explore the loss and maintenance of Spanish in Latin American children in Vancouver from the perspective of parents. It focuses on the experiences of children either developing bilingually (Spanish-English) or monolingually (English). The participating families were from Colombia, Guatemala, and El Salvador, and had…

  5. Characteristics of La Literatura: A Reference Study of Spanish and Latin American Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, David S.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the characteristics of scholarly communication, with particular emphasis on the usage of the monograph, in the field of Spanish and Latin American literature over a 30-year period. In addition, this study examines the age of materials referenced in an effort to gain insight into the shelf-life of these…

  6. Nonlinear behaviour of emerging market bonds spreads: the Latin American case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudio A. Bonilla; Carlos P. Maquieira; Rafael Romero-Meza

    2008-01-01

    In this article we check for nonlinear behaviour of the 10 most important Latin American emerging market bonds spreads. Applying the Hinich portmanteau bicorrelation test, the BDS test and the Engle LM test, we observe systematic nonlinear structure in the spreads series. Our results suggest that the nonlinear serial dependencies are episodic in nature. All the stock returns series (with

  7. Correlation in price changes and volatility of major Latin American stock markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Christofi; A. Pericli

    1999-01-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the short-run dynamics between five major Latin American stock markets (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico). Unlike previous research on these markets, the joint distribution of stock returns is estimated as a vector autoregression (VAR) with innovations following an exponential GARCH process. Our study is carried out using closing stock market prices covering the period

  8. Intergenerational Literacy: An Evaluation of Program and Progress. The Latin American Literacy Project Final Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, David L. E.

    In this evaluation of The Latin American Literacy Project, eight major recommendations are made based on firsthand observations of the project, discussions with staff and students, the evaluation of new program implementations, the interpretation of results from language proficiency and achievement tests, and the analysis of extensive video…

  9. Adult Education as a Human Right: The Latin American Context and the Ecopedagogic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadotti, Moacir

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well…

  10. Status of Proposed Repository for Latin-American Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.

    2004-10-04

    This report compiles preliminary information that supports the premise that a repository is needed in Latin America and analyzes the nuclear situation (mainly in Argentina and Brazil) in terms of nuclear capabilities, inventories, and regional spent-fuel repositories. The report is based on several sources and summarizes (1) the nuclear capabilities in Latin America and establishes the framework for the need of a permanent repository, (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) approach for a regional spent-fuel repository and describes the support that international institutions are lending to this issue, (3) the current situation in Argentina in order to analyze the Argentinean willingness to find a location for a deep geological repository, and (4) the issues involved in selecting a location for the repository and identifies a potential location. This report then draws conclusions based on an analysis of this information. The focus of this report is mainly on spent fuel and does not elaborate on other radiological waste sources.

  11. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 01, Number 2: Front Matter

    E-print Network

    1968-04-01

    stamped envelope for return. Scholars may, without prior permission, quote from the Review to document their own work, but it is their responsibility to make proper acknowledgment and to limit quotation to what is legitimately needed. This waiver does... not extend to the quotation of substantial parts of the articles or to a quotation presented as primary material for its own sake. Requests for permission to reprint all or substantial parts of articles should be made to the publisher, Center of Latin...

  12. La Traduccion de la Nueva Novela Latinoamericana al Ingles (English Translation of the New Latin American Novel)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez-Ayona, Gerardo

    1978-01-01

    While distinguishing between literary criticism and the scientific study of translation, Latin American translations are analyzed according to the identification of "speech facts," levels of stylistic performance, translating from scratch, and the stylistic features of Rabassa. (NCR)

  13. 21F.084J / 21A.224J / 17.55 Introduction to Latin American Studies, Spring 2002

    E-print Network

    Lawson, Chappell H., 1967-

    This HASS-D/CI course is designed as an introduction to Latin American politics and society for undergraduates at MIT. No background on the region is required. Overall workload (reading, writing, class participation, and ...

  14. Folklore des pays occitans, iberiques et latino-americains (The Folklore of Occitan, Iberian and Latin American Regions)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fumadelles, Michel

    1976-01-01

    This article is the second on a series of listings of Provencal, Iberian, and Latin American folk music records, based on records available in France as of the beginning of 1976. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  15. Capital flows to Latin American countries: effects of foreign direct investment and remittances on growth and development 

    E-print Network

    Vacaflores Rivero, Diego Eduardo

    2009-05-15

    The significant restructuring of international capital flows to developing countries – in particular to Latin American countries – observed in the last quarter century has generated significant research in the area to ...

  16. Current status and expected developments in the area of satellite communications in the Latin American and Caribbean region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayala, S.

    1986-01-01

    The present capabilities of various Latin American countries in the area of satellite communications are discussed. Their current needs in this area are covered and how these needs are now being met, as well as prospects for future advancements.

  17. Latin American Indigenous Geographies of Fear: Living in the Shadow of Racism, Lack of Development, and Antiterror Measures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah A. Radcliffe

    2007-01-01

    U.S.-dominated geographies of fear after 11 September 2001 represent indigenous peoples as potential security threats and destabilizing influences on Latin American nation-states. This article contextualizes these narratives by outlining the geographies of fear to which Latin American indigenous populations have been subjected in nation-building, resulting in restricted development opportunities and insecure livelihoods. As recent neoliberal development restructures indigenous rights, indigenous

  18. The training of psychoanalysts in Latin American countries without IPA institutions: antecedents, experiences and problems encountered.

    PubMed

    García, Javier

    2011-06-01

    ILAP (The Latin American Institute of Psychoanalysis) is a relatively recent project of the IPA and FEPAL (The Latin American Psychoanalytical Federation). Its formal origin, marked by the signature of a memorandum recording an agreement between the presidents of both institutions, Claudio Eizirik and Alvaro Rey de Castro respectively, dates from January 2006, but the governing body of ILAP was formed in December of the same year. Given this, we might say that as of December 2008 ILAP had effectively existed for two years. This is a short and very intense period and for that reason the time for general assessment, conclusions, and suggestions for change has not yet come. We shall simply give a critical history of the project, its antecedents, what it has realized, and the difficulties and limitations encountered hitherto, as well as sketch future perspectives. PMID:21702753

  19. Immigrant Participation in the Transnational Era: Latin Americans' Experiences with Collective Organising in Toronto

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luisa Veronis

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges migrant groups that are new and internally diverse face to participate and build community\\u000a in host societies today. Qualitative research findings on Latin American migrants' experiences in Toronto, Canada, reveal\\u000a that the group's participation is the result of a complexity of social and spatial processes. The paper contributes to current\\u000a debates on the study of

  20. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 14, Number 2: Recent Publications, Materials Received and Current Bibliography

    E-print Network

    1981-04-01

    , Charles A. "Latin American Theater Criticism, 1966-1974: Some Addenda to Lyday and Woody ard," Revista Inter americana de Bibliografía, Vol. XXX, N°3 (1980), 246-253. Castillo, Susana D. El desarraigo en el teatro venezolano: Marco histórico y... with Enrique Buenaventura," pp. 19-21; Judith Weiss, "New Theater in Colombia," pp. 22-25; Antonio Orlando Rodriguez, "Children's Theater: A Cuban Experience," pp. 26-29; Claudia Kaiser-Lenoir, "Argentina's Theater of Collective Creation," pp. 30...

  1. Determinants of maritime transport costs – a panel data analysis for Latin American trade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon Wilmsmeier; Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the determinants of maritime transport costs for intra-Latin American trade over a period of 6 years (1999–2004). The data refer to yearly disaggregated (five-digit level Standard International Classification) containerised maritime trade flows on 277 trade routes. With this data-set, a transport costs equation is estimated using linear regression analysis in a panel data framework. The first contribution

  2. Mother-Youth Acculturation Gaps and Health-Risking/Emotional Problems among Latin-American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wiesner, Margit; Arbona, Consuelo; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Kaplan, Charles D

    2015-01-01

    Second-generation Latin-American adolescents tend to show higher levels of various health-risking behaviors and emotional problems than first-generation Latin-American adolescents. This cross-sectional study of 40 mother-adolescent dyads examined the association of mother-youth acculturation gaps to youth adjustment problems. Intergenerational acculturation gaps were assessed as a bidimensional self-report component and a novel observational measurement component. The Latin-American adolescents were predominantly second-generation of Mexican descent (M age = 13.42 years, SD = 0.55). Most of the mothers were born in Mexico (M age = 39.18 years, SD = 5.17). Data were collected from mothers, adolescents, and coders, using questionnaires, structured interviews, and videotaped mother-youth interaction tasks. Findings revealed generally weak support for the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis. In addition, stronger relative adherence to their heritage culture by the adolescents was significantly (p < .05, ES = 0.15) related to less engagement in early health-risking sexual behaviors, possibly reflecting selective acculturation processes. Mother-youth acculturation gaps in orientation to the heritage culture were the most salient dimension, changing the focus on the original formulation of the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis. PMID:26190068

  3. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-01

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. PMID:25458716

  4. Current therapies in rheumatoid arthritis: a Latin American perspective.

    PubMed

    Burgos-Vargas, Rubén; Catoggio, Luis Jose; Galarza-Maldonado, Claudio; Ostojich, Kasmir; Cardiel, Mario H

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease affecting the synovium of joints, tendons, and some extra-articular sites. RA prevalence in Latin America ranges from 0.4 to 1.6%. Early treatment of RA translates into a substantial reduction in the cost to society. In light of this, early disease clinics are being established in some countries. Barriers to RA management, such as delay in referral to rheumatologists and limited access to therapy, have been identified. Evidence-based treatment guidelines have been adapted by countries according to their own situations. The need for keeping accurate records of biologics prescribed has been addressed by biologic registries, thereby contributing toward a better understanding of rheumatic diseases and their treatment. Current biologics include the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? inhibitors (etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab), B-cell depletion agent (rituximab), interleukin-6 receptor blocker (tocilizumab), and T-cell co-stimulatory blocker (abatacept). Future therapies include kinase inhibitors (tofacitinib and fostamatinib), alternative TNF-? inhibitors (golimumab and certolizumab), and biosimilars. PMID:23337169

  5. The tuition dilemma in the Latin American University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrian, William

    1983-12-01

    Governments in Latin America appear to have reached the limits of public subsidy of higher education and they are searching for funding alternatives. Tuition is viewed as one of the means of diversifying support and thereby of reducing the financial pressures on the budgets of these countries. In addition to the economic rationale, advocates of tuition base their arguments on the inequities of public subsidy, on the concept of `the ability to pay', and the need to redirect public subsidy to the elementary and secondary levels. Opposition to tuition is led by the students, with support from faculty and administration in higher education. Opposition is based on the ideology of `free' education, which views higher education as a basic societal obligation and fears the `privatization' of universities if governments do not fulfill their obligations. Tuition is much more than an economic issue and reflects a traditional distrust of government motives within higher education. Without additional sources of funds, however, it is likely that opportunity for higher education will be denied large numbers of students. It is ironic that expansion of opportunity may depend on the implementation of tuition as one method of raising financial support.

  6. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 27, Number 1: Book Reviews

    E-print Network

    1993-10-01

    esclarecedor sobre la razón por la que Usigli cerró su pieza Los viejos con la expresión: "Merde! como dicen en París." El profesor Beardsell explica el uso del francés como un medio de "softening and dignifying the effect with the French version. . . . What... Miguel González Pando, Screens de Dolores Prida y Perhaps the Marshland de Héctor Pérez. The Great American Justice Game en un tono paródico y grotesco presenta una visión circular, desde diferentes perspecitvas, del proceso de adaptación de una...

  7. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 06, Number 2: Front Matter

    E-print Network

    1973-04-01

    or substantial parts oí articles should be made to the publisher. A statement oí permission trom the author should accompany such requests. Subscription information: individuals, $-4.00 per year. Institutions. $6.00 per year. Hack issues of all numbers.... (Personnel and repertory of Civili's and Rossi's com panies are given in an Appendix.) (EJG) L. H. Quackenbush, "The Other Pastorelas of Spanish American Drama." Traditionally, the pastorela was considered a regional dramatic form found in the south...

  8. A Bibliography of Latin American Plays in English Translation.

    E-print Network

    Christensen, George K.

    1973-04-01

    -547. Andrade, Jorge. Time of the Harvest (A Moratória). Trans, by Donald C. Robinson. MS. Boal, Augusto. Uncle Scrooge MacDuc\\ and the Pill (Tio Patinhas e a Pilula). Trans, by Joanne Pottlitzer and Emanuel Brasil. MS. Bloch, Pedro. Enemies Don't Send... convirtió en perro). Trans, by Gerardo Luzuriaga and Robert S. Rudder. MS. Gámbaro, Griselda. The Siamese Twins (Los siameses). Trans, by William I. Oliver. MS at Pan American Society of New England. . The Camp (El campo). Trans, by William I. Oliver...

  9. LATINMAG: A Latin-American Collaborative Network in Paleo, Geo, Rock and Environmental Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constanzo, V.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Rapalini, A.; Trindade, R.

    2007-12-01

    In recent years research in paleo, geo, rock and environmental magnetism has experienced significant development in Latin-America with new research groups being settled in several countries including Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, Venezuela and Uruguay (among others). The LATINMAG network, established in May 2007, follows previous attempts to congregate ancient and newborn Latin-American research groups. It was conceived as a forum for scientific discussion and regional collaboration of these groups, including scientific meetings and interchange programs for students and researchers. Its first bi-annual meeting is going to be held in November 2008 in Caracas, Venezuela. More information is available at http://www.geofisica.unam.mx/LIMNO/LATINMAG.

  10. High Energy Physics: Proceedings of the Fifth Latin American Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano Salinas, C. J.; Pereyra Ravinez, O.; Ochoa Jiménez, R.; Masperi, Luis

    2006-04-01

    Preface -- Series editorial board and other committees -- Local organizing committee -- Foreword by the editors -- Gallery -- Homages. In Memoriam Luis Masperi. Round table: collaborations in physics in Latin America -- Lectures. An introduction to strings and some of its phenomenological aspects / G. Aldazabal. Neutrino phenomenology / E. Roulet. An introduction to cosmology / D. J. H. Chung. Innovative experimental particle physics through technological advances-past, present and future / H. W. K. Cheung -- Seminars. Grand unification and physics beyond the standard model / E. Ma. QCD evolution in dense medium / M. B. Gay Ducati. Future experiments-GRID and LHC / A. Santoro. BTeV: using heavy quark decays to test the standard model / M. Sheaff. Recent results from CDF and DO experiments / C. Avila. Matter under extreme conditions the ALICE experiment / G. Herrera Corral and ALICE-Mexico. Recent results from PHOBOS at RHIC / E. Garcia -- Contributions. SO(10) as the minimal supersymmetric GUT / A. Melfo. A supersymmetric three-family model without Higgsinos / W. A. Ponce and L. A. Sánchez. Area-preserving diffeomorphisms groups, the Majorana representation of spins, and SU(N) / J. D. Swain. On the magnetized Kerr-Newman black hole electrodynamics / E. P. Esteban. Supernova neutrinos and the absolute scale of neutrino masses-a Bayesian approach / E. Nardi. Loop quantum gravity and ultra high energy cosmic rays / J. Alfaro and G. A. Palma. QQ¯ bound states in an extended QCD2 model / P. Labraña, J. Alfaro and A. A. Andrianov. Observational constraints on Lorentz symmetry deformation / J. Alfaro and M. Cambiaso. Variable-mass dark matter and the age of the universe / U. Franca and R. Rosenfeld. Dynamical study of spinodal decomposition in heavy ion collisions / A. Barra?n and J. A. López. Predictions for single spin asymmetries in inclusive reactions involving photons / V. Gupta, C. J. Solano Salinas and H. S. Mani. Bosonization and the generalized Mandelstam-Halpern operators / H. Blas. Is there really an entangled state for far away twin photons? / H. G. Valqui. Use of neural networks to classify cosmic-ray showers according to their Muon/EM ratio / H. Salazar and L. Villaseñor. [symbol] polarization in pp-->p[symbol]K+[symbol] at 27.5 GeV / J. Félix ... [et al.]. Definition of the polarization vector / V. M. Castillo-Vallejo and J. Félix. The MINOS experiment / M. Sanchez. Study of scintillating counters and their application to VO detector of ALICE / J. E. Ruiz and Tabasco. Data selection of [symbol] muon semileptonic decay in KTeV / R. A. Gomes. Chaotic properties of high energy cosmic rays / A. Ticona ... [et al.]. Energy spectrum of surviving protons / R. Calle ... [et al.]. Calculus of the ratio [symbol] in the K meson decay through the 331 model / J. C. Montero ... [et al.]. Use of a scintillator detector for luminosity measurements / G. Contreras, C. J. Solano Salinas and A. M. Gago. Simplified forms of a linear and exact set of equations for the gravitational field in the very early universe / E. Salinas -- Posters. Determination of the b-Mass using Renormalon Cancellation / C. Contreras. CP violation in B-->?K* decays: amplitudes, factorization and new physics / D. Gómez Dumm and A. Szynkman. Degeneracies in the measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters: problem and solution in neutrino factories / J. Jones and A. M. Gago. Revision of the neutrino oscillation probability in the supernovae / L. Aliaga and A. M. Gago. Consequences on the neutrino mixing matrix from two zero textures in the neutrino mass matrix / L. Stucchi, A. M. Gago and V. Gupta. Expected flux of high energy neutrinos from observed active galactic nuclei / J. L. Bazo and A. M. Gago. Masperi's Quasispin model of the scalar field [symbol] theory with soliton solutions / M. Agüero, G. Frias and F. Ongay. Nonstandard CP violation in B-->[symbol] decays / A. Szynkman. Spinor realization of the Skyrme Model / R. Ochoa Jimenez and Yu. P. Rybakov.

  11. Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Gerald Michael

    1986-01-01

    Notes the problematical elements of diversity within Latin America, establishes priorities for the social studies curriculum, and reviews what should be taught about its geography, resources, people, religion, customs, economics, politics, history, and international relationships. Lists Latin American Studies programs and published instructional…

  12. Latin American immigrants have limited access to health insurance in Japan: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Japan provides universal health insurance to all legal residents. Prior research has suggested that immigrants to Japan disproportionately lack health insurance coverage, but no prior study has used rigorous methodology to examine this issue among Latin American immigrants in Japan. The aim of our study, therefore, was to assess the pattern of health insurance coverage and predictors of uninsurance among documented Latin American immigrants in Japan. Methods We used a cross sectional, mixed method approach using a probability proportional to estimated size sampling procedure. Of 1052 eligible Latin American residents mapped through extensive fieldwork in selected clusters, 400 immigrant residents living in Nagahama City, Japan were randomly selected for our study. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire developed from qualitative interviews. Results Our response rate was 70.5% (n = 282). Respondents were mainly from Brazil (69.9%), under 40 years of age (64.5%) and had lived in Japan for 9.45 years (SE 0.44; median, 8.00). We found a high prevalence of uninsurance (19.8%) among our sample compared with the estimated national average of 1.3% in the general population. Among the insured full time workers (n = 209), 55.5% were not covered by the Employee's Health Insurance. Many immigrants cited financial trade-offs as the main reasons for uninsurance. Lacking of knowledge that health insurance is mandatory in Japan, not having a chronic disease, and having one or no children were strong predictors of uninsurance. Conclusions Lack of health insurance for immigrants in Japan is a serious concern for this population as well as for the Japanese health care system. Appropriate measures should be taken to facilitate access to health insurance for this vulnerable population. PMID:22443284

  13. Dental health knowledge in a group of Latin American refugees in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Groisman, M; Bratthall, G T; Harari, S G; Tapia, J A

    1989-01-01

    Sixty-nine Latin American refugees with a mean age of 31 years participated in this study. The knowledge about dental health before and after reading a self-instructional manual in Spanish was tested by questionnaires. The test persons were also interviewed about their dietary habits. The results showed an improvement of 30% of right answers after reading the manual and that a frequent sugar consumption was common. This indicates that a self-instructional manual can be of value in oral health prevention in a similar group of non-resident immigrants. PMID:2603129

  14. Budget transparency on maternal health spending: a case study in five Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Malajovich, Laura; Alcalde, Maria Antonieta; Castagnaro, Kelly; Barroso, Carmen

    2012-06-01

    Progress in reducing maternal mortality has been slow and uneven, including in Latin America, where 23,000 women die each year from preventable causes. This article is about the challenges civil society organizations in Latin America faced in assessing budget transparency on government spending on specific aspects of maternity care, in order to hold them accountable for reducing maternal deaths. The study was carried out by the International Planned Parenthood, Western Hemisphere Region and the International Budget Partnership in five Latin American countries--Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Panama and Peru. It found that only in Peru was most of the information they sought available publicly (from a government website). In the other four countries, none of the information was available publicly, and although it was possible to obtain at least some data from ministry and health system sources, the search process often took a complex course. The data collected in each country were very different, depending not only on the level of budget transparency, but also on the existence and form of government data collection systems. The obstacles that these civil society organizations faced in monitoring national and local budget allocations for maternal health must be addressed through better budgeting modalities on the part of governments. Concrete guidelines are also needed for how governments can better capture data and track local and national progress. PMID:22789097

  15. Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies, Volume 9, Issue 1, 2014, p. 1-22 Blackness and mestizaje: Afro-Caribbean music in Chetumal, Mexico1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies, Volume 9, Issue 1, 2014, p. 1-22 1 Blackness and mestizaje: Afro-Caribbean music in Chetumal, Mexico1 Elisabeth Cunin, IRD-URMIS, CIESAS, UQROO Elisabeth,version1-29Jul2014 Author manuscript, published in "Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies 9, 1 (2014

  16. Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials (15th, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 23-26, 1970). Final Report and Working Papers, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Susan Shattuck: Bresie, Mayellen

    Volume 2 contains 13 working papers from the 15th Seminar on Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials. The papers are: (1) A Report on Bibliographic Activities; (2) Microfilm Projects Newsletter; (3) Role of Latin American Legal Material in the Social Science Research Library; (4) A description of sources for Legal and Social Science…

  17. UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA. The Department of Sociology and the Latin American and Caribbean Studies Institute (LACSI) invite applications for a tenure-track assistant

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA. The Department of Sociology and the Latin American and Caribbean Studies. Candidates must have a Ph.D. in Sociology or have completed all the requirements for this degree by August 10 to teach courses not only in sociology but also in Latin American and Caribbean studies. Preference

  18. Buruli Ulcer in United Kingdom Tourist Returning from Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Stragier, Pieter; Portaels, Françoise; Gascoyne-Binzi, Deborah; Collyns, Timothy; Lucas, Sebastian; Mawer, Damian

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of Buruli ulcer in a tourist from the United Kingdom. The disease was almost certainly acquired in Brazil, where only 1 case had previously been reported. The delay in diagnosis highlights the need for physicians to be aware of the disease and its epidemiology. PMID:19891876

  19. The First Two Years of the Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education (relea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Jafelice, L. C.; Horvath, J. E.

    2006-08-01

    We present and discuss in this work the motivations, goals and strategies adopted for its creation and launch of the e-journal LATIN-AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ASTRONOMY EDUCATION (RELEA). The RELEA "first light" was in August, 2004 with the appearance of No. 1 and it is now completing two years of existence. The creation of the new journal was prompted by: a) the noteworthy absence of a specific publication in the field in Latin-America; b) the lack of classroom material in Spanish/Portuguese that could be directly used without too many adaptations; and c) the need of a regional forum to discuss and suggest public policies concerning the teaching of Sciences in general and Astronomy in particular. We identify and present the difficulties encountered for the achievement of the proposed objectives and operational issues in this period, together with the adopted solutions (refereeing procedure, periodicity, etc.). Finally, we attempt to evaluate the long-run impact of such initiatives on the scientific education as a tool for effective citizenship decision making, so critical for Third-World countries. References Bretones, P.S., Jafelice, L.C. & Horvath, J.E. , 2004, Editorial of the RELEA No.1, available at (http://www.iscafaculdades.com.br/relea/). Bretones, P.S., Jafelice, L.C. & Horvath, J.E. , 2005, Editorial of the RELEA No.2, available at (http://www.iscafaculdades.com.br/relea/). Bretones, P.S., Jafelice, L.C. & Horvath, J.E., A Revista Latino-Americana de Educação em Astronomia: objetivos e estratégias. In: Encontro Brasileiro de Ensino de Astronomia, 8, 2004, São Paulo. Proceedings. (In press). [The Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education: Objectives and Strategies. In: 8th Brazilian Meeting on Astronomy Teaching.

  20. Immigrant health workers in Chile: is there a Latin American "brain drain"?

    PubMed

    Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena

    2012-08-01

    Most research on the phenomenon of "brain drain" (one-way flow of highly skilled/educated individuals) has focused on movement between the least developed and most highly developed countries. Therefore, the significance of patterns of migration to middle-income countries such as those in Latin America is less clear. The aim of this study was to outline key features of international health worker "brain drain" to Chile to promote discussion and further research on this phenomenon as it pertains to the Latin American region. The study compared immigrant health workers living in Chile to both Chilean-born health workers and other immigrants living in Chile using a qualitative nationwide dataset (the results of Chile's 2009 National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey). Demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables were included in the analyses, which were weighted by population to obtain nationally representative estimates. In 2009, immigrant health workers represented 2.2% of all health personnel and 2.6% of all resident immigrants in the country. While most immigrant health workers had a universitylevel education, about 25% had only a high school-level education or less. There was no statistically significant difference between the distribution of immigrant health workers' household income and that of Chilean-born health workers. A significantly higher proportion of the immigrant group reported no entitlement to health care provision. While the results of this study do not indicate a significant international health worker "brain drain" to Chile, they do suggest distinctive patterns of migration within the Latin American region. Future studies in Chile could confirm the validity of these results, using a larger sample of immigrant health workers. PMID:23099879

  1. Latin American special project: kidney health cooperation project between Uruguay and Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Sola, Laura; Plata-Cornejo, Raúl; Fernández-Cean, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Uruguay and Bolivia are two countries that show heterogenicity of the Latin American region, including the national income, the expenditure on health and the services for renal care. In Bolivia, there is manpower shortage for renal care with only 5 nephrologists per million people (pmp) and the prevalence of patients on dialysis is only 200 pmp. This is much lower than the mean prevalence rate of renal replacement therapy for Latin America as a whole. Uruguay on the other hand has more dedicated renal resources with 50 nephrologists pmp, and renal replacement therapy is provided to ~ 1,000 dialysis patients pmp. In November 2012, a collaborative project financed by the Uruguayan International Cooperation Agency was signed by both the Uruguay and Bolivia Ministries of Health, and the goal was to develop a comprehensive program for the prevention and management of all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Bolivia. The specific objectives were to: a) promote renal healthcare in the primary healthcare setting, b) identify kidney disease in populations at risk, and c) optimize patient care at all stages of CKD, including dialysis and transplantation supported with a national ESRD registry in Bolivia. As a first step, delegates from the Bolivian Health Ministry, visited Uruguay in April 2014, primarily to strengthen the development of tools required for developing and maintaining a national registry. In addition, during this visit, a meeting with the president of the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH) culminated in designing a training program for peritoneal dialysis. This highly cooperative relationship is advancing the prevention and care of CKD in Bolivia and may serve as a model for international approaches to advance system level CKD care in countries with limited healthcare resources. PMID:25725237

  2. Health status sensed by the adult latin american immigrant population in the city of seville, Spain.

    PubMed

    González-López, J R; Rodríguez-Gázquez, M A; Lomas-Campos, M M

    2015-06-01

    The immigrant population in Seville has grown over the last 10 years, most of which are Latin Americans. Our aim was to describe the health status perceived in this emerging population. In 2011, a cross-sectional study was performed on a representative sample of 190 Latin American immigrants between the ages of 25 and 44 years residing in Seville (Spain). The self-sensed health status was 18 % excellent, 28 % very good, 42 % good, 11 % regular, and 1 % poor. The average number of days of satisfactory health status during the last month was 22. Statistically significant differences were found: (a) higher satisfactory perception of health in men than in women (30 vs. 9 %) and (b) higher average number of days with excellent health in people with satisfactory perception than those with an unsatisfactory perception of their health status (23 and 15, respectively). Logistic regression, educational level, number of days of good health, and doing physical exercise were the variables that best explained the satisfactory perception of health status. Most people studied have a positive self-assessment of their health status, especially men, who engage in physical activity and those who have 3 and more weeks of good health per month. Our results permit us to support, to a large extent, the theory of the "healthy immigrant". PMID:24346840

  3. [Nutritional Sciences' Journals in Ibero Latin American countries in the XXIst Century].

    PubMed

    Culebras, J M

    2012-11-01

    The presence of nutrition as an independent matter in the educational programs of the Spanish Faculties of Medicine has been scanty until the end of the XXth century. We have witnessed an important development of the specific opportunities for the nutritional sciences in terms of quality and quantity in the XXIst century. Only one Ibero Latin American journal, Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición (ALAN, ISSN 0004-0622), was present in the Journal Citation Reports, Science Edition among the 51 journals under the heading of Nutrition & Dietetics. Three more ibero latin American journals have been incorporated to JCR in the XXIst century, Nutrición Hospitalaria (Nutr Hosp, ISSN 0212-1611) in 2006, Revista de Nutricao (Rev Nutr, ISSN 1415-5273) and Revista Española de Nutrición Comunitaria (Rev Esp Nutr Comunit, ISSN 1135-3074) in 2007. The four journals are having a growing importance in other electronic platforms, rendering an important service to the scientific society, not only in their environment, but also in the rest of the world. Although English language dominates scientific communications, the critical mass of already existing journals in Spanish and the area of influence of this language is a good stimulus for continuing its utilization. PMID:23568391

  4. Domestic Abuse and HIV-Risk Behavior in Latin American Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis E. Nieves-Rosa; Alex Carballo-Dieguez; Curtis Dolezal

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted with 273 Latin American men who have sex with men living in the New York metropolitan area. The results show that 51% of the men reported having experienced domestic abuse at least once in their relationships. Up to 12% of these men had been forced to have receptive anal sex without condoms by one of their

  5. Meaning in Life as a Mediator of Ethnic Identity and Adjustment among Adolescents from Latin, Asian, and European American Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining…

  6. Ability of six Latin American antivenoms to neutralize the venom of mapaná equis ( Bothrops atrox) from Antioquia and Chocó (Colombia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Otero; Vitelbina Nuñez; Raul Guillermo Osorio; JoséMaria Gutiérrez; Cesar Augusto Giraldo; Luz Elena Posada

    1995-01-01

    This investigation compared the ability of six Latin American antivenoms (monovalent antibothropic INS, Santafé de Bogota; polyvalent INS; polyvalent probiol, Santafé de Bogotá; antibothropic Instituto Butantan, IB, São Paulo, Brazil; polyvalent Instituto Clodomiro Picado, ICP, San José, Costa Rica; polyvalent MYN, Mexico) to neutralize various pharmacological and enzymatic effects of Bothrops atrox venom from Antioquia and Chocó, north-west of Colombia.

  7. Learning Environments with Technological Resources: A Look at Their Contribution to Student Performance in Latin American Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrasco, Marcela Roman; Torrecilla, F. Javier Murillo

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that computer access and use has a positive effect on the performance reached by Latin American schoolchildren in sixth grade. This is supported by Multilevel models of 4 and 3 levels with data from the Second Regional Comparative and Explanatory Study, developed by UNESCO (2008) in 16 countries and analyzing around 3,000 schools,…

  8. Latin American and Caribbean Conference for Engineering and Technology Medelln, Colombia WE1-1 August 3-5, 2011

    E-print Network

    Kalva, Hari

    9th Latin American and Caribbean Conference for Engineering and Technology Medellín, Colombia WE1, August 3-5, 2011, Medellín, Colombia. Design and Development of a System for Aerial Video Survey of Large Medellín, Colombia WE1-2 August 3-5, 2011 the challenges of designing a complete multimedia system, 2

  9. A Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Patterns of Learning and Academic Performance of Spanish and Latin-American Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez-Fernández, J. Reinaldo; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse and compare the learning patterns of higher education students from Spain and three Latin-American countries (Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela). For this purpose Vermunt's Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS) was translated into Spanish and tested. The participants were 456 undergraduates enrolled in a teacher…

  10. Merging Computers and Communication: A Case Study in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeffinger, John C.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses access to information through merging computers and new communications technology and its influence in developing nations. Highlights include a case study of InterNet/LACRIP (Latin American Cancer Research Information Project), a microcomputer-based international network involving institutions in the United States and Latin America that…

  11. A life course approach to patterns and trends in modern Latin American sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Bozon, Michel; Gayet, Cecilia; Barrientos, Jaime

    2009-05-01

    This article explores trends in sexual behavior in Latin America, envisaged from a life-course perspective, taking into account social differences. It is focused on three main issues: the timing of early sexual and reproductive events, sexual activity during adulthood, and measurement of homosexuality-bisexuality. It draws on general population data from nonspecific surveys, as surveys dealing specifically with sexual behavior are scarce in Latin American countries. A traditional feature in these societies is the huge amount of social inequality, which translates directly into social differences in sexual experience, especially among women. Despite the decline in fertility, an early start of unions and of reproductive experience remains typical of groups with lower education. Another aspect is the diversity of national patterns and gender systems, very far from the image of cultural homogeneity generally associated with this region. Data show a low prevalence of homosexuality/bisexuality, which can be a result of underreporting. The paper eventually stresses the necessity of carrying out more sexual behavior surveys of the general population in the region. PMID:19384100

  12. 'Boots for my Sancho': structural vulnerability among Latin American day labourers in Berkeley, California.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, Juan Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the structural vulnerability of Latin American undocumented day labourers in Northern California, as it is expressed in conversations on street corners where they wait for work. The intimate aspects of migrant experience become exemplified in jokes about the Sancho - a hypothetical character who has moved in on a day labourer's family and who enjoys the money he sends home. Joking turns to more serious topics of nostalgia and tensions with family far away, elements that come together with the fears and threats of labour on the corner and affect the way day labourers see themselves. Sexuality is rearticulated in the absence of women and masculinity becomes enmeshed in the contingencies of unregulated work and long-term separation from the people the men support. Together, these elements result in the articulation of threat to the immigrant body itself, which is exemplified by anxieties over homosexual propositions on the corner. PMID:22587666

  13. Prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and street drugs consumption in adult Latin American immigrants.

    PubMed

    González-López, José Rafael; Rodríguez-Gázquez, María de Los Ángeles; Lomas-Campos, María de Las Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug consumption (through the self-report) in adult Latin-American immigrants of Seville, a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a representative sample of 190 immigrants. The results showed that 61.4% of the participants had consumed alcohol in previous month before data collection, although 13.2% of them were at risk of alcoholism. Moreover, 30.0% were smokers. In addition, 5.3% of the interviewed people had consumed illicit psychoactive substances in the previous six months (Marihuana: 3.7%, hashish: 1.1% and cocaine: 0.5%). For all substances under analysis, the consumption prevalence was much higher in men from 25 to 39 years of age. In conclusion, prevalence levels of this consumption were high among the studied immigrants. Nurses could train the population in the prevention of these risk behaviors through preventive practices. PMID:22991115

  14. Energy profiles of selected Latin American and Caribbean countries. Report series No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.

    1994-07-01

    Countries in this report include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. These ten countries are the most important oil and gas producers in the Latin American and the Caribbean region. In the following sections, the primary energy supply (oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power whenever they are applicable), primary energy consumption, downstream oil sector development, gas utilization are discussed for each of the ten countries. The report also presents our latest forecasts of petroleum product consumption in each country toward 2000, which form the basis of the outlook for regional energy production and consumption outlined in Report No 1. Since the bulk of primary energy supply and demand is hydrocarbons for many countries, brief descriptions of the important hydrocarbons policy issues are provided at the end of the each country sections.

  15. Latin American Consensus on the use of transcranial Doppler in the diagnosis of brain death

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler evaluates cerebral hemodynamics in patients with brain injury and is a useful technical tool in diagnosing cerebral circulatory arrest, usually present in the brain-dead patient. This Latin American Consensus was formed by a group of 26 physicians experienced in the use of transcranial Doppler in the context of brain death. The purpose of this agreement was to make recommendations regarding the indications, technique, and interpretation of the study of transcranial ultrasonography in patients with a clinical diagnosis of brain death or in the patient whose clinical diagnosis presents difficulties; a working group was formed to enable further knowledge and to strengthen ties between Latin American physicians working on the same topic. A review of the literature, concepts, and experiences were exchanged in two meetings and via the Internet. Questions about pathophysiology, equipment, techniques, findings, common problems, and the interpretation of transcranial Doppler in the context of brain death were answered. The basic consensus statements are the following: cerebral circulatory arrest is the final stage in the evolution of progressive intracranial hypertension, which is visualized with transcranial Doppler as a "pattern of cerebral circulatory arrest". The following are accepted as the standard of cerebral circulatory arrest: reverberant pattern, systolic spikes, and absence of previously demonstrated flow. Ultrasonography should be used - in acceptable hemodynamic conditions - in the anterior circulation bilaterally (middle cerebral artery) and in the posterior (basilar artery) territory. If no ultrasonographic images are found in any or all of these vessels, their proximal arteries are acceptable to be studied to look for a a pattern of cerebral circulatory arrest. PMID:25295818

  16. Screening of imported infectious diseases among asymptomatic sub-Saharan African and Latin American immigrants: a public health challenge.

    PubMed

    Monge-Maillo, Begoña; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Norman, Francesca F; Ferrere-González, Federico; Martínez-Pérez, Ángela; Pérez-Molina, José Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Migrants from developing countries are usually young and healthy but several studies report they may harbor asymptomatic infections for prolonged periods. Prevalence of infections were determined for asymptomatic immigrants from Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa who ettended to a European Tropical Medicine Referral Center from 2000 to 2009. A systematic screening protocol for selected infections was used. Data from 317 sub-Saharan Africans and 383 Latin Americans were analyzed. Patients were mostly young (mean age 29 years); there were significantly more males among sub-Saharan Africans (83% versus 31.6%) and pre-consultation period was longer for Latin Americans (5 versus 42 months). Diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), chronic hepatitis B and C virus infection, and latent tuberculosis were significantly more frequent in sub-Saharan Africans (2.3% versus 0.3%; 14% versus 1.6%; 1.3 versus 0%; 71% versus 32.1%). There were no significant differences in prevalence for syphilis and intestinal parasites. Malaria and schistosomiasis prevalence in sub-Saharan Africans was 4.6% and 5.9%, respectively, and prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin Americans was 48.5%. Identifying and treating asymptomatic imported infectious diseases may have an impact both for the individual concerned and for public health. Based on these results, a systematic screening protocol for asymptomatic immigrants is proposed. PMID:25646257

  17. Republic of Argentina: Argentina is the envy of other Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Spain, D

    1984-05-01

    Argentina's economic and political history may appear grim by US standards, but it is envied by many other Latin American nations, and by Latin American standards its demographic situation is enviable as well. A low population growth rate combined with abundant natural resources means that the poverty of its neighbors has not hit Argentina. Almost everyone eats well and the staple is beef -- about 240 pounds per capita per year. Final figures for the 1980 census of population and housing report a total of 27.9 million people, an increase of 17% from the 23.8 million people counted in 1970. The average annual rate of increase was 1.5% a year. With the exception of Uruguay, this is the lowest rate of increase in continental Latin America. The birthrate of 24 births/1000 population is third only to Chile and Uruguay as the lowest in continental Latin America, although the death rate is about average at 9/1000. After several decades of decline, the death rate is rising again because the population is aging. A current problem is the emigration of Argentinians to other countries, a problem that is most severe among highly trained professionals. Over 1/3 of those who leave Argentina come to the US, with Spain and Canada receiving the next highest numbers. At its current growth rate, Argentina's population will double in 46 years. It is estimated that the population was 29.1 million in 1983; it is projected to be 34.5 million by the year 2000 and 39.6 million by 2020. Over 1/3 of the population live in and around Gran Buenos Aires, the largest metropolitan area in South America and among the ten largest in the world. There is a large core of Spanish descendents still living, but some other European countries are well represented also. The 1980 census recorded 7.1 million households; the average number of persons per household was 3.9. There were 8.2 million dwellings counted in 1980, with an average of 3.3 people per dwelling. 13% of all dwellings were unoccupied at the time of the census. The literacy rate of over 90% is one of the highest in Latin America. Enrollment rates for men and women are almost identical in every age category. Young women are slightly more likely than young men to have completed higher education. In 1980 there were 10.4 million people in the labor force or about 60% of the population aged 15-64. The unemployment rate of 2.3% in 1980 was low by any country's standards, but there is a much larger percentage of workers who are classified as "temporarily laid off" rather than unemployed. Argentina ranks about 50th in per capita income in the world in contrast to its rank of 15th after World War 2. There is a sophisticated market research and advertising community in Argentina. Argentina's Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Censos has a variety of reports available for the 1980 census and from annual statistical surveys. PMID:12313038

  18. Renal replacement therapy in Latin American end-stage renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Rosa-Diez, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Bedat, Maria; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Marinovich, Sergio; Fernandez, Sdenka; Lugon, Jocemir; Poblete-Badal, Hugo; Elgueta-Miranda, Susana; Gomez, Rafael; Cerdas-Calderon, Manuel; Almaguer-Lopez, Miguel; Freire, Nelly; Leiva-Merino, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Gaspar; Luna-Guerra, Jorge; Bochicchio, Tomasso; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Cano, Nuria; Iron, Norman; Cuero, Cesar; Cuevas, Dario; Tapia, Carlos; Cangiano, Jose; Rodriguez, Sandra; Gonzalez, Haydee; Duro-Garcia, Valter

    2014-01-01

    The Latin American Dialysis and Renal Transplant Registry (RLADTR) was founded in 1991; it collects data from 20 countries which are members of Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nefrología e Hipertension. This paper presents the results corresponding to the year 2010. This study is an annual survey requesting data on incident and prevalent patients undergoing renal replacement treatment (RRT) in all modalities: hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) and living with a functioning graft (LFG), etc. Prevalence and incidence were compared with previous years. The type of renal replacement therapy was analyzed, with special emphasis on PD and transplant (Tx). These variables were correlated with the gross national income (GNI) and the life expectancy at birth. Twenty countries participed in the surveys, covering 99% of the Latin American. The prevalence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) under RRT in Latin America (LA) increased from 119 patients per million population (pmp) in 1991 to 660 pmp in 2010 (HD 413 pmp, PD 135 pmp and LFG 111 pmp). HD proportionally increased more than PD, and Tx HD continues to be the treatment of choice in the region (75%). The kidney Tx rate increased from 3.7 pmp in 1987 to 6.9 pmp in 1991 and to 19.1 in 2010. The total number of Tx's in 2010 was 10 397, with 58% deceased donors. The total RRT prevalence correlated positively with GNI (r2 0.86; P < 0.05) and life expectancy at birth (r2 0.58; P < 0.05). The HD prevalence and the kidney Tx rate correlated significantly with the same indexes, whereas the PD rate showed no correlation with these variables. A tendency to rate stabilization/little growth was reported in the most regional countries. As in previous reports, the global incidence rate correlated significantly only with GNI (r2 0.63; P < 0.05). Diabetes remained the leading cause of ESRD. The most frequent causes of death were cardiovascular (45%) and infections (22%). Neoplasms accounted for 10% of the causes of death. The prevalence of RRT continues to increase, particularly in countries with 100% public health or insurance coverage for RRT, where it approaches rates comparable to those displayed by developed countries with a better GNI. The incidence also continues to increase in both countries that have not yet extended its coverage to 100% of the population as well as in those that have an adequate program for timely detection and treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its associated risk factors. PD is still an underutilized strategy for RRT in the region. Even though renal Tx is feasible, its growth rate is still not as fast as it should be in order to compensate for the increased prevalence of patients on waiting lists. Diagnostic and prevention programs for hypertension and diabetes, appropriate policies promoting the expansion of PD and organ procurement as well as transplantation as cost-effective forms of RRT are needed in the region. Regional cooperation among Latin American countries, allowing the more developed to guide and train others in starting registries and CKD programs, may be one of the key initiatives to address this deficit. PMID:25349696

  19. North American wood markets hit by United States housing crash North American wood markets hit by United States housing crash

    E-print Network

    North American wood markets hit by United States housing crash North American wood markets hit by United States housing crash North American wood markets hit by United States housing crash 19 Columbia, Canada. Currently about 80% of pellet production from North America is exported to Europe. Recent

  20. University students' perceived norms of peers and drug use: a multicentric study in five Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Inés V; Carvalho, Ana Maria Pimenta; de Oliveira, Elias Barbosa; de Oliveira Júnior, Hercilio Pereira; Santos Figueroa, Syntia Dinora; Montoya Vásquez, Erika Maria; Cazenave, Angelica; Chaname, Eva; Medina Matallana, Luz Stella; Ramirez Castillo, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional study compared perceived peer drug use and actual drug use in a sample of Latin American university students. Students from nine universities in five countries (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Honduras and Peru) completed a questionnaire that addressed the use of tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and cocaine. Analysis focused on comparing perceptions to actual drug use. The findings largely, but not completely, confirmed the idea that students overestimate peer drug use. The unexpected findings were those relating to alcohol. While students generally overestimated peer use of tobacco, marijuana and cocaine, they accurately estimated or underestimated peer use of alcohol. Apart from the anomalous findings with regard to alcohol, this study shows that perceived drug use relates to actual drug use in Latin America as it does elsewhere. The results also support the suggestion that interventions using normative feedback would be useful to strengthen drug use prevention programs aimed at youth in Latin America. PMID:20011910

  1. Human rights and mental health among Latin American women in situations of state-sponsored violence. Bibliographic resources.

    PubMed

    Lykes, M B; Brabeck, M M; Ferns, T; Radan, A

    1993-12-01

    The Task Force of the American Psychological Association Division 35, Psychology of Women, conducted a literature review of resources from Latin America to examine the social dimensions of state-sponsored violence in Latin America, their effects on socialization and community, and some responses of women surviving these experiences. It limited its review to works of women's groups, progressive organizations, and individual women exploring the effects of war and state-sponsored violence on women's mental health. Recurring emergent themes included the false dichotomy of violence committed against women in public versus that committed in private, silencing of women accompanies state imposed terror, collective resistance to such terror. The resources addressed 3 types of women's experiences of violence: exile within and beyond one's national borders; torture--an extreme form of state-sponsored violence; and nontraditional, culturally appropriate interventions--alternatives to Western models. This review motivated the Task Force to call on their colleagues to contribute to the on-going documentation of state-sponsored violence. Task Force members identified several areas for collaborative research and/or theory development. Psychologists should question the validity of clinical neutrality and examine the particular meanings of non-neutrality within different cultures. For example, some Latin American psychologists reject diagnoses of intrapsychic syndromes (e.g., post-traumatic stress syndrome) and propose concepts that center on the nexus of individuals and social life. The Task Force sees great opportunities for US psychologists to network and to form solidarity-based relationships with Latin American women. It has identified many women's groups working in Latin America. Human rights organizations (e.g., Americas Watch) have formed women's projects. Further work should be done to improve resource exchanges. PMID:12288466

  2. Insulin resistance and glucose and lipid concentrations in a cohort of perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Rohan; Hance, Laura Freimanis; Monteiro, Jacqueline Pontes; Ruz, Noris Pavia; Machado, Daisy Maria; Saavedra, Mariza; Motta, Fabrizio; Harris, D Robert

    2013-07-01

    We measured glucose, insulin and lipids in 249 perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children. Only 1 subject had impaired fasting glucose; 6.8% had insulin resistance. Abnormalities in total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were reported for 13%, 13%, 21% and 34%, respectively. Continued follow-up of this population is necessary to characterize the evolution and clinical consequences of these findings. PMID:23360832

  3. Do Latin American Scientific Journals Follow Dual-Use Review Policies?

    PubMed Central

    Valles, Edith Gladys

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, a number of journals have implemented dual-use policies in order to analyze whether the papers submitted for publication could raise concern because of the potential for misuse of their content. In this context, an analysis was performed on Latin American scientific journals to examine whether they apply formal written dual-use review policies and whether they inform their authors and reviewers about potentially sensitive issues in this area, as other international journals do. Peer-reviewed life sciences journals indexed in Latindex from Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, and Chile were analyzed. The Guide for Authors and the Instructions to Referees of 216 journals included in the Latindex catalogue (which means that they meet the best quality standards of the Latindex system) were screened for biosecurity-related information using the keywords biosecurity, biological weapons, and dual-use research of concern. Results showed that the screened publications had a total lack of dual-use review policies, even though some of them pointed out ethical behaviors to be followed related to authorship, plagiarism, simultaneous submission, research results misappropriation, ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, guiding principles for the care and use of animals in research, research standard violations, and reviewer bias, among others. PMID:24693885

  4. [The anatomical pathology, an indispensable discipline, and its only Latin American journal].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Velasco, Alicia; Valencia-Mayoral, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    As a medical discipline, pathological anatomy was born between the 16th and 17th centuries, when the bases for scientific and technological development, as we know them today, were established. Giovanni Battista Morgagni (1682-1771), one of the greatest clinicians of the 18th century, introduced the concept of correlation between clinical manifestations and pathological anatomic structures. Just like that the pathology has contributed to the characterization of many diseases. Correlation of anatomopathological changes with signs and symptoms of disease is still common practice to date, which constitutes the basis for one of the most relevant pedagogical activities in medicine: the clinical pathological conference. The American Society of Investigative Pathology describes pathology as "the medical specialty that provides the scientific foundation of medical practice". Advances in this discipline have been transmitted mainly in periodical publications as early as the 19th century, and many scientific journals dedicated to communication of relevant findings from all over the world have been created since. The uninterrupted publication of a scientific journal for 51 years, the journal Patología. Revista Latinoamericana, dedicated to one of the most important medical disciplines is, undoubtedly, an achievement worthy of celebration, for being the only one in Spanish in Latin America. PMID:24758866

  5. [Progress and pending issues in the Latin American agenda for tobacco control].

    PubMed

    Valdés-Salgado, Raydel

    2010-01-01

    Projections based on the most recent report on the Global Burden of Disease show that the observed increase in smoking prevalence in middle and low income countries will contribute to the increase of the number of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and some cancers. The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control recommends a group of actions to curb the tobacco epidemic. This is a review paper based on the most recent MPOWER report and also included in this review are some of the most recent tobacco control measures implemented during 2009 and 2010. We conclude that most Latin American countries have achieved significant progress in tobacco control in recent years. However, when comparing the current situation against the WHO recommendations we realized that for most countries there is still work to be done. If current smoking prevalence among teenagers remains unchanged, there will be a significant increase in the number of premature deaths attributable to tobacco consumption in future decades. PMID:21243205

  6. [Psychiatric education and cultural components during medical training: Latin American perspectives].

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Renato D; Suarez-Richards, Manuel; Sarabia, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Medical education has incorporated psychiatric or mental health components more consistently during the last decades thanks to various factors such as: advances in neurobiological research; the increasing prevalence of mental disorders in global health; the increasingly close relationship between mental health and public health; comorbidities with medical conditions and the impact of sociocultural phenomena in clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and prevention. Based on acquisition of core competencies and ethical principles of universal acceptance, the teaching process examined in this article proposes an education based on the provision of clinical experiences integrated throughout the collection of adequate information, the development of diagnostic capabilities, and exposure to a wide variety of forms of academic assessment of students and residents in training. The cultural components of psychiatric education receive special mention; we provide examples of their systematic integration with the acquisition of general skills. The teaching tools include theoretical and applied activities and supervision. Particular attention is paid to how the principles of modern psychiatric medical education, including cultural aspects and practice of holistic health care objectives, can and should be in effect in Latin American countries. PMID:25418657

  7. Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Lankao, P.; Borbor Cordova, M.; Qin, H.

    2013-12-01

    We explore whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

  8. Higher Education and Economic Growth in the Latin American Higher Education and Economic Growth in the Latin American Emerging Markets Emerging Markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Boldin; Elsa-Sofia Morote; Matthew McMullen

    The aim of this article is to shed light on the connection between higher education and economic development in three emerging economies in Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, and Chile). The Granger pairwise causality test was used to determine the relationship between the two variables of GDP growth and higher education enrollment. Using the 1960-1996 period, weak relationships were found between

  9. Report from the Latin American Spondyloarthritis Society for Education and Research in Immunology and Medicine organization 2012 workshop.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Molano, Wilson; Toloza, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Marwin; Uribe, Carlos Vinicio Caballero; Pineda, Carlos; Londoño, John; Santos, Pedro; Jaimes, Diego; Diaz, Mario; Chalem, Phillipe; Villota, Orlando; Sierra, Rita; Puche, William; Salas, José; Yara, José; Hamilton, Gordon; Pardo, Carlos; Mercado, Beatriz; Valle-Oñate, Rafael

    2013-09-01

    The first annual meeting of the Latin American Spondyloarthritis Society for Education and Research in Immunology and Medicine (LASSERIM) was held in Bogotá, Colombia, in September 2012 and was attended by key opinion leaders, researchers, and rheumatologists. The meeting included presentations and discussions from renowned speakers during 2 days and a coaching leadership exercise led by an expert in the field followed by an open forum. Two groups defined a priori discussed the establishment of a professional network and organization to be involved in the identification, assessment, and effective resolution of health care issues in Latin America.A broad spectrum of topics were discussed but focused on the following: pharmacoeconomics in general rheumatology, spondyloarthritis and chronic back pain, therapeutic interventions in rheumatoid arthritis, ultrasonography in spondyloarthritis, impact of social media in medicine and global trends in leadership, quality of life, and innovation. A special workshop on coaching in health care and coaching as a tool to implement LASSERIM goals was part of the 2-day conference.LASSERIM will be working in the future on education, research, and innovation in the field of rheumatology and immunology. A special focus will be on spondyloarthritis, by promoting research, open discussions, and by conducting carefully planned research studies to impact on the quality of life of patients and doctors from Latin American countries. PMID:23965483

  10. Lead exposure in Latin America and the Caribbean. Lead Research Group of the Pan-American Health Organization.

    PubMed

    Romieu, I; Lacasana, M; McConnell, R

    1997-04-01

    As a result of the rapid industrialization of Latin America and the Caribbean during the second half of this century, exposure to lead has become an increasingly important problem. To obtain an estimate of the magnitude of lead exposure in the region, we carried out a survey and a literature search on potential sources of lead exposure and on blood lead concentrations. Sixteen out of 18 Latin American and 2 out of 10 Caribbean countries responded to the survey. Lead in gasoline remains a major problem, although the lead content has decreased in many countries in the last few years. The impact of leaded fuel is more important in urban settings, given their high vehicular density. Seventy-five percent of the population of the region lives in urban areas, and children younger than 15 years of age, the most susceptible group, comprise 30% of the population. Other sources of lead exposure identified in the region included industrial emissions, battery recycling, paint and varnishes, and contaminated food and water. Lead is recognized as a priority problem by national authorities in 72% of the countries that responded to the survey, and in 50% of the countries some legislation exists to regulate the lead content in certain products. However, compliance is low. There is an urgent need for a broad-based coalition between policy makers, industry, workers, unions, health care providers, and the community to take actions to reduce environmental and occupational lead exposures in all the Latin American and Caribbean countries. PMID:9189704

  11. Distribution and ecology of parent taxa of pollen lodged within the Latin American Pollen Database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Marchant; Lucia Almeida; Hermann Behling; Juan Carlos Berrio; Mark Bush; Antoine Cleef; Joost Duivenvoorden; Maarten Kappelle; Paulo De Oliveira; Ary Teixeira de Oliveira-Filho; Socorro Lozano-Gar?ia; Henry Hooghiemstra; Marie-Pierre Ledru; Beatriz Ludlow-Wiechers; Vera Markgraf; Virginia Mancini; Marta Paez; Aldo Prieto; Olando Rangel; Maria Lea Salgado-Labouriau; P. Kuhry; B. Melief; E. Schreve-Brinkman; Geel van B; Hammen van der T; Reenen van G. B. A; M. Wille

    2002-01-01

    The cornerstone of palaeoecological research, concerned with vegetation dynamics over the recent geological past, is a good understanding of the present-day ecology and distribution of the taxa. This is particularly necessary in areas of high floral diversity such as Latin America. Vegetation reconstructions, based on numerous pollen records, now exist with respect to all major vegetation associations from Latin America.

  12. Pneumocystis and Pneumocystosis: first meeting of experts from Latin-American and Portuguese-speaking countries - a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Francisco; Medrano, Francisco J; de Armas, Yaxsier; Wissmann, Gustavo; Calderón, Enrique J; Matos, Olga

    2014-05-01

    The Pneumocystis and Pneumocystosis: first meeting of experts from Latin-American and Portuguese-speaking countries was held in Lisbon, Portugal, on 24-26 October 2013. A total of 20 speakers from Latin America, Africa and Europe participated in the meeting. The epidemiological studies presented in this meeting begin to change the misconception that since the AIDS epidemic, Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) has become an infrequent disease, showing that today PcP remains a major opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients in both developed and developing countries and an emerging problem in immunocompromised patients without HIV infection worldwide. PcP management remains a challenge. Right now, the combination of caspofungin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is a promising therapeutic approach that needs to be assessed in controlled clinical trials. PMID:24617414

  13. Efficacy of HIV Prevention Interventions in Latin American and Caribbean Nations, 1995–2008: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Boynton, Marcella H.; Warren, Michelle R.; LaCroix, Jessica M.; Carey, Michael P.; Johnson, Blair T.

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 34 HIV prevention interventions (from 27 studies) that were evaluated in Latin American and Caribbean nations. These studies were obtained through systematic searches of English, Spanish, and Portuguese-language databases available as of January 2009. Overall, interventions significantly increased knowledge (d = 0.51) and condom use (d = 0.28) but the effects varied widely. Interventions produced more condom use when they focused on high-risk individuals, distributed condoms, and explicitly addressed socio-cultural components. The best-fitting models utilized factors related to geography, especially indices of a nations’ human development index (HDI) and income inequality (i.e., Gini index). Interventions that provided at least three hours of content succeeded better when HDI and income inequality were lower, suggesting that intensive HIV prevention activities succeed best where the need is greatest. Implications for HIV intervention development in Latin America and the Caribbean are discussed. PMID:20661768

  14. Efficacy of HIV prevention interventions in Latin American and Caribbean nations, 1995-2008: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Boynton, Marcy H; Warren, Michelle R; Lacroix, Jessica M; Carey, Michael P; Johnson, Blair T

    2010-12-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized 37 HIV prevention interventions (from 28 studies) that were evaluated in Latin American and Caribbean nations. These studies were obtained through systematic searches of English, Spanish, and Portuguese-language databases available as of January 2009. Overall, interventions significantly increased knowledge (d = 0.40) and condom use (d = 0.25) but the effects varied widely. Interventions produced more condom use when they focused on high-risk individuals, distributed condoms, and explicitly addressed social-cultural components. The best-fitting models utilized factors related to geography, especially indices of a nations' human development index (HDI) and income inequality (i.e., Gini index). Interventions that provided at least 3 h of content succeeded better when HDI and income inequality were lower, suggesting that intensive HIV prevention activities succeed best where the need is greatest. Implications for HIV intervention development in Latin America and the Caribbean are discussed. PMID:20661768

  15. Incidence and risk factors of aplastic anemia in Latin American countries: the LATIN case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Maluf, Eliane; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Júnior, Álvaro Avezum; Eluf-Neto, José; Falcão, Roberto Passetto; Lorand-Metze, Irene G.; Goldenberg, Daniel; Santana, Cézar Leite; de Oliveira Werneck Rodrigues, Daniela; da Motta Passos, Leny Nascimento; Rosenfeld, Luis Gastão Mange; Pitta, Marimilia; Loggetto, Sandra; Feitosa Ribeiro, Andreza A.; Velloso, Elvira Deolinda; Kondo, Andrea Tiemi; de Miranda Coelho, Erika Oliveira; Pintão, Maria Carolina Tostes; de Souza, Hélio Moraes; Borbolla, José Rafael; Pasquini, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Background Associations between aplastic anemia and numerous drugs, pesticides and chemicals have been reported. However, at least 50% of the etiology of aplastic anemia remains unexplained. Design and Methods This was a case-control, multicenter, multinational study, designed to identify risk factors for agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia. The cases were patients with diagnosis of aplastic anemia confirmed through biopsy or bone marrow aspiration, selected through an active search of clinical laboratories, hematology clinics and medical records. The controls did not have either aplastic anemia or chronic diseases. A total of 224 patients with aplastic anemia were included in the study, each case was paired with four controls, according to sex, age group, and hospital where the case was first seen. Information was collected on demographic data, medical history, laboratory tests, medications, and other potential risk factors prior to diagnosis. Results The incidence of aplastic anemia was 1.6 cases per million per year. Higher rates of benzene exposure (?30 exposures per year) were associated with a greater risk of aplastic anemia (odds ratio, OR: 4.2; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.82–9.82). Individuals exposed to chloramphenicol in the previous year had an adjusted OR for aplastic anemia of 8.7 (CI: 0.87–87.93) and those exposed to azithromycin had an adjusted OR of 11.02 (CI 1.14–108.02). Conclusions The incidence of aplastic anemia in Latin America countries is low. Although the research study centers had a high coverage of health services, the underreporting of cases of aplastic anemia in selected regions can be discussed. Frequent exposure to benzene-based products increases the risk for aplastic anemia. Few associations with specific drugs were found, and it is likely that some of these were due to chance alone. PMID:19734415

  16. Current cariology education in dental schools in Spanish-speaking Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    Martignon, Stefania; Gomez, Juliana; Tellez, Marisol; Ruiz, Jaime A; Marin, Lina M; Rangel, Maria C

    2013-10-01

    This study sought to provide an overview of current cariology education in Spanish-speaking Latin American dental schools. Data collection was via an eighteen-item survey with questions about curriculum, methods of diagnosis and treatment, and instructors' perceptions about cariology teaching. The response rate was 62.1 percent (n=54), and distribution of participating schools by country was as follows: Bolivia (four), Chile (four), Colombia (twenty-four), Costa Rica (one), Cuba (one), Dominican Republic (two), El Salvador (two), Mexico (six), Panama (two), Peru (four), Puerto Rico (one), Uruguay (two), and Venezuela (one). Forty percent of the responding schools considered cariology the key axis of a course, with a cariology department in 16.7 percent. All schools reported teaching cariology, but with varying hours and at varying times in the curriculum, and 77.8 percent reported having preclinical practices. The majority reported teaching most main teaching topics, except for behavioral sciences, microbiology, saliva and systemic diseases, caries-risk factors, root caries, erosion, and early caries management strategies. The most frequently taught caries detection methods were visual-tactile (96.3 percent), radiographic (92.6 percent), and the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) (61.1 percent). Respondents said their schools' clinics make an operative treatment decision when radiolucency is in the inner half of enamel (42.3 percent) for radiographic criteria and when the lesion is visually non-cavitated (5.8 percent). All respondents reported that their schools teach preventive strategies, but only 43.4 percent said they tie it to risk assessment and 40.7 percent said they implement nonsurgical management regularly. PMID:24098037

  17. Knowledge and attitudes of Latin American gynecologists regarding unplanned pregnancy and use of combined oral contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Bahamondes, Luis; Lira-Plascencia, Josefina; Martin, Ricardo; Marin, Victor; Makuch, Maria Y

    2015-01-01

    Background Unintended pregnancy is a public health problem and unmet medical need worldwide. It is estimated that in the year 2012, almost 213 million pregnancies occurred, and the global pregnancy rate decreased only slightly from 2008 to 2012. It was also estimated that 85 million pregnancies (40% of all pregnancies) were unintended and that 38% ended in an unintended birth. Objectives To assess knowledge and attitudes of Latin American (LA) obstetricians and gynecologists (OBGYNs) regarding unintended pregnancies and aspects of combined oral contraceptive (COC) use. Methods A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting about contraception in 2014, in which OBGYNs from 12 LA countries who provide attention in contraception were invited to respond to a multiple-choice questionnaire to assess their knowledge and attitudes regarding unplanned pregnancy and some aspects regarding COC use. Results A total of 210 OBGYNs participated in the study. Their knowledge regarding COC failure was low. The participants reported they believed that their patients habitually forgot to take a pill and that their patients did not know what to do in these situations. They were aware of the benefits of COC use; however, they were less prone to prescribe COCs for the purpose of protecting against ovarian and endometrial cancer, and one-quarter of them had doubts about the association between COC use and cancer risk. Conclusion The interviewed LA OBGYNs showed some flaws in terms of knowledge of COC failure rates and the non-contraceptive benefits and risks of COCs. To adequately counsel their patients regarding COC intake, OBGYNs must be updated regarding all aspects of COC use. PMID:25999766

  18. Twelve Years of Scientific Production on Medline by Latin American Spine Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; Botelho, Ricardo Vieira; Teles, Alisson Roberto; Guarise da Silva, Pedro; Martins, Delio; Guyot, Juan Pablo; Gonzalez, Alvaro Silva; Avila, José Maria Jiménez; Defino, Helton Luiz Aparecido

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the small contribution of LA in the Science Citation Index (SCI), a growing contribution by LA research to international literature has been observed in recent years. Study Design Systematic review. Purpose To evaluate the scientific contribution of Latin American (LA) Spine Surgeons in the last decade. Methods A literature search of publications by LA spinal surgeons on topics concerning the spine or spinal cord was performed using an online database; Pubmed.gov. The results were limited to articles published from January 2000 to December 2011. The quality of the publication was evaluated with the journal impact factor (IF), Oxford classification and number of citations. Results This study comprised 320 articles published in the Medline database by LA spine surgeons from 2000 to 2011. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of publications by LA spine surgeons. It was observed that 38.4% of LA papers were published in LA journals. 46.6% of the articles were published in journals with an IF lower than 1, and there was no statistically significant difference in the number of articles published in journals with a higher IF during the period. Linear-by-linear association analysis demonstrated an improvement in the level of evidence provided by LA articles published in recent years. Conclusions This study showed a growth in the number of publications in last 12 years by LA spinal surgeons. It is necessary to discuss a way to increase quantity and quality of scientific publications, mainly through a better education in research. PMID:24505336

  19. Constrasting Ways of Life in Latin America; Sample Lessons for the Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Clark C.; Conroy, William B.

    This is one of several sequential units developed by the Latin American Curriculum Project. The primary objective was to promote pupil understanding of the social and cultural patterns (ways of living) of Latin America. Appreciation of the diversity in the area is developed by comparing four different families, and contrasting these with life in…

  20. Factors influencing the participation of middle-aged and older Latin-American women in physical activity: a stroke-prevention behavior.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Despite the known benefits of regular physical activity for preventing stroke and cardiovascular disease, middle-aged and older Latin-American women continue to be physically inactive and demonstrate a high incidence of obesity. Ethnographic methodology was used to explore factors that influenced this health behavior in 25 Latin-American women. Perceptions of health, the health activities in which they engaged, and the factors that influenced their participation in physical activity comprised the three categories of responses. Facilitators and barriers were identified as the two primary categories and were further sorted into intrinsic or extrinsic factors. Conclusions of this study were that these Latin American women, despite multiple role demands and other barriers, participated in some form of physical activity; however, culturally sensitive strategies are needed to promote sustained physical activity in this population. PMID:19160920

  1. Health insurance and cervical cancer screening among older women in Latin American and Caribbean cities

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A; Velez, Luis F; Camacho, Maria E; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Markides, Kyriakos S

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of Papanicolaou (Pap) smear use for cervical cancer screening and to estimate its association with type of health care insurance. Methods A cross-sectional study using data from the Health, Well-Being and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study (SABE). The sample includes 6357 women aged 60 and older from seven cities. The outcome was reporting a Pap smear for cervical cancer screening during the previous 2 years. Main independent variable was health care insurance. Covariates were demographic or socioeconomic variables, medical conditions and functional status. Results Prevalence of Pap smear use across the seven cities ranged from 21% in Bridgetown to 45% in Mexico City. In a multivariate analysis of the combined sample, without Havana that has universal health care insurance, women with public insurance (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.43–0.71) or with no insurance (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.15–0.34) were less likely to have a Pap smear compared with women with private insurance. Also, women with no insurance were less likely to have a Pap smear (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.30–0.54) compared with women with any health insurance. Conclusions In general, the prevalence of Pap smear use was lower than that reported for Hispanic populations in the United States. Overall, lack of health insurance or having public health insurance determined lower odds for having a Pap smear for cervical cancer screening. PMID:18511488

  2. Perceived barriers in accessing food among recent Latin American immigrants in Toronto

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective In Canada, recent immigrant households experience more food insecurity than the general population, but limited information is available about the personal, cultural, and social factors that contribute to this vulnerability. This study focused on recent Latin American (LA) immigrants to explore their perceived barriers in acquiring safe, nutritious, and culturally-appropriate food. Design A cross-sectional mixed-method design was applied to collect information from a convenience sample of 70 adult Spanish/Portuguese speakers who had arrived in Toronto within the last five years. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with primary household caregivers to obtain responses about barriers to acquiring food for their households; data were analyzed using a thematic analysis technique. Results Four main categories of barriers were identified: limited financial resources; language difficulty; cultural food preferences; and poor knowledge of available community-based food resources and services. Inadequate income was the main impediment in accessing adequate food, and was related to affordability of food items, accessibility of food outlets and transportation cost, and limited time for grocery shopping due to work conditions. Language barriers affected participants’ ability to obtain well-paid employment and their awareness about and access to available community-based food resources. Cultural barriers were related to food preferences and limited access to culturally-appropriate foods and resources. Conclusion The main barrier to food security among our sample of LA newcomers to Toronto is limited financial resources, highlighting the need for policies and strategies that could improve their financial power to purchase sufficient, nutritious, and culturally-acceptable food. Linguistic barriers and limited information among newcomers suggest the need to provide linguistically- and culturally-appropriate information related to community-based food programs and resources, as well as accessible subsidized English language programs, in the community and at workplaces. Participatory community-based food programs can augment, in a socially acceptable manner, food resources and reduce the social stigma attached to food charity. Finally, it is crucial to monitor and evaluate existing social and community-based services for their accessibility, cultural appropriateness and diversity, and effectiveness. PMID:23286318

  3. Life Expectancy with and without Cognitive Impairment in Seven Latin American and Caribbean Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ashby-Mitchell, Kimberly; Jagger, Carol; Fouweather, Tony; Anstey, Kaarin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The rising prevalence of cognitive impairment is an increasing challenge with the ageing of our populations but little is known about the burden in low- and middle- income Latin American and Caribbean countries (LAC) that are aging more rapidly than their developed counterparts. We examined life expectancies with cognitive impairment (CILE) and free of cognitive impairment (CIFLE) in seven developing LAC countries. Methods Data from The Survey on Health, Well-being and Ageing in LAC (N = 10,597) was utilised and cognitive status was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The Sullivan Method was applied to estimate CILE and CIFLE. Logistic regression was used to determine the effect of age, gender and education on cognitive outcome. Meta-regression models were fitted for all 7 countries together to investigate the relationship between CIFLE and education in men and women at age 60. Results The prevalence of CI increased with age in all countries except Uruguay and with a significant gender effect observed only in Mexico where men had lower odds of CI compared to women [OR = 0.464 95% CInt (0.268 – 0.806)]. Low education was associated with increased prevalence of CI in Brazil [OR = 4.848 (1.173–20.044)], Chile [OR = 3.107 (1.098–8.793), Cuba [OR = 2.295 (1.247–4.225)] and Mexico [OR = 3.838 (1.368–10.765). For males, total life expectancy (TLE) at age 60 was highest in Cuba (19.7 years) and lowest in Brazil and Uruguay (17.6 years). TLE for females at age 60 was highest for Chileans (22.8 years) and lowest for Brazilians (20.2 years). CIFLE for men was greatest in Cuba (19.0 years) and least in Brazil (16.7 years). These differences did not appear to be explained by educational level (Men: p = 0.408, women: p = 0.695). Conclusion Increasing age, female sex and low education were associated with higher CI in LAC reflecting patterns found in other countries. PMID:25799186

  4. Toxocara Seropositivity, Atopy and Wheezing in Children Living in Poor Neighbourhoods in Urban Latin American

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Lívia Ribeiro; Veiga, Rafael Valente; Dattoli, Vitor Camilo Cavalcante; Figueiredo, Camila Alexandrina; Fiaccone, Rosemeire; Santos, Jackson; Cruz, Álvaro Augusto; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Cooper, Philip John; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain Carlos; Barreto, Maurício Lima; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza Maria

    2012-01-01

    Background Toxocara canis and T. cati are parasites of dogs and cats, respectively, that infect humans and cause human toxocariasis. Infection may cause asthma-like symptoms but is often asymptomatic and is associated with a marked eosinophilia. Previous epidemiological studies indicate that T. canis infection may be associated with the development of atopy and asthma. Objectives To investigate possible associations between Toxocara spp. seropositivity and atopy and childhood wheezing in a population of children living in non-affluent areas of a large Latin American city. Methods The study was conducted in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Data on wheezing symptoms were collected by questionnaire, and atopy was measured by the presence of aeroallergen-specific IgE (sIgE). Skin prick test (SPT), total IgE and peripheral eosinophilia were measured. Toxocara seropositivity was determined by the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies, and intestinal helminth infections were determined by stool microscopy. Findings Children aged 4 to 11 years were studied, of whom 47% were seropositive for anti-Toxocara IgG; eosinophilia >4% occurred in 74.2% and >10% in 25.4%; 59.6% had elevated levels of total IgE; 36.8% had sIgE?0.70 kU/L and 30.4% had SPT for at least one aeroallergen; 22.4% had current wheezing symptoms. Anti-Toxocara IgG was positively associated with elevated eosinophils counts, total IgE and the presence of specific IgE to aeroallergens but was inversely associated with skin prick test reactivity. Conclusion The prevalence of Toxocara seropositivity was high in the studied population of children living in conditions of poverty in urban Brazil. Toxocara infection, although associated with total IgE, sIgE and eosinophilia, may prevent the development of skin hypersensitivity to aeroallergens, possibly through increased polyclonal IgE and the induction of a modified Th2 immune reaction. PMID:23133689

  5. Educational Inequalities among Latin American Adolescents: Continuities and Changes over the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s

    PubMed Central

    Marteleto, Letícia; Gelber, Denisse; Hubert, Celia; Salinas, Viviana

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine recent trends in educational stratification for Latin American adolescents growing up in three distinct periods: the 1980s, during severe recession; the 1990s, a period of structural adjustments imposed by international organizations; and the late 2000s, when most countries in the region experienced positive and stable growth. In addition to school enrollment and educational transitions, we examine the quality of education through enrollment in private schools, an important aspect of inequality in education that most studies have neglected. We use nationally representative household survey data for the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s in Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Uruguay. Our overall findings confirm the importance of macroeconomic conditions for inequalities in educational opportunity, suggesting important benefits brought up by the favorable conditions of the 2000s. However, our findings also call attention to increasing disadvantages associated with the quality of the education adolescents receive, suggesting the significance of the EMI framework—Effectively Maintained Inequality—and highlighting the value of examining the quality in addition to the quantity of education in order to fully understand educational stratification in the Latin American context. PMID:22962512

  6. The Effects of Tougher Enforcement on the Job Prospects of Recent Latin American Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orrenius, Pia M.; Zavodny, Madeline

    2009-01-01

    Attempts to enforce immigration laws in the U.S. interior have proliferated in recent years, yet the effects of these laws on immigrants are largely unknown. This paper examines whether increases in immigration-related law enforcement since 2001 have adversely affected the labor market outcomes of low-education male immigrants from Latin America,…

  7. New challenges to vocational training authorities: Lessons from the Latin American experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Angélica Ducci

    1997-01-01

    Long-standing vocational training institutions in Latin America countries are undergoing significant transformation to improve their relevance, efficiency and effectiveness in responding to the challenges of increased competitiveness, economic restructuring, technological change and evolving social demands. Based on an extensive survey conducted in 1990, reviews and analyses the recent changes and innovations taking place in such organizations, focusing on their institutional

  8. The space transportation system and its impact on Latin American development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, F. R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The three components of the Space Transportation System: the space shuttle, the permanent orbital space station and the transorbital vehicle are described. The stages of completion of the various plans are discussed and the impact of the project's implementation is discussed with particular reference to Latin America and with special emphasis on the telecommunications sector.

  9. Openness and Wage Inequality in Developing Countries: The Latin American Challenge to East Asian Conventional Wisdom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Wood

    1997-01-01

    The experience of East Asia in the 1960s and 1970s supports the theory that greater openness to trade tends to narrow the wage gap between skilled and unskilled workers in developing countries. In Latin America since the mid-1980s, however, increased openness has widened wage differentials. This conflict of evidence is probably not the result of differences between East Asia and

  10. Cite Globally, Analyze Locally: Citation Analysis from a Local Latin American Studies Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schadl, Suzanne M.; Todeschini, Marina

    2015-01-01

    This citation analysis examines the use of Spanish- and Portuguese-language books and articles in PhD dissertations on Latin America at the University of New Mexico between 2000 and 2009. Two sets of data are presented: The first identifies the use of Spanish- and Portuguese-language books and articles across 17 academic departments; and the…

  11. Advances in Pharmaceutical Market Integration in MERCOSUR and other Latin American Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo J. Vernengo; Kees de Joncheere; Enrique Fefer

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews the developments in the pharmaceutical sector in the MERCOSUR countries which have resulted from the renewed efforts of economic integration in Latin America. MERCOSUR refers to the “Mercado Común del Sur,” the common market that has been under development since 1991 by Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. In MERCOSUR the underlying principles for harmonization of pharmaceutical legislation

  12. Emotions in the History of Latin American Popular Education: Constructions for a Thinking-Feeling Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streck, Danilo R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the presence of emotions in the constitution of popular education in Latin America, thus contributing to understand popular education as a thinking-feeling practice. It starts from the assumption that emotions are also historical and cultural expressions that mark societies and their understanding of…

  13. Fear of the Trannies: On Filmic Phobia of Transvestism in the New Latin American Cinema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustavo Subero

    2008-01-01

    The transvestite, as a figure that contests both heteronormativity and machismo, has remained in the cinema of Latin America, unlike its literature, a rather unexplored theme. Although some films have attempted to deal with such a figure, they have devoted very little diegetic time either to the process of physical and psychological transformation from man to woman or to showing

  14. Seminario latinoamericano de didactica de los medios audiovisuales (Latin American Seminar on Teaching with Audiovisual Aids).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eduplan Informa, 1971

    1971-01-01

    This seminar on the use of audiovisual aids reached several conclusions on the need for and the use of such aids in Latin America. The need for educational innovation in the face of a new society, a new type of communication, and a new vision of man is stressed. A new definition of teaching and learning as a fundamental process of communication is…

  15. Closing the Gap in Education and Technology. World Bank Latin American and Caribbean Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Ferranti, David; Perry, Guillermo E.; Gill, Indermit; Guasch, J. Luis; Maloney, William F.; Sanchez-Paramo, Carolina; Schady, Norbert

    This document examines the gap between the Latin America and Caribbean region and the world's developed nations in the areas of education and technology. It also examines policies and strategies to close the gap. The following are among the specific topics discussed: (1) skills upgrading and innovation policies (the major actors; the role of…

  16. ETNICIDAD NEGRA Y ELECCIONES EN COLOMBIA Publi in Journal of Latin American Anthropology, Vol 7, No. 2, 2002. Pp. 168-197.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 ETNICIDAD NEGRA Y ELECCIONES EN COLOMBIA Publié in Journal of Latin American Anthropology, Vol 7, Université Paris III and Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Paris Resumen: En Colombia, a pesar del circunscripción electoral especial. En las elecciones parlamentarias de 1994 en Colombia, se aplicó por primera

  17. Cuanto vale Estudiar un Postgrado en America Latina? (How Much do Post-Graduate Studies Cost in Latin America?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco Arbelaez, Augusto

    This study, conducted by the Panamerican Association of Educational Credit Institutions (APICE), examined the cost of graduate education in nine Latin American countries. The study was intended to promote graduate and educational exchange within the region, as opposed to exchanges between Latin America and the United States or Europe. Institutions…

  18. Urban Primacy in Latin America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clyde E. Browning

    The urban system of most Latin American countries is dominated by a primate city which overwhelms the cultural, economic, political, and social life of the nation. This paper reviews the concept of primacy, the pattern of primacy in Latin America, and the changes in primacy over time in selected countries. It confirms that Latin America, among the world's regions, is

  19. [Emergence of Chagas' disease in Europe: description of the first cases observed in Latin American immigrants in mainland France].

    PubMed

    Develoux, M; Lescure, F X; Jaureguiberry, S; Jeannel, D; Elghouzzi, M H; Gay, F; Paris, L; Le Loup, G; Danis, M; Pialoux, G

    2010-02-01

    This article describes the first cases of imported Chagas' disease detected in Paris, France. A total of 18 cases were recorded in two teaching hospitals between 2004 and 2007. There were 12 women and six men with a mean age of 38 years. All patients were Latin American immigrants who had recently arrived in France from Bolivia (Cochabamba and Santa-Cruz departments) 17 cases and from Salvador in 1. Eleven patients presented an asymptomatic indeterminate form of the chronic disease. Seven presented chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy including two with severe symptoms requiring placement of a pacemaker. Obtaining serological tests to confirm the diagnosis was difficult. All except one patient who was older than 50 years were treated with benznidazole. Based on these findings, the main priorities for management imported Chagas' disease in France are improvement of serological diagnosis and prevention of vertical transmission. PMID:20337113

  20. Mestizos with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Develop Renal Disease Early while Antimalarials Retard its Appearance: Data from a Latin American Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pons-Estel, Guillermo J.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Burgos, Paula I.; Hachuel, Leticia; Boggio, Gabriela; Wojdyla, Daniel; Nieto, Romina; Alvarellos, Alejandro; Catoggio, Luis J.; Guibert-Toledano, Marlene; Sarano, Judith; Massardo, Loreto; Vásquez, Gloria M.; Iglesias-Gamarra, Antonio; Lavras Costallat, Lilian T.; Da Silva, Nilzio A.; Alfaro, José L.; Abadi, Isaac; Segami, María I.; Huerta, Guillermo; Cardiel, Mario H.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the predictors of time-to-lupus renal disease in Latin American patients. Methods SLE patients (n=1480) from GLADEL’s (Grupo Latino Americano De Estudio de Lupus) longitudinal inception cohort were studied. Endpoint was ACR renal criterion development after SLE diagnosis (prevalent cases excluded). Renal disease predictors were examined by univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Antimalarials were considered time-dependent in alternative analyses. Results Of the entire cohort, 265 patients (17.9%) developed renal disease after entering the cohort. Of them, 88 (33.2%) developed persistent proteinuria, 44 (16.6%) cellular casts and 133 (50.2%) both; 233 patients (87.9%) were women; mean (± SD) age at diagnosis was 28.0 (11.9) years; 12.8% were African-Latin Americans, 52.5% Mestizos, 34.7% Caucasians (p=0.0016). Mestizo ethnicity (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.19–2.17), hypertension (HR 3.99, 95% CI 3.02–5.26) and SLEDAI at diagnosis (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01–1.06) were associated with a shorter time-to-renal disease occurrence; antimalarial use (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.43–0.77), older age at onset (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.85–0.95, for every 5 years) and photosensitivity (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.56–0.98) were associated with a longer time. Alternative model results were consistent with the antimalarial protective effect (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.50–0.99). Conclusions Our data strongly support the fact that Mestizo patients are at increased risk of developing renal disease early while antimalarials seem to delay the appearance of this SLE manifestation. These data have important implications for the treatment of these patients regardless of their geographic location. PMID:23857989

  1. Native American Career Education Unit. Putting Your Money to Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA.

    One of twelve instructional units in the Native American Career Education (NACE) program, this unit is intended to help Indian junior high school students understand how to manage money resources, both on a personal level and in the world of work. In five activities, students do exercises and small group activities in which they consider how money…

  2. Shifting Turkish American Identity Formations in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilhan Kaya

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation examines Turkish-American identity formations in the United States. Through a case study based in the New York metropolitan area, this study explores how the contestation and negotiation of Turkish ethnicity and Turkish-American identity is grounded in place and across space. It examines Turkish-Americaness in relation to Westerness, Muslimness, Arabness, Americaness, and Turkishness. The study problematizes ethnic and racial

  3. American Housing Survey for the United States: 1999

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Last Friday, the US Census released their annual American Housing Survey for the United States, which provides up-to-date housing statistics for the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Conducted by field representatives who obtain information from occupants of homes, the survey provides data on "apartments; single-family homes; mobile homes; vacant housing units; age, sex, and race of householders; income; housing and neighborhood quality; housing costs; equipment and fuels; and size of the housing units. The survey also presents data on mortgages, rent control, rent subsidies, previous unit of recent movers, and reasons for moving."

  4. Low socioeconomic status predicts abnormal eating attitudes in Latin American female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Power, Yuri; Power, Lorena; Canadas, Maria Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to study the proportion of Ecuadorian students fulfilling criteria on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) in relation to socioeconomic status. Seven hundred and twenty three female adolescent participants recruited from Quito, Ecuador were administered a brief questionnaire consisting of the EAT-40 as well as lifestyle questions. Mean EAT-40 score was 17.12, with 14% fulfilling criteria. Lower socioeconomic status and watching more television predicted higher scores; however BMI, age, and positive smoking status failed to correlate. The presently unvalidated Spanish version of the EAT-26 highly correlated with the validated EAT-40 (R=0.94). A higher than expected proportion of Ecuadorians are at risk for eating disorders, especially among lower socioeconomic groups. The EAT-26 should be considered for validation as a primary screening tool in Latin America. PMID:18307113

  5. Association of the duration of residence with obesity-related eating habits and dietary patterns among Latin-American immigrants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Marín-Guerrero, A C; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Guallar-Castillón, P; López-García, Esther; Gutiérrez-Fisac, Juan L

    2014-11-24

    The dietary patterns of immigrants usually change with the duration of residence and progressively resemble those of the host country. However, very few studies have investigated individuals migrating to countries with a high-quality diet, such as the Mediterranean diet (MD), and none has yet focused on Latin-American immigrants. The present study examined the association of the duration of residence with obesity-related eating habits and dietary patterns among Latin-American immigrants residing in Spain. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008-10 in a representative sample of the adult population residing in Spain. Adherence to the MD was defined as a MD Adherence Screener score ? 9. Analyses were conducted by including 419 individuals aged 18-64 years born in Latin-American countries. Compared with immigrants residing in Spain for < 5 years, those residing for ? 10 years accounted for a lower percentage of individuals who habitually ate at fast-food restaurants and never trimmed visible fat from meat. Moreover, these immigrants were found to have a lower intake of sugary beverages and a higher intake of Na, saturated fat, fibre, olive oil, vegetables and fish and to more frequently strictly adhere to the MD. A longer duration of residence in Spain was found to be associated with both healthy and unhealthy changes in some eating habits and dietary patterns among Latin-American immigrants. Some of the healthy changes observed contrasted the 'Westernisation' of the diet reported in studies conducted in other Western countries. The results of the present study support the role of the food environment of the host country in the modification of the dietary patterns of immigrants. PMID:25418887

  6. Development of a Curricular Plan and Materials for the Teaching of a College Level Course on the Economic and Social Development of Latin America. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorn, Richard S.

    The first part of this project report, Appendix 1, is the curriculum outline which has been used for the author's course in Economic Development in Latin America. It takes a preponderantly problem-oriented and sectional approach. The main units, following an introductory survey of the Latin American region and its people and institutions, are:…

  7. [Hypotheses on the origin of certain parasites on the Latin American continent].

    PubMed

    Nozais, J P

    1985-01-01

    The South American continent has been connected to Africa over millions of centuries. In prehistorical time, the filling of the Bering strait allowed passage on firm ground between Asia and North America. South American peopling has thus occurred from North America, through the Pacific sea and, from the 15th century A.C., through the Atlantic. Necator americanus was present in South America prior to the arrival of black slaves and its African origin is probably related to contacts between Africa and South America; the same applies to Leishmania donovani and Biom-Phalaria glabrata. Ankylostoma duodenale originates from Asia as well as Plasmodium falciparum which was brought by man at time of his migration. To the contrary, muco-cutaneous Leishmaniasis stem (or have a South American origin) from South America. Finally, it is difficult to understand for which reasons Loa loa has not established itself in South America as did Schistosoma mansoni. PMID:3928184

  8. CROSS CULTURAL ANALYSIS OF DETERMINANTS OF HOT FLASHES AND NIGHT SWEATS: LATIN-AMERICAN IMMIGRANTS TO MADRID AND THEIR SPANISH NEIGHBORS

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Alcalá, Irene; Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Reher, David Sven

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study applies a biocultural perspective to better understand the determinants of hot flashes and night sweats within immigrant and local populations in Madrid, Spain. Methods A combined sample of 575 women from Madrid, aged 45 to 55, was drawn from two studies. The Spanish sample (n=274) participated in the Decisions at Menopause Study (DAMES) in 2000–2002. The Latin-American sample (n=301) was drawn from immigrants to Madrid in 2010–2011. Chi square analyses and logistic regression models were carried out among the combined controlling by origin of provenance. Results Forty four percent of the women reported hot flashes, 36% reported night sweats and 26% both symptoms. Compared to Spanish women, Latin-American women were less likely to report hot flashes (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4–0.9) after controlling for demographic variables and menopausal status. The same was not found for night sweats and for both symptoms combined. Determinants of hot flashes differed from determinants of night sweats. Conclusions Because determinants differed, hot flashes and night sweats should be queried and analyzed separately. Latin-American women were less likely to report hot flashes, but not night sweats or both symptoms combined. More research is needed to clarify the differences in reported hot flashes as the lesser report among immigrants could have been a cultural rather than a biological phenomenon. PMID:23571525

  9. Population, Ecology, and the American Indian: A Native American Curriculum Unit for Middle and High School. NATAM XII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raveling, Ronald R.

    As one of the units on Native Americans developed by public school teachers enrolled in a University of Minnesota extension course on American Indian education, this middle- and high-school unit has as its overall objective to illustrate 2 concepts: (1) the need for careful population planning and (2) how the American Indian--a model of…

  10. How OECD policies affected Latin America in the 1980s

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Allen; David Currie; T. G. Srinivasan; David Vines

    1992-01-01

    The authors assess the effects of OECD monetary and fiscal policies on Latin America by means of simulation studies using the LBS\\/NIESR Global Econometric Model and a new empirical model of Latin America. The Latin American model pays special attention to the supply-side determination of natural rate of output and to the effects of asset accumulation. The Latin American model

  11. Adaptation of Adolescent Mexican Americans to United States Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derbyshire, Robert L.

    1969-01-01

    In a paper prepared for the conference on "Migration and Behavioral Deviance, November 4-8, 1968, Dorado Beach, Puerto Rico, the author compares "the attitudes of Mexican American adolescents who were born and reared or whose parents were born and reared in the United States with those adolescents who migrated or whose parents migrated from…

  12. Keys to Latin America and the Caribbean

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-01-01

    Keys to Latin America and the Caribbean, supported by the Latin American Economic System (SELA), is a summary of the economic situation in Latin America and the Caribbean. Information in this study ranges from population and land area to more specific data about the economy of this region. While this information tends to be very broad-based, the site provides extensive charts and graphs and offers a good general overview of the economy of Caribbean and Latin American countries.

  13. American Physiological Society: Women Life Scientists Units

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Crafted by educators at the American Physiological Society, this set of twenty life sciences modules is designed "to increase students' exposure both to female science role models and to hands-on, inquiry approach activities." Each module includes a brief biography of a female science role model and a set of problem-solving life sciences with a multidisciplinary focus. The scientists profiled here include Barbara McClintock, Alice Huang, Deborah Gordon, Dian Fossey, and Betsy Dresser. The activities include suggestions for teachers, assessment ideas, and handouts for students. The site also contains additional inks to educational activities designed for K-12 educators and students, and visitors can sign up to receive updates about new materials via RSS feed or email.

  14. [Health initiatives in Latin America: a historical assessment from the inception of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau to the Mesoamerican Health Initiative].

    PubMed

    Santos Preciado, José Ignacio; Franco Paredes, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Latin America has undergone gradual transformations in public health influenced by historical events locally or at a global level. These epidemiologic transitions have also occurred through the implementation of interventions by public institutions such as the Pan-American Health Organization, by philanthropic foundations, non-governmental organizations, and bilateral or multilateral international donor organizations. These public health initiatives have produced substantial improvements in the heath status of many populations in Latin America. Overall, human development and health have advanced over the past century. However, these public health benefits have not been shared equally among all areas of Latin America. The Mesoamerican Region -the area encompassing from Southern Mexico to Panama- continues to experience profound social inequities focalized to indigenous communities and groups of African-descent living in urban, periurban, or rural areas. The Mesoamerican Health Initiative is a private-public partnership that attempts to close the gap of health inequalities affecting the most vulnerable populations in this region of Latin America. PMID:22344374

  15. Latin American dose survey results in mammography studies under IAEA programme: radiological protection of patients in medical exposures (TSA3).

    PubMed

    Mora, Patricia; Blanco, Susana; Khoury, Helen; Leyton, Fernando; Cárdenas, Juan; Defaz, María Yolanda; Garay, Fernando; Telón, Flaviano; Aguilar, Juan Garcia; Roas, Norma; Gamarra, Mirtha; Blanco, Daniel; Quintero, Ana Rosa; Nader, Alejandro

    2015-03-01

    Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela) working under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Cooperation Programme: TSA3 Radiological Protection of Patients in Medical Exposures have joined efforts in the optimisation of radiation protection in mammography practice. Through surveys of patient doses, the region has a unique database of diagnostic reference levels for analogue and digital equipment that will direct future optimisation activities towards the early detection of breast cancer among asymptomatic women. During RLA9/057 (2007-09) 24 institutions participated with analogue equipment in a dose survey. Regional training on methodology and measurement equipment was addressed in May 2007. The mean glandular dose (DG) was estimated using the incident kerma in air and relevant conversion coefficients for both projections craneo caudal and mediolateral oblique (CC and MLO). For Phase 2, RLA9/067 (2010-11), it was decided to include also digital systems in order to see their impact in future dose optimisation activities. Any new country that joined the project received training in the activities through IAEA expert missions. Twenty-nine new institutions participated (9 analogue and 20 digital equipment). A total of 2262 patient doses were collected during this study and from them D(G) (mGy) for both projections were estimated for each institution and country. Regional results (75 percentile in mGy) show for CC and MLO views, respectively: RLA9/057 (analogue) 2.63 and 3.17; RLA/067: 2.57 and 3.15 (analogue) and 2.69 and 2.90 (digital). Regarding only digital equipment for CC and MLO, respectively, computed radiography systems showed 2.59 and 2.78 and direct digital radiography (DDR) systems 2.78 and 3.04. Based on the IAEA Basic Safety Standard (BSS) reference dose (3 mGy), it can be observed that there is enough room to start optimisation processes in Latin America (LA); several countries or even particular institutions have values much higher than the 3 mGy. The main issues to address are lack of well-established quality assurance programmes for mammography, not enough medical physicists with training in mammography, an increase in patient doses with the introduction of digital equipment and to create awareness on radiation risk and optimisation strategies. PMID:24993012

  16. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 18, Number 1: Plays in Performance

    E-print Network

    1984-10-01

    Playhouse (Austin, Texas), June 1984. See the title of the play? This leads us to believe that it is about Juan Beltran, a medical student who is held captive and tortured by the Argenti nean junta. Except that this other character, Jerry, an American... "parrot's beak" and lived to tell the tale in his play, Torquemada. Boal's torturers are real people who torture from nine to five and then go home to their wives and children. This makes them all the more frightening because they could be the man next...

  17. Considerations for Integrating Technology in Developing Communities in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponte, Daniela Núñez; Cullen, Theresa A.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses issues related to introducing new information and communication technologies (ICT) into Latin American countries. Latin American countries are gaining world focus with political changes such as the death of Hugo Chavez in Venezuela and the election of the first Latin American Pope. This region will host the World Cup,…

  18. Zebra chip disease: identification, epidemiology, control, and threat to Latin American potato industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zebra chip (ZC), a new and economically important disease of potato, has been documented to occur in commercial potato fields in the United States, Mexico, Central America, and New Zealand. This disease has caused millions of dollars in losses to the potato industry. Whole crops might be rejected be...

  19. The GLADEL multinational Latin American prospective inception cohort of 1,214 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: ethnic and disease heterogeneity among "Hispanics".

    PubMed

    Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Catoggio, Luis J; Cardiel, Mario H; Soriano, Enrique R; Gentiletti, Silvana; Villa, Antonio R; Abadi, Isaac; Caeiro, Francisco; Alvarellos, Alejandro; Alarcón-Segovia, Donato

    2004-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory manifestations and outcome of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may vary in different populations. A prospective multinational inception cohort should prove useful in identifying the influence of ethnicity on the clinical characteristics of SLE. We therefore analyzed clinical, laboratory, and prognostic variables in Latin American SLE patients with disease of recent onset who were entered into a prospective cohort, and compared these variables in the cohort's 3 major ethnic groups. Thirty-four centers from 9 Latin American countries participated by randomly incorporating SLE patients within 2 years of diagnosis into a standardized database. Participating centers were selected for their expertise in diagnosing and managing SLE. We were then able to evaluate prospectively socioeconomic variables, ethnicity, type of medical care, clinical and laboratory features, disease activity, damage, and mortality at each site. A coordinating center controlled the quality of the information submitted. Of the 1,214 SLE patients included in the cohort, 537 were mestizos, 507 were white, and 152 were African-Latin American (ALA). (There were also small numbers of pure Amerindian and oriental individuals.) Significant differences were found between them in socioeconomic characteristics, type of care, and level of education favoring whites. Mestizos and ALA were younger at onset. Delay to diagnosis and disease duration was shorter in ALA. Fever was more frequent in whites; discoid lesions in ALA; renal disease and lymphopenia in mestizos and ALA. Although we found differences in background variables between ethnic groups from different countries, mestizos from 2 distant countries (Argentina and Mexico) were clinically akin and showed similar differences to whites. Mortality was associated with lower education, poor medical coverage, and shorter follow-up. In an exploratory model nonwhite ethnicity was associated with renal disease and lymphopenia, damage, and cumulative American College of Rheumatology criteria. These differences in clinical, prognostic, socioeconomic, educational, and access to medical care features in Latin American lupus patients of 3 major ethnic groups from 9 different countries may have an impact on the patients' disease. "Hispanics," as they have come to be generically termed on the basis of language, actually constitute a markedly heterogeneous group of subjects. PMID:14747764

  20. Plasma physics in Latin America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adolfo B. Rodrigo

    1995-01-01

    The status of plasma physics in Latin America is reviewed. The review surveys the history and present situation of the regional activities in high-temperature plasma research, plasma astrophysics, and technological applications of plasma physics. In particular, it presents data on the trends of evolution of scientific staff, annual operating budget, and publication rate for the major Latin American plasma groups

  1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Latin American-Mediterranean Family and Its Sublineages in the Light of Robust Evolutionary Markers

    PubMed Central

    Vyazovaya, Anna; Narvskaya, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a clonal population structure, and the Latin American-Mediterranean (LAM) family is one of the largest and most widespread within this species, showing evidence for remarkable pathobiology and a confusing phylogeny. Here, we applied robust phylogenetic markers to study the evolution of the LAM family and its major sublineages circulating in Russia and neighboring countries. A total of 250 M. tuberculosis isolates were confirmed to belong to the LAM family based on the analysis of the LAM-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Rv3062 and Rv0129c genes. At this stage, the family status was rectified for 121 isolates misleadingly assigned by CRISPR spoligotyping to non-LAM families (T1- or T5-RUS1). Consequently, the reestimated LAM prevalence rate increased 2-fold in Russia and Kazakhstan and 4-fold in Belarus. The majority (91.8 to 98.7%) of the LAM isolates from all three countries belonged to the LAM-RUS sublineage. In contrast, the Ibero-American LAM RD-Rio sublineage was identified in only 7 Russian isolates. Taken together, our findings and further analyses suggest a monophyletic origin of LAM-RUS: at a historically distant time, in Russia, in a small founding bacterial/human population. Its dissemination pattern and high prevalence rate in Northern Eurasia may indicate a long-term coexistence of the LAM-RUS sublineage and local human populations hypothetically leading to coadaptation and reduced pathogenicity of the relatively more ancient clones, such as spoligotype international type 254 (SIT254), compared to the more recent SIT252 and SIT266 clones. In contrast, rare LAM RD-Rio isolates were likely brought to Russia through occasional human contact. The spread of RD-Rio strains is not as global as commonly claimed and is determined largely by human migration flows (rather than by pathobiological properties of these strains). Consequently, a host population factor appears to play a major role in shaping the in situ dissemination pattern of the imported strains in an autochthonous population. PMID:24584500

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Latin American-Mediterranean family and its sublineages in the light of robust evolutionary markers.

    PubMed

    Mokrousov, Igor; Vyazovaya, Anna; Narvskaya, Olga

    2014-05-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a clonal population structure, and the Latin American-Mediterranean (LAM) family is one of the largest and most widespread within this species, showing evidence for remarkable pathobiology and a confusing phylogeny. Here, we applied robust phylogenetic markers to study the evolution of the LAM family and its major sublineages circulating in Russia and neighboring countries. A total of 250 M. tuberculosis isolates were confirmed to belong to the LAM family based on the analysis of the LAM-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Rv3062 and Rv0129c genes. At this stage, the family status was rectified for 121 isolates misleadingly assigned by CRISPR spoligotyping to non-LAM families (T1- or T5-RUS1). Consequently, the reestimated LAM prevalence rate increased 2-fold in Russia and Kazakhstan and 4-fold in Belarus. The majority (91.8 to 98.7%) of the LAM isolates from all three countries belonged to the LAM-RUS sublineage. In contrast, the Ibero-American LAM RD-Rio sublineage was identified in only 7 Russian isolates. Taken together, our findings and further analyses suggest a monophyletic origin of LAM-RUS: at a historically distant time, in Russia, in a small founding bacterial/human population. Its dissemination pattern and high prevalence rate in Northern Eurasia may indicate a long-term coexistence of the LAM-RUS sublineage and local human populations hypothetically leading to coadaptation and reduced pathogenicity of the relatively more ancient clones, such as spoligotype international type 254 (SIT254), compared to the more recent SIT252 and SIT266 clones. In contrast, rare LAM RD-Rio isolates were likely brought to Russia through occasional human contact. The spread of RD-Rio strains is not as global as commonly claimed and is determined largely by human migration flows (rather than by pathobiological properties of these strains). Consequently, a host population factor appears to play a major role in shaping the in situ dissemination pattern of the imported strains in an autochthonous population. PMID:24584500

  3. The genetic ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States.

    PubMed

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y; Macpherson, J Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 500 years, North America has been the site of ongoing mixing of Native Americans, European settlers, and Africans (brought largely by the trans-Atlantic slave trade), shaping the early history of what became the United States. We studied the genetic ancestry of 5,269 self-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans who are 23andMe customers and show that the legacy of these historical interactions is visible in the genetic ancestry of present-day Americans. We document pervasive mixed ancestry and asymmetrical male and female ancestry contributions in all groups studied. We show that regional ancestry differences reflect historical events, such as early Spanish colonization, waves of immigration from many regions of Europe, and forced relocation of Native Americans within the US. This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry. PMID:25529636

  4. The Genetic Ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y.; Macpherson, J. Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 500 years, North America has been the site of ongoing mixing of Native Americans, European settlers, and Africans (brought largely by the trans-Atlantic slave trade), shaping the early history of what became the United States. We studied the genetic ancestry of 5,269 self-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans who are 23andMe customers and show that the legacy of these historical interactions is visible in the genetic ancestry of present-day Americans. We document pervasive mixed ancestry and asymmetrical male and female ancestry contributions in all groups studied. We show that regional ancestry differences reflect historical events, such as early Spanish colonization, waves of immigration from many regions of Europe, and forced relocation of Native Americans within the US. This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry. PMID:25529636

  5. EDITORIAL: Invited papers from the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics combined with the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics Invited papers from the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics combined with the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leopoldo Soto

    2011-01-01

    The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010) both agreed to hold this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, considering the celebration of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear

  6. Proceedings of the 2009 CERN-Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics, Recinto Quirama, Colombia, 15 - 28 March 2009

    E-print Network

    C. Grojean; M. Spiropulu

    2010-10-28

    The CERN-Latin-American School of High-Energy Physics is intended to give young physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. These proceedings contain lectures on quantum field theory, quantum chromodynamics, physics beyond the Standard Model, neutrino physics, flavour physics and CP violation, particle cosmology, high-energy astro-particle physics, and heavy-ion physics, as well as trigger and data acquisition, and commissioning and early physics analysis of the ATLAS and CMS experiments. Also included are write-ups of short review projects performed by the student discussions groups.

  7. Risk of Recurrent Helicobacter pylori Infection 1 Year After Initial Eradication Therapy in 7 Latin American Communities

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Douglas R.; Torres, Javier; Sexton, Rachael; Herrero, Rolando; Salazar-Martínez, Eduardo; Robert Greenberg, E.; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Dominguez, Ricardo L.; Ferreccio, Catterina; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo C.; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Peña, Edgar M.; Peña, Rodolfo; Correa, Pelayo; Martínez, María Elena; Chey, William D.; Valdivieso, Manuel; Anderson, Garnet L.; Goodman, Gary E.; Crowley, John J.; Baker, Laurence H.

    2013-01-01

    Importance The long-term effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication programs for preventing gastric cancer will depend on recurrence risk and individual and community factors. Objective To estimate risk of H pylori recurrence and assess factors associated with successful eradication 1 year after treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants Cohort analysis of 1463 randomized trial participants aged 21 to 65 years from 7 Latin American communities, who were treated for H pylori and observed between September 2009 and July 2011. Interventions Randomization to 1 of 3 treatment groups: 14-day lansoprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin (triple therapy); 5-day lansoprazole and amoxicillin followed by 5-day lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (sequential); or 5-day lansoprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (concomitant). Participants with a positive (13) C-urea breath test (UBT) 6 to 8 weeks posttreatment were offered voluntary re-treatment with 14-day bismuth-based quadruple therapy. Measurements Recurrent infection after a negative posttreatment UBT and factors associated with successful eradication at 1-year follow-up. Results Among participants with UBT-negative results who had a 1-year follow-up UBT (n=1091), 125 tested UBT positive, a recurrence risk of 11.5% (95% CI, 9.6%–13.5%). Recurrence was significantly associated with study site (P=.03), nonadherence to initial therapy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.94; 95% CI, 1.31–6.13; P=.01), and children in the household (AOR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01–1.35 per child; P=.03). Of the 281 with positive posttreatment UBT results, 138 completed re-treatment, of whom 93 tested UBT negative at 1 year. Among the 1340 who had a 1-year UBT, 80.4% (95% CI, 76.4%–83.9%), 79.8% (95% CI, 75.8%–83.5%), and 77.8% (95% CI, 73.6%–81.6%) had UBT-negative results in the triple, sequential, and concomitant groups, respectively (P=.61), with 79.3% overall effectiveness (95% CI, 77.1%–81.5%). In a single-treatment course analysis that ignored the effects of re-treatment, the percentage of UBT-negative results at 1 year was 72.4% (95% CI, 69.9%–74.8%) and was significantly associated with study site (P<.001), adherence to initial therapy (AOR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.15–0.42; P<.001), male sex (AOR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.25–2.13; P<.001), and age (AOR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02–1.27 per decade; P=.02). One-year effectiveness among all 1463 enrolled participants, considering all missing UBT results as positive, was 72.7% (95% CI, 70.3%–74.9%). Conclusions and Relevance One year after treatment for H pylori infection, recurrence occurred in 11.5% of participants who had negative posttreatment UBT results. Recurrence determinants (ie, nonadherence and demographics) may be as important as specific antibiotic regimen in determining the long-term success of H pylori eradication interventions. Study findings are relevant to the feasibility of programs for the primary prevention of gastric cancer in high-incidence regions of Latin America. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01061437 PMID:23403682

  8. Encouraging and Attracting Underrepresented Racial Minorities to the Field of Geosciences-A Latin American Graduate Student Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero Gill, R. P.; Herbert, T.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that interactions between same-race and same-gender faculty and graduate students are reported to have a greater impact on the future success of those students. In the same manner, I believe graduate students can play a pivotal role in training and attracting underrepresented racial minorities (URMs) at the high school and undergraduate level to pursue a career in geosciences. Working at Brown University for the last couple of years, I have been involved in a number of initiatives aimed at solidifying ties with the community. Most of my social work has revolved around mentoring underrepresented local minorities, as I feel that this area is where I can contribute the most. This year I began participating in the NSF funded Brown GK-12: "Physical Processes in the Environment" program. As a Latin American female graduate student in the geological sciences, I hope to teach the students-by example-that being a minority is not necessarily an obstacle, but rather an advantage that can offer a different, valuable point of view when pursuing their professional goals. I think that sharing part of my experiences and knowledge as a researcher with young minds contributes to the way they imagine themselves in the future, allowing them to believe that a career in science is within their reach and that higher education is a realistic option worth pursuing if they have the interest in doing so. From my short time as a graduate student, to have a greater impact in attracting URMs, it is critical to have the support of advisors and committee members. One must keep in mind that a graduate career is a time consuming commitment; therefore, it is necessary to undertake activities that will have the most impact on minority students in the short time available. The experience becomes even more effective if advisors are actively involved, particularly financially. Faculty advisors who can allocate funds to, for example support summer activities designed to involve URMs, are essentially leveraging funds because the overall return will be much greater than the initial investment.

  9. PREFACE: 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iván Vargas-Blanco, V.; Herrera-Velázquez, J. Julio E.

    2015-03-01

    Written contributions from participants of the Joint 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) – 21st IAEA Technical Meeting on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (21st IAEA TM RUSFD). The International Advisory Committees of the 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and the 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD), agreed to carry out together this Joint LAWPP 2014 – 21st RUSFD in San José, Costa Rica, on 27-31 January 2014. The Joint LAWPP 2014 – 21st RUSFD meeting, organized by the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, and Ad Astra Rocket Company in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP) is a series of events which has been held periodically since 1982, with the purpose of providing a forum in which the research of the Latin American plasma physics community can be displayed, as well as fostering collaborations among plasma scientists within the region and with researchers from the rest of the world. Recognized plasma scientists from developed countries are specially invited to the meeting to present the state of the art on several "hot" topics related to plasma physics. It is an open meeting, with an International Advisory Committee, in which the working language is English. It was firstly held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by workshops in Medellín, Colombia (1985), Santiago de Chile, Chile (1988), Buenos Aires, Argentina (1990), Mexico City, Mexico (1992), Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil (1994, combined with the International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP)), Caracas, Venezuela (1997), Tandil, Argentina (1998), La Serena, Chile (2000), Sao Pedro, Brazil (2003), Mexico City, Mexico (2005), Caracas, Venezuela (2007), Santiago de Chile, Chile (2010, combined with the ICPP) and Mar de Plata, Argentina (2011). The 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices is an ideal forum for small laboratory size fusion experiments, as compared to those of the larger laboratories, to report about their latest achievements working with medium size and small scale tokamaks, stellarators, compact tori, dense plasma focus, reversed field pinches, helical devices, linear machines, and other small plasma devices. The Technical Meeting aims at stimulating new synergies which can contribute to better streamline the research outputs to the mainstream fusion research. Previous meetings in the series were held in Budapest, Hungary (1985), Nagoya, Japan (1986), Nice, France (1988), Washington DC, USA (1990), Hefei, China (1991), Wuerzburg, Germany (1992), Campinas, Brazil (1993), Madrid, Spain (1994), Ahmedabad, India (1995), Prague, Czech Republic (1996), Cairo, Egypt (1997), Tokyo, Japan (1998) in Chengdu, China (1999), São Paulo, Brazil (2002), Vienna, Austria (2003) in Mexico City, Mexico (2005), Lisbon, Portugal (2007), in Alushta, Ukraine (2008), Kurchatov, Kazakhstan (2009) and Vienna, Austria (2011). The 1st Costa Rican Summer School on Plasma Physics was held a week before the Joint LAWPP 2014 – 21st IAEA TM RUSFD, and the 2nd Latin American Workshop on Industrial Applications of Plasma Technology (AITP) was organized in parallel with the it. The objective of the AITP Workshop is to enhance the regional academic and industrial cooperation in the field of plasma assisted surface technology. The Joint LAWPP 2014 – 21st IAEA TM RUSFD was held at the Crowne Plaza Corobici Hotel in San José from 27 to 31 January 2014. The LAWPP scientific programme, which was spread along the whole week, had 15 invited speakers, 126 participants from 20 countries around the world. It included 7 plenary talks, 8 invited talks and 12 oral contributed papers were chosen out of 92 submissions. 82 contributions in 25 topics were presented in poster sessions on Monday 27, Tuesday 28 and Thursday 30 January 2014. The 21st IAEA TM RUSFD was held along the LAWPP 2014 from 27 to 29 January 2014 and was attended by 37 participants formally registered with the I

  10. Tuberculosis among American Indians of the contiguous United States.

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, H L

    1989-01-01

    Paleopathologic findings provide strong evidence for the existence of tuberculosis in Andean populations of pre-Columbian America. Indirect evidence is available also to suggest its possible endemicity among some American Indian tribes who lived within the present-day contiguous United States before the arrival of Europeans. The available data suggest that tuberculosis became a major health problem in some tribes with increased population density and cultural changes after increased contact with European civilization, paralleling the deterioration in living conditions after relocation of the tribes to reservations. By 1900, tuberculosis had become one of the most serious health problems among North American Indians. Tuberculosis control was hampered by the lack of a specific treatment, and only the advent of specific chemotherapy in an ambulatory setting brought a breakthrough. Mortality, morbidity, and risk of infection have all sharply decreased over the past three decades. However, tuberculosis incidence rates among American Indians remain well above rates in the white population. An intensified effort to identify those with tuberculosis and those at risk of tuberculosis as well as to develop compliance-enhancing strategies with treatment regimens will be necessary to eliminate tuberculosis from Indian reservations. PMID:2511601

  11. Pedagogies of Resiliency and Hope in Response to the Criminalization of Latin@ Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the criminalization and demonization of Chican@/Latin@ youth has produced policies in the United States that have banned bilingual education, Mexican American Studies in Tucson, and undocumented students in Georgia from attending public universities. Furthermore, hundreds and thousands of youth in the U.S. are…

  12. Child Rights in Latin America: From "Irregular Situation" to Full Protection. Innocenti Essays No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendez, Emilio Garcia

    Since the ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child by all Latin American countries, many substantial national legislative reforms have been made that reflect the spirit and the letter of the new Convention. This series of essays documents the challenges faced by countries beginning the process of legislative reform,…

  13. Inter-American Foundation: Annual Report, 1981 (October 1, 1980-September 30, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-American Foundation, Rosslyn, VA.

    This is the 1981 report of the Inter-American Foundation, a public corporation created by the United States Conqress in 1969 to support the self-help efforts of poor people in Latin America and the Caribbean. The report provides an overall review of 1981 grants provided by the Foundation in Latin America and the Caribbean in the areas of: (1)…

  14. Southern Exposure: Latin Americans View The United States, 1783-1900

    E-print Network

    Farrell, John Gordon

    2015-01-01

    GOVERNMENT NUMBER CITIES FORESTS OCEAN TERRITORY TREES WOODFORESTS LANGUAGE SORT TABLE ATTENTION FINE REPRESENTATIVES SERVE SQUARE VICTORY WISH ACTION DINNER ELECTION MEETING MILLION MINES MOUNTAIN OCEAN

  15. Urinary tract infection trends in Latin American hospitals: report from the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program (1997–2000)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana C. Gales; Helio S. Sader; Ronald N. Jones

    2002-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common infectious diseases diagnosed in outpatients as well as in hospitalized patients. The objective of this study was to report the frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens collected in Latin America between 1997 to 2000 through the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and results interpreted

  16. Exploring the Convergence of the Liberal Arts Model and the Ecuadorian Culture in a Latin American University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santana Paredes, Matias

    2013-01-01

    The replication of the U.S. cultural models in business and social organizations is a common practice in Latin America. In Ecuador, a university operates under the liberal arts model, understanding it as a replication of an U.S. cultural model, in an environment where the Ecuadorian cultural beliefs and values constitute the national cultural…

  17. School Infrastructure and Resources Do Matter: Analysis of the Incidence of School Resources on the Performance of Latin American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murillo, F. Javier; Roman, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine the incidence of school infrastructure and resources and its impact on the academic performance of primary education students in Latin America. A 4-level multilevel model was applied to the data of the Second Regional Comparative and Explanatory Study (SERCE) conducted by UNESCO, which researched…

  18. The Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. Bulletin 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and Caribbean.

    The initiative and activities carried out by 29 countries in Latin and South America and the Caribbean in the UNESCO Major Project in the Field of Education to correct deficiencies and meet unsatisfied basic educational needs are summarized. Many summaries reflect revisions made during 1983 in National Plans of Action with respect to enhancing…

  19. 1973 ATLAS Curriculum Guide for Mexican-American and Puerto Rican Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Teachers of Latin American Studies, Brooklyn, NY.

    This curriculum guide, developed by the Association of Teachers of Latin American Studies, provides an interdisciplinary, inquiry-oriented approach to Mexican-American and Puerto Rican Studies. Unit one contains a list of cognitive and affective objectives and evaluation suggestions. Units two through six provide content materials and include a…

  20. Latin America Online: Best Databases for News, Business and Current Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levison, Andrew

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of databases that include the best information about Latin America. Highlights include problems with using "Latin America" as a search concept; Latin American information on DIALOG; the dominance of TEXTLINE among the major newswires; comparisons between DIALOG and other online services; specialized Latin American databases;…

  1. Spain, The United States, and The American Frontier: Historias Paralelas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Partnering with The National Library of Spain, The Biblioteca Columbina y Capitular of Seville, the Library of Congress has developed this fine collection of primary and secondary historical documents that explore the complex and multifaceted history of Spanish expansion into North America from Florida, Georgia, the Carolinas, and across most of what is now the modern-day American Southwest all the way north to Alaska. The site contains digital versions of numerous texts, maps, manuscripts, and first-hand accounts composed by different individuals. Some of the highlights include "La Florida del Inca," which is an account of the Hernando de Soto expedition through Florida and the southeastern part of North America, along with the "Notes of a Military Reconnoissance from Fort Leavenworth to San Diego," published in 1848 as a special report to the United States Congress. Appropriately enough, many of the documents are available in both English and Spanish, and are searchable by page number.

  2. Cancer survival among American Indians in western Washington state (United States)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan R. Sugarman; Leslie K. Dennis; Emily White

    1994-01-01

    Cancer survival among American Indians is worse than among other races in some regions of the United States, but has not been studied among American Indians in Washington state. Our purpose was to evaluate cancer survival among American Indians included in the Seattle-Puget Sound Cancer Registry. We compared site-specific survival among American Indians (n=551) and Whites (n=110,899) diagnosed from 1974

  3. Translating Latin American/US Latina frameworks and methods in gender and health equity: linking women's health education and participatory social change.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Ester R

    This article applies transdisciplinary approaches to critical health education for gender equity by analyzing textual and political strategies translating/culturally adapting the U.S. feminist health text, Our Bodies Ourselves (OBOS), for Latin American/Caribbean and U.S. Latina women. The resulting text, Nuestros Cuerpos, Nuestras Vidas (NCNV), was revised at multiple levels to reflect different cultural\\sociopolitical assumptions connecting individual knowledge, community-based and transnational activist organizations, and strategic social change. Translation/cultural adaptation decisions were designed to ensure that gender-equitable health promotion education crossed cultural borders, conveying personal knowledge and motivating individual actions while also inspiring participation in partnerships for change. Transdisciplinary approaches integrating critical ecosystemic frameworks and participatory methods can help design health promotion education mobilizing engaged, gender-equitable health citizenship supporting both personal and societal change. PMID:24366020

  4. Virtual reality in Latin American clinical psychology and the VREPAR project. Virtual Reality Environments for Psycho-Neuro-physiological Assessment and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mauro Rubens

    2002-10-01

    Starting with the excellent collective work done by the European Community (EC)-funded Virtual Reality Environments for Psycho-Neuro-physiological Assessment and Rehabilitation (VREPAR) projects, I try to indicate some possible pathways that would allow a better integration of this advanced technology into the reality of Latin American psychology. I myself use analyses that I did in my master's degree in the PUCSP-Catholic University in São Paulo, Brazil. I also include a brief description of the CD-ROM Clinical Psychology Uses of Virtual Reality (CPUVR) that accompanies my thesis. I point out the importance of collaboration between psychology and other disciplines, including computer science. I explain the method that I used to work with digital information, important for the formation of a critical mass of people thinking in Portuguese and Spanish to accelerate a technological jump. PMID:12448780

  5. Immigrating to the US: What Brazilian, Latin American and Haitian Women Have to Say About Changes to Their Lifestyle That May be Associated with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Tovar, Alison; Must, Aviva; Metayer, Nesly; Gute, David M.; Pirie, Alex; Hyatt, Raymond R.; Economos, Christina D.

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to explore the perceived determinants of obesity in Brazilian, Latin American and Haitian women. This is part of an ongoing community-based participatory intervention. Focus groups by immigrant group were conducted and themes extracted. Women expressed differences in beliefs, attitudes, and barriers regarding diet and physical activity in the US versus their home country. Participants thought food in the US is “less natural,” there is less time for preparation, and there is more variety. The weather is a barrier to physical activity in the US and work is more physically demanding. Job-related efforts were not considered physical activity. They reported higher levels of stress, less control of their time and less social support in the US. Providing immigrants with appropriate support and education early in the acculturation process has the potential to help prevent obesity. PMID:22736266

  6. School infrastructure and resources do matter: analysis of the incidence of school resources on the performance of Latin American students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Javier Murillo; Marcela Román

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine the incidence of school infrastructure and resources and its impact on the academic performance of primary education students in Latin America. A 4-level multilevel model was applied to the data of the Second Regional Comparative and Explanatory Study (SERCE) conducted by UNESCO, which researched 180,000 students in the 3rd and 6th grades

  7. The Impact of Rural Residency on the Expression and Outcome of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Data From a Multiethnic Latin American Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pons-Estel, Guillermo J.; Saurit, Verónica; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Hachuel, Leticia; Boggio, Gabriela; Wojdyla, Daniel; Alfaro-Lozano, José L.; de la Torre, Ignacio García; Massardo, Loreto; Esteva-Spinetti, Maria H.; Guibert-Toledano, Marlene; Ramirez Gómez, Luis A.; Lavras Costallat, Lilian T.; Sauza del Pozo, María J.; Silveira, Luis H.; Cavalcanti, Fernando; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the role of place of residency in the expression and outcomes of SLE in a multi-ethnic Latin American cohort. Patients and Methods SLE patients (<2 years of diagnosis) from 34 centers constitute this cohort. Residency was dichotomized into rural and urban, cut-off: 10,000 inhabitants. Socio-demographic, clinical/laboratory, and mortality rates were compared between them using descriptive tests. The influence of place of residency on disease activity at diagnosis and renal disease was examined by multivariable regression analyses. Results 122 (8.6%) of 1426 patients were rural residents. Their median age (onset, diagnosis) were 23.5 and 25.5 years; 85 (69.7%) patients were Mestizos, 28 (22.9%) Caucasians and 9 (7.4%) African-Latin Americans. Rural residents were more frequently younger at diagnosis, Mestizo and uninsured; they also had fewer years of education and a lower socioeconomic status, exhibited hypertension and renal disease more frequently, and had higher levels of disease activity at diagnosis; they used methotrexate, cyclophosphamide pulses, and hemodialysis more frequently than urban patients. Disease activity over time, renal damage, overall damage and the proportion of deceased patients were comparable in both, rural and urban patients.. In multivariable analyses, rural residency was associated with high levels of disease activity at diagnosis (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.06–2.57) and renal disease occurrence (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.00–3.11). Conclusions Rural residency associates with Mestizo ethnicity, lower socioeconomic status, and renal disease occurrence. It also plays a role on disease activity at diagnosis and kidney involvement but not on the other end-points examined. PMID:22941567

  8. Culture-sensitive adaptation and validation of the community-oriented program for the control of rheumatic diseases methodology for rheumatic disease in Latin American indigenous populations.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Granados, Ysabel; Silvestre, Adriana; Alvarez-Nemegyei, José; Valls, Evart; Quintana, Rosana; Figuera, Yemina; Santiago, Flor Julian; Goñi, Mario; González, Rosa; Santana, Natalia; Nieto, Romina; Brito, Irais; García, Imelda; Barrios, Maria Cecilia; Marcano, Manuel; Loyola-Sánchez, Adalberto; Stekman, Ivan; Jorfen, Marisa; Goycochea-Robles, Maria Victoria; Midauar, Fadua; Chacón, Rosa; Martin, Maria Celeste; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the study is to validate a culturally sensitive adaptation of the community-oriented program for the control of rheumatic diseases (COPCORD) methodology in several Latin American indigenous populations. The COPCORD Spanish questionnaire was translated and back-translated into seven indigenous languages: Warao, Kariña and Chaima (Venezuela), Mixteco, Maya-Yucateco and Raramuri (Mexico) and Qom (Argentina). The questionnaire was administered to almost 100 subjects in each community with the assistance of bilingual translators. Individuals with pain, stiffness or swelling in any part of the body in the previous 7 days and/or at any point in life were evaluated by physicians to confirm a diagnosis according to criteria for rheumatic diseases. Overall, individuals did not understand the use of a 0-10 visual analog scale for pain intensity and severity grading and preferred a Likert scale comprising four items for pain intensity (no pain, minimal pain, strong pain, and intense pain). They were unable to discriminate between pain intensity and pain severity, so only pain intensity was included. For validation, 702 subjects (286 male, 416 female, mean age 42.7 ± 18.3 years) were interviewed in their own language. In the last 7 days, 198 (28.2 %) subjects reported having musculoskeletal pain, and 90 (45.4 %) of these had intense pain. Compared with the physician-confirmed diagnosis, the COPCORD questionnaire had 73.8 % sensitivity, 72.9 % specificity, a positive likelihood ratio of 2.7 and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.73. The COPCORD questionnaire is a valid screening tool for rheumatic diseases in indigenous Latin American populations. PMID:24682426

  9. New man/new image culture/communication and Latin America identity

    E-print Network

    Mercado Cardona, Joaquin O

    1981-01-01

    This work attempts to present the development of a new self-image of Latin American identity as manifested in the New Latin American Cinema Movement. Also, it attempts to help articulate intentions, strategies, and final ...

  10. Undocumented Migration from Latin America in an Era of Rising U.S. Enforcement

    PubMed Central

    MASSEY, DOUGLAS S.; RIOSMENA, FERNANDO

    2010-01-01

    Available data have consistently pointed up the failure of U.S. policies to reduce undocumented migration from Latin America. To shed light on the reasons for this failure, we estimated a series of dynamic models of undocumented entry into and exit from the United States. Our estimates suggest that undocumented migration is grounded more in mechanisms posited by social capital theory and the new economics of labor migration rather than neoclassical economics. As a result, U.S. efforts to increase the costs of undocumented entry and reduce the benefits of undocumented labor have proven unsuccessful given the widespread access of Latin Americans to migrant networks. The main effect of U.S. enforcement efforts has been to reduce the circularity of Latin American migration. PMID:20824109

  11. Education, Adjustment, and Democracy in Latin America. Development Discussion Paper No. 363.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimers, Fernando M.

    This document examines changes in Latin American economies and educational systems during the 1980s and the responses of the Latin American democracies. Following a description of changes in Latin American public expenditures in the 1980s and subsequent adjustments in education expenditures, the dynamics of the adjustment in Costa Rica and…

  12. Understanding Entrepreneurial Family Businesses in Uncertain Environments: Opportunities and Research in Latin America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mattias Nordqvist; Giuseppe Marzano; Esteban Brenes; Gonzalo Jiménez; Maria Fonseca

    2011-01-01

    This thorough volume describes and analyzes entrepreneurial family businesses in Latin American countries. The research presented here has been conducted within the Global STEP (Successful Transgenerational Entrepreneurship Practices) Project. Dealing with some of the most important opportunities and challenges that Latin American family businesses face, particular attention is given to the uncertainty that characterizes most business environments in Latin American

  13. Laboratory-Based Surveillance of Neisseria meningitidis Isolates from Disease Cases in Latin American and Caribbean Countries, SIREVA II 2006–2010

    PubMed Central

    Ibarz-Pavón, Ana Belén; Lemos, Ana Paula; Gorla, Maria Cecilia; Regueira, Mabel; Gabastou, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    Background Published data on the epidemiology of meningococcal disease in Latin America and the Caribbean region is scarce and, when available, it is often published in Spanish and/or in non-peer-reviewed journals, making it difficult for the international scientific community to have access. Methods Laboratory data on 4,735 Neisseria meningitidis strains was collected and reported by the National Reference Laboratories in 19 Latin American countries and the Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (CAREC) between 2006 and 2010 as part of the work carried out by the SIREVA II network. Serogroup and MIC to penicillin, rifampin and chloramphenicol were determined. Results Isolates were mainly obtained from patients <5 years, but each year around 25% of isolates came from adult patients. Serogroup distribution was highly variable among countries. Serogroup C was the main cause of disease in Brazil; the majority of disease seen in the Southern cone was caused by serogroup B, but serogroup W135 strains have increased in recent years. In the Andean and Mexico, Central America and Caribbean regions, serogroups B and C were equally present, and serogroup Y was frequently isolated. Isolates were generally susceptible to chloramphenicol, penicillin and rifampin, but almost 60% of isolates characterized in Southern cone countries presented intermediate resistance to penicillin. Five rifampin-resistant isolates have been isolated in Uruguay and Brazil. Conclusions Serogroup distribution is highly variable among countries, but some geographic structuring can be inferred from these data. Epidemiological and laboratory data are scarce among Andean and Mexico, Central America and Caribbean countries. Evaluation and implementation of corrective measures on disease surveillance and reporting systems and the implementation of molecular diagnostic techniques and molecular characterization on meningococcal isolates are advised. PMID:22952888

  14. The Role of African-American Musicians in the Integration of the United States Navy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drane, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The service of blacks in the U.S. military can be traced back to the Revolutionary War. However, up to the end of World War I, African Americans in military branches were relegated to cooking and cleaning duties. As the United States prepared to enter World War II, pressure to admit African Americans into full service in the military increased due…

  15. Modeling and Mapping Abundance of American Woodcock Across the Midwestern and Northeastern United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WAYNE E. THOGMARTIN; JOHN R. SAUER; MELINDA G. KNUTSON

    2007-01-01

    We used an over-dispersed Poisson regression with fixed and random effects, fitted by Markov chain Monte Carlo methods, to model population spatial patterns of relative abundance of American woodcock (Scolopax minor) across its breeding range in the United States. We predicted North American woodcock Singing Ground Survey counts with a log-linear function of explanatory variables describing habitat, year effects, and

  16. Evolution of Framingham cardiovascular risk score in HIV-infected patients initiating EFV- and LPV/r-based HAART in a Latin American cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cecchini, Diego; Ines Mattioli, Maria; Cassetti, Julia; Chan, Debora; Cassetti, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Epidemiological studies suggest that some antiretroviral drugs may contribute to increase cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients. However, data from Latin American countries are limited, as impact of HAART on cardiovascular risk remains understudied. In this context, we aimed to evaluate if 10-year Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Score (FCRS) increases in patients following exposure to EFV- and LPV/r-based HAART in a Latin American cohort. Materials and Methods Retrospective 48-week cohort study. We reviewed clinical charts of randomly selected samples of patients initiating (according to national guidelines) EFV first-line HAART and LPV/r first- or second-line (but first PI-based) HAART assisted at a reference HIV centre in Buenos Aires, Argentina (period 2004–2012). Each patient could only be included in one arm. FCRS was calculated according to National Institutes of Health risk assessment tool (http://cvdrisk.nhlbi.nih.gov/). Results A total of 357 patients were included: 249 in EFV arm and 108 in LPV/r arm (80 as first line and 28 as second line, but first PI-based HAART). Baseline characteristics (median, interquartile range): age, 38 (33–45) years; male, 247 (69%); viral load, 98200 (20550–306000) copies/mL; CD4 T-cell count, 115 (60–175) cel/µL; total cholesterol, 159 (135–194) mg/dL; HDL: 39 (31–41) mg/dL; LDL: 94 (72–123) mg/dL; current smoker, 29%; on antihypertensive drugs: 14 (4%), diabetic: 4 (1%). Most frequent accompanying nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) were 3TC (92%) and zidovudine (AZT; 76%). Baseline FCRS was low, moderate and high for 93%, 7% and 0% of patients on EFV arm and 96.7%, 1.7% and 1.7% on LPV/r arm. On EFV arm, an increase in FCRS category (low to moderate or moderate to high) was observed in 1 patient (0.9%) at 24 weeks and 6 (5,6%) at 48 weeks; 5 (4.7%) decreased category. On LPV/r arm no one varied FCRS category at 24 weeks and 2 (3.4%) increased from low to moderate at 48 weeks (no patient decreased FCRS category). Cumulative incidence of overall cardiovascular events was 1.6% on EFV and 1.8% on LPV/r arms respectively. Probability of increasing FCRS category or having a cardiovascular event did not differ between arms at a significance level of 5%. Conclusions Probability of increasing FCRS category and cardiovascular events was low and similar in patients exposed to EFV versus LPV/r-based HAART in a Latin American cohort. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01705873. PMID:25394054

  17. [Latin-American plants as a source of new antineoplastic drugs, current situation and new opportunities against cancer].

    PubMed

    Orrego Escobar, Eduardo Freddy

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most relevant pandemics in modern world. There is a clear predominance of this pathology with distinct epidemiological characteristics in developing and developed countries. Effective, low-cost treatment and prophylaxis strategies that also have minimal side effects are needed. The present work is a brief revision of research that show the great therapeutic potential of plants, highlighting those carried out in Latin America with local plants considering that this is a yet incipient field of study. The great pool of organic compounds and other substances such as proteins indicate that they might provide a reliable alternative in the search for new actors in the battle against cancer. PMID:25918942

  18. Nephrology in Latin America, with special emphasis on Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Zatz; J. E. Romao; I. L. Noronha

    2003-01-01

    Nephrology in Latin America, with special emphasis on Brazil. Latin America constitutes a complex universe that shows extreme variation regarding socioeconomic and human development. Brazil is the largest and most populous Latin American country, and combines characteristics encountered in developed countries with problems typically associated with the poorest regions of the world. These disparities condition the profile of renal disease

  19. Patterns, trends and sex differences in HIV/AIDS reported mortality in Latin American countries: 1996-2007

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background International cohort studies have shown that antiretroviral treatment (ART) has improved survival of HIV-infected individuals. National population based studies of HIV mortality exist in industrialized settings but few have been presented from developing countries. Our objective was to investigate on a population basis, the regional situation regarding HIV mortality and trends in Latin America (LA) in the context of adoption of public ART policies and gender differences. Methods Cause of death data from vital statistics registries from 1996 to 2007 with "good" or "average" quality of mortality data were examined. Standardized mortality rates and Poisson regression models by country were developed and differences among countries assessed to identify patterns of HIV mortality over time occurring in Latin America. Results Standardized HIV mortality following the adoption of public ART policies was highest in Panama and El Salvador and lowest in Chile. During the study period, three overall patterns were identified in HIV mortality trends- following the adoption of the free ART public policies; a remarkable decrement, a remarkable increment and a slight increment. HIV mortality was consistently higher in males compared to females. Mean age of death attributable to HIV increased in the majority of countries over the study period. Conclusions Vital statistics registries provide valuable information on HIV mortality in LA. While the introduction of national policies for free ART provision has coincided with declines in population-level HIV mortality and increasing age of death in some countries, in others HIV mortality has increased. Barriers to effective ART implementation and uptake in the context of free ART public provision policies should be further investigated. PMID:21801402

  20. Spanish Americans in the United States - Changing Demographic Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, A. J.; And Others

    Changes in the demographic-socioeconomic characteristics of Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Central and South Americans, and Hispanos were examined using primarily 1970 census data. The study briefly reviewed the history of these groups--when they first came to the U.S., the types of immigrants, etc.; noted their geographic distribution…

  1. The Organization of American States and its Potential for Collaboration in the Improvement of Scientific Documentation in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Marietta Daniels

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the profound changes which have been made in the organic structure of the Organization of American States (OAS) and in its operations in recent months and how these changes lend themselves to more effective efforts to aid the member states in the development of more adequate documentation services and in…

  2. PREVENTION OF WATERBORNE CHOLERA IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the outbreak of cholera in Peru in January 1991, the disease has spread to other Latin-American countries and on several occasions has been imported into the United States. n order to assess the risk of transmission of cholera by water in the United States, an ad hoc commit...

  3. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in pregnant Latin American women and congenital transmission rate in a non-endemic area: the experience of the Valencian Health Programme (Spain).

    PubMed

    Barona-Vilar, C; Giménez-Martí, M J; Fraile, T; González-Steinbauer, C; Parada, C; Gil-Brusola, A; Bravo, D; Gómez, M D; Navarro, D; Perez-Tamarit, A; Fernandez-Silveira, L; Fullana-Montoro, A; Borrás, R

    2012-10-01

    This study describes the results of the health programme implemented in the Valencian Community (Spain) to achieve an early diagnosis of Chagas disease in pregnant Latin American women and their newborns. During 2009 and 2010, 1975 women living in the health districts of three university hospitals were enrolled via midwives or at the time of delivery. Diagnosis of disease was performed using two serological tests with different antigens. Congenital infection was diagnosed by parasitological, molecular or serological methods from blood samples obtained at birth or in subsequent controls. The overall seroprevalence of Chagas infection in pregnant women from 16 different endemic countries was 11·4%. Infection was higher in those from countries in the Gran Chaco Region (Bolivia, 34·1%; Paraguay, 7·4%; Argentina, 5·3%). Eight newborn infants from Bolivian mothers had congenital Chagas which represents a vertical transmission rate of 3·7%. In conclusion, this work supports the benefits of offering an early diagnosis to pregnant women and newborns during routine prenatal healthcare. PMID:22129521

  4. Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soni, P. Sarita, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This serial issue features 6 members of the Indiana University System faculty who have focused their research on Latin America, past and present. The first article, "A Literature of Their Own," highlights Darlene Sadlier's research on Brazilian women's fiction and poetry that has led to an interest in the interplay of Brazilian and Portuguese…

  5. Taking the China Challenge: China and the Future of Latin

    E-print Network

    Tufts University

    Taking the China Challenge: China and the Future of Latin American Economic Development Kevin P-author of the new book, The Dragon in the Room: China and the Future of Latin American Industrialization, Stanford University Press. The author would like to thank Elen Shrethsa for research as- sistance #12;Taking the China

  6. Energy efficiency business options for industrial end users in Latin American competitive energy markets: The case of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botero, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    Energy markets today in Latin America and worldwide are being restructured from monopolies, either state-owned or privately-owned, to be more openly competitive and incorporate more participation from the private sector. Thus, the schemes that were formerly developed to foster end use energy efficiency are no longer applicable because they were based on mandatory regulations made with political decisions, without sufficiently considering economic feasibility. A consensus exists that the only way energy efficiency could survive in this new paradigm is by being market oriented, giving better services, and additional options to users. However; there is very little information on what end users prefer, and which options would most satisfy customers. Using Colombia as a case study, this research determines and categorizes the energy efficiency business options for large energy end users that can freely participate in the competitive energy market. The energy efficiency market is understood as a market of services aiming to increase efficiency in energy use. These services can be grouped into seven business options. A survey, following the descriptive method, was sent to energy end users in order to determine their preferences for specific energy efficiency business options, as well as the decision-making criteria taken into account for such options. This data was categorized in ten industry groups. As a conclusion, energy efficiency providers should adapt not only to the economic activity or processes of each customer, but also to the potential business options. It was also found that not all industries consider performance contracting as their most preferred option, as a matter of fact, some industries show much higher preference for conventional business options. Among end users, the divergence in option preferences contrasted with the convergence in decision-making criteria. The decision-making criteria "cost-benefit ratio" overwhelmed all other criterion. End users appear to chose a specific energy efficiency option based mostly on obtaining better economic returns, giving low consideration to other criterion that feature differences among the energy efficiency options.

  7. Perception of tobacco use prevention and cessation among faculty members in Latin American and Caribbean dental schools.

    PubMed

    Tamí-Maury, Irene; Aigner, Carrie J; Hong, Judy; Strom, Sara; Chambers, Mark S; Gritz, Ellen R

    2014-12-01

    Rates of tobacco use are increasing in the regions of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Unfortunately, tobacco cessation education is not a standard component of the dental curriculum in LAC dental schools. The objective of this study was to identify the perceptions of LAC dental faculty members regarding the tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC) competencies that should be addressed in the dental curricula. Dental deans and faculty completed a web-based questionnaire in Spanish, Portuguese, French, or English. The questionnaire contained 32 competencies grouped into the five A's (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange) of tobacco cessation and six supplementary questions for identifying barriers to providing TUPAC education to dental students. Respondents indicated the degree to which they believed each competency should be incorporated into the dental curricula using a five-point Likert scale ("1"?=?strongly disagree to "5"?=?strongly agree). Responses were obtained from 390 faculty members (66 % South America, 18 % Mexico/Central America, 16 % the Caribbean). Of the respondents, 2, 12, and 83 % reported that smoking was allowed in clinical environments, other indoor environments, and outdoor environments of their dental schools, respectively. Mean importance ratings for each of the competencies were as follows: Ask (4.71), Advise (4.54), Assess (4.41), Assist (4.07), and Arrange (4.01). Overall, LAC dental educators agree that TUPAC training should be incorporated into the dental curricula. Assist and Arrange competencies were rated lower, relative to other competencies. Tobacco use among dental educators and high rates of on-campus smoking could potentially pose barriers to promoting cessation interventions in the LAC dental schools. PMID:24385339

  8. Reading for Fun: A Study of Materials for Mexican and Spanish-American, Puerto Rican, Cuban and other Latin American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A survey of selected neighborhoods in eight cities was conducted to determine the relevance, availability and utilization of leisure-time reading materials in both English and Spanish for Hispanic-American children. Spanish-speaking children, parents, teachers, librarians, educators and community workers were interviewed in each of the eight…

  9. Plasma physics in Latin America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo, A. B.

    1995-02-01

    The status of plasma physics in Latin America is reviewed. The review surveys the history and present situation of the regional activities in high-temperature plasma research, plasma astrophysics, and technological applications of plasma physics. In particular, it presents data on the trends of evolution of scientific staff, annual operating budget, and publication rate for the major Latin American plasma groups during the decade 1983 - 1992. On this basis, the prospects for further growth and the potential for regional contribution to the mainstream of international plasma research and development are discussed.

  10. Latin and magic squares

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emanuel Emanouilidis

    2005-01-01

    Latin squares have existed for hundreds of years but it wasn’t until rather recently that Latin squares were used in other areas such as statistics, graph theory, coding theory and the generation of random numbers as well as in the design and analysis of experiments. This note describes Latin and diagonal Latin squares, a method of constructing new Latin squares,

  11. Ethnic Heritage Studies: The American Woman. Experimental Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keepers, Beverly

    Providing information and activities designed to dispel sex role socialization, myths, and stereotypes as bases for prejudiced views, this teaching guide focuses on the American woman's image and diverse roles in our society. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The project materials are…

  12. Politicas y Gobierno de la Educacion Superior En American Latina. (Policies and Governance of Higher Education in Latin America). Texas Papers on Latin America. Paper No. 99-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardiel, Hugo Casanova

    Higher education is undergoing a complex process of transformation at the international level. This transformation is based especially in the fields of policies and governance of higher education institutions. In Latin America this trend has been growing since the 1980s, and higher education is undergoing a strong modification in its processes and…

  13. Hispanic-Americans in the Eastern United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph P. Fitzpatrick; Lourdes Travieso Parker

    1981-01-01

    The eastern part of the United States contains a large and growing Hispanic minority. If present trends con tinue, all Hispanics will constitute the largest minority in the United States by the year 2000. Their influence is already felt in the social and political life of the nation. The largest con centration of Hispanics, mainly Puerto Ricans, in the East

  14. 75 FR 2933 - Notification of Pricing for United States Mint 2010 Native American $1 Coin 25-Coin Rolls, 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ...Pricing for United States Mint 2010 Native American $1 Coin 25-Coin Rolls, 2010...announcing the prices of the 2010 Native American $1 Coin 25-Coin Rolls, the...Coin 25-Coin Rolls. The 2010 Native American $1 Coin 25-Coin Rolls...

  15. American Government. Grade Twelve, Unit One, 12.1. Comprehensive Social Studies Curriculum for the Inner City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remias, John

    An introduction to the study of American government is the focus on the first unit of the 12th grade level of the FICSS series (Focus on Inner City Social Studies -- see SO 008 271). The five content areas offer an overview of the three major branches of American government, independent regulatory agencies, and politics and elections. The unit

  16. Manual disassembly of computers and peripherals in Medellin, Colombia, as a social pilot project for sustainable e-waste management and recycling in a Latin American context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos F. Cadavid; Daniel Ott; Sandra Rodríguez

    Latin America is facing a rapid increase in computer sales. Penetration with electronic equipments has in some larger cities reached the level of OECD countries. There is an evident need to resolve the management of \\

  17. The American Dream and the Gospel of Wealth in Nineteenth-Century American Society: A Unit of Study for Grades 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gifford, Nina; Ingersoll, Tom

    The material in this unit is designed to introduce students to the origin and role of ideas in history, especially their role in the lives of ordinary people, in the rapidly industrializing United States of the 19th century. These lessons concern Americans in the great age of industrialization, from 1850 to 1900. Unit objectives include: (1)…

  18. The social distribution of dietary patterns. Traditional, modern and healthy eating among women in a Latin American city.

    PubMed

    Bojorquez, Ietza; Unikel, Claudia; Cortez, Irene; Cerecero, Diego

    2015-09-01

    Popkin's nutrition transition model proposes that after the change from the traditional to the modern dietary pattern, another change toward "healthy eating" could occur. As health-related practices are associated with social position, with higher socioeconomic groups generally being the first to adopt public health recommendations, a gradient of traditional-modern-healthy dietary patterns should be observed between groups. The objectives of this article were: 1) to describe the dietary patterns of a representative sample of adult women; 2) to assess whether dietary patterns differentiate in traditional, modern and healthy; and 3) to evaluate the association of social position and dietary patterns. We conducted a survey in Tijuana, a Mexican city at the Mexico-United States (US) border. Women 18-65 years old (n?=?2345) responded to a food frequency questionnaire, and questions about socioeconomic and demographic factors. We extracted dietary patterns through factor analysis, and employed indicators of economic and cultural capital, life course stage and migration to define social position. We evaluated the association of social position and dietary patterns with linear regression models. Three patterns were identified: "tortillas," "hamburgers" and "vegetables." Women in a middle position of economic and cultural capital scored higher in the "hamburgers" pattern, and women in upper positions scored higher in the "vegetables" pattern. Economic and cultural capitals and migration interacted, so that for women lower in economic capital, having lived in the US was associated with higher scores in the "hamburgers" pattern. PMID:25975967

  19. Communication and Decision Making in Japanese and American (United States) Organizations: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applbaum, Ronald L.

    Focusing upon the interactive work-group communication patterns of employees classified as "managers," this paper compares such communication observed in Japanese and United States business and industrial organizations. The paper first describes several models of decision making within American and Japanese organizations, highlighting the…

  20. The United States and Gun Violence Americans owned between 220 and 280 million guns in

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    1 Gun Shows in Context The United States and Gun Violence Americans owned between 220 and 280 million guns in 2004, including at least 86 million handguns.1 Millions of guns are added to that total each year. Just ten years earlier, Americas gun stockpile was estimated to hold 192 million weapons.2

  1. Pacific/North American teleconnection controls on precipitation isotope ratios across the contiguous United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large-scale climate teleconnections such as the Pacific/North American (PNA) pattern stronglyinfluence atmospheric processes and continental climate. Here we show that precipitation deltaO-18 values in the contiguous United States are correlated with an index of the PNA pattern. The deltaO-18/PNA re...

  2. Black Americans Yesterday and Today. A Resource Unit for the Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This unit of study on Black American history is divided into three sections. The first section presents the scope and sequence of topics and is intended as an aid to the teacher. The main ideas to be developed in the course are presented with a detailed outline of the content. This is followed by a teaching section which includes behavioral…

  3. Educational Transitions in the United States: Reflections on the American Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Paul T.

    2012-01-01

    Education involves socialization so that individuals become productive members of society. At present, in the United States, educational transitions are primarily viewed in terms of their location in an outcomes-oriented process and framed as helping people achieve the American Dream, but in terms of the status quo national economic interest. But…

  4. A Native American Curriculum Unit for the Fourth Grade. NATAM IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Carolyn

    The social studies curriculum guide, intended for use with 4th-grade children, was developed as part of a University of Minnesota extension course requirement offered to public school teachers. Included in this unit on American Indians are lessons in anthropology, history, geography, sociology, government, and economics. The activities included…

  5. Ethnic Heritage Studies: German-American Profiles and Contributions--Levi Strauss. Experimental Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langnehs, Chic

    This teaching guide focuses on the German-American immigrant experiences and the contribution of Levi Strauss. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The project materials are designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines. The objective for this unit is to acquaint the…

  6. Women of the American Revolution. A Unit of Study for Grades 5-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Jim

    This document is a unit that introduces students to the American Revolution by relying on primary sources. The lessons divide the conflict into 3 periods: (1) the friction leading to the War; (2) the struggle for independence; and (3) the expectations that shaped people's participation. The feature that distinguishes this treatment of the…

  7. American photography in France since World War II Was France liberated by the United States? 1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    205 American photography in France since World War II Was France liberated by the United States? 1 photography as a mass media. Photographs are (almost) never seen on their own and always as part of a complex "semiotic package". The very term "photography" covers a wide variety of practices and functions which must

  8. The American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, occurs throughout most of the southeastern United States. Alligators

    E-print Network

    Georgia, University of

    The American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, occurs throughout most of the southeastern United States. Alligators were once hunted primarily to produce leather products, which became to be poached. As a result, alligator numbers were dramatically reduced and in some regions it was feared

  9. United Airlines’ and American Airlines’ online crisis communication following the September 11 terrorist attacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clark F. Greer; Kurt D. Moreland

    2003-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, provided a challenging series of events for the crisis communication efforts of American Airlines and United Airlines. Based on crisis communication theory and organizational use of the Web, this study examined how the two companies used their Web sites during the first three weeks after the incidents as one means of conveying information

  10. This major offers courses in ancient, medieval, and modern European history, including Russian history; in both North and Latin American history; in the

    E-print Network

    Rohs, Remo

    ) HIST course elective Upper Division Courses** HIST 312: The Age of the French Revolution and Napoleon: Urbanization in the American Experience HIST 351: The American Revolution HIST 352: The American Civil War

  11. This major offers courses in ancient, medieval, and modern European history, including Russian history; in both North and Latin American history; in the

    E-print Network

    Rohs, Remo

    (1) HIST course elective Upper Division Courses** HIST 312: The Age of the French Revolution: Urbanization in the American Experience HIST 351: The American Revolution HIST 352: The American Civil War

  12. Latin and Magic Squares

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emanouilidis, Emanuel

    2005-01-01

    Latin squares have existed for hundreds of years but it wasn't until rather recently that Latin squares were used in other areas such as statistics, graph theory, coding theory and the generation of random numbers as well as in the design and analysis of experiments. This note describes Latin and diagonal Latin squares, a method of constructing…

  13. Between the national and the universal: natural history networks in Latin America in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Regina Horta

    2013-12-01

    This essay examines contemporary Latin American historical writing about natural history from the nineteenth through the twentieth centuries. Natural history is a "network science," woven out of connections and communications between diverse people and centers of scholarship, all against a backdrop of complex political and economic changes. Latin American naturalists navigated a tension between promoting national science and participating in "universal" science. These tensions between the national and the universal have also been reflected in historical writing on Latin America. Since the 1980s, narratives that recognize Latin Americans' active role have become more notable within the renewal of the history of Latin American science. However, the nationalist slant of these approaches has kept Latin American historiography on the margins. The networked nature of natural history and Latin America's active role in it afford an opportunity to end the historiographic isolation of Latin America and situate it within world history. PMID:24783494

  14. Contemporary American Success Stories: Famous People of Hispanic Heritage. Volume I. A Mitchell Lane Multicultural Biography Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvis, Barbara J.

    This series presents biographical sketches of famous Americans of Hispanic descent. The biographies in the projected eight volume series for elementary school children represent the diversity of Hispanic heritage in the United States. Those featured are contemporary figures with national origins in the United States or Latin America, with careers…

  15. Fermilab and Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Lederman, Leon M. [Illinois Institute of Technology, P. O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy, P. O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P. O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2006-09-25

    As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet.

  16. Psychotherapy research in developing countries: the case of Latin America.

    PubMed

    de la Parra, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the state of psychotherapy research in Latin America, a developing region, by means of its scientific production as reflected in international and Latin American publications, as well as through a survey and in-depth interviews with clinicians and researchers from the region. The Latin American publication rate is still low in international journals, which stands in contrast with the high level of publication within the region. The survey reveals an interest in research as well as a limited use of research in clinical practice, while exposing the difficulties of researching and publishing. The in-depth interviews, which cover most of the region, specify Latin America's shortcomings and obstacles to researching, as well as its facilitating factors and comparative advantages. The results are discussed within the framework of the colonizer-colonized relationship, Latin American identity, and the creative integration of developed and developing regions. PMID:24007196

  17. The Avalon Project at Yale Law School: Treaties Between the United States and Native Americans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Since 1996, the Avalon Project at the Yale Law School has provided a number of thematic collections of various important legal documents such as those dealing with German-American diplomatic relations, the Federalist Papers, and Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England. This particular new collection is dedicated to providing the full text (in the HTML format) of approximately 30 treaties signed between various Native American groups and the United States government between 1778 and 1868. Here visitors can peruse the text of such treaties as the 1784 treaty with the Six Nations, the 1791 treaty with the Cherokee, and the 1852 treaty signed with the Apache. Along with browsing a list of the treaties, users also have the option of using the site's search engine to search all of the Native American treaties available here.

  18. A.I.D. Economic Data Book: Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This data book, updating a December 1968 publication, is designed to serve the internal program and operational needs of the Agency for International Development. More than 19 Latin American republics are referred to in major sections on: (1) Latin America in the Free World: population and production, (2) summary of basic data, (3) population…

  19. Education, Policy, and Social Change: Experiences from Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales-Gomez, Daniel A., Ed.; Torres, Carlos Alberto, Ed.

    Using both a retrospective and a prospective view, this book examines the links joining research, policy, and change in education in Latin America. It inquires about the relationships among the economy, politics, and the state. It reviews the praxis of education in Latin American countries and in the context of the development trends of the 1980s.…

  20. Amphibian Population Declines in Latin America: A Synthesis1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen R. Lips; Patricia A. Burrowes; Joseph R. Mendelson; Gabriela Parra-Olea

    2005-01-01

    The loss of global amphibian biodiversity has been well documented in recent years. The greatest information from Latin America came from countries such as Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador, and Puerto Rico. The five papers in this special section illustrate the critical status of Latin American amphibians and further demonstrate certain commonalities of amphibian population declines within the region. These studies

  1. Decreasing rates of cervical cancer among American Indians and Hispanics in New Mexico (United States)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Chao; Thomas M. Becker; Scott W. Jordan; Ron Darling; Frank D. Gilliland; Charles R. Key

    1996-01-01

    Minority women in New Mexico (United States)—including American Indian and Hispanic women—have shown disproportionately high incidence rates of invasive cervical cancer during the 1960s and 1970s. Several public health programs in New Mexico were directed toward early detection of cervical cellular abnormalities, particularly targeting the state's minority women. To evaluate the effectiveness of these programs, we examined the New Mexico

  2. Re-Branding Neoliberalism and Systemic Dilemmas in Social Development: The Case of Education and School Fees in Latin American HIPCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson-Harden, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Using Latin America as a broad context and drawing on evidence from some of its most heavily indebted states as cases, this paper considers the example of Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) and education as a means of exploring the question of whether poverty reduction strategies of the Bretton Woods Institutions (the World Bank and the…

  3. 19 CFR 148.88 - Certain representatives to and officers of the United Nations and the Organization of American...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...government of the member state concerned, the Secretary-General of the Organization of American States, and the Government of the United States of America. (b) Absence of special request. In the absence of a special request from the...

  4. 19 CFR 148.88 - Certain representatives to and officers of the United Nations and the Organization of American...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...government of the member state concerned, the Secretary-General of the Organization of American States, and the Government of the United States of America. (b) Absence of special request. In the absence of a special request from the...

  5. 19 CFR 148.88 - Certain representatives to and officers of the United Nations and the Organization of American...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...government of the member state concerned, the Secretary-General of the Organization of American States, and the Government of the United States of America. (b) Absence of special request. In the absence of a special request from the...

  6. 19 CFR 148.88 - Certain representatives to and officers of the United Nations and the Organization of American...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...government of the member state concerned, the Secretary-General of the Organization of American States, and the Government of the United States of America. (b) Absence of special request. In the absence of a special request from the...

  7. 19 CFR 148.88 - Certain representatives to and officers of the United Nations and the Organization of American...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...government of the member state concerned, the Secretary-General of the Organization of American States, and the Government of the United States of America. (b) Absence of special request. In the absence of a special request from the...

  8. Overall evaluation of Skylab imagery for mapping of Latin America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staples, J. E.; Eoldan, J. J. M.; Fernandez, O. W.; Alves, M.; Mutis, J.; Fletcher, A. G.; Ferrero, M. B.; Morell, J. J. H.; Romero, L. E.; Garcia, J. A. G. (principal investigators)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab imagery is both desired and needed by the Latin American catographic agencies. The imagery is cost beneficial for the production of new mapping and maintenance of existing maps at national topographic series scales. If this information was available on a near time routine coverage basis, it would provide an excellent additional data base to the Latin American cartographic community, specifically Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Venezuela.

  9. Constitutionalism Through the Looking Glass of Latin America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel Schor

    2005-01-01

    This Article explores the following question: why did constitutionalism in Latin America take a different path than in the United States? Constitutions were adopted throughout the New World in the wake of independence movements in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries to effectuate republican government. Yet constitutionalism in Latin America led to dictatorship whereas constitutionalism in the United States

  10. Latin: The Basic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Glenda, Comp.

    1969-01-01

    Compilation of 119 letters solicited from well-known national figures by Latin students at Princeton (N.J.) High School setting forth opinions on the cultural and practical value of learning Latin. (DS)

  11. Informatics and Small Computers in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Jose; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This paper highlights potential benefits and more pressing social and legal problems facing Latin American nations in the area of informatics and small computers. Discussion covers potential uses (education, office applications, agriculture, national planning); role of central governments; implications for economic development; and transborder…

  12. Revolutionary Educational Reform Efforts in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    1975-01-01

    The author briefly examines how educational reform attempts in Cuba since 1959 have taken place and how they have been related to social, economic, and political change efforts in the society at large. The Cuban educational system makes a significant contrast against the failure which characterizes the other Latin American educational systems.…

  13. Teachers and Human Rights in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolmes, Jo-Ann

    1981-01-01

    Presents country-by-country information on teacher militancy and the repression and victimization of teachers by Latin American military regimes, as reported to the World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession (WCOTP). Condensed from "ATA Magazine," published by the Alberta (Canada) Teacher's Association, January 1981, pp4-9.…

  14. The Biomedical Manuscripts Drain from Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Armando M.

    1974-01-01

    An examination of the Life Sciences section of Current Contents 1968-1970 revealed that 2,907 manuscripts in the biomedical sciences written by Latin American scientists appeared in journals published outside the subcontinent. These results are analyzed. (Author/JB)

  15. Education, Democracy, and Development in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Candido

    1993-01-01

    Examines the historical context of the current Latin American educational crisis from the colonial era to the 1980s, comparing it to the educational investment undertaken by the Republic of Korea in a similar crisis. Calls for reform in state institutions, including a commitment to education, change in the economic model, and recognition of global…

  16. Bridging the Communication Gap between Afro-Latino and African American Individuals: An Interdisciplinary Curriculum Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Manuel P.; Kuhl, Paul E.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a curriculum initiative intended to lay the foundational knowledge for a dialogue between Afro-Latinos and African Americans living in the United States. Afro-Latinos trace their roots to Africa and Latin America; although their physical characteristics are similar to those of African descent, their ethnic backgrounds…

  17. A Handbook on Latin America for Teachers: Methodology and Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seelye, H. Ned, Ed.

    A product of a 1968 Title III National Defense Education Act Pilot Workshop on Teaching Latin American Cultural Themes, this booklet is designed to (1) further the cause of Latin American understanding in Spanish, social studies, and elementary school classes, (2) to be used in future workshops, and (3) serve as a model for similar handbooks…

  18. A Bayesian spawning habitat suitability model for American shad in southeastern United States rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hightower, Joseph E.; Harris, Julianne E.; Raabe, Joshua K.; Brownell, Prescott; Drew, C. Ashton

    2012-01-01

    Habitat suitability index models for American shad Alosa sapidissima were developed by Stier and Crance in 1985. These models, which were based on a combination of published information and expert opinion, are often used to make decisions about hydropower dam operations and fish passage. The purpose of this study was to develop updated habitat suitability index models for spawning American shad in the southeastern United States, building on the many field and laboratory studies completed since 1985. We surveyed biologists who had knowledge about American shad spawning grounds, assembled a panel of experts to discuss important habitat variables, and used raw data from published and unpublished studies to develop new habitat suitability curves. The updated curves are based on resource selection functions, which can model habitat selectivity based on use and availability of particular habitats. Using field data collected in eight rivers from Virginia to Florida (Mattaponi, Pamunkey, Roanoke, Tar, Neuse, Cape Fear, Pee Dee, St. Johns), we obtained new curves for temperature, current velocity, and depth that were generally similar to the original models. Our new suitability function for substrate was also similar to the original pattern, except that sand (optimal in the original model) has a very low estimated suitability. The Bayesian approach that we used to develop habitat suitability curves provides an objective framework for updating the model as new studies are completed and for testing the model's applicability in other parts of the species' range.

  19. A retrospective analysis of American football hyperthermia deaths in the United States.

    PubMed

    Grundstein, Andrew J; Ramseyer, Craig; Zhao, Fang; Pesses, Jordan L; Akers, Pete; Qureshi, Aneela; Becker, Laura; Knox, John A; Petro, Myron

    2012-01-01

    Over the period 1980-2009, there were 58 documented hyperthermia deaths of American-style football players in the United States. This study examines the geography, timing, and meteorological conditions present during the onset of hyperthermia, using the most complete dataset available. Deaths are concentrated in the eastern quadrant of the United States and are most common during August. Over half the deaths occurred during morning practices when high humidity levels were common. The athletes were typically large (79% with a body mass index >30) and mostly (86%) played linemen positions. Meteorological conditions were atypically hot and humid by local standards on most days with fatalities. Further, all deaths occurred under conditions defined as high or extreme by the American College of Sports Medicine using the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT), but under lower threat levels using the heat index (HI). Football-specific thresholds based on clothing (full football uniform, practice uniform, or shorts) were also examined. The thresholds matched well with data from athletes wearing practice uniforms but poorly for those in shorts only. Too few cases of athletes in full pads were available to draw any broad conclusions. We recommend that coaches carefully monitor players, particularly large linemen, early in the pre-season on days with wet bulb globe temperatures that are categorized as high or extreme. Also, as most of the deaths were among young athletes, longer acclimatization periods may be needed. PMID:21161288

  20. Children Seeking Refuge: A Review of the Escalating Humanitarian Crisis of Child Sexual Abuse and HIV/AIDS in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Clifton P; Veenema, Tener Goodwin

    2015-01-01

    Early identification and intervention for victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) is essential to halting the spread of HIV in Latino populations because children who are sexually abused are at an increased risk of contracting HIV. The recent influx of unaccompanied children into the United States exposed histories of victimization, vulnerability to CSA, and suggested an epidemic of CSA in Latin America. CSA has been identified as a contributory event to HIV infection. The aim of our research was to identify factors associated with CSA and Latin Americans. A systematic review and a document search were conducted on factors associated with CSA in Latin America. Victimization was associated with lifelong risk factors for HIV. Males were consistently underrepresented in the published CSA literature and machismo attitudes may contribute to abuses of sexual power by males and contribute to males not reporting or under-reporting victimization. PMID:25769757

  1. Laurence E. Prescott - Journeying Through Jim Crow: Spanish American Travelers in the United States during the Age of Segregation - Latin American Research Review 42:1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence E. Prescott

    2007-01-01

    Postcolonial criticism and theory have been instrumental not only in showing how Western texts have constructed non-Western peoples and cultures, but also in analyzing discourse on the racialized Other in travel writings by members of formerly colonized societies and cultures who may reinscribe—consciously or unconsciously—the structural values of cultural domination. As privileged members of comparable societies that had assimilated and

  2. Nonverbal Communication: Proxemics and Tactility in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuter, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Deals with a study conducted in Costa Rica, Panama, and Columbia to determine whether Latin Americans have similar distance and contact orientations regardless of sex and nationality. Concludes that the differences in behavior between the Central and South Americans are significant enough to warrant further research. (MH)

  3. A Comparative View of Approaches to Social Work Education in Argentina and the United States. Rough Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curiel, Herman

    Educational approaches to social work in the United States are compared with programs in South America. The first half of the document discusses a 1981 survey conducted by Argentine Professor Alayon. Questionnaires were sent to 236 schools in 21 Latin American countries. Data are based on 46 responses from 13 countries concerning status of the…

  4. The Benefits of Latin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Lisa R.

    2012-01-01

    Classicists have long claimed that the study of Latin has benefits that exceed knowledge of the language itself, and in the current economic times, these claims are made with urgency. Indeed, many contend that Latin improves English grammar and writing skills, cognitive abilities, and develops transferable skills necessary for success in the…

  5. Neo-Latin News

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Craig, et al

    2006-01-01

    , moestus, ocia). Although the editor here departs from the convention of editing neo- Latin texts by adopting the conventions of classical Latin orthography, his decision is reasonable as the orthography of the text is witnessed by the author?s corrections...

  6. Is Latin America saying adios to market-friendly reforms?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William C. Gruben; Richard Alm

    2007-01-01

    This issue of the Economic Letter finds that Latin America hasn't lost faith in open markets, despite recent left-leaning election results. ; In analyzing several economic policy measures for 12 nations that make up the bulk of the Latin American population, authors William C. Gruben and Richard Alm find no wholesale erosion of market-based policies outside of Argentina, the Dominican

  7. Risky Business and the American Climate Prospectus: Economic Risks of Climate Change in the United States"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, K.; Houser, T.; Kopp, R. E., III; Hsiang, S. M.; Larsen, K.; Jina, A.; Delgado, M.; Muir-Wood, R.; Rasmussen, D.; Rising, J.; Mastrandrea, M.; Wilson, P. S.

    2014-12-01

    The United States faces a range of economic risks from global climate change - from increased flooding and storm damage, to climate-driven changes in crop yields and labor productivity, to heat-related strains on energy and public health systems. The Risky Business Project commissioned a groundbreaking new analysis of these and other climate risks by region of the country and sector of the economy. The American Climate Prospectus (ACP) links state-of-the-art climate models with econometric research of human responses to climate variability and cutting edge private sector risk assessment tools, the ACP offers decision-makers a data driven assessment of the specific risks they face. We describe the challenge, methods, findings, and policy implications of the national risk analysis, with particular focus on methodological innovations and novel insights.

  8. NEUTRALIZATION OF TWO NORTH AMERICAN CORAL SNAKE VENOMS WITH UNITED STATES AND MEXICAN ANTIVENOMS

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Elda E.; Lopez-Johnston, Juan C.; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Pérez, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Elapid snakes throughout the world are considered very lethal containing neurotoxic venoms that affect the nervous system. When humans are envenomated it is considered a serious medical emergency, and antivenom is the main form of treatment considered, in spite of the fact that some patients may only survive under intensive therapy treatment such as respiratory support. Coral snakes are part of the family Elapidae and envenomations by these snakes are very low (< 2% of total snakebites) in most countries from southeastern United States to Argentina. In the United States there are only two species of coral snakes of medical importance which belong to the Micrurus genera: Micrurus fulvius fulvius (Eastern coral snake) and M. tener tener (Texas coral snake). In 2006, Wyeth pharmaceutical notified customers that the production of the North American Coral Snake Antivenin (NACSA) in the U.S. was discontinued and adequate supplies were available to meet historical needs through the end of October 2008; and therefore, it is of utmost important to consider other antivenoms as alternatives for the treatment of coral snake envenoming. One logical alternative is the coral snake antivenom, Coralmyn, produced by the Mexican company, Bioclon. In order to compare neutralization between NACSA and Coralmyn antivenoms with the North American coral snake venoms, the venom lethal doses (LD50) and antivenom effective doses (ED50) were determined in 18–20 g, female, BALB/c mice. Additionally, venom comparisons were determined through a non reduced SDS-PAGE for M. f. fulvius, M. t. tener and the Mexican coral snake venom, M. nigrocinctus nigrocinctus. Coralmyn antivenom was able to effectively neutralize 3 LD50 doses of all venom from both M. t. tener and M. f. fulvius, while Wyeth antivenom only neutralized M. f. fulvius venom and was not effective in neutralizing 3 LD50 doses of M. t. tener venom. Coralmyn is effective in the neutralization of both clinically important coral snake venoms in the U.S. PMID:18054059

  9. The distribution of leptospirosis in Latin America*†

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, A. D.

    1960-01-01

    Although many factors combine to make Latin America an apparently suitable region for the spread of the leptospiroses, the prevalence of these infections has been studied in relatively few areas of this part of the American continent. Of the 60 Leptospira serotypes described in the world, only seven have so far been definitively demonstrated in Middle America and five in South America. However, there is evidence to suggest that other and perhaps new serotypes may be found, and recent serological surveys indicate that there are loci of multiple leptospirosis affecting a large percentage of human or animal populations in at least five Latin American territories. The true prevalence of leptospirosis can only be ascertained by the proper application of reliable laboratory diagnostic methods. The limited value of certain techniques used heretofore makes a number of reports on the presence of this disease subject to question. PMID:13792576

  10. Squatter settlements in Latin America: the basis of social integration 

    E-print Network

    Sanint, Zaida Castellanos

    1979-01-01

    and their partici- pation in city life. The data came from twenty-seven studies conducted in several Latin American countries. The nations included are: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela. Also, studies about Latin... of Latin America. Country 1940-50 1950-60 1960-70 Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Peru Yenezuela 1. 89 2. 42 1. 64 2. 51 2. 18 1. 78 3. 69 1. 6 3. 2 2. 5 3. 1 3. 1 2. 9 3. 7 1. 9 3. 8 2. 0 3. 2 3. 4 2. 1 3. 5 Sources...

  11. Promoting Sexual Health Equity in the United States: Implications from Exploratory Research with African-American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Allison L.; Uhrig, Jennifer; Poehlman, Jon; Scales, Monica; Hogben, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to inform communication efforts to promote sexual health equity in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sought to explore African-Americans' perceptions of the sexually transmitted disease (STD) problem in their communities, reactions to racially comparative STD data and opinions about dissemination…

  12. An Analysis of the Treatment of Corporate Influence on Government by United States History and American Government High School Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation to explore the possibility that ideology might be expressed in the treatment of corporate influence on federal government by social studies textbooks. Two textbooks were examined in the study--United States history and American government. Corporate influence involves activities that affect election and…

  13. The health of Arab-Americans living in the United States: a systematic review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdulrahman M El-Sayed; Sandro Galea

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite substantial attention paid to Arab-Americans (AAs) in the media and in public discourse, there is limited research about the health of AAs in the United States (US) in the public health literature. This review aims to synthesize the extant peer-reviewed literature concerned with the health of AAs living in the US. METHODS: We summarize existing research on the

  14. Spark up the American Revolution with Math, Science, and More: An Example of an Integrative Curriculum Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    The author explores the advantages and disadvantages of integrated curriculum in the middle school setting. She reviews several models for integrated curriculum and guidelines for creating a successful integrated curriculum. A ready-to-use middle school unit on the American Revolution is also presented. Nine complete lessons are provided for…

  15. [Regional initiative on health care reform in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Crocco, P; Schroeder, P; Villen, M T; Yen, E

    2000-01-01

    Many countries throughout Latin America and the Caribbean are introducing reforms that can profoundly influence how health services are provided and who receives them. Governments in the region identified the need for a network to support health reform by building capacity in analysis and training, both at the Summit of the Americas in 1994 and at the Special Meeting on Health Sector Reform, which was convened in 1995 by an interagency committee of the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, the Inter-American Development Bank, the World Bank, and other multilateral and bilateral agencies. In response, in 1997 the Pan American Health Organization and the United States Agency for the International Development launched the Latin America and Caribbean Regional Health Sector Reform Initiative. The Initiative has approximately US$ 10 million in funding through the year 2002 to support activities in Bolivia, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, and Peru. Now in its third year of implementation, the Initiative supports regional activities seeking to promote more equitable and effective delivery of basic health services. PMID:11026784

  16. Capacity-building programmes in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Marcos E.

    We review how capacity building in space sciences has developed in several Latin American countries, the state of development of some current programs and the role that space activities and space information play and can play in the future. We stress the need to educate educators, in order to increase the public awareness about the benefits of space research and, more importantly, attract the next generation of professionals that will be required in the coming decades.

  17. Textbooks in Greek and Latin: 1968 List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenheim, Ursula

    1968-01-01

    This bibliography lists separately, with price and publisher, Greek and Latin works published in the United States, Canada, and Great Britain. While bilingual and interlinear texts are omitted in favor of annotated editions of authors, the inclusion of a vocabulary or occasional translation is indicated. Entries appear in the following categories:…

  18. TEXTBOOKS IN GREEK AND LATIN, 1966 LIST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHOENHEIM, URSULA

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS SEPARATELY, WITH PRICE AND PUBLISHER, GREEK AND LATIN WORKS PUBLISHED IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA. WHILE BILINGUAL AND INTERLINEAR TEXTS ARE OMITTED IN FAVOR OF ANNOTATED EDITIONS OF AUTHORS, THE INCLUSION OF A VOCABULARY OR OCCASIONAL TRANSLATION IS INDICATED. THE SECTIONS FOR EACH LANGUAGE ARE--(1) TEXTS OF CLASSICAL…

  19. Microzonation of seismic risk in a low-rise Latin American city based on the macroseismic evaluation of the vulnerability of residential buildings: Colima city, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobin, V. M.; Cruz-Bravo, A. A.; Ventura-Ramírez, F.

    2010-06-01

    A macroseismic methodology of seismic risk microzonation in a low-rise city based on the vulnerability of residential buildings is proposed and applied to Colima city, Mexico. The seismic risk microzonation for Colima consists of two elements: the mapping of residential blocks according to their vulnerability level and the calculation of an expert-opinion based damage probability matrix (DPM) for a given level of earthquake intensity and a given type of residential block. A specified exposure time to the seismic risk for this zonation is equal to the interval between two destructive earthquakes. The damage probability matrices were calculated for three types of urban buildings and five types of residential blocks in Colima. It was shown that only 9% of 1409 residential blocks are able to resist to the Modify Mercalli (MM) intensity VII and VIII earthquakes without significant damage. The proposed DPM-2007 is in good accordance with the experimental damage curves based on the macroseismic evaluation of 3332 residential buildings in Colima that was carried out after the 21 January 2003 intensity MM VII earthquake. This methodology and the calculated PDM-2007 curves may be applied also to seismic risk microzonation for many low-rise cities in Latin America, Asia, and Africa.

  20. Community Colleges: Is There a Lesson in Them for Latin America? Sustainable Development Department Technical Papers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Claudio de Moura; Bernasconi, Andres; Verdisco, Aimee

    This paper explores the potential the North American community college model holds for Latin America as a means of responding to the expansion of secondary education in this region. The authors propose learning from, not imitating, experiences found in North America and Europe and discuss how these lessons may be of used to inform Latin American

  1. Secondary Schools and the Transition To Work in Latin America and the Caribbean. Sustainable Development Department Technical Papers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Claudio de Moura; Carnoy, Martin; Wolff, Laurence

    U.S. and European models of delivering secondary education were examined to identify ways of improving Latin American and Caribbean secondary schools and easing Latin American and Caribbean students' transition from school to work. The following delivery options were considered: (1) separate job training from formal secondary education; (2) move…

  2. Neo-Latin News 

    E-print Network

    Craig Kallendorf, et al

    2004-01-01

    the major texts of Greek antiq- uity: Venetiae ? Athenae alterae ? dici possunt, propter litteras graecas (vi), as one of Aldus?s associates put it. The essays in this volume grew from a conference devoted to this theme. After a brief preface... that there are problems in the extensive citations of Latin texts in NEO-LATIN NEWS 315 the endnotes: there are passages in which the Latin given cannot be made sense of as is, and at times the notes do not seem to cor- respond to the assertions made in the text. Still...

  3. Complex Systems Spire of Excellence Approved Faculty Recruitments (FY 13 Recruitment/FY 14 Hire) Continuing Positions Submitted via Unit Staffing Proposals

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Complex Systems Spire of Excellence 10.8.12 Approved Faculty Recruitments (FY 13 Recruitment/FY 14 Unit/Department Recruitment Rank Field/Discipline Connection BSAD School of Business Asst Prof Geochemistry CSYS History Asst Prof Latin American History Psychology Asst Prof Clinical Adult Psychopathology

  4. Health planning in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, J L

    1975-10-01

    Health planning in Latin America became an organized activity with the Charter of Punta del Este in 1961. The charter's 10-Year Public Health Program set forth a series of objectives that stressed international cooperation, the link of public health with economic development, and assistance from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the U.N. through Economic Commission for Latin America. The basis for most planning efforts in the region has been the PAHO/Center for Development Studies (CENDES) method, a joint venture of WHO and the Central University of Venezuela. This methodology suggests health programs that are organized from the bottom up beginning with "program areas" for populations that lie not more than 2 hours from a health clinic. The program areas comprise a regional area, which in turn is serviced by specialized clinics not affordable in program areas. The regional areas serve as the building blocks for the national programs. Beginning in 1963, several countries undertook planning activities using the PAHO/CENDES procedures. In many countries, however, the evolution of the planning process did not measure up to the expectations of 1961; only a few countries actually completed the program cycle. The problems confronted by these programs demonstrated that health planning has to be more than the intermittent exercise of preparing plans and documents. PMID:1163699

  5. Transmitted Drug Resistance Among Antiretroviral-Naive Patients with Established HIV Type 1 Infection in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic and Review of the Latin American and Caribbean Literature

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Barbara S.; Rojas Fermín, Rita A.; Reyes, Emily Virginia; Vaughan, Catherine; José, Lina; Javier, Carmen; Franco Estévez, Ramona; Donastorg Cabral, Yeycy; Batista, Arelis; Lie, Yolanda; Coakley, Eoin; Hammer, Scott M.; Brudney, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Emergence of HIV resistance is a concerning consequence of global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART). To date, there is no published information about HIV resistance from the Dominican Republic. The study's aim was to determine the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) to reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors in a sample of chronically HIV-1-infected patients in one clinic in Santo Domingo. The data are presented in the context of a review of the TDR literature from Latin America and the Caribbean. Genotype testing was successfully performed on 103 treatment-naive adults planning to initiate antiretroviral therapy; the World Health Organization (WHO) list of surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRM) was used to determine the presence of TDR mutations. WHO SDRM were identified in eight patients (7.8%); none had received sdNVP. There were no significant differences in epidemiologic or clinical variables between those with or without WHO SDRM. The prevalence of WHO SDRM was 1.0% and 6.8% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, respectively. No WHO SDRMs for protease inhibitors were identified. Among 12 studies of TDR in the region with a sample size of at least 100 subjects, the reported prevalence of SDRM ranged from 2.8% to 8.1%. The most commonly identified SDRM was K103N. This information adds to our understanding of the epidemiology of TDR in the region and the possible role such mutations could play in undermining first-line treatment. Ongoing surveillance is clearly needed to better understand the TDR phenomenon in the Caribbean. PMID:21851324

  6. Transmitted drug resistance among antiretroviral-naive patients with established HIV type 1 infection in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic and review of the Latin American and Caribbean literature.

    PubMed

    Myers, Julie E; Taylor, Barbara S; Rojas Fermín, Rita A; Reyes, Emily Virginia; Vaughan, Catherine; José, Lina; Javier, Carmen; Franco Estévez, Ramona; Donastorg Cabral, Yeycy; Batista, Arelis; Lie, Yolanda; Coakley, Eoin; Hammer, Scott M; Brudney, Karen

    2012-07-01

    Emergence of HIV resistance is a concerning consequence of global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART). To date, there is no published information about HIV resistance from the Dominican Republic. The study's aim was to determine the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) to reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors in a sample of chronically HIV-1-infected patients in one clinic in Santo Domingo. The data are presented in the context of a review of the TDR literature from Latin America and the Caribbean. Genotype testing was successfully performed on 103 treatment-naive adults planning to initiate antiretroviral therapy; the World Health Organization (WHO) list of surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRM) was used to determine the presence of TDR mutations. WHO SDRM were identified in eight patients (7.8%); none had received sdNVP. There were no significant differences in epidemiologic or clinical variables between those with or without WHO SDRM. The prevalence of WHO SDRM was 1.0% and 6.8% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, respectively. No WHO SDRMs for protease inhibitors were identified. Among 12 studies of TDR in the region with a sample size of at least 100 subjects, the reported prevalence of SDRM ranged from 2.8% to 8.1%. The most commonly identified SDRM was K103N. This information adds to our understanding of the epidemiology of TDR in the region and the possible role such mutations could play in undermining first-line treatment. Ongoing surveillance is clearly needed to better understand the TDR phenomenon in the Caribbean. PMID:21851324

  7. Challenges of Cultural and Racial Diversity to Counseling: Volume 2. Latin America and the United States. Mexico City Conference Proceedings (June 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gerardo M., Ed.; and Others

    Papers from the second international conference of the American Counseling Association held in Mexico City in June 1990 are included in this book. The book is divided into four parts: community, diversity, communication, and spirituality. The following papers are included: (1) Myths, Realities, and Implications of the English Only Movement in the…

  8. Neo-Latin News

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Craig et al

    2009-01-01

    before publishing her work. (John Considine, University of Alberta) ? Thomas Gray, Elegy in a Country Churchyard, Latin Translations, 1762-2001. Edited by Donald Gibson, Peter Wilkinson, and Stephen Freeth. Orpington: The Holden Press, 2008. 282...

  9. Neo-Latin News

    E-print Network

    Craig Kallendorf, et al

    2005-01-01

    archivio elettronico da Dante al primo trentennio del XVI secolo,? moves us from traditional philology, masterfully executed, to the computer age. Paolo Mastandrea and Manlio Pastore Stocchi note that specialists in humanist Latin are handicapped... in the Netherlands to boot? (Companion ed. 2, 1.178). He can, therefore, be seen from two perspectives, that of his eastern European identity and that of his Latinity. In studying such men as Olahus, IJsewijn continued, ?in many cases not only a fair knowledge...

  10. Impact of EMS Outreach: Successful Developments in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Olivero, Ofelia A.; Larramendy, Marcelo; Soloneski, Sonia; Menck, Carlos F.M.; Matta, Jaime; Folle, Gustavo A.; Zamorano-Ponce, Enrique; Spivak, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    This collection of articles was inspired by the long-standing relationship between the Environmental Mutagen Society and Latin American scientists, and by the program for the 39th Environmental Mutagen Society meeting in Puerto Rico in 2008, which included a symposium featuring “South of the border” scientists. This collection, compiled by Graciela Spivak and Ofelia Olivero, both originally from Argentina, highlights scientists who work in or were trained in Latin American countries and in Puerto Rico in a variety of scientific specialties related to DNA repair and cancer susceptibility, genomic organization and stability, genetic diversity, and environmental contaminants. PMID:20213840

  11. West nile virus and its theories, a big puzzle in Mexico and latin america.

    PubMed

    Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; Elizondo-Quiroga, Armando

    2013-10-01

    It has been 13 years since the first outbreak of West Nile Virus (WNV) occurred in the Americas. Since then, thousands of human cases have been reported in the United States. In contrast, there has not yet been an outbreak of WNV in any Latin American countries, including Mexico where <20 cases have been reported. We aimed to review publications to gather the main theories related to the fact that not all the countries of the continent reported human cases or that they have reported few cases since the introduction of WNV in the Western Hemisphere. We identified relevant publications using the PubMed database. Furthermore, we present on-line published information from Mexico. We found that researchers have tried to explain this phenomenon using several theories, like pre-existing antibodies against a heterotypical virus that have conferred cross protection in the population. Another explanation is that the strains circulating in Latin America are attenuated or that they came from a different origin of introduction in the continent. Another theory is that a conclusive diagnostic in regions where more than one Flavivirus is circulating results in cross-reaction in serological tests. Probably the sum of factors described by researchers in these theories in order to explain the behavior of the virus has resulted in the low number of reported cases in Latin America. PMID:24672180

  12. Clinical complications of G6PD deficiency in Latin American and Caribbean populations: systematic review and implications for malaria elimination programmes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although G6PDd individuals are generally asymptomatic throughout their life, the clinical burden of this genetic condition includes a range of haematological conditions, including acute haemolytic anaemia (AHA), neonatal jaundice (NNJ) and chronic non-sphaerocytic anaemia (CNSA). In Latin America (LA), the huge knowledge gap regarding G6PDd is related to the scarce understanding of the burden of clinical manifestation underlying G6PDd carriage. The aim of this work was to study the clinical significance of G6PDd in LA and the Caribbean region through a systematic review. Methods A systematic search of the published literature was undertaken in August 2013. Bibliographies of manuscripts were also searched and additional references were identified. Only original research was included. All study designs were included, as long as any clinical information was present. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported clinical information from populations living in LA or Caribbean countries or about migrants from these countries living in countries outside this continent. Results The Medline search generated 487 papers, and the LILACS search identified 140 papers. After applying the inclusion criteria, 100 original papers with any clinical information on G6PDd in LA were retrieved. Additionally, 16 articles were included after reading the references from these papers. These 116 articles reported data from 18 LA and Caribbean countries. The major clinical manifestations reported from LA countries were those related to AHA, namely drug-induced haemolysis. Most of the published works regarding drug-induced haemolysis in LA referred to haemolytic crises in P. vivax malaria patients during the course of the treatment with primaquine (PQ). Favism, infection-induced haemolysis, NNJ and CNSA appear to play only a minor public health role in this continent. Conclusion Haemolysis in patients using PQ seems to be the major clinical manifestation of G6PDd in LA and contributes to the morbidity of P. vivax infection in this continent, although the low number of reported cases, which could be linked to under-reporting of complications. These results support the need for better strategies to diagnose and manage G6PDd in malaria field conditions. Additionally, Malaria Control Programmes in LA should not overlook this condition in their national guidelines. PMID:24568147

  13. Latin America/Caribbean and Asia/Pacific Economics and Business Association

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Latin America/Caribbean and Asia/Pacific Economics and Business Association An initiative, Sciences-Po Sam Laird, UNCTAD PRESENTED AT THE LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION ANNUAL and the Caribbean (INTAL) Asian Development Bank ADB Institute #12;WORKING PAPER SERIES No.7 December 2002 Trade

  14. The Impact of Neoliberal Restructuring on Education and Poverty in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boron, Atilio Alberto; Torres, Carlos Alberto

    1996-01-01

    Examines the widening gap between rich and poor in Latin America, and the troubling performance of new Latin American democracies. Reviews human-capital, neoconservative, neoliberal, functionalist, and social democratic theories about education and poverty. Presents eight theses about the state, poverty, and education, and calls for education to…

  15. Engineers for Rural Development: Europe and Latin America Getting in Tune.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marechal, Gilles

    The European program Amerique Latine-Formation Academique (ALFA) has provided 12 Latin-American and 10 European universities and colleges with a framework for creating an International Master in Rural Development. Globalization, regional integration, and sustainability have created a new set of questions for rural areas, both in Europe and in…

  16. Gendering Class in Latin America: How Women Effect and Experience Change in the Class Structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Bellone Hite; Jocelyn S. Viterna

    2005-01-01

    Female participation in the Latin American paid labor force is increas- ing dramatically. Building upon Fortes and Hoffman's (2003) model, we use oc- cupational data to measure gendered changes in Latin America's class structure over the last two decades of economic restructuring and adjustment and to inves- tigate the causes and consequences of these regional patterns. Our results sug- gest

  17. Beyond the Folkloric and Indigenous in Multicultural Thinking about Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jupp, James C.

    2002-01-01

    Integrates the epistemology of cultural syncretism or "mestizaje" into multicultural thinking, instructional materials, and teaching about Latin America. Discusses the origins of white and black myths of the conquest; the centrality of "mestizaje" in Latin American culture; "mestizaje's" origins from the 16th-century spiritual conquest of Mexico;…

  18. AMERICAN ELECTRIC POWER'S CONESVILLE POWER PLANT UNIT NO.5 CO2 CAPTURE RETROFIT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Carl R. Bozzuto; Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; Mark Palkes; John L. Marion

    2001-06-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with American Electric Power (AEP), ABB Lummus Global Inc. (ABB), the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration technologies applied to an existing US coal-fired electric generation power plant. The motivation for this study was to provide input to potential US electric utility actions concerning GHG emissions reduction. If the US decides to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, action would need to be taken to address existing power plants. Although fuel switching from coal to natural gas may be one scenario, it will not necessarily be a sufficient measure and some form of CO{sub 2} capture for use or disposal may also be required. The output of this CO{sub 2} capture study will enhance the public's understanding of control options and influence decisions and actions by government, regulators, and power plant owners in considering the costs of reducing greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} emissions. The total work breakdown structure is encompassed within three major reports, namely: (1) Literature Survey, (2) AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study, and (3) Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation. The report on the literature survey results was issued earlier by Bozzuto, et al. (2000). Reports entitled ''AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study'' and ''Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation'' are provided as companion volumes, denoted Volumes I and II, respectively, of the final report. The work performed, results obtained, and conclusions and recommendations derived therefrom are summarized.

  19. The equivalence of United States census data for persons of Russian stock or descent with American Jews: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, E

    1975-05-01

    While the U.S. Bureau of the Census has had a long-standing policy of abstaining from enumerating the religious beliefs or backgrounds of the American people, at least two-thirds of the Jewish population of the United States has been enumerated in decennial censuses and sample surveys in the guise of persons of Russian stock or origin. This has come about through the migration policy of the old Russian Empire and the statistical categories utilized by American immigration authorities and by the U. S. Bureau of the Census for immigrants and their children. Comparisons between the returns from an ethnic survey and a survey on the religious composition demonstrate the close congruence between persons of Russian stock or descent and American Jews on the national level. PMID:1157988

  20. 2 A New Map of Global Ecological Land Units --An Ecophysiographic Stratification Approach A Special Publication of the Association of American Geographers 3 A New Map of Global Ecological Land Units --

    E-print Network

    Fleskes, Joe

    #12;2 A New Map of Global Ecological Land Units -- An Ecophysiographic Stratification Approach A Special Publication of the Association of American Geographers 3 A New Map of Global Ecological Land Units -- An Ecophysiographic Stratification Approach Roger Sayre, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, UNITED STATES

  1. Disparities in Cancer Mortality and Incidence Among American Indians and Alaska Natives in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Espey, David K.; Swan, Judith; Wiggins, Charles L.; Eheman, Christie; Kaur, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We used improved data on American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) ancestry to provide an updated and comprehensive description of cancer mortality and incidence among AI/AN populations from 1990 to 2009. Methods. We linked the National Death Index and central cancer registry records independently to the Indian Health Service (IHS) patient registration database to improve identification of AI/AN persons in cancer mortality and incidence data, respectively. Analyses were restricted to non-Hispanic persons residing in Contract Health Service Delivery Area counties in 6 geographic regions of the United States. We compared age-adjusted mortality and incidence rates for AI/AN populations with White populations using rate ratios and mortality-to-incidence ratios. Trends were described using joinpoint analysis. Results. Cancer mortality and incidence rates for AI/AN persons compared with Whites varied by region and type of cancer. Trends in death rates showed that greater progress in cancer control was achieved for White populations compared with AI/AN populations over the last 2 decades. Conclusions. Spatial variations in mortality and incidence by type of cancer demonstrated both persistent and emerging challenges for cancer control in AI/AN populations. PMID:24754660

  2. Incidence of notifiable diseases among American Indians/Alaska Natives - United States, 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Adekoya, Nelson; Truman, Benedict; Landen, Michael

    2015-01-16

    American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations experience substantial disparities in the incidence of multiple diseases compared with other racial/ethnic groups in the United States. A major goal of Healthy People 2020 is to eliminate health disparities, monitor disease trends, and identify population groups and diseases for targeted interventions. High rates of certain infectious diseases continue to be a major problem facing AI/AN populations. During 1990-2011, incidence rates for some infectious diseases declined among AI/AN populations, but disparities remain and AI/AN populations are still disproportionately affected. To describe disparities in selected notifiable diseases among AI/ANs, CDC analyzed data from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) for 2007-2011, the most recent 5 years for which data are available. The results of this analysis of 26 infectious diseases indicate that incidence rates of 14 diseases were higher for AI/ANs than for whites. Interventions are needed to address and reduce disparities in chlamydia, gonorrhea, West Nile virus, spotted fever rickettsiosis, and other infections among AI/ANs. PMID:25590681

  3. Bluetongue disease and seroprevalence in South American camelids from the northwestern region of the United States.

    PubMed

    Allen, Andrew J; Stanton, James B; Evermann, James F; Fry, Lindsay M; Ackerman, Melissa G; Barrington, George M

    2015-03-01

    In late summer/early fall of 2013, 2 South American camelids from central Washington were diagnosed with fatal bluetongue viral disease, an event which is rarely reported. A 9-year-old intact male llama (Lama glama), with a 1-day history of anorexia, recumbency, and dyspnea before death. Abundant foam discharged from the mouth and nostrils, and the lungs were severely edematous on postmortem examination. Histologically, there was abundant intra-alveolar edema with fibrin. Hemorrhage and edema disrupted several other organs. Bluetongue viral RNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and serotype 11 was identified by sequencing a segment of the VP2 outer capsid gene. Approximately 1 month later, at a site 150 miles north of the index case, a 2-year-old female alpaca with similar, acutely progressive clinical signs was reported. A postmortem examination was performed, and histologic lesions from the alpaca were similar to those of the llama, and again serotype 11 was detected by PCR. The occurrence of bluetongue viral infection and disease is described in the context of seasonal Bluetongue virus activity within the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada. PMID:25680921

  4. Representation of genomics research among Latin American laymen and bioethics: a inquiry into the migration of knowledge and its impact on underdeveloped communities

    SciTech Connect

    Fernando Lolas; Carolina Valdebenito; Eduardo Rodríguez; Irene Schiattino; Adelio Misseroni

    2007-07-09

    The effects of genetic knowledge beyond the scientific community depend on processes of social construction of risks and benefits, or perils and possibilities, which are different in different communities. In a globalized world, new developments affect societies not capable of technically replicating them and unaware of the very nature of the scientific process. Moral and legal consequences, however, diffuse rapidly and involve groups and persons with scant or no knowledge about the way scientific concepts are developed or perfected. Leading genomics researchers view their field as developing after a sharp break with that worldwide social movement of the 20´s and 30´s known as eugenics and its most radical expression in the Nazi efforts to destroy life “not worth living”. Manipulation, prejudice and mistrust, however, pervade non-expert accounts of current research. Researchers claim that the new knowledge will have a positive impact on medicine and serve as a foundation for informed social policy. Both types of applications depend on informed communities of non-scientists (physicians, policymakers), whose members may well differ on what constitutes burden and what is benefit, depending upon professional socialization and cultural bias. ELSI projects associated with genomic research are notable for the lack of minorities involved and for the absence of comparative analysis of data reception in different world communities. It may be contended also that the critical potential of philosophical or ethical analyses is reduced by their being situated within the scientific process itself and carried out by members of the expert community, thus reducing independence of judgment. The majority of those involved in such studies, by tradition, experience, and formative influences, share the same worldview about the nature of moral dilemmas or the feasibility of intended applications. The global effects of new knowledge when combined with other cultural or religious traditions are thus unknown. These effects are interesting on two accounts. First, even if underdeveloped countries cannot replicate the technical aspects of research, their influence on social practices is not kept within geographical or language barriers. The way they are handled in developed countries may become part of resistances to “ethical imperialism”. Second, these advances have economic consequences. Their full understanding and the creation of a scientific literacy essential for sound ethical analysis demand the creation of “receptive capacity” in developing countries. The morality of genomics research and its applications can be analyzed from two main vantage points. Some traditions stress the ethics of convictions (in Max Weber´s terms, Gesinnungsethik) while others rely on the ethics of responsibility (Verantwortungsethik). In different forms, the latter deals with the consequences of social action, scientific research in this case, and may or may not be related to utilitarian considerations. It may be hypothesized that convictions, mostly of a religious nature, dominate the argumentative preferences in Latin countries and continental European traditions which rely on virtues while responsibility is associated with a discourse based on rights prevalent in countries following the Anglo-Saxon pattern of thought. This finds expression in different legal systems (common law versus codes) and in the language used for deliberation and moral reasoning. Although results of US-based ELSI research may not be transferable to other cultural and economic contexts, they impact other societies and serve as models. Rarely do they apply completely in other settings. In a globalized world, both appropriate understanding of the scientific enterprise and its ethical or economic sustainability demand empirical analysis of the patterns of thought, main beliefs, and reactions toward the new knowledge and its applications. Anecdotal accounts show that expectations may be misleading and inadequate knowledge prevents appropriate appraisal of burdens and benefits in dif

  5. Phylogeography of the American woodcock (Scolopax minor): Are management units based on band recovery data reflected in genetically based management units?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhymer, J.M.; McAuley, D.G.; Ziel, H.L.

    2005-01-01

    Information on population connectivity throughout the annual cycle has become more crucial, because populations of many migratory birds are in decline. One such species is the American Woodcock (Scolopax minor), which inhabits early-successional forests in eastern North America. Although band recoveries have proved useful for dividing populations of this game bird species into an Eastern Region and Central Region for management purposes, these data do not provide enough detail to determine the breeding population of origin of birds recovered on stopover and wintering areas. To obtain more fine-scale data, we undertook a phylogeographic study of American Woodcock populations throughout their primary breeding range in the eastern United States and Canada using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from the hypervariable control region I (CRI) and ND6 gene. Despite high haplotype diversity, nucleotide diversity was low and there was no phylogeographic structure among American Woodcock populations across the species range, with birds from many states and provinces in both management regions sharing identical haplotypes. Results suggest recent or ongoing gene flow among populations, with asymmetric movement of birds between migration flyways. As has been demonstrated for several other avian species in North America, American Woodcock appear to have undergone a rapid population expansion following the late Pleistocene glacial retreat. Thus, a combination of historical demographic factors and recent or ongoing gene flow mask any population structure based on mtDNA that might accrue from philopatry to breeding areas observed in studies of marked birds.

  6. Development and application of rapid assessment diet and physical activity indexes, which suggest high consumption of energy-dense foods and inadequate exercise among adolescents from 6 Latin American cities: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Laura H; Holbert, Donald; Peña, Manuel

    2008-09-01

    This study describes the development and application of a rapid assessment diet quality index (RADQI) and a rapid assessment physical activity index (RAPAI) to characterize the energy intake and expenditure patterns of 1279 Latin American adolescents. Secondary aims were to describe the strength of the relationships of energy intakes and expenditures with sex, socioeconomic status, body mass index, and city of residence and to identify the students' reasons for undertaking physical activity and the types of activities they most enjoyed. Participants were eighth and ninth grade students from Buenos Aires, Argentina; Guatemala City, Guatemala; Havana, Cuba; Lima, Peru; Panama City, Panama; and Santiago, Chile. The RADQI and RAPAI scores were rescaled to T scores with a mean of 50 points (+/-10) for comparison. The RADQI scores ranged from 53.0 points (+/-10.5) in Panama City to 44.7 points (+/-8.3) in Santiago, and RAPAI scores ranged from 54.8 points (+/-9.2) in Panama City to 46.2 points (+/-8.6) in Santiago. The correlation between RADQI and RAPAI scores for the combined data set was weak but positive. The 2 reasons most often given for undertaking physical activity were to improve their physical health and to improve their psychological well-being, whereas the types of physical activities most enjoyed involved competitive sports. Results suggest frequent intakes of energy-dense diets and inadequate physical activity participation, prompting a need for learning opportunities targeted at adolescents and their families that teach healthy food choices and encourage greater physical activity participation. PMID:19083464

  7. Book Reviews: Indigenous Peoples, Civil Society, and the Neo-Liberal State in Latin America

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Jean E.

    “Civil society”: what’s in it for Latin American indigenous peoples? Ten essays penned by anthropologists, historians and activists grapple with this question in this very welcome volume. The value of ethnographic research ...

  8. Personal injury compensation cases in the United Kingdom: The use of American vocational assessment tools in personal injury compensation.

    PubMed

    Kettle, M

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the role of vocational assessment in personal injury compensation cases in the United Kingdom. An outline is given of some of the difficulties the writer has confronted in getting vocational assessment accepted as a legitimate resource in such cases, and the rationale for using American vocational assessment tools is presented. Finally, reference is made to two key legal rulings. The first ruling threatened the use of vocational assessment, and the second went some way toward redressing the balance. PMID:24441064

  9. Fabry disease in latin america: data from the fabry registry.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, J; Politei, J M; Martins, A M; Cabrera, G; Amartino, H; Lemay, R; Ospina, S; Ordoñez, S Suarez; Varas, C

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of these analyses was to characterize demographic and baseline clinical characteristics of Latin American patients with Fabry disease compared to that of patients in the rest of the world. Observational data reported to the Fabry Registry were obtained from untreated patients or prior to treatment with enzyme replacement therapy. As of October 1, 2010, 3,752 patients were enrolled in the Fabry Registry worldwide, including 333 patients within Latin America. Latin American patients tended to be younger than Fabry Registry patients enrolled in the rest of the world: mean current age 35.5 years versus 39.2 years for men (p < 0.05 by t-test), mean age 37.8 years versus 43.6 years for women (p < 0.05 by t-test). A smaller percentage of Latin American patients have received enzyme replacement therapy, compared to patients in the rest of the world: 67% versus 80% for men, and 19% versus 39% of women, respectively. Thirty-one percent of men and 22% of women in Latin America reported experiencing a significant cardiovascular, renal, or cerebrovascular event, at a mean age of 35 ± 12.6 years in men and 44 ± 12.3 years in women. Cardiovascular events were the most common type of initial clinical event among men and women in Latin America. The medical community in Latin America should be aware of Fabry disease as a possible cause of renal or cardiac dysfunction. Increased awareness will facilitate prompt diagnosis and initiation of treatment. PMID:23430525

  10. Capacity-building programmes in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. E.

    "If we do not support basic science, we might as well give up our idea of living in a civilized country". These words by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, President of Argentina, are from a speech he delivered in 1871, at the inauguration of the Córdoba Astronomical Observatory, first in Latin America. It contained in this way a response to critics saying that there were more pressing matters where to spend public funds than promoting scientific research and education. It also marked the beginning of capacity-building activities in Argentina. We shall review how these activities have developed in Argentina as well as the other Latin American countries, current programmes and the role that space activities play and can play in the future.

  11. Rumor mongering: scapegoating techniques for social cohesion and coping among the Japanese-Americans in United States internment camps during World War II

    E-print Network

    Biggs, Jenny Catherine

    2008-10-10

    RUMOR MONGERING: SCAPEGOATING TECHNIQUES FOR SOCIAL COHESION AND COPING AMONG THE JAPANESE-AMERICANS IN UNITED STATES INTERNMENT CAMPS DURING WORLD WAR II A Thesis by JENNY BIGGS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS August 2008 Major Subject: Anthropology RUMOR MONGERING: SCAPEGOATING TECHNIQUES FOR SOCIAL COHESION AND COPING AMONG THE JAPANESE-AMERICANS IN UNITED STATES INTERNMENT CAMPS DURING...

  12. Neo-Latin News

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Craig et al

    2008-01-01

    in medieval literary theory; but in its broad concep- tion of textuality and its large structural and discursive perspectives, 252 s e v e n t e e n t h -c e n t u r y n e w s it is foundational to hermeneutical theory and practice? (264-65). In ?Latin... ?historical, anthropological as well as linguistic and literary? perspectives. Using his earlier studies, Milton?s Languages (1997) and John Milton: Latin Writings (1998), as a jumping-off point, Hale fleshes out in this book ideas he had only touched...

  13. Neo-Latin News 

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Craig et al

    2009-01-01

    of the encounter: Mehmed II died soon afterward and the Turkish expeditionary forces were forced to withdraw. Philippides ends his volume here, adding in appendices a French text of the Tetaldi document, a Greek and Italian version of the aman-name granted... Oregon University, and J. Max Patrick, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and Graduate School, New York University. NEO-LATIN NEWS ? A Lexicon to the Latin Text of the Theological Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772). Edited by John Chadwick...

  14. Neo-Latin News

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Craig et al

    2009-01-01

    . In the first part of the book (15-91) he examines publications that somehow concern Homer as a European phenom- enon and analyses the various Greek editions, Latin translations, and commentaries produced throughout the Latin West. On the basis... explicata, and index locorum) conclude M.?s book. M. bases his edition on the 1551 printing of the work and diligently explains the value of the other four editions of the Rerum Germani- carum libri tres (1531, 1610, 1670, and 1693) for his new edition. A...

  15. Cultural Penetration in Latin America through Multinational Advertising Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Toro, Wanda

    Few studies have addressed the issue of cultural penetration of Latin American countries by multinational corporations (MNCs) and multinational advertising agencies (MAAs). Whether they are considered multinational or transnational, MAAs have expanded as a form of international communication in the global market, forming the backbone of MNCs.…

  16. Education Reform in Latin America: Equal Educational Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the general developments and challenges of Latin American public education systems from the 1970s to the late 1990s. A framework using five stages of equal educational opportunity is used to organize the findings: (1) Enrollment--Involves the mechanisms needed to enroll children in school; (2) Quality--Great disparities in…

  17. Mortality among blacks or African Americans with HIV infection--United States, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Azfar-e-Alam; Hu, Xiaohong; Hall, H Irene

    2015-02-01

    A primary goal of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy is to reduce HIV-related health disparities, including HIV-related mortality in communities at high risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. As a group, persons who self-identify as blacks or African Americans (referred to as blacks in this report), have been affected by HIV more than any other racial/ethnic population. Forty-seven percent of persons who received an HIV diagnosis in the United States in 2012 and 43% of all persons living with diagnosed HIV infection in 2011 were black. Blacks also experienced a low 3-year survival rate among persons with HIV infection diagnosed during 2003-2008. CDC and its partners have been pursuing a high-impact prevention approach and supporting projects focusing on minorities to improve diagnosis, linkage to care, and retention in care, and to reduce disparities in HIV-related health outcomes. To measure trends in disparities in mortality among blacks, CDC analyzed data from the National HIV Surveillance System. The results of that analysis indicated that among blacks aged ?13 years the death rate per 1,000 persons living with diagnosed HIV decreased from 28.4 in 2008 to 20.5 in 2012. Despite this improvement, in 2012 the death rate per 1,000 persons living with HIV among blacks was 13% higher than the rate for whites and 47% higher than the rate for Hispanics or Latinos. These data demonstrate the need for implementation of interventions and public health strategies to further reduce disparities in deaths. PMID:25654607

  18. Respiratory Health Equality in the United States. The American Thoracic Society Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Jesse; Schraufnagel, Dean E.; Thomas, Alvin; Samet, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Because the frequency of major risk factors for respiratory diseases (e.g., tobacco use) differs across demographic groups (defined by socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, health care access, occupation, or other characteristics), health disparities are commonly encountered in pediatric and adult pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine. As part of its policy on respiratory health disparities, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) Executive Committee created a Health Equality Subcommittee of the Health Policy Committee, with an initial mandate of defining respiratory health equality and, as a subsequent task, providing recommendations to the ATS leadership as to how our society may help attain such equality in the United States. After receiving input from the ATS assemblies and committees, the subcommittee developed this document on respiratory health equality. This document defines respiratory health disparities and respiratory health equality, and expands on a recent ATS and European Respiratory Society policy statement on disparities in respiratory health. Attainment of respiratory health equality requires the ending of respiratory health disparities, which can be achieved only through multidisciplinary efforts to eliminate detrimental environmental exposures while promoting a healthy lifestyle, implementing all components of high-quality health care (prevention, screening, diagnosis, and treatment), and conducting research that will lead to better prevention and management of respiratory diseases for everyone. The ATS recognizes that such efforts must include all stakeholders: members of society at large, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and other professional societies. The ATS urges all of its members and those of sister societies to work to achieve this laudable goal. PMID:24625275

  19. International Migration and Gender in Latin America: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.; Fischer, Mary J.; Capoferro, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    We review census data to assess the standing of five Latin American nations on a gender continuum ranging from patriarchal to matrifocal. We show that Mexico and Costa Rica lie close to one another with a highly patriarchal system of gender relations whereas Nicaragua and the Dominican Republic are similar in having a matrifocal system. Puerto Rico occupies a middle position, blending characteristics of both systems. These differences yield different patterns of female relative to male migration. Female householders in the two patriarchal settings displayed low rates of out-migration compared with males, whereas in the two matrifocal countries the ratio of female to male migration was much higher, in some case exceeding their male counterparts. Multivariate analyses showed that in patriarchal societies, a formal or informal union with a male dramatically lowers the odds of female out-migration, whereas in matrifocal societies marriage and cohabitation have no real effect. The most important determinants of female migration from patriarchal settings are the migrant status of the husband or partner, having relatives in the United States, and the possession of legal documents. In matrifocal settings, however, female migration is less related to the possession of documents, partner’s migrant status, or having relatives in the United States and more strongly related to the woman’s own migratory experience. Whereas the process of cumulative causation appears to be driven largely by men in patriarchal societies, it is women who dominate the process in matrifocal settings. PMID:21399742

  20. American Indian Stereotypes: The Truth Behind the Hype. An Indian Education Curriculum Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stutzman, Esther

    This curriculum guide dispels the stereotypes of American Indians that humiliate and degrade real Indian culture and add fuel to the fire of racism and prejudice. It begins with a timeline of American Indian history from 15,000 B.C. to the present, and compares it to a historical timeline of Europe-Asia. The stereotype of the savage Indian is…

  1. Clinical and economic burden of pneumonia among adults in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Isturiz, Raul E; Luna, Carlos M; Ramirez, Julio

    2010-10-01

    The clinical and economic burden of adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Latin America is not well known. We conducted a literature review to describe the etiology, incidence, hospitalization, morbidity and mortality, antibiotic resistance, costs associated with care, and the potential benefits of pneumococcal vaccination in the reduction of adult CAP in Latin America. Data that were published during the period from January 1970 through August 2008 were identified via the Web sites and databases of the Pan American Health Organization, Latin American health agencies, and the US National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine (MEDLINE). Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified as the most common pathogen, accounting for up to 35% of CAP cases. The mean rate of CAP due to penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae was 39%. The mortality in Latin America due to lower respiratory tract infections has been reported to be 6%, compared with 4% in developed regions, and CAP was the third most frequent cause of death in adults in 31 Latin American countries in 2001-2003. Although S. pneumoniae caused the majority of CAP, similar to other regions of the world, mortality due to CAP in Latin America was substantially greater than that in developed countries. This review demonstrates the need to facilitate standardized surveillance and reporting systems to monitor the burden of CAP and to implement prevention strategies to decrease the clinical and economic burden of CAP in Latin American adults. PMID:20615741

  2. Afro-Latin Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Wade

    2006-01-01

    The state of Afro-Latin studies is reviewed, starting with questions about terminology and racial classification, then exploring issues of racism and the relation between race and class. The impact of black (and indigenous) social movements on the field of study is then examined and this raises the question of how ideologies and practices of mestizaje have changed in the wake

  3. Neo-Latin News 

    E-print Network

    Craig Kallendorf, et al

    2002-01-01

    responded warmly to it?one went out of her NEO-LATIN NEWS 357 way to say how much she liked the translation. None of them would have been reading Weston if it had not been for Cheney and Hosington. Jane Stevenson and Peter Davidson draw...

  4. Neo-Latin News 

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Craig et al

    2009-01-01

    -1479 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992). Joseph F. O?Connor, a scholar of Greek and Latin literature, contributes a philologist?s intimate knowledge of lan- guage, adding a subtlety to the reading that only a deep understanding of classical sources...

  5. Neo-Latin News

    E-print Network

    Craig Kallendorf, et al

    2002-01-01

    to the French text? To focus on the original title, to discuss its NEO-LATIN NEWS 169 complexities and implications?it is a real conundrum?would al- low for more analysis of an essential feature of the Apologie, namely Henri Estienne?s concern with belief...

  6. Neo-Latin News

    E-print Network

    Craig Kallendorf, et al

    2003-01-01

    in the most rarified dialect of what is now a long-dead language, is neither an inevitable nor a preferable perspective. It is in fact more realistic to think of latinity as a vast and largely unexplored region of lin- guistic and social pluralism extending...

  7. Latin Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Agnes; Stevens, Patrick

    This guide delineates the scope and sequence of Latin instruction in levels 1-3 in terms of behavioral objectives. Following a review of the Bloomington, Minnesota, school philosophy and a discussion of the design of foreign language behavioral objectives on which the guide is based, the manual discusses expected terminal behavior in the level 1…

  8. Differentiation and healthy family functioning of Koreans in South Korea, South Koreans in the United States, and White Americans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyejin; Prouty, Anne M; Smith, Douglas B; Ko, Mei-Ju; Wetchler, Joseph L; Oh, Jea-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Inconsistent results have been found in prior research on the Bowen Family Systems Theory concept of differentiation of self and its application to individuals, couples, and families of different cultural backgrounds. In this regard, this study examined the impact of differentiation of self on healthy family functioning, family communication, and family satisfaction with 277 participants including South Koreans living in South Korea, South Korean-born citizens living in the United States, and White Americans living in the United States. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis identified the measurement invariance of a differentiation scale (DSI-R) used for the three study groups. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) found significant differences between White Americans and South Koreans with regard to the level of differentiation. Results of multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses found a significant association between differentiation of self and healthy family functioning across the three groups with the American group having significantly higher differentiation than the two South Korean groups." Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:24750125

  9. China Unit and Resource Packet. The China Project of the American Forum for Global Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Julie; Dowling, Seamus

    This unit of study focuses on belief systems from China. It is crucial that students understand there are different ways of viewing the world, all of which may be valid. The 20 lessons in the unit stem from the presumptions that place students in the role of "historian" for the duration of these China studies. The unit is divided into the…

  10. Establishing as the Policy of the United States the Preservation, Protection, and Promotion of the Rights of Indigenous Americans To Use, Practice and Develop Native American Languages, and for Other Purposes. Report To Accompany S.J. Res. 379 from the Select Committee on Indian Affairs. United States Senate, 100th Congress, 2d Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.

    This report was submitted in support of a joint resolution (S.J. Res. 379) to establish as the policy of the United States the preservation, protection, and promotion of the right of indigenous Americans to practice and develop their indigenous languages. Traditional languages are an integral part of Native American culture, heritage, and…

  11. [Latin American malacology. Freshwater mollusks from Argentina].

    PubMed

    Rumi, Alejandra; Gregoric, Diego E Gutiérrez; Núñez, Verónica; Darrigran, Gustavo A

    2008-03-01

    A report and an updated list with comments on the species of freshwater molluscs of Argentina which covers an area of 2 777 815 km2 is presented. Distributions of Gastropoda and Bivalvia families, endemic, exotic, invasive as well as entities of sanitary importance are also studied and recommendations on their conservation are provided. Molluscs related to the Del Plata Basin have been thoroughly studied in comparison to others areas of the country. This fauna exhibits relatively the biggest specific richness and keeps its affinity with the fauna of other regions of the basin in areas of Paraguay and Brasil. The 4 500 records of molluscs considered in this paper arise from the study of the collections of Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires; Museo de La Plata, La Plata and Fundación "Miguel Lillo", Tucumán. These institutions keep very important collections of molluscs in southern South America. Field information has recently been obtained and localities cited by other authors are also included in the data base. Until today, 166 species have been described, 101 belonging to 10 families of Gastropoda and 65 to 7 of Bivalvia. Families with highest specific richness are Lithoglyphidae (22) and Sphaeriidae (25), respectively. The number of endemic species (those present only in Argentina) by family is: Gastropoda: Ampullariidae (1), Cochliopidae (10), Lithoglyphidae (11), Thiariidae (3), Chilinidae (11), Lymnaeidae (2) and Physidae (2?); Bivalvia: Hyriidae (1?); Etheriidae (1?) and Sphaeriidae (10). Families with a distribution that comprise almost the whole country are: the Sphaeriidae and the gastropods Cochliopidae, Chilinidae and Lymnaeidae. Families Erodonidae and Solecurtidae (Bivalvia) were registered in mixohaline environments from Buenos Aires province. Gastropod families Thiaridae and Glacidorbiidae show a very restricted distribution. The rest of the families are present mainly in the center and north of the country. Species of sanitary interest are the propagators of: schistosomiasis -Biomphalaria peregrina, B. straminea y B. tenagophila, Planorbidae-, fasciolasis -Lymnaea viatrix and L. columnella, Lymnaeidae- and dermatitis -Chilina gibbosa and C. fluminea, Chilinidae. Invasive species are: Corbicula fluminea (Corbiculidae) and Limnoperna fortunei (Mytilidae). The construction of new areas for the protection and conservation of the high risk endemic species of freshwater molluscs is a priority. It is necessary to give special attention to the species of the patagonic mountain range and of the mesopotamic area of the Del Plata Basin. PMID:18624229

  12. UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH LATIN AMERICAN COURSE LIST

    E-print Network

    Machery, Edouard

    be used to sa general educa es or related co 6). CLAS events­ n Festival. Se ant Informati ally enrolled contac s, workshops, y schedule of a nts and Advis ertificate prog olling basis. T there an applic ants

  13. Foreign Fishery Developments New Latin American

    E-print Network

    years'. Uruguay's fuel prices are among the highest in the world because almost all of the petroleum on Taiwan's tuna operations in Uruguay can be obtained by requesting IFR -81/34 from local NMFS Statistics

  14. Transportation context of Latin American logistics

    E-print Network

    Sweat, Sean D. (Sean David)

    2008-01-01

    Through increasing globalization and trade liberalization, many third-world and developing countries are experiencing levels of growth that are quickly shifting the world's balance of political and economic power. China ...

  15. Montana State University 1 Latin American & Latino

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    in Sociology & Anthropology, as well as other departments with relevant course content, will also be allowed-sets of students who wish to become more competitive in the Spanish speaking job market, either abroad

  16. Latin American Debt: Opportunities for Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garg, Ramesh C.

    The debt crisis of the lesser developed countries (LDCs) may provide opportunities for educational institutions. Through debt-for-education programs, a part of the huge debt load can be channelled into financing various educational programs sponsored by U.S. higher education institutions. Private commercial banks and multinational corporations are…

  17. Cost-effectiveness of measles elimination in Latin America and the Caribbean: a prospective analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnab Acharya; Jose Luis Diaz-Ortega; Gina Tambini; Ciro de Quadros; Isao Arita

    2002-01-01

    Background: In 1994, the Americas set a goal of interrupting indigenous measles transmission from the Western Hemisphere by 2000. To accomplish this goal, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) developed an enhanced measles vaccination strategy. Methods: Cost data was collected at PAHO for Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries covering 96% of the region’s population on components of the routine

  18. [Decriminalization of abortion: a common purpose in Latin America].

    PubMed

    1993-12-01

    In the conviction that abortion is a fundamental right of women and that its illegal practice constitutes a serious threat to life, several Latin American women's groups have united to work for decriminalization. The groups have been attempting to increase public awareness of the consequences of illegal abortion. Official silence on the topic appears to deny the existence of a problem. Proposals in the different Latin American countries are adapted to their political and legal circumstances. In Argentina, a campaign has been underway for nearly two years to collect signatures for a petition for a law concerning contraception and abortion. The National Network for Women's Health and other groups have held regional and national workshops on the issue. In Bolivia, radio and television programs have been broadcast in Spanish and indigenous languages on the right to choose, reproductive health, and sex education. Abortion was debated in Brazil during the process of constitutional reform, but it remains illegal. Illegal abortion continues to be a reality and women's groups are lobbying for decriminalization. Abortion is considered a crime in Colombia's penal code. Attempts to legalize abortion have been rejected by the legislature without debate. The practice of abortion under the circumstances has become a lucrative business whose lack of regulation has resulted in a growing number of maternal deaths. Attempts are underway in Costa Rica to legalize abortion in cases of rape or incest. Studies show that illegal abortion is the third most important cause of maternal death. A bill to legalize abortion is under study in Chile's Parliament but has not been approved. Abortion is illegal but common in Ecuador. Efforts are underway in Mexico and Nicaragua to encourage debate on abortion. Peru's Health Commission was recently prevented from classifying abortion for any reason other than grave congenital anomaly as homicide. Abortion has been legal in Puerto Rico since 1974, but amendments and laws to limit this right are under study. A bill to legalize abortion is under study in Venezuela and is being promoted by feminist groups. PMID:12287891

  19. America through American Eyes: An Exhibit of Recent Books that Reflect Life in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Public Library, NY.

    This annotated bibliography lists approximately 300 American books representative of current, popular, and readily available publications. Because the intent is to give people in the Soviet Union an idea of America's current amusements, arts, and concerns, the books have been considered on their basis of being accessible to those unfamiliar with…

  20. Current Mexican-American and Chicano Studies Undergraduate College Programs in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaramillo, James A.

    This study conducted a library literature search of college guides, directories, and catalogs to determine the number of undergraduate level Chicano/a Studies and Mexican-American Studies programs in the U.S. The analysis found that there were 76 undergraduate programs in these fields, including 20 at two-year colleges and 56 at four-year…

  1. Eugenics in the garden: architecture, medicine, and landscape from France to Latin America in the early twentieth century

    E-print Network

    López-Durán, Fabiola

    2009-01-01

    In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries--decades that saw the radical transformation of Latin American cities into metropolises-race and environment became social determinants of the modem utopian project of ...

  2. Rechten Van Kinderen (Rights of Children) Lecture on the Ombudsman for Children in Costa Rica; Lecture on the Latin American Child and Family Network. Studie- en Documentatiecentrum voor Rechten van Kinderen Cahier 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiros, Rolando

    These two lectures discuss children's rights and the role that government can play in helping to alleviate some of the difficulties faced by children in developing nations, focusing on the situation in Costa Rica, specifically, and Latin America, in general. The first lecture examines some of the economic and social problems in Costa Rica, their…

  3. D I S U N I T y I N D I V E R S I T y Party System Fragmentation and the Dynamic Effect of Ethnic Heterogeneity on Latin American Legislatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jóhanna Kristín Birnir; Donna Lee Van Cott

    2007-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that in Latin America a significant portion of the increased legislative party system fragmentation since the 1980s is explained by the recent political incorporation of ethnic populations. Until now, scholars have likely not identified this relationship because they have not used the nuanced measures of ethnic fractionalization that account for internal diversity of indig- enous populations and

  4. D I S U N I T y I N D I V E R S I T y Party System Fragmentation and the Dynamic Effect of Ethnic Heterogeneity on Latin American Legislatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jóhanna Kristín Birnir; Donna Lee Van Cott

    This paper demonstrates that in Latin America a significant portion of the increased legislative party system fragmentation since the 1980s is explained by the recent political incorporation of ethnic populations. Until now, scholars have likely not identified this relationship because they have not used the nuanced measures of ethnic fractionalization that account for internal diversity of indig- enous populations and

  5. Colloquamur Latine cum Pueris Puellesque: Latin in the Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Charles F.; Norton, Harriet S.

    Guidelines for the development of a Latin curriculum for the middle school, with specific suggestions as to content and methodology, are presented in this manual. The material, oriented toward new approaches in the teaching of the Latin and Graeco-Roman cultures, strives to develop proficiency in the skills of listening, speaking, reading, and…

  6. Francophone African Immigration to the United States: Causes and Implications for American Social Work Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Whitney R. Henderson

    2009-01-01

    Francophone, or French-speaking, West Africans immigrants within the United States are of particular interest due to their choice of relocation. It is noteworthy because they are choosing not to immigrate to France, where there is excellent healthcare offered and the language commonality between France and the immigrant. This research studies why members of this population were choosing the United States

  7. Neo-Latin News

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Craig, et. al

    2010-01-01

    ?opera di Francesco Filelfo,? in Storia di Milano, vol. 7: L?et? sforzesca dal 1450 al 1500, Milan: Fondazione Treccani degli Alfieri, 1956, 545). Yet a neo-latin news 233 careful reading of Book 4 of the Odes reveals more than a simple hack.... The Valla that emerges from this perspective is different from the one commonly found in today?s scholarship: he is farther away from both Ockham?s nominalism and Academic skepticism than previously thought, and while Nauta acknowledges some interesting...

  8. Neo-Latin News 

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Craig et all

    2010-01-01

    a neo-latin news 101 prominent place in Synesius?s Peri enupnion. Although No?l Aujoulat translates the Greek word eidolon as either ?fant?me? or ?image? in the 2004 Belles Lettres edition and French translation of Synesius?s work, Boriaud... of autobiographical texts and their interpretation, from Francesco Pe- trarca (chs. 2, 4-5) in the mid-fourteenth century to Justus Lipsius (ch. 26) at the beginning of the seventeenth. This spectrum includes other familiar names, as well as some that are less...

  9. *URM = Underrepresented Minority (African American, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, Latino, Native American) Funding & Enrollment Sources: OMA&D Fiscal Office/OMA&D Assessment Unit

    E-print Network

    Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha

    *URM = Underrepresented Minority (African American, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, Latino, Native ENROLLMENT 2013 FALL QUARTER 54.5% LATINO 27.2% AFRICAN AMERICAN 10.6% NATIVE AMERICAN 7.7% HAWAIIAN/ PACIFIC such as the College Bound Scholarship Program expand pathways to college for low- income, first

  10. Neo-Latin News, Volume 62, Numbers 1 & 2 

    E-print Network

    Kallendorf, Craig

    2014-01-01

    by Eric Jorink and Dirk van Miert. Brill’s Studies in Intel- lectual History, 214. Leiden: Brill, 2012. xiii + 352 pp. 133 euros. Eight chapters by eminent scholars of humanism and Dutch science, alongside two excellent bibliographical studies, as well...84 seventeenth-century news Vol. 62, Nos. 1 & 2. Jointly with SCN. NLN is the official publica- tion of the American Association for Neo-Latin Studies. Edited by Craig Kallendorf, Texas A&M University; Western European Editor: Gilbert Tournoy...

  11. EERE-Supported International Activities in Latin America (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-05-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is involved in a variety of international initiatives, partnerships, and events that promote greater understanding and use of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) worldwide. In support of the Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas (ECPA), EERE is working with several Latin American countries to advance EE and RE deployment for economic growth, energy security, poverty relief, and disaster recovery goals. This fact sheet highlights those activities.

  12. Pacific island landbird monitoring annual report, National Park of American Samoa, Ta‘u and Tutuila units, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Judge, Seth W.; Camp, Richard J.; Vaivai, Visa; Hart, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    The National Park of American Samoa (NPSA) was surveyed for landbirds and habitat characteristics from June through August, 2011. This information provides the first data in the time-series of landbird monitoring for long-term trends in forest bird distribution, density, and abundance within the NPSA. The NPSA survey area was comprised of the terrestrial portions of the Ta‘u and Tutuila Units. Each Unit was surveyed using point-transect distance sampling to estimate bird abundance. Sampling was conducted using a split-panel design where legacy transects are visited during each sampling occasion and newly, randomly located transects are visited only during one sampling occasion. This design optimizes trend detection while allowing for measuring and correcting for estimator bias. A total of 2,516 birds was detected from 13 species in both Units. All species were either endemic or indigenous to the islands of American Samoa. Numbers of detections ranged from 7 to 1,111. Nearly every species detected was broadly distributed in the predominantly native forests of NPSA. Sufficient detections were made of seven species, allowing for density estimation. Densities of species were higher in the Tutuila Unit; with the exception of the Wattled Honeyeater (Foulehaio carunculata), which was the most abundant species in both Units. The species occurred at nearly every station sampled and had densities much higher than the Samoan Starling (Aplonis atrifusca), Polynesian Starling (Aplonis tabuensis), and Collared Kingfisher (Halcyon chloris) which occurred in modest densities. The remaining species detected occurred at less than 20% of stations sampled and we were only able to determine the number of birds per station and percent occurrence. The White-rumped Swiftlet (Aerodramus spodiopygius) and Cardinal Honeyeater (Myzomela cardinalis) were detected in small numbers, but both species can be difficult to detect in closed canopy forests. The Purple Swamphen (Porphyrio porphyrio) and Banded Rail (Gallirallus philippensis) were most often detected in areas close to villages and agroforestry plantations. The Blue-crowned Lorikeet (Vini australis) and Fiji Shrikebill (Clytorhynchus vitiensis) only occur in the Manu‘a Island Group. The former was detected in most survey areas and the latter was patchily distributed in the Ta‘u Unit. The Many-colored Fruit-dove (Ptilinopus perousii), a species of concern, was detected in very small numbers in both Units. The Spotless Crake (Porzana tabuensi), which is extirpated on Tutuila Island, has been incidentally detected in small numbers on Ta‘u Island. However, the species was neither seen nor heard during this survey and remains a species of concern. NPSA canopy and understory composition was predominantly native, and trees formed a dense closed canopy at nearly 90% of the stations sampled. More than half of the tree heights in both units were taller than 5 m and the majority of slopes were steeper than 20 degrees. There were no clear dominant tree species in the mixed native forests. The most common tree species documented included Syzygium spp., Dysoxylum spp., Ficus spp., Hibiscus tiliaceus and Rhus taitensis (among others). There were significant differences in the distribution of bird densities between legacy and random transects. Determining differences in detection probabilities cannot be definitively assessed from a single survey. We recommend both panels be sampled in the future until bias in density and abundance can be evaluated, or if sampling may be reduced.

  13. Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV Coinfection in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Lindoso, José Angelo; Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; da Cruz, Alda Maria; Goto, Hiro; Maia-Elkhoury, Ana Nilce Silveira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; de Sousa-Gomes, Márcia Leite; Santos-Oliveira, Joanna Reis; Rabello, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic zoonotic disease in Latin America caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, which is transmitted by sand flies from the genus Lutzomyia. VL occurs in 12 countries of Latin America, with 96% of cases reported in Brazil. Recently, an increase in VL, primarily affecting children and young adults, has been observed in urban areas of Latin America. The area in which this spread of VL is occurring overlaps regions with individuals living with HIV, the number of whom is estimated to be 1.4 million people by the World Health Organization. This overlap is suggested to be a leading cause of the increased number of reported VL-HIV coinfections. The clinical progression of HIV and L. infantum infections are both highly dependent on the specific immune response of an individual. Furthermore, the impact on the immune system caused by either pathogen and by VL-HIV coinfection can contribute to an accelerated progression of the diseases. Clinical presentation of VL in HIV positive patients is similar to patients without HIV, with symptoms characterized by fever, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, but diarrhea appears to be more common in coinfected patients. In addition, VL relapses are higher in coinfected patients, affecting 10% to 56.5% of cases and with a lethality ranging from 8.7% to 23.5% in Latin America, depending on the study. With regards to the diagnosis of VL, parasitological tests of bone marrow aspirates have proven to be the most sensitive test in HIV-infected patients. Serologic tests have demonstrated a variable sensitivity according to the method and antigens used, with the standard tests used for diagnosing VL in Latin America displaying lower sensitivity. For this review, few articles were identified that related to VL-HIV coinfections and originated from Latin America, highlighting the need for improving research within the regions most greatly affected. We strongly support the formation of a Latin American network for coinfections of Leishmania and HIV to improve the consistency of research on the current situation of VL-HIV coinfections. Such a network would improve the collection of vital data and samples for better understanding of the clinical manifestations and immunopathogenic aspects of VL in immunosuppressed patients. Ultimately, a concerted effort would improve trials for new diagnostic methodologies and therapeutics, which could accelerate the implementation of more specific and effective diagnosis as well as public policies for treatments to reduce the impact of VL-HIV coinfections on the Latin American population. PMID:25233461

  14. Afro-Caribbean and African American Students, Family Factors, and the Influence on Science Performance in the United States: The Untold Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinder, Patrice Juliet

    2012-01-01

    The primary objectives of this research were to explore achievement pattern differences and the influence of family factors on the achievement patterns of Afro-Caribbean and African American students within the United States (U.S.). The study utilized two research designs; a causal-comparative and a correlational design. A student family…

  15. National Academy of Neuropsychology\\/Division 40 of the American Psychological Association Practice Survey of Clinical Neuropsychology in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry J Sweet; Edward A Peck; Carolyn Abramowitz; Sharon Etzweiler

    2003-01-01

    Leaders of the National Academy of Neuropsychology and Division 40 (Clinical Neuropsychology) of the American Psychological Association determined that current information on the professional practice of clinical neuropsychology within the United States was needed. These two organizations co-sponsored a national survey of U.S. clinical neuropsychologists that was conducted in September 2000. The primary goal of the survey was to gather

  16. Fears of Children in the United States: An Examination of the American Fear Survey Schedule with 20 New Contemporary Fear Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Joy J.

    2005-01-01

    Twenty contemporary fears (e.g., terrorist attacks, drive-by shootings, having to fight in a war) were added to E. Gullone and N. J. King's (1992) Australian Fear Survey Schedule for Children-II for use in the United States. The revised survey, the American Fear Survey Schedule for Children (J. J. Burnham, 1995), was investigated. The component…

  17. The Cold War Court: a rhetorical analysis of the Supreme Court's debate concerning the American Communist Party in Dennis v. United States, 1951

    E-print Network

    Carcasson, Martin

    1998-01-01

    In the midst of the McCarthy era, eleven national leaders of the American Communist Party were arrested under the provisions of the Smith Act. Their case, Dennis v. United States, eventually rose to the Supreme Court, where a sharply divided Court...

  18. Attitudes of Members of the Midwest Unit of Catholic Library Association toward Recent Revisions of the Documents on Intellectual Freedom adopted by the American Library Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehoe, Sister Maureen

    This study was conducted to determine the attitudes toward intellectual freedom and censorship of Catholic Library Association (CLA) Midwest Unit members. Sixty of 77 members responded to a questionnaire based on principles from four American Library Association (ALA) documents on intellectual freedom: original and revised editions of "The Freedom…

  19. Overrepresented Minorities in Special Education in the United States and Romania: Comparison between African-American and Roma Populations in Disability Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Gabriela

    2008-01-01

    This manuscript briefly examines minority participation within the school population that is eligible for special education services--namely, African Americans in the United States and the Roma population in Romania. A large percentage of students from both minorities come to school unprepared to learn and they remain behind because of the…

  20. A Cluster Analytic Examination of Acculturation and Health Status among Asian Americans in the Washington DC Metropolitan Area, United States

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sunmin; Chen, Lu; He, Xin; Miller, Matthew J.; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies reported mixed findings on the relationship between acculturation and health status among Asian Americans due to different types of acculturation measures used or different Asian subgroups involved in various studies. We aim to fill the gap by applying multiple measures of acculturation in a diverse sample of Asian subgroups. A cross sectional study was conducted among Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese Americans in Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area to examine the association between health status and acculturation using multiple measures including the Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation (SL-ASIA) scale, clusters based on responses to SL-ASIA, language preference, length of stay, age at arrival in the United Sates and self-identity. Three clusters (Asian (31%); Bicultural (47%); and American (22%)) were created by using a two-step hierarchical method and Bayesian Information Criterion values. Across all the measures, more acculturated individuals were significantly more likely to report good health than those who were less acculturated after adjusting for covariates. Specifically, those in the American cluster were 3.8 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.2, 6.6) more likely and those in the Bicultural cluster were 1.7 times more likely (95% CI: 1.1, 2.4) to report good health as compared to those in the Asian cluster. When the conventional standardized SL-ASIA summary score (range: ?1.4 to 1.4) was used, a one point increase was associated with 2.2 times greater odds of reporting good health (95% CI: 1.5, 3.2). However, the interpretation may be challenging due to uncertainty surrounding the meaning of a one point increase in SL-ASIA summary score. Among all the measures used, acculturation clusters better approximated the acculturation process and provided us with a more accurate test of the association in the population. Variables included in this measure were more relevant for our study sample and may have worked together to capture the multifaceted acculturation process. PMID:24034947

  1. School Violence in Japan and the United States: Sharing American Practice with Japanese Teacher Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picklesimer, Billie K.; Williams, Jane L.

    In December 1998, faculty from Middle Tennessee State University visited the Faculty of Education at Fukushima University in Fukushima, Japan. The purpose of the visit was to share with Japanese educators the processes through which school counselors are trained to deal with school violence in the United States. Because school staffing patterns…

  2. An Inquiry Lesson Plan for American History: Interpreting the Great Seal of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richburg, Robert W.

    1985-01-01

    The Great Seal of the United States is an important expression of the values of the Founding Fathers of our nation. This lesson will help students in grades 8-12 investigate the meaning of the symbols incorporated in the Great Seal and, thus, gain insights into the uniqueness of our national aspirations. (RM)

  3. Francophone African Immigration to the United States: Causes and Implications for American Social Work Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Whitney Henderson

    2009-01-01

    Francophone West Africans are a special population within whole African immigration to the US. Due to the political instability in the West African region, it is understandable why West Africans would seek immigration to more stable environment. What is not understood is why Francophone immigrants are immigrating to an English-speaking country such as the United States instead of France, where

  4. Captured by the American Dream: Vocational Education in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilms, Wellford W.

    Since its creation by federal legislation in 1917, vocational education in U.S. high schools has enjoyed a high level of public support. Recently, an increasing number of studies have begun to question the degree to which vocational education in the United States has had an economic payoff for its students. The fact that vocational education…

  5. Growing Up American: How Vietnamese Children Adapt to Life in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Min; Bankston, Carl L., III

    This book tells the story of America's single largest group of refugee children, the children of Vietnamese refugees, as they have experienced growing up in the United States. Although a significant minority of these children lags behind, for the most part Vietnamese children's school success suggests that ethnic progress depends on more than the…

  6. Proceedings of the 2002 American Society for Engineering Education Zone I Conference United States Military Academy

    E-print Network

    Military Academy H Experiences using Flying Models in Competitions and Coursework Robert P. Hansen , Lyle N. Long/ , Todd A. Dellert United States Military Academy/ / Pennsylvania State University Abstract States Military Academy and the Pennsylvania State University are described. Free-flight model gliders

  7. A Comparative Study of Taoism and American Transcendentalism: A Humanities Teaching Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, Nancy

    This teaching unit, designed for advanced high school students and average junior college students in a humanities oriented literature course, has one primary objective: to correlate similar thinking in two different time periods and locales. The philosophy of Taoism in ancient China and the philosophy of transcendentalism in nineteenth century…

  8. 1727NOVEMBER 2004AMERICAN METEOROLOGICAL SOCIETY | he southwestern United States exhibits consid-

    E-print Network

    of the streamflow and groundwater recharge that both replenish water supplies and maintain important eco- systems. The region's economy and lifestyle are highly vulnerable to this variability in climate. Municipal, in INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT AS A STEP TOWARD REDUCING CLIMATE VULNERABILITY IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES BY R

  9. American Indian and Alaska Native Aboriginal Use of Alcohol in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Patrick J.

    1996-01-01

    The history of Aboriginal production and use of alcohol prior to white contact reveals that alcohol use originated in Central America and rapidly diffused to northern Mexico and the southwestern United States. However, Aboriginal alcohol use was generally controlled and supervised during ceremonies, and only after white contact did alcohol use…

  10. Rural and Urban Fatal Pedestrian Crashes Among United States American Indians and Alaskan Natives

    PubMed Central

    LaValley, Jonathon; Crandall, Cameron S.; Banks, Laura; Sklar, David P.; Boodlal, Leverson

    2003-01-01

    The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and the Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) were used to compare fatal pedestrian crashes in American Indians and Alaskan Natives (AI/AN) between urban and rural locations for 2000–2001. There were significant differences between urban and rural crashes for driver, pedestrian, environmental, and engineering factors. Rural pedestrian crashes more often occurred on highways (p<0.0001) lacking traffic control devices (p<0.0001) and artificial lighting (p<0.0001). Alcohol was a significant cofactor in both environments (40% urban vs. 55% rural; p=0.0239). Prevention of AI/AN deaths should include engineering countermeasures specific to the needs of rural (lighting) and urban (medians with barriers) environments and address drinking behavior in both populations. PMID:12941222

  11. Neighborhood socioeconomic status and fruit and vegetable intake among Whites, Blacks, and Mexican-Americans in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Dubowitz, Tamara; Heron, Melonie; Bird, Chloe E.; Lurie, Nicole; Finch, Brian K.; Basurto-Dávila, Ricardo; Hale, Lauren; Escarce, José J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in health status across the United States are large and persistent. Obesity rates are rising faster in Black and Hispanic populations than in Whites and foreshadow even greater disparities in chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease in years to come. Factors that influence dietary intake of fruits and vegetables in these populations are only partly understood. Objective We examined associations between fruit and vegetable intake and neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES), analyzed whether NSES explains racial differences in intake, and explored the extent to which NSES has differential effects by race/ethnicity of United States (U.S.) adults. Design Using geocoded residential addresses from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), we merged individual-level data with county and census-tract level U.S. Census data. We estimated three-level hierarchical models predicting fruit and vegetable intake with individual characteristics and an index of neighborhood SES as explanatory variables. Results Neighborhood SES was positively associated with fruit and vegetable intake: a one standard deviation increase in the neighborhood SES index was associated with consumption of nearly 2 additional servings of fruit and vegetables per week. Neighborhood SES explained some of the Black-White disparity in fruit and vegetable intake and was differentially associated with fruit and vegetable intake among Whites, Blacks, and Mexican-Americans. Conclusions The positive association of neighborhood SES with fruit and vegetable intake is one important pathway through which the social environment of neighborhoods affects population health and nutrition for Whites, Blacks and Hispanics in the United States. PMID:18541581

  12. [Adolescent sexual and reproductive behavior in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Pick De Weiss, S; Vargas-trujillo, E

    1990-01-01

    The Latin American literature on adolescent sexual and reproductive behavior is reviewed to provide professionals in the area with more relevant findings. The data demonstrates that sexually active adolescents of both gender are increasing and starting sexual activity at an earlier age. For example in Panama one out of every 5 births is from an adolescent 15-19 with 25% of these out of wedlock; in Chile, 44% of live births are illegitimate. Factors that are affecting these changes are the media, peer groups and other sources of information competing with parental discipline (TV, movies, music). In spite of the high incidence of out-of-wedlock pregnancies, the majority of pregnancies among adolescents in Latin America and the Caribbean take place in marriage with the average age of marriage at 20, with variation between the rural and urban areas. In 1978 the total fertility rate of El Salvador's urban areas was 3.3 as against 8.4 in the rural. Young girls in developing countries have few options for education, retaining their virginity and marriage, so when presented with the change early on, they marry and get pregnant. Cuba remains the only Latin American Country where abortion is offered (up to 10 weeks) within the context of health services; while illegal abortion in the majority of Latin American countries continues to increase. The proportion of complications due to abortion for those under 20 ranges from 11-20% in the region. Illegal abortions has become a major cause of maternal mortality constituting from 12-53% of deaths among the majority of women 15-24. Significant data is given for pregnancy, factors that influence knowledge and use of contraception, and available sex education programs, an extensive bibliography in these areas is included. PMID:12283397

  13. Advances in volcano monitoring and risk reduction in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCausland, W. A.; White, R. A.; Lockhart, A. B.; Marso, J. N.; Assitance Program, V. D.; Volcano Observatories, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    We describe results of cooperative work that advanced volcanic monitoring and risk reduction. The USGS-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) was initiated in 1986 after disastrous lahars during the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz dramatizedthe need to advance international capabilities in volcanic monitoring, eruption forecasting and hazard communication. For the past 28 years, VDAP has worked with our partners to improve observatories, strengthen monitoring networks, and train observatory personnel. We highlight a few of the many accomplishments by Latin American volcano observatories. Advances in monitoring, assessment and communication, and lessons learned from the lahars of the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz eruption and the 1994 Paez earthquake enabled the Servicio Geológico Colombiano to issue timely, life-saving warnings for 3 large syn-eruptive lahars at Nevado del Huila in 2007 and 2008. In Chile, the 2008 eruption of Chaitén prompted SERNAGEOMIN to complete a national volcanic vulnerability assessment that led to a major increase in volcano monitoring. Throughout Latin America improved seismic networks now telemeter data to observatories where the decades-long background rates and types of seismicity have been characterized at over 50 volcanoes. Standardization of the Earthworm data acquisition system has enabled data sharing across international boundaries, of paramount importance during both regional tectonic earthquakes and during volcanic crises when vulnerabilities cross international borders. Sharing of seismic forecasting methods led to the formation of the international organization of Latin American Volcano Seismologists (LAVAS). LAVAS courses and other VDAP training sessions have led to international sharing of methods to forecast eruptions through recognition of precursors and to reduce vulnerabilities from all volcano hazards (flows, falls, surges, gas) through hazard assessment, mapping and modeling. Satellite remote sensing data-sharing facilitatescross-border identification and warnings of ash plumes for aviation. Overall, long-term strategies of data collection and experience-sharing have helped Latin American observatories improve their monitoring and create informed communities cognizant of vulnerabilities inherent in living near volcanoes.

  14. Characterization of major lithologic units underlying the lower American River using water-borne continuous resistivity profiling, Sacramento, California, June 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Teeple, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    The levee system of the lower American River in Sacramento, California, is situated above a mixed lithology of alluvial deposits that range from clay to gravel. In addition, sand deposits related to hydraulic mining activities underlie the floodplain and are preferentially prone to scour during high-flow events. In contrast, sections of the American River channel have been observed to be scour resistant. In this study, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, explores the resistivity structure of the American River channel to characterize the extent and thickness of lithologic units that may impact the scour potential of the area. Likely lithologic structures are interpreted, but these interpretations are non-unique and cannot be directly related to scour potential. Additional geotechnical data would provide insightful data on the scour potential of certain lithologic units. Additional interpretation of the resistivity data with respect to these results may improve interpretations of lithology and scour potential throughout the American River channel and floodplain. Resistivity data were collected in three profiles along the American River using a water-borne continuous resistivity profiling technique. After processing and modeling these data, inverted resistivity profiles were used to make interpretations about the extent and thickness of possible lithologic units. In general, an intermittent high-resistivity layer likely indicative of sand or gravel deposits extends to a depth of around 30 feet (9 meters) and is underlain by a consistent low-resistivity layer that likely indicates a high-clay content unit that extends below the depth of investigation (60 feet or 18 meters). Immediately upstream of the Watt Avenue Bridge, the high-resistivity layer is absent, and the low-resistivity layer extends to the surface where a scour-resistant layer has been previously observed in the river bed.

  15. Proceedings of the 1993 InterAmerican Petroleum and Gas Conference

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The 1993 InterAmerican Petroleum and Gas Conference (IPGC) took place September 27--28, 1993, in Dallas Texas. The EPGC was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, organized by the East-West Center and hosted by the Institute for the Study of Earth and Man at Southern Methodist University. The IPGC brought together senior oil industry and government representatives from the United States and Latin America to discuss energy security and more efficient resource utilization through improved cooperation and integration of upstream and downstream activities in the United States and Latin America with an emphasis on technology investments and complementary trade strategies. Special attention was given to the growing opportunities for private and foreign investment, trade and joint commercial ventures between US and Latin American companies. The papers included in these proceedings include most of the presentations offered at the conference that addressed a number of key issues including financial challenges of the hydrocarbon sector, regional and national outlook on the world oil market, upstream and downstream outlook, role of natural gas, and environment and infrastructure requirements. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  16. Social Security privatization in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Kritzer, B E

    2000-01-01

    The new, partially privatized social security system adopted by Chile in 1981 has attracted attention in many parts of the world. Since then, a number of Latin American countries have implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either with a single- or multi-tier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of a privatized program with individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems have a privatized component and retain some form of public program. This article describes each of the new programs in Latin America, their background, and similarities and differences among them. Much more information is available for Chile than for the other countries (in part because Chile has the oldest system), enough to be able to evaluate what, in most cases, is the most accurate information. That is often not the case for the other countries, especially when dealing with subjects such as transition costs and net rates of return (rates of return minus administrative fees). No country has copied the Chilean system exactly. Bolivia, El Salvador, and Mexico have closed their public systems and set up mandatory individual accounts. Argentina has a mixed public/private system with three tiers. In Colombia and Peru, workers have a choice between the public and private programs. Uruguay created a two-tier mixed system. Costa Rica has a voluntary program for individual accounts as a supplement to the pay-as-you-go program and has just passed a law setting up mandatory accounts containing employer contributions for severance pay. All of the countries continue to face unresolved issues, including: High rates of noncompliance--the percentage of enrollees who do not actively and regularly contribute to their accounts--which could lead to low benefits and greater costs to the governments that offer a guaranteed minimum benefit; Proportionately lower benefits for women and lower earners than for men and higher earners; A minimum required rate of return among the pension fund management companies (in most of these countries) that has resulted in similarity among the companies and the consequent lack of meaningful choice; and High administrative fees in most of these countries, which reduce the individual's effective rate of return. To what extent these issues can be mitigated or resolved in the future is not yet clear. In general, a definitive assessment of the Chilean model and its Latin American variations will not be possible until a cohort of retirees has spent most of its career under the new system. PMID:11131978

  17. Reforming Primary and Secondary Education in Latin America and the Caribbean: An IDB Strategy. Sustainable Development Department Sector Strategy and Policy Papers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Claudio de Moura; Navarro, Juan Carlos; Wolff, Laurence; Carnoy, Martin

    This report summarizes what is known about educational improvement in Latin America and provides objectives and strategies to guide the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) in supporting primary and secondary education in Latin America and the Caribbean over the next decade. It is based on six background papers as well as a review of the lessons…

  18. American Indian and Alaska Native Infant and Pediatric Mortality, United States, 1999–2009

    PubMed Central

    Gachupin, Francine C.; Holman, Robert C.; MacDorman, Marian F.; Cheek, James E.; Holve, Steve; Singleton, Rosalyn J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We described American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) infant and pediatric death rates and leading causes of death. Methods. We adjusted National Vital Statistics System mortality data for AI/AN racial misclassification by linkage with Indian Health Service (IHS) registration records. We determined average annual death rates and leading causes of death for 1999 to 2009 for AI/AN versus White infants and children. We limited the analysis to IHS Contract Health Service Delivery Area counties. Results. The AI/AN infant death rate was 914 (rate ratio [RR]?=?1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.55, 1.67). Sudden infant death syndrome, unintentional injuries, and influenza or pneumonia were more common in AI/AN versus White infants. The overall AI/AN pediatric death rates were 69.6 for ages 1 to 4 years (RR?=?2.56; 95% CI?=?2.38, 2.75), 28.9 for ages 5 to 9 years (RR?=?2.12; 95% CI?=?1.92, 2.34), 37.3 for ages 10 to 14 years (RR?=?2.22; 95% CI?=?2.04, 2.40), and 158.4 for ages 15 to 19 years (RR?=?2.71; 95% CI?=?2.60, 2.82). Unintentional injuries and suicide occurred at higher rates among AI/AN youths versus White youths. Conclusions. Death rates for AI/AN infants and children were higher than for Whites, with regional disparities. Several leading causes of death in the AI/AN pediatric population are potentially preventable. PMID:24754619

  19. Management of the Nontoxic Multinodular Goiter in Latin America: Comparison with North America and Europe, an Electronic Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leandro Arthur Diehl; Valdinei Garcia; Steen J. Bonnema; Laszlo Hegedus; Claudio Cordeiro Albino

    To assess diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to nontoxic multinodular goiter and to compare them with previously reported American Thyroid Association (ATA) and European Thyroid Association (ETA) surveys, an online questionnaire was distributed to Latin American Thyroid Society (LATS) members. An index case was presented (42-yr-old woman with an enlarged, irregular, nontender, 50- to 80-g thyroid and no clinical suspicion of

  20. Training the biomedical informatics workforce in Latin America: results of a needs assessment

    PubMed Central

    Blas, Magaly M; Curioso, Walter H; Zimic, Mirko; Carcamo, Cesar P; Castagnetto, Jesus M; Lescano, Andres G; Lopez, Diego M

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report the results of a needs assessment of research and training in Medical Informatics (MI) and Bioinformatics (BI) in Latin America. Methods and results This assessment was conducted by QUIPU: The Andean Global Health Informatics Research and Training Center. After sending email invitations to MI–BI related professionals from Latin America, 142 surveys were received from 11 Latin American countries. The following were the top four ranked MI-related courses that a training programme should include: introduction to biomedical informatics; data representation and databases; mobile health; and courses that address issues of security, confidentiality and privacy. Several new courses and topics for research were suggested by survey participants. The information collected is guiding the development of curricula and a research agenda for the MI and BI QUIPU multidisciplinary programme for the Andean Region and Latin America. PMID:22080537

  1. Alcohol-Attributable Mortality Among American Indians and Alaska Natives in the United States, 1999–2009

    PubMed Central

    Roeber, Jim; Naimi, Tim; Nielsen, Larry; Sewell, Mack

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We describe the relative burden of alcohol-attributable death among American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) in the United States. Methods. National Death Index records were linked with Indian Health Service (IHS) registration records to identify AI/AN deaths misclassified as non-AI/AN. We calculated age-adjusted alcohol-attributable death rates from 1999 to 2009 for AI/AN and White persons by sex, age, geographic region, and leading causes; individuals of Hispanic origin were excluded. Results. AI/AN persons had a substantially higher rate of alcohol-attributable death than Whites from 2005 to 2009 in IHS Contract Health Service Delivery Area counties (rate ratio?=?3.3). The Northern Plains had the highest rate of AI/AN deaths (123.8/100?000), and the East had the lowest (48.9/100?000). For acute causes, the largest relative risks for AI/AN persons compared with Whites were for hypothermia (14.2) and alcohol poisoning (7.6). For chronic causes, the largest relative risks were for alcoholic psychosis (5.0) and alcoholic liver disease (4.9). Conclusions. Proven strategies that reduce alcohol consumption and make the environment safer for excessive drinkers should be further implemented in AI/AN communities. PMID:24754661

  2. Impacts of land use land cover on temperature trends over the continental United States: assessment using the North American Regional Reanalysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Souleymane Fall; Dev Niyogi; Alexander Gluhovsky; Roger A. Pielke Sr.; Eugenia Kalnay; Gilbert Rochon

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of surface temperature trends to land use land cover change (LULC) over the conterminous United States (CONUS) using the observation minus reanalysis (OMR) approach. We estimated the OMR trends for the 1979-2003 period from the US Historical Climate Network (USHCN), and the NCEP-NCAR North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). We used a new mean square differences (MSDs)-based

  3. [Primary health care: challenges for implementation in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Giraldo Osorio, Alexandra; Vélez Álvarez, Consuelo

    2013-01-01

    A development process, marked by the re-appearance of the primary health care as the core of health systems, has emerged in Latin America. Governments have made a commitment to renew this strategy as the basis of their health systems. However, these health systems are mainly faced with re-introducing equity values, and there are common challenges such as providing the health systems with trained human resources in sufficient numbers, overcoming the fragmentation/segmentation of the systems, ensuring financial sustainability, improving governance, quality of care and information systems, expanding coverage, preparing to face the consequences of an aging population, the changing epidemiological profile, and increase in the response capacity of the public health system. This article is intended to provide a comprehensive view of the progress and challenges of the inclusion of primary care health systems in Latin American countries. PMID:23490062

  4. Management of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis in Latin America: practical recommendations for treatment optimization.

    PubMed

    Correale, Jorge; Abad, Patricio; Alvarenga, Regina; Alves-Leon, Soniza; Armas, Elizabeth; Barahona, Jorge; Buzó, Ricardo; Corona, Teresa; Cristiano, Edgardo; Gracia, Fernando; Bonitto, Juan García; Macías, Miguel Angel; Soto, Arnoldo; Vizcarra, Darwin; Freedman, Mark S

    2014-04-15

    The Latin American MS Experts' Forum has developed practical recommendations on the initiation and optimization of disease-modifying therapies in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The recommendations reflect the unique epidemiology of MS and the clinical practice environment in Latin American countries. Treatment response may be evaluated according to changes in relapses; progression, as assessed by the Expanded Disability Status Scale and the Timed 25-foot Walk; and lesion number on magnetic resonance imaging. Follow-up assessments are recommended every six months, or annually for stable patients. Cognitive function should be evaluated in all RRMS patients at baseline and annually thereafter. These recommendations are intended to assist clinicians in Latin America in developing a rational approach to treatment selection and sequencing for their RRMS patients. PMID:24607335

  5. Dairy Consumption and Related Nutrient Intake in African-American Adults and Children in the United States: Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994-1996, 1998, and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VICTOR FULGONI III; JILL NICHOLLS; ALAN REED; RITA BUCKLEY; KAREN KAFER; PETER HUTH; DOUGLAS DIRIENZO; GREGORY D. MILLER

    Objective To establish the first baseline of dairy and re- lated nutrient intake in African Americans, an at-risk population of public health concern in the United States. To document dairy consumption in African Americans by age and sex during 1994-1998 and 1999-2000 and com- pare it with concomitant dairy, calcium, and related nu- trient intakes in non-African-American adults and chil-

  6. Energy risk in Latin America:Energy risk in Latin America: the growing challengesthe growing challenges

    E-print Network

    Dixon, Juan

    Energy risk in Latin America:Energy risk in Latin America: the growing challengesthe growing to compete in the marketplace. The Latin America energy marketplace led the world with its deregulation than regulation. #12;Contents ·Energy markets in Latin America- gas and electricity ·Deregulation

  7. Sport in Latin America from past to present: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Chappell, R

    2001-01-01

    This chapter examines sport in Latin America in its social, cultural, and political contexts. An analysis of the development of sport in Latin America suggests that there have been a number of distinct phases influenced by the cultures of the Spanish, British and French. More recently, the games and pastimes of the United States have made a significant impact. It is suggested that the further development of sport in Latin America is hindered by a number of significant problems. It concludes that the problems faced by some countries are immense and that governments and international organizations in the developed world should offer help where appropriate. PMID:18592683

  8. Musculoskeletal evaluation in severe haemophilia A patients from Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Ozelo, M C; Villaça, P R; Pérez-Bianco, R; Candela, M; Garcia-Chavez, J; Moreno-Rodriguez, B; Rodrigues, M B; Rodriguez-Grecco, I; Solano, M H; Chumpitaz, G; Morales-Gana, M M; Ruiz-Sáez, A

    2013-01-01

    Summary There is a paucity of literature on haemophilia treatment in Latin American countries, a region characterized by rapidly improving systems of care, but with substantial disparities in treatment between countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal status of haemophilia patients from Latin America and to examine the relationship between musculoskeletal status and treatment practices across countries. The Committee of Latin America on the Therapeutics of Inhibitor Groups conducted a survey of its member country representatives on key aspects of haemophilia treatment in 10 countries. Musculoskeletal status of patients was obtained during routine comprehensive evaluations between March 2009 and March 2011. Eligible patients had severe haemophilia A (factor VIII <1%) without inhibitors (<0.6 BU mL?1) and were ?5 years of age. Musculoskeletal status was compared between three groups of countries, based primarily on differences in the availability of long-term prophylaxis. Overall, 143 patients (5–66 years of age) were enrolled from nine countries. In countries where long-term prophylaxis had been available for at least 10 years (Group A), patients aged 5–10 years had significantly better mean World Federation of Hemophilia clinical scores, fewer target joints and fewer affected joints than patients from countries where long-term prophylaxis has been available for about 5 years (Group B) or was not available (Group C). In Latin America, the musculoskeletal status of patients with severe haemophilia without inhibitors has improved significantly in association with the provision of long-term prophylaxis. As more countries in Latin America institute this practice, further improvements are anticipated. PMID:24354487

  9. Musculoskeletal evaluation in severe haemophilia A patients from Latin America.

    PubMed

    Ozelo, M C; Villaça, P R; Pérez-Bianco, R; Candela, M; Garcia-Chavez, J; Moreno-Rodriguez, B; Rodrigues, M B; Rodriguez-Grecco, I; Solano, M H; Chumpitaz, G; Morales-Gana, M M; Ruiz-Sáez, A

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature on haemophilia treatment in Latin American countries, a region characterized by rapidly improving systems of care, but with substantial disparities in treatment between countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal status of haemophilia patients from Latin America and to examine the relationship between musculoskeletal status and treatment practices across countries. The Committee of Latin America on the Therapeutics of Inhibitor Groups conducted a survey of its member country representatives on key aspects of haemophilia treatment in 10 countries. Musculoskeletal status of patients was obtained during routine comprehensive evaluations between March 2009 and March 2011. Eligible patients had severe haemophilia A (factor VIII <1%) without inhibitors (<0.6 BU mL(-1) ) and were ?5 years of age. Musculoskeletal status was compared between three groups of countries, based primarily on differences in the availability of long-term prophylaxis. Overall, 143 patients (5-66 years of age) were enrolled from nine countries. In countries where long-term prophylaxis had been available for at least 10 years (Group A), patients aged 5-10 years had significantly better mean World Federation of Hemophilia clinical scores, fewer target joints and fewer affected joints than patients from countries where long-term prophylaxis has been available for about 5 years (Group B) or was not available (Group C). In Latin America, the musculoskeletal status of patients with severe haemophilia without inhibitors has improved significantly in association with the provision of long-term prophylaxis. As more countries in Latin America institute this practice, further improvements are anticipated. PMID:24354487

  10. Native American Healing Traditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarrell A. A. Portman; Michael T. Garrett

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous healing practices among Native Americans have been documented in the United States since colonisation. Cultural encapsulation has deterred the acknowledgement of Native American medicinal practices as a precursor to folk medicine and many herbal remedies, which have greatly influenced modern medicine. Understanding Native American healing practices requires helping professionals to have knowledge of Native American cultural belief systems about

  11. Policy networks and social resistance to water privatization in Latin America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emanuele Lobina; Philipp Terhorst; Vladimir Popov

    2011-01-01

    The paper looks at civil society campaigns against water privatisation in six Latin American countries, resulting in both success and failure. Our inquiry aims at contributing to the understanding of the determinants of social movement outcomes. We explain variations in outcome as a result of interrelations between: a) agency; b) mobilisation tactics; c) political opportunity structures; and, d) network composition

  12. Workers' Health in Latin America: An Econometric Analysis of Work-Related Injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Giuffrida; Roberto F. Iunes; Héctor Macías

    2001-01-01

    Occupational health is increasingly recognized as an important public health issue in Latin American and the Caribbean. One major concern is the absence of reliable data on its magnitude and economic consequences. The first part of the paper presents the official statistics on workplace injuries, which suggest that workers in the Region are exposed to occupational risks that are significantly

  13. Foreign direct investment, economic freedom and growth: new evidence from Latin America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Bengoa; Blanca Sanchez-Robles

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between economic freedom, foreign direct investment (FDI) and economic growth using panel data analysis for a sample of 18 Latin American countries for 1970–1999. We find that economic freedom in the host country is a positive determinant of FDI inflows. Our results also suggest that foreign direct investment is positively correlated with economic growth in

  14. Inequality of Opportunity for Educational Achievement in Latin America: Evidence from PISA 2006-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamboa, Luis Fernando; Waltenberg, Fabio D.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate how far away six Latin American countries stand from a normative goal of equality of opportunity for educational achievement in PISA 2006-2009. We work with alternative characterizations of types: gender, school type (public or private), parental education, and their combinations. Following Checchi-Peragine's (2010) non-parametric…

  15. Making Education Reform Work for the Poor: Accountability and Decentralization in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Ben; Gershberg, Alec Ian

    2008-01-01

    We build upon and examine critically the framework for analysing accountability set forth in the World Bank's World Development Report 2004 (WDR04) through a review of selected literature studying accountability-focused reforms in three Latin American countries--Brazil, Colombia and Chile. We examine the successes and pitfalls of the three…

  16. Poverty and Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank Technical Paper No. 467.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodon, Quentin T.

    Although the progress toward poverty reduction remains sluggish, other dimensions of social welfare in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region show signs of improvement. Adult literacy and school enrollment rates, life expectancy at birth, access to safe water, and nutrition indicators are improving. However, other factors demonstrate that…

  17. Transnational Poster Art: Former East Germany and Latin America, 1970-1989

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site highlights revolutionary art from the former East Germany. Hosted by the Stanford University Library. this site features 25 posters commissioned by the German Democratic Republic (GDR) government during the 1970s and 80s. The posters address themes such as anti-(American) imperialism and solidarity with leftist movements in Latin America, Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East.

  18. Some Roles of the Rural Sociologist in Latin America's Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastore, Jose

    Agriculture is a main source of employment and is a significant contributor to the gross national product in most of the Latin American countries. In order to meet domestic and export needs, production and productivity must be increased; land tenure systems must be changed to cope with employment and income distribution problems; institutions must…

  19. The Effect of Corruption on Exports and Imports in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peerayuth Charoensukmongkol; Shaun Sexton

    2011-01-01

    International trade, in particular exports and imports, are regarded as important factors that can increase the economic development of the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries. However, little is known whether the ability of these countries to strengthen their global positions in trade can be affected by the pervasiveness of local corruption. The objective of this study is to analyze

  20. Still training to torture? US training of military forces from Latin America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Blakeley

    2006-01-01

    It is widely assumed that the School of the Americas (soa), a US training school for Latin American military forces, advocated repression during the Cold War. To demonstrate this, previous research has tended to focus on establishing correlations between training and specific human rights abuses by individuals trained at soa. A stronger case can be made through detailed analysis of

  1. Life Cycle and Legacy of the Educational Reforms in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    Examines implementation of educational reforms in the Latin American-Caribbean region during the 1990s, based on national case studies (Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Jamaica, and Paraguay), descriptions of nationally supported projects, and discussions with reformers and researchers. Despite similarities in reforms' origins and components, each…

  2. Violence against the Press in Latin America: Protections and Remedies in International Law

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Perkins

    2001-01-01

    This article identifies a trend in international law addressing the murders of journalists in Latin America. Recent cases by international human-rights tribunals are analyzed for their holdings that murders of journalists violate the free-expression guarantees of the American Convention on Human Rights, the hemisphere's leading human rights treaty. These rulings required governments to investigate attacks on the press in good

  3. On the estimation of the cost of equity in Latin America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Grandes; Demian T. Panigo; Ricardo A. Pasquini

    2010-01-01

    This paper researches the sources of stock market risk influencing the pricing of 921 Latin American stocks and computes their corresponding opportunity cost (COE) over the period 1997–2004 by firm and sector. Running an adjusted version of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) it finds that systematic risk accounts on average for more than 32% of COE total variance. This

  4. Smoking and smoking cessation in Latin America: a review of the current situation and available treatments

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Fernando; Wehbe, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a growing problem throughout Latin American countries, especially in underdeveloped countries where poverty and lack of education about the dangers of smoking may make people more susceptible to becoming smokers. Moreover, the economies of many Latin American countries have become dependent on the production of tobacco. Furthermore, because of the associated promotion of tobacco, smoking has integrated into many Latin American cultures. Nevertheless, the harmful health effects of tobacco use are well documented, including greatly increased risks of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, and many forms of cancer. The medical costs associated with treating these diseases far outweigh the economic benefits of producing and selling this deadly crop. To control the tobacco pandemic in Latin American countries, nicotine addiction must be recognized and treated as a disease. Governments, both national and local, need to be more involved in enacting anti-smoking policies such as higher tobacco taxation, control of illegal tobacco smuggling, and reimbursement of medical smoking cessation interventions. The training of health professions in the area of nicotine addiction must also be improved, so that they may better assist smokers in their quit attempts and advise patients on, and prescribe, effective smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. PMID:18686737

  5. The European Union's Single Market and Latin America's Banana Exporting Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Wiley

    In 1993 the European Union (EU) implemented a single market for bananas, as it had done with numerous other products. Doing so necessitated several policy changes governing the importation of bananas. This paper reviews the new regulations and their impacts on those Latin American states that export bananas to the EU. The review suggests that these changes illustrate how, even

  6. The Major Project of Education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Bulletin 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Through the development of a new framework in which to approach the subject, education in the 1990s returns to a priority position among the nations of Latin American and the Caribbean. Faced with numerous budget cuts, deteriorating efficiency, and the loss of equity, it becomes necessary to design creative and innovative proposals that will meet…

  7. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke in Public Places in Latin America, 2002-2003

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Navas-Acien; Armando Peruga; Patrick Breysse; Alfonso Zavaleta; Adriana Blanco-Marquizo; Raul Pitarque; Marisol Acuna; Katya Jimenez-Reyes; Vera L. Colombo; Graciela Gamarra; Frances A. Stillman; Jonathan Samet

    Context The success of measures to restrict smoking in indoor environments and the intensity of enforcement vary among countries around the world. In 2001, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) launched the Smoke-Free Americas Ini- tiative to build capacity to achieve smoke-free environments in Latin America and the Caribbean. Objective To assess secondhand smoke concentrations in public places in the

  8. Textbooks in Greek and Latin: 1975 List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Thomas G.

    1975-01-01

    List of textbooks in Greek and Latin for 1975. Subject, title, publisher and price are noted. Greek and Latin works are listed separately under the eight categories of texts, beginner's books, grammars, books about the language, readers and anthologies, composition, dictionaries, and New Testament Greek and Later Latin. (RM)

  9. Word Power through Latin; A Curriculum Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masciantonio, Rudolph

    This curriculum guide is intended to assist Latin teachers in the School District of Philadelphia in achieving one of the goals of Latin instruction: the development of word power in English through a structured study of Latin roots and affixes. The guide may be used in two different ways. First, it may form the basis for a separate…

  10. GIS Rseau Amrique latine. Actes du 1er Congrs du GIS Amrique latine : Discours et

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    GIS Réseau Amérique latine. Actes du 1er Congrès du GIS Amérique latine : Discours et pratiques de 1 halshs-00151682,version1-5Jun2007 Author manuscript, published in "GIS Réseau Amérique latine. Actes du 1er Congrès du GIS Amérique latine : Discours et pratiques de pouvoirs en Amérique latine, de

  11. Expeditions: 150 Years of Smithsonian Research in Latin America

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site celebrates the work of Smithsonian-sponsored expeditions to and research in Latin America and the Caribbean over the last century and a half. The site offers hypertext discussions (including sketches, photographs, and artifacts) of the results of expeditions and the work of their naturalists, such as the International Expedition sponsored by the United States which circumnavigated the globe between 1838 and 1842 and gathered over 40 tons of materials for the Smithsonian's natural history collections, much of it from Latin America. The site discusses archaeological materials found in Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America, emphasizing the enterprise and collaboration of naturalists between governments and within the United States, but giving little attention, it seems to us, to the possible colonial implications of this history of prodigious collecting in other lands.

  12. Views of United States Physicians and Members of the American Medical Association House of Delegates on Physician-assisted Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Simon N; Brown, Byron W; Brody, Howard; Alcser, Kirsten H; Bachman, Jerald G; Greely, Henry T

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To ascertain the views of physicians and physician leaders toward the legalization of physician-assisted suicide. DESIGN Confidential mail questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS A nationwide random sample of physicians of all ages and specialties, and all members of the American Medical Association (AMA) House of Delegates as of April 1996. MEASUREMENTS Demographic and practice characteristics and attitude toward legalization of physician-assisted suicide. MAIN RESULTS Usable questionnaires were returned by 658 of 930 eligible physicians in the nationwide random sample (71%) and 315 of 390 eligible physicians in the House of Delegates (81%). In the nationwide random sample, 44.5% favored legalization (16.4% definitely and 28.1% probably), 33.9% opposed legalization (20.4% definitely and 13.5% probably), and 22% were unsure. Opposition to legalization was strongly associated with self-defined politically conservative beliefs, religious affiliation, and the importance of religion to the respondent (P < .001). Among members of the AMA House of Delegates, 23.5% favored legalization (7.3% definitely and 16.2% probably), 61.6% opposed legalization (43.5% definitely and 18.1% probably), and 15% were unsure; their views differed significantly from those of the nationwide random sample (P < .001). Given the choice, a majority of both groups would prefer no law at all, with physician-assisted suicide being neither legal nor illegal. CONCLUSIONS Members of the AMA House of Delegates strongly oppose physician-assisted suicide, but rank-and-file physicians show no consensus either for or against its legalization. Although the debate is sometimes adversarial, most physicians in the United States are uncertain or endorse moderate views on assisted suicide. PMID:11359546

  13. Social Panorama of Latin America 2009

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Every year, the United Nations' Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) publishes a report that comments on various aspects of the region's social well-being. To do this, they rely on a number of researchers with experience in the area who look at poverty trends and income distribution, with a keen eye towards trends in social spending and how the respective states in the region can address the population's welfare. This 64-page report was released at the end of 2009, and it includes a brief summary and six chapters. The chapter titles include "Poverty and inequality in the context of the economic crisis" and "Public policies and the care crisis: alternatives and initiatives". The report is well-written, and persons with an interest in international relations, public health, and social policy will find the report very useful.

  14. Kissing Bugs in the United States: Risk for Vector-Borne Disease in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Klotz, Stephen A; Dorn, Patricia L; Mosbacher, Mark; Schmidt, Justin O

    2014-01-01

    Eleven species of kissing bugs are found in the United States. Their home ranges may be expanding northward, perhaps as a consequence of climate change. At least eight of the species, perhaps all, are reported to harbor Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease. Because humans are encroaching on kissing bug habitat, there is concern for vector-transmitted Chagas disease in the United States. To date, documented autochthonous cases of Chagas in humans in the United States are rare. Kissing bugs are capable of adapting to new habitats such as human domiciles; however, they do not colonize homes in the United States as in Central and South America. We review the biology, behavior, and medical importance of kissing bugs and the risk they pose for transmission of Chagas disease in the United States. Where possible, descriptions of US species are compared to the epidemiologically important Latin American species. PMID:25574143

  15. Kissing bugs in the United States: risk for vector-borne disease in humans.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Stephen A; Dorn, Patricia L; Mosbacher, Mark; Schmidt, Justin O

    2014-01-01

    Eleven species of kissing bugs are found in the United States. Their home ranges may be expanding northward, perhaps as a consequence of climate change. At least eight of the species, perhaps all, are reported to harbor Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease. Because humans are encroaching on kissing bug habitat, there is concern for vector-transmitted Chagas disease in the United States. To date, documented autochthonous cases of Chagas in humans in the United States are rare. Kissing bugs are capable of adapting to new habitats such as human domiciles; however, they do not colonize homes in the United States as in Central and South America. We review the biology, behavior, and medical importance of kissing bugs and the risk they pose for transmission of Chagas disease in the United States. Where possible, descriptions of US species are compared to the epidemiologically important Latin American species. PMID:25574143

  16. Internet Accessibility in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haymond, Ruel

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the problems that prohibit expanded Internet access and possible solutions to these problems, particularly with respect to the country of Chile. The three main problems that block Internet usage in Latin America are high demand and poor infrastructure; high costs for Internet access; and high preliminary costs for computers, modems, and…

  17. Building ESD in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2007

    2007-01-01

    To encourage efforts for furthering the UN DESD agenda in Latin America, a meeting titled "Building Education for Sustainable Development" was held in Costa Rica from 31 October to 2 November 2006. Plenary sessions were interspersed with working groups to look at how ESD can be integrated in formal and non-formal education systems, and to make…

  18. Bachelor of Arts in American Studies For a country less than 250 years old, the United States

    E-print Network

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    recruiters, among other services. High School Preparation Students who wish to major in American studies: Interdisciplinary studies, healthcare studies Master of Arts: Interdisciplinary studies Minors Offered If your of Interdisciplinary Studies, the following minors are available: · American studies · Gender studies · Healthcare

  19. Depressive Distress and Prevalence of Common Problems Among Homosexually Active African American Women in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vickie M. Mays; Susan D. Cochran; Michele R. Roeder

    2004-01-01

    We report findings from a national survey of 603 homosexually experienced African American women who self-identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Levels of psychological distress greatly exceeded population norms for African American women. The most frequent problems participants reported were romantic relationship and financial difficulties. Problems with using drugs or alcohol to self-medicate psychological distress were the most chronic stressors.

  20. Optimizing surveillance for South American origin influenza A viruses along the United States Gulf Coast through genomic characterization of isolates from blue-winged teal (Anas discors)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramey, Andy M.; Walther, Patrick; Link, Paul Karl; Poulson, Rebecca L.; Wilcox, Benjamin R.; Newsome, George M.; Spackman, Erica; Brown, J.; Stallknecht, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Relative to research focused on intercontinental viral exchange between Eurasia and North America, less attention has been directed towards understanding the redistribution of influenza A viruses (IAVs) by wild birds between North America and South America. In this study, we genomically characterized 45 viruses isolated from blue-winged teal (Anas discors) along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast during March of 2012 and 2013, coincident with northward migration of this species from Neotropical wintering areas to breeding grounds in the United States and Canada. No evidence of South American lineage genes were detected in IAVs isolated from blue-winged teal supporting restricted viral gene flow between the United States and southern South America. However, it is plausible that blue-winged teal redistribute IAVs between North American breeding grounds and wintering areas throughout the Neotropics, including northern South America, and that viral gene flow is limited by geographical barriers further south (e.g. the Amazon Basin). Surveillance for the introduction of IAVs from Central America and northern South America into the United States may be further optimized through genomic characterization of viruses resulting from coordinated, concurrent sampling efforts targeting blue-winged teal and sympatric species throughout the Neotropics and along the United States Gulf Coast.