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1

Latin American Security Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document presents an underlying premise that there is no major guerrilla or Cuban threat in Latin America, although, the military will remain a central power factor in Latin American politics. United States preconceptions about the seriousness of the ...

L. R. Einaudi R. L. Maullin A. C. Stepan

1969-01-01

2

Latin American Newspapers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the historical development of the press in Latin America from the sixteenth century to the present. Discusses the various pressures that Latin American newspapers are subject to, including political censorship, economic restrictions, and cultural conflicts. (AEA)|

Gardner, Mary A.

1980-01-01

3

Latin American youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys a region which is fast-growing, interesting and diverse from a marketing viewpoint. Warns of pitfalls in Latin American research because of the region’s complexity and its difference from developed countries, and outlines the basis of the current research in terms of subjectivity (self) and sociality (culture). Shows the contrasting demographic statistics for various Latin American countries. Discusses the influences

Jorge Garcia-Gonzalez

2002-01-01

4

Latin American cheeses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Latin American (or Hispanic-style) cheeses are a category of cheeses that were developed in Mexico, Latin America, and the Caribbean and have become increasingly popular in the U.S. Although research has been conducted on some of the cheeses, quantitative information on the quality traits of most L...

5

It Takes Two to Tango, and to Mediate: Legal Cultural and Other Factors Influencing United States and Latin American Lawyers' Resistance to Mediating Commercial Disputes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines legal cultural and other factors influencing the resistance displayed by United States and Latin American lawyers to mediating commercial disputes. After surveying current contexts in which commercial mediation occurs in the United States and Latin American countries and summarizing data regarding commercial actors’ knowledge concerning the benefits of mediating, it analyzes the relatively infrequent use of mediation

Don Peters

2010-01-01

6

Los Arboles Hablan: A Spanish Language Curriculum Unit Based on the Study of Latin American Rain Forests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Los Arboles Hablan," a video-based curriculum that promotes the learning of Spanish as a second language through study of the Latin American rain forests is described. The 12-session unit was designed for use at the middle school level and integrates science, social science, and environmental education with content focusing on the Amazon rain…

Zuman, John P.

7

Latin American Fisheries, 1987,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Latin American fishermen reported a preliminary 1987 catch of 13.7 million metric tons (t), a decline of about 15% from the 15.9 million t caught in 1986. Most of the decline was caused by lower catches of sardine, anchovy, and other small pelagic species...

D. Weidner D. Jacobson F. Quintanilla

1989-01-01

8

Immigration to the United States from Latin America: Past and Present. The Latin American Project: Volume 1, No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Immigration legislation in the United States is aimed primarily at Mexican migrants, who account for over half of all undocumented immigrants in the United States. Citizens of Central American and Caribbean countries contribute another 20%. The first section of this booklet traces the development of United States immigration legislation from the…

League of United Latin American Citizens, Washington, DC.

9

Latin American Trade Regime Reforms and Perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the effects of recent reforms in trade in Latin American countries. In general, these countries have changed from the inward oriented economic attitude sponsored by the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLAC), towards an outward looking perspective that is part of the “Washington Consensus\\

Ronald Fischer; Patricio Meller

1999-01-01

10

Latin American Conference on Space Geophysics held  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Third Latin American Conference on Space Geophysics was held in Havana, Cuba, November 1-5, 1993, to promote cooperation among Latin American scientists on topics of space geophysics and to foster their participation in international research projects.The conference was sponsored by the Cuban Academy of Sciences and the Center for Pedagogical Conventions of the Ministry of Education with financial support from the Latin American Center of Physics; the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization; the International Centre for Theoretical Physics; and the Committee on Space Research of the International Council of Scientific Unions, Paris.

Galicia, José Valdés

11

Herd Behavior in Latin American Stock Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the presence of herd behavior in Latin American stock markets using the methodologies proposed by Christie and Huang (1995) and Chang, Cheng, and Khorana (2000). Daily closing prices and trading volumes from January 3, 2000 to September 15, 2010 from the stock markets of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and the United States were analyzed. The US market

Rafael Porto de Almeida; Hudson Chaves Costa; Newton C. A. da Costa Jr

2012-01-01

12

MEANING AND JOY IN LATIN AMERICAN SPORTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on recent scholarship, this overview discusses the adoption of modern sports in several Latin American settings and their evolving cultural meaning. Examples include soccer in Argentina, baseball in Cuba, baseball along the United States-Mexican border and cricket in the West Indies. Discussion focuses upon the reasons why particular sports are adopted within a culture and assume import to a

Joseph L. Arbena

2000-01-01

13

Latin American Shrimp Culture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Latin America is a leading world producer of cultured shrimp. Growers in the region reported major pond harvest increases during the 1980s. The 1990 regional cultured shrimp harvest was more than 100,000 metric tons, a 1,000 percent increase over the less...

1993-01-01

14

Latin American Theology and Religious Pluralism: A Latin American Voice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes recent efforts by Latin-American theologians concerned with developing a pluralist theology of liberation. The author highlights some of the most significant issues and themes of this emerging theological reflection among liberation theologians. Finally, he identifies some of the challenges a pluralist theology of…

Cascante-Gomez, Fernando A.

2009-01-01

15

Latin American Theology and Religious Pluralism: A Latin American Voice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article summarizes recent efforts by Latin-American theologians concerned with developing a pluralist theology of liberation. The author highlights some of the most significant issues and themes of this emerging theological reflection among liberation theologians. Finally, he identifies some of the challenges a pluralist theology of…

Cascante-Gomez, Fernando A.

2009-01-01

16

Latin American Folk Art Prints  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Latin American customs and colors play an important role as second graders are introduced to multicultural experiences through food, music, dance, art, and craft. In this article, the author describes a printing project inspired by Guatemalan weavings and amate bark paintings. (Contains 2 online resources.)|

Navah, Jan

2011-01-01

17

Latin American hemorrhagic fever.  

PubMed

Several viral and bacterial agents are responsible for hemorrhagic fever in Latin America, but there are three agents that are only present in this region: (1) the Junin virus, (2) the Machupo virus, and (3) the Guanaritovirus, members of the Tacaribe complex of the family Arenaviridae and responsible for the Argentinian, Bolivian, and Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever. The clinical manifestations of hemorrhagic fever are similar for the three viruses, mainly myalgia, arthralgia, headache, relative bradycardia, conjunctivitis, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and hemorrhagic disorders. In this article, the three viruses, their causes, and manifestations are discussed. PMID:8021448

Vainrub, B; Salas, R

1994-03-01

18

Environmental psychology with a Latin American taste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes and analyzes the actual and potential contributions of Latin American environmental psychology (EP) to the study of environment–behaviour interactions. Latin America is a richly socoi- and bio-diverse region; the multitude of problems caused by threats to its diversity requires especial conceptual and methodological approaches for studying and solving those problems. Latin American environmental psychologists have contributed ideas

Victor Corral-Verdugo; Jose Q. Pinheiro

2009-01-01

19

Brazil & the Latin American Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News follows repercussions of world financial crises in the key Latin American economy of Brazil. The nine resources discussed provide background information, press coverage, and economic data on Brazil and related economies. With a population of 164 million and GDP of $480 billion, Brazil represents Latin America's largest economic force. Heavy US financial investments, however, tie Brazil directly to Dow Jones Industrial Average falls (reviewed in the September 10, 1998 Scout for Business & Economics) and their Asian and Russian causes (reviewed in the July 16, 1998 _Scout Report for Business & Economics_--http://scout.cs.wisc.edu/report/bus-econ/1998/be-980716txt.html#22). International concern for Latin America grew when Brazil lost $1.8 billion in foreign capital following drops in the Dow, September 10, 1998--a decisive factor in stock tumbles in Mexico and Venezuela as well. Such damaging results led to a bold rise in interest rates from the Banco Central do Brasil and negotiations with the IMF. A US and Brazilian market rally since September 11, however, leaves many officials hopeful for a stable Latin American future.

Waters, Megan.

1998-01-01

20

Social Studies: Economics, International Relations, and Political Science. Latin American Curriculum Units for Junior and Community Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These three self-contained units of study will help community college students learn about the economics, international relations, and politics of Latin America. Each unit can be used independently and contains introductory notes for instructors, student materials, and a bibliography. Students are expected to read and discuss the reading…

Glade, William P.; Baldwin, Emily

21

Social Studies: Economics, International Relations, and Political Science. Latin American Curriculum Units for Junior and Community Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These three self-contained units of study will help community college students learn about the economics, international relations, and politics of Latin America. Each unit can be used independently and contains introductory notes for instructors, student materials, and a bibliography. Students are expected to read and discuss the reading…

Glade, William P.; Baldwin, Emily

22

Major Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Latin America: A Comparison with the United States. The Latin American Consortium of Studies in Obesity (LASO)  

PubMed Central

Background Limited knowledge on the prevalence and distribution of risk factors impairs the planning and implementation of cardiovascular prevention programs in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region. Methods and Findings Prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, abnormal lipoprotein levels, obesity, and smoking were estimated from individual-level patient data pooled from population-based surveys (1998–2007, n?=?31,009) from eight LAC countries and from a national survey of the United States (US) population (1999–2004) Age and gender specific prevalence were estimated and age-gender adjusted comparisons between both populations were conducted. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol in LAC were 5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 3.4, 7.9), 20.2% (95% CI: 12.5, 31), and 53.3% (95% CI: 47, 63.4), respectively. Compared to LAC region’s average, the prevalence of each risk factor tended to be lower in Peru and higher in Chile. LAC women had higher prevalence of obesity and low HDL-cholesterol than men. Obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia were more prevalent in the US population than in LAC population (31 vs. 16.1%, 16.8 vs. 8.9%, and 36.2 vs. 26.5%, respectively). However, the prevalence of low HDL-cholesterol was higher in LAC than in the US (53.3 vs. 33.7%). Conclusions Major cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent in LAC region, in particular low HDL-cholesterol. In addition, marked differences do exist in this prevalence profile between LAC and the US. The observed patterns of obesity-related risk factors and their current and future impact on the burden of cardiovascular diseases remain to be explained.

Chirinos, Julio A.; Gomez, Luis F.; Perel, Pablo; Pichardo, Rafael; Gonzalez, Angel; Sanchez, Jose R.; Ferreccio, Catterina; Aguilera, Ximena; Silva, Egle; Orostegui, Myriam; Medina-Lezama, Josefina; Perez, Cynthia M.; Suarez, Erick; Ortiz, Ana P.; Rosero, Luis; Schapochnik, Noberto; Ortiz, Zulma; Ferrante, Daniel; Casas, Juan P.

2013-01-01

23

Policy Shocks: On the Legal Auspices of Latin American Migration to the United States  

PubMed Central

In this paper, I compare the transition into legal permanent residence (LPR) of Mexicans, Dominicans, and Nicaraguans. Dominicans had the highest likelihood of obtaining residence, mostly sponsored by parents and spouses. Mexicans had the lowest LPR transition rates and presented sharp gender differentials in modes: women mostly legalized through husbands while men were sponsored through IRCA, parents. Nicaraguans stood in-between, presenting few gender differences in rates and modes of transition and a heavy dependence on asylum and special provisions such as IRCA and NACARA. I argue these patterns stem from the interplay of conditions favoring the emigration of and the specific immigration policy context faced by migrant pioneers; the influence of social networks in reproducing the legal character of flows; and differences in the actual use of kinship ties as sponsors. I discuss the implications of these trends on the observed gendered patterns of migration from Latin America.

Riosmena, Fernando

2011-01-01

24

TILAN: Trends in Latin American Networking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new site from the Latin American Network Information Center (LANIC) at the University of Texas (last reviewed in the (November 13, 1998 Scout Report) offers a number of resources regarding the expansion of the Internet throughout the countries of Latin America. These include full-text research papers and articles on networking in Latin America (some in Spanish only), several collections of statistics, very brief summaries of basic networking statistics for each Latin American country with links to further information, and a subject directory of related sites. Although TILAN is still quite modest, users interested in tracking the Latin American Internet will want to monitor the site's development.

25

Remittances and economic growth in Africa, Asia, and Latin American-Caribbean countries: a panel unit root and panel cointegration analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimates the macroeconomic impact of remittances and some control variables such as openness of the economy, capital\\/labor\\u000a ratio, and economic freedom on the economic growth of African, Asian, and Latin American-Caribbean countries using newly developed\\u000a panel unit-root tests, cointegration tests, and Panel Fully Modified OLS (PFMOLS). We use annual panel data from 1985–2007for\\u000a 64 countries consisting of 29

Christian Nsiah; Bichaka Fayissa

2011-01-01

26

Myths of Anti-Americanism The Case of Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

LATIN AMERICA MAY JUSTLY BE called the wise old man of anti-Americanism. After two centuries of relations with the United States, the countries south of the Rio Grande have gained much knowledge about the contradictions of living next to a superpower that protects while occupying, invests as it exploits, and professes friendship as it makes enemies. More and more Latin

ALAN MCPHERSON

27

Interaction of science and diplomacy: Latin American, the United States and nuclear energy, 1945-1955  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear programs in Argentina and Brazil can be traced to August 1945 when their scientific communities articulated responses to the atomic bombings of Japan. They culminated in attempts to develop independent nuclear programs, sharply opposed by the United States, during the nationalist governments of Juan Peron and Getulio Vargas. This dissertation, based on primary sources from the three nations, analyzes

Cabral

1986-01-01

28

Nuevo Latino: Rebranding Latin American Cuisine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuevo Latino Cuisine invites diners to experience the vertigo of consuming a reinvented version of traditional Latin American food while enjoying a cosmopolitan atmosphere at sophisticated restaurants. Using “border thinking” and critical ethnography, this paper discusses how the restaurant industry in the US reproduces colonial desire by aestheticizing and commodifying traditional meals. This article assesses the rebranding of Latin American

Vanessa Fonseca

2005-01-01

29

Sport Psychology Consulting with Latin American Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper was to provide the sport psychology consultant with information about Latin American cultural groups in relation to sport psychology consulting. The paper contains a review of key multicultural terms and concepts, such as worldview and acculturation. This is followed by a brief overview of the various historical influences on Latin American culture. Next, we discussed

Anthony P. Kontos; Erick Arguello

2005-01-01

30

Latin American guidelines on hypertension. Latin American Expert Group.  

PubMed

Hypertension is a highly prevalent cardiovascular risk factor in the world and particularly overwhelming in low and middle-income countries. Recent reports from the WHO and the World Bank highlight the importance of chronic diseases such as hypertension as an obstacle to the achievement of good health status. It must be added that for most low and middle-income countries, deficient strategies of primary healthcare are the major obstacles for blood pressure control. Furthermore, the epidemiology of hypertension and related diseases, healthcare resources and priorities, the socioeconomic status of the population vary considerably in different countries and in different regions of individual countries. Considering the low rates of blood pressure control achieved in Latin America and the benefits that can be expected from an improved control, it was decided to invite specialists from different Latin American countries to analyze the regional situation and to provide a consensus document on detection, evaluation and treatment of hypertension that may prove to be cost-utility adequate. The recommendations here included are the result of preparatory documents by invited experts and a subsequent very active debate by different discussion panels, held during a 2-day sessions in Asuncion, Paraguay, in May 2008. Finally, in order to improve clinical practice, the publication of the guidelines should be followed by implementation of effective interventions capable of overcoming barriers (cognitive, behavioral and affective) preventing attitude changes in both physicians and patients. PMID:19349909

Sanchez, Ramiro A; Ayala, Miryam; Baglivo, Hugo; Velazquez, Carlos; Burlando, Guillermo; Kohlmann, Oswaldo; Jimenez, Jorge; Jaramillo, Patricio López; Brandao, Ayrton; Valdes, Gloria; Alcocer, Luis; Bendersky, Mario; Ramirez, Agustín José; Zanchetti, Alberto

2009-05-01

31

Latin American foot and ankle surgery today.  

PubMed

Latin American medical orthopedic sub specialties have evolved a lot during the past decade. Foot and ankle surgery for instance, has gained high level of proficiency and competence throughout the international scientific communities. This may be due to the availability of new technology in osteosyntheses, orthopedic devices and surgical instruments used to optimize results, regardless of the low economic resources Latin American countries possess. Also, foot and ankle surgery training is being promoted by several International Medical associations that pursuit scientific knowledge and strengthen the practice. Day to day, more Latin American universities offer Fellowships for on-going training. PMID:22322630

Abello, Sergio

2012-02-01

32

U.S.-Latin American Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews United States-Latin America diplomatic and trade relations from early days of the Republic to contemporary times. Contends that Monroe Doctrine was a way of eliminating European competition for economic and political control of Latin America. Argues that the end of the Cold War may bring a more equal relationship between the United States…

Kamman, William

1992-01-01

33

Latin American USOMs Seminar on Agrarian Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report of seminar proceedings discusses land reform policies and programs and their place in the economic development of Latin America. It analyzes experiences and current situations in Latin America, the United States, and elsewhere which shed light on the problems and possibilities of agrarian reform. An appraisal of existing physical,…

International Cooperation Administration (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

34

A Senior High School Social Studies Unit on Latin American History. World History Series, Bulletin No. 257.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This secondary level curriculum guide provides a program and identifies materials for the history and culture of Latin America. The primary purpose of the course is to stimulate throught and to encourage students to make valid generalizations and intelligent assessments of the forces and events that have shaped the history and culture of Latin

Magee, Paul

35

The Legal Situation of Latin American and Caribbean Women as Defined according to the Resolutions and Mandates of the United Nations System. Volume II: File Sheets of Resolutions on the Legal Situation of Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains a systematized inventory of the measures relating to the legal and social status of women adopted in various regional and world forums. The inventory was used to study the legal situation of Latin American and Caribbean women, defined according to the resolutions and mandates of the United Nations system. Organized by forum…

United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

36

Social Work Education in Latin America And the United States: A Look to the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the historical relationship between social work education in Latin America and the United States. It also explores the relevance of these experiences to American social work education. The United States' original contribution to Latin American social work education is being replaced by innovative methodologies more responsive to each country's problems and needs. New social work strategies have

Rosa Perla Resnick

1980-01-01

37

The Call of Concrete Moral Conscience: Another Latin American Contribution to the Idea of Human Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, I argue that the contribution of the Latin American tradition of human rights includes, but does not limit itself, to being a crucible to unite different doctrinal trends in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; a contribution already recognized by Mary Ann Glendon. Besides this unifying function and the concomitant emphasis on common humanity, the Latin American

Jorge Mario RodríGuez-Martínez

2010-01-01

38

Geographic Perspectives on Latin American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1975 geographers have made important contributions to the growing body of empirical and theoretical work on Latin American women. Some, but not all, of these contributions reflect a feminist perspective. Principal topics of investigation include migration of women, their physical well-being and their role in maintaining their families' health and their households' survival. Geographers are also studying how rural

Linda Greenow

39

Library Guide: Latin American Literature, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for use by those conducting research in Latin American literature written in Spanish, this guide contains annotations for a wide range of selected works. The guide is divided into the seven sections: (1) General Encyclopedias (1 annotation); (2) Guides to the Literature (4 annotations); (3) Literary Encyclopedias, Dictionaries and…

de Sumar, Juanita Jara, Comp.

40

TRANSGENIC CROPS FOR LATIN AMERICAN AGRICULTURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Latin American countries face very important food-production challenges due primarily to the constant population growth, deterioration of the environment, shortage of irrigation water and limited arable land. In particular, Mexico, with slightly more than 1.5% of its peoples devoted to agricultural ...

41

Female Immigrants to the United States: Caribbean, Latin American, and African Experiences. RIIES Occasional Paper No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Seminar papers on the recent immigrantion of women from the Caribbean, Latin America, and Africa are collected in the first part of this two-part book. Titles (and authors) of the papers are: (1) "The New Immigration: The Female Majority" (Roy S. Bryce-Laporte); (2) "Race, Ethnicity, and Sex in the Recent Immigration: Some Preliminary Comments"…

Mortimer, Delores M., Ed.; Bryce-Laporte, Roy S., Ed.

42

Latin American traditions and perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Educational and related non-pedagogical issues are generally described and discussed. Implicitly or explicitly, the theology of liberation, educación popular and traditional education tend to perpetuate male/female roles and very often incite violence. Peace education in Latin America should concentrate more on the pathology of the violent man. The so-called `weaknesses' associated with women and their `powerlessness' in Western civilization are precisely those which are absolutely essential to our survival. It is important for women to reject Western patterns of violence and participate actively in finding a viable alternative.

Garcia, Celina

1983-09-01

43

Latin American petroleum sector at crossroads  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Latin America's petroleum industry stands at a precarious crossroads of change. Fundamental changes of democratization, privatization, and economic reform that have marked South America's petroleum sectors since the late 1980s are seeping into other Latin American regions. An unprecedented return of capital that had fled the region in the 1980s - Latin America's lost decade - is under way in full force. That demonstrates the improved credibility of the region's economic reform programs, reports the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). Even as those reform efforts marked progress in South America in 1991, however, that progress has been threatened in 1992 by political scandal, government crisis, and environmental controversy. Just as the fitful transition to capitalism in the former U.S.S.R. has threatened to collapse the former Soviet republics into chaos because of its economic fallout, so has economic reform in such nations as Brazil, Peru, and Venezuela stumbled. On the other hand, privatization continues apace in Argentina and Mexico. Those Latin American nations and others caught in the rising tide of privatization pulled by an increasingly market oriented global economy continue to avow their commitment to economic reform.

Williams, B.

1992-07-06

44

Workshop on Latin American women and AIDS.  

PubMed

A 3-day workshop organized by the National Institute of Public Health (Mexico) examined the situation of women and AIDS in Latin America and developed a research agenda on this topic. AIDS incidence rates among women in the region in 1993 ranged from a low of 7.7 per million in the Southern Cone to 30.4 per million in Brazil. The workshop addressed 6 main topics: 1) cultural characteristics prevalent in Latin American countries that impede women's ability to negotiate safer sexual practices; 2) the need for integration of family planning, sexually transmitted disease (including AIDS), and maternal-child health services; 3) defense of the human rights of women with HIV/AIDS; 4) the different roles of official AIDS control programs, the mass media, organized religion, and international agencies in the struggle against AIDS; 5) the impact of deepening poverty and social polarization on HIV risk factors; and 6) the effect of drug traffic and consumption on HIV transmission in Latin American women. Proposed to address these issues was the creation of a Latin American research group that would take advantage of existing regional networks and projects. PMID:12293161

45

The Bologna Process from a Latin American Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although Latin America's geography, history, and languages might seem a suitable foundation for a Bologna-type process, the development of a common Latin American higher education and research area meets predictable difficulties.The reasons are to be found in the continent's historic and modern institutional patterns. Latin American governments…

Brunner, Jose Joaquin

2009-01-01

46

The Baroque, Modernity, and Postmodernity in Latin American Political Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article offers a general view about the contemporary theoretical debate in Latin-American concerning the idea of modernity. For some authors, modernity is part of Latin-American history, and its ruts can be found in the baroque experience of the continent, for others, the consequences of modernity such as urbanization, industralization and hope in democracy shows the Latin America is in

Luis Ochoa Bilbao; Paul Frankel

2005-01-01

47

U.S.Latin American Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the third edition was published in 1996, there have been significant developments in this key strategic and economic relationship. Kryzanek builds on the text and themes of previous editions and further examines the ties between the United States and the nations of Latin America. These ties reveal new opportunities, challenges, and tensions. During the second term of President Bill

Michael Kryzanek

2008-01-01

48

Latin American Special Economic Zones and Their Impacts on Regional Security.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Latin America is often considered the United States' strategic backyard. However, with the advent of globalization and technology, this backyard is no longer strictly 'American.' As the region becomes more accessible and readily influenced by external act...

R. R. Reyes

2011-01-01

49

Latin American Cancer Research Coalition  

Cancer.gov

There are approximately 36 million Latinos known to be living in the United States, and by the year 2050, this group will constitute 25 percent of the U.S. population. Cancer is the second leading cause of death among this rapidly growing minority group. Latinos have higher rates of cancers with infectious etiologies. For other sites, despite lower incidence, Latinos have more late-stage diagnoses, higher mortality-to-incidence ratios, and inferior survival compared with Caucasians. Lifestyle changes associated with acculturation may increase future cancer risks.

50

Teaching Latin American Culture: A Values Oriented Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a report on the author's experiences in teaching a course concerning Latin American culture. The approach used concerns itself with value clarification on the part of the students. Specific activities involving attitudes, beliefs and values as they pertain to American and latin American cultures are included.

Willis E. Poole

1973-01-01

51

Revolutions: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Teaching Printmaking and Latin American History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of a U.S. Department of Education grant to expand Latin American and Caribbean Studies at Albright College, the authors of this article, one a historian and one an artist, teamed up to teach a course called Revolutions: Art and Revolution in Latin America. In the class, they proposed to combine a studio art printmaking class with Latin

Kiddy, Elizabeth; Woodward, Kristen T.

2013-01-01

52

Revolutions: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Teaching Printmaking and Latin American History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a U.S. Department of Education grant to expand Latin American and Caribbean Studies at Albright College, the authors of this article, one a historian and one an artist, teamed up to teach a course called Revolutions: Art and Revolution in Latin America. In the class, they proposed to combine a studio art printmaking class with Latin

Kiddy, Elizabeth; Woodward, Kristen T.

2013-01-01

53

Korean-Latin American Relations: Trends and Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Korea's traditional foreign policy toward Latin America was based on anti-communist ideology, international emigration, and limited commercial relations. The end of Cold War and diplomatic diversification efforts on both parts of Korea and Latin America, however, have made the anti-communist ideology lose its strength as diplomatic resource to mobilize. Korea's economic growth and Latin American countries' economic difficulties until the

Won-Ho Kim

54

A CLASSIFICATIONOF LATIN AMERICAN POLITICAL PARTIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This working,paper,reports the percentage,of the total valid vote won,by various ideological blocs in twentieth-century Latin American,elections. Those,included,are lower-chamber,or constituent assembly elections for Argentina 1912?95, Bolivia 1956?93, Brazil 1945?94, Chile 1915?93, Colombia 1931?94, Costa Rica 1948?94, Ecuador 1947?94, Mexico 1961?94, Peru 1978?95, Uruguay 1917?94, and Venezuela 1947?93. The paper also provides detailed documentation for the classification of the 97 percent

Michael Coppedge; Alejandra Grosse; Adrian Hurditch; Carlos Lozada; Ronna Montgomery; John Carey; Brian Crisp; Carol Graham; Jonathan Hartlyn; Richard Katz; Joseph Klesner; Alonso Lujambio; Scott Mainwaring; Esperanza Palma; Timothy Power; Manuel Rojas Bolaños; D Charles

55

Latin American Culture Studies: Information and Materials for Teaching About Latin America. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource manual provides ideas, lesson plans, course outlines, arts and crafts projects, games, and other materials for teaching K-12 students about Latin America. A major objective is to help students understand and appreciate the diverse Latin American culture. There are six chapters in this volume. Chapter one discusses key ideas that can…

Glab, Edward, Jr., Ed.

56

Women Ministers in Latin American Government: When, Where, and Why?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines factors that affect the supply of and demand for female cabinet ministers in Latin America. It seeks to understand the frequency with which women join cabinets and the types of portfolios women receive. Our analysis covers 18 Latin American democracies from 1980-2003. We find that presidents from parties of the left appoint more women. Increases in the

Maria Escobar-Lemmon; Michelle M. Taylor-Robinson

2005-01-01

57

Quality management: the way to improve Latin American public libraries?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focuses on public libraries in Latin America as one important means of information provision at the end of the twentieth century, discussing how they can improve their effectiveness. Defends the view that Latin American countries can use quality management to improve the services they provide through their public libraries. Suggests that, to receive the most benefit from this management theory,

Waldomiro C. S. Vergueiro

1996-01-01

58

The Military in Latin American Sociopolitical Evolution: Four Case Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The political role of the Latin American military is analyzed in four case studies--Argentina, Peru, Colombia, and Mexico. Data came from printed sources and informal interviews. The research method relies on objective description of the phenomenon and re...

A. P. Maingot L. N. McAlister R. A. Potash

1970-01-01

59

Communication Research: New Challenges of the Latin American School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a review of Latin American scholarly research on communication processes from the 1940s to the early 1990s. Notes international interest in this research and the new challenges faced by it. (SR)

Marques de Melo, Jose

1993-01-01

60

The Latin American Approach to the Law of the Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work presents the philosophy and historical development of Latin American claims to two hundred mile territorial waters; the specific individual views and laws of most of these nations regarding the exercise of jurisdiction in the 'patrimonial sea' a...

J. H. Samet R. L. Fuerst

1973-01-01

61

Hypertension and cardiovascular health in Venezuela and Latin American countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1950 all countries of the Latin-American sub-continent have experienced very important changes in several health indicators, in the demographic, epidemiological, socio-cultural and way of living profiles. The proportion of the population over 65 years old tend to be low in the Latin American countries in contrast to developed countries. Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death in most

R Hernández-Hernández; MC Armas-Padilla; MJ Armas-Hernández; M Velasco; Rafael Hernández Hernández

2000-01-01

62

Trading Away Stability and Growth: United States Trade Agreements in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1990s Latin American nations have been signing trade treaties with the United States that have brought small gains and high costs. Pending deals between the United States and Colombia and the United States and Panama are no different. Each is based on the same template that has been the cornerstone of US trade policy since the North

Kevin Gallagher

2011-01-01

63

Building a Latin American Bibliographic Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes three important bibliographic databases in Latin America, two of which have been created by national library networks. In the networks shared cataloging has become increasingly important. The databases contain much cataloging information not available outside Latin America. During the last two years the national libraries of Venezuela and Chile have exchanged their data and furnished it to

Thomas P. McGinn

1988-01-01

64

Anthropometry of the Latin-American Armed Forces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Army Tropic Test Center made anthropometric measurements of a sample of Latin-American military personnel in the Canal Zone from September, 1965 to September 1966. A total of 733 trainees were measured--600 airmen at the USAF Inter-American Air F...

D. A. Dobbins C. M. Kindick

1967-01-01

65

Some Latin American Genera of Hypnaceae (Musci).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A taxonomic revision of 16 of the 21 genera of the large pleurocarpous moss family Hypnaceae is presented for Latin America (Mexico, Caribbean, Central America, and South America). This study includes the genera Ctenidium (Schimp.) Mitt., Elmeriobryum Bro...

R. R. Ireland W. R. Buck

2009-01-01

66

Antibiotic prescription in intensive care units in Latin America.  

PubMed

The intensive care units (ICUs) are often considered as the epicenters of antibiotic resistance. Therefore, the total antibiotic consumption is approximately ten fold greater in ICU wards than in general hospital wards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the current use of antibiotics in Latin American ICUs. Three cross-sectional (one-day point) prevalence studies were undertaken in 43 Latin American ICUs. Of 1644 patients admitted, 688 received antibiotic treatment on the days of the study (41.8 %) and, 392 cases (57 %) were due to nosocomial-acquired infections. Of all infections, 22 % (151/688) corresponded to septic shock; and 22 % (151/688) to nosocomial pneumonia (50/151 [33 %], ventilator-associated pneumonia). In 485 patients (70.5 %), cultures were performed before starting antibiotic treatment. The most common microorganisms isolated were extended-spectrum ß-lactamase Enterobacteriaceae, (30.5 %), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17 %). Carbapenems (imipenem or meropenem) were the antibiotics most frequently prescribed (151/688, 22 %), followed by vancomycin (103/688, 15 %), piperacillin-tazobactam (86/688, 12.5 %) and broad-spectrum cephalosporins (mainly cefepime) (83/688, 12 %). In summary, carbapenems were the most frequent antibiotics prescribed in Latin American ICUs. This practice seems justified for the high rates of ESBL-producing Gram-negatives found in our patients. Beyond this reason, the problem of bacterial resistance in LA requires that physicians improve the use of carbapenems. The high prevalence of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa in the region, along with the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, have increased markedly. A comprehensive evidence-based stewardship program based on local antimicrobial use and resistance problems should be implemented in our clinical settings. PMID:22430995

Curcio, Daniel J

67

American Grand Strategy for Latin America in the Age of Resentment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fear that extra-hemispheric powers would strategically deny Latin America as a friend of the United States has animated American statesmen since the 19th century. Such fear certainly pervaded the Cold war competition. Today, the challenge to the secur...

G. Marcella

2007-01-01

68

Emergency preparedness: knowledge and perceptions of Latin American immigrants.  

PubMed

This paper describes the level of public emergency knowledge and perceptions of risks among Latin American immigrants, and their preferred and actual sources of emergency preparedness information (including warning signals). Five Latino community member focus groups, and one focus group of community health workers, were conducted in a suburban county of Washington D.C. (N=51). Participants came from 13 Latin American countries, and 64.7% immigrated during the previous five years. Participants had difficulty defining emergency and reported a wide range of perceived personal emergency risks: immigration problems; crime, personal insecurity, gangs; home/traffic accidents; home fires; environmental problems; and snipers. As in previous studies, few participants had received information on emergency preparedness, and most did not have an emergency plan. Findings regarding key messages and motivating factors can be used to develop clear, prioritized messages for communication regarding emergencies and emergency preparedness for Latin American immigrant communities in the U.S. PMID:17483572

Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Zambrana, Ruth E; Mora, Sonia E; Aaby, Katherine A

2007-05-01

69

Comparative Law at the Service of Democracy: A Reading of Arosemena's Constitutional Studies of the Latin American Governments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1870, Justo Arosemena published Constitutional Studies of the Governments of Latin America in France. Arosemena wanted to promote a constitutional harmonization of the Latin American legal orders. He thought a harmonization would make it easier for a citizen of a Latin American country to enjoy similar rights in any Latin American country. Once the Latin American harmonization was completed,

Miguel Gonzalez Marcos

2006-01-01

70

The Latin American Social Medicine database  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Public health practitioners and researchers for many years have been attempting to understand more clearly the links between social conditions and the health of populations. Until recently, most public health professionals in English-speaking countries were unaware that their colleagues in Latin America had developed an entire field of inquiry and practice devoted to making these links more clearly understood.

Jonathan D Eldredge; Howard Waitzkin; Holly S Buchanan; Janis Teal; Celia Iriart; Kevin Wiley; Jonathan Tregear

2004-01-01

71

Paleomagnetism and Tectonics: Latin American Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early paleomagnetic studies in Latin America by K. Creer in the 50s, many hundreds of paleomagnetic studies in this region have been carried out. Because plate tectonic movements induce structural displacements in the crust near plate boundaries, remanent magnetizations therefore carry information about both types of displacements: plate displacements and structural displacements. The challenge for paleomagnetic researchers is

W. D. MacDonald

2007-01-01

72

Exploring migrants' health seeking strategies: the case of Latin American migrants in London  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The objective of this paper is to examine the health seeking strategies of Latin American migrants in London. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper draws on a small case study analysis conducted with Latin American migrants in London and relevant stakeholders. Findings – The paper highlights that even where Latin American migrants do have entitlements to use the NHS, a

Jasmine Gideon

2011-01-01

73

Latin American Independence: Education and the Invention of New Polities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Latin American independence from Spain and Portugal in the first decades of the nineteenth century was a process of global relevance. A considerable number of new polities emerged that had to deal with radically new political situations. Particularly in the case of the former Spanish colonies, a general rejection of the colonial past determined…

Caruso, Marcelo

2010-01-01

74

The dynamics and differentiation of Latin American metal exports  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the propensity of exporters in certain primary commodity sectors to innovate and then attempts to measure the associated gains. The high degree of differentiation in metal products is giving rise to the potential for vertical upgrading for a substantial portion of Latin American export sales. Estimation of a demand system for U.S. imports shows that relatively high-priced

Benjamin Mandel

2011-01-01

75

METADATA USAGE TENDENCIES IN LATIN AMERICAN ELECTRONIC JOURNALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates the extent to which metadata tags are used in Latin American electronic journals, and whether these journals in fact provide basic in- formation (abstracts, keywords, etc.) that could be tagged as metadata. The au- thors also studied multilingualism in the marked-up information and in the basic information, particularly the use of English (which can help bring

Rolando Coto-Solano; Helena Francke; Saray Córdoba-González

76

RESTRUCTURING, CONSOLIDATION AND COMPETITION IN LATIN AMERICAN BANKING MARKETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the competitive conditions in the banking industries of eleven Latin American countries for the period 1993 to 2000. For these countries, the time interval under examination corresponds to an era characterized by substantial reforms to restructure their banking systems, increased consolidation and foreign bank penetration. The banks in our sample are found to be earning their revenues

H. Semih Yildirim; George C. Philippatos

2006-01-01

77

Restructuring, consolidation and competition in Latin American banking markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the competitive conditions in the banking industries of eleven Latin American countries for the period 1993–2000. For these countries, the time interval under examination corresponds to an era characterized by substantial reforms to restructure their banking systems, increased consolidation and foreign bank penetration. The banks in our sample are found to be earning their revenues as if

H. Semih Yildirim; George C. Philippatos

2007-01-01

78

A MODIFIED CAPM VALUATION MODEL FOR LATIN AMERICAN EMERGING MARKETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the systematic risk factors associated to long-term investments in Latin American Emerging Markets in order to estimate the discount rate to be used by an investor localized in a developed market. In order to do so, we review the main valuation approaches based on the CAPM model, focusing in the foreign exchange risk. Due to the high

Alfonso Hamard; Prosper Lamothe

79

FACTORS INFLUENCING ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN CARIBBEAN AND LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol consumption is considered an important social activity but a major health risk in Latin American and Caribbean countries (LAC). Alcohol consumption net benefits are doubtful and the factors influencing alcohol consumption in the LAC countries are not well documented. In this study, we use secondary data and Ordinary Least Squares Regression models to evaluate the factors influencing alcohol consumption

Carel Ligeon; Philip Gregorowicz; Curtis M. Jolly

2007-01-01

80

Distributional effects of dollarisation: the Latin American case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two years Ecuador, El Salvador and Guatemala have adopted the US dollar as a legal currency in their countries. Several other Latin American countries, including Argentina, are currently discussing dollarisation. In this policy paper we look at the existing evidence for answers to two basic questions. First, under what general circumstances might dollarisation make sense? Second, are

Anil Hira; James W Dean

2004-01-01

81

Perceptions of Political Corruption in Latin American Democracies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Political corruption poses a serious threat to the stability of developing democracies by eroding the links between citizens and governments. Using data on national levels of corruption (Transparency International 1997 CPI index) and individual opinion (1995?97 World Values Survey), this study finds that Latin Americans are quite aware of the seriousness of corruption in their countries. The ensuing question is

Damarys Canache; Michael E. Allison

2008-01-01

82

Cultural Values in Latin and North American Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study was conducted among adolescents in Puerto Rico, and replicated earlier studies in Buenos Aires and Chicago. Implications were drawn from frequencies in San Juan and compared with the Latin passive" pattern in Buenos Aires and the North American active" pattern in Chicago. (DM)

Manaster, Guy J.; Ahumada, Isa

1971-01-01

83

A Latin American Sociopolitical Conceptualization of Human Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike their counterparts in Asia and Africa, many Latin American human rights scholars have passively accepted the supposed cultural relevance of the liberal discourse of human rights and have limited academic studies to the sphere of legal analysis. Nevertheless, the work of the social sciences in the region has enriched human rights thought and the practices of social movements have

Ariadna Estévez

2008-01-01

84

PREFACE: XI Latin American Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

The XI Latin American Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena (LAWNP) has been held in Búzios-RJ, Brazil, from 5-9 October 2009. This international conference is one in a series that have gathered biennially, over the past 21 years, physicists and other scientists who direct their work towards several aspects of nonlinear phenomena and complex systems. The main purpose of LAWNP meetings is

Celia Anteneodo; Marcos G. E. da Luz

2010-01-01

85

A Qualitative Comparative Approach to Latin American Revolutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much qualitative analysis does not employ careful causal inference, and the quantitative alternative cannot be applied successfully where there are few cases, as in the study of social revolution. I apply Boolean algebra to 28 Latin American national cases since 1956, to explain the revolutionary successes in Cuba and Nicaragua and the failures or absence of revolution elsewhere. I reject

Timothy P. Wickham-Crowley

1991-01-01

86

Trade openness, financial liberalization and volatility The Latin American experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1990's, most Latin American governments implemented Washington Consensus type policies. Government sought to stabilize, liberalize and privatize. Central to this approach was trade openness and financial liberalization. Both types of policies which are complementary were undertaken with the promise that they would lead to stable and sustainable growth and improved welfare. The underlying rationale for trade liberalization was

Esteban Pérez Caldentey

87

Playing by the book: football in Latin American literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sport has long enjoyed a prominent position in Latin American societies, and in recent decades this relationship has increasingly been manifested in the region's literary production. While sports such as boxing, baseball, cycling and long?distance running have all featured in this flowering of sports literature, it is football that dominates this particular scene. This article analyses texts from different periods,

David Wood

2011-01-01

88

China?s Global Growth and Latin American Exports  

Microsoft Academic Search

China?s global expansion has led to concerns amongst other developing country exporters that they will be displaced by Chinese competition in their export markets. The paper develops a new index to measure the extent of the competitive threat which countries face from China, which is then applied to empirical data on US imports from China and 18 Latin American countries.

Rhys Jenkins

2008-01-01

89

Latin American Independence: Education and the Invention of New Polities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latin American independence from Spain and Portugal in the first decades of the nineteenth century was a process of global relevance. A considerable number of new polities emerged that had to deal with radically new political situations. Particularly in the case of the former Spanish colonies, a general rejection of the colonial past determined…

Caruso, Marcelo

2010-01-01

90

Latin American Education in an Era of Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analyzes effects of social structure changes on Latin American educational systems and investigates the segmentation and problems of the university system and higher education. Suggests innovation can be achieved by building up a new form of economic, social, and cultural organization for which education can pave the way. (TRS)|

Rama, German W.

1986-01-01

91

Structural rhinoplasty in Latin American patients.  

PubMed

Patients coming from Latin America are also known as mestizos or Hispanics. They are a combination of different ethnic groups where predominant facial features will vary depending on where the patient is coming from. A structural approach to the nose will be presented showing how techniques using sutures and grafts are used to reinforce and reconstruct existing structures achieving cosmetic long-term results. The surgical goal is to achieve a more defined looking nose that does not look overdone, is attractive, and retains ethnic characteristics. PMID:23761121

Cobo, Roxana

2013-06-12

92

Satellite systems for Latin American telecommunication requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aspects of satellite telecommunications systems of interest to Latin America are discussed. Presently existing systems are described, including both state-run and international services. Services planned for the region are examined, including Geostar, a service that provides satellite radio determination and message services, a system which will provide a high-capacity digital voice and data service for airlines, and direct broadcast satellites. Applications of these systems in education, rural telephony, data transmission, news services, publishing, emergency communications, and mobile communications are addressed.

Elizondo, Eduardo L.

93

Free trade agreements with the United States : what's in it for Latin America?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike earlier analysts, who have focused on U.S. objectives, the authors focus here on what 11 Latin American countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela) stand to gain from a preferential removal of U.S. trade barriers - that is, from the development of a free trade area (FTA) arrangement. They find that the United

Refik Erzan; Alexander Yeats

1992-01-01

94

The Latin American Consortium of Studies in Obesity (LASO)  

PubMed Central

Summary Current, high-quality data are needed to evaluate the health impact of the epidemic of obesity in Latin America. The Latin American Consortium of Studies of Obesity (LASO) has been established, with the objectives of (i) Accurately estimating the prevalence of obesity and its distribution by sociodemographic characteristics; (ii) Identifying ethnic, socioeconomic and behavioural determinants of obesity; (iii) Estimating the association between various anthropometric indicators or obesity and major cardiovascular risk factors and (iv) Quantifying the validity of standard definitions of the various indexes of obesity in Latin American population. To achieve these objectives, LASO makes use of individual data from existing studies. To date, the LASO consortium includes data from 11 studies from eight countries (Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Peru, Puerto Rico and Venezuela), including a total of 32 462 subjects. This article describes the overall organization of LASO, the individual studies involved and the overall strategy for data analysis. LASO will foster the development of collaborative obesity research among Latin American investigators. More important, results from LASO will be instrumental to inform health policies aiming to curtail the epidemic of obesity in the region.

Bautista, L. E.; Casas, J. P.; Herrera, V. M.; Miranda, J. J.; Perel, P.; Pichardo, R.; Gonzalez, A.; Sanchez, J. R.; Ferreccio, C.; Aguilera, X.; Silva, E.; Orostegui, M.; Gomez, L. F.; Chirinos, J. A.; Medina-Lezama, J.; Perez, C. M.; Suarez, E.; Ortiz, A. P.; Rosero, L.; Schapochnik, N.; Ortiz, Z.; Ferrante, D.

2009-01-01

95

Attitudes toward Family Obligations among American Adolescents with Asian, Latin American, and European Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the attitudes toward family obligations among over 800 American tenth ( M age 5 15.7 years) and twelfth ( M age 5 17.7 years) grade students from Filipino, Chinese, Mexican, Central and South American, and European backgrounds. Asian and Latin American adolescents possessed stronger values and greater expectations regarding their duty to assist, respect,

Andrew J. Fuligni; Vivian Tseng; May Lam

1999-01-01

96

Latin American Universities and the Bologna Process: From Commercialisation to the "Tuning" Competencies Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through the "Tuning-Latin America" competencies project, Latin American universities have been incorporated into the Bologna Process. In 2003 the European Commission approved an initiative of this project for Latin America and began to promote it among ministries, university presidents' organisations and other institutions in Latin America. This…

Aboites, Hugo

2010-01-01

97

New World Orders: Continuities and Changes in Latin American Migration  

PubMed Central

Although migration from Mexico to the United States is more than a century old, until recently most other countries in Latin America did not send out significant numbers of migrants to foreign destinations. Over the past thirty years, however, emigration has emerged as an important demographic force throughout the region. This article outlines trends in the volume and composition of the migrant outflows emanating from various countries in Latin America, highlighting their diversity with respect to country of destination; multiplicity of destinations; legal auspices of entry; gender and class composition; racial, ethnic, and national origins; and the mode of insertion into the receiving society. The review underscores the broadening of international migration away from unidirectional flows toward the United States to new streams going to Europe, Canada, Australia, and Japan, as well as to other countries in Latin America itself.

DURAND, JORGE; MASSEY, DOUGLAS S.

2010-01-01

98

Adapting to the Rise of China: How can Latin American Companies Succeed?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As China becomes a global economic power, Latin American companies will need to adopt winning strategies to succeed in an increasingly competitive landscape. This paper explains the main implications that the shifting power equation will have on Latin America’s economies, analysing the myths and realities concerning China’s impact on the region. It also assesses some innovative business strategies Latin American

Rolando Avendano; Angel Alonso Arroba; Arturo Estrada

2009-01-01

99

Uncanny Periphery: Existential(ist) Latin American Narratives of the 1930s  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation investigates the narrative practice of Latin American Existentialism. My project tracks the structures, themes, and interpretations of Existentialism across national borders in the belief that a common expression exists which is distinctly Latin American. I begin this philosophical cartography, with four Existential(ist) novels produced in Latin America during the 1930s. Specifically, I will examine the Existentialist quality of

Edwin Murillo

2009-01-01

100

Portfolio Analysis of Latin American Stock Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the optimal investment strategy in the stock markets of a selected group of South American countries: Mexico, Brazil, Argentina and Chile. The Markowitz efficiency frontiers are derived based on daily stock market index returns expressed in US dollars, for the period of 1 January 1988 through 23 December 1993. In addition to the Markowitz algorithm, the low

Yochanan Shachmurove

1998-01-01

101

Production and Consumer Acceptance of Latin American White Cheese1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latin American white cheese was produced by direct acidification of whole milk to pH 4.7 to 4.8 at 82 C. In a typical trial, whole milk (2730 kg) was heated to 82 C in a cheese vat. Citric acid solution (5.9 kg\\/60 liters water) was blended to precipitate the curd. Following whey draining, the curd was mixed with 8 kg

R. C. Chandan; H. Marin; K. R. Nakrani; Mary D. Zehner

1979-01-01

102

Food Insecurity Among Latin American Recent Immigrants in Toronto  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food security is an important social determinant of health. The 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2 reported\\u000a high prevalence of food insecurity among low income households and those formed by recent immigrants. Exploration of the extent\\u000a and correlates of food insecurity among recent Latin Americans (LA) immigrants is essential considering they encompasses an\\u000a increasing number of young immigrants, many

Mandana Vahabi; Cynthia Damba; Cecilia Rocha; Elizabeth Cristina Montoya

103

Do panel data permit the rescue of the Balassa-Samuelson hypothesis for Latin American countries?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tests empirically the Balassa-Samuelson (BS) hypothesis (i.e. rapid economic growth is accompanied by real exchange rate appreciation because of differential productivity growth between tradable and non-tradable sectors) using annual data for twenty Latin American countries. The paper applies new panel data unit-root tests proposed by Im et al. (Discussion paper, University of Cambridge, June 1997) and new panel

Imed Drine; Christophe Rault

2003-01-01

104

U.S.-Latin American Nuclear Relations: From Commitment to Defiance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Latin America is once again playing an active role in economic and world affairs. This recent activism is taking place after the region experienced decades of stagnant growth, financial chaos, and political instability. To date, Latin American countries a...

A. Sotomayor

2012-01-01

105

Sociopolitical Development, Work Salience, and Vocational Expectations Among Low Socioeconomic Status African American, Latin American, and Asian American Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural barriers constrain marginalized youths' development of work salience and vocational expectations. Sociopolitical development (SPD), the consciousness of, and motivation to reduce, sociopolitical inequality, may facilitate the negotiation of structural constraints. A structural model of SPD's impact on work salience and vocational expectations was proposed and its generalizability tested among samples of low-socioeconomic-status African American, Latin American, and Asian American

Matthew A. Diemer; Qiu Wang; Traymanesha Moore; Shannon R. Gregory; Keisha M. Hatcher; Adam M. Voight

2010-01-01

106

[Contributions from two Latin American psychiatric classifications to the development of ICD-11].  

PubMed

In the context of the updating of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), this study conducted a code-by-code comparison between the ICD-10 chapter "Mental and Behavioural Disorders" and the diagnostic categories of two Latin American classification schemes: the Third Cuban Psychiatric Glossary (GC-3) and the Latin American Guide to Psychiatric Diagnosis (GLADP). The objective was to help define what categories in the current classification should be broadened and what new categories might be added to the future ICD-11 to make it more applicable in local sociocultural and clinical contexts that differ from those found in regions whose perspectives have historically dominated the ICD, namely, the United States and Europe. It is hoped that the results will contribute to the efforts under way to develop a genuinely international classification system. PMID:21437371

Rivas Rodríguez, Mar; Reed, Geoffrey M; First, Michael B; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis

2011-02-01

107

Managing Latin America: US power, North American knowledge and the cold war  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: US Power, North American Knowledge and the Cold WarThere is now a substantial literature which seeks to situate the influential Latin American theories of development which emerged during the Cold War in their wider political and historical context. And there is a large number of articles which look at the North American historiography of Latin America and at the

Mark T. Berger

1996-01-01

108

Intra-industry trade between the united states and the major latin american countries: Measurement and implications for free trade in the Americas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents estimates for the level of intra-industry trade in the 1991 bilateral commerce between the United States and Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela. As theory predicts, intra-industry trade is positively correlated with income and with foreign investment in this study. Furthermore, Mexico and the United States present high levels of intra-industry trade, whereas the

Jorge G. Gonzalez; Alejandro Velez

1995-01-01

109

Symbolic representations of 'home' in Afro-Latin American women's literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to add an additional level onto the palimpsest of reconstructing Afro-Latin American women's voices by interrogating how symbolic representations of Home are manifested in contemporary Afro-Latin American women's writing. This analysis focuses on fiction and poetry written by four women of Afro-Latin American ancestry who write from within their homeland. The texts here under

Ivette Maria Wilson

2009-01-01

110

Disruption, yet community reconstitution: subverting the privatization of Latin American plazas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latin American scholars have recently discussed the privatization of urban public space. A fundamental aspect of this process\\u000a is the disintegration of communities because it often targets and affects a peculiarly Latin American kind of public space:\\u000a the plaza. Plazas have traditionally functioned as cultural centres in Latin American cites. They are central meeting points\\u000a for political groups, sites of

Veronica Crossa

111

Electricity sector reforms in four Latin-American countries and their impact on carbon dioxide emissions and renewable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions related to energy consumption for electricity generation in four Latin-American countries in the context of the liberalization process. From 1990 to 2006, power plants based on renewable energy sources decreased its share in power installed capacity, and the carbon index defined as CO2 emission by unit of energy for electricity production stayed almost

Belizza Janet Ruiz-Mendoza; Claudia Sheinbaum-Pardo

2010-01-01

112

The relevance and recognition of Latin American science. Introduction to the fourth issue of CBP-Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the number of science and engineering (S&E) publications produced in Latin America grew exponentially over the past 15 years, the investment in science and the number of full time researchers did not grow at a comparable rate. Moreover, Latin American science is handicapped by constrained resources and access to information, higher costs of research, English-language barriers and brain-drain. One possible

Marcelo Hermes-Lima; Antonieta C. R. Alencastro; Natacha C. F. Santos; Carlos A. Navas; Rene O. Beleboni

2007-01-01

113

Barriers and paths to success : Latin American MBAs' views of employment in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to examine perceived barriers and paths to success for Latin American immigrant professionals in the Canadian job market. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Findings are based on 20 semi-structured interviews with Latin American graduates of Canadian MBA programs. Interviews were analyzed for emergent categories and common themes. Findings – Despite their strong educational backgrounds, participants perceived several challenges

Luciana Turchick Hakak; Ingo Holzinger; Jelena Zikic

2010-01-01

114

Cooperative research projects between the Spanish National Research Council and Latin-American institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research projects in cooperation between Spanish National Research Council and Latin-American Organizations, that have been developed in the last eight years, were studied. Around forty Spanish research institutes have cooperated with Latin-American ones, mostly with Cuba, Chile, Brazil and Mexico. The interpretation of the collaboration rates with the different countries is discussed. Duration of the projects, number of researchers and

M. T. Fernández; A. Agis; A. Martín; A. Cabrero; I. Gómez

1992-01-01

115

Seeing the Sites: Latin American Studies Online: A Review of Free Peer-Reviewed Journals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public services librarians seeking to assist researchers in Latin American studies are increasingly augmenting their searches to include online publications not generally indexed in typical library journal and newspaper databases. Allan Scherlen introduces us to this multifaceted world of Web publications in Latin American Studies, centering on two free online peer-reviewed journals that offer an alternative to the traditional subscription

Allan Scherlen

2004-01-01

116

PREFACE: XIX Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XIX)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume contains selected papers which have been presented at the XIX Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XIX) held at Puerto Iguazú, Argentina, from 5--10 October 2008. The conference, covering all areas of Solid State Physics, is one of the most important and traditional meetings in Physics in our region. The Latin American Symposium on Solid State

Adriana Serquis; Carlos Balseiro; Pablo Bolcatto

2009-01-01

117

Committee Property Rights, Executive Dominance, and Political Parties in Latin American Legislatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by theories of congressional committees in the US context, and building on the growing body of work focusing on the institutional features of legislatures in Latin American presidential systems, this paper explores two previously overlooked aspects of committee politics. Using comparative data from three Latin American countries, it examines the strategic and jurisdictional dynamics in which chamber leaders assign

Charles J. Finocchiaro; Gregg B. Johnson

2010-01-01

118

From magic to science: a journey throughout Latin American medical mycology.  

PubMed

The start of Latin America's love story with fungi may be placed in pre-Hispanic times when the use of fungi in both ritual ceremonies and daily life were common to the native civilizations. But the medical mycology discipline in Latin America started at the end of the 19th Century. At that time, scholars such as A. Posadas, R. Seeber, A. Lutz and P. Almeida, discovered agents of fungal diseases, the study of which has influenced the regional research ever since. Heirs to them are the researchers that today thrive in regional Universities and Research Institutes. Two current initiatives improve cooperation among Latin American medical mycologists. First, the periodical organization of International Paracoccidioidomycosis Meetings (seven so far, from 1979 to 1999); second, the creation of the Latin American Association for Mycology in 1991 (three Congresses, from 1993 to 1999). Latin American publications have increased in international specialized journals such as that from our Society (ISHAM) (from 8% in 1967 to 19% in 1999), and the Iberoamerican Journal of Mycology (Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia; > 40% from 1997 to 1999). In addition, Latin American participation at ISHAM International Congresses has risen from 6.9% in 1975 to 21.3% in 1997, and 43.2% at the 14th ISHAM Congress, held for the first time in a Latin American country, Argentina. A significant contribution of women to the scientific establishment of Latin American medical mycology (e.g., 45% of Latin American papers vs. 18% of other regions published in Journal of Medical and Veterinary Mycology in 1987, had women as authors or coauthors) suggests a better academic consideration of Latin American women against their counterparts in the developed world. Taken together, all these figures reflect the enthusiasm of our Latin American colleagues in the field, despite the difficulties that afflict our region, and affect our work. PMID:11204136

San-Blas, G

2000-01-01

119

Anaphylaxis in Latin America: a report of the online Latin American survey on anaphylaxis (OLASA)  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The aims of the Online Latin American Survey of Anaphylaxis (OLASA) were to identify the main clinical manifestations, triggers, and treatments of severe allergic reactions in patients who were seen by allergists from July 2008 to June 2010 in 15 Latin American countries and Portugal (n?=?634). RESULTS: Of all patients, 68.5% were older than 18 years, 41.6% were male, and 65.4% experienced the allergic reaction at home. The etiologic agent was identified in 87.4% of cases and predominantly consisted of drugs (31.2%), foods (23.3%), and insect stings (14.9%). The main symptom categories observed during the acute episodes were cutaneous (94.0%) and respiratory (79.0%). The majority of patients (71.6%) were treated initially by a physician (office/emergency room) within the first hour after the reaction occurred (60.2%), and 43.5% recovered in the first hour after treatment. Most patients were treated in an emergency setting, but only 37.3% received parenteral epinephrine alone or associated with other medication. However, 80.5% and 70.2% were treated with corticosteroids or antihistamines (alone or in association), respectively. A total of 12.9% of the patients underwent reanimation maneuvers, and 15.2% were hospitalized. Only 5.8% of the patients returned to the emergency room after discharge, with 21.7% returning in the first 6 hours after initial treatment. CONCLUSION: The main clinical manifestations of severe allergic reactions were cutaneous. The etiologic agents that were identified as causing these acute episodes differed according to age group. Following in order: drugs (31.2%), foods (23.3% and insect stings (14.9%) in adults with foods predominance in children. Treatment provided for acute anaphylactic reactions was not appropriate. It is necessary to improve educational programs in order to enhance the knowledge on this potentially fatal emergency.

Sole, Dirceu; Ivancevich, Juan Carlos; Borges, Mario Sanchez; Coelho, Magna Adaci; Rosario, Nelson A; Ardusso, Ledit Ramon Francisco; Bernd, Luis Antonio Guerra

2011-01-01

120

The Latin American contribution to the psychoanalytic concept of phantasy.  

PubMed

The author argues that the ubiquity of phantasies at various levels of mental functioning is undisputed in the current schools of psychoanalytic thought; however, she demonstrates some variations in their understanding of how the psychotherapeutic access to different configurations occurs. In the process of examining and acknowledging the central role played by unconscious phantasies in his patients' symptoms, Freud gradually broadened the vernacular meaning of the German word 'Phantasie' that refers to imagination and the world of imagination, conferring on it the specific features that came to characterize its use in the psychoanalytic vocabulary. Later, the expansion of the concept derived from Melanie Klein's clinical material obtained from child analyses gave rise to important debates. The author discusses the main points of disagreement that led to these debates, as well as their various theoretical and technical implications. Psychoanalytic associations in Latin America were strongly influenced by Klein and her followers. Thus, most of their scientific writings use the concept of unconscious phantasy put forward by the Kleinian school. Taking Kleinian principles as their starting point, Baranger and Baranger made the most original Latin American contribution to the concept of unconscious phantasy with their works on the unconscious phantasies generated by the analytic pair. PMID:23278202

de Barros, Izelinda Garcia

2012-12-01

121

United States Security Policy in Latin America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Honorable Lester B. Pearson, Prime Minister of Canada during the early 1960's, once described the experience of being a nation on the borders of the United States as like being in bed with an elephant no matter how friendly or well intentioned the ele...

S. R. Nichols H. J. Wiarda

1993-01-01

122

Latin American Social Medicine and Global Social Medicine  

PubMed Central

A fundamental change in the theory underlying public health and medicine is needed. Latin American social medicine (LASM), originating in a region of the world that has been subjected to colonial and postcolonial influence, will be part of this change. To the extent that the social production of disease among people in other regions is a consequence of various large-scale forms of domination, LASM offers a relevant analysis, models of resistance, and exemplars of social medicine in practice. I draw upon LASM to examine the social production of disease in the Marshall Islands and Iraq. I suggest a basis for a global social medicine in the shared experience of suffering and describe implications for public health theory and practice.

Yamada, Seiji

2003-01-01

123

Stability and Change in Ethnic Labeling among Adolescents from Asian and Latin American Immigrant Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An important question for the acculturation of adolescents from immigrant families is whether they retain ethnic labels that refer to their national origin (e.g., Mexican, Chinese) or adopt labels that are dominant in American society (e.g., Latino, Asian American, American). Approximately 380 adolescents from Asian and Latin American immigrant…

Fuligni, Andrew J.; Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R.; Baldelomar, Oscar

2008-01-01

124

Does Research on Education Fit the Development Needs of Latin America?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fitting educational research to Latin America's developmental needs is a political issue involving differences in perspectives of Latin American and United States researchers, Latin American governments, and agencies concerned with development outside Latin America. A comparison of ERIC's "Current Index to Journals in Education" with the Latin

McGinn, Noel; Tatto, Maria Teresa

125

Latin American Social Medicine: Roots, Development During the 1990s, and Current Challenges  

PubMed Central

Latin American social medicine arose during the 1950s and 1960s, drawing its inspiration from the social movements that emerged in France, Germany, and England in the mid-19th century. The Latin American movement of social medicine has clear ideological goals. It is organized around the Latin American Association of Social Medicine, which was founded in 1984 and is regarded as a social, political, and academic movement. This article takes a historical perspective and presents the reasons for the emergence and identity of the association, focusing on the main developments and contributions of this movement from the 1990s until the present time.

Tajer, Debora

2003-01-01

126

PREFACE: XI Latin American Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The XI Latin American Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena (LAWNP) has been held in Búzios-RJ, Brazil, from 5-9 October 2009. This international conference is one in a series that have gathered biennially, over the past 21 years, physicists and other scientists who direct their work towards several aspects of nonlinear phenomena and complex systems. The main purpose of LAWNP meetings is to create a friendly and motivating environment, such that researchers from Latin America and from other parts of the globe can discuss not only their own latest results but also the trends and perspectives in this very interdisciplinary field of investigation. Hence, it constitutes a forum for promoting scientific collaboration and fomenting the emergence of new ideas, helping to advance the field. The XI edition (LAWNP'09) has gathered more than 230 scientists and students (most from Latin America), covering all of the world (27 different countries from North and South America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania). In total there were 18 plenary lectures, 80 parallel talks, and 140 poster contributions. A stimulating round-table discussion also took place devoted to the present and future of the Latin American Institutions in Complex Phenomena (a summary can be found at http://lawnp09.fis.puc-rio.br, in the Round-Table report link). The 2009 workshop was devoted to a wide scope of themes and points of view, pursuing to include the latest trends and developments in the science of nonlinearity. In this way, we have a great pleasure in publishing this Proceedings volume based on the high quality scientific works presented at LAWNP'09, covering already established methods as well as new approaches, discussing both theoretical and practical aspects, and addressing paradigmatic systems and also completely new problems, in nonlinearity and complexity. In fact, the present volume may be a very valuable reference for those interested in an overview on how nonlinear interactions can affect different phenomena in nature, addressing: classical and quantum chaos; instability and bifurcation; cooperative behavior; self-organization; pattern formation and synchronization; far-from-equilibrium and fluctuation dynamics; nonlinearity in fluid, plasmas, granular media, optics, and wave propagation; turbulence onset; and complexity in natural and social systems. The success of the conference was possible thanks to the financial support from many agencies, especially the Brazilian agencies Capes and CNPq, and the international agencies, Binational Itaupú, ICTP-Trieste, and CAIS-Albuquerque. Equally very important was the support by the organizer's institutions PUC-Rio de Janeiro and UFPR-Curitiba. We also must thank Journal of Physics: Conference Series, for believing in the success and scientific quality of the conference, and to the journal staff, specially Anete Ashton, for the kind and prompt help during the whole production process of this publication. Finally, and most important, we acknowledge all the participants of the LAWNP'09, whose interest and enthusiasm in advancing the science of nonlinearity constitutes the true moto making the present Proceedings a very valuable scientific contribution. Celia Anteneodo (PUC-Rio, Brazil) and Marcos G E da Luz (UFPR-Curitiba, Brazil) Conference Chairs Conference photograph Some of the conference participants. CAPES logo This issue was supported by CAPES (Agency for Evaluation and Support of Graduate Studies Programs), Brazilian govern entity devoted to the formation of human resources. CA would like to thank CAPES for financial support.

Anteneodo, Celia; da Luz, Marcos G. E.

2010-09-01

127

Latin American Registry of Pediatric Renal Transplantation 2004-2008.  

PubMed

The Latin American Pediatric Nephrology Association (ALANEPE) reports the first regional kidney transplant registry in Latin America. A mean range of 75%, 30% to 100% renal transplant recipients under 21 yr old were included. Out of 20 countries invited to participate, 14 performed renal transplant, 11 had universal financial support from their governments. The centers included: Brazil (9), Argentina (4), Chile (4), Venezuela (3), Mexico (2), and one in: Cuba, Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Ecuador, Honduras, Paraguay and Peru. The registry included 1458 patients, average of 291 per year, 55% male. Mean follow-up 23.4+/-17 months; mean age was 11.7+/-4.3 yr (1-21), 11% under five yr of age. Etiology: uropathy/ reflux nephropathy 27%, glomerulopathies 24% (included 12% FSGS), hypo/dysplasia (11%), vascular (6%), congenital/hereditary (5%), unknown (19%). Induction therapy: 71% anti-IL2RAb, 13% ATG/TIMO, 14% non-induction. Maintenance therapy: Tacrolimus 64%, Cyclosporine 32%, MMF 54%, MPS 20%, noTORi 96%, steroids 90%, withdrawal or steroid avoidance 10%. Loss of graft 155/1458 (11%), death with functioning graft (3.4%), vascular thrombosis (2.8%), acute rejection (2.8%), recurrence of disease (1%). Forty-eight patients died (3.3%); infection was the main cause 23 (2.1%). Global patient survival rate at one, three, and five yr was 97%, 96%, and 96%. Graft survival rate at one, three, and five yr LRD was 96%, 93% and 89%; for DD 92%, 86% and 76% respectively. Both survival rates were higher in LRD (p<0.008 and p<0.001). A pediatric renal transplant study has started, making information available to be shared between the centers and the world. PMID:20525000

2010-05-26

128

Latin American Universities: From an Original Revolution to an Uncertain Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to discuss the prospects of Latin American public universities. Its main assertion is that universities could become important actors of development in Latin America, but prevailing trends point in another direction. The paper focuses on the interactions between, on the one hand, specific traditions and social contexts,…

Arocena, Rodrigo; Sutz, Judith

2005-01-01

129

Latin American Tables of Feed Composition. (LAT-636.085-C555).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These Latin American tables of feed composition have been prepared using data collected from analyses of feed stuffs from most countries of Latin America. The tables include also appropriate analytical data from the U.S. and Canada. These data are used fo...

W. C. Christianson J. Eggleston L. R. McDowell J. E. Conrad L. E. Harris

1972-01-01

130

The Current Situation in Latin American Education. Bulletin, 1963, No. 21. OE-14060  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The brief description of education in Latin American presented here is based on information available to the Office of Education, much of it in unpublished form, and provides an overview of the general situation of education in Latin America. Document contents include: (1) Introduction: Some Background Factors--historical,…

Hauch, Charles C.

1962-01-01

131

Legitimacy and Self-succession: The Paradox of the Latin American President  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coup in Honduras demonstrated the inherent weakness of democracy in Latin America. More than being the first coup in Honduras, the author of this study believes the coup came about from a loss legitimacy by then President Mel Zelaya, as he was the first Latin American president to fail at pushing through a constitutional amendment allowing for self-succession. Given

Christopher Wall

132

Latin American universities and the third mission : trends, challenges, and policy options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Universities in Latin America are increasingly considered instruments of social and economic development and face rising expectations in regard to supplying relevant skills, undertaking applied research, and engaging in commercial activity. The paper discusses trends and challenges within Latin American universities, as well as policy options available for strengthening their contributions to social and economic development. The so-called third mission

Kristian Thorn; Maarja Soo

2006-01-01

133

Real Exchange Rates and Productivity: Evidence from a Panel of Latin American Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The link between relative factor productivity and real exchange rates (the Harrod-Balassa- Samuelson effect) has not been extensively treated for the Latin American case. Previous studies have used either a short time span or inappropriate productivity proxies, which may be yielding misleading conclusions. In this paper we employ sectoral labor and output data from an unbalanced panel of 18 Latin

Luis Bendezu

134

Earnings Inequality Within and Across Gender, Racial, and Ethnic Groups in Four Latin American Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Latin American countries are generally characterized as displaying high income and earnings inequality overall along with high inequality by gender, race, and ethnicity. However, the latter phenomenon is not a major contributor to the former phenomenon. U...

J. P. Jacobsen W. Cunningham

2008-01-01

135

Environmental Market Conditions and Business Opportunities in Key Latin American Countries. Business Focus Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Environmental markets and U.S. business opportunities in six Latin American countries -- Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela -- are reviewed in the report. Specific issues covered include environmental policy, the current and prospec...

1993-01-01

136

CYCLICAL INDICATORS OF FISCAL POLICY IN LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES (WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO CHILE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, numerical fiscal rules have been established in most Latin American countries; at least ten countries have some legislative body constraining explicitly the Government in its fiscal results. Nevertheless, the so-called \\

Ricardo Martner

137

Diagnosis and treatment of congenital hemophilia with inhibitors a Latin American perspective.  

PubMed

The Committee of Latin America on the Therapeutics of Inhibitor Groups (CLOTTING) is composed of a number of hemophilia specialists from Latin America. The group aims to encourage the adoption of a good standard of care for Latin American patients with hemophilia. The occurrence of inhibitors in patients with hemophilia poses clinical challenges, and it is estimated that between 1000 and 3000 patients in Latin America are affected by hemophilia with inhibitors. There is an urgent need to establish a regional consensus and clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. We present an extensive review based on best current clinical practice and published literature, as seen from a Latin American perspective, taking into account the variable nature of hemophilia care available in the various countries in this Region. PMID:18689157

Pérez Bianco, Raúl; Ozelo, Margareth Castro; Villaça, Paula Ribeiro; Solano, Maria Helena; Jimenez Cruze, Guillermo; Martinez Murillo, Carlos; Garcia Chavez, Jaime; Mendoza, Saul; Rodriguez Grecco, Ismael; Ruiz-Saez, Arlette

2008-01-01

138

Third special price report. [Latin American countries, USA, and Canada  

SciTech Connect

Energy Detente's latest international price survey at midyear 1982 showed the average price of premium gasoline had fallen US $0.27 in the 11-month period since their first special report in July 1981. The biggest price drop occurred in Costa Rica, where prices in local currency increased slightly but in US dollars declined US $1.91 - due to the fall of the Colon against the US dollar. The case of Costa Rica exemplifies how the rise of the US dollar influenced the survey findings. Generally, the price drops showed that in several countries fuel prices haven't kept up with inflation and this shows up when prices are expressed in dollars. However, analysis of US prices, and prices in Guatemala where currency is at par with the dollar, shows prices fell (modestly) there too. Prices in Mexico and Venezuela doubled. Ecuador listed the lowest prices in the survey. Also included in this issue are brief energy notes from Mexico and other Latin American countries.

Not Available

1982-06-06

139

The later evolution of modern sport in Latin America: the North American influence.  

PubMed

American impact on modern sports in Latin America overlaps geographically and chronologically with the European, especially British, impact. Principally baseball in the Caribbean basin, more recently basketball and volleyball across the hemisphere and occasionally American football in more limited areas illustrate a north-to-south movement executed by businessmen, educators, missionaries, military personnel, returning travelers (often students), sports entrepreneurs and television. Often initially supported by promoters of development within Latin America, this transfer has altered local recreational patterns and attracted Latin athletes to pursue careers in North America, provoking accusations of cultural imperialism and exploitation. PMID:18592684

Arbena, J L

2001-01-01

140

Latin America: Introduction and Summary. Grade Five (Unit 7). Resource Unit. Project Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The last of three main parts designed for fifth grade students, resource unit seven provides an overview of patterns of Latin America and a system of regionalization for the total area on the basis of population composition. Following the overview, a series of case studies arranged in separate sub-units on Buenos Aires, Manaus, Sao Paulo, Chile,…

Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

141

Climate Change and Climate Variability in the Latin American Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past three decades LA was subjected to several climate-related impacts due to increased El Niño occurrences. Two extremely intense episodes of El Niño and other increased climate extremes happened during this period contributing greatly to augment the vulnerability of human systems to natural disasters. In addition to weather and climate, the main drivers of the increased vulnerability are demographic pressure, unregulated urban growth, poverty and rural migration, low investment in infrastructure and services, and problems in inter-sector coordination. As well, increases in temperature and increases/decreases in precipitation observed during the last part of 20th century have yet led to intensification of glaciers melting, increases in floods/droughts and forest fires frequency, increases in morbidity and mortality, increases in plant diseases incidence; lost of biodiversity, reduction in dairy cattle production, and problems with hydropower generation, highly affecting LA human system. For the end of the 21st century, the projected mean warming for LA ranges from 1 to 7.5ºC and the frequency of weather and climate extremes could increase. Additionally, deforestation is projected to continue leading to a reduction of 25 percent in Amazonia forest in 2020 and 40 percent in 2050. Soybeans planted area in South America could increase by 55 percent by 2020 enhancing aridity/desertification in many of the already water- stressed regions. By 2050 LA population is likely to be 50 percent larger than in 2000, and migration from the country sides to the cities will continue. In the near future, these predicted changes are very likely to severely affect a number of ecosystems and sectors distribution; b) Disappearing most tropical glaciers; c) Reducing water availability and hydropower generation; d) Increasing desertification and aridity; e) Severely affecting people, resources and economic activities in coastal areas; f) Increasing crop's pests and diseases; and g) Changing some human diseases distribution and provoking the emergence of new ones. The impact of climate change in Latin America's productive sectors is estimated to be of a 1.3 percent reduction of the region's GDP for a change of 2ºC in global temperature (without consider non market sectors and extremes events). Moreover, if the LA countries continue to follow the business as usual scenario, the wealth of natural resources that have supported economic and socio-cultural development in the region will be further degraded, reducing the regional potential for growth. Urgent measures must be taken to help bring environmental and social considerations from the margins to the decision-making and development strategies. This presentation is part of the revision done for the Latin American (LA) chapter under the IPCC WGII Fourth Assessment Report.

Magrin, G. O.; Gay Garcia, C.; Cruz Choque, D.; Gimenez-Sal, J. C.; Moreno, A. R.; Nagy, G. J.; Nobre, C.; Villamizar, A.

2007-05-01

142

Teaching about Women and Underdevelopment in Latin American History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latin America, the most advanced of the underdeveloped regions of the world, is a perfect showcase for exploring the contradictions that come into play when the historical construction of gender clashes with economic practice. The history of modern Latin America shows that economic development can actually work to the detriment of women. The most…

Pino, Julio Cesar

2001-01-01

143

Geographic Patterns of Genome Admixture in Latin American Mestizos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large and diverse population of Latin America is potentially a powerful resource for elucidating the genetic basis of complex traits through admixture mapping. However, no genome-wide characterization of admixture across Latin America has yet been attempted. Here, we report an analysis of admixture in thirteen Mestizo populations (i.e. in regions of mainly European and Native settlement) from seven countries

Sijia Wang; Nicolas Ray; Winston Rojas; Maria V. Parra; Gabriel Bedoya; Carla Gallo; Giovanni Poletti; Guido Mazzotti; Kim Hill; Ana M. Hurtado; Beatriz Camrena; Humberto Nicolini; William Klitz; Ramiro Barrantes; Julio A. Molina; Nelson B. Freimer; Maria Cátira Bortolini; Francisco M. Salzano; Maria L. Petzl-Erler; Luiza T. Tsuneto; José E. Dipierri; Emma L. Alfaro; Graciela Bailliet; Nestor O. Bianchi; Elena Llop; Francisco Rothhammer; Laurent Excoffier; Andrés Ruiz-Linares

2008-01-01

144

Teaching about Women and Underdevelopment in Latin American History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Latin America, the most advanced of the underdeveloped regions of the world, is a perfect showcase for exploring the contradictions that come into play when the historical construction of gender clashes with economic practice. The history of modern Latin America shows that economic development can actually work to the detriment of women. The most…

Pino, Julio Cesar

2001-01-01

145

Latin American Youth in a Time of Change and Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This 4-part study reaffirms the concepts of a previous study entitled "Situation and Prospects of Youth in Latin America" and approved in 1983, and on the basis of new knowledge explores more deeply national situations and their diversity. It offers new conceptual and theoretical contributions on the condition of youth in Latin America and its…

United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

146

Latin America's \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses past trade trends and agricultural protectionism in Latin American agriculture, by examining observed changes in Latin American agriculture and trade policies over the last 20 years that have led to what the authors call the \\

Alberto Valdes; William E. Foster

2006-01-01

147

North and Latin American Business Negotiations: An Assessment of Differences in Interpersonal Perception.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Both North American and Latin American business professionals were investigated in a study that focused on the perceived communication problems between the two groups. A number of major areas of interest were considered, including the following: (1) source of credibility (what dimensions of personality were seen as most desirable in the…

Rankis, Olaf E.; Biggers, J. Thompson

148

Constitutional Prospects for the Implementation of Funding and Governance Reforms in Latin American Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rationale for comprehensive reform of Latin American higher education crystallized in the mid-1990s in policy documents published by the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank. This "Washington consensus" of the multilateral banks advocated, among other measures, greater reliance on private sources of funding, increased…

Bernasconi, Andres

2007-01-01

149

Constitutional prospects for the implementation of funding and governance reforms in Latin American higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rationale for comprehensive reform of Latin American higher education crystallized in the mid?1990s in policy documents published by the World Bank and the Inter?American Development Bank. This ‘Washington consensus’ of the multilateral banks advocated, among other measures, greater reliance on private sources of funding, increased accountability, and a more effective management and governance structure for public universities in the

Andrés Bernasconi

2007-01-01

150

Latin American Drug Trade: Scope, Dimensions, Impact, and Response.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transnational crime remains a particularly serious problem in Latin America, affecting numerous states both in and beyond the region and having severe repercussions for political, economic, and human security. Although a range of issues confront policymak...

P. Chalk

2011-01-01

151

New Mutations of the Protestant Ethic among Latin American Pentecostals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that there is a partial consonance between the ‘inner-worldly asceticism’ of the fast-growing Protestant movement in Latin America and the economic imperatives of the global capitalism into which Latin America has been progessively incorporated since the 1960s.This consonance stops short of being an unequivocal ‘elective affinity’ since there are also points of tension between the new Protestant

Bernice Martin

1995-01-01

152

Latin American Economies: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly  

Microsoft Academic Search

uring the 1990s, many important things changed for the better in Latin Amer- ica. Inflation reached a 50-year low, and economic growth replaced the pro- longed economic stagnation that at times seemed chronic. Financial crashes that once created decade-long debacles now last just a year or two. Commerce among countries in Latin America boomed from less than one-fifth of the

Moisés Naím; Carlos Lozada

153

Tobacco smoking in seven Latin American cities: the CARMELA study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study aimed to explore tobacco smoking in seven major cities of Latin America.MethodsThe Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America (CARMELA) study is a cross-sectional epidemiological study of 11 550 adults between 25 and 64 years old in Barquisimeto, Venezuela; Bogota, Colombia; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Lima, Peru; Mexico City, Mexico; Quito, Ecuador; and Santiago, Chile. Tobacco smoking, including

B. M. Champagne; E. M. Sebrie; H. Schargrodsky; P. Pramparo; C. Boissonnet; E. Wilson

2010-01-01

154

The Impact of the Internet in Six Latin American Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to the Internet has grown exponentially in Latin America over the past decade. The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) estimates that in 2009 there were 144.5 million Internet users in South America, 6.4 million in Central America, and 8.2 million in the Caribbean, or a total 159.2 million users in all of Latin America.1 At that time, ITU reported an

PradoPaola

2011-01-01

155

Latin America: Sights and Sounds; A Guide to Motion Pictures and Music for College Courses. Consortium of Latin American Studies Programs: Publication No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The first section of this guide discusses topics such as the methods used to select educational films, their quality, the uses and values of films in the college classroom. After a brief section covering how to use the guide, 65 films that deal with Latin America and are recommended for use in conjunction with college courses in Latin American

Loy, Jane M.

156

Perceptions of Latin American scientists about science and post-graduate education: Introduction to the 5th issue of CBP-Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although science and engineering (S&E) publications and doctoral degree awards in Latin America had experienced an impressive growth in the past decades, a qualitative evaluation of this increased output must be performed. Previous studies have indicated that growth in visibility of Latin American science – determined by ratio of citations per paper – has not kept pace with the increase

Marcelo Hermes-Lima; Cássia Polcheira; Michelangelo Trigueiro; Rene Oliveira Beleboni

2008-01-01

157

Opinions of Latin-American Intellectuals on Population Problems and Birth Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of birth control in Latin America may be divided into two aspects: population control and family planning. Reasons for Latin-American intellectuals' aversion to population control include the rural frontier mystique—the more people the more wealth and power—and the population-as-goad theory—deprivation and suffering beget creative solutions. The most characteristic attitude toward population control, however, is indifference. Either the population

J. Mayone Stycos

1965-01-01

158

Closer look at our neighbors to the south: Air quality trends, standards, and monitoring programs of Latin American countries  

SciTech Connect

The Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS/Air) is a program in which air monitoring data from over 50 countries throughout the world are collected and analyzed. The GEMS/Air program is sponsored by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) and the World Health Organization (WHO). As part of a technical systems agreement between the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the UNEP/WHO, collaborative reviews of eighteen Latin American cities were conducted over the past two years. The countries visited include Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, and Venezuela. The findings of these reviews and the future direction of air pollution monitoring programs in these countries are presented.

Childers, L.O.; Medina-Vera, M.; Mitchell, W.J.

1997-09-01

159

Nonformal Education and Social Change in Latin America. UCLA Latin American Studies, Volume 35.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The book explores why nonformal education programs in Latin America fail to promote and influence desired social change. Nonformal education includes community involvement and technical training in schools after school hours, adult basic education, extension courses relating to agriculture, health, and community enterprises. The book contains…

La Belle, Thomas J.

160

Machismo and Virginidad: Sex Roles in Latin America. Discussion Paper 79-10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this paper is to present a view of Latin American males and females that describes the situation in Latin America more accurately than the current stereotypical view accepted in the United States. The author discusses the roots of the North American misconception, citing differences between Latin American and North American

Quinones, Julio

161

Possible treatments for arsenic removal in Latin American waters for human consumption.  

PubMed

Considering the toxic effects of arsenic, the World Health Organization recommends a maximum concentration of 10 microg L(-1) of arsenic in drinking water. Latin American populations present severe health problems due to consumption of waters with high arsenic contents. The physicochemical properties of surface and groundwaters are different from those of other more studied regions of the planet, and the problem is still publicly unknown. Methods for arsenic removal suitable to be applied in Latin American waters are here summarized and commented. Conventional technologies (oxidation, coagulation-coprecipitation, adsorption, reverse osmosis, use of ion exchangers) are described, but emphasis is made in emergent decentralized economical methods as the use of inexpensive natural adsorbents, solar light technologies or biological treatments, as essential to palliate the situation in poor, isolated and dispersed populations of Latin American regions. PMID:20189697

Litter, Marta I; Morgada, Maria E; Bundschuh, Jochen

2010-05-01

162

The Latinamericanization of American Foreign Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The foreign policies of the George W. Bush administration, constructed by neo-conservative architects like Paul Wolfowitz and Richard Perle, have their ideological antecedents in United States policy toward Latin America. Although the neo-conservatives are not schooled in Latin American diplomatic history, the Bush Doctrine draws so extensively on previous Latin American policies and practices that it represents the Latin Americanization

Paul J. Dosal

2005-01-01

163

"Looking at the world through women's eyes": Latin Americans at Beijing.  

PubMed

This news article discusses the perspective brought by Latin American women to the women's conference held in Beijing in 1995. One major accomplishment was the inclusion of Caribbean women into the regional Latin American exhibition space and the regional gatherings. The Latin American conference space was used to present regional exhibits, music and dance performances, theater productions, and messages from country delegates. The official government conference included the well-organized advocacy efforts among Latin American delegates. This accomplishment reflected the improvement in skills among delegates since the Mar del Plata meetings. The nongovernmental organization (NGO) conference had some serious transportation difficulties due to its location in Huairou, 35 miles north of Beijing. The distance exhausted participants and reduced the NGO forum impact on the official conference. Participants at the NGO conference also were restricted in their freedom of movement by the Chinese Organizing Committee. There was insufficient infrastructure for handling planned plenary sessions, lack of access for the disabled, harassment of certain special interest groups, and obstruction of meetings in hotels. Secret searches were conducted by Chinese officials in delegates' hotel rooms. Non-English speakers were able to participate only in large plenary sessions and selected workshops. Non-Spanish speaking Latin Americans walked out of Latin American events held in Spanish. Women were also frustrated that views strongly articulated on the plenary floor were excluded from the Plan of Action and from press coverage. To be successful, plans for the post-Beijing period must account for the diversity of women's groups. PMID:12291720

Farmelo, M

1996-01-01

164

To see and not be seen: Latin American illegal foreign workers in Jerusalem.  

PubMed

"This article describes the formation and characteristics of the new evolving community of illegal Latin American foreign workers in Jerusalem while adopting the ecological perspective, which examines human development and behaviour in various contexts of their social and cultural environments. We have looked specifically at illegal Latin American foreign workers' reasons for and process of migration, their accommodation and living conditions, allocation of employment, daily cultural and social conditions, education and health issues concerning children and families, perceptions of relations with host culture and perceptions of well-being and future expectations." (EXCERPT) PMID:12290422

Roer-strier, D; Olshtain-mann, O

1999-01-01

165

Latin American women's earnings and participation in the labor force  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using historical census data and the latest household surveys, the authors investigate changes in female employment in Latin America, the factors that determine women's participation in the labor force, and the reasons for the gap between men's and women's earnings. The authors find, to their surprise, that despite worsened economic conditions since the 1970s, women's participation in the labor force

George Psacharopoulos; Zafiris Tzannatos

1992-01-01

166

Income and beyond: Multidimensional Poverty in Six Latin American Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper studies multidimensional poverty for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, El Salvador, Mexico and Uruguay for the period 1992-2006. The approach overcomes the limitations of the two traditional methods of poverty analysis in Latin America (income-based and unmet basic needs) by combining income with five other dimensions: school attendance for…

Battiston, Diego; Cruces, Guillermo; Lopez-Calva, Luis Felipe; Lugo, Maria Ana; Santos, Maria Emma

2013-01-01

167

Democratization and the Institutionalization of Latin American Political Parties  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the author assesses the prospects for the consolidation of democracy in Latin America in the 1990s, compared with the failure to achieve that goal in the 1960s, by examining the institutionalization of political parties in the two time periods. Samuel Huntington's criteria of institutionalization (adaptability, complexity, autonomy, and coherence) are used and employ a variety of indicators

ROBERT H. DIX

1992-01-01

168

Fiscal Responsibility Laws for Subnational Discipline: The Latin American Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Webb discusses fiscal responsibility laws in Latin America, with special attention to their provisions for fiscal discipline by subnational governments. He discusses why and when such laws might be useful?to help resolve the coordination problem in getting diverse governments to avoid overusing the common national credit market and to help individual governments make a time-consistent commitment for fiscal prudence. The

Steven B. Webb

2004-01-01

169

A realistic look at Latin American community policing programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1990s, every proclamation for police reform in Latin America leads to the launching of a community policing programme designed to improve police-community relations. Each of these programmes has a different name and format; some have lasted a long time, while others have been ephemeral. Community police as a proposal, strategy or philosophy for police activities is without a

Hugo Frühling

2012-01-01

170

National bibliography in a globalized world: the Latin American case  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modern impulse toward universal bibliographic control particularly relies upon national bibliographies. But the conceptual underpinnings for these compilations are in doubt and their composite coverage remains incomplete. Moreover, users have had little say in either shaping the endeavor or assessing its results. Latin America's experience with national bibliography epitomizes the challenges and tensions that characterize the enterprise as a

Dan Hazen

171

Is There a Latin American Model of the University?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, Latin America has seen the advent of research activities to meet the call for research that long preceded them and of the full-time research faculty who engage in them. These developments have taken place as the region partakes in contemporary worldwide trends that have affected universities elsewhere: the consequences of the increased…

Bernasconi, Andres

2008-01-01

172

The Future of the Latin American Natural Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Included in this working paper is a discussion of the history of deforestation and forest degradation in Latin America and policy recommendations towards conserving natural forests. The author argues that the main opportunity to conserve natural forests may be in the recognition of and payment for the environmental services they provide, and in the production of highly priced \\

Marc J. Dourojeanni

1999-01-01

173

Latin American Shrimp Culture Industry, 1986-90.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Latin America is a Leading world producer of cultured shrimp. Shrimp farmers in the region harvested over 50,000 metric tons (t) of shrimp in 1986, a 40 percent increase over the 37,000 t of shrimp cultured in 1985. Ecuador dominates the region's shrimp c...

D. Weidner

1988-01-01

174

Latin American Shrimp Culture Industry, 1986-90.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Latin America is a leading world producer of cultured shrimp. Shrimp farmers in the region harvested over 50,000 metric tons (t) of shrimp in 1986, a 40 percent increase over the 37,000 t of shrimp cultured in 1985. Ecuador dominates the region's shrimp c...

D. Weidner

1988-01-01

175

Stereotypes and Beliefs about Different Ethnic Groups in Spain: A Study with Spanish and Latin American Children Living in Madrid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

96 Spanish and Latin American children from 3 grades in Madrid reported their knowledge of positive and negative stereotypes regarding Spaniards, Gypsies, Latin American and Chinese people. Their personal beliefs about these four ethnic groups were also assessed. Stereotypes about Spaniards were perceived as overwhelmingly positive and least…

Enesco, Ileana; Navarro, Alejandra; Paradela, Isabel; Guerrero, Silvia

2005-01-01

176

Status of Proposed Repository for Latin-American Spent Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report compiles preliminary information that supports the premise that a repository is needed in Latin America and analyzes the nuclear situation (mainly in Argentina and Brazil) in terms of nuclear capabilities, inventories, and regional spent-fuel repositories. The report is based on several sources and summarizes (1) the nuclear capabilities in Latin America and establishes the framework for the need of a permanent repository, (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) approach for a regional spent-fuel repository and describes the support that international institutions are lending to this issue, (3) the current situation in Argentina in order to analyze the Argentinean willingness to find a location for a deep geological repository, and (4) the issues involved in selecting a location for the repository and identifies a potential location. This report then draws conclusions based on an analysis of this information. The focus of this report is mainly on spent fuel and does not elaborate on other radiological waste sources.

Ferrada, J.J.

2004-10-04

177

Open access indicators and information society: the Latin American case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to estimate open access penetration ratios through cross-analysis of existing social context and open access indicators in Latin America. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The following parameters were used to characterize the chosen countries. On one hand, it takes social context indicators like digital opportunity index (DOI), GDP 2007 (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development)

Nancy Gómez; Atilio Bustos-gonzález; Julio Santillan-aldana; Olga Arias

2009-01-01

178

BIREME: Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Information Center.  

PubMed

In the twenty years of its existence, BIREME has grown and evolved to meet the increasing information needs of health professionals in Latin America and the Caribbean. Recent emphasis has been on the adoption of new methods based on information technologies (including microcomputers, CD-ROMs, and advanced telecommunications) to improve and enhance services. Services discussed are bibliographic control, bibliographic searches, document delivery, selective dissemination of information (SDI), training, and publications. PMID:2183902

Bonham, M D

1990-04-01

179

Chagas disease: a Latin American health problem becoming a world health problem.  

PubMed

Political repression and/or economic stagnation stimulated the flow of migration from the 17 Latin American countries endemic for Chagas disease to developed countries. Because of this migration, Chagas disease, an autochthonous disease of the Continental Western Hemisphere is becoming a global health problem. In 2006, 3.8% of the 80,522 immigrants from those 17 countries to Australia were likely infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. In Canada in 2006, 3.5% of the 156,960 immigrants from Latin America whose country of origin was identified were estimated to have been infected. In Japan in 2007, there were 80,912 immigrants from Brazil, 15,281 from Peru, and 19,413 from other South American countries whose country of origin was not identified, a portion of whom may have been also infected. In 15 countries of Europe in 2005, excluding Spain, 2.9% of the 483,074 legal Latin American immigrants were estimated to be infected with T. cruzi. By 2008, Spain had received 1,678,711 immigrants from Latin American endemic countries; of these, 5.2% were potentially infected with T. cruzi and 17,390 may develop Chagas disease. Further, it was estimated that 24-92 newborns delivered by South American T. cruzi infected mothers in Spain may have been congenitally infected with T. cruzi in 2007. In the USA we estimated that 1.9% of approximately 13 million Latin American immigrants in 2000, and 2% of 17 million in 2007, were potentially infected with T. cruzi. Of these, 49,157 and 65,133 in 2000 and 2007 respectively, may have or may develop symptoms and signs of chronic Chagas disease. Governments should implement policies to prevent donations of blood and organs from T. cruzi infected donors. In addition, an infrastructure that assures detection and treatment of acute and chronic cases as well as congenital infection should be developed. PMID:19932071

Schmunis, Gabriel A; Yadon, Zaida E

2009-11-20

180

Teacher Perceptions Regarding the Status of Environmental Education in Latin American Elementary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research, commissioned by the U.S. Department of State, Office of Overseas Schools, was designed to determine the status of environmental education in private U.S. and international elementary schools throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. The study population consisted of all 50 dues-paying member schools in the Association of American

Penwell, Rebecca; Cronin-Jones, Linda; Hakverdi, Meral; Cline, Shannon; Johnson, Courtney

181

Crisis and Volatility in Asian Versus Latin American Real Exchange Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examining quarterly real exchange rates (RER) from 1976 to 2006 in panels of Asian and Latin American countries, shows that crisis-battered Asian currencies incur a higher speed of adjustment towards purchasing power parity (PPP). The degree of mean reversion of the three most volatile Asian currencies is very fast (about 1.8 quarters) during the floating regime compared to 40 quarters

Andre Varella Mollick

2009-01-01

182

Financial Markets and Politics: The Confidence Game in Latin American Emerging Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the interactions between politics and financial markets in emerging economies. More precisely, it examines how Wall Street reacts to major Latin American political events. The case study focuses on the 2002 Brazilian presidential elections. The first section of the article provides a critical review of the available literature. The second section presents an empirical study of

Juan Martínez; Javier Santiso

2003-01-01

183

Beyond 'left' and 'Right': a Zean Perspective of latin american dichotomies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to challenge the dominance of the Cold War left\\/right dichotomy - of socialism\\/capitalism - in Latin American politics. The main argument is that people now interpret their political affinities from other ideological stands. This does not mean that the 'right' and 'left' dichotomy disap- pears, but that it is given different meaning, depending on

Andrés Rivarola Puntigliano

184

No Tours Beyond This Point: From Service to Civic Learning in Latin American Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the design and implementation of a new course in Latin American Studies that sought to integrate traditional elements of undergraduate education with a more progressive pedagogical approach stressing experiential applications of classroom education. Civic engagement seemed particularly well suited to the course because of the growing local Latino populations. Although students read of the experiences of

Shelly Jarrett Bromberg

2007-01-01

185

The Impact of the Regulatory Process and Price Cap Regulation in Latin American Telecommunications Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

I empirically examine the impact of the liberalization and regulatory process on the Latin American telecommunications sector during the period 1990-1998. I find that privatisation and the existence of an independent regulator are positively associated with teledensity and operating efficiency while competition and price cap regulation are strongly positively associated with teledensity. This study confirms results in previous research that

Agustin J. Ros

2003-01-01

186

Safety-first portfolio optimization for US investors in emerging global, Asian and Latin American markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk averse US investors with safety-first objectives in portfolio optimization hold small weights (maximum 10%) in emerging markets when constructing portfolios of the Standard and Poor's 500 (SP), and the Emerging Markets Composite Global (CG), Asia (AS) and Latin American (LA) indexes, respectively. The Composite Global and Asia weights are even smaller than their minimum variance weights. Yet, these optimal

Mahfuzul Haque; M. Kabir Hassan; Oscar Varela

2004-01-01

187

Comparative Analysis of the Latin American Legal Framework for the Electrical Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the author presents his considerations about some of the Latin American most important geopolitical circumstances of the last seventy years, which influenced the evolution of the legal framework that set the operation and functioning of the regional electrical networks. This framework has been the main reference for investments and the development of the electrical system in all

Julio Montenegro

2006-01-01

188

Individual s religiosity enhances trust: Latin American evidence for the puzzle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the effect of religious observance and affiliation to the dominant religion (Catholicism) on trust in institutions, towards others and market attitudes. The analysis is performed using a Latin American database of twenty thousand respondents from 2004 by means of ordered probit models. The most interesting results are: i) Trust toward others is positively correlated with religious observance

Pablo Brañas-Garza; Maximo Rossi; Dyane Zaclicever

2006-01-01

189

Assessing the Impact of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) in Undergraduate Latin American Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assesses the impact of using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in three American University undergraduate classes, a General Education survey course on Latin America (taught in English), and two Spanish language courses. The courses utilized both commercial software programs and software programs authored by faculty using Macintosh…

Child, Jack

190

Posttraumatic Stress Among Latin American Immigrants: Implication of Family Separations and Disruption of Attachments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated posttraumatic stress, family separations and attachment among Latin American immigrants, who were either separated or not separated from family when they immigrated from their native countries. Voluntary participants (n = 82)from 13 countries responded to the Posttraumatic Stress diagnostic Scale and the Experiences in Close Relationships Questionnaire - Revised. Thirty seven percent of participants had left family

Maria L. Santa-Maria

2003-01-01

191

Home-School Conflicts and Barriers to the Academic Achievement of Children of Latin American Immigrants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores the role of home-school conflicts in the educational failure of children of Latin American immigrants and examines how these conflicts have been framed and understood in the existing research literature. It argues that structural analyses of barriers to educational attainment alone fail to capture the multiplicity of forces…

Bajaj, Carolyn Sattin

2009-01-01

192

A Test of the Cultural Dependency Theory in Seven Latin American Newspapers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural dependency has become a serious international issue over the past two decades, especially as it relates to the news media. If charges that the Latin American media are subservient to foreign interests have any truth, then the content of their media should closely resemble that of the foreign wires to which they subscribe. The news can be…

Link, Jere H.

193

Women Academic Leaders in a Latin American University: Reconciling the Paradoxes of Professional Lives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 18 female academic leaders at the University of Costa Rica investigated factors in the women's professional success, career paths and obstacles, and the role of Latin American and institutional culture in their professional choices and lives. Results suggest an alternative to traditional Western theory of women's careers, focusing on…

Twombly, Susan B.

1998-01-01

194

Ethnic Identity and Family Processes among Adolescents from Latin American, Asian, and European Backgrounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ninth graders (N = 679; 50% male, 50% female) from Latin American (41%), Asian (38%), and European (21%) backgrounds reported on their ethnic identity and family attitudes and relationships. Adolescents also completed daily checklists of family interactions over a two-week period. Results indicated that ethnic identity, measured through…

Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

2009-01-01

195

Default correlation at the sovereign level: evidence from some Latin American markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the eruption of Argentina debt crisis in 2001 as a natural experiment, we investigated the correlated default at the sovereign level for some Latin American countries. Daily closing market quotes for sovereign Credit Default Swaps (CDS) of Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Venezuela were obtained from CreditTrade database. Using copula approach, we observed increased dependences among sovereign CDS markets during

Yi-Hsuan Chen; Kehluh Wang; Anthony H. Tu

2011-01-01

196

Disability pensions and social security reform : analysis of the Latin American experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the disability pension arrangements prevailing in ten Latin American countries that reformed their pension systems. The analysis is limited to the topic of disability pensions, without attempting to evaluate other critical aspects such as the available infrastructure: handicapped access generally (ramps, blind cues), medical and nursing support, home care, and so on. The relative significance of disability

Carlos O. Grushka; Gustavo Demarco

2003-01-01

197

Latin American debt, the IMF, and Adam Smith: A proposal for ethical reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the role of the IMF orthodox paradigm, and the value system upon which it rests, in the Latin American debt crisis. We conclude that the IMF orthodoxy is an inappropriate basis for international transactions because of the a priori utilitarian value assumptions on which it is based. Furthermore, those value premises have hardened into a narrow and inflexible

Gary M. Woller; David Kirkwood Hart

1995-01-01

198

Nonlinear adjustment to purchasing power parity in Latin American countries: the ADL test for threshold cointegration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applies a newly developed Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ADL) test for threshold cointegration proposed by Li and Lee (2010) to test the validity of long-run Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) for a sample of 15 Latin American countries from December 1994 to February 2010. Empirical results indicate that PPP holds true for most of the countries studied, with the exception

Guochen Pan; Tsangyao Chang; D. P. Tang; Chia-Hao Lee

2012-01-01

199

Cuba's Latin American Medical School: can socially-accountable medical education make a difference?  

PubMed

After graduating more than 12,000 doctors since its founding in 1999, Cuba's Latin American Medical School (ELAM, the Spanish acronym) is tackling one of its greatest challenges to date: how to track graduates from over 65 countries and measure their impact on health outcomes and policy in their local contexts? PMID:22869243

Gorry, Conner

2012-07-01

200

Obstacles to Learning: The Account of Low-Education Latin American Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A Toronto (Canada) study explored how low levels of schooling and literacy affected access of Latin-American adults to aspects of everyday life. Subjects were nine Spanish-speaking men and women, most with little or no formal schooling and varying levels of Spanish literacy. Analysis of data gathered in interviews revealed that the individuals…

Klassen, Cecil

201

The Importance of Negotiation for Policy Dialogue: Latin American Training Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Over the past several decades, Latin American countries have supported processes of bringing public policy decisions on education closer to the people concerned. Participation at all levels of decision-making processes has generally been highly valued. Nonetheless, these decentralization efforts came about without governments taking the necessary…

Jaramillo, Maria Clara

2004-01-01

202

The Importance of Negotiation for Policy Dialogue: Latin American Training Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past several decades, Latin American countries have supported processes of bringing public policy decisions on education closer to the people concerned. Participation at all levels of decision-making processes has generally been highly valued. Nonetheless, these decentralization efforts came about without governments taking the necessary…

Jaramillo, Maria Clara

2004-01-01

203

Afro-Brazilian Literature: A New Dimension for Black and Latin American Studies Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper profiles representative Afro-Brazilian writers and provides a guide to English language translations and critical studies of their work. The aim is to encourage instructors to broaden the scope of current curricula in black and Latin American studies courses. Recent studies estimate that more than 40 percent of Brazil's inhabitants are…

Kennedy, James H.

204

Unequal Latin American Democracies: The Influence of Interest Groups in Legislatures’ Policy Choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do members of congress specialize in policy areas in which they possess strong links with relevant interest groups? How responsive are they to these interests? My paper answers these relevant research questions filling a gap in the current literature determining the relevance of the relationship between interest groups and legislative parties for the Latin American context. To achieve this goal,

Aldo Ponce

205

Comparing Work-Life Balance in Spanish and Latin-American Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This paper aims to determine the level of awareness and implementation of family-responsible parameters: policies, enablers, practices, and culture, in Spanish and Latin-American companies, and how they impact work-life balance. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses data from different national IESE's Family-Responsible Employer…

Carlier, Sandra Idrovo; Llorente, Consuelo Leon; Grau, Marc Grau

2012-01-01

206

The impact of remittances on poverty and human capital : evidence from Latin American household surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the impact of remittances on poverty, education, and health in 11 Latin American countries using nationally representative household surveys and making an explicit attempt to account for one of the inherent costs associated with migration-the potential income that the migrant may have made at home. The main findings of the study are the following: (1) regardless of

J. Humberto Lopez; Pablo Fajnzylber; Pablo Acosta

2007-01-01

207

Adult Education as a Human Right: The Latin American Context and the Ecopedagogic Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as…

Gadotti, Moacir

2011-01-01

208

Latin American Cities and Globalisation: Change and Permanency in the Context of Development Expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some interesting changes have been taking place in the urbanisation processes of Latin American countries in the past few decades, some of which are definitely related to global processes. The empirical evidence of this relation is hard to pin down due to the lack of data sources, but in this paper it is suggested that the growth in volume and

Juan A. Cordoba Ordonez; Candida Gago Garcia

2010-01-01

209

Internationalization of multinational banks: a study of foreign direct investment in seven Latin American countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article attempts to explore and contrast the different factors that influence the foreign direct investment (FDI) decisions of multinational banks. Employing eclectic theory, an estimation model with panel data from seven Latin American countries is set to test the proposed hypotheses. The results highlight an increase in foreign assets, removal of banking restriction, banking concentration, and capital cost differential

Alejandro Santana Mariscal; Yingying Zhang; Joaquin López Pascual

2012-01-01

210

THE SPECIAL STATUS OF AGRICULTURE IN LATIN AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a review of agriculture-related provisions in free trade agreements signed by Latin American countries and in force by December 2004. It is shown that the exceptional treatment received by the agricultural sector in the WTO is also found in free trade agreements. Many agricultural products are excluded from tariff liberalization or are otherwise subject to long phase-out

Mónica KJÖLLERSTRÖM

2006-01-01

211

Linguistic Reception of Latin American Students in Catalonia and Their Responses to Educational Language Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores the connections between language policy implementation in three Barcelona-area secondary schools and the language attitudes and behaviors of Spanish-speaking Latin American newcomers. Data were collected through interviews and ethnographic participant observation document indexes of different forms of language socialization…

Newman, Michael; Patino-Santos, Adriana; Trenchs-Parera, Mireia

2013-01-01

212

The ETK Model: Effects on Latin American Higher Education Faculty Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The problem. This study was designed to investigate emotional human, E, technology awareness, T, and knowledge management, K, competences or dimensions of Latin American public post-secondary educational institution departments; specifically how these ETK competences or dimensions affect faculty satisfaction. Method. Three-hundred and…

Cardenas, Jorge Alberto

2009-01-01

213

The expansion of educredit in Latin American higher education: Promise or peril?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Credit facilities for students in Latin American universities have grown rapidly in recent years. The implications of this development are critically examined with particular attention to the inhibiting influence of loan-based higher education on the freedom of the student as an individual.

Richard R. Renner

1974-01-01

214

Engaging Language and Cultural Spaces: Latin American Parents' Reflections on Language Loss and Maintenance in Vancouver  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This qualitative study aims to explore the loss and maintenance of Spanish in Latin American children in Vancouver from the perspective of parents. It focuses on the experiences of children either developing bilingually (Spanish-English) or monolingually (English). The participating families were from Colombia, Guatemala, and El Salvador, and had…

Guardado, Martin

2006-01-01

215

The Color of Citizenship: Race, Modernity and Latin American Political Thought  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a theory of a 'synthetic paradigm' of race drawn from the history of Latin American political thought. It examines the construction of racial identity in relation to citizenship, drawing on an assay of Las Casas, Bolivar, Lanz, and Vasconcelos. I seek to show how this paradigm can contribute to an understanding of race as central to the

Diego von vacano

216

Equity of access to health care for older adults in four major Latin American cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To identify if older adults have equitable access to health services in four major Latin American cities and to determine if the inequities that are found follow the patterns of economic inequality in each of the four nations studied. Methods. Data from persons age 60 and over in the cities of São Paulo, Brazil (n = 2 143); Santiago,

Steven P. Wallace; Verónica F. Gutiérrez

2005-01-01

217

The "Other" Internment: Teaching the Hidden Story of Japanese Latin Americans during WWII  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes how the author teaches 8th graders to imagine the experiences of people from another time in history and make connections to today. Through a role play, the author teaches the hidden story of Japanese Latin Americans during WWII. The role play engages students in exploration of a little-known piece of history--the…

Yonamine, Moe

2010-01-01

218

Daily Family Conflict and Emotional Distress among Adolescents from Latin American, Asian, and European Backgrounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors employed a daily diary method to assess daily frequencies of interparental and parent-adolescent conflict over a 2-week period and their implications for emotional distress across the high school years in a longitudinal sample of 415 adolescents from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds. Although family conflict remained…

Chung, Grace H.; Flook, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

2009-01-01

219

Sowing strategic alliances in the Americas : The sinicization of Latin American economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of increasing trade and investment relations between China and Latin American economies. The paper focuses on the threats and opportunities that permeate this relationship. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper surveys existing literature and secondary data in Spanish, Portuguese, and in English to investigate the different ramifications of this dynamic

Raul Gouvea; Sul Kassicieh

2009-01-01

220

Obstacles to Learning: The Account of Low-Education Latin American Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Toronto (Canada) study explored how low levels of schooling and literacy affected access of Latin-American adults to aspects of everyday life. Subjects were nine Spanish-speaking men and women, most with little or no formal schooling and varying levels of Spanish literacy. Analysis of data gathered in interviews revealed that the individuals…

Klassen, Cecil

221

Latin American stock markets’ volatility spillovers during the financial crises: a multivariate FIAPARCH-DCC framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the volatility spillovers in Latin American emerging stock markets. A multivariate Fractionally Integrated Asymmetric Power ARCH model with dynamic conditional correlations of Engle (1982) with a Student-t distribution is employed. We examine whether considering for long memory and asymmetry in emerging stock markets behaviour may provide more insights into the volatility

Chaker Aloui

2011-01-01

222

Social Identity, Motivation, andWell Being Among Adolescents from Asian and Latin American Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Youth from Asian and Latin American backgrounds, the fastest rising minority groups in American society, face numerous challenges\\u000a to their successful development. The majority of these adolescents have immigrant parents and many of them were born in another\\u000a country themselves, creating the need to adapt and adjust to a new and different society (Hernandez, 2004). The youths’ families\\u000a come from

Andrew J. Fuligni

223

Multinational Corporations and Health Care in the United States and Latin America: Strategies, Actions, and Effects*  

PubMed Central

In this article we analyze the corporate dominance of health care in the United States and the dynamics that have motivated the international expansion of multinational health care corporations, especially to Latin America. We identify the strategies, actions, and effects of multinational corporations in health care delivery and public health policies. Our methods have included systematic bibliographical research and in-depth interviews in the United States, Mexico, and Brazil. Influenced by public policy makers in the United States, such organizations as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and World Trade Organization have advocated policies that encourage reduction and privatization of health care and public health services previously provided in the public sector. Multinational managed care organizations have entered managed care markets in several Latin American countries at the same time as they were withdrawing from managed care activities in Medicaid and Medicare within the United States. Corporate strategies have culminated in a marked expansion of corporations’ access to social security and related public sector funds for the support of privatized health services. International financial institutions and multinational corporations have influenced reforms that, while favorable to corporate interests, have worsened access to needed services and have strained the remaining public sector institutions. A theoretical approach to these problems emphasizes the falling rate of profit as an economic motivation of corporate actions, silent reform, and the subordination of polity to economy. Praxis to address these problems involves opposition to policies that enhance corporate interests while reducing public sector services, as well as alternative models that emphasize a strengthened public sector.

JASSO-AGUILAR, REBECA; WAITZKIN, HOWARD; LANDWEHR, ANGELA

2010-01-01

224

Latin American Consensus: Children Born Small for Gestational Age  

PubMed Central

Background Children born small for gestational age (SGA) experience higher rates of morbidity and mortality than those born appropriate for gestational age. In Latin America, identification and optimal management of children born SGA is a critical issue. Leading experts in pediatric endocrinology throughout Latin America established working groups in order to discuss key challenges regarding the evaluation and management of children born SGA and ultimately develop a consensus statement. Discussion SGA is defined as a birth weight and/or birth length greater than 2 standard deviations (SD) below the population reference mean for gestational age. SGA refers to body size and implies length-weight reference data in a geographical population whose ethnicity is known and specific to this group. Ideally, each country/region within Latin America should establish its own standards and make relevant updates. SGA children should be evaluated with standardized measures by trained personnel every 3 months during year 1 and every 6 months during year 2. Those without catch-up growth within the first 6 months of life need further evaluation, as do children whose weight is ? -2 SD at age 2 years. Growth hormone treatment can begin in SGA children > 2 years with short stature (< -2.0 SD) and a growth velocity < 25th percentile for their age, and should continue until final height (a growth velocity below 2 cm/year or a bone age of > 14 years for girls and > 16 years for boys) is reached. Blood glucose, thyroid function, HbA1c, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) should be monitored once a year. Monitoring insulin changes from baseline and surrogates of insulin sensitivity is essential. Reduced fetal growth followed by excessive postnatal catch-up in height, and particularly in weight, should be closely monitored. In both sexes, gonadal function should be monitored especially during puberty. Summary Children born SGA should be carefully followed by a multidisciplinary group that includes perinatologists, pediatricians, nutritionists, and pediatric endocrinologists since 10% to 15% will continue to have weight and height deficiency through development and may benefit from growth hormone treatment. Standards/guidelines should be developed on a country/region basis throughout Latin America.

2011-01-01

225

Liquid biofuels as a development tool in Latin American agriculture  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a policy analysis to explore a distinct interpretation of issues in the vital inter-sector relationship of energy and agriculture. Bioenergy to power a sustainable agriculture, and beyond, is seen as a viable possibility in response to often-contradictory goals of both sectors. The greatest critical energy needs in agriculture have been long identified as fertilizer and fuels. The paper examines large and small scales of liquid biofuel production and the potential of Latin America small farms not only to contribute to fuel and fertilizer supply but to participate more broadly in rural economic development.

McCombs, J.M.

1985-01-01

226

Transport and health: a look at three Latin American cities.  

PubMed

Transport is associated with environmental problems, economic losses, health and social inequalities. A number of European and US cities have implemented initiatives to promote multimodal modes of transport. In Latin America changes are occurring in public transport systems and a number of projects aimed at stimulating non-motorized modes of transport (walking and cycling) have already been implemented. Based on articles from peer-reviewed academic journals, this paper examines experiences in Bogotá (Colombia), Curitiba (Brazil), and Santiago (Chile), and identifies how changes to the transport system contribute to encourage active transportation. Bus rapid transit, ciclovias, bike paths/lanes, and car use restriction are initiatives that contribute to promoting active transportation in these cities. Few studies have been carried out on the relationship between transport and physical activity. Car ownership continues to increase. The public health sector needs to be a stronger activist in the transport policy decision-making process to incorporate health issues into the transport agenda in Latin America. PMID:23568296

Becerra, Janeth Mosquera; Reis, Rodrigo S; Frank, Lawrence D; Ramirez-Marrero, Farah A; Welle, Benjamin; Arriaga Cordero, Eugenio; Mendez Paz, Fabian; Crespo, Carlos; Dujon, Veronica; Jacoby, Enrique; Dill, Jennifer; Weigand, Lynn; Padin, Carlos M

2013-04-01

227

Threats in Latin American and Caribbean countries: How do inequality and the asymmetries of rules affect tax morale?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latin America is well known as the most inequitable region. As it is recognized, inequality and corruption perception weaken the way that political institutions works and the democratic system. Focusing on Latin American and Caribbean countries, we analyze what are the elements that shape tax morale. In particular, we analyze how the context influences on ethic decisions such as the

Mariana Gerstenblüth; Natalia Melgar; Juan Pablo Pagano; Máximo Rossi

2009-01-01

228

Threats in Latin American and Caribbean countries: how do inequality and the asymmetries of rules affect tax morale?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latin America is well known as the most inequitable region. As it is recognized, inequality and corruption perception weaken the way that political institutions works and the democratic system. Focusing on Latin American and Caribbean countries, we analyze what are the elements that shape tax morale. In particular, we analyze how the context influences on ethic decisions such as the

Mariana Gerstenblüth; Natalia Melgar; Juan Pablo Pagano; Máximo Rossi

2008-01-01

229

The Impact of Education and Literacy Levels on Cancer Screening Among Older Latin American and Caribbean Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is limited information related to the effects of education and literacy on cancer screening practices among older adults in Latin American and Caribbean countries. Methods: To determine the association between education and cancer screening use, we developed a cross-sectional study using data from the Health, Well-Being and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study. The sample included

Carlos A. Reyes-Ortiz; Maria E. Camacho; Luis F. Amador; Luis F. Velez; Kenneth J. Ottenbacher; Kyriakos S. Markides

230

[From passive to active: policies for Latin American emigrants].  

PubMed

The conventional view of emigration holds that it represents a loss of resources from a country and that the only possible policy response is to discourage new emigration while promoting return of those who have left. A new policy is needed based on a fuller understanding of the potential benefits of emigration for the country of origin. The cost of emigration is usually counted as the loss of educational investment, the loss of labor force, and the loss of the contributions to development that would have been made by talented emigrants. But such views usually do not include a serious treatment of the economic problems of labor supply and demand in general or of skilled labor in particular. Underemployment or unemployment of highly educated persons and overproduction of educated persons are problems throughout Latin America and much of the developing world. A truer evaluation of the costs of education which considered decreasing marginal costs rather than average costs per student, nominally variable costs that actually behave as fixed costs, and an adequate assignment of costs for students leaving school before graduating would lead to much lower estimates of average cost per university student in Latin America. Significant emigration may actually result indirectly in an increase in national income by reducing pressure on the labor market and allowing wages to rise for remaining workers. Remittances for emigrants and repatriation of savings may contribute significantly to national income and balance of payments, and may compensate for or even exceed the economic losses of emigration. National policy for emigrants should aim at maximizing the economic benefits of emigration by providing incentives for the accumulation of capital obtained abroad and its transfer to the country of origin. The 1st major goal of emigration policy should be to maintain affective and social ties between the emigrant and the country of origin as a necessary condition for channeling benefits to the country. Such factors as inclusive citizenship policies for spouses and children born abroad, provisions for absentee voting, communication and information programs, and recognition of education and professional title conferred abroad would help motivate a continuing interest in the country of origin. The 2nd policy goal should be to create concrete channels for different types of emigrant activities that would benefit the country of origin. This operational side of emigration policy would provide channels for the return to the country of capital and goods accumulated by the emigrant and would provide for cooperation in scientific endeavors, business and investment, and for social and humanitarian projects. PMID:12282249

Maletta, H

1988-12-01

231

Our Latin American Symposium: AMCA’s best kept secret?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) is dedicated to the study and control of mosquitoes, vectors, and arthropods and promotes cooperation and interaction among professionals and students in this field in the U.S. and internationally. To promote greater participation among international...

232

Current therapies in rheumatoid arthritis: a Latin American perspective.  

PubMed

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease affecting the synovium of joints, tendons, and some extra-articular sites. RA prevalence in Latin America ranges from 0.4 to 1.6%. Early treatment of RA translates into a substantial reduction in the cost to society. In light of this, early disease clinics are being established in some countries. Barriers to RA management, such as delay in referral to rheumatologists and limited access to therapy, have been identified. Evidence-based treatment guidelines have been adapted by countries according to their own situations. The need for keeping accurate records of biologics prescribed has been addressed by biologic registries, thereby contributing toward a better understanding of rheumatic diseases and their treatment. Current biologics include the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? inhibitors (etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab), B-cell depletion agent (rituximab), interleukin-6 receptor blocker (tocilizumab), and T-cell co-stimulatory blocker (abatacept). Future therapies include kinase inhibitors (tofacitinib and fostamatinib), alternative TNF-? inhibitors (golimumab and certolizumab), and biosimilars. PMID:23337169

Burgos-Vargas, Rubén; Catoggio, Luis Jose; Galarza-Maldonado, Claudio; Ostojich, Kasmir; Cardiel, Mario H

2013-01-20

233

Regional overview of Latin American and Caribbean energy production, consumption, and future growth. Report series No. 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Latin American and Caribbean region - comprising Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean - is relatively well endowed with energy resources, although the distribution of these resources is uneven across countries. The region produces more...

K. Wu

1994-01-01

234

U.S.-Latin American Trade: Recent Trends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After Congress passed Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) legislation in August 2002 (P.L. 107-210), the United States implemented free trade agreements (FTAs) with Chile, the Dominican Republic, the Central Amen can countries, and Peru. The United States has...

J. F. Hombeck M. Cid

2008-01-01

235

The international publication productivity of Latin American countries in the economics and business administration fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study compares the international publication productivityof Latin American countries in the fields of business\\u000a administration and economicsfrom 1995 to 1999. Only four countries – Argentina, Brazil, Chile, andMexico – have a substantial\\u000a research production in these areas. Amongthese countries, Chile showed the most favorable results according to variousindicators\\u000a of publication productivity.

Mladen M. Koljatic; Mónica R. Silva

2001-01-01

236

Lessons learned in developing community mental health care in Latin American and Caribbean countries.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes the findings for the Latin American and Caribbean countries of the WPA Task Force on Steps, Obstacles and Mistakes to Avoid in the Implementation of Community Mental Health Care. It presents an overview of the provision of mental health services in the region; describes key experiences in Argentina, Belize, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Jamaica and Mexico; and discusses the lessons learned in developing community mental health care. PMID:23024680

Razzouk, Denise; Gregório, Guilherme; Antunes, Renato; Mari, Jair D E Jesus

2012-10-01

237

An Analysis of the Day-of-the-Week Effect in Latin American Stock Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to determine the existence of the Day-of-the-Week (DOW) effect in six Latin American stock markets: Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Argentina, and Peru. For this, an analysis of their associated stock indexes is in order, using returns in domestic currency. Considering the years 1993-2007, each stock market shows at least one abnormal day. The most

Werner Kristjanpoller Rodríguez

2009-01-01

238

Long correlations and truncated Levy walks applied to the study Latin-American market indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is devoted to the study of long correlations and other statistical properties of Latin-American market indices. We concluded that the behavior of the return is compatible with a slow convergence to a Gaussian distribution. We also detected long-range correlations in the absolute value of the return analyzing the effects of working with short data series. This fact has relevant consequences in the volatility dynamics.

Jaroszewicz, Sebastian; Mariani, M. Cristina; Ferraro, Marta

2005-09-01

239

The Latin Americanization of Racial Stratification in the U.S  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Aside from what exists in the U.S. there is another layer of complexity in Latin American racial stratification systems. They\\u000a include three racial strata, which are internally designated by “color.” In addition to skin tone, phenotype, hair texture,\\u000a eye color, culture, education, and class matter is the phenomenon known as pigmentocracy, or colorism. Pigmentocracy has been\\u000a central to the maintenance

Eduardo Bonilla-Silva; David R. Dietrich

240

How sensitive are Latin American exports to Chinese competition in the U.S. market ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the elasticity of substitution of U.S. imports using detailed trade data over the 1990-2003 period. The authors use a two-stage least squares framework in order to identify the elasticity parameter of interest. The authors use the elasticity estimates to assess the extent to which Latin American and Chinese goods compete in the U.S. market by providing forecasts

Danielken Molina; Alejandro Micco; J. Ernesto Lopez-Cordova

2008-01-01

241

Chagas disease: A Latin American health problem becoming a world health problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Political repression and\\/or economic stagnation stimulated the flow of migration from the 17 Latin American countries endemic for Chagas disease to developed countries. Because of this migration, Chagas disease, an autochthonous disease of the Continental Western Hemisphere is becoming a global health problem. In 2006, 3.8% of the 80,522 immigrants from those 17 countries to Australia were likely infected with

Gabriel A. Schmunis; Zaida E. Yadon

2010-01-01

242

Latin Literacy Redux: The Classical Investigation in the United States, 1921-1924  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Classical Investigation, conducted from 1921 to 1924 by the American Classical League, remains the largest study of the teaching and learning of Latin and Greek performed in US schools. The recommendations that emerged from the Classical Investigation placed less stress on the claims of mental discipline and more stress on the value of…

Wraga, William G.

2009-01-01

243

U.S.-Latin American Trade: Recent Trends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since congressional passage of Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) in August 2002 (P.L. 107-210), the U.S.-Chile free trade agreement (FTA) has been implemented and negotiations were concluded on the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade...

J. F. Hornbeck

2005-01-01

244

High Energy Physics: Proceedings of the Fifth Latin American Symposium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface -- Series editorial board and other committees -- Local organizing committee -- Foreword by the editors -- Gallery -- Homages. In Memoriam Luis Masperi. Round table: collaborations in physics in Latin America -- Lectures. An introduction to strings and some of its phenomenological aspects / G. Aldazabal. Neutrino phenomenology / E. Roulet. An introduction to cosmology / D. J. H. Chung. Innovative experimental particle physics through technological advances-past, present and future / H. W. K. Cheung -- Seminars. Grand unification and physics beyond the standard model / E. Ma. QCD evolution in dense medium / M. B. Gay Ducati. Future experiments-GRID and LHC / A. Santoro. BTeV: using heavy quark decays to test the standard model / M. Sheaff. Recent results from CDF and DO experiments / C. Avila. Matter under extreme conditions the ALICE experiment / G. Herrera Corral and ALICE-Mexico. Recent results from PHOBOS at RHIC / E. Garcia -- Contributions. SO(10) as the minimal supersymmetric GUT / A. Melfo. A supersymmetric three-family model without Higgsinos / W. A. Ponce and L. A. Sánchez. Area-preserving diffeomorphisms groups, the Majorana representation of spins, and SU(N) / J. D. Swain. On the magnetized Kerr-Newman black hole electrodynamics / E. P. Esteban. Supernova neutrinos and the absolute scale of neutrino masses-a Bayesian approach / E. Nardi. Loop quantum gravity and ultra high energy cosmic rays / J. Alfaro and G. A. Palma. QQ¯ bound states in an extended QCD2 model / P. Labraña, J. Alfaro and A. A. Andrianov. Observational constraints on Lorentz symmetry deformation / J. Alfaro and M. Cambiaso. Variable-mass dark matter and the age of the universe / U. Franca and R. Rosenfeld. Dynamical study of spinodal decomposition in heavy ion collisions / A. Barra?n and J. A. López. Predictions for single spin asymmetries in inclusive reactions involving photons / V. Gupta, C. J. Solano Salinas and H. S. Mani. Bosonization and the generalized Mandelstam-Halpern operators / H. Blas. Is there really an entangled state for far away twin photons? / H. G. Valqui. Use of neural networks to classify cosmic-ray showers according to their Muon/EM ratio / H. Salazar and L. Villaseñor. [symbol] polarization in pp-->p[symbol]K+[symbol] at 27.5 GeV / J. Félix ... [et al.]. Definition of the polarization vector / V. M. Castillo-Vallejo and J. Félix. The MINOS experiment / M. Sanchez. Study of scintillating counters and their application to VO detector of ALICE / J. E. Ruiz and Tabasco. Data selection of [symbol] muon semileptonic decay in KTeV / R. A. Gomes. Chaotic properties of high energy cosmic rays / A. Ticona ... [et al.]. Energy spectrum of surviving protons / R. Calle ... [et al.]. Calculus of the ratio [symbol] in the K meson decay through the 331 model / J. C. Montero ... [et al.]. Use of a scintillator detector for luminosity measurements / G. Contreras, C. J. Solano Salinas and A. M. Gago. Simplified forms of a linear and exact set of equations for the gravitational field in the very early universe / E. Salinas -- Posters. Determination of the b-Mass using Renormalon Cancellation / C. Contreras. CP violation in B-->?K* decays: amplitudes, factorization and new physics / D. Gómez Dumm and A. Szynkman. Degeneracies in the measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters: problem and solution in neutrino factories / J. Jones and A. M. Gago. Revision of the neutrino oscillation probability in the supernovae / L. Aliaga and A. M. Gago. Consequences on the neutrino mixing matrix from two zero textures in the neutrino mass matrix / L. Stucchi, A. M. Gago and V. Gupta. Expected flux of high energy neutrinos from observed active galactic nuclei / J. L. Bazo and A. M. Gago. Masperi's Quasispin model of the scalar field [symbol] theory with soliton solutions / M. Agüero, G. Frias and F. Ongay. Nonstandard CP violation in B-->[symbol] decays / A. Szynkman. Spinor realization of the Skyrme Model / R. Ochoa Jimenez and Yu. P. Rybakov.

Solano Salinas, C. J.; Pereyra Ravinez, O.; Ochoa Jiménez, R.; Masperi, Luis

2006-04-01

245

Latin American consensus on hypertension in patients with diabetes type 2 and metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

The present document has been prepared by a group of experts, members of cardiology, endocrinology and diabetes societies of Latin American countries, to serve as a guide to physicians taking care of patients with diabetes, hypertension and comorbidities or complications of both conditions. Although the concept of 'metabolic syndrome' is currently disputed, the higher prevalence in Latin America of that cluster of metabolic alterations has suggested that 'metabolic syndrome' is a useful nosographic entity in the context of Latin American medicine. Therefore, in the present document, particular attention is paid to this syndrome in order to alert physicians on a particularly high-risk population, usually underestimated and undertreated. These recommendations result from presentations and debates by discussion panels during a 2-day conference held in Bucaramanga, in October 2012, and all the participants have approved the final conclusions. The authors acknowledge that the publication and diffusion of guidelines do not suffice to achieve the recommended changes in diagnostic or therapeutic strategies, and plan suitable interventions overcoming knowledge, attitude and behavioural barriers, preventing both physicians and patients from effectively adhering to guideline recommendations. PMID:23282894

López-Jaramillo, Patricio; Sánchez, Ramiro A; Diaz, Margarita; Cobos, Leonardo; Bryce, Alfonso; Parra Carrillo, Jose Z; Lizcano, Fernando; Lanas, Fernando; Sinay, Isaac; Sierra, Iván D; Peñaherrera, Ernesto; Bendersky, Mario; Schmid, Helena; Botero, Rodrigo; Urina, Manuel; Lara, Joffre; Foss, Milton C; Márquez, Gustavo; Harrap, Stephen; Ramírez, Agustín J; Zanchetti, Alberto

2013-02-01

246

U.S. Tax Laws and Capital Flight From Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interplay between the tax laws of the United States and those of the countries of Latin America creates inducements for capital flight. Most Latin American countries tax only income originating within their boundaries. If other countries tax income of foreigners originating within their boundaries as heavily, there is no tax advantage to capital flight. Latin American countries thus depend

Charles E. McLure Jr.

1988-01-01

247

LATINMAG: A Latin-American Collaborative Network in Paleo, Geo, Rock and Environmental Magnetism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years research in paleo, geo, rock and environmental magnetism has experienced significant development in Latin-America with new research groups being settled in several countries including Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, Venezuela and Uruguay (among others). The LATINMAG network, established in May 2007, follows previous attempts to congregate ancient and newborn Latin-American research groups. It was conceived as a forum for scientific discussion and regional collaboration of these groups, including scientific meetings and interchange programs for students and researchers. Its first bi-annual meeting is going to be held in November 2008 in Caracas, Venezuela. More information is available at http://www.geofisica.unam.mx/LIMNO/LATINMAG.

Constanzo, V.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Rapalini, A.; Trindade, R.

2007-12-01

248

[Which are the most influential journals, books and scientists in Latin American biology?].  

PubMed

A survey was distributed by e-mail to 553 biologists who study the Neotropics, in order to identify the journals, books and researchers with the greatest influence over Latin American biology. The biologists' database of the Revista de Biología Tropical was used to obtain their addresses. One third of them answered. The Revista de Biología Tropical is considered the most influential journal in the region. The majority of other influential journals are published in developed countries. The thematic distribution of answers, as well as independent assessments found in the literature, indicate that these and other survey results are not biased by the use of the journal's database. By subject, marine and ecological journals are the most influential. In contrast with American science, there are no researchers or books that clearly dominate the field. These results hint to the subjectivity of many awards and qualifications and possibly reflect a lack of tradition regarding appearance of local scientists in the mass media, the small capacity of world wide diffusion for local research and the low priority of science in the Iberoamerican culture. Latin American journals should improve, specially through efficient communication with authors, stringent rejection of inferior manuscripts and through widespread and timely distribution. The marked dominance by male researchers may reflect the lower number of women in the field, and social inequality. Despite the absence of "superstars", there was a correlation: most scientists in the "list of outstanding researchers" were from large countries. The publication of the most influential journal in one of the smallest countries of the region might reflect the relatively long period of existence of the Revista (half a century), the lack of other alternatives in the region and the journal's inclusion in international indices. Recommendations for Latin American science include a selection of the best journals to receive financial support and the establishment, with help from the mass media, of a group of selected researchers as role models for the new generations. PMID:17357394

Monge-Nájera, Julián; Benavides-Varela, Catalina; Morera, Bernal

2004-03-01

249

[Challenges to Latin-American health systems: what can be learned from the European experience?].  

PubMed

This article compares the challenges of health systems in Latin America and the experience in Europe. The framework is the analysis of four functions: a) to generate resources; b) to produce activities; c) to finance, and d) to exercise stewardship. It is at this level where actors can influence health system responsiveness. Five challenges are identified in Latin America: a) to extend (prepayment and solidarity) financial protection; b) to stabilise that protection for crisis times; c) to equilibrate resources in accordance to capacity for financing services; d) to increase efficiency (technical and of placement) to produce services, and e) to improve the stewardship function in public and private sectors (the most important and difficult challenge Latin-American systems have nowadays). The experience of reform in Europe is analysed, showing: a) experiences about financial protection in Beveridge and Bismarck systems; b) stability in crisis times, recently confirm (West) and with important obstacles (East); c) efforts to equilibrate hospital beds and health care professionals, combining regulation and incentives; d) increase of efficiency in services production, with more express prioritisation, empowering patients, decentralising management and with market incentives, and e) improvement of stewardship with better (not less, sometimes even more) regulation. Three areas of European experience stand out: a) to combine solidarity with financial sustainability; b) to introduce market incentives in a measured way, but maintaining a clear stewardship role for the state, and c) to adopt innovations in organising and producing services. In spite of methodological difficulties, convergence of challenges and adopted solutions justify this analysis, but learning must be seen in each national context. A future article will analyse lessons offered by reform in Latin-American systems for European reforms. PMID:11841751

Figueras, J; Musgrove, P; Carrin, G; Durán, A

250

The Latin American Dialysis and Renal Transplantation Registry Annual Report 2002.  

PubMed

Latin America is a conglomerate of adjacent countries having in common a Latin extraction and language (Spanish or Portuguese) and exhibiting extreme variations in socioeconomic status. The Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension Dialysis and Renal Transplantation Registry was created in 1991. Annual data are sent by local societies in 3 forms: patient, center, and country. The prevalence of renal replacement therapy (RRT) (all modalities) increased from 119 patients per million population (pmp) in 1991 to 349 pmp in 2001; the acceptance rate was 91.7 pmp in 2001. Dialysis prevalence was 277 pmp; hemodialysis was the predominant modality, except in Mexico (86% on peritoneal dialysis). The highest dialysis prevalence and acceptance rates were reported by Puerto Rico, Uruguay, and Chile. Among incident patients, diabetic nephropathy (33%) and nephroangioesclerosis (32%) were the primary causes; 38% were older than 65 years old. Renal transplants increased from 3.7 pmp in 1987 to 13.7 pmp in 2001. In 2003, 6357 transplants were performed (55% living donor); the cumulative number performed since 1987 reached 55,947. Prevalence and incidence are low because not all patients with end-stage renal disease have access to RRT because of restricted availability, difficulties in referral, and inequities in coverage. The annual increase in the number of patients on RRT (8%-10%) is higher, proportionally, than the annual growth of the Latin American population in general (1.5%). Efforts must be focused on prevention and treatment of chronic kidney disease, especially in diabetic and older patients, and in implementing better organ donation programs to improve the pool of cadaveric donors. PMID:16014100

Cusumano, Ana Maria; Di Gioia, Cristina; Hermida, Osvaldo; Lavorato, Carlos

2005-08-01

251

Investigating the Value of and Hindrances to Servant Leadership in the Latin American Context: Initial Findings from Peruvian Leaders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1990s, servant leadership has grown as a discrete area of leadership studies, particularly in the North American and European contexts. While this if valuable, to date, little has been done to study the value and applicability of servant leadership in the Latin American context. The authors provide an overview of the literature surrounding servant leadership, leadership studies

Justin Irving; Timothy McIntosh

252

Latin America: Translations No. 6.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Latin America- Columnist comments on Latin American events; Latin American University officials attend session. Chile- Chilean soldiers learn US survival techniques; Toads and snakes: the US survival course in Chile. Colombia- Elections in Colom...

1967-01-01

253

Immigrant advantage? Substance use among Latin American immigrant and native-born youth in Spain  

PubMed Central

This article reports the results of a descriptive study conducted with middle school and high school age youth residing in northwestern Spain. The main outcome of the study is to advance knowledge about the drug use attitudes and behaviors of immigrants versus native youth in a social context where Latin American immigrants share a common language and a set of core cultural norms with the host society. The research was conducted by a bi-national Spain–US research team as a preliminary study leading to the development of joint culturally appropriate prevention interventions for youth in the northern region of Galicia, Spain. Surveys were administered in Spring 2005 to 817 students in 7th to 10th grades in 10 urban, secondary schools with high immigrant enrollment. The sample included Spanish natives (two-thirds) and Latin American immigrants (one-third), mainly from Colombia, Argentina, and Venezuela. Multiple regression analyses predicted substance use intentions, and a composite variable measuring lifetime and last 30-day frequency and amount of alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use. Controlling for the fact that the immigrant students were generally older and performing less well academically than natives, and for other predictors, Latin American immigrant youth were less at risk than native youth on their intentions to use substances and on their reported actual substance use. In a mediational analysis, most of the key explanatory variables in youth substance use etiology failed to account for the immigrant versus native differences, including a range of risk and protective factors for substance use, substance use norms, strength of ethnic identity, and degree of social integration within native-born social networks. Differential access to drugs mediated the immigrant–native gap in substance use intentions but did not mediate differences in actual substance use.

Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Kulis, Stephen; Luengo, Maria Angeles; Nieri, Tanya; Villar, Paula

2011-01-01

254

Latin American immigrants have limited access to health insurance in Japan: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Japan provides universal health insurance to all legal residents. Prior research has suggested that immigrants to Japan disproportionately lack health insurance coverage, but no prior study has used rigorous methodology to examine this issue among Latin American immigrants in Japan. The aim of our study, therefore, was to assess the pattern of health insurance coverage and predictors of uninsurance among documented Latin American immigrants in Japan. Methods We used a cross sectional, mixed method approach using a probability proportional to estimated size sampling procedure. Of 1052 eligible Latin American residents mapped through extensive fieldwork in selected clusters, 400 immigrant residents living in Nagahama City, Japan were randomly selected for our study. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire developed from qualitative interviews. Results Our response rate was 70.5% (n = 282). Respondents were mainly from Brazil (69.9%), under 40 years of age (64.5%) and had lived in Japan for 9.45 years (SE 0.44; median, 8.00). We found a high prevalence of uninsurance (19.8%) among our sample compared with the estimated national average of 1.3% in the general population. Among the insured full time workers (n = 209), 55.5% were not covered by the Employee's Health Insurance. Many immigrants cited financial trade-offs as the main reasons for uninsurance. Lacking of knowledge that health insurance is mandatory in Japan, not having a chronic disease, and having one or no children were strong predictors of uninsurance. Conclusions Lack of health insurance for immigrants in Japan is a serious concern for this population as well as for the Japanese health care system. Appropriate measures should be taken to facilitate access to health insurance for this vulnerable population.

2012-01-01

255

United States, Latin America, and the Global Economy: The Vision of Greater America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latin America is the most important partner of the United States in consolidating the base of democracy and open markets in the global context as well as providing resources, markets and energy security for a growing economic base. The backbone of the global economy, the productive capacity deriving from the great combination of the treasures of the Rockies and Andes,

L. Ronald Scheman

1997-01-01

256

United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Santiago, Chile, The United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America was founded in 1948 to promote economic and social development throughout Latin America and to collect, study, and disseminate economic research in the region. ECLAC's Website offers a wealth of information about the commission and its work and research. The main page features the newest publications, activities, and news. Users should be aware, however, that many of the publications are available only in Spanish. The library provides three searchable databases consisting of ECLAC documentation, external publications of ECLAC authors, and ECLAC Projects publications.

257

A Risk Assessment Tool (OsteoRisk) for Identifying Latin American Women with Osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To develop a simple and easy-to-use tool for identifying osteoporotic women (femoral neck bone mineral density [BMD] T-scores??2.5) in Latin America. DESIGN Retrospective study involving review of medical records. SETTING Osteoporosis clinics in 6 Latin American countries. PATIENTS Postmenopausal women ages ?50 in Latin America who had femoral neck BMD measurements. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS A risk index was developed from 1,547 patients based on least square regression using age, weight, history of fractures, and other variables as predictors for BMD T-score. The final model was simplified by reducing the number of predictors; sensitivity and specificity were evaluated before and after reducing the number of predictors to assess performance of the index. The final model included age, weight, country, estrogen use, and history of fractures as significant predictors for T-score. The resulting scoring index achieved 91% sensitivity and 47% specificity. Simplifying the index by using only age and weight yielded similar performance (sensitivity, 92%; specificity, 45%). Three risk categories were identified based on OsteoRisk, the index using only age and body weight: high-risk patients (index <=?2; 65.6% were osteoporotic), moderate-risk patients (?2< index <=1; 26.7% were osteoporotic), and low-risk patients (index>1; 8% were osteoporotic). Similar results were seen in a validation sample of 279 women in Brazil. CONCLUSION Age and weight alone performed well for predicting the risk of osteoporosis among postmenopausal women. The OsteoRisk is an easy-to-use tool that effectively targets the vast majority of osteoporotic patients in Latin America for evaluation with BMD.

Sen, Shuvayu S; Rives, Vincent P; Messina, Osvaldo D; Morales-Torres, Jorge; Riera, Gregorio; Angulo-Solimano, Juan M; Neto, Joao FM; Frisoli, Alberto; Saenz, Ricardo C; Geling, Olga; Ross, Philip D

2005-01-01

258

Immigrant health workers in Chile: is there a Latin American "brain drain"?  

PubMed

Most research on the phenomenon of "brain drain" (one-way flow of highly skilled/educated individuals) has focused on movement between the least developed and most highly developed countries. Therefore, the significance of patterns of migration to middle-income countries such as those in Latin America is less clear. The aim of this study was to outline key features of international health worker "brain drain" to Chile to promote discussion and further research on this phenomenon as it pertains to the Latin American region. The study compared immigrant health workers living in Chile to both Chilean-born health workers and other immigrants living in Chile using a qualitative nationwide dataset (the results of Chile's 2009 National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey). Demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables were included in the analyses, which were weighted by population to obtain nationally representative estimates. In 2009, immigrant health workers represented 2.2% of all health personnel and 2.6% of all resident immigrants in the country. While most immigrant health workers had a universitylevel education, about 25% had only a high school-level education or less. There was no statistically significant difference between the distribution of immigrant health workers' household income and that of Chilean-born health workers. A significantly higher proportion of the immigrant group reported no entitlement to health care provision. While the results of this study do not indicate a significant international health worker "brain drain" to Chile, they do suggest distinctive patterns of migration within the Latin American region. Future studies in Chile could confirm the validity of these results, using a larger sample of immigrant health workers. PMID:23099879

Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena

2012-08-01

259

The First Two Years of the Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education (relea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present and discuss in this work the motivations, goals and strategies adopted for its creation and launch of the e-journal LATIN-AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ASTRONOMY EDUCATION (RELEA). The RELEA "first light" was in August, 2004 with the appearance of No. 1 and it is now completing two years of existence. The creation of the new journal was prompted by: a) the noteworthy absence of a specific publication in the field in Latin-America; b) the lack of classroom material in Spanish/Portuguese that could be directly used without too many adaptations; and c) the need of a regional forum to discuss and suggest public policies concerning the teaching of Sciences in general and Astronomy in particular. We identify and present the difficulties encountered for the achievement of the proposed objectives and operational issues in this period, together with the adopted solutions (refereeing procedure, periodicity, etc.). Finally, we attempt to evaluate the long-run impact of such initiatives on the scientific education as a tool for effective citizenship decision making, so critical for Third-World countries. References Bretones, P.S., Jafelice, L.C. & Horvath, J.E. , 2004, Editorial of the RELEA No.1, available at (http://www.iscafaculdades.com.br/relea/). Bretones, P.S., Jafelice, L.C. & Horvath, J.E. , 2005, Editorial of the RELEA No.2, available at (http://www.iscafaculdades.com.br/relea/). Bretones, P.S., Jafelice, L.C. & Horvath, J.E., A Revista Latino-Americana de Educação em Astronomia: objetivos e estratégias. In: Encontro Brasileiro de Ensino de Astronomia, 8, 2004, São Paulo. Proceedings. (In press). [The Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education: Objectives and Strategies. In: 8th Brazilian Meeting on Astronomy Teaching.

Bretones, P. S.; Jafelice, L. C.; Horvath, J. E.

2006-08-01

260

Power law for the duration of recession and prosperity in Latin American countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ormerod and Mounfield [P. Ormerod, C. Mounfield, Power law distribution of duration and magnitude of recessions in capitalist economies: Breakdown of scaling, Physica A 293 (2001) 573] and Ausloos et al. [M. Ausloos, J. Mikiewicz, M. Sanglier, The durations of recession and prosperity: Does their distribution follow a power or an exponential law? Physica A 339 (2004) 548] have independently analyzed the duration of recessions for developed countries through the evolution of the GDP in different time windows. It was found that there is a power law governing the duration distribution. We have analyzed data collected from 19 Latin American countries in order to observe whether such results are valid or not for developing countries. The case of prosperity years is also discussed. We observe that the power law of recession time intervals, see Ref. [1], is valid for Latin American countries as well. Thus an interesting point is discovered: the same scaling time is found in the case of recessions for the three data sets (ca. 1 year), and this could represent a universal feature. Other time scale parameters differ significantly from each other.

Redelico, Francisco O.; Proto, Araceli N.; Ausloos, Marcel

2008-11-01

261

Proceedings of US-Latin American Workshop on Molecular and Materials Sciences: Theoretical and Computational Aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This workshop has been made possible by the financial support of the US National Science Foundation, International Programs Division, and by the Office of Naval Research, Physics Division. The early support by the ONR was essential in the beginning stages of the workshop organization; the NSF was very helpful speeding up their reviewing procedure to provide support on a tight schedule. The University of Florida, through its Departments of Chemistry and of Physics, and its Quantum Theory Project, provided help with its staff and with funds at critical times. The workshop attendants from Latin American countries helped this gathering in a very important way, by requesting and obtaining matching funds at their home institutions to travel to the USA. The program of the workshop evolved in response to suggestions from its participants. To begin with, it was decided to organize a short course on molecular and materials sciences based mostly on lectures by the Faculty of the Quantum Theory Project and other US institutions, and to request suggestions on its content from Latin American scientists associated to the University of Florida in past years' activities. These suggestions indicated a wish for additional contributions by participants in an informal conference format. The present programs combine the two aims, with a series of half hour overviews followed by long discussions with the participation of the attendants, and with half hour presentations by the attendants on subjects of their disciplines.

Micha, David A.

1994-08-01

262

[Equal rights for women and the United Nations convention in Latin America].  

PubMed

Although Latin American institutions have, directly or indirectly, established the juridical equality of the sexes, institutional power continues to be concentrated in the hands of men. It is necessary that Latin American governments seek ways to eliminate the legal, cultural, economic, political and social discrimination that persists against women in these patriarchal societies if men and women are to enjoy equality of rights. Today, instruments such as the Convention of Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women approved by the UN in 1979 and ratified by all Latin American countries, have succeeded in establishing the concept of improvement of the status of women as a legislative right supported by international juridical principles. International recognition of human rights has meant that all restrictions against women in the public and private realms are to be regarded as discrimination. Previously, family law was based on traditional customs which accepted that the roles and obligations of men and women were different. Although most Latin American countries now have laws recognizing the equality of rights and obligations of men and women, women continue to be in a secondary position. Poverty, scarcity of resources, and the economic crisis not only impede improvement in the status of women but have led to increases in female unemployment. Another obstacle is the lack of a true political will to improve the status of women. The UN convention on elimination of discrimination obliges each ratifying nation to strive not just for equality or rights but for equality of enjoyment of these rights. Each government should adopt measures to overcome discrimination. Among measures adopted by governments to achieve equality have been incorporation of the principle of equality into the national constitution and creation of offices or ministries for women that are distinct from those for the family or youth. The Committee for Elimination of Discrimination Against Women established by the convention and composed of 23 expert members has had great difficulty in carrying out its mission due largely to the lack of acceptance of the goals of the convention. It will not be easy to modify a culture, acquire economic resources, and create political will. But almost all Latin American and Caribbean countries have used government programs to improve the status of women as smokescreens to hide their inaction. New strategies will be required that combine legal negotiation, political pressure, popular organization, and use of the mass media. PMID:12284754

Plata, M I

1991-12-01

263

Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials (13th, Lawrence, Kansas, June 20-22, 1968). Final Report and Working Papers. Vol. II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The eight working papers used as documentation for the Thirteenth Seminar are included in volume II. They are: (1) "Progress Report on the Seminars on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials, 1968;" (2) "Significant Acquisitions of Latin American Material by U.S. Libraries, 1967/68;" (3) "A Report of Bibliographic Activities,…

Jordan, Alma; Rovira, Carmen

264

U.S. AGRICULTURAL TRADE WITH LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES AND EFFECTS OF THE FREE TRADE AREA OF THE AMERICAS ON SPECIFIC COMMODITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trade with Latin American countries is an increasingly important issue, as negotiations progress for a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA). The objectives of this study are to analyze U.S. agricultural trade with Latin American countries, determine factors influencing agricultural trade with these countries, and estimate possible effects of trade liberalization under the FTAA on U.S. agricultural trade. This

Jeremy W. Mattson; Won W. Koo

2003-01-01

265

Recent Stirrings: A Note on the Seminar on Latin American Studies, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Palo Alto, Summer 1963  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mr. Heussler, a staff member of the International Training and Research Program of the Ford Foundation, reports on an interdisciplinary seminar which investigated the work accomplished in Latin American Studies, possibilities for future research, and questions of method and methodology of social research in the Latin American context.

Robert Heussler

1964-01-01

266

Perceptions of Latin American scientists about science and post-graduate education: Introduction to the 5th issue of CBP-Latin America.  

PubMed

Although science and engineering (S&E) publications and doctoral degree awards in Latin America had experienced an impressive growth in the past decades, a qualitative evaluation of this increased output must be performed. Previous studies have indicated that growth in visibility of Latin American science - determined by ratio of citations per paper - has not kept pace with the increase in number of publications. In the present editorial, we analyzed - by means of a 12-item questionnaire - the individual perceptions of forty senior researchers involved in CBP-Latin America (29 Brazilians and 11 non-Brazilians) plus a special group composed by six extraordinary Latin American scientists (the "masters"). The questionnaire - using 6-point Likert-like scale for quantification of perception - focused on issues surrounding doctoral educational system as well as the governmental educational policies and publication pressure from funding agencies. In general, the most striking result was the perception (by 82% of respondents) of lack of job opportunities for people holding a PhD diploma in the field of comparative biochemistry and physiology. Other major trends include (i) lack of satisfaction with governmental policies for science and post-graduate education due to policies promoting mass production for papers and PhD diplomas (65-77% of respondents felt that way) (ii) that current PhD students are doing an adequate job, but have not improved in quality as compared to those from 10 years ago (the same was observed for PhD thesis in terms of present versus past), and (iii) that research infrastructure and the curricula of post-graduate courses do not constitute a problem, but (iv) recent-PhDs are not as fit as they should be in paper-writing skills, especially as perceived by Brazilian respondents. The general perceptions were very similar among Brazilians, non-Brazilians and "masters". The use of a larger study-population, with scientists of more diverse fields is the next logical step to best evaluate the level of satisfaction about science and post-graduate policies in the continent. Finally, this fifth and last special issue of CBP-Latin America celebrates the contribution of 20 new manuscripts, which adds up to 118 published studies highlighting the depth, breadth and enthusiasm of Latin American comparative biochemistry and physiology - enjoy. PMID:18721892

Hermes-Lima, Marcelo; Polcheira, Cássia; Trigueiro, Michelangelo; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira

2008-08-09

267

Latin American Immigrant Minorities in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Immigration and immigrant adaptation among Cubans and Mexican immigrants to the U.S. was studied. Structural, social, and cultural adaptation were analyzed, as were the immigrants' views of the host society and their perceptions of discrimination against ...

A. Portes

1981-01-01

268

Buruli Ulcer in United Kingdom Tourist Returning from Latin America  

PubMed Central

We report a case of Buruli ulcer in a tourist from the United Kingdom. The disease was almost certainly acquired in Brazil, where only 1 case had previously been reported. The delay in diagnosis highlights the need for physicians to be aware of the disease and its epidemiology.

Stragier, Pieter; Portaels, Francoise; Gascoyne-Binzi, Deborah; Collyns, Timothy; Lucas, Sebastian; Mawer, Damian

2009-01-01

269

Nineteenth Latin-American congress on chemistry. Book of abstracts. (Decimonoveno congreso latinoamericano de quimica. Libro de resumenes).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication deals with different in-scope papers presented at the 19. Latin-American congress on chemistry, held in Buenos Aires (Argentine Republic) from November 5-9, 1990. The original document where these papers are contained, consists of 567 pag...

1990-01-01

270

Trust Funds at the Inter-American Development Bank: Enhancing Development Assistance to Latin America and the Caribbean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1992 and 2003, Latin American and Caribbean countries accessed around US$300 million from the IDB trust fund program for non-reimbursable technical cooperation projects. This report offers a comprehensive look at the role played by trust funds with the region. It is based on a desk review of all 45 trust funds for technical cooperation for 1628 projects. Available data

2004-01-01

271

The avoidable health effects of air pollution in three Latin American cities: Santiago, São Paulo, and Mexico City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban centers in Latin American often face high levels of air pollution as a result of economic and industrial growth. Decisions with regard to industry, transportation, and development will affect air pollution and health both in the short term and in the far future through climate change. We investigated the pollution health consequences of modest changes in fossil fuel use

Michelle L. Bell; Devra L. Davis; Nelson Gouveia; Víctor H. Borja-Aburto; Luis A. Cifuentes

2006-01-01

272

The avoidable health effects of air pollution in three Latin American cities: Santiago, Sao Paulo, and Mexico City  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban centers in Latin American often face high levels of air pollution as a result of economic and industrial growth. Decisions with regard to industry, transportation, and development will affect air pollution and health both in the short term and in the far future through climate change. We investigated the pollution health consequences of modest changes in fossil fuel use

Michelle L. Bella; Devra L. Davisb; H. Borja-Aburtod; Luis A. Cifuentese

273

Is efficiency the equivalent to a high rate of return for private pension funds? Evidence from Latin-American Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last few years, there has been a large increase in the rate of return for most Latin- American private pension fund institutions (AFPs). This favorable performance of funds comes with an economic boom in the region. However, efficiency, which is the equivalent of good management, does not go along with this successful performance of AFPs. We measure efficiency

Jorge Guillén

2008-01-01

274

A Guide to Audio-Visual Aids for Courses on the History of Latin American Civilization in Higher Education Institutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide to films suitable for college courses on Latin American Civilization discusses the value of film as a tool for teaching, how to order and use films, and films currently available but unsuited to college audiences. Sixty-four educational films a...

L. Hanke J. M. Loy

1973-01-01

275

Educating "Barbaros": Educational Policies on the Latin American Frontiers between Colonies and Independent Republics (Araucania, Southern Chile/Sonora, Mexico)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares the methods and means employed by the state to enforce the education of (semi-)autonomous indigenous groups in southern Chile and northwestern Mexico (Sonora), border regions in the Latin American periphery, covering the transition from colonial times to the consolidation of independent republics until the middle of the…

Holck, Lasse; Saiz, Monika Contreras

2010-01-01

276

Women's Theologies, Women's Pedagogies: Liberating Praxes of Latin American Women Educators in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the women…

Jones, Lauren Ila

2009-01-01

277

Analyses of Some Studies on Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Family Planning in Several Latin American Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research dealing with population and family planning in specific Latin American countries is summarized in this collection of demographic studies. Countries for which information is provided include Argentina, Barbados, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Peru. Each country…

International Planned Parenthood Federation, New York, NY.

278

A Critical Assessment of Japan’s Foreign Aid Sanctions Policy: Case Studies of Latin American Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japanese government introduced new foreign aid guidelines in 1991 and it pledged to impose aid sanctions on those aid recipient countries whose governments violated human rights or democratic principles. The introduction of the new aid guidelines is expected to produce a certain effect on Japan’s foreign aid policy. This paper examines Japan’s aid sanctions policy toward Latin American countries

Fumitaka Furuoka

2007-01-01

279

Linkages among Latin American foreign exchange markets: a long-run perspective in the presence of structural breaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines stationarity properties, linkages and market efficiency of the Latin American foreign exchange markets over the 1994 to 2005 period. By using daily data for 14 countries we apply bivariate and multivariate cointegration estimations and we further account for the presence of structural breaks or changes in regime. Bivariate cointegration tests revealed that most currencies have a long-run

Isabel Ruiz

2009-01-01

280

Self-Concealment, Social Self-Efficacy, Acculturative Stress, and Depression in African, Asian, and Latin American International College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this exploratory investigation was to examine self-concealment behaviors and social self-efficacy skills as potential mediators in the relationship between acculturative stress and depression in a sample of 320 African, Asian, and Latin American international college students. The authors found several differences by demography with regard to the study's variables. After controlling for regional group membership, sex,

Madonna G. Constantine; Sumie Okazaki; Shawn O. Utsey

2004-01-01

281

Dyslipidemia in a Cohort of HIV-infected Latin American Children Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy*  

PubMed Central

In order to describe the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in a cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents in Latin America and to determine associations with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we performed this cross-sectional analysis within the NICHD International Site Development Initiative pediatric cohort study. Eligible children had to be at least 2 years of age and be on HAART. Among the 477 eligible HIV-infected youth, 98 (20.5%) had hypercholesterolemia and 140 (29.4%) had hypertriglyceridemia. In multivariable analyses, children receiving protease inhibitor (PI)-containing HAART were at increased risk for hypercholesterolemia [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)?=?2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3–5.6] and hypertriglyceridemia (AOR?=?3.5, 95% CI 1.9–6.4) compared with children receiving non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-containing HAART. In conclusion, HIV-infected youth receiving PI-containing HAART in this Latin American cohort were at increased risk for hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia compared with those receiving NNRTI-containing HAART.

Brewinski, Margaret; Megazzini, Karen; Freimanis Hance, Laura; Cruz, Miguel Cashat; Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Della Negra, Marinella; Ferreira, Flavia Gomes Faleiro; Marques, Heloisa

2011-01-01

282

The First Two Years of the Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education (RELEA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present and discuss in this work the motivations, goals and strategies adopted for its creation and launch of the e-journal LATIN-AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ASTRONOMY EDUCATION (RELEA). The RELEA "first light" was in August, 2004 with the appearance of No. 1 and it is now completing two years of existence. The creation of the new journal was prompted by: a) the noteworthy absence of a specific publication in the field in Latin-America; b) the lack of classroom material in spanish/portuguese that could be directly used without too many adaptations; and c) the need of a regional forum to discuss and suggest public policies concerning the teaching of Sciences in general and Astronomy in particular. We identify and present the difficulties encountered for the achievement of the proposed objectives and operational issues in this period, together with the adopted solutions (refereeing procedure, periodicity, etc.). Finally, we attempt to evaluate the long-run impact of such initiatives on the scientific education as a tool for effective citizenship decision making, so critical for Third-World countries.

Bretones, P. S.; Jafelice, L. C.; Horvath, J. E.

2006-08-01

283

Prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and street drugs consumption in adult Latin American immigrants.  

PubMed

To estimate the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug consumption (through the self-report) in adult Latin-American immigrants of Seville, a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a representative sample of 190 immigrants. The results showed that 61.4% of the participants had consumed alcohol in previous month before data collection, although 13.2% of them were at risk of alcoholism. Moreover, 30.0% were smokers. In addition, 5.3% of the interviewed people had consumed illicit psychoactive substances in the previous six months (Marihuana: 3.7%, hashish: 1.1% and cocaine: 0.5%). For all substances under analysis, the consumption prevalence was much higher in men from 25 to 39 years of age. In conclusion, prevalence levels of this consumption were high among the studied immigrants. Nurses could train the population in the prevention of these risk behaviors through preventive practices. PMID:22991115

González-López, José Rafael; Rodríguez-Gázquez, María de Los Ángeles; Lomas-Campos, María de Las Mercedes

284

[An evidence based Iberic-Latin American guideline for acute gastroenteritis management in infants and prescholars].  

PubMed

Acute gastroenteritis (AG) morbidity and mortality rates in infants and prescholars continue to be high in developing countries. Authors want to develop an evidence-based document that supports decision making regarding AG therapy in infants and children younger than 5 y/o. A systematic review of the literature was performed (May, 2008). Evidence grading was established according to Oxford guidelines and Latin American experts submitted their opinions on the recommendations generated. Oral rehydration solutions are the threatment's keystone for children with AG, showing lesser complications due to therapy than IV fluids. AG is no contraindication of a normal diet. Racecadotril, zinc and smectite can contribute to AG treatment, as well as Lactobacillus GG and Saccharomycces boulardii. No other drugs are recommended. It is recommended to treat children presenting AG with oral rehydration solutions among racecadotril, zinc or smectite as well as some probiotics. PMID:20171152

Gutiérrez Castrellón, P; Polanco Allué, I; Salazar Lindo, E

2010-02-19

285

Daily family conflict and emotional distress among adolescents from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds.  

PubMed

The authors employed a daily diary method to assess daily frequencies of interparental and parent-adolescent conflict over a 2-week period and their implications for emotional distress across the high school years in a longitudinal sample of 415 adolescents from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds. Although family conflict remained fairly infrequent among all ethnic backgrounds across the high school years, its impact on emotional distress was significant across ethnicity and gender. In addition, parent-adolescent conflict significantly mediated the association between interparental conflict and emotional distress. These associations were observed at both the individual and the daily levels, providing evidence for both the chronic and episodic implications of family conflict for adolescents' emotional adjustment. PMID:19702401

Chung, Grace H; Flook, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J

2009-09-01

286

Screening of Latin American plants for antiparasitic activities against malaria, Chagas disease, and leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

In order to explore rationally the medical potential of the plant biodiversity of the Central and South American region as a source of novel antiparasitic molecules, a multinational Organization of American States (OAS) project, which included the participation of multidisciplinary research centers from Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Panama, was carried out during the period 2001-2004. This project aimed at screening organic plant extracts for antitrypanosomal, antileishmanial and antimalarial activities and subsequently isolating and characterizing bioactive molecules. Plants for antiparasitic screening were selected from a database of ethnomedical uses of Latin American plants (PlanMedia) based on the amount of biological and chemical information available in the literature. We report here the evaluation of 452 extracts from 311 plant species in vitro screens against Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania mexicana, and Trypanosoma cruzi. Out of 311 species tested, 17 plants (5.4%) showed antiparasitic activities at IC(50) values < or = 10 microg/mL. The most active plants were Acnistus arborescens (L.) Schltdl. (Solanaceae) (leaf, EtOH, IC(50): 4 microg/mL) Monochaetum myrtoideum Naudin (Melastomataceae) (leaf, MeOH, IC(50): 5 microg/mL) and Bourreria huanita (Lex.) Hemsl. (Boraginaceae) (branch, EtOH, IC(50): 6 microg/mL). These were selectively active against P. falciparum, L. mexicana and T. cruzi, respectively. PMID:20645798

Calderón, Angela I; Romero, Luz I; Ortega-Barría, Eduardo; Solís, Pablo N; Zacchino, Susana; Gimenez, Alberto; Pinzón, Roberto; Cáceres, Armando; Tamayo, Giselle; Guerra, Carlos; Espinosa, Alex; Correa, Mireya; Gupta, Mahabir P

2010-05-01

287

Human Leukocyte Antigen Profiles of Latin American Populations: Differential Admixture and Its Potential Impact on Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation  

PubMed Central

The outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is shaped by both clinical and genetic factors that determine its success. Genetic factors including human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and non-HLA genetic variants are believed to influence the risk of potentially fatal complications after the transplant. Moreover, ethnicity has been proposed as a factor modifying the risk of graft-versus-host disease. The populations of Latin America are a complex array of different admixture processes with varying degrees of ancestral population proportions that came in different migration waves. This complexity makes the study of genetic risks in this region complicated unless the extent of this variation is thoroughly characterized. In this study we compared the HLA-A and HLA-B allele group profiles for 31 Latin American populations and 61 ancestral populations from Iberia, Italy, Sub-Saharan Africa, and America. Results from population genetics comparisons show a wide variation in the HLA profiles from the Latin American populations that correlate with different admixture proportions. Populations in Latin America seem to be organized in at least three groups with (1) strong Amerindian admixture, (2) strong Caucasian component, and (3) a Caucasian-African gradient. These results imply that genetic risk assessment for HSCT in Latin America has to be adapted for different population subgroups rather than as a pan-Hispanic/Latino analysis.

Arrieta-Bolanos, Esteban; Madrigal, J. Alejandro; Shaw, Bronwen E.

2012-01-01

288

Pig islet xenotransplantation acceptance in a Latin-American diabetic population.  

PubMed

Progress in porcine islet xenotransplantation has been accompanied by studies on acceptance of this new procedure by patients, health professionals or the general public. Such studies have not been done in the Latin-American population. We conducted a questionnaire in 108 diabetes patients (insulin-dependent, n = 53; insulin-independent, n = 55) in a public hospital in Argentina. The questions addressed the general perception of the xenotransplant procedure and specific items related to the outcome (achieving insulin independence, improvement in metabolic control, delay in emergence of diabetic complications, need for repeat procedures, potential of transfer of infectious viruses, association with psychological problems, and anticipated success in relation to achieving a cure). Eighty-six (79%) of the patients accepted islet xenotransplantation; this incidence was not different for insulin-dependent or insulin-independent patients, patients with or without complications, or patients with good or poor metabolic control. Also, over 75% of patients accepted the procedure if this is only associated with a reduction in insulin requirement, if the procedure just delays but not prevents the onset of complications, or if the procedure needs to be performed every 6 months. Fifty-seven percent of patients indicated acceptance even if the potential transmission of a virus infection cannot be completely ruled out: this outcome was not affected by the outbreak of the H1N1 flu epidemic during the conduct of this study. Forty percent of patients indicated that living with porcine cells in their body could give psychological problems. We conclude that this population of Latin-American diabetic patients shows a high acceptance rate of a porcine islet xenotransplantation product. PMID:20723198

Abalovich, Adrián; Wechsler, Carlos; Lara, Silvia; Bervottini, Miguel

289

Between Motorcycles and Rifles: Anglo-American and Latin American Radical Archaeologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent English publication of Che Guevara's (1995) journal of his youthful motorcycle trip through South America, The Motorcycle Diaries, has generated a resurgence of public interest in the iconic figure of Che. The publicity blurb on the back of the book represents\\u000a Che as a South American James Dean who embarked on a journey of discovery and adventure. In

Randall H. McGuire; Rodrigo Navarrete

290

Livestock Development in Latin America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Meat and milk consumption in Latin America; Livestock production in Latin America; International trade in Latin American livestock products; World bank lending for livestock projects; Government and the livestock sector; Issues in the developmen...

L. S. Jarvis

1986-01-01

291

Native Americans: An Elementary Art Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This elementary art unit, which exposes students to the art and culture of American Indian tribes, is divided into four sections. Each section deals with a geographical area and a tribe or tribes within that area. Background information precedes instructions for art projects related to specific tribes. The influence of the environment on culture…

Brown, Pat

292

Effects of HIV-Prevention Interventions for Samples with Higher and Lower Percents of Latinos and Latin Americans: A Meta-Analysis of Change in Condom Use and Knowledge  

PubMed Central

This meta-analysis (N = 110,092) assessed the efficacy of HIV-prevention interventions across samples with higher and lower concentrations of Latinos/Latin Americans. Findings indicated that groups with higher percents of Latinos increased condom and HIV-related knowledge to a lesser extent than groups with lower percents of Latinos/ Latin Americans. Moreover, groups with greater percents of Latinos/Latin Americans only benefited from intervention strategies that included threat-inducing arguments, whereas groups with lower percents of Latinos/Latin Americans benefited from numerous strategies. In addition, groups with greater percents of Latinos/Latin Americans increased condom use when interventions were conducted by a lay community member, whereas groups with lower percents of these groups increased condom use the most in response to experts. Not surprisingly, there were important differences among Latinos/Latin Americans with different education levels, different genders, and US/Latin American nationality.

Albarracin, Julia; Durantini, Marta

2013-01-01

293

Breast cancer in Latin America: results of the Latin American and Caribbean Society of Medical Oncology/Breast Cancer Research Foundation expert survey.  

PubMed

The incidence of breast cancer in Latin American countries is lower than that in more developed countries, whereas the mortality rate is higher. These differences probably are related to differences in screening strategies and access to treatment. Population-based data are needed to make informed decisions. A 65-question telephone survey that included 100 breast cancer experts from 12 Latin American countries was conducted in 2006 as an exploratory analysis of the current state of breast cancer treatment in these regions at both at the country level and at the center level. Greater than 90% of countries had no national law or guideline for mammography screening. The access rate to mammography was 66.3% at the country level and 47% at the center level. Variation in care based on level (country vs center) was indicated for the timing of treatment after diagnosis, timing from initial diagnosis to treatment, and the time from surgery to initial chemotherapy. However, the more sophisticated diagnostic testing for hormone receptors and biomarkers were available at most centers (>80%), and, overall, nearly 80% of patients started treatment within 3 months of diagnosis. Variation in care between breast cancer care at the center level versus the country level indicated a need for national cancer care programs. Alternative data collection strategies for understanding the state of breast cancer control programs in developing countries can help identify areas of improvement. PMID:18837031

Cazap, Eduardo; Buzaid, Antonio Carlos; Garbino, Carlos; de la Garza, Jaime; Orlandi, Francisco Javier; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Vallejos, Carlos; Guercovich, Andres

2008-10-15

294

Latin American women's experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted.  

PubMed

Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA) refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used.Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades.This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women's experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal.Women's personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1) a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2) complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support.Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it might not be effective, and the fact that some women eventually need to seek medical care at a hospital where they might be sanctioned for having an abortion and even reported to the police. PMID:23259660

Zamberlin, Nina; Romero, Mariana; Ramos, Silvina

2012-12-22

295

Latin American Marketing Project. Grade 10 Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this lesson, students work as marketing teams hired by a U.S. fast food company to study the feasibility of selling fast food in Latin America. Teams are composed of cultural, production, marketing, and advertising experts. Each marketing team will investigate a product and a Latin American country. Teams will present their research and…

Antilla, Madeline; DeMonet, J.

296

Human rights and mental health among Latin American women in situations of state-sponsored violence. Bibliographic resources.  

PubMed

The Task Force of the American Psychological Association Division 35, Psychology of Women, conducted a literature review of resources from Latin America to examine the social dimensions of state-sponsored violence in Latin America, their effects on socialization and community, and some responses of women surviving these experiences. It limited its review to works of women's groups, progressive organizations, and individual women exploring the effects of war and state-sponsored violence on women's mental health. Recurring emergent themes included the false dichotomy of violence committed against women in public versus that committed in private, silencing of women accompanies state imposed terror, collective resistance to such terror. The resources addressed 3 types of women's experiences of violence: exile within and beyond one's national borders; torture--an extreme form of state-sponsored violence; and nontraditional, culturally appropriate interventions--alternatives to Western models. This review motivated the Task Force to call on their colleagues to contribute to the on-going documentation of state-sponsored violence. Task Force members identified several areas for collaborative research and/or theory development. Psychologists should question the validity of clinical neutrality and examine the particular meanings of non-neutrality within different cultures. For example, some Latin American psychologists reject diagnoses of intrapsychic syndromes (e.g., post-traumatic stress syndrome) and propose concepts that center on the nexus of individuals and social life. The Task Force sees great opportunities for US psychologists to network and to form solidarity-based relationships with Latin American women. It has identified many women's groups working in Latin America. Human rights organizations (e.g., Americas Watch) have formed women's projects. Further work should be done to improve resource exchanges. PMID:12288466

Lykes, M B; Brabeck, M M; Ferns, T; Radan, A

1993-12-01

297

What Does Latin American Social Medicine Do When It Governs? The Case of the Mexico City Government  

PubMed Central

Latin American social medicine (LASM) emerged as a movement in the 1970s and played an important role in the Brazilian health care reform of the 1980s, both of which focused on decentralization and on health care as a social right. The dominant health care reform model in Latin America has included a market-driven, private subsystem for the insured and a public subsystem for the uninsured and the poor. In contrast, the Mexico City government has launched a comprehensive policy based on social rights and redistribution of resources. A universal pension for senior citizens and free medical services are financed by grants, eliminating routine government corruption and waste. The Mexico City policy reflects the influence of Latin American social medicine. In this article, I outline the basic traits of LASM and those of the prevailing health care reform model in Latin America and describe the Mexico City social and health policy, emphasizing the influence of LASM in values, principles, and concrete programs.

Laurell, Asa Cristina

2003-01-01

298

Development from below: neighborhood improvement associations in the Latin American squatter settlements.  

PubMed

Juntas, a type of neighborhood association found in many Latin American countries, are described in terms of their common characteristics, functions, and strategies. Factors which strengthen juntas are isolated, and the potential for juntas to become ongoing institutionalized structures is discussed. Information from a large number of written sources was compared in order to identify the common cross cultural characteristics of juntas. Juntas generally originate as squatter invasion forces organized to take over and settle, either gradually or overnight, unocupied lands in or near urban centers. After invasion the huntas continue to function as neighborhood associations which make collective demands on the government for public services and which promote various self-help projects within the squatter community. Juntas are widespread in Latin American countries. Of the 91 squatter settlements which have been studied in 11 different countries, 61 has juntas. Participation of household heads in the juntas ranges from 10-70%. Most squatter invasions are planned or spontaneous radical political action. The collective invasion itself often serves to open negotiations with the government. After the invasion leaders are elected, and they help organize the new community by assigning land, setting boundries, screening new settlers, collecting dues, and directing a variety of self-help construction projects. Collective demands are then made on the government to provide urban services such as water and electricity. The collective nature of the demand helps reduce the risk of official retaliation. Demand strategies include petitioning high level government officials, utilizing personalistic contacts, affiliating with either the rulingpower or opposing parties, appealing to outside agencies, linking up with other juntas, conducting public demonstrations, and publicizing their grievances in order to engender public support. After basic services are provided the juntas promote self-help projects such as organizing taxi services, medical clinics, vocational and lteracy programs, and building playgrounds. The juntas sometimes perform quasi governmental functions, such as, settling disputes between community members and policing the community. Participation in juntas declines as the need for making outside demands lessens; however, the high level of self-help activity keeps the juntas viable. They also retain the latent capacity for political demand behavior if the need for action arises. Factors which strengthen juntas included 1) high population density and large size of the squatter community, 2) defined boundaries, 3) close proximity to urban agencies, 4) climatic factors which make it necessary to act quickly and collectively, and 5) a moderate level of heterogeneity in the squatter population. PMID:12339657

Fisher, J

1984-01-01

299

PREFACE: 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2011)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These proceedings present the written contributions from participants of the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP), which was held in Mar del Plata, Argentina, on 20-25 November 2011. This was the 14th session of the series of LAWPP biennial meetings, which started in 1982. The five-day scientific program of LAWPP 2011 consisted of 32 talks and various poster sessions, with the participation of 135 researchers from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Puerto Rico, USA, Venezuela, as well as others from Europe and Asia. In addition, a School on Plasma Physics and a Workshop on Industrial Applications of Plasma Technology (AITP) were organized together with the main meeting. The five-day School held in the week previous to the meeting was intended for young scientists starting their research in Plasma Physics. On the other hand, the objective of the AITP Workshop was to enhance regional academic and industrial cooperation in the field of plasma assisted surface technology. Topics addressed at LAWPP 2011 included space plasmas, dusty plasmas, nuclear fusion, non-thermal plasmas, basic plasma processes, plasma simulation and industrial plasma applications. This variety of subjects is reflected in these proceedings, which the editors hope will result in enjoyable and fruitful reading for those interested in Plasma Physics. It is a pleasure to thank the Institutions that sponsored the meeting, as well as all the participants and collaborators for making this meeting possible. The Editors Luis Bilbao, Fernando Minotti and Hector Kelly LAWPP participants Participants of the 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics, 20-25 November 2011, Mar del Plata, Argentina International Scientific Committee Carlos Alejaldre, Spain María Virginia Alves, Brazil Ibere Caldas, Brazil Luis Felipe Delgado-Aparicio, Peru Mayo Villagrán, Mexico Kohnosuke Sato, Japan Héctor Kelly, Argentina Edberto Leal-Quirós, Puerto Rico George Morales, USA Julio Puerta, Venezuela Leopoldo Soto, Chile Michael Tendler, Sweden Carlos Varandas, Portugal Henry Riascos, Colombia Ivan Vargas-Blanco, Costa Rica Local Organizing Committee Luis Bilbao (Chairman) Fernando Minotti (Vice-Chairman) Luis Bernal, UNMDP Alejandro Clausse, PLADEMA-CNEA Graciela Gnavi, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Fausto Gratton, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Diana Grondona, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Héctor Kelly, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Adriana Márquez, INFIP, CONICET-UBA María Milanese, UNCPBA César Moreno, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Sponsors Instituto de Física del Plasma (INFIP) Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA) Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (ANPCyT) Centro Latino-Americano de Física (CLAF) Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMP) Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (UNICEN) Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Buenos Aires (ANCBA) Conference poster

Bilbao, Luis; Minotti, Fernando; Kelly, Hector

2012-06-01

300

Latin American regional co-operative programme on food irradiation. Report of a co-ordinated research programme, 1986-1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ''Latin American Regional Co-ordinated Research Programme on Food Irradiation'' was established in 1986 with the participation of research scientists from countries in the region to investigate the efficacy of food irradiation as a treatment to reduce...

1992-01-01

301

A study of the methods used by selected Florida colleges and universities to recruit Latin American students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper was written with a focus on recruiting students from abroad. The author started the paper in a broad format by looking at all international students coming to the United States but concentrated the research question on students from Latin America that come to Florida institutions. The focus on such a small population was because of the proximity to

Roy Tariq Braine

2004-01-01

302

Teaching Spanish to Latin American Area Specialists at the Air Force Academy: A Focus on Language and Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The language program at the United State Air Force Academy is described with emphasis on its upper track courses that are designed to prepare area specialists to interact with their foreign counterparts. Air Force officers assigned to Latin America, for example, may serve as experts in political-military affairs, foreign military sales, or as…

Vela, Arnoldo

303

Insulin resistance and glucose and lipid concentrations in a cohort of perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children.  

PubMed

We measured glucose, insulin and lipids in 249 perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children. Only 1 subject had impaired fasting glucose; 6.8% had insulin resistance. Abnormalities in total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were reported for 13%, 13%, 21% and 34%, respectively. Continued follow-up of this population is necessary to characterize the evolution and clinical consequences of these findings. PMID:23360832

Hazra, Rohan; Hance, Laura Freimanis; Monteiro, Jacqueline Pontes; Ruz, Noris Pavia; Machado, Daisy Maria; Saavedra, Mariza; Motta, Fabrizio; Harris, D Robert

2013-07-01

304

Does a Monetary Union protect again foreign shocks? An assessment of Latin American integration using a Bayesian VAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the monetary consequences of the Latin-American trade integration process. We consider a sample of five countries –Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Uruguay- spanning the period 1991-2007. The main question raised pertains to the feasibility of a monetary union between L.A. economies. To this end, we study whether this set of countries is characterized by business cycle synchronization

Jean-Pierre Allégret; Alain Sand-Zantman

2008-01-01

305

Hierarchical structures in the Gross Domestic Product per capita fluctuation in Latin American countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A description of relations between the yearly fluctuations of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita of 19 Latin American (LA) countries is presented using either a linear (PCC) or a nonlinear correlation coefficient (NCC). Various time windows have been examined to measure the weights giving rise to links used to built complex networks for which the countries are nodes. The Average Overlap Index (AOI) for LA countries has been calculated for the two correlation coefficients showing that it is rather systematically higher than for the 25 EU countries. The network structures are thereafter examined through a country elimination scheme based on the removal of the weakest links and raising the AOI threshold level. The PCC and NCC schemes lead to different networks and clusters. A Principal Component Analysis is furthermore made for the two here above defined adjacency matrices resulting from the PCC and NCC methods to represent and analyze the country clustering structure and observe their coherence from such points of view. It is concluded that both PCC and NCC schemes lead to similar clustering though have a different feeling for the sign of correlations. Moreover the 19 LA countries seem to be less tied than the 25 EU.

Redelico, Francisco O.; Proto, Araceli N.; Ausloos, Marcel

2009-09-01

306

Adult education as a human right: The Latin American context and the ecopedagogic perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well as technical. All along the history of contemporary education it is essential to highlight the importance of the CONFINTEA conferences for the construction of an expanded vision of this concept. Adult education is understood as a human right. The right to education does not end when a person has reached the so-called "proper" age; it continues to be a right for the duration of everyone's entire life. This article explores Paulo Freire's contribution, particularly the methodology of MOVA (Youth and Adult Literacy Movement). It also presents the ecopedagogic perspective, which was inspired by Paulo Freire's legacy. Finally, this article stresses the need to support a long-term policy for adult education, following the recommendations of the Civil Society International Forum (FISC) and CONFINTEA VI, both held in Belém, Brazil, in 2009.

Gadotti, Moacir

2011-08-01

307

[Parasitology and entomology in the 29th century in Latin American narrative].  

PubMed

In the present review of twelve pieces produced by distinguished 20th century Latin American writers--Jorge Luis Borges from Argentina, Jorge Amado and João Ubaldo Ribeiro from Brazil, José Donoso from Chile, Gabriel García Márquez from Colombia, Alejo Carpentier from Cuba, Miguel Angel Asturias from Guatemala, Octavio Paz from Mexico, Mario Vargas Llosa from Perú, Horacio Quiroga and Mario Benedetti from Uruguay and Arturo Uslar-Pietri from Venezuela--paragraphs or parts of paragraphs in which parasitological or entomological situations of the most varied hues are referred to or described, have been extracted in a selective form. Sometimes in these descriptions appear, local or regional expressions, without ignoring colorful folklore representations. For a easier interpretation these or part of these paragraph sentences have been arranged by thematic similarities. In a varied and kaleidoscopic vision, it will be possible to find protozoiasis (malaria, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, amebiasis), helminthiases (ascariasis, hydatidosis, trichinosis, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis, onchocerciasis), parasitoses produced by arthropods (pediculosis, scabies, tungiasis, myiasis), passing progressively to hemaphagous arthropods (mosquitoes, gnats, horse flies, bedbugs, ticks), venomous arthropods (Latrodectus spiders, scorpions, wasps, bees), mechanical vectors (flies and cockroaches), culminating with a conjunction of bucolic arthropods (butterflies, crickets, grasshoppers cicadas, ants, centipedes, beetles, glow worms, dragonflies). PMID:11338977

Schenone, H

308

Public vaccine manufacturing capacity in the Latin American and Caribbean region: current status and perspectives.  

PubMed

The vaccine global market is currently growing at a rate of 16.52%. Nowadays the vaccine manufacturing industry is limited in the sense that not all vaccine manufacturers have the capacity to execute all the steps necessary to produce a successful product. The biological variation inherent to vaccine manufacturing and the initial investment required to bring a vaccine to the market are some of the factors that discourage vaccine manufacturing initiatives. Given the current global context in vaccine innovation and production, and the increasing participation of vaccine manufacturers from developing countries in global markets, this paper aims to review vaccine manufacturing capacity in Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries with specific focus on trends in national or public sector manufacturing, presenting current challenges and future opportunities for the sector in meeting national and regional (LAC) needs. Despite the overall low vaccine manufacturing capacity reported within the LAC region within this paper, it is considered that the relatively high and concentrated capacity that exists within a number of countries, combined with political commitment of all countries within the Region, can provide the necessary platform for the continued development of capacity in vaccine development and manufacture within LAC. PMID:22033155

Cortes, Maria de los Angeles; Cardoso, Daniel; Fitzgerald, James; DiFabio, Jose Luis

2011-10-26

309

Reference ranges for the urinary steroid profile in a Latin-American population.  

PubMed

The urinary steroid profile has been used in clinical endocrinology for the early detection of enzyme deficiencies. In the field of doping, its evaluation in urine samples is used to diagnose the abuse of substances prohibited in sport. This profile is influenced by sex, age, exercise, diet, and ethnicity, among others; laboratories own reference ranges might compensate for ethnic differences among population and inter-laboratory biases. This paper shows the reference ranges obtained in the Antidoping Laboratory of Havana for the following steroid profile parameters: ten androgens (testosterone, epitestosterone, androsterone, etiocholanolone, 5?-androstan-3?,17?-diol, 5?-androstan-3?,17?-diol, dehydroepiandrosterone, epiandrosterone, 11?-hydroxyandrosterone and 11?-hydroxyetiocholanolone), three estrogens (estradiol, estriol and estrone), two pregnanes (pregnanediol and pregnanetriol) and two corticosteroids (cortisol and tetrahydrocortisol). The urine samples (male: n?=?2454 and female: n?=?1181) and data obtained are representative of population from Latin-American countries like Cuba, Venezuela, Mexico, Dominican Republic, Guatemala and Chile. Urine samples were prepared by solid-phase extraction followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and liquid-liquid extraction with an organic solvent in basic conditions. Trimethylsilyl derivatives were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Reference ranges were established for each sex, allowing the determination of abnormal profiles as a first diagnostic tool for the detection of the abuse of androgenic anabolic steroids. The comparison with the Caucasian population confirms that the urinary steroid profile is influenced by ethnicity. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23339119

Martínez-Brito, D; Correa Vidal, M T; de la Torre, X; García-Mir, V; Ledea Lozano, O; Granda Fraga, M

2013-01-21

310

Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities.  

PubMed

This paper explores whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards. PMID:23434119

Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Qin, Hua; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy

2013-01-20

311

Atrophic gastritis: Risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a Latin-American population  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the association between atrophic gastritis (AG) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a Latin-America population. METHODS: A case-control study was performed at two reference Brazilian hospitals including patients diagnosed with advanced ESCC and dyspeptic patients who had been subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with biopsies of the gastric antrum and body. All cases with ESCC were reviewed by a single pathologist, who applied standard criteria for the diagnosis of mucosal atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia, all classified as AG. The data on the patients’ age, sex, smoking status, and alcohol consumption were collected from clinical records, and any missing information was completed by telephone interview. The association between AG and ESCC was assessed by means of univariate and multiple conditional logistic regressions. RESULTS: Most patients were male, and the median age was 59 years (range: 37-79 years) in both the ESCC and control groups. Univariate analysis showed that an intake of ethanol greater than 32 g/d was an independent risk factor that increased the odds of ESCC 7.57 times (P = 0.014); upon multiple analysis, alcohol intake of ethanol greater than 32 g/d exhibited a risk of 4.54 (P = 0.081), as adjusted for AG and smoking. Smoking was shown to be an independent risk factor that increased the odds of ESCC 14.55 times (P = 0.011) for individuals who smoked 0 to 51 packs/year and 21.40 times (P = 0.006) for those who smoked more than 51 packs/year. Upon multiple analyses, those who smoked up to 51 packs/year exhibited a risk of 7.85 (P = 0.058), and those who smoked more than 51 packs/ year had a risk 11.57 times higher (P = 0.04), as adjusted for AG and alcohol consumption. AG proved to be a risk factor that increased the odds of ESCC 5.33 times (95%CI: 1.55-18.30, P = 0.008) according to the results of univariate conditional logistic regression. CONCLUSION: There was an association by univariate conditional logistic regression between AG and ECSS in this sample of Latin-American population.

Almodova, Emiliano de Carvalho; de Oliveira, Walmar Kerche; Machado, Lucas Faria Abrahao; Grejo, Juliana Rigotto; da Cunha, Thiago Rabelo; Colaiacovo, Wagner; Ortolan, Erika Veruska Paiva

2013-01-01

312

The Planning of Latin American Universities: In Search of Its Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|College planning in Latin America is discussed, with attention to underdevelopment, political instability, and the economic crisis of the 1980s. Alternative planning approaches used in U.S. higher education institutions are considered. Latin America refers to 18 Spanish-speaking republics of the Western Hemisphere, along with Brazil and Haiti.…

Escala, Miguel J.

313

Distribution and ecology of parent taxa of pollen lodged within the Latin American Pollen Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cornerstone of palaeoecological research, concerned with vegetation dynamics over the recent geological past, is a good understanding of the present-day ecology and distribution of the taxa. This is particularly necessary in areas of high floral diversity such as Latin America. Vegetation reconstructions, based on numerous pollen records, now exist with respect to all major vegetation associations from Latin America.

Robert Marchant; Lucia Almeida; Hermann Behling; Juan Carlos Berrio; Mark Bush; Antoine Cleef; Joost Duivenvoorden; Maarten Kappelle; Paulo De Oliveira; Ary Teixeira de Oliveira-Filho; Socorro Lozano-Gar?ia; Henry Hooghiemstra; Marie-Pierre Ledru; Beatriz Ludlow-Wiechers; Vera Markgraf; Virginia Mancini; Marta Paez; Aldo Prieto; Olando Rangel; Maria Lea Salgado-Labouriau; P. Kuhry; B. Melief; E. Schreve-Brinkman; Geel van B; Hammen van der T; Reenen van G. B. A; M. Wille

2002-01-01

314

Distribution and ecology of pollen lodged within the Latin American Pollen Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cornerstone of palaeoecological research, concerned with vegetation dynamics over the recent geological past, is a good understanding of the present-day ecology and distribution of the taxa. This is particularly necessary in areas of high floral diversity such as Latin America. Vegetation reconstructions, based on numerous pollen records, now exist with respect to all major vegetation associations from Latin America.

R. Marchant; L. Almeida; H. Behling; J. C. Berrío; M. Bush; A. M. Cleef; J. Duivenvoorden; M. Kappelle; Oliveira de P; A. Texeira de Oliviera-Filho; S. Lozano-García; H. Hooghiemstra

2002-01-01

315

Latin-American initiatives in library and information science education: three models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three programs of the Graduate School of Library and Information Science (GSLIS) at The University of Texas at Austin support education in library and information science in Latin America and present contrasts in goals, participants, and outcomes. We describe briefly the history and development of these programs, discuss obstacles faced by residents in Latin America, and suggest possible future directions.

Julie Hallmark; Maria Gonzalez

2002-01-01

316

Research on Latin American police: where do we go from here?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on policing in Latin America became increasingly frequent during the past 15 years, as a number of political scientists, sociologists, and anthropologists from Latin America, the USA, and Europe focused on police reform in the region because of its implications for the consolidation of democratic institutions. This paper focuses on the substance of published or soon?to?be published research on

Hugo Frühling

2009-01-01

317

Where Did the Trade Liberalization Drive Latin American Economy: A Cross Section Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The institutional reforms towards trade liberalizations in Latin America during the 1980s and the 1990s have introduced a good measure of import competition, but trade policies alone are not sufficient to create a competitive environment in an economy. The countries in Latin America have not had much experience with competition policies in the past. Combined with restrictive trade policies, the

Rajagopal

2005-01-01

318

Report from the latin american spondyloarthritis society for education and research in immunology and medicine organization 2012 workshop.  

PubMed

The first annual meeting of the Latin American Spondyloarthritis Society for Education and Research in Immunology and Medicine (LASSERIM) was held in Bogotá, Colombia, in September 2012 and was attended by key opinion leaders, researchers, and rheumatologists. The meeting included presentations and discussions from renowned speakers during 2 days and a coaching leadership exercise led by an expert in the field followed by an open forum. Two groups defined a priori discussed the establishment of a professional network and organization to be involved in the identification, assessment, and effective resolution of health care issues in Latin America.A broad spectrum of topics were discussed but focused on the following: pharmacoeconomics in general rheumatology, spondyloarthritis and chronic back pain, therapeutic interventions in rheumatoid arthritis, ultrasonography in spondyloarthritis, impact of social media in medicine and global trends in leadership, quality of life, and innovation. A special workshop on coaching in health care and coaching as a tool to implement LASSERIM goals was part of the 2-day conference.LASSERIM will be working in the future on education, research, and innovation in the field of rheumatology and immunology. A special focus will be on spondyloarthritis, by promoting research, open discussions, and by conducting carefully planned research studies to impact on the quality of life of patients and doctors from Latin American countries. PMID:23965483

Bautista-Molano, Wilson; Toloza, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Marwin; Uribe, Carlos Vinicio Caballero; Pineda, Carlos; Londoño, John; Santos, Pedro; Jaimes, Diego; Diaz, Mario; Chalem, Phillipe; Villota, Orlando; Sierra, Rita; Puche, William; Salas, José; Yara, José; Hamilton, Gordon; Pardo, Carlos; Mercado, Beatriz; Valle-Oñate, Rafael

2013-09-01

319

Current cariology education in dental schools in spanish-speaking latin american countries.  

PubMed

This study sought to provide an overview of current cariology education in Spanish-speaking Latin American dental schools. Data collection was via an eighteen-item survey with questions about curriculum, methods of diagnosis and treatment, and instructors' perceptions about cariology teaching. The response rate was 62.1 percent (n=54), and distribution of participating schools by country was as follows: Bolivia (four), Chile (four), Colombia (twenty-four), Costa Rica (one), Cuba (one), Dominican Republic (two), El Salvador (two), Mexico (six), Panama (two), Peru (four), Puerto Rico (one), Uruguay (two), and Venezuela (one). Forty percent of the responding schools considered cariology the key axis of a course, with a cariology department in 16.7 percent. All schools reported teaching cariology, but with varying hours and at varying times in the curriculum, and 77.8 percent reported having preclinical practices. The majority reported teaching most main teaching topics, except for behavioral sciences, microbiology, saliva and systemic diseases, caries-risk factors, root caries, erosion, and early caries management strategies. The most frequently taught caries detection methods were visual-tactile (96.3 percent), radiographic (92.6 percent), and the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) (61.1 percent). Respondents said their schools' clinics make an operative treatment decision when radiolucency is in the inner half of enamel (42.3 percent) for radiographic criteria and when the lesion is visually non-cavitated (5.8 percent). All respondents reported that their schools teach preventive strategies, but only 43.4 percent said they tie it to risk assessment and 40.7 percent said they implement nonsurgical management regularly. PMID:24098037

Martignon, Stefania; Gomez, Juliana; Tellez, Marisol; Ruiz, Jaime A; Marin, Lina M; Rangel, Maria C

2013-10-01

320

Future U.S. Security Relations in the Latin American Contexts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: New security conditions in a new Latin America; Internal security against violent revolutionary struggles; Institutional defense against foreign economic aggression and dependency; A return to external defense against local conflicts; Security a...

D. F. Ronfeldt

1975-01-01

321

The avoidable health effects of air pollution in three Latin American cities: Santiago, São Paulo, and Mexico City.  

PubMed

Urban centers in Latin American often face high levels of air pollution as a result of economic and industrial growth. Decisions with regard to industry, transportation, and development will affect air pollution and health both in the short term and in the far future through climate change. We investigated the pollution health consequences of modest changes in fossil fuel use for three case study cities in Latin American: Mexico City, Mexico; Santiago, Chile; and São Paulo, Brazil. Annual levels of ozone and particulate matter were estimated from 2000 to 2020 for two emissions scenarios: (1) business-as-usual based on current emissions patterns and regulatory trends and (2) a control policy aimed at lowering air pollution emissions. The resulting air pollution levels were linked to health endpoints through concentration-response functions derived from epidemiological studies, using local studies where available. Results indicate that the air pollution control policy would have vast health benefits for each of the three cities, averting numerous adverse health outcomes including over 156,000 deaths, 4 million asthma attacks, 300,000 children's medical visits, and almost 48,000 cases of chronic bronchitis in the three cities over the 20-year period. The economic value of the avoided health impacts is roughly 21 to 165 billion Dollars (US). Sensitivity analysis shows that the control policy yields significant health and economic benefits even with relaxed assumptions with regard to population growth, pollutant concentrations for the control policy, concentration-response functions, and economic value of health outcomes. This research demonstrates the health and economic burden from air pollution in Latin American urban centers and the magnitude of health benefits from control policies. PMID:16181621

Bell, Michelle L; Davis, Devra L; Gouveia, Nelson; Borja-Aburto, Víctor H; Cifuentes, Luis A

2005-09-19

322

Clandestine induced abortion: prevalence, incidence and risk factors among women in a Latin American country  

PubMed Central

Background Clandestine induced abortions are a public health problem in many developing countries where access to abortion services is legally restricted. We estimated the prevalence and incidence of, and risk factors for, clandestine induced abortions in a Latin American country. Methods We conducted a large population-based survey of women aged 18–29 years in 20 cities in Peru. We asked questions about their history of spontaneous and induced abortions, using techniques to encourage disclosure. Results Of 8242 eligible women, 7992 (97.0%) agreed to participate. The prevalence of reported induced abortions was 11.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.9%– 12.4%) among the 7962 women who participated in the survey. It was 13.6% (95% CI 12.8%– 14.5%) among the 6559 women who reported having been sexually active. The annual incidence of induced abortion was 3.1% (95% CI 2.9%– 3.3%) among the women who had ever been sexually active. In the multivariable analysis, risk factors for induced abortion were higher age at the time of the survey (odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% CI 1.07– 1.15), lower age at first sexual intercourse (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.84– 0.91), geographic region (highlands: OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.23– 1.97; jungle: OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.41– 2.31 [v. coastal region]), having children (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68– 0.98), having more than 1 sexual partner in lifetime (2 partners: OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.23– 2.09; ? 3 partners: OR 2.79, 95% CI 2.12– 3.67), and having 1 or more sexual partners in the year before the survey (1 partner: OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.01– 1.72; ? 2 partners: OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.14– 2.02). Overall, 49.0% (95% CI 47.6%– 50.3%) of the women who reported being currently sexually active were not using contraception. Interpretation The incidence of clandestine, potentially unsafe induced abortion in Peru is as high as or higher than the rates in many countries where induced abortion is legal and safe. The provision of contraception and safer-sex education to those who require it needs to be greatly improved and could potentially reduce the rate of induced abortion.

Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; White, Peter J.; Carcamo, Cesar P.; Hughes, James P.; Gonzales, Marco A.; Garcia, Patricia J.; Garnett, Geoff P.; Holmes, King K.

2009-01-01

323

Sustainable development and migration policies: their treatment within the Latin American economic integration blocks.  

PubMed

Without an equal sharing of costs and benefits of natural and human resources worldwide, imbalances and lack of human development lead to migration within and between countries. Economic integration blocks in Latin America provide a context for shared development: in Central America, in the Andean Region, and in the Southern Cone. Over the past 60 years migration policy was based on national protectionism, labor supply, and/or occupation of territory. When economic conditions changed to market economies and world markets, migration policy was redefined. Each of the economic integration blocks has developed its own strategies. The Andean Agreement on Labor Migrations was established to determine the rules for bilateral and multilateral treatment of problems. In the Southern Cone bilateral agreements have been longstanding. Multilateral efforts were recently underway within the Southern Common Market and throughout the region. The Central American Organization for Migrations has spearheaded the adoption of a multilateral strategy. All three regions have made considerable progress in the last three years in constructing multilateral policies for economic integration. Government awareness has been the primary force in these policy changes. Government has come to an understanding that clear domestic and regional migration policies were lacking and that obsolete migration practices of the 1930s did not meet the needs of the 1990s. Migration policy was considered an instrument of development. Movement of economic factors or goods was considered equally with movement of labor. Migration policies must integrate the human rights of migrants into their definitions. Methods of facilitating the movements of populations need to be constructed within the computerization and modernization of the migration administration. Legalization of illegal immigrants has occurred among a number of countries. PROCAM and PRIMCOS were action programs which aimed to integrate migration and economic integration objectives. An obstacle was the resistance of many to the basic ideas of open population movements and the reliance on outdated notions of policing functions and of nations being invaded by delinquents. Other obstacles were the availability of human and material resources and the resistance to multilateral efforts as a threat to sovereignty. Eight ways to consolidate economic integration and migration were indicated. PMID:12288781

Marmora, L

324

Perceived barriers in accessing food among recent Latin American immigrants in Toronto  

PubMed Central

Objective In Canada, recent immigrant households experience more food insecurity than the general population, but limited information is available about the personal, cultural, and social factors that contribute to this vulnerability. This study focused on recent Latin American (LA) immigrants to explore their perceived barriers in acquiring safe, nutritious, and culturally-appropriate food. Design A cross-sectional mixed-method design was applied to collect information from a convenience sample of 70 adult Spanish/Portuguese speakers who had arrived in Toronto within the last five years. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with primary household caregivers to obtain responses about barriers to acquiring food for their households; data were analyzed using a thematic analysis technique. Results Four main categories of barriers were identified: limited financial resources; language difficulty; cultural food preferences; and poor knowledge of available community-based food resources and services. Inadequate income was the main impediment in accessing adequate food, and was related to affordability of food items, accessibility of food outlets and transportation cost, and limited time for grocery shopping due to work conditions. Language barriers affected participants’ ability to obtain well-paid employment and their awareness about and access to available community-based food resources. Cultural barriers were related to food preferences and limited access to culturally-appropriate foods and resources. Conclusion The main barrier to food security among our sample of LA newcomers to Toronto is limited financial resources, highlighting the need for policies and strategies that could improve their financial power to purchase sufficient, nutritious, and culturally-acceptable food. Linguistic barriers and limited information among newcomers suggest the need to provide linguistically- and culturally-appropriate information related to community-based food programs and resources, as well as accessible subsidized English language programs, in the community and at workplaces. Participatory community-based food programs can augment, in a socially acceptable manner, food resources and reduce the social stigma attached to food charity. Finally, it is crucial to monitor and evaluate existing social and community-based services for their accessibility, cultural appropriateness and diversity, and effectiveness.

2013-01-01

325

Toxocara Seropositivity, Atopy and Wheezing in Children Living in Poor Neighbourhoods in Urban Latin American  

PubMed Central

Background Toxocara canis and T. cati are parasites of dogs and cats, respectively, that infect humans and cause human toxocariasis. Infection may cause asthma-like symptoms but is often asymptomatic and is associated with a marked eosinophilia. Previous epidemiological studies indicate that T. canis infection may be associated with the development of atopy and asthma. Objectives To investigate possible associations between Toxocara spp. seropositivity and atopy and childhood wheezing in a population of children living in non-affluent areas of a large Latin American city. Methods The study was conducted in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Data on wheezing symptoms were collected by questionnaire, and atopy was measured by the presence of aeroallergen-specific IgE (sIgE). Skin prick test (SPT), total IgE and peripheral eosinophilia were measured. Toxocara seropositivity was determined by the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies, and intestinal helminth infections were determined by stool microscopy. Findings Children aged 4 to 11 years were studied, of whom 47% were seropositive for anti-Toxocara IgG; eosinophilia >4% occurred in 74.2% and >10% in 25.4%; 59.6% had elevated levels of total IgE; 36.8% had sIgE?0.70 kU/L and 30.4% had SPT for at least one aeroallergen; 22.4% had current wheezing symptoms. Anti-Toxocara IgG was positively associated with elevated eosinophils counts, total IgE and the presence of specific IgE to aeroallergens but was inversely associated with skin prick test reactivity. Conclusion The prevalence of Toxocara seropositivity was high in the studied population of children living in conditions of poverty in urban Brazil. Toxocara infection, although associated with total IgE, sIgE and eosinophilia, may prevent the development of skin hypersensitivity to aeroallergens, possibly through increased polyclonal IgE and the induction of a modified Th2 immune reaction.

Mendonca, Livia Ribeiro; Veiga, Rafael Valente; Dattoli, Vitor Camilo Cavalcante; Figueiredo, Camila Alexandrina; Fiaccone, Rosemeire; Santos, Jackson; Cruz, Alvaro Augusto; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Cooper, Philip John; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain Carlos; Barreto, Mauricio Lima; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza Maria

2012-01-01

326

Urinary tract infection trends in Latin American hospitals: report from the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program (1997-2000).  

PubMed

Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common infectious diseases diagnosed in outpatients as well as in hospitalized patients. The objective of this study was to report the frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens collected in Latin America between 1997 to 2000 through the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and results interpreted using reference broth microdilution methods. In the 4 year period, a total of 1961 urine isolates from hospitalized patients were included. The patients' mean age was 51.3 years and most of the infections occurred among women (65.6%). Esherichia coli was the most frequent pathogen isolated followed by Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis. Among the E. coli isolates, piperacillin/tazobactam, aztreonam, extended-spectrum cephalosporins, carbapenems and amikacin constitute reasonable therapeutic options for treatment of serious UTI in Latin America (91.0-100.0% susceptible). High resistance rates to fluoroquinolones (17.5-18.9%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (>45.0%) were observed among the E. coli. In contrast, nitrofurantoin displayed susceptibility rate of > 87.0%. Against Klebsiella spp. infections, the only effective therapeutic option would be the carbapenems due to the high number of isolates (>30.0%) producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL). Even the new fluoroquinolones showed limited activity against Klebsiella spp. (72.1-88.6% susceptible) and the P. aeruginosa isolates showed high resistance rates to most antimicrobial agents tested. The results of this survey endorse the importance of Enterobacteriaceae as cause of UTI in Latin America. Our results also demonstrate that the uropathogens isolated in the Latin American medical centers exhibit high resistance to various classes of antimicrobial agents. Carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa, ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli, ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae constitute serious problem in this geographic region. PMID:12493177

Gales, Ana C; Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N

2002-11-01

327

75 FR 75708 - American United Life Insurance Company, et al.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...812-13780] American United Life Insurance Company, et al.; Notice of...Applicants: American United Life Insurance Company (``AUL''), AUL...Ellery, Esq., American United Life Insurance Company, One American...

2010-12-06

328

Malignant odontogenic tumors: a multicentric Latin American study of 25 cases.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to show the epidemiological features of 25 malignant odontogenic tumors (MOT) in Latin America. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrieved 25 cases of MOT out of 2142 odontogenic tumors, from four oral diagnostic centers in Latin America, and described the main clinical and pathological characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 19 cases were carcinomas, including eight ameloblastic carcinomas, five primary intra-osseous squamous cell carcinomas, three clear cell odontogenic carcinomas and three ghost cell odontogenic carcinomas. All six sarcomas corresponded to ameloblastic fibrosarcoma. Thirteen cases occurred in men and 12 in women, age ranged from 7 to 77 years old, with a mean of 41.4 years. The average age of patients with carcinomas and sarcomas were 48.53 and 19 years old, respectively. CONCLUSION: As malignant odontogenic tumors are very rare, this series helps to better clarify their relative frequency, predominant subtypes, and clinical characteristics in Latin America. PMID:23730931

Martínez Martínez, M; Mosqueda-Taylor, A; Carlos, R; Delgado-Azañero, W; de Almeida, Op

2013-05-14

329

Chagas Disease among the Latin American Adult Population Attending in a Primary Care Center in Barcelona, Spain  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims The epidemiology of Chagas disease, until recently confined to areas of continental Latin America, has undergone considerable changes in recent decades due to migration to other parts of the world, including Spain. We studied the prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin American patients treated at a health center in Barcelona and evaluated its clinical phase. We make some recommendations for screening for the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed an observational, cross-sectional prevalence study by means of an immunochromatographic test screening of all continental Latin American patients over the age of 14 years visiting the health centre from October 2007 to October 2009. The diagnosis was confirmed by serological methods: conventional in-house ELISA (cELISA), a commercial kit (rELISA) and ELISA using T cruzi lysate (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics) (oELISA). Of 766 patients studied, 22 were diagnosed with T. cruzi infection, showing a prevalence of 2.87% (95% CI, 1.6–4.12%). Of the infected patients, 45.45% men and 54.55% women, 21 were from Bolivia, showing a prevalence in the Bolivian subgroup (n?=?127) of 16.53% (95% CI, 9.6–23.39%). All the infected patients were in a chronic phase of Chagas disease: 81% with the indeterminate form, 9.5% with the cardiac form and 9.5% with the cardiodigestive form. All patients infected with T. cruzi had heard of Chagas disease in their country of origin, 82% knew someone affected, and 77% had a significant history of living in adobe houses in rural areas. Conclusions We found a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in immigrants from Bolivia. Detection of T. cruzi–infected persons by screening programs in non-endemic countries would control non-vectorial transmission and would benefit the persons affected, public health and national health systems.

Roca, Carme; Pinazo, Maria Jesus; Lopez-Chejade, Paolo; Bayo, Joan; Posada, Elizabeth; Lopez-Solana, Jordi; Gallego, Montserrat; Portus, Montserrat; Gascon, Joaquim

2011-01-01

330

Educational Inequalities among Latin American Adolescents: Continuities and Changes over the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s  

PubMed Central

The goal of this paper is to examine recent trends in educational stratification for Latin American adolescents growing up in three distinct periods: the 1980s, during severe recession; the 1990s, a period of structural adjustments imposed by international organizations; and the late 2000s, when most countries in the region experienced positive and stable growth. In addition to school enrollment and educational transitions, we examine the quality of education through enrollment in private schools, an important aspect of inequality in education that most studies have neglected. We use nationally representative household survey data for the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s in Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Uruguay. Our overall findings confirm the importance of macroeconomic conditions for inequalities in educational opportunity, suggesting important benefits brought up by the favorable conditions of the 2000s. However, our findings also call attention to increasing disadvantages associated with the quality of the education adolescents receive, suggesting the significance of the EMI framework—Effectively Maintained Inequality—and highlighting the value of examining the quality in addition to the quantity of education in order to fully understand educational stratification in the Latin American context.

Marteleto, Leticia; Gelber, Denisse; Hubert, Celia; Salinas, Viviana

2012-01-01

331

Latin American Development and the Globalization Imperative: New Directions, Familiar Crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globalization has emerged as the defining conceptual and contextual socioeco- nomic framework of analysis for the early 21st century. Throughout Latin America, glo- balization has become a buzzword for profound structural change, as well as the focus of vociferous and rigorous criticism by those sectors of society disadvantaged, damaged, or bypassed by the forces of global restructuring. This article examines

David J. Keeling

2004-01-01

332

The Latin American Left's Mandate: FreeMarket Policies and Issue Voting in New Democracies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rise of the left across Latin America is one of the most striking electoral events to occur in new democracies during the last decade. Current work argues either that the left's electoral success stems from a thoroughgoing rejection of free-market policies by voters or that electorates have sought to punish poorly performing right-wing incumbents. Whether the new left has

Kenneth F. Greene; Andy Baker

2011-01-01

333

The Latin American Left's Mandate: FreeMarket Policies and Issue Voting in New Democracies  

Microsoft Academic Search

:The rise of the left across Latin America is one of the most striking electoral events to occur in new democracies during the last decade. Current work argues either that the left's electoral success stems from a thoroughgoing rejection of free-market policies by voters or that electorates have sought to punish poorly performing right-wing incumbents. Whether the new left has

Kenneth F. Greene; Andy Baker

2011-01-01

334

Representing reciprocity, reproducing domination: Ideology and the labour process in Latin American contract farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines conflicting representations of contract farming in Latin America. Contract farming addresses many of the contradictions of wage labour in agriculture, but generates its own. For the company these contradictions include indirect control of the labour process and the problem of uncertain supply; for the farmer they include disguised proletarianization and self?exploitation. The indirect nature of control makes

Roger A. J. Clapp

1988-01-01

335

Do foreign banks increase competition? Evidence from emerging Asian and Latin American banking markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine the impact of foreign bank penetration on the competitive structure of domestic banking sectors in host emerging economies. We focus our analysis on Asia and Latin America during the period 1997–2008. Using bank-level panel data to identify foreign banks and to estimate measures of banking competition, we are able to provide robust empirical evidence that

Bang Nam Jeon; María Pía Olivero; Ji Wu

2011-01-01

336

Genealogical Information and the Structure of Rural Latin-American Populations: Reality and Fantasy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic data organized in the form of genealogies can provide much information regarding the history and genetic structure of human populations. A large proportion of the population of Latin America is organized in small rural semi-isolated communities, with little immigration, and until the last 50–100 years, little emigration. These communities have a strong sense of their genealogical history, and this

Eduardo E. Castilla; Julian Adams

1996-01-01

337

Nuclear proliferation and Latin American Security: Is the bomb' program dead in Brazil. Master's thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis addresses the possibility of a Brazilian hidden agenda in order to support one of the most advanced nuclear research and nuclear power programs in Latin America. From the early 1970s to the late 1980s Brazilian military leaders pursued the development of nuclear weapons. With the emergence of democratic regimes during the 1980s, these covert projects were halted or

De Jesus

1994-01-01

338

Latin American energy and oil: present situation and prospects. An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is noted that Latin America's commercial energy consumption has grown at an annual average cumulative rate of 5.9 percent during the 1960-1975 period. This rate of growth exceeded that of the developed countries as a whole and of the developing countries as a group. Compared with the world's average (including the centrally planned economies), the rate of growth of

da Silva

1978-01-01

339

THE LATIN AMERICAN ORGANIC COFFEE INDUSTRY: U.S. MARKET INROADS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certified organic coffee is a minuscule but important portion of coffee production and trade and is the fastest growing sector in sales revenue. Organic coffee has its roots in sustainable crop production and economic development policy. Latin America has become the center of the organic coffee movement, representing a change from the old market structure of the coffee trade. The

Danilo Rodriguez; James E. Epperson

2001-01-01

340

Openness and Wage Inequality in Developing Countries: The Latin American Challenge to East Asian Conventional Wisdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experience of East Asia in the 1960s and 1970s supports the theory that greater openness to trade tends to narrow the wage gap between skilled and unskilled workers in developing countries. In Latin America since the mid-1980s, however, increased openness has widened wage differentials. This conflict of evidence is probably not the result of differences between East Asia and

Adrian Wood

1997-01-01

341

Social Security Issues in Developing CountriesThe Latin American Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper surveys the major economic, financial, and administrative issues that confront social security systems in Latin America. The larger systems have contributed substantially to public sector financial disequilibria. Expenditures of the younger systems with more limited coverage could increase dramatically as the pension plan matures, life expectancy increases, and coverage is broadened, but the narrow revenue base will force

G. A. Mackenzie

1988-01-01

342

Latin American ethnopedology: A vision of its past, present, and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopedology is the study of local knowledge of soil and land management in an ecological perspective. It is an emerging hybrid discipline that is a component of ethnoecology and stands to offer much for land-based studies. This paper reviews the field of ethnopedology in Latin America and compares some of the many case studies from that region. Various literature sources

Antoinette M. G. A. WinklerPrins; Narciso Barrera-Bassols

2004-01-01

343

International training programs in reproductive sciences for conservation of Latin American felids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival of the ten non-domestic felid species endemic to Latin America is imperiled by habitat loss, poaching and poor captive management. Over the past 10 years, conservation of these felids has been the primary focus of a reproductive research and training program conducted in Brazil, Mexico, and the USA. The objectives of this program were to: (1) provide intensive training

W. F Swanson; J. L Brown

2004-01-01

344

The Roots of Latin American Protectionism: Looking Before the Great Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uncovers a fact that has not been well appreciated: tariffs in Latin America were far higher than anywhere else in the century before the Great Depression. This is a surprising fact given that this region has been said to have exploited globalization forces better than most during the pre-1914 belle epoque and for which the Great Depression has

John H. Coatsworth; Jeffrey G. Williamson

2002-01-01

345

Latin American adjustments to the OPEC crisis and the world recession  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developing countries of Latin America suffered more serious economic and political impacts from the 1973 oil price increases than did the industrialized nations at whom the embargo was directed. For many countries, the long-term effects of the emergency measures will impede political stability and economic growth. The author reviews the shocks brought on by inflation, market interruptions, and increased

1978-01-01

346

A Legal Perspective on “Privateness” and “Publicness” in Latin American Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers how the law conceptualizes what is public and what private in higher education, and the legal consequences of those definitions. Following the institutionalist perspective, our interest is in the law as a source of coercive isomorphism. From the evidence gathered from seven countries in Latin America, exhibiting private sectors of varying dimension and degrees of maturity, it

Andrés Bernasconi

2011-01-01

347

The Effects of Tougher Enforcement on the Job Prospects of Recent Latin American Immigrants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attempts to enforce immigration laws in the U.S. interior have proliferated in recent years, yet the effects of these laws on immigrants are largely unknown. This paper examines whether increases in immigration-related law enforcement since 2001 have adversely affected the labor market outcomes of low-education male immigrants from Latin America,…

Orrenius, Pia M.; Zavodny, Madeline

2009-01-01

348

Seminario y Viaje de Estudio de Coniferas Latinoamericanas (Seminar and Field Study of Latin American Conifers).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1960 the FAO sponsored a study tour to demonstrate the value and potential value of the coniferous resources of Latin America. This is the report of that study tour. It includes seven chapters: 'Botanical'; 'Ecology and Forestry'; 'Soils: the Basic Pro...

1967-01-01

349

Supportive Adult Relationships and the Academic Engagement of Latin American Immigrant Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central aim of this study was to explore the academic engagement trajectories of a sample of recently arrived immigrant students from Latin America. Using an analytic framework that can dynamically model time-sensitive fluctuations (HLM; [Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchicical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis…

Green, G.; Rhodes, J.; Hirsch, A. H.; Suarez-Orozco, C.; Camic, P. M.

2008-01-01

350

Stereotypes of the Latin Image in American Films: Silent Period to 1945.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents a history of motion pictures that focuses on how motion pictures, from 1894 to the present, have portrayed Latins. The role that Hollywood has played in the perpetuation of stereotypes is illustrated. There is an explanation of how film has illuminated a world beyond everyday experiences and has introduced the movie-goer to…

Svenningsen, Karen

351

Credit at Times of Stress: Latin American Lessons from the Global Financial Crisis - Working Paper 289  

Microsoft Academic Search

The financial systems in emerging market economies during the 2008–09 global financial crisis performed much better than in previous crisis episodes, albeit with significant differences across regions. For example, real credit growth in Asia and Latin America was less affected than in Central and Eastern Europe. This paper identifies the factors at both the country and the bank levels that

2012-01-01

352

Credit at times of stress: Latin American lessons from the global financial crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The financial systems in emerging market economies (EMEs) during the 2008-09 global financial crisis performed much better than in previous crisis episodes, albeit with significant differences across regions. For example, real credit growth in Asia and Latin America was less affected than in Central and Eastern Europe. This paper identifies the factors at both the country and the bank levels

Carlos Montoro; Liliana Rojas-Suarez

2012-01-01

353

Advances in Pharmaceutical Market Integration in MERCOSUR and other Latin American Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the developments in the pharmaceutical sector in the MERCOSUR countries which have resulted from the renewed efforts of economic integration in Latin America. MERCOSUR refers to the “Mercado Común del Sur,” the common market that has been under development since 1991 by Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. In MERCOSUR the underlying principles for harmonization of pharmaceutical legislation

Marcelo J. Vernengo; Kees de Joncheere; Enrique Fefer

1998-01-01

354

Latin America in China's contemporary foreign policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of China's economic growth and rising international status, Latin American and Caribbean countries will accord increasing priority to their relations with the Asian giant. China's permanent seat in the United Nations Security Council is also a factor to reckon with. Today, Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela and Mexico have established strategic partnerships with China. While the vast distance between China

Joseph Y. S. Cheng

2006-01-01

355

Educational Building in Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents articles describing recent developments in three Latin American countries (Chile, Brazil, and Venezuela) to expand public education facilities, along with a report on UNESCO's recent seminar in Latin America on architecture for an inclusive education. (EV)

Baza, Jadille; Vaz, Rita de Cassia Alves; Millan, Eduardo; Almeida, Rodolfo

2002-01-01

356

Chagas disease screening among HIV-positive Latin American immigrants: an emerging problem.  

PubMed

Chagas disease (CD) is an emergent disease in Europe that can behave as an opportunistic infection in HIV positive patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a CD screening programme in an HIV unit. An immunochromatography (ICT) of Trypanosoma cruzi was performed as a screening tool in HIV-positive patients born in CD endemic countries. ELISA and IFAT were used to confirm the diagnosis. A total of 155 patients, 116 males and 38 females, were included. Mean age was 36.9 years (± 8.4) and mean length of stay in Spain at the screening was 7.1 years (± 4.7). T. cruzi ICT was positive in four cases (2.6%), being confirmed (by ELISA and IFAT) in three of those (1.9%). Factors associated with confirmed positive T.cruzi serology were: Bolivia origin (p=0.016), Bolivia or Argentina origin (p=0.002), Southern Cone origin (p=0.015), rural origin (p=0.023), previously living in an adobe-made (p=0.001) or thatch-roofed house (p<0.0001), having a previous CD test (p=0.015), previous knowledge about CD (p=0.019), about vector (p=0.009) or recorded seeing vectors at home (p=0.012). Units dealing with HIV patients from endemic areas of American trypanosomiasis should implement CD screening protocols. Interviews of patients coming from endemic areas should include CD epidemiological questions. PMID:22258424

Llenas-García, J; Hernando, A; Fiorante, S; Maseda, D; Matarranz, M; Salto, E; Rubio, R; Pulido, F

2012-01-19

357

[Latin-American Consensus on Difficult-to-Control Asthma. 2008 Update].  

PubMed

Asthma, which is more of a syndrome than a disease, usually responds to inhaled corticosteroid treatment, with or without the addition of long-acting beta-agonists. However, in a certain group of patients asthma cannot be controlled despite administering appropriate drugs at high doses. Difficult-to-control asthma cases are the target of this consensus meeting. Clinical practice guidelines and consensus on this subject already exist, so we must emphasize that the objective of this document is to review said guidelines and adapt them to regional situations. It is also necessary to update the guidelines, as new treatment alternatives have appeared in our countries. Difficult-to-control asthma has many different names, such as severe, serious, difficult, refractory, unstable, life-threatening, corticoid-resistant, and corticoid-dependent asthma, among others. The prevalence of difficult-to-control asthma has not clearly been established, but several publications estimate it to represent 5% of the asthma population. However, the significant impact on asthma-related direct and indirect costs and the quality of life impairment in this patient population have been clearly shown. The Latin American Consensus on Difficult-to-Control Asthma submits the following definition: "Inadequately-controlled asthma existing despite appropriate treatment strategy adjusted to the clinical severity level (level 4 or higher of the Global Initiative for Asthma [GINA]), indicated by a physician and administered for at least six months". The correct diagnosis of difficult-to-control asthma usually is made when there is no response to adequate treatment adjusted to the clinical severity level. However, many conditions can mimic difficult-to-control asthma, while others can exacerbate it. Therefore, in order to ensure a correct diagnosis, certain requirements - systematic assessments - must be met which confirm the asthma diagnosis and rule out other conditions. The therapeutic approach to difficult-to-control asthma includes pharmacological and non-pharmacological aspects. Patient assessment and treatment should be conducted at appropriately-equipped sites and by specialists experienced in this field. In terms of drug therapy, we specifically looked at the position described in the guidelines regarding the different treatment options. At level 5 of its treatment strategy, GINA recommends adding oral glucocorticoids or omalizumab, albeit this combination is associated with serious undesirable effects, as per GINA itself. The recent Expert Panel Report 3 (2007) from the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) proposes a different strategy. The treatment approach is divided into six levels: omalizumab is recommended as additional therapy at level 5 in patients with allergic asthma caused by perennial allergens, while oral corticoids are indicated at level 6 and can be used in combination with all level 5 control medications. Patients with difficult-to-control asthma require close follow-up with frequent reviews of their clinical and therapeutic condition and must have a written tailored action plan based on their asthma symptoms and home peak expiratory flow results. PMID:19093041

2008-06-01

358

Introduction: science, technology and society studies - from the European and American north to the Latin American south  

Microsoft Academic Search

This introduction has two intentions. First, against a broad science, technology, and society (STS) studies background, it provides a brief description of state-of-the-art of STS studies in Ibero-America (that is, Latin America plus Spain and Portugal), as well as a reflection on some difficulties and recent initiatives linked to the promotion of such studies in the region. STS is a

José A. López Cerezo; Carlos Verdadero

2003-01-01

359

The effects of tougher enforcement on the job prospects of recent Latin American immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to enforce immigration laws in the U.S. interior have proliferated in recent years, yet the effects of these laws on immigrants are largely unknown. This paper examines whether increases in immigration-related law enforcement since 2001 have adversely affected the labor market outcomes of low-education male immigrants from Latin America, a group that comprises the bulk of undocumented workers in

Pia M. Orrenius; Madeline Zavodny

2009-01-01

360

Latin American Youth Entrepreneurs: Differences between Coached and Laissez-Faire Entrepreneurial Experiences in Their Employability Skills and Their Entrepreneurial Innovative Attitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between the development of employability skills and entrepreneurial innovative attitude in Latin American youth entrepreneurs 18-29 years of age after participating in at least 1 year of an entrepreneurship experience. The design involved analyzing two groups. The first was a coached…

Roman Maqueira, Juana

2011-01-01

361

Latin American Literatures and Cultures: Self and Society. Papers from the National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute (La Jolla, California, August 1996).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This special issue contains the following articles: (1) "Critiquing the Center: Rigoberta Menchu and Enrique Dussel" (Joseph R. Hoff); (2) "Caroline Maria De Jesus: A Testimonial Voice in the Wilderness" (Eva Bueno); (3) "Latin American Women's Voices: La Malinche to Rigoberta Menchu" (Ana Maria Romo de Mease); (4) "China in Borges''The Garden of…

Seabrook, John H., Ed.

1996-01-01

362

Response of the Ionospheric F-region in the Latin American Sector During the Intense Geomagnetic Storm of 21-22 January 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionospheric storms are closely associated with geomagnetic storms and are an extreme example of space weather events. The response of the ionosphere to storms is rather complicated. In the present investigation, we have studied the response of the ionospheric F-region in the Latin American sector during the intense geomagnetic storm of 21-22 January 2005 (with storm sudden commencement (SSC) at

Y. Sahai; P. R. Fagundes; R. de Jesus; A. J. de Abreu; G. Crowley; V. G. Pillat; F. L. Guarnieri; J. R. Abalde; J. A. Bittencourt

2009-01-01

363

Las historias de la narrativa hispanoamericana: Criterios, metodos y ausencias. (Histories of the Latin-American Narrative: Criteria, Methods, and Absences).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explains that materials on the teaching of Latin-American literature are sparse, even though most researchers in the field will dedicate much of their time to teaching. The paper adds that, in scholarly journals, little attention is given to teaching literature, and the topic is also absent from most academic congresses. The paper then…

Zavalo, Lauro

364

Latin American Literatures and Cultures: Self and Society. Papers from the National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute (La Jolla, California, August 1996).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special issue contains the following articles: (1) "Critiquing the Center: Rigoberta Menchu and Enrique Dussel" (Joseph R. Hoff); (2) "Caroline Maria De Jesus: A Testimonial Voice in the Wilderness" (Eva Bueno); (3) "Latin American Women's Voices: La Malinche to Rigoberta Menchu" (Ana Maria Romo de Mease); (4) "China in Borges''The Garden of…

Seabrook, John H., Ed.

1996-01-01

365

Constrasting Ways of Life in Latin America; Sample Lessons for the Intermediate Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of several sequential units developed by the Latin American Curriculum Project. The primary objective was to promote pupil understanding of the social and cultural patterns (ways of living) of Latin America. Appreciation of the diversity in the area is developed by comparing four different families, and contrasting these with life in…

Gill, Clark C.; Conroy, William B.

366

Constrasting Ways of Life in Latin America; Sample Lessons for the Intermediate Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is one of several sequential units developed by the Latin American Curriculum Project. The primary objective was to promote pupil understanding of the social and cultural patterns (ways of living) of Latin America. Appreciation of the diversity in the area is developed by comparing four different families, and contrasting these with life in…

Gill, Clark C.; Conroy, William B.

367

American Indians of United States by Place.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents previously unpublished data on the American Indian population from the 1970 Census for places of 10,000 or more with 400 or more American Indians. Detailed tables contain data on characteristics such as age, sex, marital status, relati...

J. R. Corn

1980-01-01

368

In vitro activity of moxifloxacin(BAY 12-8039) against respiratory tract pathogens from six Latin-American countries.  

PubMed

The in vitro antibacterial activity of moxifloxacin (BAY 12-8039) was evaluated against 636 isolates of respiratory tract pathogens. The isolates were collected from July 1997 to August 1998 in the frame of a multinational Latin American study. E-test strips calibrated to read moxifloxacin MIC ranges from 0.002 to 32 microg/ml were used in susceptibility testing. Weekly quality control tests in each laboratory ensured reproducibility. Laboratories from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Uruguay participated. MIC(90) for moxifloxacin were as follows: Streptococcus pneumoniae (304 isolates) 0.25 microg/ml, Haemophilus influenzae (135 isolates) 0.125 microg/ ml, Streptococcus pyogenes (66 isolates) 0.25 microg/ml, Moraxella catarrhalis (62 isolates) 0. 25 microg/ml and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (69 isolates) 0.25 microg/ml. These results agreed with reports from other areas. Moxifloxacin showed excellent activity against respiratory pathogens from participant countries. PMID:11053902

Cardeñosa G, O; Soto-Hernández, J L

369

Latin America Research Group  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the Macropolicy group at the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, the Latin America Research Group (LARG) monitors financial systems and provides general assessments of macroeconomic conditions in Latin America and the Caribbean. Recent staff papers and economic analyses are posted on-site in addition to speeches and presentations. A well-organized Internet resource page also offers links to Latin American government, media, and stock exchange sites as well as multilateral institutions and research organizations.

370

Unit 1101: Language Varies by Place: American English.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 11th-grade language unit focuses on dialectology, the regional variations of American English, and the causes for the differences and similarities in language usage in the United States. Issues surveyed in the unit are (1) the historical basis for dialect differences from the time of the early colonists, (2) current speech characteristics of…

Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English.

371

Projected refined product balances in key Latin American countries: A preliminary examination  

SciTech Connect

Over the years, the East-West Center (EWC) has developed considerable expertise in refinery modeling, especially in the area of forecasting product balances for countries, given planned capacity changes, changes in product demand, changes in crude slates, and changes in product specifications. This expertise has been applied on an ongoing basis to the major refiners in the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region, along with the US West Coast as region in its own right. Refinery modeling in these three areas has been ongoing for nearly 15 years at the Center, and the tools and information sources are now well developed. To date, the EWC has not applied these tools to Latin America. Although research on Latin America has been an ongoing area of concern at the Center in recent years, the information gathered to date is still not of the level of detail nor quality available for other areas. The modeling efforts undertaken in this report are of a ``baseline`` nature, designed to outline the major issues, attempt a first cut at emerging product balances, and, above all, to elicit commentary from those directly involved in the oil industry in the key countries modeled. Our experience in other regions has shown that it takes a few years dialogue with refiners and government planner in individual countries to develop a reliable database, as well as the insights into operational constraints and practices that make accurate modeling possible. This report is no more than a first step down the road.

NONE

1996-06-01

372

Asian Pacific Americans in the United States Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the 111th Congress, a record 12 Asian Pacific Americans were elected to the United States Congress: 2 Senators, 8 Representatives, and 2 Delegates. Of the 40 Asian Pacific Americans who have served in Congress from 1903 to the present, there have been ...

L. H. Tong

2010-01-01

373

Responsible Self-Medication in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Industria Latinoamericana de Automedicación Responsable (Latin American Self-Medication Industry) sponsored a regional study aimed at analyzing responsible self-medication and the ability of consumers to use nonprescription products safely. The study was conducted in eight Latin American countries and included interviews with 5251 customers. The results showed that Latin American consumers perceive nonprescription products as safe and less risky than

Héctor Bolaños

2005-01-01

374

Latin America Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains information concerning the following Latin American countries: (1) Barbados, (2) St. Lucia, (3) Trinidad and Tobago, (4) Venezuela, (5) Antigua and Barbuda, (6) Bahamas, (7) Barbados, (8) Brazil, (9) Chile, (10) Cuba, (11) Dominica, (...

1984-01-01

375

Low socioeconomic status predicts abnormal eating attitudes in Latin American female adolescents.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to study the proportion of Ecuadorian students fulfilling criteria on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) in relation to socioeconomic status. Seven hundred and twenty three female adolescent participants recruited from Quito, Ecuador were administered a brief questionnaire consisting of the EAT-40 as well as lifestyle questions. Mean EAT-40 score was 17.12, with 14% fulfilling criteria. Lower socioeconomic status and watching more television predicted higher scores; however BMI, age, and positive smoking status failed to correlate. The presently unvalidated Spanish version of the EAT-26 highly correlated with the validated EAT-40 (R=0.94). A higher than expected proportion of Ecuadorians are at risk for eating disorders, especially among lower socioeconomic groups. The EAT-26 should be considered for validation as a primary screening tool in Latin America. PMID:18307113

Power, Yuri; Power, Lorena; Canadas, Maria Beatriz

376

The "New Cooperativism" in Latin America: Worker-Recuperated Enterprises and Socialist Production Units  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the first decade of the 21st century, efforts to create alternatives to neoliberalism emerged in many parts of Latin America. Social movements across the region took to the streets, occupied abandoned factories, and started to create new democratic spaces, solidarity networks, and social economy initiatives. In one country after another,…

Larrabure, Manuel; Vieta, Marcelo; Schugurensky, Daniel

2011-01-01

377

An Economic History of Twentieth-Century Latin America. Edited by Enrique C rdenas, Jos Antonio Ocampo, and Rosemary Thorp. New York: Palgrave, 2000. Volume I: The Export Age: The Latin American Economies in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries. Pp. 329. $75.00. Volume II: Latin America in the 1930s: The Role of the Periphery in World Crisis. Pp. 297. $69.95. Volume III: Industrialization and the State in Latin America: The Postwar Years. Pp. 345. $75.00  

Microsoft Academic Search

These three volumes bring together a set of very useful essays on Latin American economic growth since the late nineteenth century. The first volume focuses on the so-called export age, the period 1870 1930. The second (a reprint of a volume originally published in 1984) focuses on the impact of the Great Depression and the process of recovery throughout the

Stephen Haber

2002-01-01

378

[Hypotheses on the origin of certain parasites on the Latin American continent].  

PubMed

The South American continent has been connected to Africa over millions of centuries. In prehistorical time, the filling of the Bering strait allowed passage on firm ground between Asia and North America. South American peopling has thus occurred from North America, through the Pacific sea and, from the 15th century A.C., through the Atlantic. Necator americanus was present in South America prior to the arrival of black slaves and its African origin is probably related to contacts between Africa and South America; the same applies to Leishmania donovani and Biom-Phalaria glabrata. Ankylostoma duodenale originates from Asia as well as Plasmodium falciparum which was brought by man at time of his migration. To the contrary, muco-cutaneous Leishmaniasis stem (or have a South American origin) from South America. Finally, it is difficult to understand for which reasons Loa loa has not established itself in South America as did Schistosoma mansoni. PMID:3928184

Nozais, J P

1985-01-01

379

An Amerindian derivation for Latin American creole illnesses and their treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an extended argument which we consider to be sufficient demonstration that a humoral tradition, notably a hot and cold classification, underlies medical etiologies and treatments used by certain groups of South American Indians, and that this is indigenous. We argue that several major, widespread categories of illness and treatments also have a mainly indigenous, Amerindian derivation: that they

Audrey Butt Colson; Cesareo de Armellada

1983-01-01

380

Racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of internalizing symptoms: Do Latin-American immigrant show more symptomatology than Spanish native-born adolescents?  

PubMed

This study mainly compared the prevalence of internalizing symptoms of 834 Spanish and 159 Latin-American immigrant adolescents. Participants completed self-report measures about depression, anxiety and somatic symptoms and a socio-demographic questionnaire. The results indicated that being Latin-American was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms and being female was related to higher depressive and anxiety symptoms. Gender differences were more prevalent in Spaniards than in Latinos, with girls showing more symptoms than boys. High socio-economic status was negatively related to depressive symptoms and anxiety. The results may alert clinicians of the importance of assessing depressive symptoms in Latino adolescents in order to treat this group of youths effectively. PMID:23405027

Romero-Acosta, Kelly; Penelo, Eva; Noorian, Zahra; Ferreira, Estrella; Domènech-Llaberia, Edelmira

2013-02-12

381

Globalization, competitive advantages and the evolution of production systems: rural food processing and localized agri-food systems in Latin-American countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the rise of geographic concentrations of small food-processing units in rural areas of Latin America, in order to show that, drawing on the literature on the development of clusters, they may represent a type of local productive system, namely Local Agri-food Systems. Furthermore it assesses whether they might compete efficiently in global food commodity chains. In this

Denis Requier-Desjardins; FranÇOis Boucher; Claire Cerdan

2003-01-01

382

Cuanto vale Estudiar un Postgrado en America Latina? (How Much do Post-Graduate Studies Cost in Latin America?).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study, conducted by the Panamerican Association of Educational Credit Institutions (APICE), examined the cost of graduate education in nine Latin American countries. The study was intended to promote graduate and educational exchange within the region, as opposed to exchanges between Latin America and the United States or Europe.…

Franco Arbelaez, Augusto

383

Cuanto vale Estudiar un Postgrado en America Latina? (How Much do Post-Graduate Studies Cost in Latin America?).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, conducted by the Panamerican Association of Educational Credit Institutions (APICE), examined the cost of graduate education in nine Latin American countries. The study was intended to promote graduate and educational exchange within the region, as opposed to exchanges between Latin America and the United States or Europe. Institutions…

Franco Arbelaez, Augusto

384

‘You Have to be Anglo and Not Look Like Me’: identity and belonging among young women of Turkish and Latin American backgrounds in Melbourne, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the ethnic identities of 50 second-generation migrant-Australian women aged 17–28 years. Twenty-five women were from Turkish backgrounds and 25 women were from South and Central American (or ‘Latin’) backgrounds. The overwhelming majority of the women interviewed for this study had travelled extensively to their families’ countries of origin, and their experiences growing up in Australia alongside their

Zuleyka Zevallos

2008-01-01

385

[Design and validation of a scale to assess latin american medical students? perception on the labour of the first level of health care].  

PubMed

Objectives. To design and validate a scale to assess Latin American medical students? perception on first level of health care (FLHC). Materials and methods. An observational, analytic and multicentre study was carried out in two phases: i) A self-administered questionnaire regarding perceptions on FLHClabor was designed. ii) This questionnaire was applied to to medical students from 18 universities of eight Spanish-speaking Latin American countries. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed through a principal components analysis with orthogonal varimax rotation. Sample adequacy was evaluated. Factor extraction was based on Kaiser?s criteria, Cattell?s Scree test and the explained variance (>5%). Internal consistency was measured with Cronbach?s alpha. Results. 423 students were included in the analysis; 53.4% were from Peruvian universities. After the EFA, the questionnaire conserved 11 items, which were distributed in three domains, that explaining together 55.47% of the total variance: i) Perceptions concerning the FLHC physician; ii) Perceptions concerning the FiLC labor and iii) Perceptions about the economic consequences of working in FLHC. Conclusion. The scale is composed by three domains and can be used to assess the perceptions of the medical work on first level of health care of Spanish-speaking Latin American medical students. PMID:23949501

Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Mezones-Holguín, Edward; Pereyra-Elías, Reneé; Montenegro-Idrogo, Juan J; Mejia, Christian R; Dulanto-Pizzorni, Andrés; Muñoz, Sergio R

2013-06-01

386

Latin America's Fledgling, Fumbling Democracies  

Microsoft Academic Search

By a small majority, Latin Americans are disposed toward preferring democracy over other forms of government, and for now almost all leaders in the region hold office from elections not military coups. Still, most Latin Americans quite correctly do not believe democracy has generally served their interests, that is, produced the jobs, houses, food, justice, and opportunities more and more

William Ratliff

2006-01-01

387

Higher Education in Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an analysis of, and proposals for, international cooperation in higher education. Focuses on Latin American higher education, its current situation, and the expected transformation of the goals of higher education in the context of international cooperation. Describes the challenges that globalization poses to Latin American higher…

Romeao, Jose Raymundo Martins

2003-01-01

388

Efalizumab in the Treatment of Scalp, Palmoplantar and Nail Psoriasis: Results of a 24-Week Latin American Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Plaque-type psoriasis affecting the nails, scalp, hands or feet can often be difficult to treat; for example, topical treatments and phototherapy may not penetrate the nail plate or scalp. The objective of this large, international, multicentre study was to investigate the efficacy of efalizumab in a Latin American population of adult patients with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis who were candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy. Methods Eligible patients were enrolled in a 24-week, open-label, single-arm, Phase IIIb/IV study of continuous treatment with subcutaneous efalizumab, 1.0 mg/kg/wk. Involvement of the nails, scalp, or hands or feet was assessed using the Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI), the Psoriasis Scalp Severity Index (PSSI), or the Palmoplantar Pustulosis Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PPPASI), respectively. Missing data were handled using a last observation carried forward or nonresponder imputation approach. Results Of the 189 patients who received treatment, 112 patients had nail involvement, 172 had scalp involvement, and 19 had palmoplantar disease at baseline. At Week 24, ?50% improvement on the NAPSI, PSSI and PPPASI was observed in 31%, 71% and 68% of patients, respectively, whereas ?75% improvement on these scores was observed in 17%, 52% and 63%, respectively. Descriptive statistics showed lower NAPSI-75 and higher PSSI-75 and -50 response rates among patients with higher baseline scores. Conclusions This open-label, uncontrolled study provides supportive evidence of the potential of efalizumab as a treatment for nail, scalp and palmoplantar psoriasis.

Takahashi, Maria Denise; Chouela, Edgardo Nestor; Dorantes, Gladys Leon; Roselino, Ana Maria; Santamaria, Jesus; Allevato, Miguel Angel; Cestari, Tania; de Aillaud, Maria Eugenia Manzanera; Stengel, Fernando Miguel; Licu, Daiana

2010-01-01

389

Latin America may follow European privacy lead  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coming into force of the European Data Privacy Directive on October 25, 1998 may provide the impetus for Latin American nations to adopt European-style data protection laws. Latin American countries first showed real interest in data protection at the International Data Protection Commissioners' meeting in Brussels in 1997 where representatives of Uruguay and Mexico attended as official observers. Latin

Wayne Madsen

1998-01-01

390

Detection of Onchocerca volvulus in Latin American black flies for pool screening PCR using high-throughput automated DNA isolation for transmission surveillance.  

PubMed

The posttreatment entomological surveillance (ES) of onchocerciasis in Latin America requires quite large numbers of flies to be examined for parasite infection to prove that the control strategies have worked and that the infection is on the path of elimination. Here, we report a high-throughput automated DNA isolation of Onchocerca volvulus for PCR using a major Latin American black fly vector of onchocerciasis. The sensitivity and relative effectiveness of silica-coated paramagnetic beads was evaluated in comparison with phenol chloroform (PC) method which is known as the gold standard of DNA extraction for ES in Latin America. The automated method was optimized in the laboratory and validated in the field to detect parasite DNA in Simulium ochraceum sensu lato flies in comparison with PC. The optimization of the automated method showed that it is sensitive to detect O. volvulus with a pool size of 100 flies as compared with PC which utilizes 50 flies pool size. The validation of the automated method in comparison with PC in an endemic community showed that 5/67 and 3/134 heads pools were positive for the two methods, respectively. There was no statistical variation (P?Latin America. PMID:24030195

Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Gopal, Hemavathi; Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; De Luna-Santillana, Erick Jesús; Gurrola-Reyes, J Natividad; Guo, Xianwu

2013-09-13

391

Lectura y Vida: Revista Latinoamericana de Lectura. (Reading and Life: Latin American Reading Magazine). 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The four 1998 issues of the journal on literacy education, entirely in Spanish, include these articles: "The Inevitable Radical Weakness of Language: Some Reflections about Forming Readers and Citizens" (Daniel Goldin); "Relationships among Reading and Writing, Thematic Units, Learning Through Research...In Search of Effective Instruction for…

Lectura y Vida: Revista Latinoamericana de Lectura, 1998

1998-01-01

392

Increasing U.S. Hard Red Winter Wheat Competitiveness in Latin American Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States wheat sector leadership in world markets is facing serious challenges. Canada, Australia, Argentina, the European Union (EU), and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) are growing contenders for international wheat markets. Wheat buyers? concerns about quality specifications and its consistency have intensified without precedents in the last years. The study focuses on identifying the attributes that wheat buyers

Rosa Karina Gallardo; Rodney B. Holcomb

2006-01-01

393

The Future of Puerto Rico. The Latin American Project. Volume 1, No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Puerto Rico has been enmeshed in a debate over status within versus status outside the United States since 1898. The 1952 legislation that established commonwealth status for Puerto Rico created a compact between the residents of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Congress that requires the consent of both parties to any future decisions about the political…

League of United Latin American Citizens, Washington, DC.

394

Principals' Role and Public Primary Schools' Effectiveness in Four Latin American Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the effectiveness of observable and quantifiable traits in and approaches of school principals in enhancing student achievement. Data were gathered on 2,048 fourth-grade students in 96 public primary schools in Leon, Mexico; Belo Horizonte, Brazil; Buenos Aires, Argentina; and Santiago, Chile. The UNESCO/ORELAC (United

Anderson, Joan B.

2008-01-01

395

Lectura y Vida: Revista Latinoamericana de Lectura. (Reading and Life: Latin American Reading Magazine). 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The four 1998 issues of the journal on literacy education, entirely in Spanish, include these articles: "The Inevitable Radical Weakness of Language: Some Reflections about Forming Readers and Citizens" (Daniel Goldin); "Relationships among Reading and Writing, Thematic Units, Learning Through Research...In Search of Effective Instruction for…

Lectura y Vida: Revista Latinoamericana de Lectura, 1998

1998-01-01

396

Ossification of the ligamentum flavum as cause of thoracic cord compression: Case report of a Latin American man and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background: Ossification of the ligamentum flavum is a widely described pathology in eastern Asia. Cases have been reported in northern Africa, the Middle-East, India, the Caribbean, Europe, and North America, but no cases from Latin America have been published in the literature. It affects mostly elderly men, with a possible association with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Case Description: A 38-year-old previously healthy Latin American male presented to the emergency room department with severe functional disability and a 3/5 paraparesis. Blood reports showed no abnormalities. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a ligamentum flavum ossification with myelopathy. The patient underwent a T3-T9 laminotomy. At hospital discharge, the patient remained with a 3/5 paraparesis, mild hypoesthesia in both lower limbs and bladder incontinence. Rectal sphincter was continent. At 6 months, he was able to walk with a cane, with no sphincter or sensory alterations. Conclusions: Ligamentum flavum ossification is rare. To our understanding, this is the first case reported in the Latin American population.

Toledo, Javier A.; Isseldyk, Facundo Van; Re, Martin; Garrote, Miguel

2013-01-01

397

Reproductive health differences among Latin American and US-born young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of reproductive health within Lationos living in the United States suggest that sexual behaviors and contraception\\u000a use practices vary by ethnicity and between foreign- and US-born adolescents. This article compares high-risk sexual behaviors\\u000a and reproductive health among foreign-born Latinas, US-born Latinas, and US-born non-Latinas aged 15–24 years. We recruited\\u000a 361 females from reproductive health clinics in the San Francisco

Alexandra M. Minnis; Nancy S. Padian

2001-01-01

398

Latin-American Regional Developments in Space Technology and International Cooperation - Columbian Space Policy: An Approach to Create a National Space Agency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space exploration is a great human adventure: culturally, scientifically, technologically and industrially. Since the earliest of times, civilizations have been united in their awe of, and inspiration by, the cosmos, as testified in particularly by the peoples and cultures of the Central and South American continent in pre-Columbian times. Today, space systems have become an essential tool for the scientific disciplines related to the knowledge of the universe, including our own planet and its close or its remote environment. The main objective of this research is to explain the way in which Colombia, rich in myths and secular legends connecting mankind to the universe, must in the present tackle the issue of its development of space activities. The context in which it could be carried out is also described, along with a perspective of the current state of science and technology in the space sector on a global scale. Any modern nation is concerned with its independence, whether political, economic, or intellectual. That is why we support the concept of countries in the process of development becoming actively involved in the international space scene. Indeed, having limitations in industrial and technological exchange, we feel excluded today from key fields for our tomorrow. This research thus proposes to demonstrate how in a time that can be regarded as one of the most serious crises in its history, Colombia could, in an atmosphere free from fratricidal conflicts, exploit its space matter capabilities. We do not limit our focus to the scientific field, but also consider the social, economic and cultural aspects. The results of this research delineate how Colombia could start a new optimistic phase of its development, joining the international space programs within the framework of agreements among the regional governments in Latin America.

Arenales-Vergara, Oscar A.

2002-01-01

399

[Latin American regional reference materials for porcine heparin and bovine heparin].  

PubMed

In agreement with the Regional Programme of Reference Materials of the Panamerican Health Organization the Instituto Nacional de Farmacología y Bromatología of Buenos Aires designed a study for the calibration of a Reference Material for Heparin, porcine, mucosal and a Reference Material for Heparin, bovine, mucosal. The assay methods used in this study were those described in the United States Pharmacopeia XXI Ed and British Pharmacopoeia 1980, Addendum 1983. The overall combined potency estimates of both heparin in preparations relative to 4th Int.St. was 1633.83 UI/ampoule (95% confidence limits 1609.70-1657.96 UI/ampoule) for porcine heparin and 1332.31 UI/ampoule (95% confidence limits, 1302.31-1361.77 UI/ampoule) for bovine heparin. The assigned unitage was 1630 UI/ampoule for the porcine Reference Material and 1330 UI/ampoule for the bovine Reference Material. PMID:2333582

Albertengo, M E; Cinto, R O; Araldi, H T; Vernengo, M J

1990-02-01

400

Organ Donation in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently in Latin America, there has been a strong influence of the “Spanish model” of organ procurement. In 2001, The “Punta Cana Group” was created by Latin American transplantation coordinators with the objective of registering and improving the system of donation and procurement. In many countries there is no universal financial support from the government for medical treatment, including dialysis

R. Mizraji; I. Alvarez; R. I. Palacios; C. Fajardo; C. Berrios; F. Morales; E. Luna; C. Milanés; M. Andrade; E. Duque; F. Giron; J. Alfonso; S. Herra; C. Soratti; R. Ibar; V. D. Garcia

2007-01-01

401

Internet Resources for Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This directory compiles information products and services and other resources pertaining to Latin America that were available on the Internet as of February 1996. Part 1 lists 15 World Wide Web (WWW) URLs that link to other subject or geographical lists of Internet sites providing Latin American resources. Part 2 lists approximately 115…

Molloy, Molly E., Comp.

402

Free Trade Experience in Latin America and the Caribbean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The various Latin American and Caribbean free trade agreements have not been successful. This is due to a number of underlying elements within the region and, more recently, to unfa vorable external economic conditions. The oil shocks and the external debt crisis placed intra-Latin American trade at a low priority. Over lapping and inaction now beset the Latin American Association

Victor L. Urquidi

1993-01-01

403

Goals in maternal and perinatal care in Latin America and the Caribbean.  

PubMed

Ten goals have been developed to guide perinatal caregivers by the Latin American Centre for Perinatology (CLAP), a PAHO/WHO unit dedicated to improving perinatal care in Latin America and The Caribbean. The goals were inspired by the current troubled perinatal care situation, the need to make significant changes, principles of evidence-based medicine, and reviews of many sources from other regions or countries. PMID:16128976

Belizán, José M; Cafferata, María L; Belizán, María; Tomasso, Giselle; Chalmers, Beverley

2005-09-01

404

Trade Preferential Agreements in Latin America: An ExAnte Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

March 1996As a rule, preferential trade agreements between countries in Latin America and the Caribbean will probably be far less meaningful than they are in Europe or even than they are in the Asia-Pacific region. But most Latin American countries would benefit from such an agreement with the United States.In the past decade a sea change has taken place in

Michael Michaely

1999-01-01

405

The electric revolution in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latin America participated in the electric revolution which profoundly transformed the most developed Western economies between 1880 and 1930. The electrification of Latin America began relatively soon after these economies, but it was incapable of keeping up with them. Public electric lighting was introduced early in the big Latin American cities, where electric trams started running at almost the same

Xavier Tafunell

2010-01-01

406

Latin America goes wireless via satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors address the following questions. What does the current growth of the satellite market really mean for Latin America? What are the plans to cover the region with satellite systems? How will they impact the Latin American economy and more particularly its satellite industry? Is Latin America going satellite by itself and is it managing wireless implementation via satellite

P. R. H. Balduino

1995-01-01

407

Boundary Disputes in Latin America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the start of 2000, five Latin American boundary disputes between neighboring states have resulted in the use of force, and two others in its deployment. These incidents involved ten of the nineteen independent countries of South and Central America....

J. I. Dominguez D. Mares M. Orozco D. S. Palmer F. R. Aravena A. Serbin

2002-01-01

408

Ronald E. Ahnen - The Politics of Police Violence in Democratic Brazil - Latin American Politics & Society 49:1  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than a decade after Latin America's most recent turn to democracy, unchecked police violence and torture continue and in some cases have increased. This study examines police killings in 19 Brazilian states from 1994 to 2001 and finds that democracy has not substantially reduced these types of human rights violations, for two reasons. First, underlying social conflict has continued

Ronald E. Ahnen

2007-01-01

409

Daniel W. Gade - Names for Manihot esculenta: Geographical Variations and Lexical Clarification - Journal of Latin American Geography 1:1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study elucidates the derivations, distensions and distortions of the names for a major world crop domesticated in tropical America. In addition to the several Latin binomials, English speakers have used one or mare of six vernacular terms far this plant. Two of these words are straight borrowings (yuca from Spanish, mandioca from Portuguese and Spanish); one (yucca) implies and

Daniel W. Gade

2003-01-01

410

The House, the Street, Global Society: Latin American Families and Childhood in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the colonial period (1492 to approximately 1826), children have constituted a large proportion of the population of Latin America, with approximately thirty to fifty percent under age twenty in the eighteenth century. Public health campaigns in the early twentieth century improved child survival rates and resulted in the substantial expansion of the proportion under age twenty by the 1960s.

Elizabeth Anne Kuznesof

2005-01-01

411

The Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. Bulletin 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The initiative and activities carried out by 29 countries in Latin and South America and the Caribbean in the UNESCO Major Project in the Field of Education to correct deficiencies and meet unsatisfied basic educational needs are summarized. Many summaries reflect revisions made during 1983 in National Plans of Action with respect to enhancing…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and Caribbean.

412

THE IMPACT OF THE INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION FOR SCIENCE (IFS) FUNDING ON LATIN AMERICAN RESEARCH IN ANIMAL HEALTH AND PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A three-part study was carried out to evaluate the charac- teristics and impact of the International Foundation for Science (IFS) funding in Latin America between 1975 and 1997. In the first part analysis of the grants awarded by the IFS showed that support peaked in 1990. Countries most frequently favored were Mexico and Argentina with animal diseases and nutrition

C. S. Galina; J. Riveroll; P. Cardenas; M. Aguilar; J. M. Russell

413

The electoral effect of underdevelopment: government turnover and its causes in Latin–American, Caribbean and industrialized countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that government turnover and attrition in the incumbent party share of the vote are more frequent and intense in non-industrialized countries (Latin America and the Caribbean area) than in industrialized countries, and the possible reasons for this difference, were explored through analysis of 328 post-war democratic elections. The data analyzed supported this hypothesis and therefore the conclusion that

José Molina

2001-01-01

414

A Filmic Approach to the Study of Historical Dilemmas. Latin American Studies Program, Film Series No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The document presents two articles and six essays related to the use of film in history instruction on the college level. The first article reviews and evaluates a film survey course on Latin America which was offered at the University of California during the 1974-75 academic year. Evaluation of the course indicated that students did learn about…

Cortes, Carlos E.; And Others

415

The electoral effect of underdevelopment: government turnover and its causes in Latin American, Caribbean and industrialized countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that government turnover and attrition in the incumbent party share of the vote are more frequent and intense in non-industrialized countries (Latin America and the Caribbean area) than in industrialized countries, and the possible reasons for this difference, were explored through analysis of 328 post-war democratic elections. The data analyzed sup- ported this hypothesis and therefore the conclusion

Derecho Pub

416

The Platino project: methodology of a multicenter prevalence survey of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in major Latin American cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in many developed countries appears to be increasing. There is some evidence from Latin America that COPD is a growing cause of death, but information on prevalence is scant. It is possible that, due to the high frequency of smoking in these countries, this disease may represent a major public health

Ana MB Menezes; Cesar G Victora; Rogelio Perez-Padilla

2004-01-01

417

Gene therapy coming of age in Latin America.  

PubMed

"Gene Therapy in Latin America: From the Bench to the Clinic," a meeting sponsored by the Wellcome Trust and the United Nations University through the Biotechnology Program for Latin America and the Caribbean, took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina from May 20 to 22. This symposium, which was hosted by Osvaldo Podhajcer and Fernando Pitossi,had more than 150 basic scientists and physician-scientists from academia, government and industry in Latin America, similar to the first meeting of the Asociacion Iberoamericana de Terapia Génica (Iberoamerican Society of Gene Therapy, AITG) held in Guadalajara, México, two years ago. Participants represented Argentina, Mexico, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, Costa Rica, Colombia, Venezuela, and Guatemala, with guests from the United States and Europe. All came together to discuss the latest developments in this field in the region. A primary objective of this gathering was to bring together Latin American scientists involved in gene therapy to strengthen continental collaborations and to further disseminate the scientific expertise available in Latin America. The symposium was followed by a 10-day practical course for 25 students from all over Latin America. PMID:12186002

Podhajcer, Osvaldo; Pitossi, Fernando; Agilar-Cordova, Estuardo

2002-08-01

418

Tuberculosis among American Indians of the contiguous United States.  

PubMed Central

Paleopathologic findings provide strong evidence for the existence of tuberculosis in Andean populations of pre-Columbian America. Indirect evidence is available also to suggest its possible endemicity among some American Indian tribes who lived within the present-day contiguous United States before the arrival of Europeans. The available data suggest that tuberculosis became a major health problem in some tribes with increased population density and cultural changes after increased contact with European civilization, paralleling the deterioration in living conditions after relocation of the tribes to reservations. By 1900, tuberculosis had become one of the most serious health problems among North American Indians. Tuberculosis control was hampered by the lack of a specific treatment, and only the advent of specific chemotherapy in an ambulatory setting brought a breakthrough. Mortality, morbidity, and risk of infection have all sharply decreased over the past three decades. However, tuberculosis incidence rates among American Indians remain well above rates in the white population. An intensified effort to identify those with tuberculosis and those at risk of tuberculosis as well as to develop compliance-enhancing strategies with treatment regimens will be necessary to eliminate tuberculosis from Indian reservations.

Rieder, H L

1989-01-01

419

TRAVAUX DE RECHERCHE DU CEMAFI 2004\\/19 Globalization and inequality: the case of Latin American and East Asian countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since mid-1980s and essentially during the 1990s, a large number of middle-income countries in Latin America and East Asia undertook structural reforms in the areas of external trade and foreign direct investment (FDI). As a result, the debate about the effects of globalization on inequality in developing economies has aroused considerable interest and attention over the past 15-20 years. The

Christophe EHRHART

420

A cluster randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention to facilitate the development and implementation of clinical practice guidelines in Latin American maternity hospitals: the Guidelines Trial: Study protocol [ISRCTN82417627  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of the health care administered to women in Latin American maternity hospitals during labor and delivery has been demonstrated to be ineffective or harmful, whereas effective interventions remain underutilized. The routine use of episiotomies and the failure to use active management of the third stage of labor are good examples. METHODS\\/DESIGN: The aim of this trial

Fernando Althabe; Pierre Buekens; Eduardo Bergel; José M Belizán; Nora Kropp; Linda Wright; Norman Goco; Nancy Moss

2005-01-01

421

Development and application of rapid assessment diet and physical activity indexes, which suggest high consumption of energy-dense foods and inadequate exercise among adolescents from 6 Latin American cities: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the development and application of a rapid assessment diet quality index (RADQI) and a rapid assessment physical activity index (RAPAI) to characterize the energy intake and expenditure patterns of 1279 Latin American adolescents. Secondary aims were to describe the strength of the relationships of energy intakes and expenditures with sex, socioeconomic status, body mass index, and city

Laura H. McArthur; Donald Holbert; Manuel Peña

2008-01-01

422

Ethnicity, social class and health. A population-based study on the influence of social factors on self-reported illness in 223 Latin American refugees, 333 Finnish and 126 South European labour migrants and 841 Swedish controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows the influence of ethnicity and social class on self-rated illness compared with social factors and lifestyle. We were particularly interested in health differences between refugees and labour migrants. The study population consisted of 223 Latin American refugees domiciled in Lund, 333 Finnish and 126 South European labour migrants and 841 Swedish controls. The data were analysed unmatched

Jan Sundquist

1995-01-01

423

Discourses and Conditions of Possibility in Latin American Social Movements: The Cases of the Bolivian 'Water War' and the Movement of Opposition against the New Airport in Mexico City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a comparative analysis of two Latin American social movements. The first case is the movement of opposition against the privatisation of water and sanitation services (WSS) in Cochabamba, Bolivia and the second case is the movement of opposition against the project for a new international airport in Mexico City. Both case studies are used to illustrate how

J. Carlos Dominguez

424

[Technical cooperation strategies of the Pan American Health Organization in the new phase of mental health services reform in Latin America and the Caribbean].  

PubMed

The beginning of the new millennium coincided with the start of a new phase in the reform of mental health services in Latin America and the Caribbean. This new phase has imposed new priorities and prompted new technical cooperation strategies at the international level. This piece points out the main characteristics of the first phases in the reform of mental health services in Latin America and the Caribbean, discusses the factors that led to the phase that started in 2001, and describes the strategies and the technical cooperation activities of the Pan American Health Organization to deal with the challenges that have arisen in the current stage of reform. The piece also considers the prospects for international cooperation in this field, as well as the advantages of establishing a program for the reform of mental health services in the Americas that would contribute to the combined efforts of governments and international organizations in an action plan with defined objectives. The piece recommends taking advantage of the celebration of the 15th anniversary of the Declaration of Caracas in order to launch an action plan that gives new impetus to mental health services reform in the Americas. PMID:16354429

de Almeida, José Miguel Caldas

425

Immigrating to the US: what Brazilian, Latin American and Haitian women have to say about changes to their lifestyle that may be associated with obesity.  

PubMed

Our goal was to explore the perceived determinants of obesity in Brazilian, Latin American and Haitian women. This is part of an ongoing community-based participatory intervention. Focus groups by immigrant group were conducted and themes extracted. Women expressed differences in beliefs, attitudes, and barriers regarding diet and physical activity in the US versus their home country. Participants thought food in the US is "less natural," there is less time for preparation, and there is more variety. The weather is a barrier to physical activity in the US and work is more physically demanding. Job-related efforts were not considered physical activity. They reported higher levels of stress, less control of their time and less social support in the US. Providing immigrants with appropriate support and education early in the acculturation process has the potential to help prevent obesity. PMID:22736266

Tovar, Alison; Must, Aviva; Metayer, Nesly; Gute, David M; Pirie, Alex; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D

2013-04-01

426

Latin and Cross Latin Squares  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Latin squares were first introduced and studied by the famous mathematician Leonhard Euler in the 1700s. Through the years, Latin squares have been used in areas such as statistics, graph theory, coding theory, the generation of random numbers as well as in the design and analysis of experiments. Recently, with the international popularity of…

Emanouilidis, Emanuel

2008-01-01

427

Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1948, the Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA) is part of the United Nations broader initiative to foster coordinated economic development schemes and relationships among Latin American nations. Their web presence is quite formidable, and for persons interested in these types of policy endeavors, this site warrants several visits. First-time visitors can get an accurate sense of ECLAÂs overall mission by reading the headlines on the homepage, which draw attention to their economic analyses and monitoring of the UNÂs Millennium Development Goals. Visitors looking for reports and publications can take a look at some of their more recent works, such as the economic survey of Latin America and the Caribbean as well as papers on foreign investment in the region. The site is rounded out by a very helpful interactive database which provides information on trade for 33 of the regionÂs countries, along with 15 members of the European Union.

2000-01-01

428

Child Rights in Latin America: From "Irregular Situation" to Full Protection. Innocenti Essays No. 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child by all Latin American countries, many substantial national legislative reforms have been made that reflect the spirit and the letter of the new Convention. This series of essays documents the challenges faced by countries beginning the process of legislative reform,…

Mendez, Emilio Garcia

429

Decline of African American Enlistment in the United States Army.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This monograph will argue that Black Americans, who have historically enlisted in the Army in overwhelming proportions with respect to national populations, are now pursuing other opportunities outside of the Army. The U.S. Army and African Americans have...

A. A. Neal

2008-01-01

430

Laboratory-Based Surveillance of Neisseria meningitidis Isolates from Disease Cases in Latin American and Caribbean Countries, SIREVA II 2006-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Published data on the epidemiology of meningococcal disease in Latin America and the Caribbean region is scarce and, when available, it is often published in Spanish and/or in non-peer-reviewed journals, making it difficult for the international scientific community to have access. Methods Laboratory data on 4,735 Neisseria meningitidis strains was collected and reported by the National Reference Laboratories in 19 Latin American countries and the Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (CAREC) between 2006 and 2010 as part of the work carried out by the SIREVA II network. Serogroup and MIC to penicillin, rifampin and chloramphenicol were determined. Results Isolates were mainly obtained from patients <5 years, but each year around 25% of isolates came from adult patients. Serogroup distribution was highly variable among countries. Serogroup C was the main cause of disease in Brazil; the majority of disease seen in the Southern cone was caused by serogroup B, but serogroup W135 strains have increased in recent years. In the Andean and Mexico, Central America and Caribbean regions, serogroups B and C were equally present, and serogroup Y was frequently isolated. Isolates were generally susceptible to chloramphenicol, penicillin and rifampin, but almost 60% of isolates characterized in Southern cone countries presented intermediate resistance to penicillin. Five rifampin-resistant isolates have been isolated in Uruguay and Brazil. Conclusions Serogroup distribution is highly variable among countries, but some geographic structuring can be inferred from these data. Epidemiological and laboratory data are scarce among Andean and Mexico, Central America and Caribbean countries. Evaluation and implementation of corrective measures on disease surveillance and reporting systems and the implementation of molecular diagnostic techniques and molecular characterization on meningococcal isolates are advised.

Ibarz-Pavon, Ana Belen; Lemos, Ana Paula; Gorla, Maria Cecilia; Regueira, Mabel; Gabastou, Jean-Marc

2012-01-01

431

Biohistorical approaches to "race" in the United States: Biological distances among African Americans, European Americans, and their ancestors.  

PubMed

Folk taxonomies of race are the categorizations used by people in their everyday judgments concerning the persons around them. As cultural traditions, folk taxonomies may shape gene flow so that it is unequal among groups sharing geography. The history of the United States is one of disparate people being brought together from around the globe, and provides a natural experiment for exploring the relationship between culture and gene flow. The biohistories of African Americans and European Americans were compared to examine whether population histories are shaped by culture when geography and language are shared. Dental morphological data were used to indicate phenotypic similarity, allowing diachronic change through United States history to be considered. Samples represented contemporary and historic African Americans and European Americans and their West African and European ancestral populations (N = 1445). Modified Mahalanobis' D(2) and Mean Measure of Divergence statistics examined how biological distances change through time among the samples. Results suggest the social acceptance for mating between descendents of Western Europeans and Eastern and Southern European migrants to the United States produced relatively rapid gene flow between the groups. Although African Americans have been in the United States much longer than most Eastern and Southern Europeans, social barriers have been historically stronger between them and European Americans. These results indicate that gene flow is in part shaped by cultural factors such as folk taxonomies of race, and have implications for understanding contemporary human variation, relationships among prehistoric populations, and forensic anthropology. PMID:19226643

Edgar, Heather J H

2009-05-01

432

Studies of ionospheric F-region response in the Latin American sector during the geomagnetic storm of 21-22 January 2005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present investigation, we have studied the response of the ionospheric F-region in the Latin American sector during the intense geomagnetic storm of 21-22 January 2005. This geomagnetic storm has been considered "anomalous" (minimum Dst reached -105 nT at 07:00 UT on 22 January) because the main storm phase occurred during the northward excursion of the Bz component of interplanetary magnetic fields (IMFs). The monthly mean F10.7 solar flux for the month of January 2005 was 99.0 sfu. The F-region parameters observed by ionosondes at Ramey (RAM; 18.5° N, 67.1° W), Puerto Rico, Jicamarca (JIC; 12.0° S, 76.8° W), Peru, Manaus (MAN; 2.9° S, 60.0° W), and São José dos Campos (SJC; 23.2° S, 45.9° W), Brazil, during 21-22 January (geomagnetically disturbed) and 25 January (geomagnetically quiet) have been analyzed. Both JIC and MAN, the equatorial stations, show unusually rapid uplifting of the F-region peak heights (hpF2/hmF2) and a decrease in the NmF2 coincident with the time of storm sudden commencement (SSC). The observed variations in the F-region ionospheric parameters are compared with the TIMEGCM model run for 21-22 January and the model results show both similarities and differences from the observed results. Average GPS-TEC (21, 22 and 25 January) and phase fluctuations (21, 22, 25, 26 January) observed at Belem (BELE; 1.5° S, 48.5° W), Brasilia (BRAZ; 15.9° S, 47.9° W), Presidente Prudente (UEPP; 22.3° S, 51.4° W), and Porto Alegre (POAL; 30.1° S, 51.1° W), Brazil, are also presented. These GPS stations belong to the RBMC/IBGE network of Brazil. A few hours after the onset of the storm, large enhancements in the VTEC and NmF2 between about 20:00 and 24:00 UT on 21 January were observed at all the stations. However, the increase in VTEC was greatest at the near equatorial station (BELE) and enhancements in VTEC decreased with latitude. It should be pointed out that no phase fluctuations or spread-F were observed in the Latin American sector during the post-sunset pre-reversal time in the geomagnetic disturbance (21 January). The disturbance dynamo electric field possibly resulted in downward drift of the F-region plasma and inhibited the formation of spread-F.

Sahai, Y.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Jesus, R.; de Abreu, A. J.; Crowley, G.; Kikuchi, T.; Huang, C.-S.; Pillat, V. G.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Abalde, J. R.; Bittencourt, J. A.

2011-05-01

433

Effects observed in the Latin American sector ionospheric F region during the intense geomagnetic disturbances in the early part of November 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sun was very active in the early part of November 2004. During the period of 8-10 November 2004, intense geomagnetic disturbances with two superstorms were observed. In this paper, we have investigated the generation and suppression of equatorial ionospheric irregularities and the daytime changes in the F region electron density in the Latin American sector during the period of intense geomagnetic disturbances. We present the ionospheric sounding observations carried out at Manaus and Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil, during this geomagnetically disturbed period. Also, GPS observations obtained from several stations in Brazil, Argentina, and St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, during the disturbed period are presented. During the main phase of the first superstorm, around the prereversal enhancement time (night of 7-8 November), prompt penetration of electric field was observed and the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities was detected from St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands (in the northern hemisphere) to Bahia Blanca, Argentina (in the southern hemisphere). The ionospheric sounding observations at Manaus indicate inhibition of prereversal enhancement on the nights of 9-10 and 10-11 November, possibly due to the disturbed thermospheric winds or disturbance electric fields. Virtually no phase fluctuations on the nights of 9-10 and 10-11 November were observed in the Latin American sector. During the daytime on 8 November, the vertical total electron content (VTEC) observations show a negative storm phase at Porto Alegre (Brazil) and Bahia Blanca (Argentina). Again during the daytime on 10 November, the VTEC observations show a negative storm phase from Brasilia (Brazil) to Bahia Blanca. These negative storm phases are associated with a decrease in the O/N2 ratio. During the daytime on 9 November, the VTEC observations show a positive storm phase extending from St. Croix to Porto Alegre, and again on 10 November, VTEC observations show a positive storm phase. These positive storm phases observed are possibly due to changes in large-scale wind circulation and an increase in the O/N2 ratio.

Sahai, Y.; Becker-Guedes, F.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Jesus, R.; de Abreu, A. J.; Paxton, L. J.; Goncharenko, L. P.; Brunini, C.; Gende, M.; Ferreira, A. S.; Lima, N. S.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Pillat, V. G.; Bittencourt, J. A.; Candido, C. M. N.

2009-03-01

434

The Organization of American States and its Potential for Collaboration in the Improvement of Scientific Documentation in Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to describe the profound changes which have been made in the organic structure of the Organization of American States (OAS) and in its operations in recent months and how these changes lend themselves to more effective efforts to aid the member states in the development of more adequate documentation services and in…

Shepard, Marietta Daniels

435

Poverty and psychological distress in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is three-fold: first, to study the psychological distress of the Latin American poor. Second, to study differences in psychological distress between the poor and the relatively wealthy in Latin America. Third, to study how economic growth impacts the psychological well-being of the poor.This paper uses micro-level information from the Gallup 2007 Survey for 16 Latin

Mariano Rojas

2011-01-01

436

The Asian American market for publishers in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

sian American fiction and non-fiction have slowly emerged as a prominent art of multicultural publishing. Scholarly and popular interest in Asian American work has led to an influx of literature and non-fiction in recent years. Programs in Asian American studies are today common throughout U.S. higher education. Despite the growing interest and popularity in this body of work, however, publishers

Mindy Okura; Jill Su

2003-01-01

437

The early referral for reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation in patients with Ph1 (+) chronic myelogenous leukemia in chronic phase in the imatinib era: results of the Latin American Cooperative Oncohematology Group (LACOHG) prospective, multicenter study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation (RIST) schedule, 24 patients with Philadelphia (Ph1) (+) chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in first chronic phase (CP) were prospectively allografted in four Latin American countries: México, Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela, using HLA-identical siblings as donors. The median age of the patients was 41 years (range 10–71 years); there were eight females. Patients received a

G J Ruiz-Argüelles; D Gómez-Almaguer; A Morales-Toquero; C H Gutiérrez-Aguirre; J Vela-Ojeda; M A García-Ruiz-Esparza; C Manzano; A Karduss; A Sumoza; C de-Souza; E Miranda; S Giralt

2005-01-01

438

A REVIEW OF EMERGENCY ROOM STUDIES ON ALCOHOL AND INJURIES CONDUCTED IN LATIN AMERICAN AND THE CARIBBEAN REGION  

PubMed Central

Issues Alcohol-attributable burden of injury is one of the most serious public health problems in Latin America and the Caribbean region (LAC). Although knowledge on alcohol’s involvement in injuries has progressed along with the implementation of evidenced-based alcohol policies in developed countries, this was not true for the most part of LAC countries for which reducing alcohol-related injuries is an urgent necessity. Approach A systematic review was performed in order to identify the most up-to-date information on alcohol and injuries derived from emergency room (ER) studies conducted in LAC. Key Findings Findings corroborate that alcohol has a high prevalence among injured patients in the ER setting in LAC, with violence-related injuries showing an increased association with alcohol use compared to unintentional injuries. However, a large number of studies did not include all types of injury and the measurement of injury risk associated with alcohol consumption. The amount of alcohol consumed in the event and hazardous drinking patterns seem to be strongly associated with injury occurrence, as well as drinking in public spaces, but a paucity of data relating to social-contextual factors limits the interpretation of the heterogeneity in the magnitude of the association of alcohol and injuries found across studies. Conclusions There is a lack of ER studies able to support strategies to reduce alcohol-related injuries in a region where effective alcohol policies are scant. Future research should focus on understanding how drinking influenced by local contexts and drinking behaviors may affect the risk of injury within each LAC country.

Andreuccetti, Gabriel; Carvalho, Heraclito B.; Korcha, Rachael; Ye, Yu; Bond, Jason; Cherpitel, Cheryl J.

2012-01-01

439

Native American Higher Education in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book presents a comprehensive history of higher education for American Indians. Following an introduction, chapter 2 covers the Colonial Period, from European contact to the establishment of the U.S. Government. Some of the earliest universities, most notably Harvard, Dartmouth, and William and Mary, specifically claimed to have had American

Carney, Cary Michael

440

A basic diagnostic headache diary (BDHD) is well accepted and useful in the diagnosis of headache. a multicentre European and Latin American study.  

PubMed

Aims: We tested the usability and usefulness of the basic diagnostic headache diary (BDHD) for the diagnosis of migraine, tension-type headache and medication-overuse headache in European and Latin American countries. Methods: Patients were subdivided into two groups according to a 1:1 randomization list. Those in group 1 were sent the BDHD before their first visit to the headache centre and asked to complete it for at least 1 month. Those in group 2 made their first visit to the headache centre without receiving the BDHD. Results: A total of 626 patients from nine countries and 16 centres completed the study. The BDHD entries were complete in 97.5% of cases. BDHD information and clinical interview were, when taken together, considered complete for diagnosis in 97.7% of cases in group 1 whereas the information obtained by clinical interview alone in group 2 was considered complete in only 86.8% of cases (p?

Jensen, R; Tassorelli, C; Rossi, P; Allena, M; Osipova, V; Steiner, Tj; Sandrini, G; Olesen, J; Nappi, G

2011-10-21

441

Collaboration Networks for Innovation and Socio-economic Development: European and Latin American Perspectives on Digital Ecosystems Research, Local Readiness, Deployment Strategies and Their Policy Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International cooperation and knowledge transfer among countries has become increasingly important in the last decades, giving opportunity to a set of multiple interaction programs particularly amongst developed and developing regions. This paper discusses the feasibility of the adoption of Digital Ecosystems (DEs) in the Latin American context, based on the experience of deployment of DEs in the European Union. Different deployment experiences in the European context revealed the need of a methodology for planning and implementing DEs that resulted in a set of tools for measuring the maturity grade of localities related to the deployment of DEs and the need of an impact index for understanding its long-term implications of the dynamics of their implementation. This paper proposes a new methodological framework that integrates concepts related to ICT adoption, connectivity and absorption capacities and recognises the strong influence of social capital over these. The paper concludes with the description of a methodological tool oriented towards the mapping, evaluation and modification of scenarios related to ICT adoption process among multiple agents.

Rivera León, Lorena; Kataishi, Rodrigo

442

Psychosocial aspects of vasectomy in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines some of the reasons for the paucity of vasectomy programs in Latin America and some considerations which should be taken into account before such programs are implemented. Social constraints, the structure of the Latin American family, and the “machismo” cult are discussed. The authors conclude that if the processes of self?selection, screening and counseling are employed, vasectomy

Alfredo Goldsmith; Rona J. Goldberg

1974-01-01

443

WOMEN'S SOCIAL MOVEMENTS IN LATIN AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article documents the increasing participation of poor women in social movements in Latin America, focusing on movements centered around human rights and collective consumption issues, such as the cost of living or the provision of public services. It analyzes the factors that have contributed to the increased participation of poor Latin American women in social movements and why they

HELEN ICKEN SAFA

1990-01-01

444

A World of Hurt: Latin America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Massive socioeconomic problems have left Latin American education in a dire condition, and decades behind the rest of the globe in integrating technology into teaching and learning. But a few spots in the region offer signs of hope. In this article, the author describes several efforts at tech-based educational reform in Latin America.|

Ramaswami, Rama

2009-01-01

445

Mosquito vector biology and control in Latin America--a 20th symposium.  

PubMed

The 20th Annual Latin American Symposium presented by the American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) was held as part of the 76th Annual Meeting in Lexington, KY, in March 2010. The principal objective, as for the previous 19 symposia, was to promote participation in the AMCA by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from Latin America. This publication includes summaries of 40 presentations that were given orally in Spanish or presented as posters by participants from 5 countries in Latin America, the United Kingdom, and the USA. Topics addressed in the symposium included: surveillance, chemical and biological control, and insecticide resistance associated with Aedes aegypti; distribution, behavior, and control of Culex; bionomics, ecology, and chemical and biological control of Anopheles vectors of malaria; insecticide resistance; and studies of dengue, West Nile virus, and Triatoma. PMID:21033058

Clark, Gary G; Rubio-Palis, Yasmin

2010-09-01

446

Undocumented Migration from Latin America in an Era of Rising U.S. Enforcement  

PubMed Central

Available data have consistently pointed up the failure of U.S. policies to reduce undocumented migration from Latin America. To shed light on the reasons for this failure, we estimated a series of dynamic models of undocumented entry into and exit from the United States. Our estimates suggest that undocumented migration is grounded more in mechanisms posited by social capital theory and the new economics of labor migration rather than neoclassical economics. As a result, U.S. efforts to increase the costs of undocumented entry and reduce the benefits of undocumented labor have proven unsuccessful given the widespread access of Latin Americans to migrant networks. The main effect of U.S. enforcement efforts has been to reduce the circularity of Latin American migration.

MASSEY, DOUGLAS S.; RIOSMENA, FERNANDO

2010-01-01

447

The Struggle against Separate and Unequal Schools: Middle Class Mexican Americans and the Desegregation Campaign in Texas, 1929-1957.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the efforts of Mexican American groups, such as the League of United Latin American Citizens and the G.I. Forum, and court orders to end segregation, schools in Texas continued to segregate Mexican American children. The political liberalism of these groups kept them from developing effective strategies against segregation. (IS)

San Miguel, Guadalupe, Jr.

1983-01-01

448

Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This serial issue features 6 members of the Indiana University System faculty who have focused their research on Latin America, past and present. The first article, "A Literature of Their Own," highlights Darlene Sadlier's research on Brazilian women's fiction and poetry that has led to an interest in the interplay of Brazilian and Portuguese…

Soni, P. Sarita, Ed.

1993-01-01

449

Birth weight for gestational age of Mexican American infants born in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To develop a reference for birth weight for gestational age to identify Mexican American infants born in the United States who are small or large for gestational age.Methods: Reference percentiles were developed for Mexican American and non-Hispanic white births, using national vital statistics from 1992–1994 for Mexican Americans (n = 1,197,916) and 1994 for non-Hispanic whites (n = 2,238,457).

Mary D Overpeck; Mary L Hediger; Jun Zhang; Ann C Trumble; Mark A Klebanoff

1999-01-01

450

American businesses unite to fight HIV spread in Africa.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the formation of a Corporate Task Force on AIDS in Africa and will attempt to examine the role of American corporations in preventing the spread of HIV infection. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa threatens to destroy any significant economic gain and would continually affect any American corporation doing business in Africa. The task force would examine and propose various courses of actions for American corporations. Although the corporate sector cannot solve the problem alone, they are expected to sponsor some of the innovative and progressive work on AIDS in Africa. Likewise, American private sectors take on the leadership role in the fight against AIDS. The first role of the task force will be to propose a unified business approach to assist US companies to have a positive impact in this issue at home and abroad. PMID:12322534

2000-06-01

451

Internet Use and Individual-level Politics in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding how media consumption affects individuals in Latin America has received little attention. Relative to other forms of media, research on the effect of internet use remains an empty set. This project endeavors to explore the development of internet use in Latin America as well as the effect of that use on political attitudes and behaviors. Using Latin American Public

Ryan Salzman

452

Residential segregation of Spanish Americans in united states Urbanized Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residential segregation among Spanish Americans, whites and blacks is measured in the 29 largest U.S. urbanized areas. Results\\u000a show that Spanish Americans are much less segregated from whites than are blacks and are less concentrated within central\\u000a cities. Spanish-white segregation also tends to be much lower in suburbs than in central cities, while black-white segregation\\u000a is maintained at a high

Douglas S. Massey

1979-01-01

453

Preclinical assessment of the neutralizing capacity of antivenoms produced in six Latin American countries against medically-relevant Bothrops snake venoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species of the genus Bothrops induce the vast majority of snakebite envenomings in Latin America. A preclinical study was performed in the context of a regional network of public laboratories involved in the production, quality control and development of antivenoms in Latin America. The ability of seven polyspecific antivenoms, produced in Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Colombia and Costa Rica, to

A. Segura; M. C. Castillo; V. Núñez; A. Yarlequé; L. R. C. Gonçalves; M. Villalta; C. Bonilla; M. Herrera; M. Vargas; M. Fernández; M. Y. Yano; H. P. Araújo; M. A. A. Boller; P. León; B. Tintaya; I. S. Sano-Martins; A. Gómez; G. P. Fernández; P. Geoghegan; H. G. Higashi; G. León; J. M. Gutiérrez

2010-01-01

454

Mental Health Services for Native Americans in the 21st Century United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the population of American Indians and Alaska Natives continues to expand in the 21st century United States, an increasing number of professional psychologists will be called upon to provide culturally appropriate mental health services for Native American people and their communities. This article provides a general overview of contemporary tribal America before describing the legal, political, and institutional contexts

Joseph P. Gone

2004-01-01

455

Central American Refugees: Regional Conditions and Prospects and Potential Impact on the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Civil strife and deteriorating economic conditions in El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Guatemala have caused hundreds of thousands of refugees to seek asylum and assistance in other Central American countries, Mexico and the United States. While international ...

1984-01-01

456

Chagas Disease (American trypanosomiasis)  

MedlinePLUS

... cruzi (T. cruzi). It is found mainly in endemic areas of 21 Latin American countries 1 , where ... mostly in Latin America where Chagas disease is endemic. The cost of treatment for Chagas disease remains ...

457

Becoming Latino: America’s Latin Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Popular culture today exposes North Americans to different aspects of Latin American culture, but we are not fully informed as to where these cultural elements originally came from or what they meant to their creators. The North American lifestyle has accepted these elements of Latino culture, and yet popular culture has lost the significance of these traditions, foods, and dances.

Sara Pridmore

2011-01-01

458

A Central American Perspective on Teaching about the United Nations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contends that the United Nations actively works to improve living conditions in Honduras. Discusses United Nations efforts to improve education through teacher education. Asserts that, although the United Nations has extensive operations in Honduras, education about the UN in Honduran schools is superficial. (CFR)|

Ordonez, Eleonora

1994-01-01

459

Geriatric Care in the United Kingdom: An American Perspective.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Trends and issues in geriatric care in the United Kingdom are reviewed, with emphasis on aspects of the British system that have relevance for the United States. In 1973, 13.6 percent of the population of the United Kingdom was over 65 years of age, compa...

A. R. Somers

1976-01-01

460

A Teaching Guide and Experience Units K-12. Social Studies. Grade Six.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The unit experiences for the K-12 curriculum, including these for grade 6, are outlined in SO 001 139. These units include the study of the culture, history, geography, and economics of regions of Latin American and Canada. Again, the emphasis for both grade 5 and grade 6 is twofold: 1) to know his American heritage, as well as to become aware of…

Arapahoe County School District 6, Littleton, CO.

461

Comprehensive Internationalisation in Latin America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Latin American tertiary education (TE) sector is nowadays facing demands from globalisation and a knowledge-based society, while still dealing with challenges in terms of access, equity, quality and relevance. This new context has prompted a greater demand for TE and is forcing institutions to reconsider their mission, tasks and…

Gacel-Avila, Jocelyne

2012-01-01

462

Educational Building in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following pages include articles describing recent developments in three Latin American countries to expand public education facilities. They are followed by a report on UNESCO’s recent seminar on architecture for an inclusive education. Chile, Brazil and Venezuela have undertaken various efforts related to building new schools. Chile, as part of its educational reform, is designing new learning spaces. In

Jadille Baza; Rita de Cassia Alves Vaz; Eduardo Millán; Rodolfo Almeida

2002-01-01

463

Gender & Politics in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Description: This course examines the role of gender and women in Latin American politics. The course is organized around particular political and economic regime types: revolutionary, authoritarian, neoliberal and democratic. We will analyze the ways that gender is used by particular regimes and how it shapes transitions between regimes. Of special interest will be the political mobilization of women (Left

Christina Ewig

464

The Legal Situation of Women in Latin America and the Caribbean Defined according to the Resolutions and Mandates of the United Nations System. Volume I: Basis, Proposals, Methodology, and Information Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document describes the basis, proposals, methodology, and informational analyses of a study on the resolutions and mandates enacted by of the United Nations system which have a special concern for the legal situation of women in Latin America and the Caribbean. It includes both resolutions (conventions) which constitute international…

United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

465

Antimicrobial activity of gatifloxacin (AM1155, CG5501), and four other fluoroquinolones tested against 2,284 recent clinical strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae from Europe, Latin America, Canada, and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The newer fluoroquinolones generally have greater potency against Gram-positive cocci including Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, we report the activity of gatifloxacin (formerly AM-1155 or CG5501) compared with penicillin, erythromycin, and four other peer drugs, tested against 2284 strains isolated in North America (Canada and United States), Latin America (six nations), and Europe in 1997. Reference broth microdilution methods were

Brant A Odland; Ronald N Jones; Jan Verhoef; Ad Fluit; Mondell L Beach

1999-01-01

466

AMERICAN INDIANS, MISSIONS, AND THE UNITED CHURCH OF CHRIST  

Microsoft Academic Search

FROM EARLY COLONIAL WRITINGS we know that many white Christian settlers were concerned about the native peoples they found living in North America. Although the violence done to indigenous peoples can never be redressed, it is important to recognize that the churches did not always accept the popular insensitive attitudes about American Indians. Indeed, stories of important Christian mission work

Serge F. Hummon

467

Ethnic Heritage Studies: The American Woman. Experimental Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing information and activities designed to dispel sex role socialization, myths, and stereotypes as bases for prejudiced views, this teaching guide focuses on the American woman's image and diverse roles in our society. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The project materials are…

Keepers, Beverly

468

Learning More about Black Americans. An Instructional Unit for the Upper Elementary Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This instructional unit for grades 4-6 specifies objectives, resources, and lesson plans to help students develop knowledge and appreciation of contributions made by blacks to American society. The activities can be integrated with other program areas, such as language arts, music, and art. For each of four instructional objectives the unit

Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

469

Hispanic-Americans in the Eastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eastern part of the United States contains a large and growing Hispanic minority. If present trends con tinue, all Hispanics will constitute the largest minority in the United States by the year 2000. Their influence is already felt in the social and political life of the nation. The largest con centration of Hispanics, mainly Puerto Ricans, in the East

Joseph P. Fitzpatrick; Lourdes Travieso Parker

1981-01-01

470

American Holidays for Spanish Students in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three handouts give the history of three holidays celebrated in the United States: Christmas, Halloween, and St. Valentine's Day. Each holiday is described in Spanish and in English for use in bilingual classrooms. (CFM)

Lancaster County School Board, PA.

471

American Holidays for Spanish Students in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three handouts give the history of three holidays celebrated in the United States: Christmas, Halloween, and St. Valentine's Day. Each holiday is described in Spanish and in English for use in bilingual classrooms. (CFM)|

Lancaster County School Board, PA.

472

Current trends in Latin America and the Argentine perspective  

SciTech Connect

The authors discusses the changes that are taking place in Argentina as well as in all of Latin America today -- privatization, deregulation, and the modernization of the economy, changes which will serve to strengthen the governments and provide a better quality of life for all of them. He gives an insight into the factors which helped bring about these changes, the support they are receiving, the problems which persist, and the measures that still must be taken so that these positive changes remain in place. He offers some useful information that will perhaps contribute to their understanding of the vast area which he refers to as Latin America, and more specifically, gives a thumbnail sketch of what is happening today in the Republic of Argentina. For many years now, Latin American leaders have travelled to other parts of the world and spoken about the plans and expectations for the region`s future. When these well-intentioned projects and plans never materialized, partners and supporters in the United States and other countries were frustrated and disappointed by the failure to make things work. The author`s intention here today is to describe things as they are, not as they might be, to tell about what is already happening in the sphere of business and growth of the economies in Latin America.

Laredo, V.G. [SOCMA Americana, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

1992-12-31

473

An Examination of the Relationship between Acculturation Level and PTSD among Central American Immigrants in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between acculturation level and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence in Central American immigrants in the United States. Central American immigrants represent a population that is a part of the Latino/Hispanic Diaspora in the United States. By the year 2050 the United States…

Sankey, Sarita Marie

2010-01-01

474

19 CFR 148.88 - Certain representatives to and officers of the United Nations and the Organization of American...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...representatives to and officers of the United Nations and the Organization of American...representatives to and officers of the United Nations and the Organization of American...and members of the staff of the United Nations and the Organization of...

2009-04-01

475

19 CFR 148.88 - Certain representatives to and officers of the United Nations and the Organization of American...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...representatives to and officers of the United Nations and the Organization of American...representatives to and officers of the United Nations and the Organization of American...and members of the staff of the United Nations and the Organization of...

2010-04-01

476

American Business Education--Effect on the Ethical Orientation of Foreign Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Business students in U.S. universities (72 Anglo-American, 87 Latin American, 78 Asian, and 69 Arab) completed the Survey of Ethical Theoretic Aptitudes. Significant differences were found beteen newly arrived foreign students and those with longer tenure in the United States. More exposure to a new environment and sustained education influenced…

Kumar, Kamalesh; Strandholm, Karen

2002-01-01

477

Educational and psychological perspectives on Hispanic children from Hispanic journals: A view from Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature from Hispanic journals on education and psychology on Spanish?speaking Latin American children is summarised. Background information on Latin American countries is provided so as to establish a context for the educational and psychological literature. This literature review focuses on educational research and development and on the contributions of psychology to these two activities. Educational research in Latin America is

Thomas D. Oakland

1985-01-01

478

Framing Latin America in the Spanish press: A cooled down friendship between two fraternal lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on a news framing analysis of Latin America and Latin Americans in the Spanish press. For this purpose 1,271 news articles with different Latin American countries or their citizens as main actors were examined. These news stories had been published by the main Spanish newspapers in 1999. The results reveal that attribution of responsibility, human interest, and

Juan José Igartua; Lifen Cheng; Carlos Mu?iz

2005-01-01

479

Anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders in United States African-American public housing residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  African-Americans experience considerable mental healthcare disparities in the United States, but little is known about sensitive\\u000a subgroups within this population. To better understand healthcare disparities within African-Americans communities, we characterized\\u000a anxiety, mood, and substance use disorder prevalence and associated service utilization among public and non-public housing\\u000a residents.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We used data from a nationally representative sample of African-Americans recruited as part

Adam Simning; Edwin van Wijngaarden; Yeates Conwell

480

Identity Formation of United States American and Asian Indian Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Extended Version of the Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status-II was completed by 434 high school students from the United States and India. Students were male and female between the ages of 13 and 18 years. Asian Indian adolescents were found to be more diffused, foreclosed, and in moratorium in identity formation than adolescents in the…

Graf, Shruti C.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Mullis, Ann K.

2008-01-01

481

Rewriting Latin American Literary History  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paper presented at the conference 'Literary Histories and the Development of Identities' sponsored by the Social Sciences\\u000a and Humanities Research Council of Canada involving members of the I.C.L.A. Coordinating Committee at Queen's University,\\u000a Canada, in the Fall of 2001.

Eduardo de Faria Coutinho

2003-01-01

482

New United Nations for a New Era: Security, Development, and the 'Regional Solution' (The Case of Latin America).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United Nations was signed into creation in 1945 against the backdrop of the end of World War II. At the time, the victorious powers and their allies were convinced that the world required an organization to oversee and provide guidance for and prevent...

B. J. Solano

2009-01-01

483

An update on the management of hepatitis C: guidelines for protease inhibitor-based triple therapy from the Latin American Association for the Study of the Liver.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C is a common cause of end-stage liver disease, and the main indication for liver transplantation in Latin America. Treatment of hepatitis C infected patients improves important long-term outcomes as mortality. Sustained viral response is reached in near 50% of patients with the previous management based in pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Recently new drugs were available increasing sustained viral response significantly, changing the standard of care to triple therapy. This guidelines provides a framework for practitioner in Latin America, to the management of patients with hepatitis C chronic infection.  PMID:23559487

Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Ridruejo, Ezequiel; Alves de Mattos, Angelo; Bessone, Fernando; Daruich, Jorge; Sánchez-Ávila, Juan F; Cheinquer, Hugo; Zapata, Rodrigo; Uribe, Misael; Bosques-Padilla, Francisco; Gadano, Adrián; Sosa, Alejandro; Dávalos-Moscol, Milagros; Marroni, Claudio; Muñoz-Espinoza, Linda; Castro-Narro, Graciela; Paraná, Raymundo; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

484

Recommendations on the Implementation of the Eagleton Institute Report 'Urban Leadership in Latin America'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document urges that the Agency for International Development should establish a Latin American urban study center to give short courses for urban leaders from Latin America and more extensive academic and research training for younger potential leader...

H. Mields

1965-01-01

485

Latin and Magic Squares  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Latin squares have existed for hundreds of years but it wasn't until rather recently that Latin squares were used in other areas such as statistics, graph theory, coding theory and the generation of random numbers as well as in the design and analysis of experiments. This note describes Latin and diagonal Latin squares, a method of constructing…

Emanouilidis, Emanuel

2005-01-01

486

A retrospective analysis of American football hyperthermia deaths in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the period 1980–2009, there were 58 documented hyperthermia deaths of American-style football players in the United States.\\u000a This study examines the geography, timing, and meteorological conditions present during the onset of hyperthermia, using the\\u000a most complete dataset available. Deaths are concentrated in the eastern quadrant of the United States and are most common\\u000a during August. Over half the deaths

Andrew J. Grundstein; Craig Ramseyer; Fang Zhao; Jordan L. Pesses; Pete Akers; Aneela Qureshi; Laura Becker; John A. Knox; Myron Petro

2010-01-01

487

Prevalence and Burden of Migraine in the United States: Data From the American Migraine Study II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective.—To describe the prevalence, sociodemographic profile, and the burden of migraine in the United States in 1999 and to compare results with the original American Migraine Study, a 1989 population-based study employing identical methods. Methods.—A validated, self-administered questionnaire was mailed to a sample of 20 000 households in the United States. Each household member with severe headache was asked to

Richard B. Lipton; Walter F. Stewart; Seymour Diamond; Merle L. Diamond; Michael Reed

2001-01-01

488

[Scientific journals of medical students in Latin-America].  

PubMed

This article deals with the history and evolution of student's scientific journals in Latin-America, their beginnings, how many still exist and which is their future projection. Relevant events show the growth of student's scientific journals in Latin-America and how are they working together to improve their quality. This article is addressed not only for Latin American readers but also to worldwide readers. Latin American medical students are consistently working together to publish scientific research, whose quality is constantly improving. PMID:21279260

Cabrera-Samith, Ignacio; Oróstegui-Pinilla, Diana; Angulo-Bazán, Yolanda; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

2011-01-27

489

[Social class and health in Latin America].  

PubMed

This paper reviews the principal concepts of social class, occupation, and social stratification, and their contribution to the analysis of the social determinants of health (SDH), and reviews empirical studies conducted in Latin America that use employment relations as an SDH. The review focuses on studies of the relationship between health and social class based on neo-Weberian or neo-Marxist perspectives. A search of the BIREME Virtual Health Library and the SciELO database found 28 articles meeting these characteristics. This relative dearth contrasts with the profusion of papers that use these approaches written in Europe and in the United States, with a long tradition in the analysis of SDH. In this regard, the political and programmatic implications of research on social class and employment relations are different from and complementary to studies of health gradients associated with income and education. Globalization of employment relations requires the development of new concepts to explain and measure the mechanisms of action of the SDH going beyond what is strictly labor related; in particular, the importance in the current Latin American reality of the impact of informal work on health. PMID:22522881

Muntaner, Carles; Rocha, Katia B; Borrell, Carme; Vallebuona, Clelia; Ibáñez, Ciro; Benach, Joan; Sollar, Orielle

2012-02-01

490

Latin American Countries' Debt and Its Influence on their Armed Forces as they Attempt to Maintain the Stability and Security of the Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Latin America and the Caribbean countries have collectively achieved a level of economic development that places the region in an intermediate position between industrialized countries and the rest of the developing world. With a land area of one-sixth of...

O. A. Pacheco

1990-01-01

491

Telecommunications Stakeholder Perceptions of Teledensity: A Comparison of Stakeholders in the Latin American Region to those in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research has identified specific factors that hinder growth of teledensity in developing countries and specific strategies used to overcome such limitations both in Latin America and in Sub Saharan Africa. Prior research has also reported on the perceptions that telecommunications stakeholders have on how various strategies can inform and assist in the enhancement of teledensity in each of the

Victor Wacham A. Mbarika; Peter Meso; Philip F. Musa

2007-01-01

492

WCD thematic Review I.1: Contributing Paper:Report of Social Impacts of Dams: Distributional and Equity Issues- Latin American Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This consultancy reports on the social impact of large dams in Latin America, with a specific focus on distributional and equity issues. It is based on the author's research on the binational Yacyreta hydroelectric project for more than fifteen years, on interviews to academics, politicians, representatives of grassroots movements and NGOs interested on the analysis of the impact of dam

Carmen Ferradas

2006-01-01

493

Re-Branding Neoliberalism and Systemic Dilemmas in Social Development: The Case of Education and School Fees in Latin American HIPCs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Latin America as a broad context and drawing on evidence from some of its most heavily indebted states as cases, this paper considers the example of Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) and education as a means of exploring the question of whether poverty reduction strategies of the Bretton Woods Institutions (the World Bank and the…

Davidson-Harden, Adam

2008-01-01

494

The Afro-American--His Literature and Music (A Language-Arts Unit).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This language arts unit offers and outlines (1) introductory viewpoints to broaden both black and white students' understanding of Afro-American culture (e.g., an explication of the various meanings of "soul"); (2) general objectives and desired specific knowledge and skills; (3) introductory activities (attitude poll; discussion of racism;…

Lefkowits, Judith W.

495

Hispanic Americans in the United States. A Selective Bibliography, 1963-1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prepared at the special request of HUD's (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development) Assistant Secretary for Equal Opportunity, this bibliography cites 328 books reports, periodical articles, and bibliographies published between 1963 and 1974 pertaining to Hispanic Americans in the United States. Providing general historical background and…

Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, DC.

496

Women of the American Revolution. A Unit of Study for Grades 5-8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a unit that introduces students to the American Revolution by relying on primary sources. The lessons divide the conflict into 3 periods: (1) the friction leading to the War; (2) the struggle for independence; and (3) the expectations that shaped people's participation. The feature that distinguishes this treatment of the…

Pearson, Jim

497

The Maya Calendar: A Native American Curriculum Unit for Middle and High School. NATAM VIII.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Written to fulfill the requirements for a University of Minnesota College of Education off-campus Indian education course for public school teachers, this Native American curriculum unit for middle and high school reflects the calendar achievements of the Maya Indians. The calendar is discussed in terms of its base number 20 (vigesimal system),…

Torguson, Edgar A.