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1

Manual for Reducing Educational Unit Costs in Latin American Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for educational administrators, this manual provides suggestions for reducing educational unit costs in Latin America without reducing the quality of the education. Chapter one defines unit cost concepts and compares the costs of the Latin American countries. Chapter two deals with the different policies which could affect the principal…

Centro Multinacional de Investigacion Educativa, San Jose (Costa Rica).

2

Transnational Stakeholders: Latin American Migrant Transnationalism and Civic Engagement in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current period of international migration there is no consensus among analysts regarding the relationship between immigrant transnationalism and civic engagement in the United States. Focusing mainly on the transnational behaviors of Latin American migrants, three views predominate: critics argue that immigrant transnationalism hinders…

Ramirez, Ricardo; Felix, Adrian

2011-01-01

3

Interaction of science and diplomacy: Latin American, the United States and nuclear energy, 1945-1955  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear programs in Argentina and Brazil can be traced to August 1945 when their scientific communities articulated responses to the atomic bombings of Japan. They culminated in attempts to develop independent nuclear programs, sharply opposed by the United States, during the nationalist governments of Juan Peron and Getulio Vargas. This dissertation, based on primary sources from the three nations, analyzes these programs and the American responses. Latin America entered the nuclear age attempting to control natural resources, to improve scientific establishments, and to appraise Latin American-United States relations. Despite some clear warnings about nuclear dangers, the new form of energy was seen as the solution to industrial problems, poverty, and outside political interference. International opposition, which may have included nuclear threats from the United States, blocked Argentina's first attempt in 1947. After 1948, Peron wanted a nuclear program for cheap energy and prestige. The qualifications of the Brazilian scientists gave more substance to their program. The program originated in August, 1945, but assumed national proportion with the government of Vargas in 1951. Lack of American cooperation forced Vargas to establish a secret program with Germany. American troops intervened taking over the German equipment already completed. The final collapse came about with Vargas' suicide in August, 1954.

Cabral, R.

1986-01-01

4

Latin American Visual Art: A Pre-Collegiate Teaching Unit. Grades Six to Twelve.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work of 20th century Latin American artists is featured in this curriculum, which is intended for use with students in grades 6 to 12. These materials are designed to introduce the arts into the social studies curriculum, and to show Latin American artists to be as intellectually and aesthetically sophisticated as their European and North…

Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

5

Latin American Trade Elasticities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of trade elasticities published for Latin American economies is conducted. Articles surveyed were published between 1975 and 1997. They include data from the mid-1950s through the mid-1990s. Imports are found to be highly income elastic as well as very price inelastic. Relatively fewer export function estimates are reported for Latin America than for other regions of the world.

Thomas M Fullerton Jr; W Charles Sawyer; Richard L Sprinkle

2004-01-01

6

United States and Four Latin American Countries Partner to Battle Cancer  

Cancer.gov

The United States National Cancer Institute formalized bilateral partnerships this week with the governments of Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and Uruguay, to accelerate progress against cancer in Hispanic populations in the United States and Latin America and improve cancer research.

7

Los Arboles Hablan: A Spanish Language Curriculum Unit Based on the Study of Latin American Rain Forests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Los Arboles Hablan," a video-based curriculum that promotes the learning of Spanish as a second language through study of the Latin American rain forests is described. The 12-session unit was designed for use at the middle school level and integrates science, social science, and environmental education with content focusing on the Amazon rain…

Zuman, John P.

8

Japan and the United States as Development ModelsClassifying Asia Pacific and Latin American Political Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Fernando Fajnzylber, the political economies of Japan and the United States present distinct characteristics in areas such as their consumption patterns, income distribution, trade orientation, and economic dynamism. These characteristics provide a model for emulation by their East Asian and Latin American neighbors, respectively. Although some of the attributions and associations alleged seem obvious, others are more questionable

STEVE CHAN

2001-01-01

9

Latin American Travelogues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The John Hay Library at Brown University has an impressive array of collections related to Latin America and the Caribbean. These collections include the Schirmer Collection on Anti-Imperialism and the Paul R. Dupee Mexican History Collection. Recently, Professor James Green and Patricia Figueroa, the librarian and subject specialist for Iberia and Latin America worked together to create this compelling digital library of Latin American travel accounts which span the 16th through 19th centuries. Visitors can browse through these accounts at their leisure, and they will find everything from Louis Aggasiz's "A Journey in Brazil" to Johann Baptist von Spix's "Travels in Brazil in the Years 1817-1820". Additionally, visitors can also read some rather thoughtful essays offered by Professor Green's students that draw on these travel narratives for academic inspiration and contemplation.

10

Immigration to the United States from Latin America: Past and Present. The Latin American Project: Volume 1, No. 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Immigration legislation in the United States is aimed primarily at Mexican migrants, who account for over half of all undocumented immigrants in the United States. Citizens of Central American and Caribbean countries contribute another 20%. The first section of this booklet traces the development of United States immigration legislation from the…

League of United Latin American Citizens, Washington, DC.

11

Mexican Celebrations. Latin American Culture Studies Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed for elementary school children, this unit is designed to teach about Mexican American culture through the study of holidays celebrated throughout much of Latin America and the southwestern United States. The unit describes and provides background information about nine Mexican American holidays. Among the activities included are the…

Garza-Lubeck, Maria; Salinas, Ana Maria

12

Latin American Cancer Research Coalition  

Cancer.gov

Established to address the unique needs of Latinos in the Washington-Baltimore metropolitan area, the Latin American Cancer Research Coalition (LACRC)1 at the MedStar Research Institute serves the largest urban concentration of Latinos in the country. Latinos in this region are predominantly of Central and South American ancestry, recently immigrated, uninsured, and largely monolingual.

13

Latin American Research Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over 2,000 research resources, most of which were published during the 1960's and 1970's, are listed in this annotated bibliography for students, teachers, librarians, researchers, and others interested in interdisciplinary resources on Latin America. Although there is a section listing materials for teaching children and young adults, the bulk of…

Sable, Martin H.

14

Latin American Network Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1992 and affiliated with the Lozano Long Institute of Latin American Studies at the University of Texas at Austin, the Latin American Network Information Center (LANIC) is designed to "facilitate access to Internet-based information to, from, or on Latin America." Their site was redesigned in the spring of 2008, and currently their various directories contain over 12,000 unique URLs for use by the general public. These links can be browsed by subject headings or by country, and visitors can look into more discrete topical headings like "food", "political science", and "social work". Along with these high-quality links, visitors can then click on over to their "Digital Initiatives" area. Here they will find digital collections that cover documents from the New Mexican Revolution and the full-text Fidel Castro Speech database. Visitors will also appreciate that many of the site's resources are available in Spanish and Portuguese.

15

Latin American Resources, Reference Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These Latin American reference sources are presented in three independent documents: (1) an annotated bibliography of business and law-related publications, organized by type and subject, including periodicals; (2) a partially annotated bibliography of reference materials in humanities and social sciences; (3) a directory of selected book dealers,…

Schaffer, Ellen G.; And Others

16

Latin American Folk Art Prints  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latin American customs and colors play an important role as second graders are introduced to multicultural experiences through food, music, dance, art, and craft. In this article, the author describes a printing project inspired by Guatemalan weavings and amate bark paintings. (Contains 2 online resources.)

Navah, Jan

2011-01-01

17

Improvisation in Latin American Musics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improvisation implies a relative freedom to choose elements within stylistic norms of rules proper to a given culture. Improvisatory processes for music from several cultures are described. These cultures are: Indian, Spanish, African, and Afro-Cuban (rumba). A few resources focusing on improvisation in Latin American music are presented. (KC)

Behague, Gerard

1980-01-01

18

Latin American Art and Music: A Handbook for Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of essays, curriculum units, and study guides on Latin American art and musical traditions is designed to help interested teachers take a comprehensive approach to teaching these subjects. The introduction features the essay, "Media Resources Available on Latin American Culture: A Survey of Art, Architecture, and Music Articles…

Horton, Judith Page, Ed.

19

Chinese-Latin American Ties: A Convergence of Security Threats to the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this thesis is to establish whether or not there is a link between the Chinese government, transnational organized crime, and terrorist organizations operating in the Tri-Border Area (TBA) of Latin America. The author utilized a combination...

J. D. Buskirk

2013-01-01

20

HGSMEs in Latin American Emerging Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latin American SMEs play a similar role in the economy as other SMEs worldwide, but possess distinctive characteristics to those in OECD countries. However, despite differences in the entrepreneurial environment and the innovation framework in Latin America, most of the best policy practices and lessons learned in industrialized countries can be applied to Latin American countries such as Brazil, Chile

Juan J. Llisterri; Jaime García-Alba

2008-01-01

21

North American Adult Literacy Programs and Latin American Immigrants: How Critical Pedagogy Can Help Nonprofit Literacy Programming in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As nonprofit adult literacy programs are often the only options for low-income Latin American immigrants in North America, problems accompanying these programs affect the ability of immigrants to benefit from them. North American nonprofit adult literacy programs often struggle due to the difficulties inherent in using volunteer instructors (often…

Straubhaar, Rolf

2013-01-01

22

CRCHD SPN Pilot: Latin American Cancer Research Coalition (LACRC)  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD SPN Pilot: Latin American Cancer Research Coalition (LACRC)  Back to CRCHD Completed Research SPN Project Listing Latin American Cancer Research Coalition (LACRC) Latin American Cancer Research Coalition (LACRC) Principal Investigator: Elmer

23

[Toward a Latin Americanization of North American culture?].  

PubMed

"The author analyses [U.S. census data,] which demonstrate that [the] Latin American population is growing very fast. The research shows interesting contributions of the Latin American culture to different aspects of the American life style like music, movies, food and language." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12319008

Altamirano, T

1993-01-01

24

Latin American Outlook April 1, 2000: Chile Moves On  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The April 2000 issue of Latin American Outlook from the AEI consists of the article "Chile Moves On," by Mark Folcoff. Latin American Outlook is a monthly newsletter on political and economic developments in Latin America.

Folcoff, Mark.

2000-01-01

25

Latin American foot and ankle surgery today.  

PubMed

Latin American medical orthopedic sub specialties have evolved a lot during the past decade. Foot and ankle surgery for instance, has gained high level of proficiency and competence throughout the international scientific communities. This may be due to the availability of new technology in osteosyntheses, orthopedic devices and surgical instruments used to optimize results, regardless of the low economic resources Latin American countries possess. Also, foot and ankle surgery training is being promoted by several International Medical associations that pursuit scientific knowledge and strengthen the practice. Day to day, more Latin American universities offer Fellowships for on-going training. PMID:22322630

Abello, Sergio

2012-02-01

26

Five Centuries of Latin American Inequality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most analysts of the modern Latin American economy hold to a pessimistic belief in historical persistence -- they believe that Latin America has always had very high levels of inequality, suggesting it will be hard for modern social policy to create a more egalitarian society. This paper argues that this conclusion is not supported by what little evidence we have.

Jeffrey G. Williamson

2009-01-01

27

A note using mergers and acquisitions to gain competitive advantage in the United States in the case of Latin American MNCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “new” economic and business climate in Latin America, fostered by multilateral trade agreements such as NAFTA, MERCOSUR, and the ANDEAN Pact, suggests that Latin American (LA) firms must become more aggressive and competitive in order to survive. Foreign direct investment in the form of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) is often an effective way of competing in a tough global

Claudio D. Milman; James P D'Mello; Bulent Aybar; Harvey Arbeláez

2001-01-01

28

Latin American Business History: Resources and Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Starting in December 2007, a team of researchers at the Harvard Business School began interviewing 21 leading business practitioners from Argentina and Chile for their Latin American business history initiative. The hope is that these oral histories will serve as a valuable resource for research on the business history of these two countries since the 1960s. On this site, visitors can listen to the interviews (in Spanish) and also read transcripts in English. Each profile contains a brief biography of each businessperson, along with material on their service to their respective industry. Moving on, visitors can also look through the rest of the Baker Library Historical Collections, which include collection of Brazilian railroad company records and the photographic records of the United Fruit Company.

29

Latin American & Carribean Government Documents Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Latin American and Carribean Government Documents Project, provided by David Block of the Olin Library of Cornell University, attempts to "organize and describe the many Latin American official documents now appearing on the Internet." The site is organized by country and agency, within subject themes that include statistical sources, executive documents, national legislative documents, national judicial documents, and subnational documents. The contents of each site are briefly summarized. This is a very well organized, concise pointer site that should be very useful to interested Internauts. Note that most of the pointers are to Spanish language sites.

Block, David.

1996-01-01

30

"The South American Way": Hollywood Looks at Latins and at Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latin elements or themes made for the North American market have been used in American films, but at the same time these films have been playing in a Latin American market, making it useful to examine how Latin America has been portrayed in these films. The taste for exotic locales and themes is an element that has been present since the…

Aiex, Nola Kortner

31

The Legal Situation of Latin American and Caribbean Women as Defined according to the Resolutions and Mandates of the United Nations System. Volume II: File Sheets of Resolutions on the Legal Situation of Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains a systematized inventory of the measures relating to the legal and social status of women adopted in various regional and world forums. The inventory was used to study the legal situation of Latin American and Caribbean women, defined according to the resolutions and mandates of the United Nations system. Organized by forum…

United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

32

Latin American Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Clients: Implications for Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The demand for clinical services for both Latin Americans and the lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) population is increasing rapidly. Consequently, LGB Latin Americans are more likely to seek clinical services. Article highlights critical characteristics of Latin American and LGB culture, and provides identity development, counseling, and ethical…

Sager, Jennifer B.; Schlimmer, Elizabeth A.; Hellmann, James A.

2001-01-01

33

The Latin American Professoriate: Progress and Prospects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The traditional image of the Latin American university professor is described with focus on the effects of the movement toward a full-time professoriate and other changes on the recruitment patterns, morale, and scholarly productivity of contemporary academics in Colombia and Argentina. (Author/LBH)

Pelczar, Richard

1977-01-01

34

Imagining Globalization through Latin American Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through a combination of practical applications and theoretical underpinnings, this article explores the question of how to approach the teaching of Latin American Literature in the current period of globalization. Many theorists argue that we need new epistemologies in which to ground our pedagogy for the 21st century. Understanding the effects…

Seminet, Georgia

2009-01-01

35

Library Guide: Latin American Literature, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for use by those conducting research in Latin American literature written in Spanish, this guide contains annotations for a wide range of selected works. The guide is divided into the seven sections: (1) General Encyclopedias (1 annotation); (2) Guides to the Literature (4 annotations); (3) Literary Encyclopedias, Dictionaries and…

de Sumar, Juanita Jara, Comp.

36

Transnational Ties, Poverty, and Identity: Latin American Immigrant Women in Public Housing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used ethnographic data to examine the nature and functions of transnational relationships of low-income Latin American women who had immigrated to the United States and were living in areas of extreme poverty. Findings indicated that these Latin American mothers utilized transnational ties to help maintain the cultural identities of…

Dominguez, Silvia; Lubitow, Amy

2008-01-01

37

Female Immigrants to the United States: Caribbean, Latin American, and African Experiences. RIIES Occasional Paper No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seminar papers on the recent immigrantion of women from the Caribbean, Latin America, and Africa are collected in the first part of this two-part book. Titles (and authors) of the papers are: (1) "The New Immigration: The Female Majority" (Roy S. Bryce-Laporte); (2) "Race, Ethnicity, and Sex in the Recent Immigration: Some Preliminary Comments"…

Mortimer, Delores M., Ed.; Bryce-Laporte, Roy S., Ed.

38

The Bologna Process from a Latin American Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Latin America's geography, history, and languages might seem a suitable foundation for a Bologna-type process, the development of a common Latin American higher education and research area meets predictable difficulties.The reasons are to be found in the continent's historic and modern institutional patterns. Latin American governments…

Brunner, Jose Joaquin

2009-01-01

39

Inefficiency in Latin-American market indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the deviations from efficiency in the returns and volatility returns of Latin-American market indices. Two different approaches are considered. The dynamics of the Hurst exponent is obtained via a wavelet rolling sample approach, quantifying the degree of long memory exhibited by the stock market indices under analysis. On the other hand, the Tsallis q entropic index is measured in order to take into account the deviations from the Gaussian hypothesis. Different dynamic rankings of inefficieny are obtained, each of them contemplates a different source of inefficiency. Comparing with the results obtained for a developed country (US), we confirm a similar degree of long-range dependence for our emerging markets. Moreover, we show that the inefficiency in the Latin-American countries comes principally from the non-Gaussian form of the probability distributions.

Zunino, L.; Tabak, B. M.; Pérez, D. G.; Garavaglia, M.; Rosso, O. A.

2007-11-01

40

HLAS Online: Handbook of Latin American Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. Library of Congress Hispanic Division has recently made all volumes from 1935 onward of its Handbook of Latin American Studies available for searching on the web. "The multidisciplinary Handbook alternates annually between the social sciences and the humanities. Each year, more than 130 academics from around the world choose over 5,000 works for inclusion in the Handbook." Users can search by subject, author, or title in basic search mode, and there is also a more powerful expert searching mode available. Retrieval includes complete bibliographic information, and subject listings are linked to other citations related to that subject. This is an exhaustive, authoritative source of Latin American Studies information.

1997-01-01

41

Persistence characteristics of Latin American financial markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The financial rates of return from Latin American stock and currency markets are found to be non-normal, non-stationary, non-ergodic, and long-term dependent, i.e., they have long memory. The degree of long-term dependence is measured by monofractal (global) Hurst exponents from wavelet multiresolution analysis (MRA). Scalograms and scalegrams provide the respective visualizations of these wavelet coefficients and the power spectrum of

NyoNyo A. Kyaw; Cornelis A. Los; Sijing Zong

2006-01-01

42

Ignoring taboos: Maria Lenk, Latin American inspirationalist.  

PubMed

Maria Lenk is widely recognized as an exceptional athlete who participated in women's sport from around 1930 until 1950. In 1932, at the age of seventeen, she was the first woman to be included in a Latin American delegation to the Olympic Games. As a swimmer, she still sets world records at the age of eighty-six. This super-champion's sporting achievements and her persistent dedication to the advancement of sport still impress and surprise todays professional swimmers and researchers. Contextualised in the male-dominated society of Brazil during the first half of the twentieth century, this chapter traces the achievement, and rise to international fame, of Maria Lenk. It examines the factors that enabled her to emerge not only as an important figure in sport but also as an icon of female emancipation in Brazilian and Latin American society. The focus is on Lenk's influence on the issues which affected the development of women's sport in Latin America. It also highlights the significance of Lenk's contribution to the changing place of women in Brazilian and South American society. PMID:18604909

Votre, S; Mourão, L

2001-01-01

43

Latin American Music in the Secondary School Music Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The inclusion of Latin American music in the secondary school band program may play an important role in affecting student motivation, ethnic identity, intergroup attitudes, and student-teacher relationships. One of the underpinnings of Latin American music is the variety of techniques and exciting rhythms. In this book the rhythms are analyzed…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

44

Accomplishments Toward a United States of Latin America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The accomplishments toward, and likelihood of, an economic and to a lesser degree, political integration of the nations of Latin America are considered. A brief overview of Latin American socio-political history is offered to provide a basic appreciation ...

H. E. Walker

1975-01-01

45

Interethnic admixture and the evolution of Latin American populations  

PubMed Central

A general introduction to the origins and history of Latin American populations is followed by a systematic review of the data from molecular autosomal assessments of the ethnic/continental (European, African, Amerindian) ancestries for 24 Latin American countries or territories. The data surveyed are of varying quality but provide a general picture of the present constitution of these populations. A brief discussion about the applications of these results (admixture mapping) is also provided. Latin American populations can be viewed as natural experiments for the investigation of unique anthropological and epidemiological issues.

Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Sans, Monica

2014-01-01

46

The Latin American Consortium of Studies in Obesity (LASO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current, high-quality data are needed to evaluate the health impact of the epidemic of obesity in Latin America. The Latin American Consortium of Studies of Obesity (LASO) has been established, with the objectives of (i) Accurately estimating the prevalence of obesity and its distribution by sociodemographic characteristics; (ii) Identifying ethnic, socioeconomic and behavioural determinants of obesity; (iii) Estimating the association

L. E. Bautista; J. P. Casas; V. M. Herrera; J. J. Miranda; P. Perel; R. Pichardo; A. González; J. R. Sanchez; C. Ferreccio; X. Aguilera; E. Silva; M. Oróstegui; L. F. Gómez; J. A. Chirinos; J. Medina-Lezama; C. M. Pérez; E. Suárez; A. P. Ortiz; L. Rosero; N. Schapochnik; Z. Ortiz; D. Ferrante

2009-01-01

47

History without Evidence: Latin American Inequality since 1491  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most analysts of the modern Latin American economy hold to a pessimistic belief in historical persistence -- they believe that Latin America has always had very high levels of inequality, suggesting it will be hard for modern social policy to create a more egalitarian society. This paper argues that this conclusion is not supported by what little evidence we have.

Jeffrey G. Williamson

2009-01-01

48

The Use of Literary Works in Teaching Latin American Geography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of fiction reading is discussed for teaching Latin American regional geography courses, particularly for studying cultural conflict, revolution, and description of landscape and life-styles. A suggested reading list is included. (ND)

Hoy, Don R.; Elbow, Gary S.

1976-01-01

49

Relapsing polychondritis in a Latin American man.  

PubMed

The first known reported case of relapsing polychondritis in a Latin American man is presented. The 35-year-old man, demonstrating auricular chondritis, arthritis, nasal cartilage involvement, episcleritis and respiratory tract chondritis, was admitted to the hospital and treated with 60 mg of prednisone daily, prednisolone acetate 1% ophthalmic drops every waking hour and homatropine hydrobromide 5% ophthalmic drops twice daily. After discharge from the hospital, he received 30 to 60 mg of prednisone daily and prednisolone acetate 1% ophthalmic drops twic daily for about 18 months. A permanent trachestomy was placed, azathioprine, 150 mg daily, was given and prednisone dosage was tapered to 25 mg daily when the patient subsequently was hospitalized for colapsed airway and Cushing's syndrome. The classic symptoms, pathogenesis and treatment of the disease are reviewed. Systemic corticosteroids are the drugs of choice in relapsing polychondritis, with immunosuppressive drugs, azathioprine in particular, being used as adjuvants to lower steroid dosage requirements and to achieve greater control of symptoms in patients with the severe progressive disease. Treatment of the disease with dapsone alone is promising and may offer an alternative to high-dose steroids and immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:463901

Waller, E S; Raebel, M A

1979-06-01

50

Latin American Security Challenges: A Collaborative Inquiry from North and South.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Newport Paper 21, 'Latin American Security Challenges: A Collaborative Inquiry from North and South,' helps reopen the door to serious analyses of the relationship between Latin American national security issues and American strategic interests. The monog...

G. Wawro G. R. Delamer J. A. Cirino P. D. Taylor S. L. Elizondo

2004-01-01

51

Supplement: Proceedings XIth Latin American Congress of Surface Science and Its Applications (XI CLACSA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2003 Congreso Latinoamericano de Ciencia de Superficies y sus Aplicaciones (Latin American Congress of Surface Science and Its Applications) was held in Pucón, Chile, 7-12 December 2003. XI CLACSA is the continuation of a series of events that started in 1980. Until 1992, this series was called Simposio Latinoamericano de Física de Superficies (SLAFS). In recognition of the interdisciplinary nature of the field, starting in 1994 the meeting became CLACSA. The conference was organized by the Sociedad Latinoamericana de Ciencia de Superficies (SLACS) with the purpose of becoming a forum for the exchange of information associated with scientific research carried out in Latin America in the field of surface physics, systems of low dimensionality and areas related to condensed matter physics and science of materials. This scientific event has enjoyed a large participation from Latin American scientists, and has helped to stimulate the collaboration between researchers from Europe, Latin America and the United States.

Häberle, Patricio; Fuenzalida, Victor

2004-07-01

52

Anthropometry of the Latin-American Armed Forces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Army Tropic Test Center made anthropometric measurements of a sample of Latin-American military personnel in the Canal Zone from September, 1965 to September 1966. A total of 733 trainees were measured--600 airmen at the USAF Inter-American Air F...

D. A. Dobbins C. M. Kindick

1967-01-01

53

Transportation Responses to Increased Latin American Trade.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this work is to provide: (1) A plan for collaborative intermodal transportation investment decision analysis tools for both traditional and nontraditional intermodal system improvements that will accommodate expected increases in Latin Am...

W. H. McAnally Y. Zhang A. J. Allen R. O. Bowden A. Tan

2004-01-01

54

E.I.L. Latin American Spanish: An Audio Lingual Course. Volume I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This basic textbook for Latin American Spanish contains 10 units. The text is adaptable for use in an academic institution (Completion time is expected to be one year.), in an intensive program (Completion time is about 90-120 hours.), or in independent study. The vocabulary is limited and only basic, essential, grammatical structures are…

Cespedes de Fantini, Beatriz; Fantini, Alvino E.

55

Aggregate demand and the endogeneity of the natural rate of growth: evidence from Latin American economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to explore the Keynesian idea that aggregate demand matters for economic activity, both in the short run and in the long run. To that extent, it discusses the endogeneity of the natural rate of growth, and presents two empirical exercises: the first one tests for unit roots in output for twelve Latin American countries using panel data.

G. A. Libanio

2009-01-01

56

Aggregate demand and the endogeneity of the natural rate of growth: evidence from Latin American economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to explore the Keynesian idea that aggregate demand matters for economic activity, both in the short and long run. To that extent, it discusses the endogeneity of the natural rate of growth, and presents two empirical exercises: the first one tests for unit roots in output for 12 Latin American countries using panel data. The results suggest

Gilberto A. Libânio

2009-01-01

57

Emergency preparedness: knowledge and perceptions of Latin American immigrants.  

PubMed

This paper describes the level of public emergency knowledge and perceptions of risks among Latin American immigrants, and their preferred and actual sources of emergency preparedness information (including warning signals). Five Latino community member focus groups, and one focus group of community health workers, were conducted in a suburban county of Washington D.C. (N=51). Participants came from 13 Latin American countries, and 64.7% immigrated during the previous five years. Participants had difficulty defining emergency and reported a wide range of perceived personal emergency risks: immigration problems; crime, personal insecurity, gangs; home/traffic accidents; home fires; environmental problems; and snipers. As in previous studies, few participants had received information on emergency preparedness, and most did not have an emergency plan. Findings regarding key messages and motivating factors can be used to develop clear, prioritized messages for communication regarding emergencies and emergency preparedness for Latin American immigrant communities in the U.S. PMID:17483572

Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Zambrana, Ruth E; Mora, Sonia E; Aaby, Katherine A

2007-05-01

58

[Notes on childhood and theory: a Latin American approach].  

PubMed

This work seeks to introduce and examine different historically relevant theories and propose certain frameworks that allow for the development of a Latin American theoretical approach based in a new discourse regarding childhood and adolescence. In order to undertake the creation of this Latin American approach, understanding the category of childhood as a social and historical construction, the work draws upon the contributions of structuralism (in particular, childhood as a permanent category, its relational dimension with regards to adulthood and its historical and intercultural dimension) and Foucault and Deleuze's concept of the society of control associated with the category of domination, an essential aspect of Latin American thought. The text was presented as a speech in the V World Congress for the Rights of Children and Adolescents held in San Juan, Argentina, from October 15-19, 2012. PMID:23681461

Bustelo Graffigna, Eduardo

2012-12-01

59

Latin Holidays: Mexican Americans, Latin Music, and Cultural Identity in Postwar Los Angeles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay recreates the exciting Latin music and dance scenes of post-World War II Southern California, showing how Mexican Americans produced and consumed a range of styles and, in the process, articulated their complex cultural sensibilities. By participating in a Spanish-language expressive culture that was sophisticated and cosmopolitan,…

Macias, Anthony

2005-01-01

60

Energy elements of a Latin American strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

South America has hydropower potential exceeding 300 gigaw, of which Vertical Bar3; 10Vertical Bar3< is now in use. In Brazil alone, the estimated untapped potential is 150 gigaw at large dam sites only. The controversy and problems that have plagued the nuclear industry in the U.S. and Europe are developing in Latin America too. Nearly 30%Vertical Bar3< of Brazil's energy

A. L. HAMMOND

1978-01-01

61

Latin American nephrology: Scientific production and impact of the publications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latin American nephrology: Scientific production and impact of the publications.BackgroundDuring the last two decades, there has been a significant change in the origin and impact of the world's biomedical scientific production, particularly in countries in which the investment in research accounts for an important portion of the gross national product (GNP). However, in less developed countries, budget restrictions and the

Jose R. Weisinger

1999-01-01

62

Pedagogy of a Latin-American Festival: A Mojado Ethnography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes and reflects on the pedagogical meaning of a festival held to showcase and celebrate Latin American culture in a North Carolina town undergoing a cultural transition as its Latino population grows. Following a successful event the previous year, a 2-day festival was organized to include a soccer tournament, booths selling…

Murillo, Enrique G., Jr.

63

Competition issues in network industries: the Latin American railways experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses several competition issues that have emerged in the Latin American rail industry after the recent restructuring experiences started during the 1990s. The analysis focuses on Brazil and Mexico providing a brief account of the main characteristics of the concessioning process in each of these two countries. The relevant competition issues are then analyzed from a double perspective.

Javier Campos

2002-01-01

64

FACTORS INFLUENCING ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN CARIBBEAN AND LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol consumption is considered an important social activity but a major health risk in Latin American and Caribbean countries (LAC). Alcohol consumption net benefits are doubtful and the factors influencing alcohol consumption in the LAC countries are not well documented. In this study, we use secondary data and Ordinary Least Squares Regression models to evaluate the factors influencing alcohol consumption

Carel Ligeon; Philip Gregorowicz; Curtis M. Jolly

2007-01-01

65

Latin American Independence: Education and the Invention of New Polities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latin American independence from Spain and Portugal in the first decades of the nineteenth century was a process of global relevance. A considerable number of new polities emerged that had to deal with radically new political situations. Particularly in the case of the former Spanish colonies, a general rejection of the colonial past determined…

Caruso, Marcelo

2010-01-01

66

Training on Eastern Pacific tropical cyclones for Latin American students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical cyclones are one of the most impressive atmospheric phenomena and their development in the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific basins has potential to affect several Latin-American and Caribbean countries, where human resources are limited. As part of an international research project, we are offering short courses based on the current understanding of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific basin. Our main goal is to train students from higher-education institutions from various countries in Latin America. Key aspects are tropical cyclone formation and evolution, with particular emphasis on their development off the west coast of Mexico. Our approach includes lectures on tropical cyclone climatology and formation, dynamic and thermodynamic models, air-sea interaction and oceanic response, ocean waves and coastal impacts as well as variability and climate-related predictions. In particular, we use a best-track dataset issued by the United States National Hurricane Center and satellite observations to analyze convective patterns for the period 1970-2006. Case studies that resulted in landfall over northwestern Mexico are analyzed in more detail; this includes systems that developed during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 seasons. Additionally, we have organized a human-dimensions symposium to discuss socio-economic issues that are associated with the landfall of tropical cyclones. This includes coastal zone impact and flooding, the link between cyclones and water resources, the flow of weather and climate information from scientists to policy- makers, the role of emergency managers and decision makers, impact over health issues and the viewpoint of the insurance industry.

Farfán, L. M.; Raga, G. B.

2009-05-01

67

The Latin American Consortium of Studies in Obesity (LASO)  

PubMed Central

Summary Current, high-quality data are needed to evaluate the health impact of the epidemic of obesity in Latin America. The Latin American Consortium of Studies of Obesity (LASO) has been established, with the objectives of (i) Accurately estimating the prevalence of obesity and its distribution by sociodemographic characteristics; (ii) Identifying ethnic, socioeconomic and behavioural determinants of obesity; (iii) Estimating the association between various anthropometric indicators or obesity and major cardiovascular risk factors and (iv) Quantifying the validity of standard definitions of the various indexes of obesity in Latin American population. To achieve these objectives, LASO makes use of individual data from existing studies. To date, the LASO consortium includes data from 11 studies from eight countries (Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Peru, Puerto Rico and Venezuela), including a total of 32 462 subjects. This article describes the overall organization of LASO, the individual studies involved and the overall strategy for data analysis. LASO will foster the development of collaborative obesity research among Latin American investigators. More important, results from LASO will be instrumental to inform health policies aiming to curtail the epidemic of obesity in the region.

Bautista, L. E.; Casas, J. P.; Herrera, V. M.; Miranda, J. J.; Perel, P.; Pichardo, R.; Gonzalez, A.; Sanchez, J. R.; Ferreccio, C.; Aguilera, X.; Silva, E.; Orostegui, M.; Gomez, L. F.; Chirinos, J. A.; Medina-Lezama, J.; Perez, C. M.; Suarez, E.; Ortiz, A. P.; Rosero, L.; Schapochnik, N.; Ortiz, Z.; Ferrante, D.

2009-01-01

68

The cost of Latin American science Introduction for the second issue of CBP-Latin America.  

PubMed

Latin American researchers in science and engineering (S&E), including those in biology and biomedical sciences, are frequently exposed to unstable conditions of financial support, material and human resources, and a limited number of positions at public and private institutions. Such uncertainties impose continuous challenges for the scientific community which, in the best of cases, responds with careful planning and creativity, and in the worst scenario endures the migration of scientists to the USA or Europe. Still, the number of scientific publications from Latin American institutions in the last decade increased at a much faster rate than publications from the USA and Canada. A brief analysis per country of the gross domestic product (GDP) spent in research and development (R&D) and the S&E production reported by the Pascal bibliographic database suggests that the number and quality of S&E publications is directly proportional to the financial support for R&D. However, the investment in R&D in Latin America did not increase at the same rate (from 0.49 to 0.55% of GDP, from 1990 to 2003) at which S&E publications did in the same period (2.9-fold increase, from 1988 to 2001). In Latin America, the traditional financial support for scientific research continues to be from federal and state government funds, associated in some cases with institutional funds that are mostly directed towards administrative costs and infrastructure maintenance. The aim of this introduction is to briefly discuss the production cost of articles published in refereed S&E journals, including the cost of the scientific research behind them, and, at the same time, to increase the awareness of the high quality of scientific research in Latin American institutions despite the many challenges, especially financial constraints, faced by their scientists. The second issue of Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology dedicated to Latin America ("The Face of Latin American Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology") celebrates, by means of 26 manuscripts from five countries, the diversity and quality of biological science in the continent. PMID:16962348

Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Beleboni, René Oliveira; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

2007-04-01

69

Latin American food sources of carotenoids.  

PubMed

Latin America has a wide variety of carotenogenic foods, notable for the diversity and high levels of carotenoids. A part of this natural wealth has been analyzed. Carrot, red palm oil and some cultivars of squash and pumpkin are sources of both beta-carotene and alpha-carotene. beta-carotene is the principal carotenoid of the palm fruits burití, tucumã and bocaiuva, other fruits such as loquat, marolo and West Indian cherry, and sweet potato. Buriti also has high amounts of alpha-carotene and gamma-carotene. beta-Cryptoxanthin is the major carotenoid in caja, nectarine, orange-fleshed papaya, orange, peach, tangerine and the tree tomato. Lycopene predominates in tomato, red-fleshed papaya, guava, pitanga and watermelon. Pitanga also has substantial amounts of beta-cryptoxanthin, gamma-carotene and rubixanthin. Zeaxanthin, principal carotenoid of corn, is also predominant only in piquí. delta-Carotene is the main carotenoid of the peach palm and zeta-carotene of passion fruit. Lutein and beta-carotene, in high concentrations, are encountered in the numerous leafy vegetables of the region, as well as in other green vegetables and in some varieties of squash and pumpkin. Violaxanthin is the principal carotenoid of mango and mamey and is also found in appreciable amounts in green vegetables. Quantitative, in some cases also qualitative, differences exist among cultivars of the same food. Generally, carotenoids are in greater concentrations in the peel than in the pulp, increase considerably during ripening and are in higher levels in foods produced in hot places. Other Latin America indigenous carotenogenic foods must be investigated before they are supplanted by introduced crops, which are often poorer sources of carotenoids. PMID:10971848

Rodriguez-Amaya, D B

1999-09-01

70

Biological And Cultural Diversity of a Latin American Country  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students conduct an 8 hour Annual Summit Meeting on the Cultural and Biological Diversity of a Latin American Country. Students construct a Rainforest in the school's Media Center, coffee and banana plantations in the hallway, and a street scene of a typical large city in a classroom. Students assume roles of native people or scientists and share information and ideas with formal presentation. Social interactions occur at coffee breaks, taste-testing luncheon, and games/dance finale.

Marianne Anderson (Pocatello High School REV)

1995-06-30

71

ECLAMC: The Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Definition: ECLAMC (‘Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformaciones Congénitas’) is a program for the clinical and epidemiological investigation of risk factors in the etiology of congenital anomalies in Latin-American hospitals, using a case-control methodological approach. It is a voluntary agreement among professionals lacking institutional base as well as designated budgets. ECLAMC has been usually funded by research-funding agencies rather than

Eduardo E. Castilla; Iêda M. Orioli

2004-01-01

72

Institutions and human development in the Latin American informal economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to assess the causes of the Informal Economy (IE) in Latin American countries. By including indicators\\u000a of institutional framework such as human development, marginal tax rate, public social spending, and unemployment rate in\\u000a panel regressions, we find empirical evidence that the institutional background is a key indicator of the size of the IE in

Roberto Dell’Anno

2010-01-01

73

Wildlife in the Everglades and Latin American Wetlands. Abstracts of the Proceedings of the First Everglades National Park Symposium. Held in Miami, February 25-March 1, 1985,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wildlife in the Everglades and Latin American Wetlands was sponsored by Everglades National Park, The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO, and Florida International University, FIU, The State University of Florida at M...

G. H. Dalrymple W. F. Loftus F. S. Bernardino

1988-01-01

74

Ceftaroline activity tested against contemporary Latin American bacterial pathogens (2011).  

PubMed

A total of 2484 target bacterial pathogens were collected (one per patient episode) from patients in 16 Latin American medical centers located in seven nations during 2011. Isolate identity was confirmed at a coordinating laboratory and susceptibility testing was performed for ceftaroline and comparator agents according to reference broth microdilution methods. A total of 30.0% of isolates were from respiratory tract, 29.4% from skin and skin structure, 21.4% from blood stream, 7.9% from urinary tract and 11.3% from other sites. Ceftaroline was active against Staphylococcus aureus (42.8% MRSA) with 83.6% of the isolates at ? 1 mg/L and all isolates at ? 2 mg/L (MIC5090, 0.25/2mg/L). National MRSA rates ranged from a low of 28.8% in Colombia to a high of 68.1% in Chile. All Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus agalactiae were susceptible to ceftaroline (MIC50/90 values were at ? 0.015/? 0.015 mg/L for both). All Streptococcus pneumoniae were susceptible to ceftaroline, linezolid, tigecycline and vancomycin. Susceptibility to ceftriaxone was at 88.4% (CLSI non-meningitis interpretive criteria) and 73.9% (CLSI meningitis interpretive criteria) for all S. pneumoniae. Ceftriaxone susceptibility was only at 33.3% (CLSI non-meningitis interpretive criteria) and 0.0% (CLSI meningitis interpretive criteria) for penicillin-intermediate (penicillin MIC, 4 mg/L) strains. All Haemophilus influenzae (29.4% ?-lactamase-positive) isolates were susceptible to ceftaroline, amoxicillin-clavulanate, ceftriaxone, and levofloxacin. For the Latin American region, the ESBL-phenotype rate was 37.6% for Escherichia coli and 53.3% for Klebsiella pneumoniae. Ceftaroline was not active against ESBL-phenotype strains but was active against >90.0% of the non-ESBL-phenotype. The spectrum of activity of ceftaroline against pathogens from Latin America indicates that it merits further study for its potential use in the Latin American region. PMID:24513484

Flamm, Robert K; Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N

2014-01-01

75

Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a comparative study of African Americans and Latin Americans.  

PubMed Central

This study compared the clinical and serologic features in two different ethnic groups of patients with childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). One hundred seventy-one SLE patients comprised the study population; 61 (55 girls and 6 boys) were African American with age at onset of 13 +/- 2.9 years, and 110 (97 girls and 13 boys) were Latin American (Colombian) with age at onset of 13 +/- 3.2 years. Clinical, demographic, and laboratory data were obtained by chart review using a standard data collection form. African-American patients more commonly manifested discoid skin lesions, malar rash, pulmonary fibrosis, and pleuritis, and less commonly manifested photosensitivity, livedo reticularis, and vascular thrombosis than did Latin Americans. In addition, there was a higher frequency of anti-dsDNA, anti-Sm, anti-RNP, and anti-Ro positivity among African-Americans compared with Latin-American patients. These results suggest the presence of ethnic differences in the clinical expression of SLE.

Gedalia, A.; Molina, J. F.; Molina, J.; Uribe, O.; Malagon, C.; Espinoza, L. R.

1999-01-01

76

Family Literacy Practices and Parental Involvement of Latin American Immigrant Mothers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws upon three years of interviews and participant observation research in the Chelsea Public Schools, to discuss the impact of the Chelsea Family Literacy Program on promoting Latin American immigrant mothers' involvement in their children's education. The authors present the voices of Latin American immigrant mothers who describe…

Rivera, Lorna; Lavan, Nicole

2012-01-01

77

PREFACE: XIX Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XIX)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume contains selected papers which have been presented at the XIX Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XIX) held at Puerto Iguazú, Argentina, from 5--10 October 2008. The conference, covering all areas of Solid State Physics, is one of the most important and traditional meetings in Physics in our region. The Latin American Symposium on Solid State

Adriana Serquis; Carlos Balseiro; Pablo Bolcatto

2009-01-01

78

Congenital Transmission of Chagas Disease in Latin American Immigrants in Switzerland  

PubMed Central

International migration has changed the epidemiologic patterns of Chagas disease. Recently, 2 cases of Chagas disease transmitted from Latin American women to their newborns were diagnosed in Geneva, Switzerland. A retrospective study to detect Chagas disease showed a prevalence of 9.7% among 72 Latin American women tested during pregnancy in Switzerland.

Myers, Catherine; Diana, Alessandro; Marti, Hans-Peter; Wolff, Hans; Chappuis, Francois; Loutan, Louis; Gervaix, Alain

2009-01-01

79

Congenital transmission of Chagas disease in Latin American immigrants in Switzerland.  

PubMed

International migration has changed the epidemiologic patterns of Chagas disease. Recently, 2 cases of Chagas disease transmitted from Latin American women to their newborns were diagnosed in Geneva, Switzerland. A retrospective study to detect Chagas disease showed a prevalence of 9.7% among 72 Latin American women tested during pregnancy in Switzerland. PMID:19331743

Jackson, Yves; Myers, Catherine; Diana, Alessandro; Marti, Hans Peter; Wolff, Hans; Chappuis, François; Loutan, Louis; Gervaix, Alain

2009-04-01

80

Clinical management of Helicobacter pylori: the Latin American perspective.  

PubMed

In most South American countries, Helicobacter pylori infection prevalence is high, affecting over 70% in populations with precarious living conditions. It is worth pointing out that there is initial evidence of a decline in prevalence of H. pylori infection at least in some more privileged fragments of the population. It is estimated that gastric cancer, the main clinical sequela of H. pylori infection, has an average incidence rate of 12.4 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (8.4 cases per 100,000 inhabitants for women and 17.3 cases per 100,000 for men) in the region. Classical triple therapy [proton pump inhibitor (PPI), amoxicillin and clarithromycin] is still the most used regimen with eradication rates around 80%. The rates of resistance to clarithromycin range from 2 to 24%. Recurrence rates of the infection are described as 2.9% in Argentina, 4.2% in Chile, 2-7% in Brazil, and 11.5% in a trial involving 7 Latin American countries. After failure of clarithromycin-containing regimens, second- and third-line therapies using PPI, amoxicillin and levofloxacin and quadruple therapy with PPI, colloidal bismuth subcitrate, tetracycline hydrochloride and metronidazole are recommended. Due to the high rates of primary resistance to metronidazole in the Latin American countries, use of the quadruple therapy, replacing metronidazole for furazolidone, is a frequent option. Rescue triple therapy regimens using furazolidone in association with levofloxacin and PPI have also been used. Most recommended rescue therapies reach eradication rates close to 80%. PMID:24732197

Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga; Coelho, Maria Clara

2014-01-01

81

Anaphylaxis in Latin America: a report of the online Latin American survey on anaphylaxis (OLASA)  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The aims of the Online Latin American Survey of Anaphylaxis (OLASA) were to identify the main clinical manifestations, triggers, and treatments of severe allergic reactions in patients who were seen by allergists from July 2008 to June 2010 in 15 Latin American countries and Portugal (n?=?634). RESULTS: Of all patients, 68.5% were older than 18 years, 41.6% were male, and 65.4% experienced the allergic reaction at home. The etiologic agent was identified in 87.4% of cases and predominantly consisted of drugs (31.2%), foods (23.3%), and insect stings (14.9%). The main symptom categories observed during the acute episodes were cutaneous (94.0%) and respiratory (79.0%). The majority of patients (71.6%) were treated initially by a physician (office/emergency room) within the first hour after the reaction occurred (60.2%), and 43.5% recovered in the first hour after treatment. Most patients were treated in an emergency setting, but only 37.3% received parenteral epinephrine alone or associated with other medication. However, 80.5% and 70.2% were treated with corticosteroids or antihistamines (alone or in association), respectively. A total of 12.9% of the patients underwent reanimation maneuvers, and 15.2% were hospitalized. Only 5.8% of the patients returned to the emergency room after discharge, with 21.7% returning in the first 6 hours after initial treatment. CONCLUSION: The main clinical manifestations of severe allergic reactions were cutaneous. The etiologic agents that were identified as causing these acute episodes differed according to age group. Following in order: drugs (31.2%), foods (23.3% and insect stings (14.9%) in adults with foods predominance in children. Treatment provided for acute anaphylactic reactions was not appropriate. It is necessary to improve educational programs in order to enhance the knowledge on this potentially fatal emergency.

Sole, Dirceu; Ivancevich, Juan Carlos; Borges, Mario Sanchez; Coelho, Magna Adaci; Rosario, Nelson A; Ardusso, Ledit Ramon Francisco; Bernd, Luis Antonio Guerra

2011-01-01

82

Alternative sexualities and changing sexual cultures among Latin American men.  

PubMed

The research on male homosexuality and alternative sexual cultures among Latin American men is one of the richest sources of data and cross-cultural analysis on sexuality, sexual identities and sexual communities anywhere in the world. New research includes not only an ongoing concern to describe the distinct contours of different social and cultural constructions of sexual identity (a concern that has been evident in this field for 3 decades), but also a concern to describe the complex process of social, cultural, economic and political change taking place in sexual cultures throughout the region. Numerous papers now document the dilemmas confronted--and the creative solutions that have been invented--by Latino American men in response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and the emerging struggles for sexual rights and sexual-determination that can now be seen emerging in major urban centers throughout the region. These papers demonstrate the limitations of the dominant North American models of behavior change in response to AIDS by carefully uncovering the culturally articulated worlds of intimacy and desire that such models ignore, pointing the way toward a culturally constituted prevention practice as the only possible route to health promotion--possibly among all marginalized and vulnerable populations. PMID:12322214

Parker, R; Caceres, C

1999-01-01

83

Stability and Change in Ethnic Labeling among Adolescents from Asian and Latin American Immigrant Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An important question for the acculturation of adolescents from immigrant families is whether they retain ethnic labels that refer to their national origin (e.g., Mexican, Chinese) or adopt labels that are dominant in American society (e.g., Latino, Asian American, American). Approximately 380 adolescents from Asian and Latin American immigrant…

Fuligni, Andrew J.; Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R.; Baldelomar, Oscar

2008-01-01

84

Is Spanish Pragmatic Instruction Necessary in the L2 Classroom If Latin American Speakers of Spanish Take on American English Pragmatic Norms Once Prolonged Exposure in the United States Occurs? A Study on Refusal Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As educators of foreign and second languages debate the most efficient methods of implementing pragmatic instruction in the L2 classroom, is it possible that Spanish pragmatic instruction is not necessary if American Spanish pragmatic norms are no different than American English norms? The present investigation studies the pragmatic norms in…

Bachelor, Jeremy W.; Hernandez, Lydia; Shively, Rachel L.

2012-01-01

85

United States Security Policy in Latin America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Honorable Lester B. Pearson, Prime Minister of Canada during the early 1960's, once described the experience of being a nation on the borders of the United States as like being in bed with an elephant no matter how friendly or well intentioned the ele...

S. R. Nichols H. J. Wiarda

1993-01-01

86

Institutions and the Historical Roots of Latin American Divergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this essay we analyze the relation between long-term growth and institutional development. Relative backwardness has been a constant feature of the history of Latin America. In the wake of Independence the gap between Latin America and the industrializing world was already wide and widened during the first decades after Independence. While Latin America resumed growth after the 1870s, the

Luis Bértola

2010-01-01

87

PREFACE: XI Latin American Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The XI Latin American Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena (LAWNP) has been held in Búzios-RJ, Brazil, from 5-9 October 2009. This international conference is one in a series that have gathered biennially, over the past 21 years, physicists and other scientists who direct their work towards several aspects of nonlinear phenomena and complex systems. The main purpose of LAWNP meetings is to create a friendly and motivating environment, such that researchers from Latin America and from other parts of the globe can discuss not only their own latest results but also the trends and perspectives in this very interdisciplinary field of investigation. Hence, it constitutes a forum for promoting scientific collaboration and fomenting the emergence of new ideas, helping to advance the field. The XI edition (LAWNP'09) has gathered more than 230 scientists and students (most from Latin America), covering all of the world (27 different countries from North and South America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania). In total there were 18 plenary lectures, 80 parallel talks, and 140 poster contributions. A stimulating round-table discussion also took place devoted to the present and future of the Latin American Institutions in Complex Phenomena (a summary can be found at http://lawnp09.fis.puc-rio.br, in the Round-Table report link). The 2009 workshop was devoted to a wide scope of themes and points of view, pursuing to include the latest trends and developments in the science of nonlinearity. In this way, we have a great pleasure in publishing this Proceedings volume based on the high quality scientific works presented at LAWNP'09, covering already established methods as well as new approaches, discussing both theoretical and practical aspects, and addressing paradigmatic systems and also completely new problems, in nonlinearity and complexity. In fact, the present volume may be a very valuable reference for those interested in an overview on how nonlinear interactions can affect different phenomena in nature, addressing: classical and quantum chaos; instability and bifurcation; cooperative behavior; self-organization; pattern formation and synchronization; far-from-equilibrium and fluctuation dynamics; nonlinearity in fluid, plasmas, granular media, optics, and wave propagation; turbulence onset; and complexity in natural and social systems. The success of the conference was possible thanks to the financial support from many agencies, especially the Brazilian agencies Capes and CNPq, and the international agencies, Binational Itaupú, ICTP-Trieste, and CAIS-Albuquerque. Equally very important was the support by the organizer's institutions PUC-Rio de Janeiro and UFPR-Curitiba. We also must thank Journal of Physics: Conference Series, for believing in the success and scientific quality of the conference, and to the journal staff, specially Anete Ashton, for the kind and prompt help during the whole production process of this publication. Finally, and most important, we acknowledge all the participants of the LAWNP'09, whose interest and enthusiasm in advancing the science of nonlinearity constitutes the true moto making the present Proceedings a very valuable scientific contribution. Celia Anteneodo (PUC-Rio, Brazil) and Marcos G E da Luz (UFPR-Curitiba, Brazil) Conference Chairs Conference photograph Some of the conference participants. CAPES logo This issue was supported by CAPES (Agency for Evaluation and Support of Graduate Studies Programs), Brazilian govern entity devoted to the formation of human resources. CA would like to thank CAPES for financial support.

Anteneodo, Celia; da Luz, Marcos G. E.

2010-09-01

88

Special Article Situational study of seven Latin-American pulmonology journals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To characterize the situation of pulmonology journals published in Latin America. Methods: A survey was conducted in a meeting sponsored by the Latin American Thoracic Society. Each journal editor presented a report and answered a questionnaire. Results: Improving information acquisition is the main motivation for pulmonology societies to edit their own journals, whereas disseminating medical knowledge and reporting experiences

Manuel Oyarzún Gómez; Alejandra Ramírez Venegas; Adalberto Agüero Fernández; José Antônio Baddini Martínez; Mary Bermúdez Gómez; Jorge O. Cáneva; Jaime E. Morales Blandir; Rogelio Pérez-Padilla

2007-01-01

89

Latin American Universities: From an Original Revolution to an Uncertain Transition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to discuss the prospects of Latin American public universities. Its main assertion is that universities could become important actors of development in Latin America, but prevailing trends point in another direction. The paper focuses on the interactions between, on the one hand, specific traditions and social contexts,…

Arocena, Rodrigo; Sutz, Judith

2005-01-01

90

PREFACE: First Latin-American Conference on Bioimpedance (CLABIO 2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past decade has witnessed an unprecedented growth in medical technologies and a new generation of diagnostics, characterized by mobility, virtualization, homecare and costs. The ever growing demand and the rapid need for low cost tools for characterizing human tissue, and supporting intelligence and technologies for non-invasive tissue cancer investigation raise unique and evolving opportunities for research in Electrical Bioimpedance. The CLABIO2012 - First Latin American Conference on Bioimpedance is a premier Latin-American conference on Bioimpedance for research groups working on Electrical Bioimpedance. It allows Latin American researchers to share their experiences with other groups from all over the world by presenting scientific work and potential innovations in this research area and also in the social events promoting informal get togethers in the Brazilian style. The work covers a broad range including Biomedical Engineering and Computing, Medical Physics and Medical Sciences, Environment, Biology and Chemistry. Also, the Conference is intended to give students and research groups the opportunity to learn more about Bioimpedance as an important tool in biological material characterization and also in diagnosis. The conference is designed to showcase cutting edge research and accomplishments, and to enrich the educational and industrial experience in this field. It also represents a unique opportunity to meet colleagues and friends, exchanging ideas, and learning about new developments and best practice, while working to advance the understanding of the knowledge base that we will collectively draw upon in the years ahead to meet future challenges. Participants will attend presentations by scholars representing both institutes and academia. The CLABIO2012 proceedings include over 25 papers selected via a peer review process. The conference program features tutorial talks by world-leading scholars and five sessions for regular paper oral presentations. In making this conference possible, we want to acknowledge our deep appreciation for the financial support of FAPESC (Foundation for Research and Innovation of Santa Catarina), CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level -or Education- Personnel) and also express our sincere thanks to the many individuals who contributed their time and diligence to making this conference possible. Our special thanks go to the Santa Catarina State University for contributing time and effort to organizing the conference. We also wish to express our thanks to Professors Ana Watanabe and Fabricio Noveletto for helping with the registration process, the conference desk and the diverse and sundry details that are the part of any event of this kind. We would like also to thank all of the invited speakers and the members of the Program Committee, and wopuld like to express our gratitude to the Technological Institute of Joinville (FITEJ) for their technical co-sponsorship. We very much appreciate Orjan Martinsen, Uwe Pliquett, Fernando Martinez Seoane, Raul Gonzalez Lima, Marcio Nogueira de Souza and Carlos Augusto Gonzalez Correa for delivering keynote talks at the conference. And we would like to extend an enthusiastic round of thanks to all of our conference authors for their excellent contributions; to all the session chairs for their effort and enthusiasm; and to all the International Program Committee members and referees for their time and expertise in the paper review. Particular thanks go to Emiliano Amarante Veiga and other members of the CLABIO2012 Secretariat and organizing team for their time and outstanding work. List of committees General Chair Professor Pedro Bertemes Filho (Santa Catarina State University) Pedro Bertemes Filho Technical Program Chairs Dr Marcio Nogueira de Souza (Rio de Janeiro Federal University) Local Arrangement Chair Professor Aleksander Paterno (Santa Catarina State University) Professor Fabrício Noveletto (Santa Catarina State University) Finance Chairman Professor Nilson Campos (Santa Catarina State University) Marketing & Corp

Bertemes Filho, Pedro

2012-12-01

91

Latin America: A Filmic Approach. Latin American Studies Program, Film Series No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes a university course designed to provide an historical understanding of Latin America through feature films. The booklet contains an introductory essay on the teaching of a film course on Latin America, a general discussion of strengths and weaknesses of student analyses of films, and nine analyses written by students during…

Campbell, Leon G.; And Others

92

The Latin American cohabitation boom, 1970–2007.  

PubMed

The article describes the rise of unmarried cohabitation in Latin American countries during the last 30 years of the twentieth century, both at the national and regional levels. It documents that this major increase occurred in regions with and without traditional forms of cohabitation alike. In addition, the striking degree of catching up of cohabitation among the better-educated population segments is illustrated. The connections between these trends and economic (periods of high inflation) and cultural (reduction of stigmas in ethical domains) factors are discussed. The conclusion is that the periods of inflation and hyperinflation may have been general catalysts, but no clear indications of correlation were found between such economic factors and the rise in cohabitation. The shift toward more tolerance for hitherto stigmatized forms of conduct (e.g., homosexuality, euthanasia, abortion, singleparent household) is in line with the rise of cohabitation in regions of Argentina, Chile, and Brazil where cohabitation used to be uncommon. Further rises in cohabitation during the first decade of the twenty-first century are expected in a number of countries (e.g., mexico) despite conditions of much lower inflation. PMID:22833864

Esteve, Albert; Lesthaeghe, Ron; López-Gay, Antonio

2012-01-01

93

The later evolution of modern sport in Latin America: the North American influence.  

PubMed

American impact on modern sports in Latin America overlaps geographically and chronologically with the European, especially British, impact. Principally baseball in the Caribbean basin, more recently basketball and volleyball across the hemisphere and occasionally American football in more limited areas illustrate a north-to-south movement executed by businessmen, educators, missionaries, military personnel, returning travelers (often students), sports entrepreneurs and television. Often initially supported by promoters of development within Latin America, this transfer has altered local recreational patterns and attracted Latin athletes to pursue careers in North America, provoking accusations of cultural imperialism and exploitation. PMID:18592684

Arbena, J L

2001-01-01

94

Climate Change and Climate Variability in the Latin American Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past three decades LA was subjected to several climate-related impacts due to increased El Niño occurrences. Two extremely intense episodes of El Niño and other increased climate extremes happened during this period contributing greatly to augment the vulnerability of human systems to natural disasters. In addition to weather and climate, the main drivers of the increased vulnerability are demographic pressure, unregulated urban growth, poverty and rural migration, low investment in infrastructure and services, and problems in inter-sector coordination. As well, increases in temperature and increases/decreases in precipitation observed during the last part of 20th century have yet led to intensification of glaciers melting, increases in floods/droughts and forest fires frequency, increases in morbidity and mortality, increases in plant diseases incidence; lost of biodiversity, reduction in dairy cattle production, and problems with hydropower generation, highly affecting LA human system. For the end of the 21st century, the projected mean warming for LA ranges from 1 to 7.5ºC and the frequency of weather and climate extremes could increase. Additionally, deforestation is projected to continue leading to a reduction of 25 percent in Amazonia forest in 2020 and 40 percent in 2050. Soybeans planted area in South America could increase by 55 percent by 2020 enhancing aridity/desertification in many of the already water- stressed regions. By 2050 LA population is likely to be 50 percent larger than in 2000, and migration from the country sides to the cities will continue. In the near future, these predicted changes are very likely to severely affect a number of ecosystems and sectors distribution; b) Disappearing most tropical glaciers; c) Reducing water availability and hydropower generation; d) Increasing desertification and aridity; e) Severely affecting people, resources and economic activities in coastal areas; f) Increasing crop's pests and diseases; and g) Changing some human diseases distribution and provoking the emergence of new ones. The impact of climate change in Latin America's productive sectors is estimated to be of a 1.3 percent reduction of the region's GDP for a change of 2ºC in global temperature (without consider non market sectors and extremes events). Moreover, if the LA countries continue to follow the business as usual scenario, the wealth of natural resources that have supported economic and socio-cultural development in the region will be further degraded, reducing the regional potential for growth. Urgent measures must be taken to help bring environmental and social considerations from the margins to the decision-making and development strategies. This presentation is part of the revision done for the Latin American (LA) chapter under the IPCC WGII Fourth Assessment Report.

Magrin, G. O.; Gay Garcia, C.; Cruz Choque, D.; Gimenez-Sal, J. C.; Moreno, A. R.; Nagy, G. J.; Nobre, C.; Villamizar, A.

2007-05-01

95

Teaching about Women and Underdevelopment in Latin American History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latin America, the most advanced of the underdeveloped regions of the world, is a perfect showcase for exploring the contradictions that come into play when the historical construction of gender clashes with economic practice. The history of modern Latin America shows that economic development can actually work to the detriment of women. The most…

Pino, Julio Cesar

2001-01-01

96

The Latin American University: Facing the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of essays examines the status of higher education in Latin America and the Caribbean, focusing on historical trends, the administration of universities, and the influence of higher education on the greater society. It reviews the evolution of universities in the area during the 20th century, highlighting the emergence of Latin

Albornoz, Orlando

97

Latin America's \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses past trade trends and agricultural protectionism in Latin American agriculture, by examining observed changes in Latin American agriculture and trade policies over the last 20 years that have led to what the authors call the \\

Alberto Valdes; William E. Foster

2006-01-01

98

Science in Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief history of science and technology in Latin America that begins with the Mayan civilization and progresses through the colonial period to the present. Compares increased scientific productivity in the Latin American and Caribbean regions to productivity in the United States and European Union. (LZ)

Ayala, Francisco J.

1995-01-01

99

The Status of Environmental Education in Latin American Middle and High Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigated the status of environmental education (EE) in private American and international middle and high schools throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. The study population consisted of all 50 dues-paying member schools in the Association of American Schools of Central America, Columbia-Caribbean, and Mexico (the…

Cronin-Jones, Linda; Penwell, Rebecca; Hakverdi, Meral; Cline, Shannon; Johnson, Courtney; Scales, Ingrid

100

Participant Interaction in a Latin American Online Leadership Training Course. INDES Working Paper Series. I-61  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper draws on current research and analyzes participant interactions in a 12-week leadership online training course with students from 14 Latin American countries. The paper systematizes the experience of the Inter-American Institute for Social Development (INDES) and constitutes a case study of an experience in a regional, non-academic…

Contreras, Manuel E.; Dolan, Mary

2006-01-01

101

Constitutional Prospects for the Implementation of Funding and Governance Reforms in Latin American Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rationale for comprehensive reform of Latin American higher education crystallized in the mid-1990s in policy documents published by the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank. This "Washington consensus" of the multilateral banks advocated, among other measures, greater reliance on private sources of funding, increased…

Bernasconi, Andres

2007-01-01

102

Latin American Symposium on Mineral Nutrition Research with Grazing Ruminants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Included in the report are 27 reports on basic knowledge, methodology, and recent findings relating to mineral deficiencies and toxicities in Latin America. The papers summarize current information about the mineral elements which influence productivity o...

J. H. Conrad L. R. McDowell

1978-01-01

103

Latin American Economies: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly  

Microsoft Academic Search

uring the 1990s, many important things changed for the better in Latin Amer- ica. Inflation reached a 50-year low, and economic growth replaced the pro- longed economic stagnation that at times seemed chronic. Financial crashes that once created decade-long debacles now last just a year or two. Commerce among countries in Latin America boomed from less than one-fifth of the

Moisés Naím; Carlos Lozada

104

The Impact of the Internet in Six Latin American Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to the Internet has grown exponentially in Latin America over the past decade. The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) estimates that in 2009 there were 144.5 million Internet users in South America, 6.4 million in Central America, and 8.2 million in the Caribbean, or a total 159.2 million users in all of Latin America.1 At that time, ITU reported an

PradoPaola

2011-01-01

105

Latin America: Sights and Sounds; A Guide to Motion Pictures and Music for College Courses. Consortium of Latin American Studies Programs: Publication No. 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first section of this guide discusses topics such as the methods used to select educational films, their quality, the uses and values of films in the college classroom. After a brief section covering how to use the guide, 65 films that deal with Latin America and are recommended for use in conjunction with college courses in Latin American

Loy, Jane M.

106

Primary immunodeficiency diseases in Latin America: proceedings of the Second Latin American Society for Immunodeficiencies (LASID) Advisory Board.  

PubMed

Early diagnosis and appropriate therapy are essential for the best prognosis and quality of life in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs). Experts from several Latin American countries have been meeting on a regular basis as part of an ongoing effort to improve the diagnosis and treatment of PIDD in this region. Three programmes are in development that will expand education and training and improve access to testing facilities throughout Latin America. These programmes are: an educational outreach programme (The L-Project); an immunology fellowship programme; and the establishment of a laboratory network to expand access to testing facilities. This report provides the status of these programmes based on the most recent discussions and describes the next steps toward full implementation of these programmes. PMID:21345576

Leiva, L E; Bezrodnik, L; Oleastro, M; Condino-Neto, A; Costa-Carvalho, B T; Grumach, A Sevciovic; Espinosa-Rosales, F J; Franco, J Luis; King, A; Inostroza, J; Quezada, A; Porras, O; Sorensen, R U

2011-01-01

107

Advancing the management of primary immunodeficiency diseases in Latin America: Latin American Society for Immunodeficiencies (LASID) Initiatives.  

PubMed

Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDD) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and result in a significant public health burden. This is in part due to the lack of appropriate diagnosis and treatment of these patients. It is critical that governments become aware of this problem and provide necessary resources to reduce this impact on health care systems. Leading physicians in their respective countries must be supported by their own governments in order to implement tools and provide education and thus improve the diagnosis and treatment of PIDD. The Latin American Society of Primary Immunodeficiencies (LASID) has initiated a large number of activities aimed at achieving these goals, including the establishment of a PIDD registry, development of educational programmes and guidelines, and the introduction of a PIDD fellowship programme. These initiatives are positively impacting the identification and appropriate treatment of patients with PIDD in Latin America. Nevertheless, much remains to be done to ensure that every person with PIDD receives proper therapy. PMID:22445276

Condino-Neto, A; Franco, J L; Espinosa-Rosales, F J; Leiva, L E; King, A; Porras, O; Oleastro, M; Bezrodnik, L; Grumach, A S; Costa-Carvalho, B T; Sorensen, R U

2012-01-01

108

"Looking at the world through women's eyes": Latin Americans at Beijing.  

PubMed

This news article discusses the perspective brought by Latin American women to the women's conference held in Beijing in 1995. One major accomplishment was the inclusion of Caribbean women into the regional Latin American exhibition space and the regional gatherings. The Latin American conference space was used to present regional exhibits, music and dance performances, theater productions, and messages from country delegates. The official government conference included the well-organized advocacy efforts among Latin American delegates. This accomplishment reflected the improvement in skills among delegates since the Mar del Plata meetings. The nongovernmental organization (NGO) conference had some serious transportation difficulties due to its location in Huairou, 35 miles north of Beijing. The distance exhausted participants and reduced the NGO forum impact on the official conference. Participants at the NGO conference also were restricted in their freedom of movement by the Chinese Organizing Committee. There was insufficient infrastructure for handling planned plenary sessions, lack of access for the disabled, harassment of certain special interest groups, and obstruction of meetings in hotels. Secret searches were conducted by Chinese officials in delegates' hotel rooms. Non-English speakers were able to participate only in large plenary sessions and selected workshops. Non-Spanish speaking Latin Americans walked out of Latin American events held in Spanish. Women were also frustrated that views strongly articulated on the plenary floor were excluded from the Plan of Action and from press coverage. To be successful, plans for the post-Beijing period must account for the diversity of women's groups. PMID:12291720

Farmelo, M

1996-01-01

109

An American Genocide: A Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents methods for motivating, developing, and applying a lesson on genocide as it relates to the American Indian. Argues that according to the United Nations Genocide Convention, the U.S. government's actions toward the Indians constitute genocide. Includes a list of quotations pertinent to the subject which can be used as a student handout.…

Lankiewicz, Donald

1987-01-01

110

International training programs in reproductive sciences for conservation of Latin American felids.  

PubMed

Survival of the ten non-domestic felid species endemic to Latin America is imperiled by habitat loss, poaching and poor captive management. Over the past 10 years, conservation of these felids has been the primary focus of a reproductive research and training program conducted in Brazil, Mexico, and the USA. The objectives of this program were to: (1) provide intensive training in reproductive sciences to Latin American scientists, (2) conduct collaborative studies investigating basic and applied reproduction in endangered felids, and (3) establish a highly-trained scientific cohort to conduct independent conservation-based research. Four formal training courses, consisting of didactic lectures and hands-on instruction in research techniques, including semen collection, sperm cryopreservation and laparoscopic artificial insemination (AI), were taught in Brazil and Mexico between 1995 and 1998. Several of these scientists received further training in conducting fecal hormone analysis in the USA, and a number of research studies, many in collaboration with American scientists, were initiated in Latin American felids. Research findings have characterized basal reproductive traits in several felid species, including ocelots, margay, tigrinas and jaguars, and established that Latin American felids exhibit only minimal seasonal variation in most reproductive traits. Other studies have explored the impact of acute and chronic stressors on adrenocortical activity and demonstrated the importance of environmental enrichment in captivity, especially in small felids. Additional research has examined ovarian and immunological responsiveness of Latin American felids to exogenous gonadotropins and assessed the impact of nutrition on sperm production and oocyte quality. Applied reproductive studies have investigated sperm cryopreservation in both captive and wild felid populations and demonstrated the production of viable offspring in ocelots and tigrinas following laparoscopic AI. Ongoing studies are investigating the potential of in vitro fertilization (IVF), embryo cryopreservation and embryo transfer for genetic management of ocelots and tigrinas. To date, over 75 Brazilian ocelot and 50 tigrina IVF embryos have been cryopreserved and two pregnancies have been established in ocelots following transfer of frozen-thawed embryos. Findings from these studies are helping to improve husbandry, population management, and breeding of Latin American felids in captivity. Continued advances in assisted reproduction eventually may provide an alternative route for exchanging genetic material among Latin American felid populations. Most importantly, this collaborative program has been essential for building scientific capacity, within Brazil and Mexico, in establishing a core group of highly-trained reproductive biologists that will continue applying their new knowledge and skills to the conservation of Latin American felids. PMID:15271441

Swanson, W F; Brown, J L

2004-07-01

111

Training Seminar for Latin American Population Librarians. Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation of the seminar by its 27 participants indicated that it had largely achieved its objective of training staff members of population/family planning libraries in Latin America in basic population librarian skills. In addition, activities were initiated leading to the formation of the Interamerican Association of Information Centers in…

Inter-American Center for Training in Communication for Population/Family Planning, San Jose (Costa Rica).

112

Income and beyond: Multidimensional Poverty in Six Latin American Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper studies multidimensional poverty for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, El Salvador, Mexico and Uruguay for the period 1992-2006. The approach overcomes the limitations of the two traditional methods of poverty analysis in Latin America (income-based and unmet basic needs) by combining income with five other dimensions: school attendance for…

Battiston, Diego; Cruces, Guillermo; Lopez-Calva, Luis Felipe; Lugo, Maria Ana; Santos, Maria Emma

2013-01-01

113

School and Teacher Performance Incentives: The Latin American Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses performance evaluation and the introduction of incentives into education in Latin America from an analytical and methodological perspective. The aim is to describe ongoing strategies and learn from practical experiences in this field. The cases analyzed reveal that school-level evaluations and collective incentives adapt…

Mizala, Alejandra; Romaguera, Pilar

2004-01-01

114

Repeating: An Overlooked Problem of Latin American Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Typically, the cause of the low rate of retention in primary schools in Latin America is assumed to be socioeconomic. This paper attempted to show that this definition of retention is incorrect, that desertion is highly over-estimated, and that the root cause of low retention in primary education is repetition. (Author/RK)

Schiefelbein, Ernesto

1975-01-01

115

Stereotypes and Beliefs about Different Ethnic Groups in Spain: A Study with Spanish and Latin American Children Living in Madrid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

96 Spanish and Latin American children from 3 grades in Madrid reported their knowledge of positive and negative stereotypes regarding Spaniards, Gypsies, Latin American and Chinese people. Their personal beliefs about these four ethnic groups were also assessed. Stereotypes about Spaniards were perceived as overwhelmingly positive and least…

Enesco, Ileana; Navarro, Alejandra; Paradela, Isabel; Guerrero, Silvia

2005-01-01

116

Length of Residence, Cultural Adjustment Difficulties, and Psychological Distress Symptoms in Asian and Latin American International College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study examined cultural adjustment and psychological distress issues in Asian and Latin American international college students. Findings revealed Latin American students reported higher levels of psychological distress than their Asian peers. Length of residence in U.S. was negatively associated with psychological distress symptoms, and…

Wilton, Leo; Constantine, Madonna G.

2003-01-01

117

Status of Proposed Repository for Latin-American Spent Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report compiles preliminary information that supports the premise that a repository is needed in Latin America and analyzes the nuclear situation (mainly in Argentina and Brazil) in terms of nuclear capabilities, inventories, and regional spent-fuel repositories. The report is based on several sources and summarizes (1) the nuclear capabilities in Latin America and establishes the framework for the need of a permanent repository, (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) approach for a regional spent-fuel repository and describes the support that international institutions are lending to this issue, (3) the current situation in Argentina in order to analyze the Argentinean willingness to find a location for a deep geological repository, and (4) the issues involved in selecting a location for the repository and identifies a potential location. This report then draws conclusions based on an analysis of this information. The focus of this report is mainly on spent fuel and does not elaborate on other radiological waste sources.

Ferrada, J.J.

2004-10-04

118

Chagas disease: a Latin American health problem becoming a world health problem.  

PubMed

Political repression and/or economic stagnation stimulated the flow of migration from the 17 Latin American countries endemic for Chagas disease to developed countries. Because of this migration, Chagas disease, an autochthonous disease of the Continental Western Hemisphere is becoming a global health problem. In 2006, 3.8% of the 80,522 immigrants from those 17 countries to Australia were likely infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. In Canada in 2006, 3.5% of the 156,960 immigrants from Latin America whose country of origin was identified were estimated to have been infected. In Japan in 2007, there were 80,912 immigrants from Brazil, 15,281 from Peru, and 19,413 from other South American countries whose country of origin was not identified, a portion of whom may have been also infected. In 15 countries of Europe in 2005, excluding Spain, 2.9% of the 483,074 legal Latin American immigrants were estimated to be infected with T. cruzi. By 2008, Spain had received 1,678,711 immigrants from Latin American endemic countries; of these, 5.2% were potentially infected with T. cruzi and 17,390 may develop Chagas disease. Further, it was estimated that 24-92 newborns delivered by South American T. cruzi infected mothers in Spain may have been congenitally infected with T. cruzi in 2007. In the USA we estimated that 1.9% of approximately 13 million Latin American immigrants in 2000, and 2% of 17 million in 2007, were potentially infected with T. cruzi. Of these, 49,157 and 65,133 in 2000 and 2007 respectively, may have or may develop symptoms and signs of chronic Chagas disease. Governments should implement policies to prevent donations of blood and organs from T. cruzi infected donors. In addition, an infrastructure that assures detection and treatment of acute and chronic cases as well as congenital infection should be developed. PMID:19932071

Schmunis, Gabriel A; Yadon, Zaida E

2010-01-01

119

Problems and Prospects of Introducing Latin American Studies into the Community and Junior College Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These papers represent a general discussion of the problems and prospects for teaching Latin American Studies in two-year colleges. More broadly, they highlight the difficulties of introducing any sort of intercultural dimension into the two-year college curriculum. Sheila Tesar discusses the constraints of state regulations and student attitudes…

Glab, Edward, Jr., Comp.

120

The Latin American experience in pension system reform: Coverage, fiscal issues and possible implications for China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past two decades, Latin American countries reformed their pension systems focusing mainly on addressing the weaknesses of the contributory schemes - fiscal unsustainability, low coverage levels and a high degree of segmentation- and barely addressed the non-contributory element. The reform experiences show however that the intended reforms did not manage to meet their objectives. Firstly, to this day,

Daniel Titelman; Cecilia Vera; Esteban Perez Caldentey

2008-01-01

121

Financial Markets and Politics: The Confidence Game in Latin American Emerging Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the interactions between politics and financial markets in emerging economies. More precisely, it examines how Wall Street reacts to major Latin American political events. The case study focuses on the 2002 Brazilian presidential elections. The first section of the article provides a critical review of the available literature. The second section presents an empirical study of

Juan Martínez; Javier Santiso

2003-01-01

122

U.S.: Latin American Relations Beyond Cuba, Panama, Nicaragua and El Salvador.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis of future problems in US Latin American relations is pursued by focusing in the foreign policy objectives of US diplomacy. Primarily the problems of the ten countries of South America are considered since it is felt by the author that those of...

J. Swett

1989-01-01

123

Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Public Places in Guatemala: Comparison with other Latin American Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To measure secondhand smoke levels in workplaces in Guatemala and to compare exposure to levels in other Latin American cities. Methods: Exposure was estimated by passive sampling of vapor phase nicotine using a filter badge. Filters were placed in 1 hospital, 1 school, 2 universities, 1 government building, the airport, and 10 restaurants\\/ bars. In total, 103 filters were

Joaquin Barnoya; Carlos Mendoza-Montano; Ana Navas-Acien

124

Comparing Work-Life Balance in Spanish and Latin-American Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to determine the level of awareness and implementation of family-responsible parameters: policies, enablers, practices, and culture, in Spanish and Latin-American companies, and how they impact work-life balance. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses data from different national IESE's Family-Responsible Employer…

Carlier, Sandra Idrovo; Llorente, Consuelo Leon; Grau, Marc Grau

2012-01-01

125

Teacher Perceptions Regarding the Status of Environmental Education in Latin American Elementary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research, commissioned by the U.S. Department of State, Office of Overseas Schools, was designed to determine the status of environmental education in private U.S. and international elementary schools throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. The study population consisted of all 50 dues-paying member schools in the Association of American

Penwell, Rebecca; Cronin-Jones, Linda; Hakverdi, Meral; Cline, Shannon; Johnson, Courtney

126

Engaging Language and Cultural Spaces: Latin American Parents' Reflections on Language Loss and Maintenance in Vancouver  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study aims to explore the loss and maintenance of Spanish in Latin American children in Vancouver from the perspective of parents. It focuses on the experiences of children either developing bilingually (Spanish-English) or monolingually (English). The participating families were from Colombia, Guatemala, and El Salvador, and had…

Guardado, Martin

2006-01-01

127

Women Academic Leaders in a Latin American University: Reconciling the Paradoxes of Professional Lives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 18 female academic leaders at the University of Costa Rica investigated factors in the women's professional success, career paths and obstacles, and the role of Latin American and institutional culture in their professional choices and lives. Results suggest an alternative to traditional Western theory of women's careers, focusing on…

Twombly, Susan B.

1998-01-01

128

Citizenship Learning and Political Participation: The Case of Latin American-Canadians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the informal learning processes and the changes in the values of a group of 200 Latin American immigrants to Canada. Results show that the majority of the respondents underwent at least one political or civic learning process, like increasing tolerance or environmental responsibility. The findings also suggest a number of…

Ginieniewicz, Jorge

2008-01-01

129

Basic Elements To Reflect on the Quality of Education in the Latin American Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extremely high failure rates in primary education, negative international comparisons, and extremely limited access to computers are some of the factors that suggest serious problems in Latin American education. There is no evidence that a suitable model is being used to reflect on the quality of education in these countries. Many isolated actions…

Schiefelbein, Ernesto

130

The impact of remittances on poverty and human capital : evidence from Latin American household surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the impact of remittances on poverty, education, and health in 11 Latin American countries using nationally representative household surveys and making an explicit attempt to account for one of the inherent costs associated with migration-the potential income that the migrant may have made at home. The main findings of the study are the following: (1) regardless of

J. Humberto Lopez; Pablo Fajnzylber; Pablo Acosta

2007-01-01

131

Against the tide—currency use among Latin American immigrants in Chicago  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the U.S. continues to transition away from cash toward electronic payment methods, some population segments continue to rely heavily on cash. In this study of foreign-born Latin Americans in Chicago, the authors find that the dramatic increase in the number of immigrants is supporting a growing demand for currency, notably in the $100 denomination.

Carrie Jankowski; Richard D. Porter; Tara Rice

2007-01-01

132

No Tours beyond This Point: From Service to Civic Learning in Latin American Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the design and implementation of a new course in Latin American Studies that sought to integrate traditional elements of undergraduate education with a more progressive pedagogical approach stressing experiential applications of classroom education. Civic engagement seemed particularly well suited to the course because of…

Bromberg, Shelly Jarrett

2008-01-01

133

Language Arts Activities and Resources Related to Latin-American Culture for Grades 3-6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Resources from various subject areas are organized in one publication for use by teachers in elementary schools having a considerable enrollment of children who are Spanish speaking and of Latin American descent. The general purpose of the learning experiences described is to help children achieve in the areas of oral communication skills,…

Detroit Public Schools, MI.

134

An Introduction to Latin American and Carribean Musics in Florida: Multicultural Approaches in the Music Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of Florida's rapidly growing ethnic populations, public school teachers of music and other disciplines in the humanities and fine arts in Florida must assess and adjust their curricula to include Latin American and Caribbean music and cultures in their programs. This will give curricular representation to a large percentage of Florida's…

Olsen, Dale A.

135

Latin American debt, the IMF, and Adam Smith: A proposal for ethical reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the role of the IMF orthodox paradigm, and the value system upon which it rests, in the Latin American debt crisis. We conclude that the IMF orthodoxy is an inappropriate basis for international transactions because of the a priori utilitarian value assumptions on which it is based. Furthermore, those value premises have hardened into a narrow and inflexible

Gary M. Woller; David Kirkwood Hart

1995-01-01

136

Adult Education as a Human Right: The Latin American Context and the Ecopedagogic Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well…

Gadotti, Moacir

2011-01-01

137

Film as Revolutionary Weapon: A Pedagogical Analysis. Latin American Studies Program, Film Series No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a university course designed to examine the use of film as a revolutionary medium in Latin American countries. Objectives of the course were to illustrate the complexity of studying a film genre, develop an analytical framework for comparing revolutionary films, and encourage students to reach their own conclusions about the…

California Univ., Riverside. Latin American Studies Program.

138

Integrating Uneven Partners: the Destabilizing Effects of Financial Liberalization and Internationalization of Latin American Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last two decades financial integration between Latin American economies and mature economies has been significant and traumatic, as it has been highly associated with macroeconomic instability, poor growth performance and often with domestic financial crises. Some analysts have blamed the volatility of capital flows for such perverse association, while others (mainly mainstream economists) center their criticisms on the

Rogério Studart

2001-01-01

139

Exploring Two Inflationary Regimes in Latin-American Economies:. a Binary Time Series Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to apply the methods of Symbolic Time Series Analysis (STSA) to a series of inflation from a group of Latin-American economies. Starting with a partition of two inflation regimes, we use data symbolization for identifying temporal patterns. Afterwards the statistical information obtained from the patterns is used to estimate the parameters of a nonlinear

Juan Gabriel Brida; Nicolas Garrido

2006-01-01

140

Sowing strategic alliances in the Americas : The sinicization of Latin American economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of increasing trade and investment relations between China and Latin American economies. The paper focuses on the threats and opportunities that permeate this relationship. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper surveys existing literature and secondary data in Spanish, Portuguese, and in English to investigate the different ramifications of this dynamic

Raul Gouvea; Sul Kassicieh

2009-01-01

141

Probability of Current Account Reversals in Argentina and other Latin American Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The cumulative effect of selected shocks on the probability of a Current Account Reversal is measured as a quantification of the external vulnerability of Latin American economies. In the framework of the intertemporal approach the explanation of reversals in the LACs is focused on external solvency as the restrictive determinant of the threshold of overborrowing -in contrast with perspectives

Sergio V. Barone; Ricardo Descalzi; Alberto M. Díaz Cafferata

142

Hoarding of International Reserves: A Comparison of the Asian and Latin American Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the empirical determinants of the demand for international reserves and compare the experiences of some Asian and Latin American economies. Our empirical results indicate that different vintages of the model of international reserves give different inferences about the appropriate level of international reserves. The developed and developing economies have equations of the demand for international reserves that are

Yin-wong Cheung; Hiro Ito

2008-01-01

143

Introduction to the Latin American Challenges and Perspectives in the Nineties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is noted that financial problems of Latin American economies are leading to reconceptualization of the state's role in higher education governance and financing, particularly in the context of public and corporate demands for wider access, better quality, and market logic enabling better allocation of meager resources. Changes in financing…

Mungaray, Alejandro; Lopez, Romualdo

1996-01-01

144

Equity of access to health care for older adults in four major Latin American cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To identify if older adults have equitable access to health services in four major Latin American cities and to determine if the inequities that are found follow the patterns of economic inequality in each of the four nations studied. Methods. Data from persons age 60 and over in the cities of São Paulo, Brazil (n = 2 143); Santiago,

Steven P. Wallace; Verónica F. Gutiérrez

2005-01-01

145

Linguistic Reception of Latin American Students in Catalonia and Their Responses to Educational Language Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the connections between language policy implementation in three Barcelona-area secondary schools and the language attitudes and behaviors of Spanish-speaking Latin American newcomers. Data were collected through interviews and ethnographic participant observation document indexes of different forms of language socialization…

Newman, Michael; Patino-Santos, Adriana; Trenchs-Parera, Mireia

2013-01-01

146

Transport and health: a look at three Latin American cities.  

PubMed

Transport is associated with environmental problems, economic losses, health and social inequalities. A number of European and US cities have implemented initiatives to promote multimodal modes of transport. In Latin America changes are occurring in public transport systems and a number of projects aimed at stimulating non-motorized modes of transport (walking and cycling) have already been implemented. Based on articles from peer-reviewed academic journals, this paper examines experiences in Bogotá (Colombia), Curitiba (Brazil), and Santiago (Chile), and identifies how changes to the transport system contribute to encourage active transportation. Bus rapid transit, ciclovias, bike paths/lanes, and car use restriction are initiatives that contribute to promoting active transportation in these cities. Few studies have been carried out on the relationship between transport and physical activity. Car ownership continues to increase. The public health sector needs to be a stronger activist in the transport policy decision-making process to incorporate health issues into the transport agenda in Latin America. PMID:23568296

Becerra, Janeth Mosquera; Reis, Rodrigo S; Frank, Lawrence D; Ramirez-Marrero, Farah A; Welle, Benjamin; Arriaga Cordero, Eugenio; Mendez Paz, Fabian; Crespo, Carlos; Dujon, Veronica; Jacoby, Enrique; Dill, Jennifer; Weigand, Lynn; Padin, Carlos M

2013-04-01

147

Arsenic in the human food chain: the Latin American perspective.  

PubMed

Many regions of Latin America are widely reported for the occurrence of high arsenic (As) in groundwater and surface water due to a combination of geological processes and/or anthropogenic activities. In this paper, we review the available literature (both in English and Spanish languages) to delineate human As exposure pathways through the food chain. Numerous studies show that As accumulations in edible plants and crops are mainly associated with the presence of high As in soils and irrigation waters. However, factors such as As speciation, type and composition of soil, and plant species have a major control on the amount of As uptake. Areas of high As concentrations in surface water and groundwater show high As accumulations in plants, fish/shellfish, livestock meat, milk and cheese. Such elevated As concentrations in food may result in widespread health risks to local inhabitants, including health of indigenous populations and residents living close to mining industries. Some studies show that As can be transferred from the water to prepared meals, thereby magnifying the As content in the human diet. Arsenic speciation might also change during food preparation, especially during high temperature cooking, such as grilling and frying. Finally, the review of the available literature demonstrates the necessity of more rigorous studies in evaluating pathways of As exposure through the human food chain in Latin America. PMID:22115614

Bundschuh, Jochen; Nath, Bibhash; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Armienta, María Aurora; Moreno López, Myriam V; Lopez, Dina L; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Cornejo, Lorena; Lauer Macedo, Luciene Fagundes; Filho, Alfredo Tenuta

2012-07-01

148

Multinational Corporations and Health Care in the United States and Latin America: Strategies, Actions, and Effects*  

PubMed Central

In this article we analyze the corporate dominance of health care in the United States and the dynamics that have motivated the international expansion of multinational health care corporations, especially to Latin America. We identify the strategies, actions, and effects of multinational corporations in health care delivery and public health policies. Our methods have included systematic bibliographical research and in-depth interviews in the United States, Mexico, and Brazil. Influenced by public policy makers in the United States, such organizations as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and World Trade Organization have advocated policies that encourage reduction and privatization of health care and public health services previously provided in the public sector. Multinational managed care organizations have entered managed care markets in several Latin American countries at the same time as they were withdrawing from managed care activities in Medicaid and Medicare within the United States. Corporate strategies have culminated in a marked expansion of corporations’ access to social security and related public sector funds for the support of privatized health services. International financial institutions and multinational corporations have influenced reforms that, while favorable to corporate interests, have worsened access to needed services and have strained the remaining public sector institutions. A theoretical approach to these problems emphasizes the falling rate of profit as an economic motivation of corporate actions, silent reform, and the subordination of polity to economy. Praxis to address these problems involves opposition to policies that enhance corporate interests while reducing public sector services, as well as alternative models that emphasize a strengthened public sector.

JASSO-AGUILAR, REBECA; WAITZKIN, HOWARD; LANDWEHR, ANGELA

2010-01-01

149

Multinational corporations and health care in the United States and Latin America: strategies, actions, and effects.  

PubMed

In this article we analyze the corporate dominance of health care in the United States and the dynamics that have motivated the international expansion of multinational health care corporations, especially to Latin America. We identify the strategies, actions, and effects of multinational corporations in health care delivery and public health policies. Our methods have included systematic bibliographical research and in-depth interviews in the United States, Mexico, and Brazil. Influenced by public policy makers in the United States, such organizations as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and World Trade Organization have advocated policies that encourage reduction and privatization of health care and public health services previously provided in the public sector. Multinational managed care organizations have entered managed care markets in several Latin American countries at the same time as they were withdrawing from managed care activities in Medicaid and Medicare within the United States. Corporate strategies have culminated in a marked expansion of corporations' access to social security and related public sector funds for the support of privatized health services. International financial institutions and multinational corporations have influenced reforms that, while favorable to corporate interests, have worsened access to needed services and have strained the remaining public sector institutions. A theoretical approach to these problems emphasizes the falling rate of profit as an economic motivation of corporate actions, silent reform, and the subordination of polity to economy. Praxis to address these problems involves opposition to policies that enhance corporate interests while reducing public sector services, as well as alternative models that emphasize a strengthened public sector PMID:15779471

Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca; Waitzkin, Howard; Landwehr, Angela

2004-01-01

150

Ayurveda in Argentina and other Latin American countries  

PubMed Central

Over the past 20 years the Fundacion Salud de Ayurved Prema Argentina has spread the knowledge of Ayurveda throughout Latin America. The Fundacion is based in Buenos Aires in the Argentine Republic, where it now runs courses in two of the country’s major medical schools - at the School of Medicine of the University of Buenos Aires, and the National University of Cordoba’s School of Medicine. Based on an MoU with Gujarat Ayurveda University, at Jamnagar, Gujarat, the Fundacion has been accredited as a Collaborating Center for teaching, assistance and research in the field of Ayurvedic Medicine in Argentina. This has led to successful missions to other countries in the region where the Fundacion and its associates have been able to start dialogues with governments, and in places hold sizeable courses. The knowledge of Ayurveda is now spreading throughout South and Central America and hardly a country remains untouched by it.

Berra, Jorge Luis; Molho, Rosana

2010-01-01

151

Patterns of Economic Interdependence in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates business cycle synchronization and transmission patterns among the major Latin American countries and their linkages with the United States and Europe. Correlations, principal components, trade patterns, vector autoregressions, and impulse responses are used to discern the business cycle transmission patterns.There is moderate evidence of a unique Latin American business cycle and of business cycle transmission among the

Trisha L. Bezmen; David D. Selover

2005-01-01

152

PREFACE: 21st Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XXI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES) started in Caracas-Venezuela, and over time the symposia have taken place in 9 different Latin American countries. The last five events took place in Mérida-Venezuela (2002), Havana-Cuba (2004), Puebla-Mexico (2006), Puerto Iguazú-Argentina (2008) and Maragogi-Brazil (2011). During the last years, in the different SLAFES editions, the aim has been to bring together researches from Latina America and invite renowned scientists from around the world to a unique forum to discuss the latest developments regarding Solid state Physics. The 21st Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XXI) was held in Villa de Leyva-Colombia, from September 30 to October 04, 2013. The 21st SLAFES version featured the participation of experts in various areas of Solid State Physics from countries such as Belgium, Germany, United States, Spain, Ireland, Chile, Argentina and Brazil, had 270 submitted works and was attended by 140 researchers. The development of this event was made possible by financial support from the Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Universidad del Norte-CO, Universidad de Magdalena-CO, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco-BR and the Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exatas, Naturales y Física. Editors Professor J Albino Aguiar Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: albino@df.ufpe.br Professor Jairo Roa-Rojas Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales Departamento de Física Universidad Nacional de Colombia A.A. 5997 Bogotá DC, Colombia e-mail: jroar@unal.edu.co Professor Carlos Arturo Parra Vargas Grupo Física de Materiales Escuela de Física Universidad Padagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia Tunja Colombia e-mail: carlos.parra@uptc.edu.co Professor David A Land\\'i nez Téllez Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales Departamento de Física Universidad Nacional de Colombia A.A. 5997 Bogotá DC Colombia e-mail: dalandinezt@unal.edu.co Professor Laura T Corredor Bohórquez Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: ltcorredorb@df.ufpe.br Professor Arkady Shanenko Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: arkadyshanenko@df.ufpe.br Professor Renato F Jardim Instituto de Física Universidade de S\\~ao Paulo CP 66318 S\\~ao Paulo SP Brazil e-mail: rjardim@if.usp.br Professor Francois Peeters Department Fysica Universiteit Antwerpen Groneneborgerlann 171 B-2020, Antwerpen Belgium e-mail: francois.peeters@uantwerpen.be Organizing committee ChairmanCarlos Arturo Parra Vargas Proceedings EditorJosé Albino Aguiar Program ChairJairo Roa-Rojas SecretaryAura Janeth Barón González TreasurerArmando Sarmiento Santos Speaker ChairRafael González Hernández Fernando Naranjo Mayorga David A Landínez Téllez Jesús Oswaldo Morán José Sierra Ortega

Aguiar, J. Albino

2014-04-01

153

The Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region: Summary. Bulletin 20.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This UNESCO bulletin includes reports that focus on diagnoses and strategies that ratify the validity of the goals set by the Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. Four articles are featured: "Literacy, Human Rights and Democracy" (Jose Rivero H.); "Primary Schooling and Illiteracy in Latin America and…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and Caribbean.

154

[From passive to active: policies for Latin American emigrants].  

PubMed

The conventional view of emigration holds that it represents a loss of resources from a country and that the only possible policy response is to discourage new emigration while promoting return of those who have left. A new policy is needed based on a fuller understanding of the potential benefits of emigration for the country of origin. The cost of emigration is usually counted as the loss of educational investment, the loss of labor force, and the loss of the contributions to development that would have been made by talented emigrants. But such views usually do not include a serious treatment of the economic problems of labor supply and demand in general or of skilled labor in particular. Underemployment or unemployment of highly educated persons and overproduction of educated persons are problems throughout Latin America and much of the developing world. A truer evaluation of the costs of education which considered decreasing marginal costs rather than average costs per student, nominally variable costs that actually behave as fixed costs, and an adequate assignment of costs for students leaving school before graduating would lead to much lower estimates of average cost per university student in Latin America. Significant emigration may actually result indirectly in an increase in national income by reducing pressure on the labor market and allowing wages to rise for remaining workers. Remittances for emigrants and repatriation of savings may contribute significantly to national income and balance of payments, and may compensate for or even exceed the economic losses of emigration. National policy for emigrants should aim at maximizing the economic benefits of emigration by providing incentives for the accumulation of capital obtained abroad and its transfer to the country of origin. The 1st major goal of emigration policy should be to maintain affective and social ties between the emigrant and the country of origin as a necessary condition for channeling benefits to the country. Such factors as inclusive citizenship policies for spouses and children born abroad, provisions for absentee voting, communication and information programs, and recognition of education and professional title conferred abroad would help motivate a continuing interest in the country of origin. The 2nd policy goal should be to create concrete channels for different types of emigrant activities that would benefit the country of origin. This operational side of emigration policy would provide channels for the return to the country of capital and goods accumulated by the emigrant and would provide for cooperation in scientific endeavors, business and investment, and for social and humanitarian projects. PMID:12282249

Maletta, H

1988-12-01

155

Current therapies in rheumatoid arthritis: a Latin American perspective.  

PubMed

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease affecting the synovium of joints, tendons, and some extra-articular sites. RA prevalence in Latin America ranges from 0.4 to 1.6%. Early treatment of RA translates into a substantial reduction in the cost to society. In light of this, early disease clinics are being established in some countries. Barriers to RA management, such as delay in referral to rheumatologists and limited access to therapy, have been identified. Evidence-based treatment guidelines have been adapted by countries according to their own situations. The need for keeping accurate records of biologics prescribed has been addressed by biologic registries, thereby contributing toward a better understanding of rheumatic diseases and their treatment. Current biologics include the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? inhibitors (etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab), B-cell depletion agent (rituximab), interleukin-6 receptor blocker (tocilizumab), and T-cell co-stimulatory blocker (abatacept). Future therapies include kinase inhibitors (tofacitinib and fostamatinib), alternative TNF-? inhibitors (golimumab and certolizumab), and biosimilars. PMID:23337169

Burgos-Vargas, Rubén; Catoggio, Luis Jose; Galarza-Maldonado, Claudio; Ostojich, Kasmir; Cardiel, Mario H

2013-01-01

156

Folklore des pays occitans, iberiques et latino-americains (The Folklore of Occitan, Iberian and Latin American Regions)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the second on a series of listings of Provencal, Iberian, and Latin American folk music records, based on records available in France as of the beginning of 1976. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

Fumadelles, Michel

1976-01-01

157

Current status and expected developments in the area of satellite communications in the Latin American and Caribbean region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present capabilities of various Latin American countries in the area of satellite communications are discussed. Their current needs in this area are covered and how these needs are now being met, as well as prospects for future advancements.

Ayala, S.

1986-01-01

158

Current Status and Expected Developments in the Area of Satellite Communications in the Latin American and Caribbean Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present capabilities of various Latin American countries in the area of satellite communications are discussed. Their current needs in this area are covered and how these needs are now being met, as well as prospects for future advancements.

S. Ayala

1986-01-01

159

Cross-Cultural Encounter In A Latin American Bank.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit is one of a series of cross-cultural mini-dramas, and is offered as the prototype audio-visual unit of the Cross-Cultural Communication Packet (CCCP). The objective is to provide insight into the process of cross-cultural communication, and to develop observation skills, or to sensitize the student to concepts which will help him to…

Gorden, Raymond L.

160

Lessons learned in developing community mental health care in Latin American and Caribbean countries  

PubMed Central

This paper summarizes the findings for the Latin American and Caribbean countries of the WPA Task Force on Steps, Obstacles and Mistakes to Avoid in the Implementation of Community Mental Health Care. It presents an overview of the provision of mental health services in the region; describes key experiences in Argentina, Belize, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Jamaica and Mexico; and discusses the lessons learned in developing community mental health care.

RAZZOUK, DENISE; GREGORIO, GUILHERME; ANTUNES, RENATO; MARI, JAIR DE JESUS

2012-01-01

161

Effects of socioeconomic status on the obesity knowledge of adolescents from six Latin American cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on the obesity knowledge of adolescents in six Latin American cities.DESIGN: Data were collected using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire consisting of demographic questions and a 25-item multiple-choice obesity knowledge test. Test items were clustered under five topics: the fat and calorie content of foods and beverages; weight loss methods; energy expenditure;

L McArthur; M Peña; D Holbert

2001-01-01

162

Lessons learned in developing community mental health care in Latin American and Caribbean countries.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes the findings for the Latin American and Caribbean countries of the WPA Task Force on Steps, Obstacles and Mistakes to Avoid in the Implementation of Community Mental Health Care. It presents an overview of the provision of mental health services in the region; describes key experiences in Argentina, Belize, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Jamaica and Mexico; and discusses the lessons learned in developing community mental health care. PMID:23024680

Razzouk, Denise; Gregório, Guilherme; Antunes, Renato; Mari, Jair D E Jesus

2012-10-01

163

The Episodes of Currency Crisis in Latin American and Asian Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume presents six monographs of currency crisis episodes in two Latin American countries in 1994-1995 (Mexico and Argentine) and four Asian countries in 1997-1998 (Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Korea). The Asian part of this volume is supplemented with a short comparative note, commenting these four monographs. All the studies were prepared under the research project no. OI44\\/H02\\/99\\/17 on \\

Marek Dabrowski; Malgorzata Antczak; Monika Blaszkiewicz; Malgorzata Jakubiak; Wojciech Paczynski; Marcin Sasin

2001-01-01

164

U.S.-Latin American Trade: Recent Trends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since congressional passage of Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) in August 2002 (P.L. 107-210), the U.S.-Chile free trade agreement (FTA) has been implemented and negotiations were concluded on the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade...

J. F. Hornbeck

2005-01-01

165

High Energy Physics: Proceedings of the Fifth Latin American Symposium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface -- Series editorial board and other committees -- Local organizing committee -- Foreword by the editors -- Gallery -- Homages. In Memoriam Luis Masperi. Round table: collaborations in physics in Latin America -- Lectures. An introduction to strings and some of its phenomenological aspects / G. Aldazabal. Neutrino phenomenology / E. Roulet. An introduction to cosmology / D. J. H. Chung. Innovative experimental particle physics through technological advances-past, present and future / H. W. K. Cheung -- Seminars. Grand unification and physics beyond the standard model / E. Ma. QCD evolution in dense medium / M. B. Gay Ducati. Future experiments-GRID and LHC / A. Santoro. BTeV: using heavy quark decays to test the standard model / M. Sheaff. Recent results from CDF and DO experiments / C. Avila. Matter under extreme conditions the ALICE experiment / G. Herrera Corral and ALICE-Mexico. Recent results from PHOBOS at RHIC / E. Garcia -- Contributions. SO(10) as the minimal supersymmetric GUT / A. Melfo. A supersymmetric three-family model without Higgsinos / W. A. Ponce and L. A. Sánchez. Area-preserving diffeomorphisms groups, the Majorana representation of spins, and SU(N) / J. D. Swain. On the magnetized Kerr-Newman black hole electrodynamics / E. P. Esteban. Supernova neutrinos and the absolute scale of neutrino masses-a Bayesian approach / E. Nardi. Loop quantum gravity and ultra high energy cosmic rays / J. Alfaro and G. A. Palma. QQ¯ bound states in an extended QCD2 model / P. Labraña, J. Alfaro and A. A. Andrianov. Observational constraints on Lorentz symmetry deformation / J. Alfaro and M. Cambiaso. Variable-mass dark matter and the age of the universe / U. Franca and R. Rosenfeld. Dynamical study of spinodal decomposition in heavy ion collisions / A. Barra?n and J. A. López. Predictions for single spin asymmetries in inclusive reactions involving photons / V. Gupta, C. J. Solano Salinas and H. S. Mani. Bosonization and the generalized Mandelstam-Halpern operators / H. Blas. Is there really an entangled state for far away twin photons? / H. G. Valqui. Use of neural networks to classify cosmic-ray showers according to their Muon/EM ratio / H. Salazar and L. Villaseñor. [symbol] polarization in pp-->p[symbol]K+[symbol] at 27.5 GeV / J. Félix ... [et al.]. Definition of the polarization vector / V. M. Castillo-Vallejo and J. Félix. The MINOS experiment / M. Sanchez. Study of scintillating counters and their application to VO detector of ALICE / J. E. Ruiz and Tabasco. Data selection of [symbol] muon semileptonic decay in KTeV / R. A. Gomes. Chaotic properties of high energy cosmic rays / A. Ticona ... [et al.]. Energy spectrum of surviving protons / R. Calle ... [et al.]. Calculus of the ratio [symbol] in the K meson decay through the 331 model / J. C. Montero ... [et al.]. Use of a scintillator detector for luminosity measurements / G. Contreras, C. J. Solano Salinas and A. M. Gago. Simplified forms of a linear and exact set of equations for the gravitational field in the very early universe / E. Salinas -- Posters. Determination of the b-Mass using Renormalon Cancellation / C. Contreras. CP violation in B-->?K* decays: amplitudes, factorization and new physics / D. Gómez Dumm and A. Szynkman. Degeneracies in the measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters: problem and solution in neutrino factories / J. Jones and A. M. Gago. Revision of the neutrino oscillation probability in the supernovae / L. Aliaga and A. M. Gago. Consequences on the neutrino mixing matrix from two zero textures in the neutrino mass matrix / L. Stucchi, A. M. Gago and V. Gupta. Expected flux of high energy neutrinos from observed active galactic nuclei / J. L. Bazo and A. M. Gago. Masperi's Quasispin model of the scalar field [symbol] theory with soliton solutions / M. Agüero, G. Frias and F. Ongay. Nonstandard CP violation in B-->[symbol] decays / A. Szynkman. Spinor realization of the Skyrme Model / R. Ochoa Jimenez and Yu. P. Rybakov.

Solano Salinas, C. J.; Pereyra Ravinez, O.; Ochoa Jiménez, R.; Masperi, Luis

2006-04-01

166

Latin American consensus on hypertension in patients with diabetes type 2 and metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

The present document has been prepared by a group of experts, members of cardiology, endocrinology and diabetes societies of Latin American countries, to serve as a guide to physicians taking care of patients with diabetes, hypertension and comorbidities or complications of both conditions. Although the concept of 'metabolic syndrome' is currently disputed, the higher prevalence in Latin America of that cluster of metabolic alterations has suggested that 'metabolic syndrome' is a useful nosographic entity in the context of Latin American medicine. Therefore, in the present document, particular attention is paid to this syndrome in order to alert physicians on a particularly high-risk population, usually underestimated and undertreated. These recommendations result from presentations and debates by discussion panels during a 2-day conference held in Bucaramanga, in October 2012, and all the participants have approved the final conclusions. The authors acknowledge that the publication and diffusion of guidelines do not suffice to achieve the recommended changes in diagnostic or therapeutic strategies, and plan suitable interventions overcoming knowledge, attitude and behavioural barriers, preventing both physicians and patients from effectively adhering to guideline recommendations. PMID:23282894

López-Jaramillo, Patricio; Sánchez, Ramiro A; Diaz, Margarita; Cobos, Leonardo; Bryce, Alfonso; Parra Carrillo, Jose Z; Lizcano, Fernando; Lanas, Fernando; Sinay, Isaac; Sierra, Iván D; Peñaherrera, Ernesto; Bendersky, Mario; Schmid, Helena; Botero, Rodrigo; Urina, Manuel; Lara, Joffre; Foss, Milton C; Márquez, Gustavo; Harrap, Stephen; Ramírez, Agustín J; Zanchetti, Alberto

2013-02-01

167

Desloratadine Therapy Improves Allergic Rhinitis Symptoms in Latin American Children Aged 6 to 12 Years  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the effectiveness of desloratadine syrup in relieving symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) among children in Latin America. Methods In an open-label trial conducted in 5 Latin American countries, 455 children aged 6 to 12 years with seasonal or perennial AR were treated with desloratadine syrup 2.5 mg/d for 6 weeks. Thirty percent of subjects were concomitantly taking corticosteroids, and 21.3% had a history of asthma. Efficacy was measured by improvement in the Total Symptom Severity 4 questionnaire and decrease in severity of individual nasal symptoms of congestion, rhinorrhea, pruritus, and sneezing. Physicians and subjects' caregivers rated symptom improvement in a separate assessment at final visit. Results Treatment with desloratadine led to a significant decrease in mean Total Symptom Severity 4 score, from 7.54 at baseline to 1.96 at study end (P < 0.0001), and in individual symptom scores, including congestion (P < 0.0001 for all). Similar improvements were found in groups receiving desloratadine monotherapy and desloratadine plus corticosteroids. Allergic rhinitis symptoms were rated "better" or "much better" by 94% of caregivers. Incidence of adverse events was 6%. Conclusions Desloratadine, with or without concomitant corticosteroids, was efficacious and safe in the treatment of AR in this group of Latin American children.

2009-01-01

168

[Latin American consensus on hypertension in patients with diabetes type 2 and metabolic syndrome].  

PubMed

The present document has been prepared by a group of experts, members of Cardiology, Endocrinology, Internal Medicine, Nephrology and Diabetes societies of Latin American countries, to serve as a guide to physicians taking care of patients with diabetes, hypertension and comorbidities or complications of both conditions. Although the concept of metabolic syndrome is currently disputed, the higher prevalence in Latin America of that cluster of metabolic alterations has suggested that metabolic syndrome is useful nosography entity in the context of Latin American medicine. Therefore, in the present document, particular attention is paid to this syndrome in order to alert physicians on a particular high- risk population, usually underestimated and undertreated. These recommendations results from presentation and debates by discussion panels during a 2-day conference held in Bucaramanga, in October 2012, and all the participants have approved the final conclusions. The authors acknowledge that the publication and diffusion of guidelines do not suffice to achieve the recommended changes in diagnostic or therapeutic strategies, and plan suitable interventions overcoming both physicians and patients from effectively adhering to guideline recommendations. PMID:24365579

López-Jaramillo, Patricio; Sánchez, Ramiro A; Díaz, Margarita; Cobos, Leonardo; Bryce, Alfonso; Parra-Carrillo, José Z; Lizcano, Fernando; Lanas, Fernando; Sinay, Isaac; Sierra, Iván D; Peñaherrera, Ernesto; Benderky, Mario; Schmid, Helena; Botero, Rodrigo; Urina, Manuel; Lara, Joffre; Foos, Milton C; Márquez, Gustavo; Harrap, Stephen; Ramírez, Agustín J; Zanchetti, Alberto

2014-01-01

169

Genealogical information and the structure of rural Latin-American populations: reality and fantasy.  

PubMed

Genetic data organized in the form of genealogies can provide much information regarding the history and genetic structure of human populations. A large proportion of the population of Latin America is organized in small rural semi-isolated communities, with little immigration, and until the last 50-100 years, little emigration. These communities have a strong sense of their genealogical history, and this "genealogical conscience' is a frequent leitmotif in modern Latin-American literature. In this communication, we compare the characteristics of fictitious genealogies described in two masterpieces of Latin-American literature, García Márquez' Cien Años de Soledad (A Hundred Years of Solitude), and Verissimo's O Tempo e o Vento (Time and the Wind), with one existing well-studied population in Argentina, Aicuña. All three populations exhibit a number of common characteristics, such as histories of long periods of civil war, and large pedigrees with complex paths of inheritance resulting in complex patterns of inbreeding. Genetic themes common to all three are: (1) the use of genealogical records to substantiate the property of the land or the political power of a kinship; (2) the genealogical registry of biological descendants, independent of their legal or marital status in the clan; (3) the existence of pedigrees of the aristocratic branches in the same kindreds, which illustrate the legal principle of primogeniture; (4) the value of last names as indicators of kinships and the extent of genetic isolation, and (5) the awareness of the deleterious consequences of consanguinity. PMID:8854140

Castilla, E E; Adams, J

1996-01-01

170

[Latin American consensus on hypertension in patients with diabetes type 2 and metabolic syndrome].  

PubMed

The present document has been prepared by a group of experts, members of cardiology, endocrinology, internal medicine, nephrology and diabetes societies of Latin American countries, to serve as a guide to physicians taking care of patients with diabetes, hypertension and comorbidities or complications of both conditions. Although the concept of metabolic syndrome is currently disputed, the higher prevalence in Latin America of that cluster of metabolic alterations has suggested that metabolic syndrome is a useful nosography entity in the context of Latin American medicine. Therefore, in the present document, particular attention is paid to this syndrome in order to alert physicians on a particular high-risk population, usually underestimated and undertreated. These recommendations result from presentations and debates by discussion panels during a 2-day conference held in Bucaramanga, in October 2012, and all the participants have approved the final conclusions. The authors acknowledge that the publication and diffusion of guidelines do not suffice to achieve the recommended changes in diagnostic or therapeutic strategies, and plan suitable interventions overcoming knowledge, attitude and behavioural barriers, preventing both physicians and patients from effectively adhering to guideline recommendations. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2014;58(3):205-25. PMID:24863082

López-Jaramillo, Patricio; Sánchez, Ramiro A; Diaz, Margarita; Cobos, Leonardo; Bryce, Alfonso; Parra-Carrillo, Jose Z; Lizcano, Fernando; Lanas, Fernando; Sinay, Isaac; Sierra, Iván D; Peñaherrera, Ernesto; Bendersky, Mario; Schmid, Helena; Botero, Rodrigo; Urina, Manuel; Lara, Joffre; Foss, Milton C; Márquez, Gustavo; Harrap, Stephen; Ramírez, Agustín J; Zanchetti, Alberto

2014-04-01

171

Latin American immigrants have limited access to health insurance in Japan: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Japan provides universal health insurance to all legal residents. Prior research has suggested that immigrants to Japan disproportionately lack health insurance coverage, but no prior study has used rigorous methodology to examine this issue among Latin American immigrants in Japan. The aim of our study, therefore, was to assess the pattern of health insurance coverage and predictors of uninsurance among documented Latin American immigrants in Japan. Methods We used a cross sectional, mixed method approach using a probability proportional to estimated size sampling procedure. Of 1052 eligible Latin American residents mapped through extensive fieldwork in selected clusters, 400 immigrant residents living in Nagahama City, Japan were randomly selected for our study. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire developed from qualitative interviews. Results Our response rate was 70.5% (n = 282). Respondents were mainly from Brazil (69.9%), under 40 years of age (64.5%) and had lived in Japan for 9.45 years (SE 0.44; median, 8.00). We found a high prevalence of uninsurance (19.8%) among our sample compared with the estimated national average of 1.3% in the general population. Among the insured full time workers (n = 209), 55.5% were not covered by the Employee's Health Insurance. Many immigrants cited financial trade-offs as the main reasons for uninsurance. Lacking of knowledge that health insurance is mandatory in Japan, not having a chronic disease, and having one or no children were strong predictors of uninsurance. Conclusions Lack of health insurance for immigrants in Japan is a serious concern for this population as well as for the Japanese health care system. Appropriate measures should be taken to facilitate access to health insurance for this vulnerable population.

2012-01-01

172

Immigrant advantage? Substance use among Latin American immigrant and native-born youth in Spain  

PubMed Central

This article reports the results of a descriptive study conducted with middle school and high school age youth residing in northwestern Spain. The main outcome of the study is to advance knowledge about the drug use attitudes and behaviors of immigrants versus native youth in a social context where Latin American immigrants share a common language and a set of core cultural norms with the host society. The research was conducted by a bi-national Spain–US research team as a preliminary study leading to the development of joint culturally appropriate prevention interventions for youth in the northern region of Galicia, Spain. Surveys were administered in Spring 2005 to 817 students in 7th to 10th grades in 10 urban, secondary schools with high immigrant enrollment. The sample included Spanish natives (two-thirds) and Latin American immigrants (one-third), mainly from Colombia, Argentina, and Venezuela. Multiple regression analyses predicted substance use intentions, and a composite variable measuring lifetime and last 30-day frequency and amount of alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use. Controlling for the fact that the immigrant students were generally older and performing less well academically than natives, and for other predictors, Latin American immigrant youth were less at risk than native youth on their intentions to use substances and on their reported actual substance use. In a mediational analysis, most of the key explanatory variables in youth substance use etiology failed to account for the immigrant versus native differences, including a range of risk and protective factors for substance use, substance use norms, strength of ethnic identity, and degree of social integration within native-born social networks. Differential access to drugs mediated the immigrant–native gap in substance use intentions but did not mediate differences in actual substance use.

Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Kulis, Stephen; Luengo, Maria Angeles; Nieri, Tanya; Villar, Paula

2011-01-01

173

Immigrant advantage? Substance use among Latin American immigrant and native-born youth in Spain.  

PubMed

This article reports the results of a descriptive study conducted with middle school and high school age youth residing in northwestern Spain. The main outcome of the study is to advance knowledge about the drug use attitudes and behaviors of immigrants versus native youth in a social context where Latin American immigrants share a common language and a set of core cultural norms with the host society. The research was conducted by a bi-national Spain-US research team as a preliminary study leading to the development of joint culturally appropriate prevention interventions for youth in the northern region of Galicia, Spain. Surveys were administered in Spring 2005 to 817 students in 7th to 10th grades in 10 urban, secondary schools with high immigrant enrollment. The sample included Spanish natives (two-thirds) and Latin American immigrants (one-third), mainly from Colombia, Argentina, and Venezuela. Multiple regression analyses predicted substance use intentions, and a composite variable measuring lifetime and last 30-day frequency and amount of alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use. Controlling for the fact that the immigrant students were generally older and performing less well academically than natives, and for other predictors, Latin American immigrant youth were less at risk than native youth on their intentions to use substances and on their reported actual substance use. In a mediational analysis, most of the key explanatory variables in youth substance use etiology failed to account for the immigrant versus native differences, including a range of risk and protective factors for substance use, substance use norms, strength of ethnic identity, and degree of social integration within native-born social networks. Differential access to drugs mediated the immigrant-native gap in substance use intentions but did not mediate differences in actual substance use. PMID:18425712

Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Kulis, Stephen; Luengo, Maria Angeles; Nieri, Tanya; Villar, Paula

2008-04-01

174

Impacts of U.S.-Latin American Trade on the Southwest's Economy and Transportation System: An Assessment of Impact Methodologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Trade between the United States and Latin America brings various economic impacts to the Southwest's economy and transportation network. Measuring these impacts provides strategic information capable of identifying trade opportunities, infrastructure inve...

L. B. Boske J. C. Cuttino

2001-01-01

175

Four Topics in Latin American History: The People; Nation Building; Race, Class, and Identity; and Foreign Policy: U.S. and Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curricular unit is intended for use at the secondary level. The understandings in Topic I are organized under four main heaings: The Indigenous Population or the pre-Columbian civilizations; The Immigrants from Europe and West Africa; Slavery In Latin America during the pre-colonial and colonial periods and, Race mixture including racial…

Egginton, Everett; Gill, Barbara

176

The First Two Years of the Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education (relea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present and discuss in this work the motivations, goals and strategies adopted for its creation and launch of the e-journal LATIN-AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ASTRONOMY EDUCATION (RELEA). The RELEA "first light" was in August, 2004 with the appearance of No. 1 and it is now completing two years of existence. The creation of the new journal was prompted by: a) the noteworthy absence of a specific publication in the field in Latin-America; b) the lack of classroom material in Spanish/Portuguese that could be directly used without too many adaptations; and c) the need of a regional forum to discuss and suggest public policies concerning the teaching of Sciences in general and Astronomy in particular. We identify and present the difficulties encountered for the achievement of the proposed objectives and operational issues in this period, together with the adopted solutions (refereeing procedure, periodicity, etc.). Finally, we attempt to evaluate the long-run impact of such initiatives on the scientific education as a tool for effective citizenship decision making, so critical for Third-World countries. References Bretones, P.S., Jafelice, L.C. & Horvath, J.E. , 2004, Editorial of the RELEA No.1, available at (http://www.iscafaculdades.com.br/relea/). Bretones, P.S., Jafelice, L.C. & Horvath, J.E. , 2005, Editorial of the RELEA No.2, available at (http://www.iscafaculdades.com.br/relea/). Bretones, P.S., Jafelice, L.C. & Horvath, J.E., A Revista Latino-Americana de Educação em Astronomia: objetivos e estratégias. In: Encontro Brasileiro de Ensino de Astronomia, 8, 2004, São Paulo. Proceedings. (In press). [The Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education: Objectives and Strategies. In: 8th Brazilian Meeting on Astronomy Teaching.

Bretones, P. S.; Jafelice, L. C.; Horvath, J. E.

2006-08-01

177

Power law for the duration of recession and prosperity in Latin American countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ormerod and Mounfield [P. Ormerod, C. Mounfield, Power law distribution of duration and magnitude of recessions in capitalist economies: Breakdown of scaling, Physica A 293 (2001) 573] and Ausloos et al. [M. Ausloos, J. Mikiewicz, M. Sanglier, The durations of recession and prosperity: Does their distribution follow a power or an exponential law? Physica A 339 (2004) 548] have independently analyzed the duration of recessions for developed countries through the evolution of the GDP in different time windows. It was found that there is a power law governing the duration distribution. We have analyzed data collected from 19 Latin American countries in order to observe whether such results are valid or not for developing countries. The case of prosperity years is also discussed. We observe that the power law of recession time intervals, see Ref.  [1], is valid for Latin American countries as well. Thus an interesting point is discovered: the same scaling time is found in the case of recessions for the three data sets (ca. 1 year), and this could represent a universal feature. Other time scale parameters differ significantly from each other.

Redelico, Francisco O.; Proto, Araceli N.; Ausloos, Marcel

2008-11-01

178

Latin American health policy and additive reform: the case of Guatemala.  

PubMed

Until the mid-1960s, the market-based, dependent-development-conditioned structure of Latin American health systems reflected the skewed distribution of wealth in the region: most (including government) health resources were found in curative care medicine and were concentrated in the capital cities, where they primarily served the needs of the elite. But for many countries of the area, the 1964 PAHO-led efforts to introduce health planning, intended as a first step in rationalizing the health sector, marked a fundamental turning point in the structural development of their delivery systems. Since then, this commitment has been reaffirmed in the Latin American Ministers of Health's 1973 adoption of the primary care approach as the cornerstone of their national health plans, and their ongoing endorsement and pursuit of "Health For All by 2000." Guatemala, however, was and remains an exception. Guatemalan technocrats have proven unable to plan effectively. But, far more fundamentally, the Guatemalan oligarchy has proven unwilling to appropriate the resources necessary to effect change. The reforms that have been made have been the products of bilateral and multilateral agencies, which have conceptualized, promoted, designed, built, and underwritten them. Those changes have not altered the fundamental structure of the system, but instead have been tacked onto it, and exemplify what may be termed "additive reform." Evidence suggests that without the continued sponsorship, support, and guidance of the bilateral and multilateral agencies, even these "reforms" will prove evanescent. PMID:3888870

Fiedler, J L

1985-01-01

179

United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Santiago, Chile, The United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America was founded in 1948 to promote economic and social development throughout Latin America and to collect, study, and disseminate economic research in the region. ECLAC's Website offers a wealth of information about the commission and its work and research. The main page features the newest publications, activities, and news. Users should be aware, however, that many of the publications are available only in Spanish. The library provides three searchable databases consisting of ECLAC documentation, external publications of ECLAC authors, and ECLAC Projects publications.

180

Latin American Urban Development into the Twenty-first Century: Towards a Renewed Perspective on the City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues for a more systemic engagement with Latin American cities, contending that it is necessary to reconsider their unity in order to nuance the ‘fractured cities’ perspective that has widely come to epitomize the contemporary urban moment in the region. It begins by offering an overview of regional urban development trends, before exploring how the underlying imaginary of

Dennis Rodgers; Jo Beall; Ravi Kanbur

2011-01-01

181

The Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. Bulletin 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The speed at which transformations have occurred in levels of knowledge--especially scientific and technical knowledge--obliges countries in the Latin American and Caribbean region to undergo a rapid process of modernization. An educational project of UNESCO was established with this goal in mind. This bulletin presents three articles concerning…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and Caribbean.

182

Women's Theologies, Women's Pedagogies: Liberating Praxes of Latin American Women Educators in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the women…

Jones, Lauren Ila

2009-01-01

183

Planning, Re-Bordering and Setting Times: A Comparative Analysis of European and Latin American "Education Spaces"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article compares educational regionalisation in Europe and Latin America. This analysis unveils the influence of three social phenomena in the two case studies, namely power, fields of activity and knowledge. Mostly, it focuses on the initiatives led by the European Union and the Organisation of Ibero-American States in order to implement…

Rambla, Xavier

2013-01-01

184

Facilitators and barriers to adoption of evidence-based perinatal care in Latin American hospitals: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective episiotomy and the active management oflaborhavebeen shownbynumerousstudiesto benefit women's experience of labor as well as its outcomes. However, many Latin American pub- lic hospitalshave not updated theirclinicalprac- tices to reflect these findings. Limited access to new knowledge, limited time and physical resources and attitudes resistant to change are factors limiting the adoption of new practices in such hospitals. Interviews

Maria Belizan; Andrea Meier; Fernando Althabe; Agustina Codazzi; Mercedes Colomar; Pierre Buekens; Jose Belizan; Joan Walsh; Marci Kramish Campbell

2007-01-01

185

Learning Environments with Technological Resources: A Look at Their Contribution to Student Performance in Latin American Elementary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that computer access and use has a positive effect on the performance reached by Latin American schoolchildren in sixth grade. This is supported by Multilevel models of 4 and 3 levels with data from the Second Regional Comparative and Explanatory Study, developed by UNESCO (2008) in 16 countries and analyzing around 3,000 schools,…

Carrasco, Marcela Roman; Torrecilla, F. Javier Murillo

2012-01-01

186

The diasporic subject: The role of travel narrative in the construction of a Latin American and Latina subject  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine the formation of a feminine identity in the narrative forms of the diaries, letters and autobiography written by women travelers, giving especial emphasis to Latin American and U.S Latina writers. This analysis expands traditional understandings of travel as a geographical migration of an individual or community, to propose that travel also includes

Carolina Latorre

2004-01-01

187

Educating "Barbaros": Educational Policies on the Latin American Frontiers between Colonies and Independent Republics (Araucania, Southern Chile/Sonora, Mexico)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares the methods and means employed by the state to enforce the education of (semi-)autonomous indigenous groups in southern Chile and northwestern Mexico (Sonora), border regions in the Latin American periphery, covering the transition from colonial times to the consolidation of independent republics until the middle of the…

Holck, Lasse; Saiz, Monika Contreras

2010-01-01

188

Educating Bárbaros: educational policies on the Latin American frontiers between colonies and independent republics (Araucania, Southern Chile\\/Sonora, Mexico)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares the methods and means employed by the state to enforce the education of (semi?)autonomous indigenous groups in southern Chile and northwestern Mexico (Sonora), border regions in the Latin American periphery, covering the transition from colonial times to the consolidation of independent republics until the middle of the nineteenth century. Parting from a theoretical interest in education as

Lasse Hölck; Mónika Contreras Saiz

2010-01-01

189

Meaning in Life as a Mediator of Ethnic Identity and Adjustment among Adolescents from Latin, Asian, and European American Backgrounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining…

Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

2010-01-01

190

Draft Genome Sequence of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolate C2, Belonging to the Latin American-Mediterranean Family  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis remains a major infectious disease in Taiwan. Here we present the draft genome sequence of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis C2 strain, belonging to the Latin American–Mediterranean lineage. The draft genome sequence comprises 4,453,307 bp with a G+C content of 65.6%, revealing 4,390 coding genes and 45 tRNA genes.

Liao, Yu-Chieh; Chen, Yih-Yuan; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Chang, Jia-Ru; Su, Ih-Jen; Huang, Tsi-Shu

2014-01-01

191

Supportive adult relationships and the academic engagement of Latin American immigrant youth.  

PubMed

The central aim of this study was to explore the academic engagement trajectories of a sample of recently arrived immigrant students from Latin America. Using an analytic framework that can dynamically model time-sensitive fluctuations (HLM; [Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchicical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods (2nd Edition ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications]), we explored how initial engagement, gender, and support from caring adults at school shaped youths' engagement over time. Students reported a range of engagement trajectories, with gender and support emerging as important predictors of youths' engagement trajectories. Additionally, perceptions of support fluctuated from year to year, and these fluctuations were linked to youths' academic engagement. The findings point to associations between support perceptions and engagement, including links between students' current academic motivation and effort and their current connections with adults. Taken together, the findings present a nuanced portrait of academic engagement and suggest how relationships at school might facilitate positive academic adjustment among Latin American immigrant students over time. Implications for future research, public policy, and practice are discussed. PMID:19083365

Green, Gillian; Rhodes, Jean; Hirsch, Abigail Heitler; Suárez-Orozco, Carola; Camic, Paul M

2008-08-01

192

Compliance with clinical trial registration and reporting guidelines by Latin American and Caribbean journals.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine to what extent Latin American and Caribbean biomedical journals have endorsed and complied with clinical trial registration and reporting guidelines. A search of randomized clinical trials was carried out using the LILACS database. The randomized clinical trials identified through the search were assessed to determine whether trial registration and CONSORT guidance was mentioned. Information regarding endorsement of the ICMJE, trial registration and other reporting guidelines was extracted from the online instructions for authors of the journals included in the study. The search identified 477 references. We assessed a random sample of 240 titles of which 101 were randomized clinical trials published in 56 journals. Trial registration was reported in 19.8% of the randomized clinical trials, 6.9% were prospectively registered and 3% mentioned CONSORT. The ICMJE was mentioned by 68% of the journals and 36% of journals required trial registration. Fewer journals provided advice on reporting guidelines: CONSORT (13%), PRISMA (1.8%), STROBE (1.8%), and the EQUATOR network (3.6%). Wider endorsement of trial registration and adherence to reporting guidelines is necessary in clinical trials conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean. PMID:23778541

Reveiz, Ludovic; Villanueva, Eleana; Iko, Chimaraoke; Simera, Iveta

2013-06-01

193

Dyslipidemia in a Cohort of HIV-infected Latin American Children Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy*  

PubMed Central

In order to describe the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in a cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents in Latin America and to determine associations with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we performed this cross-sectional analysis within the NICHD International Site Development Initiative pediatric cohort study. Eligible children had to be at least 2 years of age and be on HAART. Among the 477 eligible HIV-infected youth, 98 (20.5%) had hypercholesterolemia and 140 (29.4%) had hypertriglyceridemia. In multivariable analyses, children receiving protease inhibitor (PI)-containing HAART were at increased risk for hypercholesterolemia [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)?=?2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3–5.6] and hypertriglyceridemia (AOR?=?3.5, 95% CI 1.9–6.4) compared with children receiving non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-containing HAART. In conclusion, HIV-infected youth receiving PI-containing HAART in this Latin American cohort were at increased risk for hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia compared with those receiving NNRTI-containing HAART.

Brewinski, Margaret; Megazzini, Karen; Freimanis Hance, Laura; Cruz, Miguel Cashat; Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Della Negra, Marinella; Ferreira, Flavia Gomes Faleiro; Marques, Heloisa

2011-01-01

194

The First Two Years of the Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education (RELEA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present and discuss in this work the motivations, goals and strategies adopted for its creation and launch of the e-journal LATIN-AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ASTRONOMY EDUCATION (RELEA). The RELEA "first light" was in August, 2004 with the appearance of No. 1 and it is now completing two years of existence. The creation of the new journal was prompted by: a) the noteworthy absence of a specific publication in the field in Latin-America; b) the lack of classroom material in spanish/portuguese that could be directly used without too many adaptations; and c) the need of a regional forum to discuss and suggest public policies concerning the teaching of Sciences in general and Astronomy in particular. We identify and present the difficulties encountered for the achievement of the proposed objectives and operational issues in this period, together with the adopted solutions (refereeing procedure, periodicity, etc.). Finally, we attempt to evaluate the long-run impact of such initiatives on the scientific education as a tool for effective citizenship decision making, so critical for Third-World countries.

Bretones, P. S.; Jafelice, L. C.; Horvath, J. E.

2006-08-01

195

Indigenous People and Development in Latin America: A Literature Survey and Recommendations. Latin American Monograph & Document Series 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings and conclusions gleaned from a review of 42 cases of indigenous development in Latin America. Findings indicate that the lack of a legal framework for indigenous rights presents a basic obstacle to indigenous self-development; the most common aspect of successful indigenous development was involvement of indigenous…

Roper, J. Montgomery; Frechione, John; DeWalt, Billie R.

196

[An evidence based Iberic-Latin American guideline for acute gastroenteritis management in infants and prescholars].  

PubMed

Acute gastroenteritis (AG) morbidity and mortality rates in infants and prescholars continue to be high in developing countries. Authors want to develop an evidence-based document that supports decision making regarding AG therapy in infants and children younger than 5 y/o. A systematic review of the literature was performed (May, 2008). Evidence grading was established according to Oxford guidelines and Latin American experts submitted their opinions on the recommendations generated. Oral rehydration solutions are the threatment's keystone for children with AG, showing lesser complications due to therapy than IV fluids. AG is no contraindication of a normal diet. Racecadotril, zinc and smectite can contribute to AG treatment, as well as Lactobacillus GG and Saccharomycces boulardii. No other drugs are recommended. It is recommended to treat children presenting AG with oral rehydration solutions among racecadotril, zinc or smectite as well as some probiotics. PMID:20171152

Gutiérrez Castrellón, P; Polanco Allué, I; Salazar Lindo, E

2010-03-01

197

Exploring Two Inflationary Regimes in Latin-American Economies:. a Binary Time Series Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this paper is to apply the methods of Symbolic Time Series Analysis (STSA) to a series of inflation from a group of Latin-American economies. Starting with a partition of two inflation regimes, we use data symbolization for identifying temporal patterns. Afterwards the statistical information obtained from the patterns is used to estimate the parameters of a nonlinear model proposed by Brida (2000).1 We compare the performance of the model against a naive benchmark predictor to verify its power to anticipate the qualitative behavior of the inflation time series. When the use of STSA is made through pure optimization criteria, the performance of the model is poor. However, when the partition of the space of states is made according to economics intuition, the performance of the model increases considerably.

Brida, Juan Gabriel; Garrido, Nicolas

198

Buruli Ulcer in United Kingdom Tourist Returning from Latin America  

PubMed Central

We report a case of Buruli ulcer in a tourist from the United Kingdom. The disease was almost certainly acquired in Brazil, where only 1 case had previously been reported. The delay in diagnosis highlights the need for physicians to be aware of the disease and its epidemiology.

Stragier, Pieter; Portaels, Francoise; Gascoyne-Binzi, Deborah; Collyns, Timothy; Lucas, Sebastian; Mawer, Damian

2009-01-01

199

Pig islet xenotransplantation acceptance in a Latin-American diabetic population.  

PubMed

Progress in porcine islet xenotransplantation has been accompanied by studies on acceptance of this new procedure by patients, health professionals or the general public. Such studies have not been done in the Latin-American population. We conducted a questionnaire in 108 diabetes patients (insulin-dependent, n = 53; insulin-independent, n = 55) in a public hospital in Argentina. The questions addressed the general perception of the xenotransplant procedure and specific items related to the outcome (achieving insulin independence, improvement in metabolic control, delay in emergence of diabetic complications, need for repeat procedures, potential of transfer of infectious viruses, association with psychological problems, and anticipated success in relation to achieving a cure). Eighty-six (79%) of the patients accepted islet xenotransplantation; this incidence was not different for insulin-dependent or insulin-independent patients, patients with or without complications, or patients with good or poor metabolic control. Also, over 75% of patients accepted the procedure if this is only associated with a reduction in insulin requirement, if the procedure just delays but not prevents the onset of complications, or if the procedure needs to be performed every 6 months. Fifty-seven percent of patients indicated acceptance even if the potential transmission of a virus infection cannot be completely ruled out: this outcome was not affected by the outbreak of the H1N1 flu epidemic during the conduct of this study. Forty percent of patients indicated that living with porcine cells in their body could give psychological problems. We conclude that this population of Latin-American diabetic patients shows a high acceptance rate of a porcine islet xenotransplantation product. PMID:20723198

Abalovich, Adrián; Wechsler, Carlos; Lara, Silvia; Bervottini, Miguel

2010-01-01

200

Beliefs About Health and Illness in Latin-American Migrants with Diabetes Living in Sweden  

PubMed Central

The study explored beliefs about health and illness in Latin American migrants diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) living in Sweden, and investigated the influence on health-related behavior including self-care and care-seeking behavior. Migrants are particularly affected in the diabetes pandemia. Beliefs about health and illness determine health-related behaviour and health but no studies have been found on Latin American migrants with DM. An explorative study design with focus-group interviews of nine persons aged 36-77 years from a diabetes clinic was used. Health was described from a pathogenetic or a salutogenetic perspective: ‘freedom from disease or feeling of well-being’, and being autonomous and able to work. Economic hardship due to expenses for medications and food for DM affected health. Individual factors such as diet, exercise and compliance with advice, and social factors with good social relations and avoidance of stress, often caused by having experienced severe events related to migrational experiences, were considered important for maintaining health and could cause DM. Disturbed relations to others (social factors), punishment by God or Fate (supernatural factors), intake of diuretics and imbalance between warmth and cold (natural factors) were also perceived as causes. A mix of biomedical and traditional explanations and active self-care behaviour with frequent use of herbs was found. It is important to assess the individual’s beliefs, and health professionals, particularly nurses, should incorporate discussions of alternative treatments and other components of explanatory models and co-operate with social workers to consider influence of finances and migrational experiences on health.

Hjelm, Katarina; Bard, Karin

2013-01-01

201

Human Leukocyte Antigen Profiles of Latin American Populations: Differential Admixture and Its Potential Impact on Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation  

PubMed Central

The outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is shaped by both clinical and genetic factors that determine its success. Genetic factors including human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and non-HLA genetic variants are believed to influence the risk of potentially fatal complications after the transplant. Moreover, ethnicity has been proposed as a factor modifying the risk of graft-versus-host disease. The populations of Latin America are a complex array of different admixture processes with varying degrees of ancestral population proportions that came in different migration waves. This complexity makes the study of genetic risks in this region complicated unless the extent of this variation is thoroughly characterized. In this study we compared the HLA-A and HLA-B allele group profiles for 31 Latin American populations and 61 ancestral populations from Iberia, Italy, Sub-Saharan Africa, and America. Results from population genetics comparisons show a wide variation in the HLA profiles from the Latin American populations that correlate with different admixture proportions. Populations in Latin America seem to be organized in at least three groups with (1) strong Amerindian admixture, (2) strong Caucasian component, and (3) a Caucasian-African gradient. These results imply that genetic risk assessment for HSCT in Latin America has to be adapted for different population subgroups rather than as a pan-Hispanic/Latino analysis.

Arrieta-Bolanos, Esteban; Madrigal, J. Alejandro; Shaw, Bronwen E.

2012-01-01

202

PREFACE: XII Latin American workshop on plasma physics (17-21 September 2007, Caracas, Venezuela)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some years ago a group of Latin American physicists took the initiative to consult about the viability of organizing a meeting on plasma physics for researchers and students of the region. The result was that it was not only a good idea, but a necessity in order to show and share everyone's work, and to keep updated on latest advances and technologies on plasma physics. It was decided that for new researchers as well as students of Physics, it would prove to be the best way to keep them posted on such matters. This was the birth of a series of meetings known as Latin American workshops on plasma physics that take place every two years in a different Latin American country. In Venezuela we have had the opportunity to organize two editions of this interesting and important reunion of physicists. The first of these Latin American workshops on plasma physics was held in Cambuquira (Brazil) in 1982. After organizing the first six editions of the workshop, the VII LAWPP meeting was realized in Caracas in January 1997. It was designed with a structure similar to the first edition. It developed in two stages, a first week devoted to short courses with lecturers in different fields of plasma physics and a second week for contributed and invited presentations. Participants from sixteen different countries were present, half of them from this continent and the other half from overseas, demonstrating the international character of this meeting. There have been four more editions of the workshop and once again, we have had the opportunity to organize this latest edition of the series: the XII Latin American workshop on plasma physics, which took place in Caracas, Venezuela from the 17th to the 21st of September 2007. The structure was modified, because contributed and review papers were together during the first stage, with short courses realized during the second one, called mini-courses, and given by several high level contributors such as José Boedo, Leopoldo Soto, Claude Deutsch, Ricardo Galvao, Carlos Hidalgo, Paulo Sakanaka, Konosuke Sato, Malcom Haines and Maher Boulos. The general feeling is that these mini-courses were very successful. As an original idea of Professor Ricardo Magnus Osorio Galvão, Director of Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, we saluted the creation of The Vladimir Tsypin Award to the best Poster in the meeting. This prize was presented by Professor Galvão in memoriam of Vladimir Semenovich Tsypin. It was suggested that the granting of this award be made in every meeting from now on. We think that it is very important to emphasise the mini-courses due to the necessity of increasing in the near future a better formation for our young scientists. The contributions of all the lecturers are greatly appreciated. We had the typical fields in plasma physics as in past meetings. We also appreciated very much the lectures of Professor Malcolm Haines, Professor Sergey Popel, Professor Claude Deutsch, and Professor Antony Peratt for their very interesting talks on the Z-Pinch recorded to prehistory. Special thanks again to these lecturers since they have joined and honoured our meetings in the past as well. As in the VII LAWPP, all the sessions of the workshop were held at the Universidad Simon Bolivar campus, located in the nice green Valley of Sartenejas near Caracas. We also appreciate the stimulus and the financial support that we have always had for the preparation of these workshops from our institution by means of its authorities: Professor Benjamin Sharifker (Rector), Professor Aura Lopez (Dean of Academic Activities), (Professor Jose Luis Paz (Dean of Research and Development), Professor Pedro Berrisbeitia (Dean of Postgraduate Studies) and Professor William Colmenares (Dean of Extended Activities). We must also mention and appreciate the collaboration of architect Alejandro Chataing Roncajolo as Secretary and Coordinator of the Congress, as well as the daily important collaborations of our students Anais Möller, Laura Beiras, Juan Contreras, Gabriel Torrente, Aimée Guerrero, Francisco Jose Blanco

Puerta, Julio

2008-10-01

203

The housing, geography, and mobility of Latin American urban poor: the prevailing model and the case of Quito, Ecuador.  

PubMed

In this study of the constraints of low-income migrants in securing decent housing in Quito, Ecuador (a rapidly growing city), there is a literature review of Latin American intraurban mobility and housing, the development of a theoretical model, and a bivariate analysis. John Turner's model of the three stages in the life cycle of migrants and the three concentric zones of urbanization provides the initial framework for examining Quito migration. Quito differs from other Third World and Latin American cities in that its origins are pre-Colombian, and physical barriers surround the city. Data were obtained from housing data collected independently in 1990 and 1991 and survey data on households living in 1000 inadequate housing units in 1989. 35.5% of Quito's population live in inadequate housing (poor building materials, poor construction, deterioration, or lack of basic services). Three concentric and elongated zones are constructed based on distance from the center city and periphery and are representative of shelter types (rented rooms, shanty, house, and apartment). Shelter improves with type of ownership status. The attitudes of local officials influences the proportion of the poor living in rental or self-help housing. 36% of Quito's low-income residents live in rented rooms, and 38% live in shanties and houses. Bridgeheaders (new migrants who are usually young single males) tend to live in rented rooms for under five years and to move over time to shanties and then houses. Colonial preservation in central Quito and landlords' incentives for encouraging migrants to stay in rental housing interferes with the third phase of the model. Mixed housing throughout the city fits the third phase. Local laws prevent squatters and self-help housing. Rented rooms are primarily in the central city. Occupant income increases with shifts from rented rooms, to shanties, to houses. Shelter, geographic, and mobility patterns that do not fit the model are identified. Urban circumstance may not be linear and evolutionary as predicted, but the pattern is not diverse enough to warrant abandoning the model. The recommendation is for a flexible model for adapting a universal model to local and global conditions. PMID:12344752

Klak, T; Holtzclaw, M

1993-01-01

204

Latin American Marketing Project. Grade 10 Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this lesson, students work as marketing teams hired by a U.S. fast food company to study the feasibility of selling fast food in Latin America. Teams are composed of cultural, production, marketing, and advertising experts. Each marketing team will investigate a product and a Latin American country. Teams will present their research and…

Antilla, Madeline; DeMonet, J.

205

15th International Congress on Plasma Physics & 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010), together agreed to carry out this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8–13 August 2010, on occasion of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. The ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of the official program within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial. The event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project ''Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4'', supported by National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya, in 1980, and followed by the Congresses: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006), and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss the recent progress and future views in plasma science, including fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, and plasma applications, and so forth. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by the Workshops: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005), and Caracas (2007). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is a communication forum of the achievements of the plasma-physics regional community, fostering collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The program of the ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included the topics: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics, Fusion Plasmas, Plasmas in Astrophysics and Space Physics, Plasma Applications and Technologies, Complex Plasmas, High Energy Density Plasmas, Quantum Plasmas, Laser-Plasma Interaction and among others. A total of 180 delegates from 34 different countries took part in the ICPP-LAWPP-2010. Sixty delegates received economical assistance from the local organized committee, thanks to the support of the International Union for Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) and the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN). The ICPP-LAWPP-2010 Program was elaborated by the following Program Committee: Carlos Alejaldre, ITER Maria Virginia Alves, Brazil Julio Herrera, Mexico Günter Mank, IAEA George Morales, USA Padma Kant Shukla, Germany Guido Van Oost, Belgium Leopoldo Soto, Chile (Chairman) This Program Committee was formed by selected members from the International Advisory Committee of the ICPP and by selected members from the International Advisory Committee of the LAWPP. In particular, Plenary Lectures and Invited Topical Lectures were selected by the Program Committee from a list of nominated presentations by the International Advisory Committees of both ICPP and LAWPP. Also, the classification of oral and poster presentations was elaborated by the Program Committee. The congress included: 15 invited plenary talks, 33 invited topical talks, 45 oral contributions, and 160 poster contributions. A major part of the plenary and topical lectures were published in a special issue of the Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, IOP Publishing (Plasma Phys. Control Fusion Volume 53, Number 7, July 2011: http://iopscience.iop.org/0741-3335/53/7). The papers were refereed according to the standards of the journal Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. An large number of the participants sent their contributions articles to this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series, IOP Publishing. The articles received were reviewed by the local organizing committee and by invited peers. The criteria for review focused on the demand for a consistent research and the

Soto, Leopoldo

2014-05-01

206

What Does Latin American Social Medicine Do When It Governs? The Case of the Mexico City Government  

PubMed Central

Latin American social medicine (LASM) emerged as a movement in the 1970s and played an important role in the Brazilian health care reform of the 1980s, both of which focused on decentralization and on health care as a social right. The dominant health care reform model in Latin America has included a market-driven, private subsystem for the insured and a public subsystem for the uninsured and the poor. In contrast, the Mexico City government has launched a comprehensive policy based on social rights and redistribution of resources. A universal pension for senior citizens and free medical services are financed by grants, eliminating routine government corruption and waste. The Mexico City policy reflects the influence of Latin American social medicine. In this article, I outline the basic traits of LASM and those of the prevailing health care reform model in Latin America and describe the Mexico City social and health policy, emphasizing the influence of LASM in values, principles, and concrete programs.

Laurell, Asa Cristina

2003-01-01

207

Articles by Latin American Authors in Prestigious Journals Have Fewer Citations  

PubMed Central

Background The journal Impact factor (IF) is generally accepted to be a good measurement of the relevance/quality of articles that a journal publishes. In spite of an, apparently, homogenous peer-review process for a given journal, we hypothesize that the country affiliation of authors from developing Latin American (LA) countries affects the IF of a journal detrimentally. Methodology/Principal Findings Seven prestigious international journals, one multidisciplinary journal and six serving specific branches of science, were examined in terms of their IF in the Web of Science. Two subsets of each journal were then selected to evaluate the influence of author's affiliation on the IF. They comprised contributions (i) with authorship from four Latin American (LA) countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico) and (ii) with authorship from five developed countries (England, France, Germany, Japan and USA). Both subsets were further subdivided into two groups: articles with authorship from one country only and collaborative articles with authorship from other countries. Articles from the five developed countries had IF close to the overall IF of the journals and the influence of collaboration on this value was minor. In the case of LA articles the effect of collaboration (virtually all with developed countries) was significant. The IFs for non-collaborative articles averaged 66% of the overall IF of the journals whereas the articles in collaboration raised the IFs to values close to the overall IF. Conclusion/Significance The study shows a significantly lower IF in the group of the subsets of non-collaborative LA articles and thus that country affiliation of authors from non-developed LA countries does affect the IF of a journal detrimentally. There are no data to indicate whether the lower IFs of LA articles were due to their inherent inferior quality/relevance or psycho-social trend towards under-citation of articles from these countries. However, further study is required since there are foreseeable consequences of this trend as it may stimulate strategies by editors to turn down articles that tend to be under-cited.

Meneghini, Rogerio; Packer, Abel L.; Nassi-Calo, Lilian

2008-01-01

208

Sexual and reproductive behaviour among single women aged 15–24 in eight Latin American countries: a comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative analysis of exposure to sexual activity, contraceptive use, conceptions, and pregnancy resolutions among single women aged 15–24 in eight Latin American countries is presented. Using data from Demographic and Health Surveys complete contraceptive and reproductive histories are constructed for single women aged 15–24 during the 5 year period preceding each survey. Pre-marital conception rates and overall and cause-specific

Mohamed M. Ali; John Cleland

2005-01-01

209

Insulin resistance and glucose and lipid concentrations in a cohort of perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children.  

PubMed

We measured glucose, insulin and lipids in 249 perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children. Only 1 subject had impaired fasting glucose; 6.8% had insulin resistance. Abnormalities in total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were reported for 13%, 13%, 21% and 34%, respectively. Continued follow-up of this population is necessary to characterize the evolution and clinical consequences of these findings. PMID:23360832

Hazra, Rohan; Hance, Laura Freimanis; Monteiro, Jacqueline Pontes; Ruz, Noris Pavia; Machado, Daisy Maria; Saavedra, Mariza; Motta, Fabrizio; Harris, D Robert

2013-07-01

210

Teaching Spanish to Latin American Area Specialists at the Air Force Academy: A Focus on Language and Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The language program at the United State Air Force Academy is described with emphasis on its upper track courses that are designed to prepare area specialists to interact with their foreign counterparts. Air Force officers assigned to Latin America, for example, may serve as experts in political-military affairs, foreign military sales, or as…

Vela, Arnoldo

211

IMAGE OF LATIN AMERICA--A STUDY OF AMERICAN SCHOOL TEXTBOOKS AND SCHOOL CHILDREN, GRADES TWO THROUGH TWELVE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A CONTENT ANALYSIS WAS MADE OF 153 ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOKS DEALING WITH LATIN AMERICA. THE ANALYSES INCLUDED THE FORMULATION OF CATEGORIES FOR INTENSIVE STUDY AND TESTING. THE CATEGORIES WERE (1) GEOGRAPHY, (2) THE PEOPLE, (3) THE COLONIAL PERIOD AND THE REVOLUTIONS, (4) POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT, (5) UNITED STATES…

PERRONE, VITO

212

Translations on Latin America, No. 1909.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The serial report contains articles on political and sociological developments in major areas of Latin America, as reported primarily from Latin American news-papers and periodicals. It also includes information on major segments of Latin American economy...

1978-01-01

213

Translations on Latin America No. 1782.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The serial report contains articles on political and sociological developments in major areas of Latin America, as reported primarily from Latin American news papers and periodicals. It also includes information on major segments of Latin American economy...

1978-01-01

214

Translations on Latin America No. 1803.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The serial report contains articles on political and sociological developments in major areas of Latin America, as reported primarily from Latin American news papers and periodicals. It also includes information on major segments of Latin American economy...

1978-01-01

215

Translations on Latin America, Number 1630.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The serial report contains articles on political and sociological developments in major areas of Latin America, as reported primarily from Latin American news papers and periodicals. It also includes information on major segments of Latin American economy...

1977-01-01

216

Daily family assistance and inflammation among adolescents from Latin American and European backgrounds.  

PubMed

To assess the biological impact of time spent helping the family during the teenage years, we examined circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6r), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in 64 adolescents (M(age)=17.79 years) from Latin American and European backgrounds. Analyses of nightly diary checklists over 14 days showed that the amount of time spent helping the family in a variety of ways, such as cooking, cleaning, and sibling care, was associated with long-term elevations of sIL-6r and CRP, even after controlling for ethnicity, parental education, BMI, substance use, distress, and frequency of daily family assistance 2 years earlier. However, adolescents who derived a greater sense of role fulfillment from helping the family on a daily basis had lower levels of sIL-6r and CRP as compared to their peers who engaged in the same amount of family assistance. Additional work should explore the family context that drives high levels of assistance among adolescents, as well as the variety of ways adolescents may derive meaning from this activity. PMID:19275931

Fuligni, Andrew J; Telzer, Eva H; Bower, Julienne; Irwin, Michael R; Kiang, Lisa; Cole, Steve W

2009-08-01

217

Do Latin American scientific journals follow dual-use review policies?  

PubMed

During the past decade, a number of journals have implemented dual-use policies in order to analyze whether the papers submitted for publication could raise concern because of the potential for misuse of their content. In this context, an analysis was performed on Latin American scientific journals to examine whether they apply formal written dual-use review policies and whether they inform their authors and reviewers about potentially sensitive issues in this area, as other international journals do. Peer-reviewed life sciences journals indexed in Latindex from Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, and Chile were analyzed. The Guide for Authors and the Instructions to Referees of 216 journals included in the Latindex catalogue (which means that they meet the best quality standards of the Latindex system) were screened for biosecurity-related information using the keywords biosecurity, biological weapons, and dual-use research of concern. Results showed that the screened publications had a total lack of dual-use review policies, even though some of them pointed out ethical behaviors to be followed related to authorship, plagiarism, simultaneous submission, research results misappropriation, ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, guiding principles for the care and use of animals in research, research standard violations, and reviewer bias, among others. PMID:24693885

Valles, Edith Gladys; Bernacchi, Adriana Silvina

2014-01-01

218

Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities.  

PubMed

This paper explores whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards. PMID:23434119

Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Qin, Hua; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy

2013-04-01

219

Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

Romero-Lankao, P.; Borbor Cordova, M.; Qin, H.

2013-12-01

220

Adult education as a human right: The Latin American context and the ecopedagogic perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries, both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well as technical. All along the history of contemporary education it is essential to highlight the importance of the CONFINTEA conferences for the construction of an expanded vision of this concept. Adult education is understood as a human right. The right to education does not end when a person has reached the so-called "proper" age; it continues to be a right for the duration of everyone's entire life. This article explores Paulo Freire's contribution, particularly the methodology of MOVA (Youth and Adult Literacy Movement). It also presents the ecopedagogic perspective, which was inspired by Paulo Freire's legacy. Finally, this article stresses the need to support a long-term policy for adult education, following the recommendations of the Civil Society International Forum (FISC) and CONFINTEA VI, both held in Belém, Brazil, in 2009.

Gadotti, Moacir

2011-08-01

221

[Progress and pending issues in the Latin American agenda for tobacco control].  

PubMed

Projections based on the most recent report on the Global Burden of Disease show that the observed increase in smoking prevalence in middle and low income countries will contribute to the increase of the number of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and some cancers. The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control recommends a group of actions to curb the tobacco epidemic. This is a review paper based on the most recent MPOWER report and also included in this review are some of the most recent tobacco control measures implemented during 2009 and 2010. We conclude that most Latin American countries have achieved significant progress in tobacco control in recent years. However, when comparing the current situation against the WHO recommendations we realized that for most countries there is still work to be done. If current smoking prevalence among teenagers remains unchanged, there will be a significant increase in the number of premature deaths attributable to tobacco consumption in future decades. PMID:21243205

Valdés-Salgado, Raydel

2010-01-01

222

Public vaccine manufacturing capacity in the Latin American and Caribbean region: current status and perspectives.  

PubMed

The vaccine global market is currently growing at a rate of 16.52%. Nowadays the vaccine manufacturing industry is limited in the sense that not all vaccine manufacturers have the capacity to execute all the steps necessary to produce a successful product. The biological variation inherent to vaccine manufacturing and the initial investment required to bring a vaccine to the market are some of the factors that discourage vaccine manufacturing initiatives. Given the current global context in vaccine innovation and production, and the increasing participation of vaccine manufacturers from developing countries in global markets, this paper aims to review vaccine manufacturing capacity in Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries with specific focus on trends in national or public sector manufacturing, presenting current challenges and future opportunities for the sector in meeting national and regional (LAC) needs. Despite the overall low vaccine manufacturing capacity reported within the LAC region within this paper, it is considered that the relatively high and concentrated capacity that exists within a number of countries, combined with political commitment of all countries within the Region, can provide the necessary platform for the continued development of capacity in vaccine development and manufacture within LAC. PMID:22033155

Cortes, Maria de los Angeles; Cardoso, Daniel; Fitzgerald, James; DiFabio, Jose Luis

2012-01-01

223

[Production of scientific articles about health in six Latin American countries, 1973-1992].  

PubMed

The production of articles resulting from biomedical, clinical, and public health studies that originated in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, and Venezuela from 1973 through 1992 was analyzed to discover trends in health research in Latin America. From the database of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), 41,238 articles with first authors who resided in those countries were extracted. These articles were analyzed by subject area, type of study, country, number of authors and institutions that participated in the investigation, and citations received by each article. Also analyzed were 95 articles in epidemiology selected from a pool of 570 published by authors from the six countries in 11 public health journals that enjoy international prestige. The results showed that the number of published works increased by 117% between the first and last five-year periods within the study period. Clinical research was distributed the most evenly among the countries, and public health research was the most concentrated (60.7% originated in Brazil). The numbers of biomedical and public health research articles showed relatively more growth than those reporting on clinical research throughout the period. A relative decrease was found in articles by only one author, which suggests a greater frequency of team efforts, and an increase was seen in articles with authors tied to two or more national or foreign institutions, which indicates greater cooperation between institutions and countries. The average number of citations received by each article was 3, which was less than half the number received by the articles in the ISI database (7.78). Regarding the subset of 95 articles in epidemiology, the great majority (96%) dealt with infectious diseases or maternal and child health, while in the international literature 78% of such articles were about chronic diseases. This group of articles gave evidence of more cooperation with international institutions and had a citation index of 4.36 per article. It is concluded that, despite the inherent limitations, this type of study reveals some general trends in the development of research in the six Latin American countries with the greatest scientific production and makes it possible to formulate hypotheses on the factors that influence these trends. Taken with the paper caution, the results of studies like this one can be of great value in defining health science and technology policies. PMID:9162579

Pellegrini Filho, A; Goldbaum, M; Silvi, J

1997-01-01

224

Teaching Afro-Latin American Culture in the Intermediate Spanish Class: Resources and Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Supplementing traditional cultural material with presentation of African elements of the folklore and culture of Latin America is proposed as a means of increasing black student interest in intermediate Spanish language courses. Topics and suggested lesson titles reflecting diverse nonliterary aspects of the black experience in Latin America that…

Kennedy, James H.

225

Private Telecommunications Investment in Emerging Economies: Comparing the Latin American and Asian Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a proprietary database of telecommunications projects in emerging markets, we investigate key location characteristics of private infrastructure projects in Latin America and Asia. We identify economic, institutional, sectoral, and cultural variables that influence project structure, and compare these environmental and structural characteristics between and within our focal regions. We find that investment projects in Latin America and Asia differ

Jonathan P. Doh; Hildy J. Teegen

2003-01-01

226

Where Did the Trade Liberalization Drive Latin American Economy: A Cross Section Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The institutional reforms towards trade liberalizations in Latin America during the 1980s and the 1990s have introduced a good measure of import competition, but trade policies alone are not sufficient to create a competitive environment in an economy. The countries in Latin America have not had much experience with competition policies in the past. Combined with restrictive trade policies, the

Rajagopal

2005-01-01

227

From Party Systems to Party Organizations: The Adaptation of Latin American Parties to Changing Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Review Article:

  • Alcántara Sáez, Manuel (ed.) (2008), Politicians and Politics in Latin America, Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.<\\/li>
  • Greene, Kenneth F. (2007), Why Dominant Parties Lose. Mexico’s Democratization in Comparative Perspective, New York: Cambridge University Press.<\\/li>
  • Levitsky, Steven (2003), Transforming Labor-based Parties in Latin America: Argentine Peronism in Comparative Perspective, New York: Cambridge University Press. <\\/li><\\/ul>The study of party systems and political

    Laura Wills-Otero

    2009-01-01

228

Meaning in Life as a Mediator of Ethnic Identity and Adjustment Among Adolescents from Latin, Asian, and European American Backgrounds  

PubMed Central

Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining associations between ethnic identity and adjustment were examined. Although no generational or gender differences were found, Asian Americans reported higher search for meaning than Latin and European Americans. Presence of meaning was positively associated with self-esteem, academic adjustment, daily well-being, and ethnic belonging and exploration, whereas search for meaning was related to lower self-esteem and less stability in daily well-being. Presence of meaning mediated associations between ethnic identity and adjustment, explaining 28–52% of ethnic identity’s protective effect on development. Ethnic identity thus appears to affect adjustment, in part, through its role in fostering a positive sense of meaning in adolescents’ lives.

Fuligni, Andrew J.

2009-01-01

229

Perceived barriers in accessing food among recent Latin American immigrants in Toronto  

PubMed Central

Objective In Canada, recent immigrant households experience more food insecurity than the general population, but limited information is available about the personal, cultural, and social factors that contribute to this vulnerability. This study focused on recent Latin American (LA) immigrants to explore their perceived barriers in acquiring safe, nutritious, and culturally-appropriate food. Design A cross-sectional mixed-method design was applied to collect information from a convenience sample of 70 adult Spanish/Portuguese speakers who had arrived in Toronto within the last five years. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with primary household caregivers to obtain responses about barriers to acquiring food for their households; data were analyzed using a thematic analysis technique. Results Four main categories of barriers were identified: limited financial resources; language difficulty; cultural food preferences; and poor knowledge of available community-based food resources and services. Inadequate income was the main impediment in accessing adequate food, and was related to affordability of food items, accessibility of food outlets and transportation cost, and limited time for grocery shopping due to work conditions. Language barriers affected participants’ ability to obtain well-paid employment and their awareness about and access to available community-based food resources. Cultural barriers were related to food preferences and limited access to culturally-appropriate foods and resources. Conclusion The main barrier to food security among our sample of LA newcomers to Toronto is limited financial resources, highlighting the need for policies and strategies that could improve their financial power to purchase sufficient, nutritious, and culturally-acceptable food. Linguistic barriers and limited information among newcomers suggest the need to provide linguistically- and culturally-appropriate information related to community-based food programs and resources, as well as accessible subsidized English language programs, in the community and at workplaces. Participatory community-based food programs can augment, in a socially acceptable manner, food resources and reduce the social stigma attached to food charity. Finally, it is crucial to monitor and evaluate existing social and community-based services for their accessibility, cultural appropriateness and diversity, and effectiveness.

2013-01-01

230

Role of gene polymorphisms in gastric cancer and its precursor lesions: current knowledge and perspectives in Latin American countries.  

PubMed

Latin America shows one of the highest incidence rates of gastric cancer in the world, with variations in mortality rates among nations or even within countries belonging to this region. Gastric cancer is the result of a multifactorial complex process, for which a multistep model of carcinogenesis is currently accepted. Additionally to the infection with Helicobacter pylori, that plays a major role, environmental factors as well as genetic susceptibility factors are significant players at different stages in the gastric cancer process. The differences in population origin, demographic structure, socio-economic development, and the impact of globalization lifestyles experienced in Latin America in the last decades, all together offer opportunities for studying in this context the influence of genetic polymorphisms in the susceptibility to gastric cancer. The aim of this article is to discuss current trends on gastric cancer in Latin American countries and to review the available published information about studies of association of gene polymorphisms involved in gastric cancer susceptibility from this region of the world. A total of 40 genes or genomic regions and 69 genetic variants, 58% representing markers involved in inflammatory response, have been used in a number of studies in which predominates a low number of individuals (cases and controls) included. Polymorphisms of IL-1B (-511 C/T, 14 studies; -31 T/C, 10 studies) and IL-1RN (variable number of tandem repeats, 17 studies) are the most represented ones in the reviewed studies. Other genetic variants recently evaluated in large meta-analyses and associated with gastric cancer risk were also analyzed in a few studies [e.g., prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), CDH1, Survivin]. Further and better analysis centered in gene polymorphisms linked to other covariates, epidemiological studies and the information provided by meta-analyses and genome-wide association studies should help to improve our understanding of gastric cancer etiology in order to develop appropriate health programs in Latin America. PMID:24782603

Chiurillo, Miguel Angel

2014-04-28

231

Role of gene polymorphisms in gastric cancer and its precursor lesions: Current knowledge and perspectives in Latin American countries  

PubMed Central

Latin America shows one of the highest incidence rates of gastric cancer in the world, with variations in mortality rates among nations or even within countries belonging to this region. Gastric cancer is the result of a multifactorial complex process, for which a multistep model of carcinogenesis is currently accepted. Additionally to the infection with Helicobacter pylori, that plays a major role, environmental factors as well as genetic susceptibility factors are significant players at different stages in the gastric cancer process. The differences in population origin, demographic structure, socio-economic development, and the impact of globalization lifestyles experienced in Latin America in the last decades, all together offer opportunities for studying in this context the influence of genetic polymorphisms in the susceptibility to gastric cancer. The aim of this article is to discuss current trends on gastric cancer in Latin American countries and to review the available published information about studies of association of gene polymorphisms involved in gastric cancer susceptibility from this region of the world. A total of 40 genes or genomic regions and 69 genetic variants, 58% representing markers involved in inflammatory response, have been used in a number of studies in which predominates a low number of individuals (cases and controls) included. Polymorphisms of IL-1B (-511 C/T, 14 studies; -31 T/C, 10 studies) and IL-1RN (variable number of tandem repeats, 17 studies) are the most represented ones in the reviewed studies. Other genetic variants recently evaluated in large meta-analyses and associated with gastric cancer risk were also analyzed in a few studies [e.g., prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), CDH1, Survivin]. Further and better analysis centered in gene polymorphisms linked to other covariates, epidemiological studies and the information provided by meta-analyses and genome-wide association studies should help to improve our understanding of gastric cancer etiology in order to develop appropriate health programs in Latin America.

Chiurillo, Miguel Angel

2014-01-01

232

Challenges to reduce the '10/90 gap': mental health research in Latin American and Caribbean countries  

PubMed Central

Razzouk D, Gallo C, Olifson S, Zorzetto R, Fiestas F, Poletti G, Mazzotti G, Levav I, Mari JJ. Challenges to reduce the ‘10/90 gap’: mental health research in Latin American and Caribbean countries. Objective: To analyze the status of mental health research in 30 Latin American and Caribbean countries (LAC). Method: Medline and PsycInfo databases were searched to identify the LAC authors. Their publications were classified according to the topic, type of research and target population studied. Scientific indicators of these countries were assessed in other two different databases: Essential Scientific Information and Atlas of Science Project, both from Institute for Scientific Information. Results: Indexed-publications were concentrated in six countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela. Most studies dealt with the burdensome mental disorders but neglected important topics such as violence and other mental health priorities. Conclusion: Mental health research is mostly concentrated in a few LAC countries, but these countries would contribute to reduce the research gap, if they provide research training to their neighbors and engage in bi- or multi-lateral research collaboration on common region priorities.

Razzouk, D; Gallo, C; Olifson, S; Zorzetto, R; Fiestas, F; Poletti, G; Mazzotti, G; Levav, I; Mari, J J

2008-01-01

233

Educational Inequalities among Latin American Adolescents: Continuities and Changes over the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s  

PubMed Central

The goal of this paper is to examine recent trends in educational stratification for Latin American adolescents growing up in three distinct periods: the 1980s, during severe recession; the 1990s, a period of structural adjustments imposed by international organizations; and the late 2000s, when most countries in the region experienced positive and stable growth. In addition to school enrollment and educational transitions, we examine the quality of education through enrollment in private schools, an important aspect of inequality in education that most studies have neglected. We use nationally representative household survey data for the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s in Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Uruguay. Our overall findings confirm the importance of macroeconomic conditions for inequalities in educational opportunity, suggesting important benefits brought up by the favorable conditions of the 2000s. However, our findings also call attention to increasing disadvantages associated with the quality of the education adolescents receive, suggesting the significance of the EMI framework—Effectively Maintained Inequality—and highlighting the value of examining the quality in addition to the quantity of education in order to fully understand educational stratification in the Latin American context.

Marteleto, Leticia; Gelber, Denisse; Hubert, Celia; Salinas, Viviana

2012-01-01

234

Risk perception and vulnerability to STIs and HIV/AIDS among immigrant Latin-American women in Canada.  

PubMed

This paper describes the migratory experiences of Latin American migrant women living in Canada, their perceptions of the risk of HIV, AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and barriers to accessing healthcare services. We conducted 25 in-depth interviews with Latin American migrant women living in Montreal, Canada. The majority of participants were permanent residents and refugee status claimants. Women's experiences in Canada were characterised by uncertainty, deception and fraud, separation from their families and feelings of discrimination. Women's risk perception of HIV/AIDS/STIs involved relations of gender inequalities of power. Women who did not perceive themselves to be at risk were those who had a stable partner who they felt they could trust. The majority of women reported difficulties in accessing sexual and reproductive health services. Women's vulnerability to HIV/AIDS/STIs was determined by: experiences during their lifecourse; their migratory status, which was associated with sexual abuse, abuse at work, language barriers and lack of social support networks; and their ability to access health services. The provision of health services to this population must focus on sexual and reproductive health needs and should do so from a multicultural perspective that takes into account the changes associated with the migration process. PMID:24697557

Ochoa, Sandra Catalina; Sampalis, John

2014-04-01

235

Supportive Adult Relationships and the Academic Engagement of Latin American Immigrant Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central aim of this study was to explore the academic engagement trajectories of a sample of recently arrived immigrant students from Latin America. Using an analytic framework that can dynamically model time-sensitive fluctuations (HLM; [Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchicical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis…

Green, G.; Rhodes, J.; Hirsch, A. H.; Suarez-Orozco, C.; Camic, P. M.

2008-01-01

236

Openness and Wage Inequality in Developing Countries: The Latin American Challenge to East Asian Conventional Wisdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experience of East Asia in the 1960s and 1970s supports the theory that greater openness to trade tends to narrow the wage gap between skilled and unskilled workers in developing countries. In Latin America since the mid-1980s, however, increased openness has widened wage differentials. This conflict of evidence is probably not the result of differences between East Asia and

Adrian Wood

1997-01-01

237

Unilever's Latin American Strategy in Yellow Fats, Ice Cream and Teas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article investigates the interplay between the changes in the large corporate strategy of a multinational and changes in the business environment in Latin America. In its international expansion, Unilever has traditionally used a decentralized national responsive strategy where local subsidiaries develop their markets with a great degree of autonomy. In response to globalization, Unilever moved towards greater business coordination

Fernando Robles; Renato Cotta de Mello

2001-01-01

238

Supportive adult relationships and the academic engagement of Latin American immigrant youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central aim of this study was to explore the academic engagement trajectories of a sample of recently arrived immigrant students from Latin America. Using an analytic framework that can dynamically model time-sensitive fluctuations (HLM; [Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchicical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods (2nd Edition ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications]), we

Gillian Green; Jean Rhodes; Abigail Heitler Hirsch; Carola Suárez-Orozco; Paul M. Camic

2008-01-01

239

The space transportation system and its impact on Latin American development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The three components of the Space Transportation System: the space shuttle, the permanent orbital space station and the transorbital vehicle are described. The stages of completion of the various plans are discussed and the impact of the project's implementation is discussed with particular reference to Latin America and with special emphasis on the telecommunications sector.

Diaz, F. R. C.

1985-01-01

240

Latin American ethnopedology: A vision of its past, present, and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopedology is the study of local knowledge of soil and land management in an ecological perspective. It is an emerging hybrid discipline that is a component of ethnoecology and stands to offer much for land-based studies. This paper reviews the field of ethnopedology in Latin America and compares some of the many case studies from that region. Various literature sources

Antoinette M. G. A. WinklerPrins; Narciso Barrera-Bassols

2004-01-01

241

The Analysis of ‘Leading Sectors’: A Long term view of 18 Latin American economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1950s and 60s, in Latin America structuralism was considered as the preeminent form of analysis of economic development and growth. Nowadays, in contrast, as a mode of analysis structuralism is distinctly unfashionable, and has been superceded by newer endogenous growth theories, which build on earlier neoclassical contributions. Beyond broad endorsements of enhancing human capital, promoting infrastructure provision and

Alejandra Acevedo; Andrew Mold; Esteban Perez Caldentey

2009-01-01

242

Price Stickiness in Emerging Economies: Empirical Evidence for Four Latin-American Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of vast theoretical developments on the issue of price stickiness in the context of macroeconomic models, papers assessing the empirical validity of such hypothesis using micro-data are scarce. Most of these few attempts have been done for developed economies. The few papers that focus on developing countries, in particular, on Latin America utilize different methodologies and data sets,

Felipe Morandé Lavín; Mauricio Tejada

2008-01-01

243

Where Did the Trade Liberalization Drive Latin American Economy: A Cross Section Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The institutional reforms towards trade liberalizations in Latin America during the 1980s and the 1990s have introduced a good measure of import competition, but trade policies alone are not sufficient to create a competitive environment in an economy. Most of the region's economies have changed from restrictive to open policies, but unlike trade liberalization in Europe, most trade barriers in

Rajagopal

2006-01-01

244

PSC 349: Topics in World Politics: Latin American Political Economy Fall 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latin America has gone through dramatic change over the last half century as the region shifted economic models and searched for new forms of integration into the international economic system. At the same time, several basic power parameters have proven quite durable, as have many of the region's social and economic problems. This course explores competing theories about the reasons

ROSE J. SPALDING

245

Seminario y Viaje de Estudio de Coniferas Latinoamericanas (Seminar and Field Study of Latin American Conifers).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1960 the FAO sponsored a study tour to demonstrate the value and potential value of the coniferous resources of Latin America. This is the report of that study tour. It includes seven chapters: 'Botanical'; 'Ecology and Forestry'; 'Soils: the Basic Pro...

1967-01-01

246

Capital Flows, Real Exchange Rates, and Capital Controls: Some Latin American Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with some of the most important aspects of Latin America's experience with capital flows during the last twenty-five years. The paper begins with a historical analysis. I then deal with the sequencing of reform and discuss issues related to the relationship between capital flows, real exchange rates, and international competitiveness. I next concentrate on the role of

Sebastian Edwards

1998-01-01

247

Introduction: science, technology and society studies - from the European and American north to the Latin American south  

Microsoft Academic Search

This introduction has two intentions. First, against a broad science, technology, and society (STS) studies background, it provides a brief description of state-of-the-art of STS studies in Ibero-America (that is, Latin America plus Spain and Portugal), as well as a reflection on some difficulties and recent initiatives linked to the promotion of such studies in the region. STS is a

José A. López Cerezo; Carlos Verdadero

2003-01-01

248

Educational Building in Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents articles describing recent developments in three Latin American countries (Chile, Brazil, and Venezuela) to expand public education facilities, along with a report on UNESCO's recent seminar in Latin America on architecture for an inclusive education. (EV)

Baza, Jadille; Vaz, Rita de Cassia Alves; Millan, Eduardo; Almeida, Rodolfo

2002-01-01

249

Patterns of scientific communication among Latin American countries, in the field of medical education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports on the medical subject headings that build-up the medical education field in Latin America, through the content and citation analysis ofEducation Medica y Salud (EMS). An attempt was made to establish the articulations between the citing and cited countries in the region. It was generally found that EMS was built-up by subjects of Medical Education, Health Manpower,

C. A. Macías-Chapula

1992-01-01

250

Physical activity promotion in Latin American populations: a systematic review on issues of internal and external validity  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this review was to determine the degree to which physical activity interventions for Latin American populations reported on internal and external validity factors using the RE-AIM framework (reach & representativeness, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance). We systematically identified English (PubMed; EbscoHost) and Spanish (SCIELO; Biblioteca Virtual en Salud) language studies published between 2001 and 2012 that tested physical activity, exercise, or fitness promotion interventions in Latin American populations. Cross-sectional/descriptive studies, conducted in Brazil or Spain, published in Portuguese, not including a physical activity/fitness/exercise outcome, and with one time point assessment were excluded. We reviewed 192 abstracts and identified 46 studies that met the eligibility criteria (34 in English, 12 in Spanish). A validated 21-item RE-AIM abstraction tool was used to determine the quality of reporting across studies (0-7?=?low, 8-14?=?moderate, and 15-21?=?high). The number of indicators reported ranged from 3–14 (mean?=?8.1?±?2.6), with the majority of studies falling in the moderate quality reporting category. English and Spanish language articles did not differ on the number of indicators reported (8.1 vs. 8.3, respectively). However, Spanish articles reported more across reach indicators (62% vs. 43% of indicators), while English articles reported more across effectiveness indicators (69% vs 62%). Across RE-AIM dimensions, indicators for reach (48%), efficacy/effectiveness (67%), and implementation (41%) were reported more often than indicators of adoption (25%) and maintenance (10%). Few studies reported on the representativeness of participants, staff that delivered interventions, or the settings where interventions were adopted. Only 13% of the studies reported on quality of life and/or potential negative outcomes, 20% reported on intervention fidelity, and 11% on cost of implementation. Outcomes measured after six months of intervention, information on continued delivery and institutionalization of interventions, were also seldom reported. Regardless of language of publication, physical activity intervention research for Latin Americans should increase attention to and measurement of external validity and cost factors that are critical in the decision making process in practice settings and can increase the likelihood of translation into community or clinical practice.

2014-01-01

251

Physical activity promotion in Latin American populations: a systematic review on issues of internal and external validity.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review was to determine the degree to which physical activity interventions for Latin American populations reported on internal and external validity factors using the RE-AIM framework (reach & representativeness, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance). We systematically identified English (PubMed; EbscoHost) and Spanish (SCIELO; Biblioteca Virtual en Salud) language studies published between 2001 and 2012 that tested physical activity, exercise, or fitness promotion interventions in Latin American populations. Cross-sectional/descriptive studies, conducted in Brazil or Spain, published in Portuguese, not including a physical activity/fitness/exercise outcome, and with one time point assessment were excluded. We reviewed 192 abstracts and identified 46 studies that met the eligibility criteria (34 in English, 12 in Spanish). A validated 21-item RE-AIM abstraction tool was used to determine the quality of reporting across studies (0-7?=?low, 8-14?=?moderate, and 15-21?=?high). The number of indicators reported ranged from 3-14 (mean?=?8.1?±?2.6), with the majority of studies falling in the moderate quality reporting category. English and Spanish language articles did not differ on the number of indicators reported (8.1 vs. 8.3, respectively). However, Spanish articles reported more across reach indicators (62% vs. 43% of indicators), while English articles reported more across effectiveness indicators (69% vs 62%). Across RE-AIM dimensions, indicators for reach (48%), efficacy/effectiveness (67%), and implementation (41%) were reported more often than indicators of adoption (25%) and maintenance (10%). Few studies reported on the representativeness of participants, staff that delivered interventions, or the settings where interventions were adopted. Only 13% of the studies reported on quality of life and/or potential negative outcomes, 20% reported on intervention fidelity, and 11% on cost of implementation. Outcomes measured after six months of intervention, information on continued delivery and institutionalization of interventions, were also seldom reported. Regardless of language of publication, physical activity intervention research for Latin Americans should increase attention to and measurement of external validity and cost factors that are critical in the decision making process in practice settings and can increase the likelihood of translation into community or clinical practice. PMID:24938641

Galaviz, Karla I; Harden, Samantha M; Smith, Erin; Blackman, Kacie Ca; Berrey, Leanna M; Mama, Scherezade K; Almeida, Fabio A; Lee, Rebecca E; Estabrooks, Paul A

2014-01-01

252

The need and viability of a mediation index in Latin American scientific production and publication : The case of the Redalyc System of Scientific Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce the online information system Redalyc as an intermediary tool that provides Latin American scientific articles with international standards (mostly related to natural sciences and developed countries) as well as with specific areas to host local research. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Redalyc is based on a semantic intersection model proposed by Russian semiologist

Eduardo Aguado-López; Gustavo Adolfo Garduño-Oropeza; Rosario Rogel-Salazar; María Fernanda Zúñiga-Roca

2012-01-01

253

1970 MLA International Bibliography of Books and Articles on the Modern Languages and Literatures, Volume I: General, English, American, Medieval and Neo-Latin, Celtic Literatures; and Folklore.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volume 1 of the four-volume, international bibliography contains over 11,140 entries referring to books, Festschriften, analyzed collections, and articles which focus on General, English, American, medieval and neo-Latin, and Celtic literatures. A section of folklore is also included. The section on general literature includes: (1) aesthetics, (2)…

Meserole, Harrison T., Comp.

254

Las historias de la narrativa hispanoamericana: Criterios, metodos y ausencias. (Histories of the Latin-American Narrative: Criteria, Methods, and Absences).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explains that materials on the teaching of Latin-American literature are sparse, even though most researchers in the field will dedicate much of their time to teaching. The paper adds that, in scholarly journals, little attention is given to teaching literature, and the topic is also absent from most academic congresses. The paper then…

Zavalo, Lauro

255

American Indians of United States by Place.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents previously unpublished data on the American Indian population from the 1970 Census for places of 10,000 or more with 400 or more American Indians. Detailed tables contain data on characteristics such as age, sex, marital status, relati...

J. R. Corn

1980-01-01

256

Mestizos with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Develop Renal Disease Early while Antimalarials Retard its Appearance: Data from a Latin American Cohort  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the predictors of time-to-lupus renal disease in Latin American patients. Methods SLE patients (n=1480) from GLADEL’s (Grupo Latino Americano De Estudio de Lupus) longitudinal inception cohort were studied. Endpoint was ACR renal criterion development after SLE diagnosis (prevalent cases excluded). Renal disease predictors were examined by univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Antimalarials were considered time-dependent in alternative analyses. Results Of the entire cohort, 265 patients (17.9%) developed renal disease after entering the cohort. Of them, 88 (33.2%) developed persistent proteinuria, 44 (16.6%) cellular casts and 133 (50.2%) both; 233 patients (87.9%) were women; mean (± SD) age at diagnosis was 28.0 (11.9) years; 12.8% were African-Latin Americans, 52.5% Mestizos, 34.7% Caucasians (p=0.0016). Mestizo ethnicity (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.19–2.17), hypertension (HR 3.99, 95% CI 3.02–5.26) and SLEDAI at diagnosis (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01–1.06) were associated with a shorter time-to-renal disease occurrence; antimalarial use (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.43–0.77), older age at onset (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.85–0.95, for every 5 years) and photosensitivity (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.56–0.98) were associated with a longer time. Alternative model results were consistent with the antimalarial protective effect (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.50–0.99). Conclusions Our data strongly support the fact that Mestizo patients are at increased risk of developing renal disease early while antimalarials seem to delay the appearance of this SLE manifestation. These data have important implications for the treatment of these patients regardless of their geographic location.

Pons-Estel, Guillermo J.; Alarcon, Graciela S.; Burgos, Paula I.; Hachuel, Leticia; Boggio, Gabriela; Wojdyla, Daniel; Nieto, Romina; Alvarellos, Alejandro; Catoggio, Luis J.; Guibert-Toledano, Marlene; Sarano, Judith; Massardo, Loreto; Vasquez, Gloria M.; Iglesias-Gamarra, Antonio; Lavras Costallat, Lilian T.; Da Silva, Nilzio A.; Alfaro, Jose L.; Abadi, Isaac; Segami, Maria I.; Huerta, Guillermo; Cardiel, Mario H.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.

2014-01-01

257

Constrasting Ways of Life in Latin America; Sample Lessons for the Intermediate Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of several sequential units developed by the Latin American Curriculum Project. The primary objective was to promote pupil understanding of the social and cultural patterns (ways of living) of Latin America. Appreciation of the diversity in the area is developed by comparing four different families, and contrasting these with life in…

Gill, Clark C.; Conroy, William B.

258

African-American Attitudes towards United States Immigration Policy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores attitudes of African Americans about U.S. immigration policy, from slavery to the present. Fourteen contemporary polls reveal a long-standing preference among blacks in the United States for restricting immigration rather than maintaining or increasing it, in spite of beliefs that make it difficult for African Americans to see the…

Diamond, Jeff

1998-01-01

259

Organ donation in Latin America.  

PubMed

Recently in Latin America, there has been a strong influence of the "Spanish model" of organ procurement. In 2001, The "Punta Cana Group" was created by Latin American transplantation coordinators with the objective of registering and improving the system of donation and procurement. In many countries there is no universal financial support from the government for medical treatment, including dialysis and transplantation. In other countries there is complete financial support for all of the population, including immunosuppressive drugs. Practically all countries have transplantation laws that follow ethical concepts, such as brain death diagnosis criteria, forms of consent, criteria of allocation, and inhibition of commerce. The rate of potential donors notified in countries that perform transplantations with deceased donors varied from 6 to 47 per million population yearly (pmp/y); The rate of effective donors varied from 1 to 20 pmp. In 2004, the mean rate of effective donors in Latin America was 5.4 pmp. The family refusal rate for the donation of organs varied from 28% in Uruguay to 70% in Peru. In some countries, such as Puerto Rico, Uruguay, and Cuba, it was more than 15 pmp, whereas in others countries deceased donors were practically not used. The number of patients on the waiting list for solid organ transplants in 12 Latin American countries is 55,000. Although the donation rate has increased by 100% during the last 10 years, it is lower than that in Europe (15 pmm/y) or the United States (20 pmp/y). PMID:17362721

Mizraji, R; Alvarez, I; Palacios, R I; Fajardo, C; Berrios, C; Morales, F; Luna, E; Milanés, C; Andrade, M; Duque, E; Giron, F; Alfonso, J; Herra, S; Soratti, C; Ibar, R; Garcia, V D

2007-03-01

260

Planning Regional Document-Delivery Services for the Water Decade: The Latin American and Caribbean Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents objectives, scope, structure, operations, principal products, and bibliographic services of the Regional Network for Information and Documentation (REPIDISCA) sponsored by the Pan American Health Organization. Planning of a regional document delivery service (basic parameters, microform technology, network procedures, payment,…

Bartone, Carl R.

1982-01-01

261

[Control of Chagas disease in pregnant Latin-American women and her children].  

PubMed

Chagas disease is a chronic and systemic infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. According to estimates from WHO, 10 million people are affected by this parasite. In the last years, birthrate among the immigrant women from Latin America settled in the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid has been increasing, and as T. cruzi can be transmitted from mother to child, in fact 11 cases of congenital Chagas disease have been confirmed. Therefore, the aim of this paper is encouraging improvements in the coverage of the anti-T. cruzi antibodies detection in pregnant women from endemic areas. By this strategy, an active search for infected pregnant women and early detection of her infected newborns could be conducted, and then an early specific treatment could be administrated. Thus, there could be an important contribution to the control of Chagas disease in non-endemic area. PMID:24080893

Merino, Francisco J; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Olabarrieta, Iciar; Merino, Paloma; García-Bujalance, Silvia; Gastañaga, Teresa; Flores-Chavez, María

2013-09-01

262

Economic evaluation of Chagas disease screening of pregnant Latin American women and of their infants in a non endemic area.  

PubMed

Migration is a channel through which Chagas disease is imported, and vertical transmission is a channel through which the disease is spread in non-endemic countries. This study presents the economic evaluation of Chagas disease screening in pregnant women from Latin America and in their newborns in a non endemic area such as Spain. The economic impact of Chagas disease screening is tested through two decision models, one for the newborn and one for the mother, against the alternative hypothesis of no screening for either the newborn or the mother. Results show that the option "no test" is dominated by the option "test". The cost effectiveness ratio in the "newborn model" was 22€/QALYs gained in the case of screening and 125€/QALYs gained in the case of no screening. The cost effectiveness ratio in the "mother model" was 96€/QALYs gained in the case of screening and 1675€/QALYs gained in the case of no screening. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis highlighted the reduction of uncertainty in the screening option. Threshold analysis assessed that even with a drop in Chagas prevalence from 3.4% to 0.9%, a drop in the probability of vertical transmission from 7.3% to 2.24% and with an increase of screening costs up to €37.5, "test" option would still be preferred to "no test". The current study proved Chagas screening of all Latin American women giving birth in Spain and of their infants to be the best strategy compared to the non-screening option and provides useful information for health policy makers in their decision making process. PMID:21396345

Sicuri, Elisa; Muñoz, José; Pinazo, Maria Jesús; Posada, Elizabeth; Sanchez, Joan; Alonso, Pedro L; Gascon, Joaquim

2011-05-01

263

[Hypotheses on the origin of certain parasites on the Latin American continent].  

PubMed

The South American continent has been connected to Africa over millions of centuries. In prehistorical time, the filling of the Bering strait allowed passage on firm ground between Asia and North America. South American peopling has thus occurred from North America, through the Pacific sea and, from the 15th century A.C., through the Atlantic. Necator americanus was present in South America prior to the arrival of black slaves and its African origin is probably related to contacts between Africa and South America; the same applies to Leishmania donovani and Biom-Phalaria glabrata. Ankylostoma duodenale originates from Asia as well as Plasmodium falciparum which was brought by man at time of his migration. To the contrary, muco-cutaneous Leishmaniasis stem (or have a South American origin) from South America. Finally, it is difficult to understand for which reasons Loa loa has not established itself in South America as did Schistosoma mansoni. PMID:3928184

Nozais, J P

1985-01-01

264

Native American Career Education Unit. Living with the Land.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve instructional units in the Native American Career Education (NACE) program, this unit is intended to help Indian junior high school students understand concepts involved in the management of natural resources, especially as they relate to traditional Indian values; understand the relationship between basic needs, resources, and waste…

Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA.

265

Native American Career Education Unit. From Idea to Product.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve instructional units in the Native American Career Education (NACE) program, this unit is intended to help Indian junior high school students understand the steps involved in making a product. Focus is on the subject areas of economics, lumber and furniture industries, and woodworking. The first two activities concern the nature of…

Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA.

266

A Collection of Teaching Units in American Indian Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 11 teaching units was developed by elementary school teachers who attended the Montana Institute for Effective Teaching of American Indian Children, held at Eastern Montana College in June 1990. The first unit teaches the alphabet to kindergarten students using cultural activities related to English or Salish words that begin…

Montana State Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Helena.

267

75 FR 75708 - American United Life Insurance Company, et al.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Applicants: American United Life Insurance Company (``AUL''), AUL...Richard M. Ellery, Esq., American United Life Insurance Company, One American Square...a substitution of securities within the meaning of Section 26(c) of the 1940 Act....

2010-12-06

268

United States-Latin America Cancer Research Network (US-LA CRN)  

Cancer.gov

The US–LA CRN was established in 2009 to increase cancer research capacity in Latin America. NCI formalized bilateral agreements with the governments of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico, and Uruguay, to facilitate interactions at the government, institution, and investigator levels.

269

The "New Cooperativism" in Latin America: Worker-Recuperated Enterprises and Socialist Production Units  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the first decade of the 21st century, efforts to create alternatives to neoliberalism emerged in many parts of Latin America. Social movements across the region took to the streets, occupied abandoned factories, and started to create new democratic spaces, solidarity networks, and social economy initiatives. In one country after another,…

Larrabure, Manuel; Vieta, Marcelo; Schugurensky, Daniel

2011-01-01

270

Thirlwall´s law with an emphasis on the ratio of export\\/import income elasticities in Latin American economies during the Twentieth Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using stochastic specifications that emphasize the role of the ratio of export\\/import income elasticities, this paper applies the balance-of-payments constraint model to nineteen Latin American countries from 1900 to 2000. The paper begins with a brief presentation of Thirlwall's well-known model. Immediately following this, we verify the existence of a long run relationship between developing economies on one hand, and

Carlos Guerrero de Lizardi

2006-01-01

271

Cardiovascular disease in latin american patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a cross-sectional study and a systematic review.  

PubMed

Objective. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of and associated risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Latin American (LA) patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods. First, a cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 310 Colombian patients with SLE in whom CVD was assessed. Associated factors were examined by multivariate regression analyses. Second, a systematic review of the literature on CVD in SLE in LA was performed. Results. There were 133 (36.5%) Colombian SLE patients with CVD. Dyslipidemia, smoking, coffee consumption, and pleural effusion were positively associated with CVD. An independent effect of coffee consumption and cigarette on CVD was found regardless of gender and duration of disease. In the systematic review, 60 articles fulfilling the eligibility criteria were included. A wide range of CVD prevalence was found (4%-79.5%). Several studies reported ancestry, genetic factors, and polyautoimmunity as novel risk factors for such a condition. Conclusions. A high rate of CVD is observed in LA patients with SLE. Awareness of the observed risk factors should encourage preventive population strategies for CVD in patients with SLE aimed at facilitating the suppression of cigarette smoking and coffee consumption as well as at the tight control of dyslipidemia and other modifiable risk factors. PMID:24294522

Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Sarmiento-Monroy, Juan Camilo; Caro-Moreno, Julián; Molano-González, Nicolás; Mantilla, Rubén D; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

2013-01-01

272

Cardiovascular Disease in Latin American Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Cross-Sectional Study and a Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objective. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of and associated risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Latin American (LA) patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods. First, a cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 310 Colombian patients with SLE in whom CVD was assessed. Associated factors were examined by multivariate regression analyses. Second, a systematic review of the literature on CVD in SLE in LA was performed. Results. There were 133 (36.5%) Colombian SLE patients with CVD. Dyslipidemia, smoking, coffee consumption, and pleural effusion were positively associated with CVD. An independent effect of coffee consumption and cigarette on CVD was found regardless of gender and duration of disease. In the systematic review, 60 articles fulfilling the eligibility criteria were included. A wide range of CVD prevalence was found (4%–79.5%). Several studies reported ancestry, genetic factors, and polyautoimmunity as novel risk factors for such a condition. Conclusions. A high rate of CVD is observed in LA patients with SLE. Awareness of the observed risk factors should encourage preventive population strategies for CVD in patients with SLE aimed at facilitating the suppression of cigarette smoking and coffee consumption as well as at the tight control of dyslipidemia and other modifiable risk factors.

Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Caro-Moreno, Julian; Molano-Gonzalez, Nicolas; Mantilla, Ruben D.; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

2013-01-01

273

[Population and nutrition in Latin America].  

PubMed

This discussion of food and population in Latin America consists of 5 sections covering food and the population debate since Malthus, basic data on nutrition problems in Latin America, the demographic impact, food production, and future prospects. The present position in favor of limitation of population growth is based on the view that continued rapid population increase must inevitably bring a crisis of disequilibrium of food, natural resources, and ecological and economic security within about 100 years. The common element uniting those opposed to or indifferent to population control is a belief that science and technology can predict and satisfy the essential food needs of a burgeoning population. All developed countries have per capita caloric availabilities of over 3000/day, compared to an average of 2465 for Latin American as a whole. Only Barbados and Argentina have 3000 calories/day available. The daily average per capita protein consumption of 65.7 grams in Latin America is above the 54 gr/day recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organiation. In Latin America the average daily per capita consumption from animal protein is 496 calories, compared to 1331 in the US. The nutrition status of different Latin American countries varies, with minimal caloric intakes of 1880-2170 calories/day in some Central American and Caribbean countries. Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Ecuador, and Bolivia have frank protein deficits. Within countries, there may be large food gaps between regions, rural and urban populations, and social classes. The FAO estimated that 41 million Latin Americans representing 13% of the population are undernourished. 38% of Guatemalans, Hondurans, and Haitians, 30% of Ecuadoreans, and 23% of Peruvians are believed to be inadequately nourished. The quality of the diet varies widely between countries and regions because of a multitude of cultural, environmental, and socioeconomic factors. In general the diet is heavy in carbohydrates and light on protein. Undernutrition has a characteristic mortality pattern with deaths concentrated in those under 5 years of age and whith physical and mental effects that may persist throughout the lifespan. The Latin American population was increasing at 2.3%/year in 1983, representing 9 million new consumers each year. Food production increased by 3.9%/year between 1971-80, but in at least 1/3 of countries the rate of increase in food production was exceeded by the population growth rate. The relationship between population and food is complex and is affected by multiple and changing environmental, economic, and social factors directly related to the international economic system. Latin America must augment its food production capacity and should decrease its rate of population growth. PMID:12266337

Sepulveda, S

1984-04-01

274

Training Latin American primary care physicians in the WPA module on depression: results of a multicenter trial  

PubMed Central

Background In order to improve care for people with depressive disorders and to reduce the increasing burden of depression, the American Regional Office of the World Health Organization has launched a major region-wide initiative. A central part of this effort was directed to the primary care system where the diagnosis and treatment of depression are deficient in many countries. This study evaluated the materials developed by the World Psychiatric Association in a training program on depression among primary care physicians by measuring changes in their knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP). Method One hundred and seven physicians and 6174 patients from five Latin American countries participated in the trial. KAP were assessed 1 month before and 1 month following the training program. In addition, the presence of depressive symptoms was measured in patients who visited the clinic during a typical week at both times using the Zung Depression Scale and a DSM-IV/ICD-10 major depression checklist. Results The program slightly improved knowledge about depression and modified some attitudes, but had limited impact on actual practice. There was no evidence that the diagnosis of depression was made more frequently, nor was there an improvement in psychopharmacological management. The post-training agreement between physician diagnosis and that based on patient self-report remained low. The physicians, however, seemed more confident in treating depressed patients after training, and referred fewer patients to psychiatrists. Conclusions Traditional means of training primary care physicians in depression have little impact on clinical practice regardless of the quality of the teaching materials.

LEVAV, ITZHAK; KOHN, ROBERT; MONTOYA, IVAN; PALACIO, CARLOS; ROZIC, PABLO; SOLANO, IDA; VALENTINI, WILLIANS; VICENTE, BENJAMIN; MORALES, JORGE CASTRO; EIGUETA, FRANCISCO ESPEJO; SARAVANAN, YAMINI; MIRANDA, CLAUDIO T.; SARTORIUS, NORMAN

2008-01-01

275

Cuanto vale Estudiar un Postgrado en America Latina? (How Much do Post-Graduate Studies Cost in Latin America?).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, conducted by the Panamerican Association of Educational Credit Institutions (APICE), examined the cost of graduate education in nine Latin American countries. The study was intended to promote graduate and educational exchange within the region, as opposed to exchanges between Latin America and the United States or Europe. Institutions…

Franco Arbelaez, Augusto

276

A cost-effectiveness analysis of a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children in six Latin American countries  

PubMed Central

Background A recently developed 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable H influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) is expected to afford protection against more than two thirds of isolates causing IPD in children in Latin America, and also against acute otitis media caused by both Spn and NTHi. The objective of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of PHiD-CV in comparison to non-vaccination in children under 10 years of age in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. Methods We used a static, deterministic, compartmental simulation model. The dosing regimen considered included three vaccine doses (at 2 months, 4 months and 6 months) and a booster dose (at 13 months) (3?+?1 schedule). Model outcomes included number of cases prevented, deaths averted, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained and costs. Discount for costs and benefits of long term sequelae was done at 3.5%, and currency reported in 2008-2009 U$S varying between countries. Results The largest effect in case prevention was observed in pneumococcal meningitis (from 27% in Peru to 47% in Colombia), neurologic sequelae after meningitis (from 38% in Peru to 65% in Brazil) and bacteremia (from 42% in Argentina to 49% in Colombia). The proportion of predicted deaths averted annually ranged from 18% in Peru to 33% in Brazil. Overall, the health benefits achieved with PHiD-CV vaccination resulted in a lower QALY loss (from 15% lower in Peru to 26% in Brazil). At a cost of USD 20 per vaccine dose, vaccination was cost-effective in all countries, from being cost saving in Chile to a maximum Incremental Cost-effectiveness Ratio of 7,088 US$ Dollars per QALY gained. Results were robust in the sensitivity analysis, and scenarios with indirect costs affected results more than those with herd immunity. Conclusions The incorporation of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into routine infant immunization programs in Latin American countries could be a cost-effective strategy to improve infant population health in the region.

2013-01-01

277

American Housing Survey for the United States: 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last Friday, the US Census released their annual American Housing Survey for the United States, which provides up-to-date housing statistics for the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Conducted by field representatives who obtain information from occupants of homes, the survey provides data on "apartments; single-family homes; mobile homes; vacant housing units; age, sex, and race of householders; income; housing and neighborhood quality; housing costs; equipment and fuels; and size of the housing units. The survey also presents data on mortgages, rent control, rent subsidies, previous unit of recent movers, and reasons for moving."

278

Neither Black nor White? An empirical test of the Latin Americanization thesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past four decades, demographic trends have provoked divergent perspectives concerning the future of race and ethnic relations in the United States. Despite the important implications of these differing interpretations of the future, social scientists have given them little empirical scrutiny. In this study, we systematically investigate one of these perspectives—Bonilla-Silva et al. [Research in Political Sociology 23 (2003)

Tyrone A. Forman; Carla Goar; Amanda E. Lewis

2002-01-01

279

Lectura y Vida: Revista Latinoamericana de Lectura. (Reading and Life: Latin American Reading Magazine). 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The four 1998 issues of the journal on literacy education, entirely in Spanish, include these articles: "The Inevitable Radical Weakness of Language: Some Reflections about Forming Readers and Citizens" (Daniel Goldin); "Relationships among Reading and Writing, Thematic Units, Learning Through Research...In Search of Effective Instruction for…

Lectura y Vida: Revista Latinoamericana de Lectura, 1998

1998-01-01

280

Cinderella and the Search for the Missing Shoe: Latin American Adult Education Policy and Practice during the 1990s.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines adult-education policy in Latin America during 1990s, focusing on reasons behind its marginalization. Identifies six related factors why 1990s education policy agenda ("Education for All") did not result in increased attention to adult education in Latin America. Analyzes recent developments, internationally and regionally, and discusses…

Schugurensky, Daniel; Myers, John P.

2001-01-01

281

Pan American to United: The Pacific Division Transfer Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airline deregulation has brought a wave of airline mergers, approved by the Departments of Transportation (DOT). Where markets are truly contestable, approving mergers makes sense. Where entry is difficult, however, detailed analysis is required. United Airlines' acquisition of Pan American's Pacific Division was a case that involved high entry barriers and high concentration. Approval made it likely that price competition

Franklin M. Fisher

1987-01-01

282

Use of polymerase chain reaction for detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 strains from the Latin American cholera epidemic.  

PubMed Central

In January 1991, an outbreak of cholera started in Peru and spread throughout most of Latin America within 8 months. As of March 1992, over 450,000 cases and approximately 4,000 deaths have been reported to the Pan American Health Organization. The causative organism is toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 of the El Tor biotype and is distinct from the U.S. Gulf Coast strains. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that amplifies a 564-bp fragment of the cholera toxin A subunit gene (ctxA) was used to identify toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains. A total of 150 V. cholerae O1 isolates were tested. They were of unknown toxin status, were associated with recent outbreaks, and were isolated from patients, food, and water. One hundred forty isolates were found to be toxigenic both by PCR and the routine diagnostic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thirty-eight known toxigenic strains isolated worldwide from 1921 to 1991 were also positive in the PCR. A collection of 18 nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains, 35 Escherichia coli heat-labile-enterotoxin-I-producing strains, 26 Campylobacter strains, and 8 strains of Aeromonas hydrophila, previously reported to produce cholera toxin-like toxin, were all negative in the ctxA PCR. We conclude that this PCR is a diagnostic method that specifically detects toxin genes in V. cholerae O1 strains in a reference laboratory. It is more rapid and less cumbersome than other diagnostic methods for detection of toxicity in these strains. Images

Fields, P I; Popovic, T; Wachsmuth, K; Olsvik, O

1992-01-01

283

Remote Sensing Activities in Latin America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The status of remote sensing in Latin America is discussed, including the reasons, motivations, and importance of remote sensing activities in the Latin American environment. In the field of data reception, processing, distribution, and utilization, the e...

N. D. J. Parada

1984-01-01

284

Chagas disease: don't forget it in Latin American patients with heart block!  

PubMed

Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, and mostly affects poor rural populations of central and south America. It is mainly acquired by bugs (triatoma) but also by ingestion of the parasite (fresh fruit juices) or by foetal-maternal blood passing. Despite an important decrease in transmission during the last decades in several countries, millions of patients are still chronically infected and most of them are asymptomatic. In 2012-2013, two cases were admitted in our cardiac intensive care unit (ICU) with heart block due to Chagas cardiomyopathy. Diagnosis was established by echocardiography and positive serological results for Trypanosoma cruzi. This report underlines that in cases of heart failure and conduction abnormalities of unclear aetiology, Chagas disease should be taken into consideration, even in patients originating from non-endemic countries. PMID:24783476

Bimbi, Baby Jean-Marc Bantu; Unger, Philippe; Vandenbossche, Jean-Luc; Silance, Paul-Gaël; Van Laethem, Yves

2014-04-01

285

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Latin American-Mediterranean family and its sublineages in the light of robust evolutionary markers.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a clonal population structure, and the Latin American-Mediterranean (LAM) family is one of the largest and most widespread within this species, showing evidence for remarkable pathobiology and a confusing phylogeny. Here, we applied robust phylogenetic markers to study the evolution of the LAM family and its major sublineages circulating in Russia and neighboring countries. A total of 250 M. tuberculosis isolates were confirmed to belong to the LAM family based on the analysis of the LAM-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Rv3062 and Rv0129c genes. At this stage, the family status was rectified for 121 isolates misleadingly assigned by CRISPR spoligotyping to non-LAM families (T1- or T5-RUS1). Consequently, the reestimated LAM prevalence rate increased 2-fold in Russia and Kazakhstan and 4-fold in Belarus. The majority (91.8 to 98.7%) of the LAM isolates from all three countries belonged to the LAM-RUS sublineage. In contrast, the Ibero-American LAM RD-Rio sublineage was identified in only 7 Russian isolates. Taken together, our findings and further analyses suggest a monophyletic origin of LAM-RUS: at a historically distant time, in Russia, in a small founding bacterial/human population. Its dissemination pattern and high prevalence rate in Northern Eurasia may indicate a long-term coexistence of the LAM-RUS sublineage and local human populations hypothetically leading to coadaptation and reduced pathogenicity of the relatively more ancient clones, such as spoligotype international type 254 (SIT254), compared to the more recent SIT252 and SIT266 clones. In contrast, rare LAM RD-Rio isolates were likely brought to Russia through occasional human contact. The spread of RD-Rio strains is not as global as commonly claimed and is determined largely by human migration flows (rather than by pathobiological properties of these strains). Consequently, a host population factor appears to play a major role in shaping the in situ dissemination pattern of the imported strains in an autochthonous population. PMID:24584500

Mokrousov, Igor; Vyazovaya, Anna; Narvskaya, Olga

2014-05-01

286

Business Ethics and Corporate Governance in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article determines what the role of business ethics is within the Latin American corporate governance context. We analyzed five sources of information that provide vital information on the state of corporate governance in Latin America: the meetings of the Latin American Corporate Governance Network; the debates in the Latin America Corporate Governance Roundtables; the study Panorama Atual da Governança

Heloisa B. Bedicks; M. Cecilia Arruda

2005-01-01

287

Risk of Recurrent Helicobacter pylori Infection 1 Year After Initial Eradication Therapy in 7 Latin American Communities  

PubMed Central

Importance The long-term effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication programs for preventing gastric cancer will depend on recurrence risk and individual and community factors. Objective To estimate risk of H pylori recurrence and assess factors associated with successful eradication 1 year after treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants Cohort analysis of 1463 randomized trial participants aged 21 to 65 years from 7 Latin American communities, who were treated for H pylori and observed between September 2009 and July 2011. Interventions Randomization to 1 of 3 treatment groups: 14-day lansoprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin (triple therapy); 5-day lansoprazole and amoxicillin followed by 5-day lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (sequential); or 5-day lansoprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (concomitant). Participants with a positive (13) C-urea breath test (UBT) 6 to 8 weeks posttreatment were offered voluntary re-treatment with 14-day bismuth-based quadruple therapy. Measurements Recurrent infection after a negative posttreatment UBT and factors associated with successful eradication at 1-year follow-up. Results Among participants with UBT-negative results who had a 1-year follow-up UBT (n=1091), 125 tested UBT positive, a recurrence risk of 11.5% (95% CI, 9.6%–13.5%). Recurrence was significantly associated with study site (P=.03), nonadherence to initial therapy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.94; 95% CI, 1.31–6.13; P=.01), and children in the household (AOR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01–1.35 per child; P=.03). Of the 281 with positive posttreatment UBT results, 138 completed re-treatment, of whom 93 tested UBT negative at 1 year. Among the 1340 who had a 1-year UBT, 80.4% (95% CI, 76.4%–83.9%), 79.8% (95% CI, 75.8%–83.5%), and 77.8% (95% CI, 73.6%–81.6%) had UBT-negative results in the triple, sequential, and concomitant groups, respectively (P=.61), with 79.3% overall effectiveness (95% CI, 77.1%–81.5%). In a single-treatment course analysis that ignored the effects of re-treatment, the percentage of UBT-negative results at 1 year was 72.4% (95% CI, 69.9%–74.8%) and was significantly associated with study site (P<.001), adherence to initial therapy (AOR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.15–0.42; P<.001), male sex (AOR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.25–2.13; P<.001), and age (AOR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02–1.27 per decade; P=.02). One-year effectiveness among all 1463 enrolled participants, considering all missing UBT results as positive, was 72.7% (95% CI, 70.3%–74.9%). Conclusions and Relevance One year after treatment for H pylori infection, recurrence occurred in 11.5% of participants who had negative posttreatment UBT results. Recurrence determinants (ie, nonadherence and demographics) may be as important as specific antibiotic regimen in determining the long-term success of H pylori eradication interventions. Study findings are relevant to the feasibility of programs for the primary prevention of gastric cancer in high-incidence regions of Latin America. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01061437

Morgan, Douglas R.; Torres, Javier; Sexton, Rachael; Herrero, Rolando; Salazar-Martinez, Eduardo; Robert Greenberg, E.; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Dominguez, Ricardo L.; Ferreccio, Catterina; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo C.; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Pena, Edgar M.; Pena, Rodolfo; Correa, Pelayo; Martinez, Maria Elena; Chey, William D.; Valdivieso, Manuel; Anderson, Garnet L.; Goodman, Gary E.; Crowley, John J.; Baker, Laurence H.

2013-01-01

288

Encouraging and Attracting Underrepresented Racial Minorities to the Field of Geosciences-A Latin American Graduate Student Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have shown that interactions between same-race and same-gender faculty and graduate students are reported to have a greater impact on the future success of those students. In the same manner, I believe graduate students can play a pivotal role in training and attracting underrepresented racial minorities (URMs) at the high school and undergraduate level to pursue a career in geosciences. Working at Brown University for the last couple of years, I have been involved in a number of initiatives aimed at solidifying ties with the community. Most of my social work has revolved around mentoring underrepresented local minorities, as I feel that this area is where I can contribute the most. This year I began participating in the NSF funded Brown GK-12: "Physical Processes in the Environment" program. As a Latin American female graduate student in the geological sciences, I hope to teach the students-by example-that being a minority is not necessarily an obstacle, but rather an advantage that can offer a different, valuable point of view when pursuing their professional goals. I think that sharing part of my experiences and knowledge as a researcher with young minds contributes to the way they imagine themselves in the future, allowing them to believe that a career in science is within their reach and that higher education is a realistic option worth pursuing if they have the interest in doing so. From my short time as a graduate student, to have a greater impact in attracting URMs, it is critical to have the support of advisors and committee members. One must keep in mind that a graduate career is a time consuming commitment; therefore, it is necessary to undertake activities that will have the most impact on minority students in the short time available. The experience becomes even more effective if advisors are actively involved, particularly financially. Faculty advisors who can allocate funds to, for example support summer activities designed to involve URMs, are essentially leveraging funds because the overall return will be much greater than the initial investment.

Caballero Gill, R. P.; Herbert, T.

2010-12-01

289

A Latin American Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bibliography was compiled for the purpose of affording students and faculty members of Air University a quick-reference tool for making use of the vast and growing collection of materials in the unclassified holdings of the Air University Library that...

R. Estep

1969-01-01

290

The Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. OREALC Bulletin 19.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Major Project in the Field of Education in Latin America and the Caribbean has been undertaken by the governments of the countries of this region to foster educational development and to meet unsatisfied basic educational needs such that the individual efforts of each country may benefit from regional international cooperation. This bulletin,…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

291

The SeroPrevalence of Antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi in Latin American Refugees and Immigrants to Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Chagas’ disease is caused by infection with the protozoan agent Trypanosoma cruzi. An estimated sixteen to eighteen million people are infected in Latin America. Outside of endemic regions, Chagas’ disease may be transmitted through the transfusion of infected blood components, congenital infection and organ transplantation. We sought to determine the sero-prevalence of antibodies to T. cruzi in a community

L. S. Steele; D. W. MacPherson; J. Kim; J. S. Keystone; B. D. Gushulak

2007-01-01

292

School Infrastructure and Resources Do Matter: Analysis of the Incidence of School Resources on the Performance of Latin American Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation is to determine the incidence of school infrastructure and resources and its impact on the academic performance of primary education students in Latin America. A 4-level multilevel model was applied to the data of the Second Regional Comparative and Explanatory Study (SERCE) conducted by UNESCO, which researched…

Murillo, F. Javier; Roman, Marcela

2011-01-01

293

The House, the Street, Global Society: Latin American Families and Childhood in the Twenty-First Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the colonial period (1492 to approximately 1826), children have constituted a large proportion of the population of Latin America, with approximately thirty to fifty percent under age twenty in the eighteenth century. Public health campaigns in the early twentieth century improved child survival rates and resulted in the substantial expansion of the proportion under age twenty by the 1960s.

Elizabeth Anne Kuznesof

2005-01-01

294

The Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. Bulletin 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The initiative and activities carried out by 29 countries in Latin and South America and the Caribbean in the UNESCO Major Project in the Field of Education to correct deficiencies and meet unsatisfied basic educational needs are summarized. Many summaries reflect revisions made during 1983 in National Plans of Action with respect to enhancing…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and Caribbean.

295

Persistent poverty among Africans Americans in the United States: the impact of public policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the persistent poverty that exists among African Americans in the United States. It explains why African Americans in the United States are much more likely to live and\\/or remain in poverty than any other population group. This study is based on the premise that the governmental system has affected African Americans through the use of public policies.

Daphne M Cooper

2011-01-01

296

Addressing Gender-Based Violence in the Latin American and Caribbean Region: A Critical Review of Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morrison, Ellsberg, and Bott present an overview of gender-based violence (GBV) in Latin America, with special emphasis on good practice interventions to prevent GBV or offer services to its survivors or perpetrators. Intimate partner violence and sexual coercion are the most common forms of GBV, and these are the types of GBV that they analyze.GBV has serious consequences for women?s

Andrew Morrison; Mary Ellsberg; Sarah Bott

2004-01-01

297

Hacia un mirar Latinoamericano de la aplicación de la Dinámica de Sistemas en estudios organizacionales (Towards a Latin American View of the Application of System Dynamics in Organizational Studies)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article inquiries the following question: how should be the use of System Dynamics in Latin American organizations? Its answer begins with an interpretative work on the current field of the System Dynamics' organizational applications which led to build a classifier schema on system-dynamicist praxis styles.

Ricardo Sotaquirá Gutiérrez; José Daniel Cabrera Cruz; Gélvez Pinto

2000-01-01

298

Immigrating to the US: What Brazilian, Latin American and Haitian Women Have to Say About Changes to Their Lifestyle That May be Associated with Obesity  

PubMed Central

Our goal was to explore the perceived determinants of obesity in Brazilian, Latin American and Haitian women. This is part of an ongoing community-based participatory intervention. Focus groups by immigrant group were conducted and themes extracted. Women expressed differences in beliefs, attitudes, and barriers regarding diet and physical activity in the US versus their home country. Participants thought food in the US is “less natural,” there is less time for preparation, and there is more variety. The weather is a barrier to physical activity in the US and work is more physically demanding. Job-related efforts were not considered physical activity. They reported higher levels of stress, less control of their time and less social support in the US. Providing immigrants with appropriate support and education early in the acculturation process has the potential to help prevent obesity.

Tovar, Alison; Must, Aviva; Metayer, Nesly; Gute, David M.; Pirie, Alex; Hyatt, Raymond R.; Economos, Christina D.

2012-01-01

299

Immigrating to the US: what Brazilian, Latin American and Haitian women have to say about changes to their lifestyle that may be associated with obesity.  

PubMed

Our goal was to explore the perceived determinants of obesity in Brazilian, Latin American and Haitian women. This is part of an ongoing community-based participatory intervention. Focus groups by immigrant group were conducted and themes extracted. Women expressed differences in beliefs, attitudes, and barriers regarding diet and physical activity in the US versus their home country. Participants thought food in the US is "less natural," there is less time for preparation, and there is more variety. The weather is a barrier to physical activity in the US and work is more physically demanding. Job-related efforts were not considered physical activity. They reported higher levels of stress, less control of their time and less social support in the US. Providing immigrants with appropriate support and education early in the acculturation process has the potential to help prevent obesity. PMID:22736266

Tovar, Alison; Must, Aviva; Metayer, Nesly; Gute, David M; Pirie, Alex; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D

2013-04-01

300

Translating Latin American/US Latina frameworks and methods in gender and health equity: linking women's health education and participatory social change.  

PubMed

This article applies transdisciplinary approaches to critical health education for gender equity by analyzing textual and political strategies translating/culturally adapting the U.S. feminist health text, Our Bodies Ourselves (OBOS), for Latin American/Caribbean and U.S. Latina women. The resulting text, Nuestros Cuerpos, Nuestras Vidas (NCNV), was revised at multiple levels to reflect different cultural\\sociopolitical assumptions connecting individual knowledge, community-based and transnational activist organizations, and strategic social change. Translation/cultural adaptation decisions were designed to ensure that gender-equitable health promotion education crossed cultural borders, conveying personal knowledge and motivating individual actions while also inspiring participation in partnerships for change. Transdisciplinary approaches integrating critical ecosystemic frameworks and participatory methods can help design health promotion education mobilizing engaged, gender-equitable health citizenship supporting both personal and societal change. PMID:24366020

Shapiro, Ester R

301

Chippewa Indians: A Native American Curriculum Unit for the Fifth Grade. NATAM XV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As one of the units on Native Americans developed by public school teachers enrolled in a University of Minnesota extension course on American Indian education, this grade-5 unit has as its overall objective the sensitization of the class to the cultural values of Minnesota Chippewa Indians. Included in the unit are objectives, new words,…

Holtz, Dolores

302

The Impact of Rural Residency on the Expression and Outcome of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Data From a Multiethnic Latin American Cohort  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the role of place of residency in the expression and outcomes of SLE in a multi-ethnic Latin American cohort. Patients and Methods SLE patients (<2 years of diagnosis) from 34 centers constitute this cohort. Residency was dichotomized into rural and urban, cut-off: 10,000 inhabitants. Socio-demographic, clinical/laboratory, and mortality rates were compared between them using descriptive tests. The influence of place of residency on disease activity at diagnosis and renal disease was examined by multivariable regression analyses. Results 122 (8.6%) of 1426 patients were rural residents. Their median age (onset, diagnosis) were 23.5 and 25.5 years; 85 (69.7%) patients were Mestizos, 28 (22.9%) Caucasians and 9 (7.4%) African-Latin Americans. Rural residents were more frequently younger at diagnosis, Mestizo and uninsured; they also had fewer years of education and a lower socioeconomic status, exhibited hypertension and renal disease more frequently, and had higher levels of disease activity at diagnosis; they used methotrexate, cyclophosphamide pulses, and hemodialysis more frequently than urban patients. Disease activity over time, renal damage, overall damage and the proportion of deceased patients were comparable in both, rural and urban patients.. In multivariable analyses, rural residency was associated with high levels of disease activity at diagnosis (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.06–2.57) and renal disease occurrence (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.00–3.11). Conclusions Rural residency associates with Mestizo ethnicity, lower socioeconomic status, and renal disease occurrence. It also plays a role on disease activity at diagnosis and kidney involvement but not on the other end-points examined.

Pons-Estel, Guillermo J.; Saurit, Veronica; Alarcon, Graciela S.; Hachuel, Leticia; Boggio, Gabriela; Wojdyla, Daniel; Alfaro-Lozano, Jose L.; de la Torre, Ignacio Garcia; Massardo, Loreto; Esteva-Spinetti, Maria H.; Guibert-Toledano, Marlene; Ramirez Gomez, Luis A.; Lavras Costallat, Lilian T.; Sauza del Pozo, Maria J.; Silveira, Luis H.; Cavalcanti, Fernando; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.

2013-01-01

303

Latin America: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning aid is intended to help Americans become more effective in understanding and communicating with Latin Americans. The book consists of the following: (1) a map of Latin America, with area and population statistics for the various countries; (2) a brief description of the land, the people, the economy, diet, religion, government,…

Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

304

Arts Education Policy in Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights the various educational trends and policies in relation to arts education in the Latin American countries from the 16th to the 19th centuries. Summarizes the arts education policies in Latin American throughout the 20th century focusing on teaching in the arts and the role of educational research. (CMK)

Cristina De Couve, Alicia; Dal Pino, Claudia; Calvo, Diana Fernandez; Frega, Ana Lucia; Souza, Jusamara

1998-01-01

305

Racial identity and perception of American ideals among African American and African students in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined contextual factors in racial identity, by comparing 113 Black American college students and 93 Black African college students residing in the United States. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing racial identity, applicability of American ideals, and self-esteem. Racial identity scores did not differ between the two groups, but for the African students racial identity showed a significant increase

Jean S. Phinney; Mukosolu Onwughalu

1996-01-01

306

Spain, The United States, and The American Frontier: Historias Paralelas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Partnering with The National Library of Spain, The Biblioteca Columbina y Capitular of Seville, the Library of Congress has developed this fine collection of primary and secondary historical documents that explore the complex and multifaceted history of Spanish expansion into North America from Florida, Georgia, the Carolinas, and across most of what is now the modern-day American Southwest all the way north to Alaska. The site contains digital versions of numerous texts, maps, manuscripts, and first-hand accounts composed by different individuals. Some of the highlights include "La Florida del Inca," which is an account of the Hernando de Soto expedition through Florida and the southeastern part of North America, along with the "Notes of a Military Reconnoissance from Fort Leavenworth to San Diego," published in 1848 as a special report to the United States Congress. Appropriately enough, many of the documents are available in both English and Spanish, and are searchable by page number.

307

OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN LATIN AMERICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of corporate governance practices in Latin American countries, surveying the available empirical literature, reviewing the reports on the subject prepared by multinational organizations, and providing new data for ownership and control structures of companies in different Latin American economies. Like in other emerging economies corporate governance in Latin America is conditioned by the high level

FERNANDO LEFORT

2005-01-01

308

EDITORIAL: Invited papers from the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics combined with the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics Invited papers from the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics combined with the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010) both agreed to hold this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, considering the celebration of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of its official program, within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial activities. This event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project `Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4', supported by the National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya in 1980, and was followed by: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006) and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss recent progress and outlooks in plasma science, covering fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, plasma applications, etc. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005) and Caracas (2007). The purpose of the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is to provide a forum in which the achievements of the Latin American plasma physics communities can be displayed, as well as to foster collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The Program of ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included, amongst others, the following topics: fundamentals of plasma physics, fusion plasmas, plasmas in astrophysics and space physics, plasma applications and technologies, complex plasmas, high energy density plasmas, quantum plasmas and laser-plasma interaction. A total of 180 delegates from 34 different countries took part in ICPP-LAWPP-2010, and 60 delegates received financial assistance from the Local Organizing Committee, thanks to the support granted by the International Union for Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) and by CCHEN. The ICPP-LAWPP-2010 Program was established by the following Program Committee: • Carlos Alejaldre, ITER • Maria Virginia Alves, Brazil • Julio Herrera, Mexico • Günter Mank, IAEA • George Morales, USA • Padma Kant Shukla, Germany • Guido Van Oost, Belgium • Leopoldo Soto, Chile (Chairman) This Program Committee was formed of selected members from the International Advisory Committee of the ICPP and from the International Advisory Committee of the LAWPP (http://www.icpp-lawpp-2010.cl/page/committees.php). In particular, plenary lectures and invited topical lectures were selected by the Program Committee from a list of nominated lectures presented by the International Advisory Committees of both ICPP and LAWPP. Also, the classification of oral and poster presentations was established by the Program Committee. The Congress included 15 invited plenary talks, 33 invited topical talks, 45 oral contributions, and 160 poster contributions. Most of the plenary and topical lectures are published in this special issue of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. The papers were refereed according to the usual standards of the journal. Prior to ICPP-LAWPP 2010, an important activity usually associated with the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics took place. This activity was the LAWPP School on Plasma Physics, which was open to participants from all over the world, providing basic training to students and young researchers. The School was attended by 44 participants and 7 lecturers from 11 different countries. All participants rec

Soto, Leopoldo

2011-07-01

309

Patterns, trends and sex differences in HIV/AIDS reported mortality in Latin American countries: 1996-2007  

PubMed Central

Background International cohort studies have shown that antiretroviral treatment (ART) has improved survival of HIV-infected individuals. National population based studies of HIV mortality exist in industrialized settings but few have been presented from developing countries. Our objective was to investigate on a population basis, the regional situation regarding HIV mortality and trends in Latin America (LA) in the context of adoption of public ART policies and gender differences. Methods Cause of death data from vital statistics registries from 1996 to 2007 with "good" or "average" quality of mortality data were examined. Standardized mortality rates and Poisson regression models by country were developed and differences among countries assessed to identify patterns of HIV mortality over time occurring in Latin America. Results Standardized HIV mortality following the adoption of public ART policies was highest in Panama and El Salvador and lowest in Chile. During the study period, three overall patterns were identified in HIV mortality trends- following the adoption of the free ART public policies; a remarkable decrement, a remarkable increment and a slight increment. HIV mortality was consistently higher in males compared to females. Mean age of death attributable to HIV increased in the majority of countries over the study period. Conclusions Vital statistics registries provide valuable information on HIV mortality in LA. While the introduction of national policies for free ART provision has coincided with declines in population-level HIV mortality and increasing age of death in some countries, in others HIV mortality has increased. Barriers to effective ART implementation and uptake in the context of free ART public provision policies should be further investigated.

2011-01-01

310

Child Rights in Latin America: From "Irregular Situation" to Full Protection. Innocenti Essays No. 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child by all Latin American countries, many substantial national legislative reforms have been made that reflect the spirit and the letter of the new Convention. This series of essays documents the challenges faced by countries beginning the process of legislative reform,…

Mendez, Emilio Garcia

311

Pedagogies of Resiliency and Hope in Response to the Criminalization of Latin@ Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last two decades, the criminalization and demonization of Chican@/Latin@ youth has produced policies in the United States that have banned bilingual education, Mexican American Studies in Tucson, and undocumented students in Georgia from attending public universities. Furthermore, hundreds and thousands of youth in the U.S. are…

Acosta, Curtis

2013-01-01

312

The association between extremes in North American snow cover extent and United States temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between satellite-derived North American snow cover extent and United States winter (December, January, February) temperature is examined. The results indicate that winter months evidencing extreme position (negative) values of North American snow cover extent are associated with below- (above) normal temperatures across the majority of the United States. The area evidencing the largest temperatures departures during both positive

Daniel J. Leathers; Dayid A. Robinson

1993-01-01

313

Latin-American Regional Developments in Space Technology and International Cooperation - Columbian Space Policy: An Approach to Create a National Space Agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space exploration is a great human adventure: culturally, scientifically, technologically and industrially. Since the earliest of times, civilizations have been united in their awe of, and inspiration by, the cosmos, as testified in particularly by the peoples and cultures of the Central and South American continent in pre-Columbian times. Today, space systems have become an essential tool for the scientific

Oscar A. Arenales-Vergara

2002-01-01

314

Biohistorical approaches to "race" in the United States: Biological distances among African Americans, European Americans, and their ancestors.  

PubMed

Folk taxonomies of race are the categorizations used by people in their everyday judgments concerning the persons around them. As cultural traditions, folk taxonomies may shape gene flow so that it is unequal among groups sharing geography. The history of the United States is one of disparate people being brought together from around the globe, and provides a natural experiment for exploring the relationship between culture and gene flow. The biohistories of African Americans and European Americans were compared to examine whether population histories are shaped by culture when geography and language are shared. Dental morphological data were used to indicate phenotypic similarity, allowing diachronic change through United States history to be considered. Samples represented contemporary and historic African Americans and European Americans and their West African and European ancestral populations (N = 1445). Modified Mahalanobis' D(2) and Mean Measure of Divergence statistics examined how biological distances change through time among the samples. Results suggest the social acceptance for mating between descendents of Western Europeans and Eastern and Southern European migrants to the United States produced relatively rapid gene flow between the groups. Although African Americans have been in the United States much longer than most Eastern and Southern Europeans, social barriers have been historically stronger between them and European Americans. These results indicate that gene flow is in part shaped by cultural factors such as folk taxonomies of race, and have implications for understanding contemporary human variation, relationships among prehistoric populations, and forensic anthropology. PMID:19226643

Edgar, Heather J H

2009-05-01

315

China’s Emergence in the World Economy and Business Cycles in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates how changes in trade linkages between China, Latin America, and the rest of the world have altered the transmission of international business cycles to Latin America. Evidence based on a GVAR model for five large Latin American economies shows that the long-term impact of a China GDP shock on the typical Latin American economy has increased by

Ambrogio Cesa-Bianchi; M. Hashem Pesaran; Alessandro Rebucci; TengTeng Xu

2011-01-01

316

A mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene associated with pyrethroid resistance in Latin American Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Pyrethroids are commonly used as mosquito adulticides and evolution of resistance to these compounds is a major threat to public health. 'Knockdown resistance' to pyrethroids (kdr) is frequently caused by nonsynonymous mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel transmembrane protein (para) that reduce pyrethroid binding. Early detection of kdr is critical to the development of resistance management strategies in mosquitoes including Aedes aegypti, the most prevalent vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses. Brengues et al. described seven novel mutations in hydrophobic segment 6 of domain II of para in Ae. aegypti. Assays on larvae from strains bearing these mutations indicated reduced nerve sensitivity to permethrin inhibition. Two of these occurred in codons Iso1011 and Val1016 in exons 20 and 21 respectively. A transition in the third position of Iso1011 encoded a Met1011 replacement and a transversion in the second position of Val1016 encoded a Gly1016 replacement. We have screened this same region in 1318 mosquitoes in 32 additional strains; 30 from throughout Latin America. While the Gly1016 allele was never detected in Latin America, we found two new mutations in these same codons. A transition in the first position of codon 1011 encodes a Val replacement while a transition in the first position of codon 1016 encodes an Iso replacement. We developed PCR assays for these four mutations that can be read either on an agarose gel or as a melting curve. Selection experiments, one with deltamethrin on a field strain from Santiago de Cuba and another with permethrin on a strain from Isla Mujeres, Mexico rapidly increased the frequency of the Iso1016 allele. Bioassays of F(3) offspring arising from permethrin susceptible Val1016 homozygous parents and permethrin resistant Iso1016 homozygous parents show that Iso1016 segregates as a recessive allele in conferring kdr. Analysis of segregation between alleles at the 1011 and 1016 codons in the F(3) showed a high rate of recombination even though the two codons are only separated by a ~250 bp intron. The tools and information presented provide a means for early detection and characterization of kdr that is critical to the development of strategies for resistance management. PMID:18093007

Saavedra-Rodriguez, K; Urdaneta-Marquez, L; Rajatileka, S; Moulton, M; Flores, A E; Fernandez-Salas, I; Bisset, J; Rodriguez, M; McCall, P J; Donnelly, M J; Ranson, H; Hemingway, J; Black, W C

2007-12-01

317

Studies of ionospheric F-region response in the Latin American sector during the geomagnetic storm of 21-22 January 2005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present investigation, we have studied the response of the ionospheric F-region in the Latin American sector during the intense geomagnetic storm of 21-22 January 2005. This geomagnetic storm has been considered "anomalous" (minimum Dst reached -105 nT at 07:00 UT on 22 January) because the main storm phase occurred during the northward excursion of the Bz component of interplanetary magnetic fields (IMFs). The monthly mean F10.7 solar flux for the month of January 2005 was 99.0 sfu. The F-region parameters observed by ionosondes at Ramey (RAM; 18.5° N, 67.1° W), Puerto Rico, Jicamarca (JIC; 12.0° S, 76.8° W), Peru, Manaus (MAN; 2.9° S, 60.0° W), and São José dos Campos (SJC; 23.2° S, 45.9° W), Brazil, during 21-22 January (geomagnetically disturbed) and 25 January (geomagnetically quiet) have been analyzed. Both JIC and MAN, the equatorial stations, show unusually rapid uplifting of the F-region peak heights (hpF2/hmF2) and a decrease in the NmF2 coincident with the time of storm sudden commencement (SSC). The observed variations in the F-region ionospheric parameters are compared with the TIMEGCM model run for 21-22 January and the model results show both similarities and differences from the observed results. Average GPS-TEC (21, 22 and 25 January) and phase fluctuations (21, 22, 25, 26 January) observed at Belem (BELE; 1.5° S, 48.5° W), Brasilia (BRAZ; 15.9° S, 47.9° W), Presidente Prudente (UEPP; 22.3° S, 51.4° W), and Porto Alegre (POAL; 30.1° S, 51.1° W), Brazil, are also presented. These GPS stations belong to the RBMC/IBGE network of Brazil. A few hours after the onset of the storm, large enhancements in the VTEC and NmF2 between about 20:00 and 24:00 UT on 21 January were observed at all the stations. However, the increase in VTEC was greatest at the near equatorial station (BELE) and enhancements in VTEC decreased with latitude. It should be pointed out that no phase fluctuations or spread-F were observed in the Latin American sector during the post-sunset pre-reversal time in the geomagnetic disturbance (21 January). The disturbance dynamo electric field possibly resulted in downward drift of the F-region plasma and inhibited the formation of spread-F.

Sahai, Y.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Jesus, R.; de Abreu, A. J.; Crowley, G.; Kikuchi, T.; Huang, C.-S.; Pillat, V. G.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Abalde, J. R.; Bittencourt, J. A.

2011-05-01

318

Policy Interdependence from a Latin American Perspective [with Comments] (Interdépendance de la politique économique dans une perspective latino-américaine) (Interdependencia de las políticas económicas de los países latinoamericanos)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1982 most Latin American countries faced severe balance of payments and economic difficulties. The paper explores the possibility of a common exogenous origin in these crises. To evaluate this possibility, at a theoretical level, a \\

Ricardo H. Arriazu; Mohsin S. Khan; Michel Aglietta

1983-01-01

319

A Measurement of Political Attitudes in Mexican American Civic Organizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the spring of 1971, the political attitudes of middle-class Mexican Americans in the El Paso (Texas) area were surveyed. An 86-item questionnaire was administered to 187 people in six area Councils of the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), four posts of the Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW), and one area Council of the Knights…

Rodriguez, Roy Conrado

320

Energy efficiency business options for industrial end users in Latin American competitive energy markets: The case of Colombia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy markets today in Latin America and worldwide are being restructured from monopolies, either state-owned or privately-owned, to be more openly competitive and incorporate more participation from the private sector. Thus, the schemes that were formerly developed to foster end use energy efficiency are no longer applicable because they were based on mandatory regulations made with political decisions, without sufficiently considering economic feasibility. A consensus exists that the only way energy efficiency could survive in this new paradigm is by being market oriented, giving better services, and additional options to users. However; there is very little information on what end users prefer, and which options would most satisfy customers. Using Colombia as a case study, this research determines and categorizes the energy efficiency business options for large energy end users that can freely participate in the competitive energy market. The energy efficiency market is understood as a market of services aiming to increase efficiency in energy use. These services can be grouped into seven business options. A survey, following the descriptive method, was sent to energy end users in order to determine their preferences for specific energy efficiency business options, as well as the decision-making criteria taken into account for such options. This data was categorized in ten industry groups. As a conclusion, energy efficiency providers should adapt not only to the economic activity or processes of each customer, but also to the potential business options. It was also found that not all industries consider performance contracting as their most preferred option, as a matter of fact, some industries show much higher preference for conventional business options. Among end users, the divergence in option preferences contrasted with the convergence in decision-making criteria. The decision-making criteria "cost-benefit ratio" overwhelmed all other criterion. End users appear to chose a specific energy efficiency option based mostly on obtaining better economic returns, giving low consideration to other criterion that feature differences among the energy efficiency options.

Botero, Sergio

2002-01-01

321

Korean American parents' reconstruction of immigrant parenting in the United States.  

PubMed

The aim of this qualitative study was to explore 28 Korean American parents' perceptions of parenting. Interview data were audio taped, transcribed, and analyzed using content analysis. Themes that emerged were: Korean parenting constructed in Korea, European American parenting observed in the United States, and resulting reconstruction of Korean American parenting. The findings indicate that Korean American parents' perceptions of parenting are deeply rooted in the social contexts of where parents were brought up and where parents raise their children. These findings could be used to develop a culturally and linguistically competent parenting program for Korean American parents. PMID:23362693

Kim, Eunjung; Im, Haesang; Nahm, Eunyoung; Hong, Seunghye

2012-01-01

322

This Proud Land, A Unit in Native American Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Indians of the Southwest--their history and culture from ancient to modern times--are the focal point of this resource manual based on an American history course developed at Gallup High School, Gallup, New Mexico. The course covers ancient culture and migrations of the Indian tribes now inhabiting New Mexico and the coming of Spanish…

Noe, Sally W.; Wright, Gregory, Ed.

323

Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in pregnant Latin American women and congenital transmission rate in a non-endemic area: the experience of the Valencian Health Programme (Spain).  

PubMed

This study describes the results of the health programme implemented in the Valencian Community (Spain) to achieve an early diagnosis of Chagas disease in pregnant Latin American women and their newborns. During 2009 and 2010, 1975 women living in the health districts of three university hospitals were enrolled via midwives or at the time of delivery. Diagnosis of disease was performed using two serological tests with different antigens. Congenital infection was diagnosed by parasitological, molecular or serological methods from blood samples obtained at birth or in subsequent controls. The overall seroprevalence of Chagas infection in pregnant women from 16 different endemic countries was 11·4%. Infection was higher in those from countries in the Gran Chaco Region (Bolivia, 34·1%; Paraguay, 7·4%; Argentina, 5·3%). Eight newborn infants from Bolivian mothers had congenital Chagas which represents a vertical transmission rate of 3·7%. In conclusion, this work supports the benefits of offering an early diagnosis to pregnant women and newborns during routine prenatal healthcare. PMID:22129521

Barona-Vilar, C; Giménez-Martí, M J; Fraile, T; González-Steinbauer, C; Parada, C; Gil-Brusola, A; Bravo, D; Gómez, M D; Navarro, D; Perez-Tamarit, A; Fernandez-Silveira, L; Fullana-Montoro, A; Borrás, R

2012-10-01

324

Collaboration Networks for Innovation and Socio-economic Development: European and Latin American Perspectives on Digital Ecosystems Research, Local Readiness, Deployment Strategies and Their Policy Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International cooperation and knowledge transfer among countries has become increasingly important in the last decades, giving opportunity to a set of multiple interaction programs particularly amongst developed and developing regions. This paper discusses the feasibility of the adoption of Digital Ecosystems (DEs) in the Latin American context, based on the experience of deployment of DEs in the European Union. Different deployment experiences in the European context revealed the need of a methodology for planning and implementing DEs that resulted in a set of tools for measuring the maturity grade of localities related to the deployment of DEs and the need of an impact index for understanding its long-term implications of the dynamics of their implementation. This paper proposes a new methodological framework that integrates concepts related to ICT adoption, connectivity and absorption capacities and recognises the strong influence of social capital over these. The paper concludes with the description of a methodological tool oriented towards the mapping, evaluation and modification of scenarios related to ICT adoption process among multiple agents.

Rivera León, Lorena; Kataishi, Rodrigo

325

Chagas disease: an impediment in achieving the Millennium Development Goals in Latin America  

PubMed Central

Background Achieving sustainable economic and social growth through advances in health is crucial in Latin America within the framework of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Discussion Health-related Millennium Development Goals need to incorporate a multidimensional approach addressing the specific epidemiologic profile for each region of the globe. In this regard, addressing the cycle of destitution and suffering associated with infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease of American trypanosomiasis, will play a key role to enable the most impoverished populations in Latin America the opportunity to achieve their full potential. Most cases of Chagas disease occur among forgotten populations because these diseases persist exclusively in the poorest and the most marginalized communities in Latin America. Summary Addressing the cycle of destitution and suffering associated with T. cruzi infection will contribute to improve the health of the most impoverished populations in Latin America and will ultimately grant them with the opportunity to achieve their full economic potential.

Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Von, Anna; Hidron, Alicia; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J; Tellez, Ildefonso; Barragan, Maribel; Jones, Danielle; Naquira, Cesar G; Mendez, Jorge

2007-01-01

326

American businesses unite to fight HIV spread in Africa.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the formation of a Corporate Task Force on AIDS in Africa and will attempt to examine the role of American corporations in preventing the spread of HIV infection. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa threatens to destroy any significant economic gain and would continually affect any American corporation doing business in Africa. The task force would examine and propose various courses of actions for American corporations. Although the corporate sector cannot solve the problem alone, they are expected to sponsor some of the innovative and progressive work on AIDS in Africa. Likewise, American private sectors take on the leadership role in the fight against AIDS. The first role of the task force will be to propose a unified business approach to assist US companies to have a positive impact in this issue at home and abroad. PMID:12322534

2000-06-01

327

A Randomised Trial of empiric 14-day Triple, five-day Concomitant, and ten-day Sequential Therapies for Helicobacter pylori in Seven Latin American Sites  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Evidence from Europe, Asia, and North America suggests that standard three-drug regimens of a proton pump inhibitor plus amoxicillin and clarithromycin are significantly less effective for eradicating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection than five-day concomitant and ten-day sequential four-drug regimens that include a nitroimidazole. These four-drug regimens also entail fewer antibiotic doses and thus may be suitable for eradication programs in low-resource settings. Studies are limited from Latin America, however, where the burden of H. pylori-associated diseases is high. Methods We randomised 1463 men and women ages 21–65 selected from general populations in Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Mexico (two sites) who tested positive for H. pylori by a urea breath test (UBT) to: 14 days of lansoprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin (standard therapy); five days of lansoprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (concomitant therapy); or five days of lansoprazole and amoxicillin followed by five of lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (sequential therapy). Eradication was assessed by UBT six–eight weeks after randomisation. Findings In intention-to-treat analyses, the probability of eradication with standard therapy was 82·2%, which was 8·6% higher (95% adjusted CI: 2·6%, 14·5%) than with concomitant therapy (73·6%) and 5·6% higher (95% adjusted CI: ?0·04%, 11·6%) than with sequential therapy (76·5%). In analyses limited to the 1314 participants who adhered to their assigned therapy, the probabilities of eradication were 87·1%, 78·7%, and 81·1% with standard, concomitant, and sequential therapies, respectively. Neither four-drug regimen was significantly better than standard triple therapy in any of the seven sites. Interpretation Standard 14-day triple-drug therapy is preferable to five-day concomitant or ten-day sequential four-drug regimens as empiric therapy for H. pylori among diverse Latin American populations. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and US National Institutes of Health.

Greenberg, E. Robert; Anderson, Garnet L.; Morgan, Douglas R.; Torres, Javier; Chey, William D.; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Dominguez, Ricardo L.; Ferreccio, Catterina; Herrero, Rolando; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo C.; Meza-Montenegro, Mercedes Maria; Pena, Rodolfo; Pena, Edgar M.; Salazar-Martinez, Eduardo; Correa, Pelayo; Martinez, Maria Elena; Valdivieso, Manuel; Goodman, Gary E.; Crowley, John J.; Baker, Laurence H.

2011-01-01

328

Educational Research Networks in Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes and analyzes the accelerated growth of educational research activity in Latin America over the last decade. The role of scholarly journals, existing networks, international aid, and improved training are considered. Appendices list characteristics of Latin American educational journals and organizations sponsoring…

Schiefelbein, Ernesto

1978-01-01

329

Civilian-Military Relations in Latin America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For some time now, there has been debate in academic circles about just how much civilian politicians in Latin America need to know, and do, to control their militaries. David Pion-Berlin, a highly regarded scholar on Latin American civil-military relatio...

J. R. Goetze, T. C. Bruneau

2006-01-01

330

Mental Health Services for Native Americans in the 21st Century United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the population of American Indians and Alaska Natives continues to expand in the 21st century United States, an increasing number of professional psychologists will be called upon to provide culturally appropriate mental health services for Native American people and their communities. This article provides a general overview of contemporary tribal America before describing the legal, political, and institutional contexts

Joseph P. Gone

2004-01-01

331

Espionage Against the United States by American Citizens 1947-2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Analyses of 150 cases of espionage against the United States by American citizens between 1947 and 2001 provide detailed data on the demographic and employment characteristics of American spies, on the means and methods they used to commit espionage, on t...

K. L. Herbig M. F. Wiskoff

2002-01-01

332

Experiment in International Living (EIL) Latin-American Spanish Volume II: An Audio-Lingual Course with Correlated Tapes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six units of instructional materials in conversational Spanish are presented. The audiolingual course is designed to be completed in 90 to 120 hours and intended to be used with a set of correlated tape recordings which may be purchased from the School for International Training. Lessons contain a variety of structured exercises including (1)…

Cespedes de Fantini, Beatriz

333

Native American Historic Context for the United States Military Academy, West Point, New York.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Military Academy (USMA) is required by Federal laws, Executive Orders, and implementing regulations to conduct consultations with Native American tribes under specific circumstances. This historic context was prepared to support the prep...

D. K. Mann

2006-01-01

334

Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This serial issue features 6 members of the Indiana University System faculty who have focused their research on Latin America, past and present. The first article, "A Literature of Their Own," highlights Darlene Sadlier's research on Brazilian women's fiction and poetry that has led to an interest in the interplay of Brazilian and Portuguese…

Soni, P. Sarita, Ed.

1993-01-01

335

Nephrology in Latin America, with special emphasis on Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nephrology in Latin America, with special emphasis on Brazil. Latin America constitutes a complex universe that shows extreme variation regarding socioeconomic and human development. Brazil is the largest and most populous Latin American country, and combines characteristics encountered in developed countries with problems typically associated with the poorest regions of the world. These disparities condition the profile of renal disease

Roberto Zatz; J. E. Romao; I. L. Noronha

2003-01-01

336

The Economic Development of Latin America since Independence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latin America is attracting increasing interest due to the strong economic performance of the last decade and to the political changes that are taking place. This book gives a unique, comprehensive, and up to date view of Latin America economic development over the two centuries since Independence. It considers Latin American economies within the wider context of the international economy,

Luis Bertola; Jose Antonio Ocampo

337

Politicas y Gobierno de la Educacion Superior En American Latina. (Policies and Governance of Higher Education in Latin America). Texas Papers on Latin America. Paper No. 99-02.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education is undergoing a complex process of transformation at the international level. This transformation is based especially in the fields of policies and governance of higher education institutions. In Latin America this trend has been growing since the 1980s, and higher education is undergoing a strong modification in its processes and…

Cardiel, Hugo Casanova

338

The health of Latin Americans exposed to polluted rivers: a triple-blind observational study. Interamerican Group for Research in Environmental Epidemiology.  

PubMed

Accelerating development in South America, with consequent contamination of rivers as the final common pathway of waste, raises concern about adverse effects on the health of riverine populations. We conducted a cross-sectional survey simultaneously in six Latin American nations among people living near a river known to be polluted in each country. Trace metals (arsenic, mercury and lead) were selected as indicators of exposure to industrial effluents. Within each country, we contrasted probability samples from three types of communities: one upstream of point sources of pollution and thus little exposed; one downstream from a site of major development; and one with intermediate exposure. The outcome variables were health status measures elicited by questionnaire and biochemical measures of blood and urine. We examined several possible explanatory and confounding variables, including housing conditions, nutrition, and source of drinking water. The field work was done with triple blinding in that data-gatherers and study subjects were unaware of their group membership and of the study hypotheses, those analysing, specimens and questionnaires were blind to country and community of origin of the material and the investigators reviewed the results in code, committing themselves to conclusions in writing before the codes were broken. Methods were carefully standardized across six countries during training, when pretesting data-gathering instruments and with double coding and extensive accuracy checks of computerized data. There were 900 eligible subjects from 18 communities in six countries. The overall response rate was 92%, the lowest 86%. Results showed an acceptable level of health in all communities and no relationship to exposure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2083995

1990-12-01

339

Ethnic Heritage Studies: The American Woman. Experimental Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing information and activities designed to dispel sex role socialization, myths, and stereotypes as bases for prejudiced views, this teaching guide focuses on the American woman's image and diverse roles in our society. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The project materials are…

Keepers, Beverly

340

The Mexican-American and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The historical study of the plight of Mexican Americans is divided into 3 sections. Part I relates the beginnings of Mexico, from Spanish injustices to the Indians to how the Indians felt about Black men. Various historical facts are briefly presented. Part II treats Mexico's efforts to become a republic, various aspects of the wars between…

Bustamante, Charles J.; Bustamante, Patricia L.

341

Comprehensive Internationalisation in Latin America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Latin American tertiary education (TE) sector is nowadays facing demands from globalisation and a knowledge-based society, while still dealing with challenges in terms of access, equity, quality and relevance. This new context has prompted a greater demand for TE and is forcing institutions to reconsider their mission, tasks and…

Gacel-Avila, Jocelyne

2012-01-01

342

Microeconomic Flexibility in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterize the degree of microeconomic inflexibility in several Latin American economies and find that Brazil, Chile and Colombia are more flexible than Mexico and Venezuela. The difference in flexibility among these economies is mainly explained by the behavior of large establishments, which adjust more promptly in the more flexible economies, especially when accumulated shocks are substantial. We also study

Ricardo J. Caballlero; Eduardo M. R. A. Engel; Alejandro Micco

2004-01-01

343

A Teaching Guide and Experience Units K-12. Social Studies. Grade Six.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The unit experiences for the K-12 curriculum, including these for grade 6, are outlined in SO 001 139. These units include the study of the culture, history, geography, and economics of regions of Latin American and Canada. Again, the emphasis for both grade 5 and grade 6 is twofold: 1) to know his American heritage, as well as to become aware of…

Arapahoe County School District 6, Littleton, CO.

344

African-American attitudes towards United States immigration policy.  

PubMed

In the growing US debate over immigration policy since the 1980s, it is often argued that immigration must be restricted in order to protect Black Americans from competition with newly arrived immigrants. Findings are reported upon Black Americans' attitudes toward immigration policy. An extensive review of more than 50 Black newspapers and magazines, from January 1994 to June 1996, uncovered attitudes both in favor of and against restricting immigration. The majority of articles in the Black press on immigration, however, were nonrestrictionist. The Black political leadership is also against restricting immigration. Furthermore, a review of the 14 most recent national opinion polls on immigration available to the Roper Center for Public Opinion Research as of July 1996 found that while many Blacks favor restricting immigration, all US Blacks should not be characterized as restrictionist, especially when compared with Whites. Historical attitudes among US Blacks dating back to before the abolition of slavery are discussed. PMID:12293597

Diamond, J

1998-01-01

345

Le syndacalisme latino-americain devant le probleme de l'emploi. (Latin American Trade Union Movement and the Problems of Employment)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since employment problems in Latin America are due to structural factors, to solve these problems radical reforms must take place in the political and socio-economic structures of the continent. (Editor/RY)

Neffa, Julio Cesar

1971-01-01

346

Latin-Focus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Launched in 1998, Latin-Focus "enables executives and research analysts alike to find the latest available data from government sources, economic forecasts, market analysis covering economic performance, political risk assessments and financial market developments" in Latin American countries. The front page of the site offers current data as well as daily news and commentary. In the News and Commentary section, the title and source of the article are given, along with the subject country and language. Past articles are archived by date, although the site does note that news briefs may have expired. News may also be searched by country. Along the left side of the screen, eight countries, including Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela, are highlighted. Clicking on one of these countries will bring up a menu consisting of Economic Indicators, Economic Forecasts, Release Calendar, Economic Briefing, Fact Sheet, and Web Directory. Each of these topics links to further subtopics or a variety of short online reports and graphs. This well-designed site offers clear, basic information for those studying economic issues in Latin America.

347

Key success factors for strategy implementation in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing competition among Latin American firms fosters more proactive processes aimed at reviewing business strategy. The research objective is to measure the impact of key variables on successful implementation of business strategy. Relying on the knowledge and experience of Latin American entrepreneurs and managers, the questions addressed include: How important is the role of the CEO and management actors? Do

Esteban R. Brenes; Mauricio Mena; German E. Molina

2008-01-01

348

Education and Employment in Latin America. Report Studies S.67.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With focus on the similarities rather than the differences among Latin American countries, the interrelationships of education and employment are analyzed to draw implications for educational policy and planning. Emphasis is on the need to take into account the socio-political and cultural constraints operating in the Latin American context as…

Schiefelbein, Ernesto

349

Regionalism and the Musical Heritage of Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay presents background information and suggests teaching stragegies to aid community and junior college classroom teachers of history and civilization as they develop and implement educational programs on Latin American music. It is based on the premise that Latin American music can best be understood as a reflection of other historical…

Arbena, Joseph; And Others

350

Has Latin America's post-reform growth been disappointing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

After years of poor macroeconomic performance, many Latin American countries undertook ambitious programs of macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform during recent years. The change in policy created high expectations for the region. Some observers question, however, whether actual growth outcomes in several Latin American countries have measured up to such expectations. This paper offers some evidence that the response of

William Easterly; Norman Loayza; Peter Montiel

1997-01-01

351

An Examination of the Relationship between Acculturation Level and PTSD among Central American Immigrants in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between acculturation level and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence in Central American immigrants in the United States. Central American immigrants represent a population that is a part of the Latino/Hispanic Diaspora in the United States. By the year 2050 the United States…

Sankey, Sarita Marie

2010-01-01

352

Current trends in Latin America and the Argentine perspective  

SciTech Connect

The authors discusses the changes that are taking place in Argentina as well as in all of Latin America today -- privatization, deregulation, and the modernization of the economy, changes which will serve to strengthen the governments and provide a better quality of life for all of them. He gives an insight into the factors which helped bring about these changes, the support they are receiving, the problems which persist, and the measures that still must be taken so that these positive changes remain in place. He offers some useful information that will perhaps contribute to their understanding of the vast area which he refers to as Latin America, and more specifically, gives a thumbnail sketch of what is happening today in the Republic of Argentina. For many years now, Latin American leaders have travelled to other parts of the world and spoken about the plans and expectations for the region`s future. When these well-intentioned projects and plans never materialized, partners and supporters in the United States and other countries were frustrated and disappointed by the failure to make things work. The author`s intention here today is to describe things as they are, not as they might be, to tell about what is already happening in the sphere of business and growth of the economies in Latin America.

Laredo, V.G. [SOCMA Americana, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

1992-12-31

353

The 2014 FIFA World Cup: communicable disease risks and advice for visitors to Brazil--a review from the Latin American Society for Travel Medicine (SLAMVI).  

PubMed

The next FIFA World Cup will be held in Brazil in June-July 2014. Around 600,000 international visitors and participants (as well over 3 million domestic travelers) are expected. This event will take place in twelve cities. This event poses specific challenges, given its size and the diversity of attendees, including the potential for the transmission of imported or endemic communicable diseases, especially those that have an increased transmission rate as a result of close human proximity, eg, seasonal influenza, measles but also tropical endemic diseases. In anticipation of increased travel, a panel of experts from the Latin American Society for Travel Medicine (SLAMVI) developed the current recommendations regarding the epidemiology and risks of the main communicable diseases in the major potential destinations, recommended immunizations and other preventives measures to be used as a basis for advice for travelers and travel medicine practitioners. Mosquito-borne infections also pose a challenge. Dengue poses a significant risk in all states, including the host cities. Vaccination against yellow fever is recommended except for travelers who will only visit coastal areas. Travelers visiting high-risk areas for malaria (Amazon) should be assessed regarding the need for chemoprophylaxis. Chikunguya fever may be a threat for Brazil, given the presence of Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue, and the possibility of travelers bringing the virus with them when attending the event. Advice on the correct timing and use of repellents and other personal protection measures is key to preventing these vector-borne infections. Other important recommendations for travelers should focus on preventing water and food-borne diseases such as hepatitis A, typhoid fever, giardiasis and traveler's diarrhea. Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) should be also mentioned and the use of condoms advocated. This review addresses pre-travel, preventive strategies to reduce the risk of acquiring communicable diseases during a mass gathering such as the World Cup and also reviews the spectrum of endemic infections in Brazil to facilitate the recognition and management of infectious diseases in travelers returning to their countries of origin. PMID:24821081

Gallego, Viviana; Berberian, Griselda; Lloveras, Susana; Verbanaz, Sergio; Chaves, Tania S S; Orduna, Tomas; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

2014-01-01

354

Opportunistic and Other Infections in HIV-Infected Children in Latin America Compared to a Similar Cohort in the United States  

PubMed Central

Abstract Opportunistic and other infections have declined since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in developed countries but few studies have addressed the impact of HAART in HIV-infected children from developing countries. This study examines the prevalence and incidence of opportunistic and other infections in Latin America during the HAART era. Vertically HIV-infected children enrolled in a cohort study between 2002 and 2007 were followed for the occurrence of 29 targeted infections. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were performed to calculate the prevalence of infections before enrollment and the incidence rates of opportunistic and other infections after enrollment. Comparisons were made with data from a U.S. cohort (PACTG 219C). Of the 731 vertically HIV-infected children 568 (78%) had at least one opportunistic or other infection prior to enrollment. The most prevalent infections were bacterial pneumonia, oral candidiasis, varicella, tuberculosis, herpes zoster, and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. After enrollment, the overall incidence was 23.5 per 100 person-years; the most common infections (per 100 person-years) were bacterial pneumonia (7.8), varicella (3.0), dermatophyte infections (2.9), herpes simplex (2.5), and herpes zoster (1.8). All of these incidence rates were higher than those reported in PACTG 219C. The types and relative distribution of infections among HIV-infected children in Latin America in this study are similar to those seen in the United States but the incidence rates are higher. Further research is necessary to determine the reasons for these higher rates.

Alarcon, Jorge O.; Freimanis-Hance, Laura; Krauss, Margot; Reyes, Mary F.; Cardoso, Claudete Aparecida Araujo; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Cardoso, Edmundo

2012-01-01

355

American Fork Canyon-Provo Peak Planning Unit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project proposes a land use plan that establishes objectives, direction, and management decisions for the 130,848-acre Planning Unit on the Uinta National Forest. The Plan allocates land for various uses and provides for coordination of uses. Environm...

1974-01-01

356

Organisation of Syncope Management Units: The North American Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In summary, the SMU is uncommon in North America. Furthermore, relatively few arrhythmia specialty centres are contemplating establishment of such a facility, although most survey respondents believe that an SMU would be helpful. The survey findings suggest that establishment of such a unit is impeded by lack of leadership, resource limitations within medical centres, and absence of convincing published data

D. G. BENDITT; F. Lu; K. G. LURIE; S. Sakaguchi

357

The American Melting Pot? Miscegenation Laws in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores miscegenation in U.S. history, some motivations for anti-miscegenation policy, and the landmark decision of the 1967 case of "Loving v. Virginia." Includes three recent examples of miscegenation policy in the United States with questions for class discussion. (CMK)

Cruz, Barbara C.; Berson, Michael J.

2001-01-01

358

Latin American Literature Study Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first of 11 sections of a complete, structured, and detailed study guide proposed for M.A. candidates. This section covers the 16th century and is entitled "Descubrimiento y Conquista" ("Discovery and Conquest"). Suggested readings are accompanied by lists of sources and reference works chosen for usefulness and readability. Dominant…

Harss, Luis

359

Prevalence and Burden of Migraine in the United States: Data From the American Migraine Study II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective.—To describe the prevalence, sociodemographic profile, and the burden of migraine in the United States in 1999 and to compare results with the original American Migraine Study, a 1989 population-based study employing identical methods. Methods.—A validated, self-administered questionnaire was mailed to a sample of 20 000 households in the United States. Each household member with severe headache was asked to

Richard B. Lipton; Walter F. Stewart; Seymour Diamond; Merle L. Diamond; Michael Reed

2001-01-01

360

Re-Branding Neoliberalism and Systemic Dilemmas in Social Development: The Case of Education and School Fees in Latin American HIPCs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Latin America as a broad context and drawing on evidence from some of its most heavily indebted states as cases, this paper considers the example of Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) and education as a means of exploring the question of whether poverty reduction strategies of the Bretton Woods Institutions (the World Bank and the…

Davidson-Harden, Adam

2008-01-01

361

Field of Bachelor's Degree in the United States: 2009. American Community Survey Reports. ACS-18  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides information on fields of bachelor's degrees in the United States using data from the 2009 American Community Survey (ACS). It includes estimates of fields of bachelor's degree by demographic characteristics including age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, nativity, and educational attainment. This report also looks at geographic and…

Siebens, Julie; Ryan, Camille L.

2012-01-01

362

Position of the American Dietetic Association: Food Insecurity in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that systematic and sustained action is needed to achieve food and nutrition security for all in the United States. To eliminate food insecurity, interventions are needed, including adequate funding for and increased utilization of food and nutrition assistance programs, inclusion of food and nutrition education in such programs, and innovative programs

David Holben

2010-01-01

363

Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To be used by researchers, this specialized supplement to the general "Guide to the National Archives of the United States" (1974) employs an historical approach to describe pre-federal, federal, and non-federal holdings relating to American Indians. Included are Continental Congress and Revolutionary War records. Records of the Bureau of Indian…

Hill, Edward E., Comp.

364

United States versus Mexican Perceptions of the Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys U.S. and Mexican managerial attitudes concerning the impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) process on the United States. Discusses differences in Mexican and U.S. attitudes concerning NAFTA and a number of socioeconomic concerns. (SR)

Nicholson, Joel D.; And Others

1994-01-01

365

North American Higher Education Cooperation: Findings from Recent Research in Mexico, Canada, and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study examined the North American Higher Education Cooperation (NAHEC) initiative from its launch in 1992 by educators and the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States through 1996, focusing on organizational, process, and actor preference "zones of influence" in international collaboration. Interviews were conducted with 13…

Oliva, Maricela

366

The American Indian: A Teaching-Learning Unit. Studies in Curriculum Development No. 4, 1980.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One in a series of studies of selected aspects of curriculum development, this monograph utilizes an historical approach in a guide for teaching a unit on American Indian background and presents suggestions to use as follow-up measures after the study. Six specific objectives focus on the purposes of the course: (1) to point out the misleading…

Baker, Catherine A.; Hamm, Russell L.

367

Educational Transitions in the United States: Reflections on the American Dream  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education involves socialization so that individuals become productive members of society. At present, in the United States, educational transitions are primarily viewed in terms of their location in an outcomes-oriented process and framed as helping people achieve the American Dream, but in terms of the status quo national economic interest. But…

Crawford, Paul T.

2012-01-01

368

PREVENTION OF WATERBORNE CHOLERA IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Since the outbreak of cholera in Peru in January 1991, the disease has spread to other Latin-American countries and on several occasions has been imported into the United States. n order to assess the risk of transmission of cholera by water in the United States, an ad hoc commit...

369

Multiple sclerosis care in Latin America.  

PubMed

Before the advent of diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS), it was reported that the prevalence of MS in Mexico was "one of the lowest in the world" (1.6/100,000).(1) The notion that MS was a rare neurologic disease among those living in the tropics of the Americas and Southern latitudes was widely accepted. The geopolitical boundaries of the region identified as Latin America (LA) extend from the southern border of United States with Mexico (32° North latitude) to the Argentinian and Chilean Patagonia in South America (56° South latitude). The largest Spanish-speaking island countries in the Caribbean-Cuba, Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico-are also traditionally considered part of LA. The continental mass includes 17 countries with a population of more than 550 million. Due to centuries of racial intermixing, it is a heterogeneous and genetically complex population. The blended cultures of native Amerindians with white Caucasian Europeans and black Africans has resulted in the predominant ethnic Latin American Mestizo. The influence of African genetics is notable in many areas of the subcontinent and the Caribbean. A common observation across LA is the absence of identification of MS in non-mixed Amerindians(2); the reason for this phenomenon is unclear. PMID:24799516

Rivera, Victor M; Medina, Marco Tulio; Duron, Reyna M; Macias, Miguel Angel

2014-05-01

370

History of primary vasculitis in Latin America.  

PubMed

A literature review utilizing Fepafem, Bireme, LiLacs, Scielo Colombia, Scielo Internacional, former MedLine, Pubmed, and BVS Colombia as well as manual searches in the libraries of major Latin American universities was performed to study vasculitis in Latin America. Since 1945, a total of 752 articles have been published by Latin American authors. However, only a minority are devoted to primary vasculitides, and even fewer have been published in indexed journals. Approximately 126 are in OLD, Medline, Pubmed, Bireme, and Scielo. Most publications are from Mexico, followed by Brazil and Colombia. Systematic studies of the epidemiology of primary idiopathic vasculitis are available for a few countries, i.e. Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Chile, and Peru. Takayasu arteritis and ANCA-associated vasculitis are the best studied forms of vasculitis in Latin America. Interest and expertise in vasculitis is growing in Latin America, as reflected in the increased number of published articles from this region of the world in the last decade. Racial and environmental factors are possibly responsible for the differential expression of various types of primary vasculitis observed in Latin America. With time, the unique features, epidemiology, and better treatment strategies for idiopathic vasculitides in Latin America will emerge. PMID:20190698

Iglesias Gammara, Antonio; Coral, Paola; Quintana, Gerardo; Toro, Carlos E; Flores, Luis Felipe; Matteson, Eric L; Restrepo, José Félix

2010-03-01

371

Natural products research in latin america.  

PubMed

The biodiversity found in Latin America is one of the richest in the world, yet its potential as a source of new pharmaceuticals has not been fully investigated. This paper will explore the present status of natural products research in 19 Latin American countries. Future research needs will be presented along with reports on the ethnobotanical and bioprospection projects under way in Latin America. The presentation will be based on data collected over the last five years and will be presented within the framework of the Fine Pharmaceutical Subprogram of the Iberoamerican Program of Science and Technology for Development (CYTED), a novel international cooperation program. PMID:21554175

Gupta, M P

2001-01-01

372

Daily Family Interactions among Young Adults in the United States from Latin American, Filipino, East Asian, and European Backgrounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In contrast to the abundant research on family relationships during adolescence, the nature of family interactions during young adulthood remains comparatively unexamined. The current study explored ethnic differences in young adults' interactions with parents and siblings, the role of other activities in young adults' family interactions, and the…

Fuligni, Andrew; Masten, Carrie L.

2010-01-01

373

77 FR 12102 - In the Matter of: American United Gold Corporation, AMS Homecare Inc., Aucxis Corp., and CYOP...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] In the Matter of: American United Gold Corporation, AMS Homecare Inc., Aucxis Corp., and CYOP Systems...accurate information concerning the securities of American United Gold Corporation because it has not filed any periodic reports...

2012-02-28

374

Response of the Ionospheric F-region in the Latin American Sector During the Intense Geomagnetic Storm of 21-22 January 2005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionospheric storms are closely associated with geomagnetic storms and are an extreme example of space weather events. The response of the ionosphere to storms is rather complicated. In the present investigation, we have studied the response of the ionospheric F-region in the Latin American sector during the intense geomagnetic storm of 21-22 January 2005 (with storm sudden commencement (SSC) at 1712 UT on 21 January). This geomagnetic storm is anomalous (minimum Dst reached -105 nT at 0700 UT on 22 January) because the main phase occurred during the northward excursion of the Bz component of interplanetary magnetic fields (IMFs). The monthly mean F10.7 solar flux for the month of January 2005 was 99.0 sfu. The ionospheric F-region parameters observed at Ramey (18.5 N, 67.1 W; RAM), Puerto Rico, Jicamarca (12.0 S, 76.8 W; JIC), Peru, Manaus (2.9 S, 60.0 W; MAN), and São José dos Campos (23.2 S, 45.9 W; SJC), Brazil, during 21-22 January (geomagnetically disturbed) and 25 January (geomagnetically quiet) have been analyzed. Both JIC and MAN, the equatorial stations, show unusually rapid uplifting of the F-region peak heights(hpF2/hmF2) and a decrease in the NmF2 coincident with the time of SSC. At both RAM and SJC an uplifting of the F-region peak height is observed at about 2000 UT. The low-latitude station SJC shows a coincident decrease in NmF2 with the uplifting, whereas the mid-latitude station RAM shows a decrease in NmF2 earlier than the uplifting. Also, the observed variations in the F-region ionospheric parameters are compared with the TIMEGCM model run for 21-22 January and the model results show both similarities and differences from the observed results. Average GPS-TEC (21-22 and 25 January) and phase fluctuations (21, 22, 25, 26 January) observed at Belem (1.5 S, 48.5 W; BELE), Brasilia (15.9 S, 47.9 W; BRAZ), Presidente Prudente (22.3o S, 51.4 W; UEPP), and Porto Alegre (30.1 S, 51.1 W; POAL), Brazil, are also presented. These GPS stations belong to the RBMC/IBGE network of Brazil. Few hours after the onset of the storm, large enhancements in VTEC between 2000 and 2400 UT on 21 January was observed at all the stations. However, the increase in VTEC was greater at the near equatorial station and enhancements in VTEC decreased with latitude. No phase fluctuations were observed during the pre-reversal time during the geomagnetic disturbance (21 January).

Sahai, Y.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Jesus, R.; de Abreu, A. J.; Crowley, G.; Pillat, V. G.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Abalde, J. R.; Bittencourt, J. A.

2009-12-01

375

The Avalon Project at Yale Law School: Treaties Between the United States and Native Americans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since 1996, the Avalon Project at the Yale Law School has provided a number of thematic collections of various important legal documents such as those dealing with German-American diplomatic relations, the Federalist Papers, and Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England. This particular new collection is dedicated to providing the full text (in the HTML format) of approximately 30 treaties signed between various Native American groups and the United States government between 1778 and 1868. Here visitors can peruse the text of such treaties as the 1784 treaty with the Six Nations, the 1791 treaty with the Cherokee, and the 1852 treaty signed with the Apache. Along with browsing a list of the treaties, users also have the option of using the site's search engine to search all of the Native American treaties available here.

376

Pacific\\/North American teleconnection controls on precipitation isotope ratios across the contiguous United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale climate teleconnections such as the Pacific\\/North American (PNA) pattern strongly influence atmospheric processes and continental climate. Here we show that precipitation delta18O values in the contiguous United States are correlated with an index of the PNA pattern. The delta18O\\/PNA relationship varies across the study region and exhibits two prominent modes, with positive correlation in the western USA and negative

Zhongfang Liu; Casey D. Kennedy; Gabriel J. Bowen

2011-01-01

377

Pacific\\/North American teleconnection controls on precipitation isotope ratios across the contiguous United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale climate teleconnections such as the Pacific\\/North American (PNA) pattern strongly influence atmospheric processes and continental climate. Here we show that precipitation ?18O values in the contiguous United States are correlated with an index of the PNA pattern. The ?18O\\/PNA relationship varies across the study region and exhibits two prominent modes, with positive correlation in the western USA and negative

Zhongfang Liu; Casey D. Kennedy; Gabriel J. Bowen

2011-01-01

378

Population Declines and Priorities for Amphibian Conservation in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although dramatic amphibian population declines have been reported worldwide, our under- standing of the extent of the declines in Latin America, where amphibian diversity is high, is limited to a few well-documented studies. To better understand the geographic extent of declines, their possible causes, and the measures needed to improve Latin American scientists' ability to research the phenomenon and make

Bruce E. Young; Karen R. Lips; Jamie K. Reaser; Roberto Ibanez; Antonio W. Salas; J. Rogelio Cedeno; Luis A. Coloma; Santiago Ron; Enrique La Marca; John R. Meyer; Antonio Munoz; Federico Bolanos; Gerardo Chaves; David Romo

2001-01-01

379

How Effective Are Private Schools in Latin America?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1997, the Santiago office of UNESCO implemented an assessment of student achievement in Latin America, working in collaboration with 13 Latin American ministries of education. Using a common sampling methodology and survey instruments, researchers in each country collected representative samples of data on third- and fourth-grade achievement in…

Somers, Marie-Andree; McEwan, Patrick J.; Willms, J. Douglas

2004-01-01

380

Education, Policy, and Social Change: Experiences from Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using both a retrospective and a prospective view, this book examines the links joining research, policy, and change in education in Latin America. It inquires about the relationships among the economy, politics, and the state. It reviews the praxis of education in Latin American countries and in the context of the development trends of the 1980s.…

Morales-Gomez, Daniel A., Ed.; Torres, Carlos Alberto, Ed.

381

A.I.D. Economic Data Book: Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This data book, updating a December 1968 publication, is designed to serve the internal program and operational needs of the Agency for International Development. More than 19 Latin American republics are referred to in major sections on: (1) Latin America in the Free World: population and production, (2) summary of basic data, (3) population…

Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

382

Preclinical assessment of the neutralizing capacity of antivenoms produced in six Latin American countries against medically-relevant Bothrops snake venoms.  

PubMed

Species of the genus Bothrops induce the vast majority of snakebite envenomings in Latin America. A preclinical study was performed in the context of a regional network of public laboratories involved in the production, quality control and development of antivenoms in Latin America. The ability of seven polyspecific antivenoms, produced in Argentina, Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Colombia and Costa Rica, to neutralize lethal, hemorrhagic, coagulant, defibrinogenating and myotoxic activities of the venoms of Bothrops neuwiedi (diporus) (Argentina), Bothrops jararaca (Brazil), B. neuwiedi (mattogrossensis) (Bolivia), Bothrops atrox (Peru and Colombia) and Bothrops asper (Costa Rica) was assessed using standard laboratory tests. Despite differences in the venom mixtures used in the immunization of animals for the production of these antivenoms, a pattern of extensive cross-neutralization was observed between these antivenoms and all the venoms tested, with quantitative differences in the values of effective doses. This study reveals the capacity of these antivenoms to neutralize, in preclinical tests, homologous and heterologous Bothrops venoms in Central and South America, and also highlight quantitative differences in the values of Median Effective Doses (ED50s) between the various antivenoms. PMID:20621114

Segura, A; Castillo, M C; Núñez, V; Yarlequé, A; Gonçalves, L R C; Villalta, M; Bonilla, C; Herrera, M; Vargas, M; Fernández, M; Yano, M Y; Araújo, H P; Boller, M A A; León, P; Tintaya, B; Sano-Martins, I S; Gómez, A; Fernández, G P; Geoghegan, P; Higashi, H G; León, G; Gutiérrez, J M

2010-11-01

383

‘The Right to Enter Every Other State’ – The Supreme Court and African American Mobility in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1857, U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger B. Taney stated in the Dred Scott case that if one African American was free to move unhindered throughout the United States, then all African Americans, enslaved or otherwise, would have ‘the right to enter every other State’. Such a situation, he argued, was untenable. The Supreme Court thus suggested that if

Euan Hague

2010-01-01

384

Repatriation in the United States: The Current State of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Repatriation in the United States today is synonymous with the passage of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Although repatriations of Native American ancestral remains and cultural objects certainly occurred--and continue to occur--outside of the purview of NAGPRA, this law remains the centerpiece of repatriation…

Daehnke, Jon; Lonetree, Amy

2011-01-01

385

"Manana Is Soon Enough for Me": Latin America through Tin Pan Alley's Prism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to examine the vision of Latin America transmitted to the American public in Tin Pan Alley's popular songs in the first half of the twentieth century, a study analyzed nearly 50 songs. The songs were grouped into five categories: (1) songs which describe Latin locales; (2) songs which are constructed around a Latin woman's name; (3) songs…

Aiex, Nola Kortner

386

Fermilab-Latin America collaboration  

SciTech Connect

Fermilab`s program of collaboration with Latin America was initiated by then-Director Leon Lederman about 1980. His goal was to aid Latin American physics, and particularly its particle physics; this latter aim is in keeping with the Laboratory`s particle physics mission. The reasons for collaboration between institutions in the US and Latin America are many, including geographic and cultural, together with the existence of many talented scientists and many centers of excellence in the region. There are also broader reasons; for example, it has been stated frequently that physics is the basis of much technology, and advanced technology is a necessity for a country`s development. There is nothing unique about Fermilab`s program; other US institutions can carry out similar activities, and some have carried out individual items in the past. On the Latin American side, such collaboration enables institutions there to carry out forefront physics research, and also to have the advantages of particle physics spin-offs, both in expertise in related technologies and in scientist training. In addition to particle physics, collaboration is possible in many other related areas. Although particle physics is frequently viewed as {open_quotes}big science{close_quotes}, all of the large research groups in the field are composed of many small university groups, each of which contributes to the experiment, the analysis and the physics. Fermilab is an international laboratory, open to all users; a research proposal is accepted on scientific merit and technical competence, not on the country of origin of the scientists making the proposal. Currently, of Fermilab`s approximately 1400 users, about 30% are from non-US institutions. It should be noted here that Fermilab`s funds, which come from the US government, are for particle physics only; however, there is some flexibility in interpretation of this.

Rubinstein, R.

1994-12-31

387

Immigration Policy and the Skills of Immigrants to Australia, Canada, and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Census data for 1990\\/91 indicate that Australian and Canadian immigrants have higher levels of English fluency, education, and income (relative to natives) than do U.S. immigrants. This skill deficit for U.S. immigrants arises primarily because the United States receives a much larger share of immigrants from Latin America than do the other two countries. After excluding Latin American immigrants, the

Heather Antecol; Deborah A. Cobb-Clark; Stephen J. Trejo

2000-01-01

388

African American women's experience of infection with HIV in the rural southeastern United States.  

PubMed

The design of effective behavioral interventions to prevent HIV infection among African American women requires a more complete understanding of the context and circumstances that precipitate infection with the virus. A descriptive study was designed to explore African American women's experiences of infection with HIV in the rural southeastern United States. Ten women living with HIV participated in interviews. All were infected through sex with a man or men; three had engaged in high-risk activities associated with HIV infection including sex trading; seven described themselves as at low risk for infection related to serial monogamy, no injection drug use, and no history of addiction. Participants reported that desire for intimacy coupled with inaccurate risk appraisal of sex partners contributed to their infection. These results provide insight into the role of intimacy in sexual risk taking. Inquiry into how women can be assisted to protect themselves in the context of intimate relationships may improve interventions to prevent HIV. PMID:18191766

Mallory, Caroline

2008-01-01

389

The Politics of Decentralisation in Latin America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Largely following the advice of loans from the World Bank, many Latin American countries decentralised education to the state, municipal and local levels. Such decentralisation was part of an effort to provide universal access to primary education with massive investments near one billion dollars per year during the 1990s. The rationale was simple…

Schiefelbein, Ernesto

2004-01-01

390

Revision Planned for the Cambridge Latin Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes a discussion on the revision of the Cambridge Latin Course (CLC) held during the 1980 ACL Institute at the University of New Hampshire by CLC users and Cambridge University Press representatives. Emphasizes suggestions by users on grammar instruction strategies better suited to American students' needs. (MES)

Sebesta, Judith Lynn

1980-01-01

391

Revolutionary Educational Reform Efforts in Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author briefly examines how educational reform attempts in Cuba since 1959 have taken place and how they have been related to social, economic, and political change efforts in the society at large. The Cuban educational system makes a significant contrast against the failure which characterizes the other Latin American educational systems.…

Paulston, Rolland G.

1975-01-01

392

Monetary policy alternatives for Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1990s, many Latin American countries began to address their problems with recession, inflation, and unemployment through dramatic economic reforms and monetary policy strategies that included exchange rate pegs, monetary aggregate targeting, or inflation targeting. Inflation targeting, in particular, had begun to lower inflation rates and to stabilize or increase real economic growth in countries such as New Zealand,

Myriam Quispe-Agnoli

2001-01-01

393

Informatics and Small Computers in Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper highlights potential benefits and more pressing social and legal problems facing Latin American nations in the area of informatics and small computers. Discussion covers potential uses (education, office applications, agriculture, national planning); role of central governments; implications for economic development; and transborder…

Alvarez, Jose; And Others

1985-01-01

394

International News in United States Media: Myths, Stereotypes and Realities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research conducted during the past 20 years reveals that, except for the "New York Times,""Christian Science Monitor," and "Wall Street Journal," United States daily newspapers are not known for outstanding international news coverage; that European, English, Canadian, Latin American, and Asian newspapers use disproportionately larger amounts of…

Lent, John A.

395

Whither Latin America? Trends and challenges of science in Latin America.  

PubMed

Science in Latin America has experienced vigorous growth in the past decade, as demonstrated by the fact that the Latin American share of the world's scientific publications increased from 1.8% in 1991-1995 to 3.4% in 1999-2003. Significant growth has also taken place in the numbers of PhDs in science and engineering (S&E) awarded in Latin American countries in recent years, including those in the natural sciences. Importantly, albeit at different rates, growth has been verified in almost all countries in the region, indicating a general effort to promote the development of S&E. In most research fields, however, the recognition or relative impact of Latin American science, as measured by the average number of citations received by published articles (CpP), is still below world averages and much lower than in developed nations. We show that average CpP values for a set of 34 representative developing and developed countries correlate significantly with gross expenditure in research and development (GERD), with gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and with the number of researchers per million inhabitants (RpM). Among those countries, Latin American nations present some of the lowest average values of CpP (<6), GERD (< or =1% of GDP) and RpM (<2,000). We also examined recent trends in scientific activity in Latin America, with focus on the natural sciences and on biochemistry and molecular biology (BMB). In terms of citation scores, publications in BMB compare favorably to those in other research fields within Latin America. At the same time, however, Latin American BMB is one of the areas for which relative impact--compared to developed nations or normalized to world averages--is lowest. These observations clearly indicate the need to establish effective policies to increase competitiveness in terms of the quality and international recognition of Latin American natural sciences in general, and BMB in particular, as opposed to merely increasing the absolute numbers of publications or the numbers of PhDs awarded in the region. PMID:17505948

Hermes-Lima, Marcelo; Santos, Natacha C F; Alencastro, Antonieta C R; Ferreira, Sergio T

2007-01-01

396

Economic Outcomes among Latino Migrants to Spain and the United States: Differences by Source Region and Legal Status  

PubMed Central

Using representative national surveys, this paper compares economic outcomes among Latin American migrants to Spain and the United States in the first cross-national comparison using quantitative data. Considering the geographic location and social proximity of each country with respect to Latin America, we detect a critical selection effect whereby the majority of Latin American migrants to Spain originate in South America from middle class backgrounds, whereas most migrants to the United States are Central Americans of lower class origins. This selection effect accounts for cross-national differences in the probability of employment, occupational attainment, and wages earned. Despite differences in the origins and characteristics of Latino immigrants to each country, demographic and human and social capital factors appear to operate similarly in both places; and when models are estimated separately by legal status, we find that effects are more accentuated for undocumented compared with documented migrants, especially in the United States.

Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas S.

2011-01-01

397

Culturally competent treatment of African American clients among a national sample of outpatient substance abuse treatment units  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study measures the level of cultural competency with respect to African American clients that exists among a national sample of outpatient substance abuse treatment (OSAT) units and determines the relationship of cultural competency to various characteristics of these units and their clients. The study utilizes cross-sectional data from the 1995 National Drug Abuse Treatment System Survey (NDATSS). The sample

Daniel L. Howard

2003-01-01

398

Causes of the American Revolution: Focus on Boston. A Unit of Study for Grades 7-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching unit is based on primary sources taken from documents, artifacts, journals, diaries, newspapers, and literature from the period under study, which, in this case, is the beginning of the Revolutionary period in the American colonies. The unit addresses the intellectual foundations, the emotional attitudes, and the specific political…

Ghere, David L.; Spreeman, Jan F.

399

Intelligibility of American English vowels and consonants spoken by international students in the United States.  

PubMed

PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to examine the intelligibility of English consonants and vowels produced by Chinese-native (CN), and Korean-native (KN) students enrolled in American universities. METHOD 16 English-native (EN), 32 CN, and 32 KN speakers participated in this study. The intelligibility of 16 American English consonants and 16 vowels spoken by native and nonnative speakers of English was evaluated by EN listeners. All nonnative speakers also completed a survey of their language backgrounds. RESULTS Although the intelligibility of consonants and diphthongs for nonnative speakers was comparable to that of native speakers, the intelligibility of monophthongs was significantly lower for CN and KN speakers than for EN speakers. Sociolinguistic factors such as the age of arrival in the United States and daily use of English, as well as a linguistic factor, difference in vowel space between native (L1) and nonnative (L2) language, partially contributed to vowel intelligibility for CN and KN groups. There was no significant correlation between the length of U.S. residency and phoneme intelligibility. CONCLUSION Results indicated that the major difficulty in phonemic production in English for Chinese and Korean speakers is with vowels rather than consonants. This might be useful for developing training methods to improve English intelligibility for foreign students in the United States. PMID:24686793

Jin, Su-Hyun; Liu, Chang

2014-04-01

400

A retrospective analysis of American football hyperthermia deaths in the United States.  

PubMed

Over the period 1980-2009, there were 58 documented hyperthermia deaths of American-style football players in the United States. This study examines the geography, timing, and meteorological conditions present during the onset of hyperthermia, using the most complete dataset available. Deaths are concentrated in the eastern quadrant of the United States and are most common during August. Over half the deaths occurred during morning practices when high humidity levels were common. The athletes were typically large (79% with a body mass index >30) and mostly (86%) played linemen positions. Meteorological conditions were atypically hot and humid by local standards on most days with fatalities. Further, all deaths occurred under conditions defined as high or extreme by the American College of Sports Medicine using the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT), but under lower threat levels using the heat index (HI). Football-specific thresholds based on clothing (full football uniform, practice uniform, or shorts) were also examined. The thresholds matched well with data from athletes wearing practice uniforms but poorly for those in shorts only. Too few cases of athletes in full pads were available to draw any broad conclusions. We recommend that coaches carefully monitor players, particularly large linemen, early in the pre-season on days with wet bulb globe temperatures that are categorized as high or extreme. Also, as most of the deaths were among young athletes, longer acclimatization periods may be needed. PMID:21161288

Grundstein, Andrew J; Ramseyer, Craig; Zhao, Fang; Pesses, Jordan L; Akers, Pete; Qureshi, Aneela; Becker, Laura; Knox, John A; Petro, Myron

2012-01-01

401

A retrospective analysis of American football hyperthermia deaths in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the period 1980-2009, there were 58 documented hyperthermia deaths of American-style football players in the United States. This study examines the geography, timing, and meteorological conditions present during the onset of hyperthermia, using the most complete dataset available. Deaths are concentrated in the eastern quadrant of the United States and are most common during August. Over half the deaths occurred during morning practices when high humidity levels were common. The athletes were typically large (79% with a body mass index >30) and mostly (86%) played linemen positions. Meteorological conditions were atypically hot and humid by local standards on most days with fatalities. Further, all deaths occurred under conditions defined as high or extreme by the American College of Sports Medicine using the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT), but under lower threat levels using the heat index (HI). Football-specific thresholds based on clothing (full football uniform, practice uniform, or shorts) were also examined. The thresholds matched well with data from athletes wearing practice uniforms but poorly for those in shorts only. Too few cases of athletes in full pads were available to draw any broad conclusions. We recommend that coaches carefully monitor players, particularly large linemen, early in the pre-season on days with wet bulb globe temperatures that are categorized as high or extreme. Also, as most of the deaths were among young athletes, longer acclimatization periods may be needed.

Grundstein, Andrew J.; Ramseyer, Craig; Zhao, Fang; Pesses, Jordan L.; Akers, Pete; Qureshi, Aneela; Becker, Laura; Knox, John A.; Petro, Myron

2012-01-01

402

Educational Research in Latin America: A Response to Akkari and Perez.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The general analysis of Latin American educational research by A. Akkari and S. Perez seems to describe a homogeneity among Latin American countries without specifying factors peculiar to each country. A more rigorous approach is needed to describe research in more than 20 independent countries. (SLD)

Narodowski, Mariano

1999-01-01

403

Portfolio investment flows to Asia and Latin America: Pull, push or market sentiment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the relative importance of “pull” and “push” factors in determining portfolio investment flows to Asian and Latin American economies. The market's attitude toward risk is included as a “push” factor. The study finds that factors that pull and push foreign portfolio investment (PI) differ between Asian and Latin American economies. PI in Asia was dominantly pushed by

In-Mee Baek

2006-01-01

404

The Summarized Evaluation of The US and Latin America Corporate Governance Standards After Financial Crisis, Corporate Scandals and Manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many analytical papers and researches done in the field of examining and analyzing consequences of the Sarbanes Oxley Act (2002) and some done in the corporate governance in some Latin American countries. This paper chooses a different approach. First, it selects The US, Brazil and Chile, which represents for Latin American countries, as three (3) American countries to

DInh Tran Ngoc Huy

2011-01-01

405

Transmitted Drug Resistance Among Antiretroviral-Naive Patients with Established HIV Type 1 Infection in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic and Review of the Latin American and Caribbean Literature  

PubMed Central

Abstract Emergence of HIV resistance is a concerning consequence of global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART). To date, there is no published information about HIV resistance from the Dominican Republic. The study's aim was to determine the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) to reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors in a sample of chronically HIV-1-infected patients in one clinic in Santo Domingo. The data are presented in the context of a review of the TDR literature from Latin America and the Caribbean. Genotype testing was successfully performed on 103 treatment-naive adults planning to initiate antiretroviral therapy; the World Health Organization (WHO) list of surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRM) was used to determine the presence of TDR mutations. WHO SDRM were identified in eight patients (7.8%); none had received sdNVP. There were no significant differences in epidemiologic or clinical variables between those with or without WHO SDRM. The prevalence of WHO SDRM was 1.0% and 6.8% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, respectively. No WHO SDRMs for protease inhibitors were identified. Among 12 studies of TDR in the region with a sample size of at least 100 subjects, the reported prevalence of SDRM ranged from 2.8% to 8.1%. The most commonly identified SDRM was K103N. This information adds to our understanding of the epidemiology of TDR in the region and the possible role such mutations could play in undermining first-line treatment. Ongoing surveillance is clearly needed to better understand the TDR phenomenon in the Caribbean.

Taylor, Barbara S.; Rojas Fermin, Rita A.; Reyes, Emily Virginia; Vaughan, Catherine; Jose, Lina; Javier, Carmen; Franco Estevez, Ramona; Donastorg Cabral, Yeycy; Batista, Arelis; Lie, Yolanda; Coakley, Eoin; Hammer, Scott M.; Brudney, Karen

2012-01-01

406

Transmitted drug resistance among antiretroviral-naive patients with established HIV type 1 infection in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic and review of the Latin American and Caribbean literature.  

PubMed

Emergence of HIV resistance is a concerning consequence of global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART). To date, there is no published information about HIV resistance from the Dominican Republic. The study's aim was to determine the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) to reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors in a sample of chronically HIV-1-infected patients in one clinic in Santo Domingo. The data are presented in the context of a review of the TDR literature from Latin America and the Caribbean. Genotype testing was successfully performed on 103 treatment-naive adults planning to initiate antiretroviral therapy; the World Health Organization (WHO) list of surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRM) was used to determine the presence of TDR mutations. WHO SDRM were identified in eight patients (7.8%); none had received sdNVP. There were no significant differences in epidemiologic or clinical variables between those with or without WHO SDRM. The prevalence of WHO SDRM was 1.0% and 6.8% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, respectively. No WHO SDRMs for protease inhibitors were identified. Among 12 studies of TDR in the region with a sample size of at least 100 subjects, the reported prevalence of SDRM ranged from 2.8% to 8.1%. The most commonly identified SDRM was K103N. This information adds to our understanding of the epidemiology of TDR in the region and the possible role such mutations could play in undermining first-line treatment. Ongoing surveillance is clearly needed to better understand the TDR phenomenon in the Caribbean. PMID:21851324

Myers, Julie E; Taylor, Barbara S; Rojas Fermín, Rita A; Reyes, Emily Virginia; Vaughan, Catherine; José, Lina; Javier, Carmen; Franco Estévez, Ramona; Donastorg Cabral, Yeycy; Batista, Arelis; Lie, Yolanda; Coakley, Eoin; Hammer, Scott M; Brudney, Karen

2012-07-01

407

Development and validation of a solid-phase extraction method coupled to liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection for the determination of fluoroquinolone residues in powdered infant formulae. Application to the analysis of samples from the Spanish and Latin American market.  

PubMed

This paper describes a new method for the effective extraction, clean-up and chromatographic analysis of residues of four fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin and sarafloxacin) in powdered infant formulae and follow-on preparations. Samples were reconstituted following the manufacturer's recommendations and treated with trichloroacetic acid in methanol 10% (w/v) for deproteinization. Two solid-phase extraction cartridges have been evaluated for sample clean-up and preconcentration, Strata Screen A and Strata X and the later provided the best recoveries for all the analytes tested. Chromatographic analysis has been carried out using a polar endcapped column (AQUA C(18)) and fluorescence detection, with lomefloxacin (LOME) as internal standard. Method validation has been performed according to European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria, in terms of linearity, recovery, precision, specificity, decision limit (CC(alpha)) and detection capability (CC(beta)). Typical recoveries ranged between 70 and 110% at levels below and above the maximum residue limits of the target analytes in bovine milk, with an excellent intralab reproducibility (RSDs<7%). Matrix effects did not significantly affect method accuracy, as evidenced by analyzing different brands of milk. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of 100 samples of infant and follow-on formulae of the Spanish and Latin American market, using LC-MS/MS as confirmatory technique. PMID:18829036

Rodriguez, E; Moreno-Bondi, M C; Marazuela, M D

2008-10-31

408

Confronting the chronic disease burden in Latin America and the Caribbean.  

PubMed

The United States is not alone in facing increasing incidence and prevalence of chronic conditions as a contributor to poorer health and growing health care spending. Latin America and the Caribbean face similar burdens, but they have fewer resources with which to respond. Much remains to be done to cope with the emerging public health and fiscal threat posed by increases in chronic conditions. However, a set of studies sponsored by the Inter-American Development Bank bring good news on potentially cost-effective strategies to improve coverage and outcomes. They should help move the growing epidemic of chronic diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean to the forefront of health policy in the region. PMID:21134914

Glassman, Amanda; Gaziano, Thomas A; Bouillon Buendia, César Patricio; Guanais de Aguiar, Frederico C

2010-12-01

409

Clinical complications of G6PD deficiency in Latin American and Caribbean populations: systematic review and implications for malaria elimination programmes  

PubMed Central

Background Although G6PDd individuals are generally asymptomatic throughout their life, the clinical burden of this genetic condition includes a range of haematological conditions, including acute haemolytic anaemia (AHA), neonatal jaundice (NNJ) and chronic non-sphaerocytic anaemia (CNSA). In Latin America (LA), the huge knowledge gap regarding G6PDd is related to the scarce understanding of the burden of clinical manifestation underlying G6PDd carriage. The aim of this work was to study the clinical significance of G6PDd in LA and the Caribbean region through a systematic review. Methods A systematic search of the published literature was undertaken in August 2013. Bibliographies of manuscripts were also searched and additional references were identified. Only original research was included. All study designs were included, as long as any clinical information was present. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported clinical information from populations living in LA or Caribbean countries or about migrants from these countries living in countries outside this continent. Results The Medline search generated 487 papers, and the LILACS search identified 140 papers. After applying the inclusion criteria, 100 original papers with any clinical information on G6PDd in LA were retrieved. Additionally, 16 articles were included after reading the references from these papers. These 116 articles reported data from 18 LA and Caribbean countries. The major clinical manifestations reported from LA countries were those related to AHA, namely drug-induced haemolysis. Most of the published works regarding drug-induced haemolysis in LA referred to haemolytic crises in P. vivax malaria patients during the course of the treatment with primaquine (PQ). Favism, infection-induced haemolysis, NNJ and CNSA appear to play only a minor public health role in this continent. Conclusion Haemolysis in patients using PQ seems to be the major clinical manifestation of G6PDd in LA and contributes to the morbidity of P. vivax infection in this continent, although the low number of reported cases, which could be linked to under-reporting of complications. These results support the need for better strategies to diagnose and manage G6PDd in malaria field conditions. Additionally, Malaria Control Programmes in LA should not overlook this condition in their national guidelines.

2014-01-01

410

Community Colleges: A Viable Solution for Latin America?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes the United States community college as a model for adaptation in Latin America. The author argues that there is a growing frustration with the lack of responsiveness of universities to the development needs of societies in Latin America. Higher education continues to be accessible only to the privileged segments of society…

Castro, Claudio de Moura; Bernasconi, Andres

411

Seronegative arthritis in latin america: a current review.  

PubMed

In many Latin American countries seronegative arthritis, especially the spondyloarthritides (SpA), is commonly characterized by associated axial and peripheral involvement. In this article, the authors review the ethnic distribution of the population and the different SpA in 10 Latin American countries, and the main characteristics of the Ibero-American Registry of Spondyloarthropathies (RESPONDIA) compared with other international registries. The peripheral component of SpA is more frequent in mixed-race populations, whereas psoriatic arthritis is significantly more frequent in countries with predominantly white populations. PMID:25023724

Saad, Carla Gonçalves Schain; Gonçalves, Célio Roberto; Sampaio-Barros, Percival D

2014-09-01

412

Nonverbal Communication: Proxemics and Tactility in Latin America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deals with a study conducted in Costa Rica, Panama, and Columbia to determine whether Latin Americans have similar distance and contact orientations regardless of sex and nationality. Concludes that the differences in behavior between the Central and South Americans are significant enough to warrant further research. (MH)

Shuter, Robert

1976-01-01

413

Latin America: Books for High Schools. An Annotated Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography, intended for use as a selection tool for social studies programs and libraries in order to supply secondary students and teachers with recent Latin American books, contains 171 annotated bibliographic citations prepared by the center for Inter-American Relations after examination of more than 1200 books for comprehensiveness,…

Farrell, Robert V., Comp.; Hohenstein, John F., Comp.

414

Meetings of Experts on Book Development in Latin America (Bogota, 9-15 September 1969). Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The meeting of experts on book development in Latin America examined the present situation in the region and drew up a programme of action to promote book production and distribution. Experts from 23 Latin American countries participated. One of their major recommendations was that a Book Development Centre for Latin America be established at…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

415

La Problematica Tecnologica Latinoamericana y Sus Implicaciones en el Desarrollo de una Ingenieria Nacional (Latin America Technological Problem and Its Implications in the Development of National Engineering).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report introduces four perspectives to follow up: (1) Strategical elements that hasten the technological development within the Latin American countries; (2) Technological Policy within Latin America; (3) Characterization of the development of the Lat...

G. Tirado E. Paredes M. Genova L. Alvaray J. Giordani

1979-01-01

416

Unintentional injury mortality among american indians and alaska natives in the United States, 1990-2009.  

PubMed

Objectives. We describe the burden of unintentional injury (UI) deaths among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations in the United States. Methods. National Death Index records for 1990 to 2009 were linked with Indian Health Service registration records to identify AI/AN deaths misclassified as non-AI/AN deaths. Most analyses were restricted to Contract Health Service Delivery Area counties in 6 geographic regions of the United States. We compared age-adjusted death rates for AI/AN persons with those for Whites; Hispanics were excluded. Results. From 2005 to 2009, the UI death rate for AI/AN people was 2.4 times higher than for Whites. Death rates for the 3 leading causes of UI death-motor vehicle traffic crashes, poisoning, and falls-were 1.4 to 3 times higher among AI/AN persons than among Whites. UI death rates were higher among AI/AN males than among females and highest among AI/AN persons in Alaska, the Northern Plains, and the Southwest. Conclusions. AI/AN persons had consistently higher UI death rates than did Whites. This disparity in overall rates coupled with recent increases in unintentional poisoning deaths requires that injury prevention be a major priority for improving health and preventing death among AI/AN populations. PMID:24754624

Murphy, Tierney; Pokhrel, Pallavi; Worthington, Anne; Billie, Holly; Sewell, Mack; Bill, Nancy

2014-06-01

417

Unintentional Injury Mortality Among American Indians and Alaska Natives in the United States, 1990-2009  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We describe the burden of unintentional injury (UI) deaths among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations in the United States. Methods. National Death Index records for 1990 to 2009 were linked with Indian Health Service registration records to identify AI/AN deaths misclassified as non-AI/AN deaths. Most analyses were restricted to Contract Health Service Delivery Area counties in 6 geographic regions of the United States. We compared age-adjusted death rates for AI/AN persons with those for Whites; Hispanics were excluded. Results. From 2005 to 2009, the UI death rate for AI/AN people was 2.4 times higher than for Whites. Death rates for the 3 leading causes of UI death—motor vehicle traffic crashes, poisoning, and falls—were 1.4 to 3 times higher among AI/AN persons than among Whites. UI death rates were higher among AI/AN males than among females and highest among AI/AN persons in Alaska, the Northern Plains, and the Southwest. Conclusions. AI/AN persons had consistently higher UI death rates than did Whites. This disparity in overall rates coupled with recent increases in unintentional poisoning deaths requires that injury prevention be a major priority for improving health and preventing death among AI/AN populations.

Pokhrel, Pallavi; Worthington, Anne; Billie, Holly; Sewell, Mack; Bill, Nancy

2014-01-01

418

The distribution of leptospirosis in Latin America*†  

PubMed Central

Although many factors combine to make Latin America an apparently suitable region for the spread of the leptospiroses, the prevalence of these infections has been studied in relatively few areas of this part of the American continent. Of the 60 Leptospira serotypes described in the world, only seven have so far been definitively demonstrated in Middle America and five in South America. However, there is evidence to suggest that other and perhaps new serotypes may be found, and recent serological surveys indicate that there are loci of multiple leptospirosis affecting a large percentage of human or animal populations in at least five Latin American territories. The true prevalence of leptospirosis can only be ascertained by the proper application of reliable laboratory diagnostic methods. The limited value of certain techniques used heretofore makes a number of reports on the presence of this disease subject to question.

Alexander, A. D.

1960-01-01

419

Farewell, My Nation. The American Indian and the United States, 1820-1890. The American History Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the formation of U.S. government policy toward the American Indian tribes during the period 1820-1890. Chapter 1 describes the early 19th century debate between the Gradualists, who believed in the peaceful assimilation of the Indians into white society, and the Removalists, who advocated forced removal of the tribes to the…

Weeks, Philip

420

The challenges of organizing an international course in Latin America  

PubMed Central

The Latin American School of Human and Medical Genetics (ELAG) is the main course of its kind in the genetics field in Latin America. Here we describe the main challenges regarding the organization of such event, including how we obtain funding and how we proceed with student selection. Thus, we aim to share our experience with other groups that intend to follow this format to create similar events in other areas in this region of the world.

Vairo, Filippo; Lopez, Monica Lujan; Cruz, Carolina Uribe; Correa, Priscila Gomes; Baldo, Guilherme

2014-01-01

421

Social Capital and International Migration from Latin America  

PubMed Central

We combine data from the Latin American Migration Project and the Mexican Migration Project to estimate models predicting the likelihood of taking of first and later trips to the United States from five nations: Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Peru. The models test specific hypotheses about the effects of social capital on international migration and how these effects vary with respect to contextual factors. Our findings confirm the ubiquity of migrant networks and the universality of social capital effects throughout Latin America. They also reveal how the sizes of these effects are not uniform across settings. Social capital operates more powerfully on first as opposed to later trips and interacts with the cost of migration. In addition, effects are somewhat different when considering individual social capital (measuring strong ties) and community social capital (measuring weak ties). On first trips, the effect of strong ties in promoting migration increases with distance whereas the effect of weak ties decreases with distance. On later trips, the direction of effects for both individual and community social capital is negative for long distances but positive for short distances.

Massey, Douglas S.; Aysa-Lastra, Maria

2011-01-01

422

The Pacific\\/North American Teleconnection Pattern and United States Climate. Part I: Regional Temperature and Precipitation Associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pacific\\/North American (PNA) teleconnection index, a measure of the strength and phase of the PNA teleconnection pattern, is related to the variations of the surface climate of the United States from 1947 through 1982 for the autumn, winter, and spring months when the PNA is a main mode of Northern Hemisphere midtropospheric variability. The results demonstrate that the PNA

Daniel J. Leathers; Brent Yarnal; Michael A. Palecki

1991-01-01

423

MEXICAN-AMERICAN STUDY PROJECT. ADVANCE REPORT 2, MEXICAN IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES--THE RECORD AND ITS IMPLICATIONS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS PRELIMINARY REPORT DESCRIBES THAT PHASE OF THE UCLA MEXICAN-AMERICAN STUDY PROJECT WHICH CONCERNS THE IMMIGRATION PROCESS OF MEXICANS TO THE UNITED STATES. STATISTICS ARE PRESENTED ABOUT--(1) THE VOLUME OF IMMIGRATION OVER THE YEARS, (2) THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF IMMIGRATING MEXICANS, (3) THE GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF MIGRANTS…

GREBLER, LEO; AND OTHERS

424

Inflation and Welfare in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper follows Bailey (J Polit Econ 64:93–110, 1956) and Lucas (Econometrica 68:247–274, 2000) and estimates the welfare cost of inflation for 17 Latin American economies. We use annual data, from 1955 to 2000, and\\u000a recent advances in the field of applied econometrics to estimate the inflation rate elasticity of money demand and report\\u000a significantly high and differential welfare cost

Kazem Yavari; Apostolos Serletis

2011-01-01

425

Development and application of rapid assessment diet and physical activity indexes, which suggest high consumption of energy-dense foods and inadequate exercise among adolescents from 6 Latin American cities: a pilot study.  

PubMed

This study describes the development and application of a rapid assessment diet quality index (RADQI) and a rapid assessment physical activity index (RAPAI) to characterize the energy intake and expenditure patterns of 1279 Latin American adolescents. Secondary aims were to describe the strength of the relationships of energy intakes and expenditures with sex, socioeconomic status, body mass index, and city of residence and to identify the students' reasons for undertaking physical activity and the types of activities they most enjoyed. Participants were eighth and ninth grade students from Buenos Aires, Argentina; Guatemala City, Guatemala; Havana, Cuba; Lima, Peru; Panama City, Panama; and Santiago, Chile. The RADQI and RAPAI scores were rescaled to T scores with a mean of 50 points (+/-10) for comparison. The RADQI scores ranged from 53.0 points (+/-10.5) in Panama City to 44.7 points (+/-8.3) in Santiago, and RAPAI scores ranged from 54.8 points (+/-9.2) in Panama City to 46.2 points (+/-8.6) in Santiago. The correlation between RADQI and RAPAI scores for the combined data set was weak but positive. The 2 reasons most often given for undertaking physical activity were to improve their physical health and to improve their psychological well-being, whereas the types of physical activities most enjoyed involved competitive sports. Results suggest frequent intakes of energy-dense diets and inadequate physical activity participation, prompting a need for learning opportunities targeted at adolescents and their families that teach healthy food choices and encourage greater physical activity participation. PMID:19083464

McArthur, Laura H; Holbert, Donald; Peña, Manuel

2008-09-01

426

[Bibliometry of biological systematics in Latin America during the twentieth century in three global databases].  

PubMed

We present a review of the biological systematic research in Latin America during the twentieth century, applying a bibliometric analysis to the information contained in international databases with the largest number of biological records: Biosis (since 1969), CAB (since 1910) and Science Citation Index (since 1900), to recognize certain patterns and trends regarding the document production. We obtained 19079 documents and 1387 journals for Biosis, 14326 and 2537 for CAB, 3257 and 1636 for SCI. Of the documents, 54.6% related to new species, 15.3% dealt with morphology, 14.9% keys, 12.5% descriptions, 10.6% cases of synonymies, 6% new genera, 4.9% new geographical records, 23.6% geographical distribution, 4.2% redescriptions, and 3.6% with new nomenclatural combinations. The regions mentioned were South America with 11.9%, Central America with 4% and America (all) with 2.56%. Nineteen Latin American countries appear, whereas outside this region we found the United States of America with 12.6% of representation and Canada with 3%. Animals (65.6%) were the most studied taxa, which was 1.7 times higher than what was published for plants (37%), 11 times higher than fungi (6%) and nearly 30 times higher than microorganisms (2.3%). Out of the 155 journals that produced 66% of the papers, 76.5% were better represented in Biosis, 21.4% in CAB and 2% in SCI. Twenty-nine journals published 33% of the articles, the maximum number of records obtained was 69% for Biosis, CAB 24% and 6.9% for SCI, three (10.3%) are in biology, 11 (37.9%) in botany, 13 (44.8%) zoology, and two (6.9%) paleontology; eight of these journals (27.5%) were published in Latin America and twenty were indexed in the Science Citation Index. In the last two years more journals of the region that publish on taxonomy have been indexed, but their impact factor is still low. However, the impact factor of a number of Latin American journals that published biodiversity increased with time. Countries that are more interested in studying the Latin American biota from the taxonomic point of view are Brazil, the United States, Argentina and Mexico. The most active institutions in this discipline were the Universidade de São Paulo, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, and the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro; together they produced 24% of the documents. PMID:20527457

Michán, Layla; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge

2010-06-01

427

Culture and entrepreneurship? African American and immigrant self-employment in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the evolution of African American entrepreneurship by comparing the patterns of development of African American entrepreneurship and immigrant entrepreneurship. Whereas most literature focuses on African American culture as the reason for limited entrepreneurial success compared to certain immigrant groups, this paper examines how social, economic, and political forces have adversely influenced the development of Black entrepreneurship compared

Vicki Bogan; William Darity Jr.

2008-01-01

428

Italian Speech Varieties in the United States and Italian-American Lingua Franca.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the high Italian speech variety commonly used by Italian Americans, based on a study of 39 Italian Americans that included interviews and questionnaires. Dialectal characteristics, convergence with English, and language maintenance and language shift in the Italian-American community are discussed. (CB)

Haller, Hermann W.

1987-01-01

429

Mineral Industries of Latin America and Canada, 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Western Hemisphere (the Americas) includes, in order of importance, the United States, Canada, and 40 other economies in Latin America, which are covered in the Minerals Yearbook, Volume IIDomestic and Volume IIIInternational, respectively. This area ...

A. C. Gurmendi D. R. Wilburn I. E. Torres O. Bermudez-Lugo P. Velasco

2002-01-01

430

A Geodetic Strain Rate Model for the Pacific-North American Plate Boundary, western United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a model of crustal strain rates derived from GPS measurements of horizontal station velocities in the Pacific-North American plate boundary in the western United States. The model reflects a best estimate of present-day deformation from the San Andreas fault system in the west to the Basin and Range province in the east. Of the total 2,846 GPS velocities used in the model, 1,197 are derived by ourselves, and 1,649 are taken from (mostly) published results. The velocities derived by ourselves (the "UNR solution") are estimated from GPS position time-series of continuous and semi-continuous stations for which data are publicly available. We estimated ITRF2005 positions from 2002-2011.5 using JPL's GIPSY-OASIS II software with ambiguity resolution applied using our custom Ambizap software. Only stations with time-series that span at least 2.25 years are considered. We removed from the time-series continental-scale common-mode errors using a spatially-varying filtering technique. Velocity uncertainties (typically 0.1-0.3 mm/yr) assume that the time-series contain flicker plus white noise. We used a subset of stations on the stable parts of the Pacific and North American plates to estimate the Pacific-North American pole of rotation. This pole is applied as a boundary condition to the model and the North American - ITRF2005 pole is used to rotate our velocities into a North America fixed reference frame. We do not include parts of the time-series that show curvature due to post-seismic deformation after major earthquakes and we also exclude stations whose time-series display a significant unexplained non-linearity or that are near volcanic centers. Transient effects longer than the observation period (i.e., slow viscoelastic relaxation) are left in the data. We added to the UNR solution velocities from 12 other studies. The velocities are transformed onto the UNR solution's reference frame by estimating and applying a translation and rotation that minimizes the velocities at collocated stations. We removed obvious outliers and velocities in areas that we identified to undergo subsidence likely due to excessive water pumping. For the strain rate calculations we excluded GPS stations with anomalous vertical motion or annual horizontal periodicity, which are indicators of local site instability. First, we used the stations from the UNR solution to create a Delaunay triangulation and estimated the horizontal strain rate components (and rigid body rotation) for each triangle in a linear least-squares inversion using the horizontal velocities as input. Some level of spatial damping was applied to minimize unnecessary spatial variation in the model parameters. The strain rates estimates were then used as a priori strain rate variances in a method that fits continuous bi-cubic Bessel spline functions through the velocity gradient field while minimizing the weighted misfit to all velocities. A minimal level of spatial smoothing of the variances was applied. The strain rate tensor model is shown by contours of the second invariant of the tensor, which is a measure of the amplitude that is coordinate frame independent. We also show a map of the tensor style and of the signal-to-noise ratio of the model.

Kreemer, C.; Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Holland, A. A.; Bennett, R. A.

2012-04-01

431

Disparities in Cancer Mortality and Incidence Among American Indians and Alaska Natives in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We used improved data on American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) ancestry to provide an updated and comprehensive description of cancer mortality and incidence among AI/AN populations from 1990 to 2009. Methods. We linked the National Death Index and central cancer registry records independently to the Indian Health Service (IHS) patient registration database to improve identification of AI/AN persons in cancer mortality and incidence data, respectively. Analyses were restricted to non-Hispanic persons residing in Contract Health Service Delivery Area counties in 6 geographic regions of the United States. We compared age-adjusted mortality and incidence rates for AI/AN populations with White populations using rate ratios and mortality-to-incidence ratios. Trends were described using joinpoint analysis. Results. Cancer mortality and incidence rates for AI/AN persons compared with Whites varied by region and type of cancer. Trends in death rates showed that greater progress in cancer control was achieved for White populations compared with AI/AN populations over the last 2 decades. Conclusions. Spatial variations in mortality and incidence by type of cancer demonstrated both persistent and emerging challenges for cancer control in AI/AN populations.

Espey, David K.; Swan, Judith; Wiggins, Charles L.; Eheman, Christie; Kaur, Judith S.

2014-01-01

432

Disparities in cancer mortality and incidence among american indians and alaska natives in the United States.  

PubMed

Objectives. We used improved data on American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) ancestry to provide an updated and comprehensive description of cancer mortality and incidence among AI/AN populations from 1990 to 2009. Methods. We linked the National Death Index and central cancer registry records independently to the Indian Health Service (IHS) patient registration database to improve identification of AI/AN persons in cancer mortality and incidence data, respectively. Analyses were restricted to non-Hispanic persons residing in Contract Health Service Delivery Area counties in 6 geographic regions of the United States. We compared age-adjusted mortality and incidence rates for AI/AN populations with White populations using rate ratios and mortality-to-incidence ratios. Trends were described using joinpoint analysis. Results. Cancer mortality and incidence rates for AI/AN persons compared with Whites varied by region and type of cancer. Trends in death rates showed that greater progress in cancer control was achieved for White populations compared with AI/AN populations over the last 2 decades. Conclusions. Spatial variations in mortality and incidence by type of cancer demonstrated both persistent and emerging challenges for cancer control in AI/AN populations. PMID:24754660

White, Mary C; Espey, David K; Swan, Judith; Wiggins, Charles L; Eheman, Christie; Kaur, Judith S

2014-06-01

433

Challenges of Cultural and Racial Diversity to Counseling: Volume 2. Latin America and the United States. Mexico City Conference Proceedings (June 1990).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers from the second international conference of the American Counseling Association held in Mexico City in June 1990 are included in this book. The book is divided into four parts: community, diversity, communication, and spirituality. The following papers are included: (1) Myths, Realities, and Implications of the English Only Movement in the…

Gonzalez, Gerardo M., Ed.; and Others

434

Impact of EMS Outreach: Successful Developments in Latin America  

PubMed Central

This collection of articles was inspired by the long-standing relationship between the Environmental Mutagen Society and Latin American scientists, and by the program for the 39th Environmental Mutagen Society meeting in Puerto Rico in 2008, which included a symposium featuring “South of the border” scientists. This collection, compiled by Graciela Spivak and Ofelia Olivero, both originally from Argentina, highlights scientists who work in or were trained in Latin American countries and in Puerto Rico in a variety of scientific specialties related to DNA repair and cancer susceptibility, genomic organization and stability, genetic diversity, and environmental contaminants.

Olivero, Ofelia A.; Larramendy, Marcelo; Soloneski, Sonia; Menck, Carlos F.M.; Matta, Jaime; Folle, Gustavo A.; Zamorano-Ponce, Enrique; Spivak, Graciela

2014-01-01

435

Culturally competent treatment of African American clients among a national sample of outpatient substance abuse treatment units.  

PubMed

This study measures the level of cultural competency with respect to African American clients that exists among a national sample of outpatient substance abuse treatment (OSAT) units and determines the relationship of cultural competency to various characteristics of these units and their clients. The study utilizes cross-sectional data from the 1995 National Drug Abuse Treatment System Survey (NDATSS). The sample for NDATSS was randomly selected from a comprehensive list of OSAT programs compiled by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan in 1994. Of the nationally representative, stratified sample of 699 units, 618 (88%) participated. Spearman correlation, analysis of variance, Behrens-Fisher t-tests, and chi-square were used for bivariate comparisons. Culturally competent units are typically public, federal-funded organizations. Staffs of culturally competent units are typically college-educated with specialized treatment certification. High severity of illness as well as increased social distresses is pervasive among the clients of culturally competent units. Consideration of this client profile may be a key determinant in evaluating the effectiveness of cultural competency for African American substance abusers. PMID:12745026

Howard, Daniel L

2003-03-01

436

Respiratory health equality in the United States. The American Thoracic Society perspective.  

PubMed

Because the frequency of major risk factors for respiratory diseases (e.g., tobacco use) differs across demographic groups (defined by socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, health care access, occupation, or other characteristics), health disparities are commonly encountered in pediatric and adult pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine. As part of its policy on respiratory health disparities, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) Executive Committee created a Health Equality Subcommittee of the Health Policy Committee, with an initial mandate of defining respiratory health equality and, as a subsequent task, providing recommendations to the ATS leadership as to how our society may help attain such equality in the United States. After receiving input from the ATS assemblies and committees, the subcommittee developed this document on respiratory health equality. This document defines respiratory health disparities and respiratory health equality, and expands on a recent ATS and European Respiratory Society policy statement on disparities in respiratory health. Attainment of respiratory health equality requires the ending of respiratory health disparities, which can be achieved only through multidisciplinary efforts to eliminate detrimental environmental exposures while promoting a healthy lifestyle, implementing all components of high-quality health care (prevention, screening, diagnosis, and treatment), and conducting research that will lead to better prevention and management of respiratory diseases for everyone. The ATS recognizes that such efforts must include all stakeholders: members of society at large, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and other professional societies. The ATS urges all of its members and those of sister societies to work to achieve this laudable goal. PMID:24625275

Celedón, Juan C; Roman, Jesse; Schraufnagel, Dean E; Thomas, Alvin; Samet, Jonathan

2014-05-01

437

American Indian Stereotypes: The Truth Behind the Hype. An Indian Education Curriculum Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide dispels the stereotypes of American Indians that humiliate and degrade real Indian culture and add fuel to the fire of racism and prejudice. It begins with a timeline of American Indian history from 15,000 B.C. to the present, and compares it to a historical timeline of Europe-Asia. The stereotype of the savage Indian is…

Stutzman, Esther

438

The contribution of railways to economic growth in Latin America before 1914: a growth accounting approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Railways are usually considered as one of the most important innovations that fostered the transition of Latin America to economic growth before 1914. The social saving estimates that are available for several Latin American countries seem to confirm that view. However, the interpretation of the results of the social saving literature is not straightforward, since the comparison among social savings

Alfonso Herranz-Loncan

2011-01-01

439

The Major Project of Education in Latin America and the Caribbean: Bulletin 37.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin reports on educational reform efforts in specific Latin American countries and calls for policy makers to utilize research findings on education in their decision. Five articles are included: (1) "Education Reform in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Agenda for Action" (Ernesto Schiefelbein); (2) "Uruguayan High School Graduates:…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

440

Information Literacy and Lifelong Learning in Latin America: the challenge to build social sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to explore information literacy and lifelong learning concepts in Latin America. First, we consider the Latin American challenges: inequalities, unstable politics, lack of formation of workers, poverty. Second, we discuss different concepts of society, focusing on the Learning Society, that requires emancipated individuals that are lifelong learners because they are information literate. The next

Elisabeth Adriana Dudziak

2007-01-01

441

Engineers for Rural Development: Europe and Latin America Getting in Tune.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The European program Amerique Latine-Formation Academique (ALFA) has provided 12 Latin-American and 10 European universities and colleges with a framework for creating an International Master in Rural Development. Globalization, regional integration, and sustainability have created a new set of questions for rural areas, both in Europe and in…

Marechal, Gilles

442

Solar-Based Rural Electrification and Micro-Enterprise Development in Latin America: A Gender Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Worldwide, an estimated 1.5 to 2 billion people do not have access to electricity, including 100 million in the Latin America region. Depending on the country, 30 to 90% of this unelectrified Latin American population lives in rural areas where geographic...

J. Smith

2000-01-01

443

Recent Chinese Engagement in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Canadian Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the triangular impact of China's involvement in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) for Canadian interests in the region. It looks at the political dimensions of Sino-Latin American relations, considers issues that are of particular importance to Canadian policy in the Americas, and assesses whether these could be affected by Chinese activity in LAC. The report also

Florencia Jubany; Daniel Poon

444

Problems Facing Native American Youths. Hearing before the Committee on Indian Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session, on Oversight Hearing on Problems Facing Native American Youths (August 1, 2002).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Senate committee hearing received testimony on the problems of Native American youth and programs addressing those problems. Speakers included representatives of the American Academy of Pediatrics, United National Indian Tribal Youth (UNITY), Boys and Girls Clubs of America, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), and the Office of National Drug…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.

445

Atlanta Public Schools Latin Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide outlines the basic objectives and the content of the Atlanta Public Schools Latin program and suggests resources and methods to achieve the stated goals. The philosophy and general objectives of the program are presented. Course outlines include: (1) Beginning Latin, (2) Intermediate Latin, (3) Vergil's "Aeneid," (4) Ovid:…

Atlanta Public Schools, GA.

446

Perspectives for Teachers of Latin American Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles treating various aspects of the teaching of Hispanic culture at the secondary and junior high school levels are intended to improve methodology and facilitate the development of teacher-made instructional materials. An overview of the field relating problems and procedures in several areas is developed. Selections cover: (1) bilinguality,…

Seelye, H. Ned, Ed.

447

Latin American Futures Project, January - May 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Andean region and Brazil confront serious economic, political, and security challenges at a time that past models including the statist model of the 1970s and the neoliberal model of the 1990s appear to offer no ready relief. But the initial successes...

P. D. Taylor

2003-01-01

448

Comments from a Latin American Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a comment on the paper "Adult Literacy" presented by Cecilia Soriano during the ICAE Virtual Seminar in Preparation for CONFINTEA VI, that took place from April 21st to May 09th, this paper recaptures the debate of the programmes to teach literacy to adults with characteristics of campaign; it talks about a new type of exclusion that…

Haddad, Sergio

2007-01-01

449

Latin: Horseshoe Style.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides a description of how to conduct a learning program for Latin I - IV in order to set in motion a student-operated class with total involvement. The students without intervention from the teacher perform, each one making his/her contribution to the class on the basis of his/her particular interest and motivation. From…

Bensen, Anna Roberta

450

Fabry disease in latin america: data from the fabry registry.  

PubMed

The purpose of these analyses was to characterize demographic and baseline clinical characteristics of Latin American patients with Fabry disease compared to that of patients in the rest of the world. Observational data reported to the Fabry Registry were obtained from untreated patients or prior to treatment with enzyme replacement therapy. As of October 1, 2010, 3,752 patients were enrolled in the Fabry Registry worldwide, including 333 patients within Latin America. Latin American patients tended to be younger than Fabry Registry patients enrolled in the rest of the world: mean current age 35.5 years versus 39.2 years for men (p < 0.05 by t-test), mean age 37.8 years versus 43.6 years for women (p < 0.05 by t-test). A smaller percentage of Latin American patients have received enzyme replacement therapy, compared to patients in the rest of the world: 67% versus 80% for men, and 19% versus 39% of women, respectively. Thirty-one percent of men and 22% of women in Latin America reported experiencing a significant cardiovascular, renal, or cerebrovascular event, at a mean age of 35 ± 12.6 years in men and 44 ± 12.3 years in women. Cardiovascular events were the most common type of initial clinical event among men and women in Latin America. The medical community in Latin America should be aware of Fabry disease as a possible cause of renal or cardiac dysfunction. Increased awareness will facilitate prompt diagnosis and initiation of treatment. PMID:23430525

Villalobos, J; Politei, J M; Martins, A M; Cabrera, G; Amartino, H; Lemay, R; Ospina, S; Ordoñez, S Suarez; Varas, C

2013-01-01

451

Gender Matters: Involving Women in Development in Latin America and the Caribbean.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report reviews the evolution of A.I.D.'s 'gender-sensitive' development efforts, especially those in the Latin American and Caribbean region, and documents substantive lessons learned about gender and development, including those related to the instit...

R. L. Blumberg

1990-01-01

452

Improving HIV Surveillance Among American Indians and Alaska Natives in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In proposed action steps to address the National HIV/AIDS Strategy goal of reducing new HIV infections, the Federal Implementation Plan for the Strategy specifically encourages improved surveillance to better characterize HIV among American Indians and Al...

2012-01-01

453

Attitudes of Members of the Midwest Unit of Catholic Library Association toward Recent Revisions of the Documents on Intellectual Freedom adopted by the American Library Association.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was conducted to determine the attitudes toward intellectual freedom and censorship of Catholic Library Association (CLA) Midwest Unit members. Sixty of 77 members responded to a questionnaire based on principles from four American Library Asso...

M. Kehoe

1977-01-01

454

Disparities in Uterine Cancer Epidemiology, Treatment, and Survival Among African Americans in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this article is to comprehensively review the scientific literature and summarize the available data regarding the outcome disparities of African American women with uterine cancer. Methods Literature on disparities in uterine cancer was systematically reviewed using the PubMed search engine. Articles from 1992-2012 written in English were reviewed. Search terms included endometrial cancer, uterine cancer, racial disparities, and African American. Results Twenty-four original research articles with a total of 366,299 cases of endometrial cancer (337,597 Caucasian and 28,702 African American) were included. Compared to Caucasian women, African American women comprise 7% of new endometrial cancer cases, while accounting for approximately 14% of endometrial cancer deaths. They are diagnosed with later stage, higher-grade disease, and poorer prognostic histologic types compared to their Caucasian counterparts. They also suffer worse outcomes at every stage, grade, and for every histologic type. The cause of increased mortality is multifactorial. African American and white women have varying incidence of comorbid conditions, genetic susceptibility to malignancy, access to care and health coverage, and socioeconomic status; however, the most consistent contributors to incidence and mortality disparities are histology and socioeconomics. More robust genetic and molecular profile studies are in development to further explain histologic differences. Conclusions Current studies suggest that histologic and socioeconomic factors explain much of the disparity in endometrial cancer incidence and mortality between white and African American patients. Treatment factors likely contributed historically to differences in mortality; however, studies suggest most women now receive equal care. Molecular differences may be an important factor to explain the racial inequities. Coupled with a sustained commitment to increasing access to appropriate care, on-going research in biologic mechanisms underlying histopathologic differences will help address and reduce the number of African American women who disproportionately suffer and die from endometrial malignancy.

Long, B; Liu, FW; Bristow, RE

2013-01-01

455

Cultural Penetration in Latin America through Multinational Advertising Agencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few studies have addressed the issue of cultural penetration of Latin American countries by multinational corporations (MNCs) and multinational advertising agencies (MAAs). Whether they are considered multinational or transnational, MAAs have expanded as a form of international communication in the global market, forming the backbone of MNCs.…

Del Toro, Wanda

456

Child Labor and School Achievement in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child labor's effect on academic achievement is estimated using unique data on third and fourth graders in nine Latin-American countries. Cross-country variation in truancy regulations provides an exogenous shift in the ages of children normally in these grades, providing exogenous variation in the opportunity cost of children's time. Least squares estimates suggest that child labor lowers test scores, but those

Victoria Gunnarsson; Peter F. Orazem; Mario A. Sánchez

2006-01-01

457

Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Latin America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three Latin American countries--Brazil, Peru and Argentina--were examined to identify promising practices and to assess lessons…

Nemes, Susanna; Libretto, Salvatore; Garrett, Gerald; Johansson, Anna Carin; Hess, Lauren

2005-01-01

458

Dairy clusters in Latin America in the context of globalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The milk clusters in the Latin American countries studied share key characteristics in their patterns of development in the 1990s, in particular the rising importance of multinationals and large domestic firms in the processing and distribution segments of the milk products chains. This tends to reduce reliance on and transactions with smaller domestic firms in the milk industry, and induce

Martine Dirven

1999-01-01

459

Latin America Curriculum. World Neighbors in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of lessons about the geography, languages, and social issues of several Latin American countries is intended for use with students in grades 6-12. The collection contains five lesson plans: (1) "Cold in the Tropics?" (Marilyn Kesler); (2) "Going beyond the Map: Comparing Geographic Characteristics and Related Social Issues in…

World Neighbors, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK.

460

Incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical cancer incidence and mortality estimates for 2000 are presented for the 21 Latin American countries, using estimates from the statistical package GLOBOCAN 2000. Additional data on time-trends are also presented, using the WHO mortality database. By the year 2000, some 76 000 cervical cancer and almost 30 000 deaths were estimated for the whole region, which represent 16% and

Silvina Arrossi; Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan; Donald Maxwell Parkin

2003-01-01

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