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1

Latin American Studies. ERIC Digest No. 19.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This ERIC Digest considers the present state of teaching about Latin America in elementary and secondary schools in the United States, the need and rationale for Latin American studies, effective approaches to teaching Latin American studies, and resources to supplement textbooks that treat Latin America inadequately. Following an introductory…

Cook, Kay K.

2

Interaction of science and diplomacy: Latin American, the United States and nuclear energy, 1945-1955  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear programs in Argentina and Brazil can be traced to August 1945 when their scientific communities articulated responses to the atomic bombings of Japan. They culminated in attempts to develop independent nuclear programs, sharply opposed by the United States, during the nationalist governments of Juan Peron and Getulio Vargas. This dissertation, based on primary sources from the three nations, analyzes these programs and the American responses. Latin America entered the nuclear age attempting to control natural resources, to improve scientific establishments, and to appraise Latin American-United States relations. Despite some clear warnings about nuclear dangers, the new form of energy was seen as the solution to industrial problems, poverty, and outside political interference. International opposition, which may have included nuclear threats from the United States, blocked Argentina's first attempt in 1947. After 1948, Peron wanted a nuclear program for cheap energy and prestige. The qualifications of the Brazilian scientists gave more substance to their program. The program originated in August, 1945, but assumed national proportion with the government of Vargas in 1951. Lack of American cooperation forced Vargas to establish a secret program with Germany. American troops intervened taking over the German equipment already completed. The final collapse came about with Vargas' suicide in August, 1954.

Cabral, R.

1986-01-01

3

Latin American cheeses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Latin American (or Hispanic-style) cheeses are a category of cheeses that were developed in Mexico, Latin America, and the Caribbean and have become increasingly popular in the U.S. Although research has been conducted on some of the cheeses, quantitative information on the quality traits of most L...

4

Latin American Preschool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the development, organization and evaluation of a six week bilingual preschool program for Latin American children, designed specifically to help prepare them for kindergarten. The general goals of the program were: (1) to provide the children with a pleasant environment in which they could learn appropriate school behavior,…

Dixon, Brook; And Others

5

Latin American Travelogues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The John Hay Library at Brown University has an impressive array of collections related to Latin America and the Caribbean. These collections include the Schirmer Collection on Anti-Imperialism and the Paul R. Dupee Mexican History Collection. Recently, Professor James Green and Patricia Figueroa, the librarian and subject specialist for Iberia and Latin America worked together to create this compelling digital library of Latin American travel accounts which span the 16th through 19th centuries. Visitors can browse through these accounts at their leisure, and they will find everything from Louis Aggasiz's "A Journey in Brazil" to Johann Baptist von Spix's "Travels in Brazil in the Years 1817-1820". Additionally, visitors can also read some rather thoughtful essays offered by Professor Green's students that draw on these travel narratives for academic inspiration and contemplation.

6

Mexican Celebrations. Latin American Culture Studies Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed for elementary school children, this unit is designed to teach about Mexican American culture through the study of holidays celebrated throughout much of Latin America and the southwestern United States. The unit describes and provides background information about nine Mexican American holidays. Among the activities included are the…

Garza-Lubeck, Maria; Salinas, Ana Maria

7

HORIZONTES I LATIN AMERICAN CENTRE qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq  

E-print Network

of social science knowledge of the region with a strong Latin American history programme, embodiedHORIZONTES I LATIN AMERICAN CENTRE qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · HorizontesNEWSLETTER OF THE LATIN AMERICAN CENTRE Number 2, Summer 2014 #12;qqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqqq

Oxford, University of

8

A Survey of the Portuguese Language, Luso-Brazilian and Latin American Area Studies in Institutions of Higher Learning in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey of Luso-Brazilian and Latin American Studies which include Brazil and which are currently available in institutions of higher learning in the United States is the fourth survey of its kind undertaken by the Brazilian Embassy and the Brazilian American Cultural Institute. Universities surveyed are listed by state; courses of study are…

Brazilian American Cultural Inst., Washington, DC.

9

THE CENTER FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES (CLAS),  

E-print Network

with those of persons of Latin American heritage living in the region could serve as the basis for a mutuallyPRESENT THE CENTER FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES (CLAS), THE LATIN AMERICAN CULTURAL UNION (LACU & William Pitt Union University of Pittsburgh #12;A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE LATIN AMERICAN & CARIBBEAN FESTIVAL

Machery, Edouard

10

Latin American Art and Music: A Handbook for Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of essays, curriculum units, and study guides on Latin American art and musical traditions is designed to help interested teachers take a comprehensive approach to teaching these subjects. The introduction features the essay, "Media Resources Available on Latin American Culture: A Survey of Art, Architecture, and Music Articles…

Horton, Judith Page, Ed.

11

Latin American Theology and Religious Pluralism: A Latin American Voice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article summarizes recent efforts by Latin-American theologians concerned with developing a pluralist theology of liberation. The author highlights some of the most significant issues and themes of this emerging theological reflection among liberation theologians. Finally, he identifies some of the challenges a pluralist theology of…

Cascante-Gomez, Fernando A.

2009-01-01

12

Annual Report Center for Latin American Studies  

E-print Network

become a nexus for publications about the Latin American/Caribbean region. When Professor Daniel2008-09 Annual Report Center for Latin American Studies University Center for International Studies 2009, the Center for Latin American Studies celebrated its 45th year of serving the faculty

Machery, Edouard

13

Latin American Network Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 1992 and affiliated with the Lozano Long Institute of Latin American Studies at the University of Texas at Austin, the Latin American Network Information Center (LANIC) is designed to "facilitate access to Internet-based information to, from, or on Latin America." Their site was redesigned in the spring of 2008, and currently their various directories contain over 12,000 unique URLs for use by the general public. These links can be browsed by subject headings or by country, and visitors can look into more discrete topical headings like "food", "political science", and "social work". Along with these high-quality links, visitors can then click on over to their "Digital Initiatives" area. Here they will find digital collections that cover documents from the New Mexican Revolution and the full-text Fidel Castro Speech database. Visitors will also appreciate that many of the site's resources are available in Spanish and Portuguese.

14

Brazil & the Latin American Economy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News follows repercussions of world financial crises in the key Latin American economy of Brazil. The nine resources discussed provide background information, press coverage, and economic data on Brazil and related economies. With a population of 164 million and GDP of $480 billion, Brazil represents Latin America's largest economic force. Heavy US financial investments, however, tie Brazil directly to Dow Jones Industrial Average falls (reviewed in the September 10, 1998 Scout for Business & Economics) and their Asian and Russian causes (reviewed in the July 16, 1998 _Scout Report for Business & Economics_--http://scout.cs.wisc.edu/report/bus-econ/1998/be-980716txt.html#22). International concern for Latin America grew when Brazil lost $1.8 billion in foreign capital following drops in the Dow, September 10, 1998--a decisive factor in stock tumbles in Mexico and Venezuela as well. Such damaging results led to a bold rise in interest rates from the Banco Central do Brasil and negotiations with the IMF. A US and Brazilian market rally since September 11, however, leaves many officials hopeful for a stable Latin American future.

Waters, Megan.

1998-01-01

15

“Vulnerability, Resiliency, and Adaptation: The Health of Latin Americans during the Migration Process to the United States”*  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we offer a general outlook of the health of Latin Americans (with a special emphasis on Mexicans) during the different stages of the migration process to the U.S. given the usefulness of the social vulnerability concept and given that said vulnerability varies conspicuously across the different stages of the migration process. Severe migrant vulnerability during the transit and crossing has serious negative health consequences. Yet, upon their arrival to the U.S., migrant health is favorable in outcomes such as mortality by many causes of death and in several chronic conditions and risk factors, though these apparent advantages seem to disappear during the process of adaptation to the host society. We discuss potential explanations for the initial health advantage and the sources of vulnerability that explain its erosion, with special emphasis in systematic timely access to health care. Given that migration can affect social vulnerability processes in sending areas, we discuss the potential health consequences for these places and conclude by considering the immigration and health policy implications of these issues for the United States and sending countries, with emphasis on Mexico. PMID:24660053

Riosmena, Fernando; Jochem, Warren C.

2013-01-01

16

North American Adult Literacy Programs and Latin American Immigrants: How Critical Pedagogy Can Help Nonprofit Literacy Programming in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As nonprofit adult literacy programs are often the only options for low-income Latin American immigrants in North America, problems accompanying these programs affect the ability of immigrants to benefit from them. North American nonprofit adult literacy programs often struggle due to the difficulties inherent in using volunteer instructors (often…

Straubhaar, Rolf

2013-01-01

17

TILAN: Trends in Latin American Networking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new site from the Latin American Network Information Center (LANIC) at the University of Texas (last reviewed in the (November 13, 1998 Scout Report) offers a number of resources regarding the expansion of the Internet throughout the countries of Latin America. These include full-text research papers and articles on networking in Latin America (some in Spanish only), several collections of statistics, very brief summaries of basic networking statistics for each Latin American country with links to further information, and a subject directory of related sites. Although TILAN is still quite modest, users interested in tracking the Latin American Internet will want to monitor the site's development.

18

Policy Shocks: On the Legal Auspices of Latin American Migration to the United States  

PubMed Central

In this paper, I compare the transition into legal permanent residence (LPR) of Mexicans, Dominicans, and Nicaraguans. Dominicans had the highest likelihood of obtaining residence, mostly sponsored by parents and spouses. Mexicans had the lowest LPR transition rates and presented sharp gender differentials in modes: women mostly legalized through husbands while men were sponsored through IRCA, parents. Nicaraguans stood in-between, presenting few gender differences in rates and modes of transition and a heavy dependence on asylum and special provisions such as IRCA and NACARA. I argue these patterns stem from the interplay of conditions favoring the emigration of and the specific immigration policy context faced by migrant pioneers; the influence of social networks in reproducing the legal character of flows; and differences in the actual use of kinship ties as sponsors. I discuss the implications of these trends on the observed gendered patterns of migration from Latin America. PMID:21921965

Riosmena, Fernando

2011-01-01

19

Literary Analysis of Three Latin American Short Stories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit was developed to give students in grades 7-12 a fuller understanding of the Latin American world, which is a growing part of the multicultural atmosphere in the United States. The unit is used currently in the seventh grade gifted Language Arts program at B. T. Washington Junior High School (Florida). The unit includes; (1) basic…

Vantrease, Maureen

20

LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES: Forty Years of Inspiration, Devotion,  

E-print Network

....................................................................................... 15 1990's: Regional Offices of FOCAL and the Latin American Studies MajorLATIN AMERICAN STUDIES: Forty Years of Inspiration, Devotion, Innovation and Excellence by Michael ............................................................................................................... 9 Collective Efforts to Build Research and Teaching Strength in Latin American Studies

Habib, Ayman

21

Interaction of science and diplomacy: Latin American, the United States and nuclear energy, 1945-1955  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear programs in Argentina and Brazil can be traced to August 1945 when their scientific communities articulated responses to the atomic bombings of Japan. They culminated in attempts to develop independent nuclear programs, sharply opposed by the United States, during the nationalist governments of Juan Peron and Getulio Vargas. This dissertation, based on primary sources from the three nations, analyzes

Cabral

1986-01-01

22

Latin American Outlook April 1, 2000: Chile Moves On  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The April 2000 issue of Latin American Outlook from the AEI consists of the article "Chile Moves On," by Mark Folcoff. Latin American Outlook is a monthly newsletter on political and economic developments in Latin America.

Folcoff, Mark.

2000-01-01

23

African American Studies & Research Center and Latin American & Latino Studies  

E-print Network

Symposium on African American Culture & Philosophy "Afro"Afro--Latin America:Latin America: Rethinking Stewart Center, 3rd Floor West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 #12;"Afro-Latin America: Rethinking Identity for Women of Color through Afro-Latina Hybridity. 2. Immigration, Settlement, & the Dynamics of Trans

Pittendrigh, Barry

24

Historical Perspectives on Latin American Underdevelopment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the evolution of perspectives on Latin American underdevelopment to reveal the changing realities in Latin America as well as evolving world views. Covering the five centuries since Columbus discovered the West Indies, Topik concludes that the idea of underdevelopment is a European construct resulting from greater European progress and a…

Topik, Steven

1987-01-01

25

Latin American Regionalism and EU Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outside Europe, nowhere but in Latin America have integration attempts and thinking developed so extensively across space and so consistently over time. This article introduces the historical waves of Latin American regionalism in order to discuss the theories applied to account for, and frequently advocate, regional integration. The aim is twofold: on the one hand, to assess the capacity to

Andrés Malamud

2010-01-01

26

Updated: 4/14 Latin American Studies  

E-print Network

American Topic History 43.208 The Atlantic World in the Age of Democratic Revolution, 1760-1848 43 American Literature, Culture and Civilization (54) 6-9 cr. Courses used for the minor cannot be applied.212 Spanish 4 and Culture 54.204 Intensive Spanish 3 and 4 54.302 Intro to Latin American Literature 54

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

27

Introduction Latin American Map: You set the  

E-print Network

forms Sierra Madre (Oriental & Occidental) #12;Environmental Sub-region II: Middle American highlands · Landscapes #12;Environmental Sub-regions II Middle American highlands · Climate - role of the "tropicsLAST TIME · Introduction · Latin American Map: You set the foundations for the study of human

Lopez-Carr, David

28

Latin American USOMs Seminar on Agrarian Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report of seminar proceedings discusses land reform policies and programs and their place in the economic development of Latin America. It analyzes experiences and current situations in Latin America, the United States, and elsewhere which shed light on the problems and possibilities of agrarian reform. An appraisal of existing physical,…

International Cooperation Administration (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

29

Latin American Business History: Resources and Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Starting in December 2007, a team of researchers at the Harvard Business School began interviewing 21 leading business practitioners from Argentina and Chile for their Latin American business history initiative. The hope is that these oral histories will serve as a valuable resource for research on the business history of these two countries since the 1960s. On this site, visitors can listen to the interviews (in Spanish) and also read transcripts in English. Each profile contains a brief biography of each businessperson, along with material on their service to their respective industry. Moving on, visitors can also look through the rest of the Baker Library Historical Collections, which include collection of Brazilian railroad company records and the photographic records of the United Fruit Company.

30

Updated: 4/12 Latin American Studies  

E-print Network

American Topic History 43.208 The Atlantic World in the Age of Democratic Revolution, 1760-1848 43/ Political Science/ History 6-9 cr. Latin American Literature 6-9 cr. At least six hours in non course in Spanish or literature (prefix: 54) as part of the 18-24 semester credits. The following courses

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

31

Modern Latin American History History 315  

E-print Network

popular), theses, the Web... Check subject guides: Research by Subject History Latin American Studies: "primary sources" "cuban missile crisis" site:edu [search using Google] Some websites provide access­Primary Sources guides.lib.washington.edu/content.php?pid=61680&sid=454811 Ibero-American Electronic Text Series

Abolmaesumi, Purang

32

The Legal Situation of Latin American and Caribbean Women as Defined according to the Resolutions and Mandates of the United Nations System. Volume II: File Sheets of Resolutions on the Legal Situation of Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains a systematized inventory of the measures relating to the legal and social status of women adopted in various regional and world forums. The inventory was used to study the legal situation of Latin American and Caribbean women, defined according to the resolutions and mandates of the United Nations system. Organized by forum…

United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

33

Latin American Battery Forecast Report  

SciTech Connect

A forecast of battery production in Latin America is described. The economic influence and political difficulties which have influenced the market are discussed. Data is presented for original equipment shipments and replacement batteries.

Malacon, S. [Acumuladores Mexicanos, Monterrey (Mexico)

1995-12-31

34

LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES CURRICULUM COMMITTEE  

E-print Network

AMERICA Fall. [C, HSS] #12;HIST 21600. MODERN LATIN AMERICA Spring. [C, HSS] HIST 27500-27508. STUDIES. THE STRUCTURE OF MODERN SPANISH [AH] SPAN 31100-31101. ADVANCED IN HISPANIC LANGUAGE, LITERATURE, AND CULTURE, AND SEXUALITY STUDIES WGSS

Wilson, Mark A.

35

Latin American Immigrant Women and Intergenerational Sex Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People of Latin American descent make up the largest and fastest-growing minority group in the USA. Rates of pregnancy, childbirth, and sexually transmitted infections among people of Latin American descent are higher than among other ethnic groups. This paper builds on research that suggests that among families of Latin American descent, mothers…

Alcalde, Maria Cristina; Quelopana, Ana Maria

2013-01-01

36

Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 36, Number 1: Front Matter  

E-print Network

Mysteries in Contemporary Honduras John Fleming 107 COPYRIGHT 2002 BY THE CENTER OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES THE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS, LAWRENCE, KANSAS 66045, U.S.A. 2 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Entrevista con José Ramón Enríquez Clary Loisel 127... challenge the deceptive practices and the underlying motives of the patriarchal institutions that dominate Latin American society and suppress the individual. (TPR, in Spanish) ...

2002-10-01

37

Imagining Globalization through Latin American Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through a combination of practical applications and theoretical underpinnings, this article explores the question of how to approach the teaching of Latin American Literature in the current period of globalization. Many theorists argue that we need new epistemologies in which to ground our pedagogy for the 21st century. Understanding the effects…

Seminet, Georgia

2009-01-01

38

The Latin American Professoriate: Progress and Prospects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The traditional image of the Latin American university professor is described with focus on the effects of the movement toward a full-time professoriate and other changes on the recruitment patterns, morale, and scholarly productivity of contemporary academics in Colombia and Argentina. (Author/LBH)

Pelczar, Richard

1977-01-01

39

Teenage Childbearing in Latin American Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the rapid fertility transition experienced by most Latin American and Caribbean countries, teenage fertility has not changed at the same pace or in the same direction. Given that early childbearing is deleterious for both mother and child, we describe differentials in the levels and trends in teenage childbearing and analyze its proximate and socioeconomic determinants. We used

Jairo Núñez; Carmen Elisa Flórez

2001-01-01

40

Female Immigrants to the United States: Caribbean, Latin American, and African Experiences. RIIES Occasional Paper No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seminar papers on the recent immigrantion of women from the Caribbean, Latin America, and Africa are collected in the first part of this two-part book. Titles (and authors) of the papers are: (1) "The New Immigration: The Female Majority" (Roy S. Bryce-Laporte); (2) "Race, Ethnicity, and Sex in the Recent Immigration: Some Preliminary Comments"…

Mortimer, Delores M., Ed.; Bryce-Laporte, Roy S., Ed.

41

The Bologna Process from a Latin American Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Latin America's geography, history, and languages might seem a suitable foundation for a Bologna-type process, the development of a common Latin American higher education and research area meets predictable difficulties.The reasons are to be found in the continent's historic and modern institutional patterns. Latin American governments…

Brunner, Jose Joaquin

2009-01-01

42

Latin American traditions and perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Educational and related non-pedagogical issues are generally described and discussed. Implicitly or explicitly, the theology of liberation, educación popular and traditional education tend to perpetuate male/female roles and very often incite violence. Peace education in Latin America should concentrate more on the pathology of the violent man. The so-called `weaknesses' associated with women and their `powerlessness' in Western civilization are precisely those which are absolutely essential to our survival. It is important for women to reject Western patterns of violence and participate actively in finding a viable alternative.

Garcia, Celina

1983-09-01

43

Latin American Pamphlet Digital Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the centuries, thousands of pamphlets have been published to serve various purposes. Some have been preserved by individuals and prescient institutions, but countless others have disappeared forever. Harvard University's Widener Library has over 5000 pamphlets from 19th and 20th century Latin America, and until recently, they remained uncataloged and mostly inaccessible. Visitors to this site can browse the collection by title, subject, name, and genre. The materials offered here range from documents on accounting practices to those dealing with yellow fever. Additionally, visitors looking for descriptive documents that describe unexplored territories and the relationship between church and state will not be disappointed. The site also contains a nice help feature and visitors can also email questions to staff members at the library.

44

The Melologue and Its Latin American Manifestations  

E-print Network

FALL 1981 31 The Melologue and its Latin American Manifestations Duane Rhoades Toward the end of the eighteenth century and following the precedent set in Jean Jacques Rousseau's Pygmalion,1 Tomás de Iriarte, with his Guzman el bueno (1789... of the popularity of Rousseau's scene lyrique lay in the novel use of music and gesture as vehicles for intensifying the emotional effect of declamation.2 A practical musician, Iriarte's attention was immediately captivated by this hybrid French piece which...

Rhoades, Duane

1981-10-01

45

Ignoring taboos: Maria Lenk, Latin American inspirationalist.  

PubMed

Maria Lenk is widely recognized as an exceptional athlete who participated in women's sport from around 1930 until 1950. In 1932, at the age of seventeen, she was the first woman to be included in a Latin American delegation to the Olympic Games. As a swimmer, she still sets world records at the age of eighty-six. This super-champion's sporting achievements and her persistent dedication to the advancement of sport still impress and surprise todays professional swimmers and researchers. Contextualised in the male-dominated society of Brazil during the first half of the twentieth century, this chapter traces the achievement, and rise to international fame, of Maria Lenk. It examines the factors that enabled her to emerge not only as an important figure in sport but also as an icon of female emancipation in Brazilian and Latin American society. The focus is on Lenk's influence on the issues which affected the development of women's sport in Latin America. It also highlights the significance of Lenk's contribution to the changing place of women in Brazilian and South American society. PMID:18604909

Votre, S; Mourão, L

2001-01-01

46

The Aesthetic of Revolt: Latin America in the 1960s The Latin American Studies Center  

E-print Network

The Aesthetic of Revolt: Latin America in the 1960s The Latin American Studies Center University and Cultural Studies, Tulane University 10:45 a.m. Break #12;The Aesthetic of Revolt: Latin America in the 1960 Pedro, Professor, Department of History, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina #12;The Aesthetic

Milchberg, Howard

47

The Latin American Social Medicine database  

PubMed Central

Background Public health practitioners and researchers for many years have been attempting to understand more clearly the links between social conditions and the health of populations. Until recently, most public health professionals in English-speaking countries were unaware that their colleagues in Latin America had developed an entire field of inquiry and practice devoted to making these links more clearly understood. The Latin American Social Medicine (LASM) database finally bridges this previous gap. Description This public health informatics case study describes the key features of a unique information resource intended to improve access to LASM literature and to augment understanding about the social determinants of health. This case study includes both quantitative and qualitative evaluation data. Currently the LASM database at The University of New Mexico brings important information, originally known mostly within professional networks located in Latin American countries to public health professionals worldwide via the Internet. The LASM database uses Spanish, Portuguese, and English language trilingual, structured abstracts to summarize classic and contemporary works. Conclusion This database provides helpful information for public health professionals on the social determinants of health and expands access to LASM. PMID:15627401

Eldredge, Jonathan D; Waitzkin, Howard; Buchanan, Holly S; Teal, Janis; Iriart, Celia; Wiley, Kevin; Tregear, Jonathan

2004-01-01

48

Revolutions: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Teaching Printmaking and Latin American History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a U.S. Department of Education grant to expand Latin American and Caribbean Studies at Albright College, the authors of this article, one a historian and one an artist, teamed up to teach a course called Revolutions: Art and Revolution in Latin America. In the class, they proposed to combine a studio art printmaking class with Latin

Kiddy, Elizabeth; Woodward, Kristen T.

2013-01-01

49

CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, LONG BEACH The 2012 Latin American Studies  

E-print Network

CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY, LONG BEACH The 2012 Latin American Studies Film Series is Sponsored by Department, College of Liberal Arts; American Indian Studies Program; Anthropology Department; California Film Club; Future Underrepresented Educated Leaders; History Department; Hispanic Student Business

Sorin, Eric J.

50

A Brief History of International Latin American Student Fraternities: A Movement That Lasted 86 Years (1889-1975)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An international Latin American student fraternity movement preceded the current Latino Greeks that are seen on college campuses today. This document provides new information that has not been published. The movement lasted 86 years and primarily served wealthy international Latin American students who came to the United States to study and, once…

Fajardo, Oliver

2015-01-01

51

Latin American Political Thought Paulina Ochoa Espejo Summer 2013  

E-print Network

Latin American Political Thought PLSC 328 LATS 328 Paulina Ochoa Espejo Summer 2013 e-mail : ana that Latin American thinkers have given to the fundamental questions in social and political philosophy: Who Cruz, Poems, Protests and a Dream, trans. M Sayers Peden NY, Penguin, 1997 Fernando Henrique Cardoso

52

Latin American Research Review, Vol. 46, No. 1. 2011 by the Latin American Studies Association. BAC K TO T H E FOR E ST  

E-print Network

Latin American Research Review, Vol. 46, No. 1. © 2011 by the Latin American Studies Association has pro- duced a series of changes in rural Latin American livelihoods that affect forest transition trajectories in the region. In contemporary Latin America, the economic development path and the forest

53

Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 02, Number 1: Front Matter  

E-print Network

WORKS IN PROGRESS 8 WORKS BY STUDENTS 9 PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 79 81 2 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Contributors and Abstracts Alyce de Kuehne (Ph.D., Mexico) is Assistant Professor of Spanish and a spe cialist in modern Latin American drama... American Section of The Year's Wor\\ in Modern Language Studies. ABSTRACT The article examines via an analysis of the play's structure Marqués' attempt to write a play of protest which is at the same time a tragedy. While Marqués' technical skill...

1968-10-01

54

Interethnic admixture and the evolution of Latin American populations  

PubMed Central

A general introduction to the origins and history of Latin American populations is followed by a systematic review of the data from molecular autosomal assessments of the ethnic/continental (European, African, Amerindian) ancestries for 24 Latin American countries or territories. The data surveyed are of varying quality but provide a general picture of the present constitution of these populations. A brief discussion about the applications of these results (admixture mapping) is also provided. Latin American populations can be viewed as natural experiments for the investigation of unique anthropological and epidemiological issues. PMID:24764751

Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Sans, Mónica

2014-01-01

55

The Latin American Consortium of Studies in Obesity (LASO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current, high-quality data are needed to evaluate the health impact of the epidemic of obesity in Latin America. The Latin American Consortium of Studies of Obesity (LASO) has been established, with the objectives of (i) Accurately estimating the prevalence of obesity and its distribution by sociodemographic characteristics; (ii) Identifying ethnic, socioeconomic and behavioural determinants of obesity; (iii) Estimating the association

L. E. Bautista; J. P. Casas; V. M. Herrera; J. J. Miranda; P. Perel; R. Pichardo; A. González; J. R. Sanchez; C. Ferreccio; X. Aguilera; E. Silva; M. Oróstegui; L. F. Gómez; J. A. Chirinos; J. Medina-Lezama; C. M. Pérez; E. Suárez; A. P. Ortiz; L. Rosero; N. Schapochnik; Z. Ortiz; D. Ferrante

2009-01-01

56

Quality management: the way to improve Latin American public libraries?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focuses on public libraries in Latin America as one important means of information provision at the end of the twentieth century, discussing how they can improve their effectiveness. Defends the view that Latin American countries can use quality management to improve the services they provide through their public libraries. Suggests that, to receive the most benefit from this management theory,

Waldomiro C. S. Vergueiro

1996-01-01

57

The Fine Art of Synthesis: Latin American History for Freshmen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An introductory course on Latin America is probably the only course most college students will take on that region. It provides the best opportunity for influencing the educated public about the area. There is an urgent need to increase understanding of Latin America because so much of the American public, including public officials, are so…

Burns, E. Bradford

58

Annual Report Center for Latin American Studies  

E-print Network

Studies and LGBT Activism in Latin America; and Reframing Gender, Power, and Resistance in Latin America America." This theme brings together some of the unique strengths of the University of Pittsburgh

Machery, Edouard

59

Education and Globalisation: A Latin American Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the historical relationship between education and globalisation in Latin America. This is no straightforward task. Hegel's vision of a continent without history and the rapacious expansion of Western culture from the sixteenth century profoundly transformed Latin America, and in turn stimulated a search for a distinctive "Latin

Pineau, Pablo

2008-01-01

60

Second Euro-Latin American Space Days. Procedings.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contents: 1. Latin American space programmes. 2. Remote sensing applications. 3. Space science. 4. Industrial session. 5. Telecommunication and education, tele-education and space in education. 6. Experience with satellite techniques.

Longdon, N.

1994-06-01

61

Communication Research: New Challenges of the Latin American School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a review of Latin American scholarly research on communication processes from the 1940s to the early 1990s. Notes international interest in this research and the new challenges faced by it. (SR)

Marques de Melo, Jose

1993-01-01

62

2013-14 Center for Latin American Studies Call for Proposals The Center for Latin American Studies (CLAS) serves to advance knowledge and  

E-print Network

2013-14 Center for Latin American Studies Call for Proposals The Center for Latin American Studies (CLAS) serves to advance of the region at the University of Chicago. Please note that individual research

He, Chuan

63

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ Latin American and Latino Studies  

E-print Network

/os in the United States, Latin America and the Caribbean · Political Economy and Resistance · Cultural Expressions in the United States as established by providing documents as specified in the Immigration Reform and Control

California at Santa Cruz, University of

64

LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES MINOR REQUIREMENTS CHECKLIST  

E-print Network

Small, Round & Juicy: The Modern Hispanic Short Story SPAN 272 Gender and Sexuality in Latina Literature Colonial Latin America LAS 371/ HIST 371 Modern Latin America LAS 372/ HIST 372 Indigenous and Colonial Mexico LAS 373/HIST 373 Modern Mexico LAS 374/HIST 374 Central America and the Caribbean LAS 375/ HIST

Galles, David

65

Latin American Studies at Stetson University is a multidisciplinary and experientially oriented program that develops students'  

E-print Network

of disaster Robert K. Sitler, Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin; the 2012 phenomenon, Maya culture, local or in states with strong Hispanic ties. Latin America is an area of ever-growing importance to the United-American population. Preparation for graduate study The minor provides general background preparation for those

Miles, Will

66

Aggregate demand and the endogeneity of the natural rate of growth: evidence from Latin American economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to explore the Keynesian idea that aggregate demand matters for economic activity, both in the short run and in the long run. To that extent, it discusses the endogeneity of the natural rate of growth, and presents two empirical exercises: the first one tests for unit roots in output for twelve Latin American countries using panel data.

G. A. Libanio

2009-01-01

67

[Notes on childhood and theory: a Latin American approach].  

PubMed

This work seeks to introduce and examine different historically relevant theories and propose certain frameworks that allow for the development of a Latin American theoretical approach based in a new discourse regarding childhood and adolescence. In order to undertake the creation of this Latin American approach, understanding the category of childhood as a social and historical construction, the work draws upon the contributions of structuralism (in particular, childhood as a permanent category, its relational dimension with regards to adulthood and its historical and intercultural dimension) and Foucault and Deleuze's concept of the society of control associated with the category of domination, an essential aspect of Latin American thought. The text was presented as a speech in the V World Congress for the Rights of Children and Adolescents held in San Juan, Argentina, from October 15-19, 2012. PMID:23681461

Bustelo Graffigna, Eduardo

2012-12-01

68

Emotion Socialization and Ethnicity: An Examination of Practices and Outcomes in African American, Asian American, and Latin American Families  

PubMed Central

The current review paper summarizes the literature on parental emotion socialization in ethnically diverse families in the United States. Models of emotion socialization have been primarily developed using samples of European American parents and children. As such, current categorizations of “adaptive” and “maladaptive” emotion socialization practices may not be applicable to individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The review examines current models of emotion socialization, with particular attention paid to the demographic breakdown of the studies used to develop these models. Additionally, the review highlights studies examining emotion socialization practices in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families. The review is synthesized with summarizing themes of similarities and differences across ethnic groups, and implications for culturally sensitive research and practice are discussed. PMID:23766738

Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

2013-01-01

69

BERKELEY REVIEW OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES atin America was hardly on China's radar screen  

E-print Network

for Latin American and Caribbean goods, particularly commodities, which has helped boost the region's growth and the Latin American-Caribbean region (LAC) began to implement economic reforms within a few years of eachBERKELEY REVIEW OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 8 L atin America was hardly on China's radar screen until

Tufts University

70

Intimate Partner Violence and Depression Among Latin American Women in Toronto.  

PubMed

Research from the United States suggests that Latin American immigrant and refugee women are one of the groups most greatly impacted by intimate partner violence (IPV) and associated mental health consequences including higher rates of depression than women from other ethno-racial groups. In Canada, little is known about the experience of IPV and mental health among this population. Even in the broader North American context, how Latin American women themselves perceive the connection between IPV and depression is unknown. This paper presents the findings of a pilot study that examined the perceived relationship between IPV and depression among Spanish-Speaking Latin American Women in Toronto, Canada. The theoretical framework guiding this qualitative study combined an ecological model for understanding gender based violence and mental health with critical intersectionality theory. Using a convenience and snowball sampling method, semi-structured interviews (n = 12) were conducted and thematic content analysis was completed supported by Nvivo9(®) qualitative data management software. All participants had experienced some form of IPV in their adult lives, with psychological violence being the most common. Women perceived a powerful connection between IPV and depression, a link made stronger by the accumulation of other adverse life experiences including childhood abuse, war traumas and migration. The results suggest that IPV is just one of the challenges experienced by Latin American refugee and immigrant women. IPV is experienced in the context of other traumatic experiences and social hardships that may work to intensify the association of IPV and depression in this population. PMID:25472614

Godoy-Ruiz, Paula; Toner, Brenda; Mason, Robin; Vidal, Carolina; McKenzie, Kwame

2014-12-01

71

Instructional Technology Research in Latin American.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both the broad field of educational technology and research activities in the more limited area of instructional technology in Latin America are examined. Research studies, the current situation, and/or research needs are reviewed briefly for each of the following areas: distance education; microcomputers; educational radio; learning strategies…

Chadwick, Clifton B.

72

China?s Global Growth and Latin American Exports  

Microsoft Academic Search

China?s global expansion has led to concerns amongst other developing country exporters that they will be displaced by Chinese competition in their export markets. The paper develops a new index to measure the extent of the competitive threat which countries face from China, which is then applied to empirical data on US imports from China and 18 Latin American countries.

Rhys Jenkins

2008-01-01

73

Overview of Spanish and Latin American Distance Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a brief overview of Spanish and Latin American distance education programs for higher education and describes the three most important institutions: (1) the Spanish UNED (Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia); (2) the Costa Rican UNED (Universidad Estatal a Distancia); and (3) the Venezuelan UNA (Universidad Nacional Abierta).…

Garcia Garrido, Jose Luis

1991-01-01

74

ICT and Marketing Challenges in Latin American Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latin American libraries have experienced an important development in the last two decades. Telecommunications and Information Technologies (ITC) have been key elements in this process. There are leading institutions with remarkable programs; nevertheless it is necessary to design marketing strategies to improve their benefits. A case study based…

Feria, Lourdes

75

Pedagogy of a Latin-American Festival: A Mojado Ethnography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes and reflects on the pedagogical meaning of a festival held to showcase and celebrate Latin American culture in a North Carolina town undergoing a cultural transition as its Latino population grows. Following a successful event the previous year, a 2-day festival was organized to include a soccer tournament, booths selling…

Murillo, Enrique G., Jr.

76

`Remembering Who We Are,: Reflections on Latin American Ecofeminist Theology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1990 I have been deeply involved in the development of Latin American ecofeminist thought and its theological, ethical and spiritual perspectives as a founding member of the Con-spirando Collective, a team of women working in the areas of ecofeminist theology, ethics and spirituality in Santiago, Chile. This article describes the results of a research project I conducted based on

Mary Judith Ress

2008-01-01

77

Congenital Transmission of Chagas Disease in Latin American Immigrants in  

E-print Network

International migration has changed the epidemiologic patterns of Chagas disease. Recently, 2 cases of Chagas disease transmitted from Latin American women to their newborns were diagnosed in Geneva, Switzerland. A retrospective study to detect Chagas disease showed a prevalence of 9.7 % among 72

Yves Jackson; Catherine Myers; Ro Diana; Hans-peter Marti; Hans Wolff; Louis Loutan; Alain Gervaix

78

CENTER FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES, UC BERKELEY 11Spring 2014  

E-print Network

CENTER FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES, UC BERKELEY 11Spring 2014 M exico waking up. Mexico moving to authoritarianism and need not fear its return. The ruling party, the PRI, has reinvented itself and so has with this argument is that it underestimates the complacency of the political class. The weight of the vested

Kammen, Daniel M.

79

A Latin American Sociopolitical Conceptualization of Human Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike their counterparts in Asia and Africa, many Latin American human rights scholars have passively accepted the supposed cultural relevance of the liberal discourse of human rights and have limited academic studies to the sphere of legal analysis. Nevertheless, the work of the social sciences in the region has enriched human rights thought and the practices of social movements have

Ariadna Estévez

2008-01-01

80

The Secret Lives of Roses: The Latin American Flower Industry  

E-print Network

The Secret Lives of Roses: The Latin American Flower Industry By Sheila Jarnes www as the pesticide applicator comes out, the women go in again. The flower beds are still sticky and moist Flower Sales (Worldwide) www.fairtrade.net accessed 2 April 2009 #12;John Nevado of Nevado Roses (A Fair

New Hampshire, University of

81

Internet Lessons for Brazilian Portuguese and Latin American Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of the Internet for teaching Brazilian Portuguese and Latin American Studies. Includes descriptions of 16 self-directed lesson plans, as well as a link for access to download and use any or all of the plans. (Author/VWL)

Berry-Bravo, Judy

2002-01-01

82

Latin American independence: education and the invention of new polities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latin American independence from Spain and Portugal in the first decades of the nineteenth century was a process of global relevance. A considerable number of new polities emerged that had to deal with radically new political situations. Particularly in the case of the former Spanish colonies, a general rejection of the colonial past determined decisions favouring republican forms of government

Marcelo Caruso

2010-01-01

83

A MODIFIED CAPM VALUATION MODEL FOR LATIN AMERICAN EMERGING MARKETS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the systematic risk factors associated to long-term investments in Latin American Emerging Markets in order to estimate the discount rate to be used by an investor localized in a developed market. In order to do so, we review the main valuation approaches based on the CAPM model, focusing in the foreign exchange risk. Due to the high

Alfonso Hamard; Prosper Lamothe

84

Advocating feminism: The Latin American Feminist NGO 'Boom'  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latin American feminist NGOs have played a critical role in 'advocating feminism' by advancing a progressive policy agenda while simultaneously articulating vital linkages among larger women's movement and civil society constituencies. However, three recent developments potentially undermine NGOs' ability to promote feminist-inspired policies and social change. First, States and inter-governmental organizations (IGOs) increasingly have turned to feminist NGOs as gender

Sonia E. Alvarez

1999-01-01

85

Council on Latin American & Iberian Studies Film Events Spring 2012  

E-print Network

Council on Latin American & Iberian Studies Film Events Spring 2012 7:00pm, February 21 Whitney that has suffered ongoing violence and civil wars since 1948. (Spanish with English subtitles). 7:00pm Moro will present her new short film, Topo Gigio is Dead 7:00pm, April 4 Whitney Humanities Center

86

Perceptions of Political Corruption in Latin American Democracies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Political corruption poses a serious threat to the stability of developing democracies by eroding the links between citizens and governments. Using data on national levels of corruption (Transparency International 1997 CPI index) and individual opinion (1995?97 World Values Survey), this study finds that Latin Americans are quite aware of the seriousness of corruption in their countries. The ensuing question is

Damarys Canache; Michael E. Allison

2008-01-01

87

Training on Eastern Pacific tropical cyclones for Latin American students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical cyclones are one of the most impressive atmospheric phenomena and their development in the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific basins has potential to affect several Latin-American and Caribbean countries, where human resources are limited. As part of an international research project, we are offering short courses based on the current understanding of tropical cyclones in the Eastern Pacific basin. Our main goal is to train students from higher-education institutions from various countries in Latin America. Key aspects are tropical cyclone formation and evolution, with particular emphasis on their development off the west coast of Mexico. Our approach includes lectures on tropical cyclone climatology and formation, dynamic and thermodynamic models, air-sea interaction and oceanic response, ocean waves and coastal impacts as well as variability and climate-related predictions. In particular, we use a best-track dataset issued by the United States National Hurricane Center and satellite observations to analyze convective patterns for the period 1970-2006. Case studies that resulted in landfall over northwestern Mexico are analyzed in more detail; this includes systems that developed during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 seasons. Additionally, we have organized a human-dimensions symposium to discuss socio-economic issues that are associated with the landfall of tropical cyclones. This includes coastal zone impact and flooding, the link between cyclones and water resources, the flow of weather and climate information from scientists to policy- makers, the role of emergency managers and decision makers, impact over health issues and the viewpoint of the insurance industry.

Farfán, L. M.; Raga, G. B.

2009-05-01

88

Latin American Universities and the Bologna Process: From Commercialisation to the "Tuning" Competencies Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through the "Tuning-Latin America" competencies project, Latin American universities have been incorporated into the Bologna Process. In 2003 the European Commission approved an initiative of this project for Latin America and began to promote it among ministries, university presidents' organisations and other institutions in Latin America. This…

Aboites, Hugo

2010-01-01

89

Chagas disease awareness among Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles, California.  

PubMed

Approximately 300,000 persons have Chagas disease in the United States, although almost all persons acquired the disease in Latin America. We examined awareness of Chagas disease among Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles, California. We surveyed 2,677 persons (age range = 18-60 years) in Los Angeles who resided in Latin America for at least six months. A total of 62% of the participants recalled seeing triatomines in Latin America, and 27% of the participants reported triatomine bites at least once per year while living abroad. A total of 86% of the participants had never heard of Chagas disease. Of persons who had heard of Chagas disease, 81% believed that it was not serious. More than 95% of those who had heard of Chagas disease would want to be tested and treated. Most Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles recalled exposure to vectors of Chagas disease. However, they have little knowledge of this disease. Increasing awareness of Chagas disease is needed in this high-risk population. PMID:25200261

Sanchez, Daniel R; Traina, Mahmoud I; Hernandez, Salvador; Smer, Aiman M; Khamag, Haneen; Meymandi, Sheba K

2014-11-01

90

Satellite systems for Latin American telecommunication requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aspects of satellite telecommunications systems of interest to Latin America are discussed. Presently existing systems are described, including both state-run and international services. Services planned for the region are examined, including Geostar, a service that provides satellite radio determination and message services, a system which will provide a high-capacity digital voice and data service for airlines, and direct broadcast satellites. Applications of these systems in education, rural telephony, data transmission, news services, publishing, emergency communications, and mobile communications are addressed.

Elizondo, Eduardo L.

91

New World Orders: Continuities and Changes in Latin American Migration  

PubMed Central

Although migration from Mexico to the United States is more than a century old, until recently most other countries in Latin America did not send out significant numbers of migrants to foreign destinations. Over the past thirty years, however, emigration has emerged as an important demographic force throughout the region. This article outlines trends in the volume and composition of the migrant outflows emanating from various countries in Latin America, highlighting their diversity with respect to country of destination; multiplicity of destinations; legal auspices of entry; gender and class composition; racial, ethnic, and national origins; and the mode of insertion into the receiving society. The review underscores the broadening of international migration away from unidirectional flows toward the United States to new streams going to Europe, Canada, Australia, and Japan, as well as to other countries in Latin America itself. PMID:20814591

DURAND, JORGE; MASSEY, DOUGLAS S.

2010-01-01

92

Latin American food sources of carotenoids.  

PubMed

Latin America has a wide variety of carotenogenic foods, notable for the diversity and high levels of carotenoids. A part of this natural wealth has been analyzed. Carrot, red palm oil and some cultivars of squash and pumpkin are sources of both beta-carotene and alpha-carotene. beta-carotene is the principal carotenoid of the palm fruits burití, tucumã and bocaiuva, other fruits such as loquat, marolo and West Indian cherry, and sweet potato. Buriti also has high amounts of alpha-carotene and gamma-carotene. beta-Cryptoxanthin is the major carotenoid in caja, nectarine, orange-fleshed papaya, orange, peach, tangerine and the tree tomato. Lycopene predominates in tomato, red-fleshed papaya, guava, pitanga and watermelon. Pitanga also has substantial amounts of beta-cryptoxanthin, gamma-carotene and rubixanthin. Zeaxanthin, principal carotenoid of corn, is also predominant only in piquí. delta-Carotene is the main carotenoid of the peach palm and zeta-carotene of passion fruit. Lutein and beta-carotene, in high concentrations, are encountered in the numerous leafy vegetables of the region, as well as in other green vegetables and in some varieties of squash and pumpkin. Violaxanthin is the principal carotenoid of mango and mamey and is also found in appreciable amounts in green vegetables. Quantitative, in some cases also qualitative, differences exist among cultivars of the same food. Generally, carotenoids are in greater concentrations in the peel than in the pulp, increase considerably during ripening and are in higher levels in foods produced in hot places. Other Latin America indigenous carotenogenic foods must be investigated before they are supplanted by introduced crops, which are often poorer sources of carotenoids. PMID:10971848

Rodriguez-Amaya, D B

1999-09-01

93

Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 25, Number 1: News  

E-print Network

de 1991, el miembro del Consejo Editorial de Latin American Theatre Review, Pedro Bravo-Elizondo, fue seleccionado para participar como jurado en Teatro, conjuntamente con el Licenciado Antonio Crespo Morales, dramaturgo y Director General del... Centro Cultural "Miguel Ángel Asturias" y Víctor Hugo Cruz, dramaturgo y Presidente de dicho jurado. Se presentaron 20 obras, siendo seleccionada como ganadora al premio, "Clitemnestra ha muerto" presentada con el seudónimo Bion de Esmirna, que...

1991-10-01

94

Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 12, Number 2: Front Matter  

E-print Network

calzón quitado David William Foster 2 Time, Space and the Refracted Self in Gorostiza's El nuevo paraíso Andrea G. Labinger 37 Conversación con Ricardo Monti Charles B. Dris\\ell 43 Entrevista con Alejandro Sieveking Pedro Bravo-Elizondo 55 Here... experimental structures have been used for the purpose of sociopolitical statements in contemporary Latin American drama. (DWF) Andrea G. Labinger, "Time, Space and the Refracted Self in Gorostiza's El nuevo paraíso." In his first published play, Celestino...

1979-04-01

95

Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 31, Number 1: Front Matter  

E-print Network

of a canonical model, specifically that of the Classical tragedy, in Antígona-Humor (1961) by Dominican playwright Franklin Domínguez. Through his re-writing of the myth of Antigone, Domínguez creates not only a play rooted in a Latin American... - of Sophocles' Antigone through a metatheatrical text is seen as a rebellious act against an elitist and ethnocentric canon. Dominguez's text constitutes a clear and extreme example of the tendency toward discontinuity with canonical parameters, typical...

1997-10-01

96

Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 33, Number 2: Performance reviews  

E-print Network

SPRING 2000 173 Performance Reviews Gemelos (The Twins) by Agota Kristof Loren Ringer In what was one of the most critically acclaimed theatre pieces at the Avignon festival (July 12-19,1999), the Chilean group La Troppa (Santiago de Chile... frequently produce scene changes. In one instance, light constitutes an emotionally charged moment all by itself when the village is ensconced in a brilliant red as the 174 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW battle draws near. Light creates another stage...

2000-04-01

97

Biological And Cultural Diversity of a Latin American Country  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students conduct an 8 hour Annual Summit Meeting on the Cultural and Biological Diversity of a Latin American Country. Students construct a Rainforest in the school's Media Center, coffee and banana plantations in the hallway, and a street scene of a typical large city in a classroom. Students assume roles of native people or scientists and share information and ideas with formal presentation. Social interactions occur at coffee breaks, taste-testing luncheon, and games/dance finale.

Marianne Anderson (Pocatello High School REV)

1995-06-30

98

Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 22, Number 2: Front Matter  

E-print Network

absurdo' en Pinera Carlos Jerez-Farrán 59 Vuelta a Electra Garrigó de Virgilio Pinera Julio Matas 73 Dissonance and Dissent: The Musical Dramatics of Chico Buarque Charles A. Perrone 81 La función semiótica del protagonista en El extensionista y... his theatre a more metaphysical and reflexive nature that his theatre fits into the broader category of Latin American theatre of the absurd. (In Spanish) (CJF:DJC) Julio Matas, "Vuelta a Electra Garrigó, de Virgilio Pinera." Contrary to the usual...

1989-04-01

99

ECLAMC: The Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Definition: ECLAMC (‘Estudio Colaborativo Latino Americano de Malformaciones Congénitas’) is a program for the clinical and epidemiological investigation of risk factors in the etiology of congenital anomalies in Latin-American hospitals, using a case-control methodological approach. It is a voluntary agreement among professionals lacking institutional base as well as designated budgets. ECLAMC has been usually funded by research-funding agencies rather than

Eduardo E. Castilla; Iêda M. Orioli

2004-01-01

100

Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 19, Number 1: Front Matter  

E-print Network

LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW a Journal devoted to the Theatre and Drama of Spanish and Portuguese America Editor George W. Woodyard Associate Editor John S. Brushwood Assistant Editors William R. Blue Raymond D. Sousa Michael L....'' Violence in modern drama has become a complex device used by the playwrights in a multiplicity of functions. One of its most intricate manifestations is the symbolic murder, which takes place during the unfoldings of realities that occur within the play...

1985-10-01

101

Common volatility across Latin American foreign exchange markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article uses high-frequency exchange rate data for a group of 13 Latin American countries in order to analyse volatility co-movements. Particular interest is posed on understanding the existence of a common volatility process during the 1995–2008 period. The analysis relies on bivariate common factor models. We test for second-order common features using the common autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity-feature methodology developed

Isabel Ruiz

2009-01-01

102

Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 33, Number 1: Bibliography  

E-print Network

204 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW "NO si ie ram UIVAR CON USTtD" Orisinal dc Mess Hart y Gtorsc Kaufman Adaptación libre FALL 1999 205 Bibliography Criticism Adler, Heidrun y Adrián Herr, eds. De las dos orillas: Teatro cubano. Frankfurt am... un teatro chileno contestatario," Cincinnati Romance Review XVII (1998): 58-64. Mijares, Enrique. La realidad virtual del teatro mexicano. México: Ediciones Casa Juan Pablos, 1999: 150 p. "Presentación: La pasión crítica" por Armando Partida T...

1999-10-01

103

COLLEGE OF LIBERAL ARTS 15 Hours LATIN AMERICAN & LATINO STUDIES MINOR  

E-print Network

54900 Hispanic Women Writers 3___SPAN 55000 Spanish American Literature of the Colonial Period 3___SPAN Anthropology of Mesoamerica 3___HIST 27100 Introduction to Colonial Latin American History (1492-1810) 3___HIST 27200 Introduction to Modern Latin American History (1810 to Present) 3___HIST 36600 Hispanic Heritage

Kihara, Daisuke

104

College of Letters and Science Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies  

E-print Network

American Studies* have committed professional development support for their regional teachersCollege of Letters and Science Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies 2012 Professional Development Opportunity for Wisconsin K-12 teachers The Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies (CLACS

Saldin, Dilano

105

Never tested for HIV in Latin-American migrants and Spaniards: prevalence and perceived barriers  

PubMed Central

Introduction Increasing the uptake of HIV testing and decreasing the number of undiagnosed people is a priority for HIV prevention. Understanding the barriers that hinder people from testing is vital, particularly when working with especially vulnerable populations like migrants. Most data available on migrants are based on African migrants in the UK, while barriers to HIV testing in Latin-American migrants living in Europe remain unexplored. Still, they account for a quarter of new diagnosis in Spain and suffer higher rates of delayed diagnosis. Methods Between May 2008 and March 2011, a mobile unit offered free rapid HIV tests in different Spanish cities. We compared the prevalence of no previous testing, adjusting for potential confounders by two multivariate logistic models, and described differences in perceived barriers to testing in Latin-American migrants living in Spain versus Spaniards. Participants included men who have sex with men (MSM), men who have sex exclusively with women (MSW), and women. Results Of the 5920 individuals who got tested and answered a self-administered questionnaire, 36.5% were MSM (20.4% previously untested), 28.9% were MSW (49% previously untested) and 34.6% were women (53% previously untested). Almost one quarter were Latin-American, of whom 30% had never been tested versus 45% of untested Spaniards. After adjusting for potential confounders, Spaniards were more likely to report no previous testing than Latin-Americans among women and MSW all together (Odds Ratio (OR)=2.0; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.7–2.4) and among MSM (OR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.2–2.0). Among the 2455 who had never undergone an HIV test before, main barriers to testing were low perceived risk (54% Spaniards vs. 47% Latin-American) and concerns arising from the loss of anonymity (19.5% vs. 16.9%). Fear of rejection or discrimination and fear of legal problems were a barrier for <2%. Conclusions Latin-American migrants living in Spain were more likely to get tested than Spaniards. Regardless of nationality, low perceived risk was the main barrier to testing whereas fear of stigma or discrimination and fear of legal problems were merely incidental. However, new Spanish austerity policies regarding healthcare for migrants in response to the economic crisis may reverse this situation. PMID:23663441

Hoyos, Juan; Fernández-Balbuena, Sonia; de la Fuente, Luis; Sordo, Luis; Ruiz, Mónica; Barrio, Gregorio; José Belza, María

2013-01-01

106

Early treatment of multiple sclerosis: a Latin American experts meeting.  

PubMed

Patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) by definition do not have multiple sclerosis (MS) but are at risk of developing it. While studies show earlier immunomodulating drug use is effective, treatment must consider likely patient prognosis. In this paper we review current diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment literature for patients with CIS within Latin American clinical settings. Latin American MS experts, convened by ACINDES (The Civil Association for Research and Development in Health), reviewed current CIS (and early MS) literature and drew consensus conclusions. Three subgroups addressed separate questionnaires on CIS issues: prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment. MRI can contribute to predicting MS risk in patients with CIS; in Latin America, investigation of haplotype presence associated with CIS would be appropriate. McDonald's criteria and subsequent revisions enable earlier, more accurate MS diagnosis. Type A evidence exists supporting all leading immunomodulating MS drugs for effective treatment of CIS with a high risk of conversion to MS. In conclusion, patients with CIS are usually young, with often-limited symptomatic manifestations, and must be adequately prepared to receive preventive treatment. This consensus review should contribute to the dialogue between physicians and patients. PMID:19965556

Garcea, O; Villa, A; Cáceres, F; Adoni, T; Alegría, M; Barbosa Thomaz, R; Buzo, R; Llamas López, L; Rivera Kindel, M

2009-10-01

107

Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 07, Number 1: Front Matter  

E-print Network

Language Association Style Sheet, and should be sent to the Editors at the Center of Latin American Studies with a stamped envelope for return. Scholars may, without prior permission, quote from the Review to document their own work..., was written in the era of the Second World War at the same time that the existentialist movement in Europe was first apparent. This play treats various themes in the same manner that Jean-Paul Sartre does in his dramatic and philosophical works. The impact...

1973-10-01

108

ITI/US Acquires Latin American Theatre Collection  

E-print Network

/US by the Americas Society, Inc. where it was housed and augmented until 1986. With the acquisition of the TOLA Collection, the ITI/US Library has greatly expanded its holdings on Latin American theatre. In the Library's international play section (11,000 plays..., in addition to the play collection, 5,100 volumes, 11,000 programs/playbills, and 250 periodicals on the performing arts around the world. The theatre of 145 countries on five continents is documented not only by plays, books, and periodicals, but also...

1988-10-01

109

Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 29, Number 1: Performance reviews  

E-print Network

FALL 1995 179 Performance Review No todas lo tienen by Myrna Casas Playing to a full house in San Juan's Teatro de Bellas Artes, the four actors in Myrna Casas's No todas lo tienen delighted and confused the audience as they stepped in and out... LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW needed. The flowers function as a polysemic metaphor for the falseness of stage illusion, of Gaby's new persona, and of the marriage she tries to save: "Las flores son plásticas. Hasta eso hemos llegado. ... El problema...

1995-10-01

110

Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 30, Number 2: Performance reviews  

E-print Network

SPRING 1997 169 Performance Review A Day in New York de Nora Glickman; Reunion de Joseph Lizardi. Bridge Theatre, Miami Beach. Junio 1995. New York, New York es el título que llevaron las dos piezas dirigidas por Steve Wise y presentadas en el... cual los espectadores son acosados. Por otro lado, la obra observa el gradual deterioro de la conciencia social, ya que Luisa sufre la amenaza de un asalto. 170 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW El encuentro más evocativo de Luisa ocurre con Golda...

1997-04-01

111

[Latin Americans in Spain (1981-1994). Estimation of a recent migratory phenomenon].  

PubMed

The author analyzes characteristics of Latin American migration to Spain during the period 1981-1994. Aspects considered include causes of the increase of Latin American migration to Spain; policies limiting migration to Spain; spatial distribution and sex of immigrants; labor force activity; and country of origin. PMID:12348136

Palazon Ferrando, S

1996-04-01

112

Committee Property Rights, Executive Dominance, and Political Parties in Latin American Legislatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by theories of congressional committees in the US context, and building on the growing body of work focusing on the institutional features of legislatures in Latin American presidential systems, this paper explores two previously overlooked aspects of committee politics. Using comparative data from three Latin American countries, it examines the strategic and jurisdictional dynamics in which chamber leaders assign

Charles J. Finocchiaro; Gregg B. Johnson

2010-01-01

113

Unique among undergraduate programs offered nationally, the major in Latin American, Caribbean and  

E-print Network

, Latin American and Caribbean issues from a variety of perspectives The Latin American and Caribbean, European and African roots, and influenced by migrations from other areas of the world, including Asia and the Middle East. Within the U.S., Latinos are the fastest-growing population; although some Latinos

Saldin, Dilano

114

Quality of Life from the Point of View of Latin American Families: A Participative Research Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: To date, little research has focused on what factors constitute a quality of life (QOL) among Latin American families with a member who is intellectually disabled. Method: Total 180 Latin American families cooperated in a participative research project. During 18 months, the families and a team exchanged information about their QOL by…

Aznar, A. S.; Castanon, D. G.

2005-01-01

115

Family Literacy Practices and Parental Involvement of Latin American Immigrant Mothers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws upon three years of interviews and participant observation research in the Chelsea Public Schools, to discuss the impact of the Chelsea Family Literacy Program on promoting Latin American immigrant mothers' involvement in their children's education. The authors present the voices of Latin American immigrant mothers who describe…

Rivera, Lorna; Lavan, Nicole

2012-01-01

116

FOREST FOOTPRINT DISCLOSURE 2010 PRESS RELEASE EUROPEAN BUYERS MEET LATIN AMERICAN SUPPLIERS OF  

E-print Network

1 FOREST FOOTPRINT DISCLOSURE 2010 PRESS RELEASE EUROPEAN BUYERS MEET LATIN AMERICAN SUPPLIERSth of June, European buyers and investors will be meeting regional suppliers in São Paulo to discuss cycle aims to have a bigger participation of Latin American companies, and is happy to announce

117

A new organization comprised of students and members of the Latin American community. VISIONS provides a forum for elaborating ideas and concepts relevant to Latin America through a  

E-print Network

context. However, this ambition engenders concerns in the Latin American region and could potentially of the Latin American region, but it also has the potential to cause a crisis at the global level. If nuclear American states, has been the pillar in maintaining nuclear security for the entire region and sets

Machery, Edouard

118

Assisted reproductive technologies in Latin America: the Latin American Registry, 2012.  

PubMed

Multinational data on assisted reproduction technologies were collected from 155 institutions in 14 Latin American countries during 2012. Case-by-case data included 47,326 assisted reproduction technology cycles covering over 80% of cycles carried out in Latin America. Treatments included IVF, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), frozen embryo transfers, oocyte donations and fertility preservation. Embryo transfer and IVF-ICSI was carried out in 39% of women aged 35-39 years and 31% of women aged 40 years or over. Delivery rate per oocyte retrieval was 20.9% for ICSI and 26.5% for IVF. Multiple births comprised 20.6% twins and 1.2% triplets and over. In oocyte donations, twins reached 27.8% and triplets and over 2.4%. Pre-term births in singletons were 14%. The relative risk of prematurity increased by 4.30 (95% CI 4.1 to 4.6) in twins and 43.8 (95% CI 28.5 to 67.4) in triplets and higher. Perinatal mortality increased from 25.2 per thousand in singletons to 44.4 in twins and 80.7 in triplets and over. Elective single embryo transfer was carried out in only 1.4%, of cycles, with a delivery rate of 30% in women 34 years or younger, and should be considered the way forward provided access is facilitated with public funding. PMID:25456163

Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Schwarze, Juan Enrique; Crosby, Javier A; Musri, Carolina; do Carmo Borges de Souza, Maria

2015-01-01

119

The Latin American contribution to the psychoanalytic concept of phantasy.  

PubMed

The author argues that the ubiquity of phantasies at various levels of mental functioning is undisputed in the current schools of psychoanalytic thought; however, she demonstrates some variations in their understanding of how the psychotherapeutic access to different configurations occurs. In the process of examining and acknowledging the central role played by unconscious phantasies in his patients' symptoms, Freud gradually broadened the vernacular meaning of the German word 'Phantasie' that refers to imagination and the world of imagination, conferring on it the specific features that came to characterize its use in the psychoanalytic vocabulary. Later, the expansion of the concept derived from Melanie Klein's clinical material obtained from child analyses gave rise to important debates. The author discusses the main points of disagreement that led to these debates, as well as their various theoretical and technical implications. Psychoanalytic associations in Latin America were strongly influenced by Klein and her followers. Thus, most of their scientific writings use the concept of unconscious phantasy put forward by the Kleinian school. Taking Kleinian principles as their starting point, Baranger and Baranger made the most original Latin American contribution to the concept of unconscious phantasy with their works on the unconscious phantasies generated by the analytic pair. PMID:23278202

de Barros, Izelinda Garcia

2012-12-01

120

Science in Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief history of science and technology in Latin America that begins with the Mayan civilization and progresses through the colonial period to the present. Compares increased scientific productivity in the Latin American and Caribbean regions to productivity in the United States and European Union. (LZ)

Ayala, Francisco J.

1995-01-01

121

Is Spanish Pragmatic Instruction Necessary in the L2 Classroom If Latin American Speakers of Spanish Take on American English Pragmatic Norms Once Prolonged Exposure in the United States Occurs? A Study on Refusal Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As educators of foreign and second languages debate the most efficient methods of implementing pragmatic instruction in the L2 classroom, is it possible that Spanish pragmatic instruction is not necessary if American Spanish pragmatic norms are no different than American English norms? The present investigation studies the pragmatic norms in…

Bachelor, Jeremy W.; Hernandez, Lydia; Shively, Rachel L.

2012-01-01

122

Special Article Situational study of seven Latin-American pulmonology journals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To characterize the situation of pulmonology journals published in Latin America. Methods: A survey was conducted in a meeting sponsored by the Latin American Thoracic Society. Each journal editor presented a report and answered a questionnaire. Results: Improving information acquisition is the main motivation for pulmonology societies to edit their own journals, whereas disseminating medical knowledge and reporting experiences

Manuel Oyarzún Gómez; Alejandra Ramírez Venegas; Adalberto Agüero Fernández; José Antônio Baddini Martínez; Mary Bermúdez Gómez; Jorge O. Cáneva; Jaime E. Morales Blandir; Rogelio Pérez-Padilla

2007-01-01

123

Latin American Literature as a Source of History: Why It Flies in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of novels in a Latin American history course. Provides a theoretical basis for the course. Outlines course format, class assignments, and reading lists. Points out the value of the novel to students in understanding the history of Latin America. (RW)

Macune, Charles W., Jr.

1989-01-01

124

Was It Prices, Productivity or Policy? The Timing and Pace of Latin American Industrialization after 1870  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brazil, Mexico and a few other Latin American republics enjoyed faster industrialization after 1870 than did the rest of Latin America and even faster than the rest of the poor periphery (except East Asia). How much of this economic performance was due to more accommodating institutions and greater political stability, changes that would have facilitated greater technology transfer and accumulation?

Aurora Gómez Galvarriato; Jeffrey G. Williamson

2008-01-01

125

Institutions and the Historical Roots of Latin American Divergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this essay we analyze the relation between long-term growth and institutional development. Relative backwardness has been a constant feature of the history of Latin America. In the wake of Independence the gap between Latin America and the industrializing world was already wide and widened during the first decades after Independence. While Latin America resumed growth after the 1870s, the

Luis Bértola

2010-01-01

126

LATIN AMERICAN THEATER FOR SOCIAL CHANGE: THE CASE OF AUGUSTO BOAL AND ENRIQUE BUENAVENTURA  

E-print Network

This study develops the concepts of scenario and anti-scenario through an examination of Latin American Theater for Social Change. These concepts, along with the transmission of cultural and traumatic memory in performance, help demonstrate...

Sandi Diaz, Gina

2007-12-12

127

PREFACE: XI Latin American Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The XI Latin American Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena (LAWNP) has been held in Búzios-RJ, Brazil, from 5-9 October 2009. This international conference is one in a series that have gathered biennially, over the past 21 years, physicists and other scientists who direct their work towards several aspects of nonlinear phenomena and complex systems. The main purpose of LAWNP meetings is to create a friendly and motivating environment, such that researchers from Latin America and from other parts of the globe can discuss not only their own latest results but also the trends and perspectives in this very interdisciplinary field of investigation. Hence, it constitutes a forum for promoting scientific collaboration and fomenting the emergence of new ideas, helping to advance the field. The XI edition (LAWNP'09) has gathered more than 230 scientists and students (most from Latin America), covering all of the world (27 different countries from North and South America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania). In total there were 18 plenary lectures, 80 parallel talks, and 140 poster contributions. A stimulating round-table discussion also took place devoted to the present and future of the Latin American Institutions in Complex Phenomena (a summary can be found at http://lawnp09.fis.puc-rio.br, in the Round-Table report link). The 2009 workshop was devoted to a wide scope of themes and points of view, pursuing to include the latest trends and developments in the science of nonlinearity. In this way, we have a great pleasure in publishing this Proceedings volume based on the high quality scientific works presented at LAWNP'09, covering already established methods as well as new approaches, discussing both theoretical and practical aspects, and addressing paradigmatic systems and also completely new problems, in nonlinearity and complexity. In fact, the present volume may be a very valuable reference for those interested in an overview on how nonlinear interactions can affect different phenomena in nature, addressing: classical and quantum chaos; instability and bifurcation; cooperative behavior; self-organization; pattern formation and synchronization; far-from-equilibrium and fluctuation dynamics; nonlinearity in fluid, plasmas, granular media, optics, and wave propagation; turbulence onset; and complexity in natural and social systems. The success of the conference was possible thanks to the financial support from many agencies, especially the Brazilian agencies Capes and CNPq, and the international agencies, Binational Itaupú, ICTP-Trieste, and CAIS-Albuquerque. Equally very important was the support by the organizer's institutions PUC-Rio de Janeiro and UFPR-Curitiba. We also must thank Journal of Physics: Conference Series, for believing in the success and scientific quality of the conference, and to the journal staff, specially Anete Ashton, for the kind and prompt help during the whole production process of this publication. Finally, and most important, we acknowledge all the participants of the LAWNP'09, whose interest and enthusiasm in advancing the science of nonlinearity constitutes the true moto making the present Proceedings a very valuable scientific contribution. Celia Anteneodo (PUC-Rio, Brazil) and Marcos G E da Luz (UFPR-Curitiba, Brazil) Conference Chairs Conference photograph Some of the conference participants. CAPES logo This issue was supported by CAPES (Agency for Evaluation and Support of Graduate Studies Programs), Brazilian govern entity devoted to the formation of human resources. CA would like to thank CAPES for financial support.

Anteneodo, Celia; da Luz, Marcos G. E.

2010-09-01

128

PREFACE: First Latin-American Conference on Bioimpedance (CLABIO 2012)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past decade has witnessed an unprecedented growth in medical technologies and a new generation of diagnostics, characterized by mobility, virtualization, homecare and costs. The ever growing demand and the rapid need for low cost tools for characterizing human tissue, and supporting intelligence and technologies for non-invasive tissue cancer investigation raise unique and evolving opportunities for research in Electrical Bioimpedance. The CLABIO2012 - First Latin American Conference on Bioimpedance is a premier Latin-American conference on Bioimpedance for research groups working on Electrical Bioimpedance. It allows Latin American researchers to share their experiences with other groups from all over the world by presenting scientific work and potential innovations in this research area and also in the social events promoting informal get togethers in the Brazilian style. The work covers a broad range including Biomedical Engineering and Computing, Medical Physics and Medical Sciences, Environment, Biology and Chemistry. Also, the Conference is intended to give students and research groups the opportunity to learn more about Bioimpedance as an important tool in biological material characterization and also in diagnosis. The conference is designed to showcase cutting edge research and accomplishments, and to enrich the educational and industrial experience in this field. It also represents a unique opportunity to meet colleagues and friends, exchanging ideas, and learning about new developments and best practice, while working to advance the understanding of the knowledge base that we will collectively draw upon in the years ahead to meet future challenges. Participants will attend presentations by scholars representing both institutes and academia. The CLABIO2012 proceedings include over 25 papers selected via a peer review process. The conference program features tutorial talks by world-leading scholars and five sessions for regular paper oral presentations. In making this conference possible, we want to acknowledge our deep appreciation for the financial support of FAPESC (Foundation for Research and Innovation of Santa Catarina), CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level -or Education- Personnel) and also express our sincere thanks to the many individuals who contributed their time and diligence to making this conference possible. Our special thanks go to the Santa Catarina State University for contributing time and effort to organizing the conference. We also wish to express our thanks to Professors Ana Watanabe and Fabricio Noveletto for helping with the registration process, the conference desk and the diverse and sundry details that are the part of any event of this kind. We would like also to thank all of the invited speakers and the members of the Program Committee, and wopuld like to express our gratitude to the Technological Institute of Joinville (FITEJ) for their technical co-sponsorship. We very much appreciate Orjan Martinsen, Uwe Pliquett, Fernando Martinez Seoane, Raul Gonzalez Lima, Marcio Nogueira de Souza and Carlos Augusto Gonzalez Correa for delivering keynote talks at the conference. And we would like to extend an enthusiastic round of thanks to all of our conference authors for their excellent contributions; to all the session chairs for their effort and enthusiasm; and to all the International Program Committee members and referees for their time and expertise in the paper review. Particular thanks go to Emiliano Amarante Veiga and other members of the CLABIO2012 Secretariat and organizing team for their time and outstanding work. List of committees General Chair Professor Pedro Bertemes Filho (Santa Catarina State University) Pedro Bertemes Filho Technical Program Chairs Dr Marcio Nogueira de Souza (Rio de Janeiro Federal University) Local Arrangement Chair Professor Aleksander Paterno (Santa Catarina State University) Professor Fabrício Noveletto (Santa Catarina State University) Finance Chairman Professor Nilson Campos (Santa Catarina State University) Marketing & Corp

Bertemes Filho, Pedro

2012-12-01

129

Maternal undernutrition and cardiometabolic disease: a latin american perspective.  

PubMed

The current epidemic of obesity and cardiometabolic diseases in developing countries is described as being driven by socioeconomic inequalities. These populations have a greater vulnerability to cardiometabolic diseases due to the discrepancy between the maternal undernutrition and its consequence, low-birth weight progeny, and the subsequent modern lifestyles which are associated with socioeconomic and environmental changes that modify dietary habits, discourage physical activity and encourage sedentary behaviors. Maternal undernutrition can generate epigenetic modifications, with potential long-term consequences. Throughout life, people are faced with the challenge of adapting to changes in their environment, such as excessive intake of high energy density foods and sedentary behavior. However, a mismatch between conditions experienced during fetal programming and current environmental conditions will make adaptation difficult for them, and will increase their susceptibility to obesity and cardiovascular diseases. It is important to conduct research in the Latin American context, in order to define the best strategies to prevent the epidemic of cardiometabolic diseases in the region. PMID:25779747

Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Gomez-Arbelaez, Diego; Sotomayor-Rubio, Aristides; Mantilla-Garcia, Daniel; Lopez-Lopez, Jose

2015-12-01

130

Certificate in Latin American Studies for M.Ed. and Ph.D. Students in the Peabody College of Education  

E-print Network

of Education The Center for Latin American Studies allows students to document their regional specializationCertificate in Latin American Studies for M.Ed. and Ph.D. Students in the Peabody College American Studies for graduate students in the Peabody College of Education has four basic requirements: 1

Bordenstein, Seth

131

Climate Change and Climate Variability in the Latin American Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past three decades LA was subjected to several climate-related impacts due to increased El Niño occurrences. Two extremely intense episodes of El Niño and other increased climate extremes happened during this period contributing greatly to augment the vulnerability of human systems to natural disasters. In addition to weather and climate, the main drivers of the increased vulnerability are demographic pressure, unregulated urban growth, poverty and rural migration, low investment in infrastructure and services, and problems in inter-sector coordination. As well, increases in temperature and increases/decreases in precipitation observed during the last part of 20th century have yet led to intensification of glaciers melting, increases in floods/droughts and forest fires frequency, increases in morbidity and mortality, increases in plant diseases incidence; lost of biodiversity, reduction in dairy cattle production, and problems with hydropower generation, highly affecting LA human system. For the end of the 21st century, the projected mean warming for LA ranges from 1 to 7.5ºC and the frequency of weather and climate extremes could increase. Additionally, deforestation is projected to continue leading to a reduction of 25 percent in Amazonia forest in 2020 and 40 percent in 2050. Soybeans planted area in South America could increase by 55 percent by 2020 enhancing aridity/desertification in many of the already water- stressed regions. By 2050 LA population is likely to be 50 percent larger than in 2000, and migration from the country sides to the cities will continue. In the near future, these predicted changes are very likely to severely affect a number of ecosystems and sectors distribution; b) Disappearing most tropical glaciers; c) Reducing water availability and hydropower generation; d) Increasing desertification and aridity; e) Severely affecting people, resources and economic activities in coastal areas; f) Increasing crop's pests and diseases; and g) Changing some human diseases distribution and provoking the emergence of new ones. The impact of climate change in Latin America's productive sectors is estimated to be of a 1.3 percent reduction of the region's GDP for a change of 2ºC in global temperature (without consider non market sectors and extremes events). Moreover, if the LA countries continue to follow the business as usual scenario, the wealth of natural resources that have supported economic and socio-cultural development in the region will be further degraded, reducing the regional potential for growth. Urgent measures must be taken to help bring environmental and social considerations from the margins to the decision-making and development strategies. This presentation is part of the revision done for the Latin American (LA) chapter under the IPCC WGII Fourth Assessment Report.

Magrin, G. O.; Gay Garcia, C.; Cruz Choque, D.; Gimenez-Sal, J. C.; Moreno, A. R.; Nagy, G. J.; Nobre, C.; Villamizar, A.

2007-05-01

132

Themes in Latin American Environmental Ethics: Community, Resistance and Autonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to answer the question how environmental ethics is approached in Latin America. I begin by discussing a suitable method for interpreting the question of whether there is a culturally based ethics, given that one may focus either on theory or on actually existing moral practices. Next, I consider some of the possible sources of Latin America's distinctiveness,

Thomas Heyd

2004-01-01

133

The Status of Environmental Education in Latin American Middle and High Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigated the status of environmental education (EE) in private American and international middle and high schools throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. The study population consisted of all 50 dues-paying member schools in the Association of American Schools of Central America, Columbia-Caribbean, and Mexico (the…

Cronin-Jones, Linda; Penwell, Rebecca; Hakverdi, Meral; Cline, Shannon; Johnson, Courtney; Scales, Ingrid

134

University of Pittsburgh Summer Library Research Fellowships in Latin American Studies  

E-print Network

University of Pittsburgh Summer Library Research Fellowships in Latin American Studies 2013 Competition Eligibility The competition is open to faculty members from two- and four-year institutions American library resources. Several grants ranging from $500 to $1,500 will be awarded. The awards

Machery, Edouard

135

Facial asymmetry and genetic ancestry in Latin American admixed populations.  

PubMed

Fluctuating and directional asymmetry are aspects of morphological variation widely used to infer environmental and genetic factors affecting facial phenotypes. However, the genetic basis and environmental determinants of both asymmetry types is far from being completely known. The analysis of facial asymmetries in admixed individuals can be of help to characterize the impact of a genome's heterozygosity on the developmental basis of both fluctuating and directional asymmetries. Here we characterize the association between genetic ancestry and individual asymmetry on a sample of Latin-American admixed populations. To do so, three-dimensional (3D) facial shape attributes were explored on a sample of 4,104 volunteers aged between 18 and 85 years. Individual ancestry and heterozygosity was estimated using more than 730,000 genome-wide markers. Multivariate techniques applied to geometric morphometric data were used to evaluate the magnitude and significance of directional and fluctuating asymmetry (FA), as well as correlations and multiple regressions aimed to estimate the relationship between facial FA scores and heterozygosity and a set of covariates. Results indicate that directional and FA are both significant, the former being the strongest expression of asymmetry in this sample. In addition, our analyses suggest that there are some specific patterns of facial asymmetries characterizing the different ancestry groups. Finally, we find that more heterozygous individuals exhibit lower levels of asymmetry. Our results highlight the importance of including ancestry-admixture estimators, especially when the analyses are aimed to compare levels of asymmetries on groups differing on socioeconomic levels, as a proxy to estimate developmental noise. Am J Phys Anthropol 157:58-70, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25582401

Quinto-Sánchez, Mirsha; Adhikari, Kaustubh; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Cintas, Celia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio Cesar; Ramallo, Virginia; Castillo, Lucia; Farrera, Arodi; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, Williams; Fuentes, Macarena; Everardo, Paola; de Avila, Francisco; Gomez-Valdés, Jorge; Hünemeier, Tábita; Gibbon, Shara; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Rosique, Javier; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; González-José, Rolando

2015-05-01

136

Latin American Economies: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly  

Microsoft Academic Search

uring the 1990s, many important things changed for the better in Latin Amer- ica. Inflation reached a 50-year low, and economic growth replaced the pro- longed economic stagnation that at times seemed chronic. Financial crashes that once created decade-long debacles now last just a year or two. Commerce among countries in Latin America boomed from less than one-fifth of the

Moisés Naím; Carlos Lozada

137

Climate Adaptation Strategies: Evidence from Latin American City-Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since cities are both a key source of greenhouse gas emissions and highly vulnerable to the consequences of climate change,\\u000a many are starting to take actions to mitigate and confront the anticipated effects. Latin America and the Caribbean, the most\\u000a urbanized region worldwide after North America, are no exception. This contribution studies the state of adaptation strategies\\u000a of two Latin

Dirk Heinrichs; Kerstin Krellenberg

138

Length of Residence, Cultural Adjustment Difficulties, and Psychological Distress Symptoms in Asian and Latin American International College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study examined cultural adjustment and psychological distress issues in Asian and Latin American international college students. Findings revealed Latin American students reported higher levels of psychological distress than their Asian peers. Length of residence in U.S. was negatively associated with psychological distress symptoms, and…

Wilton, Leo; Constantine, Madonna G.

2003-01-01

139

Stereotypes and Beliefs about Different Ethnic Groups in Spain: A Study with Spanish and Latin American Children Living in Madrid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

96 Spanish and Latin American children from 3 grades in Madrid reported their knowledge of positive and negative stereotypes regarding Spaniards, Gypsies, Latin American and Chinese people. Their personal beliefs about these four ethnic groups were also assessed. Stereotypes about Spaniards were perceived as overwhelmingly positive and least…

Enesco, Ileana; Navarro, Alejandra; Paradela, Isabel; Guerrero, Silvia

2005-01-01

140

Multinational Corporations and Health Care in the United States and Latin America: Strategies, Actions, and Effects*  

PubMed Central

In this article we analyze the corporate dominance of health care in the United States and the dynamics that have motivated the international expansion of multinational health care corporations, especially to Latin America. We identify the strategies, actions, and effects of multinational corporations in health care delivery and public health policies. Our methods have included systematic bibliographical research and in-depth interviews in the United States, Mexico, and Brazil. Influenced by public policy makers in the United States, such organizations as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and World Trade Organization have advocated policies that encourage reduction and privatization of health care and public health services previously provided in the public sector. Multinational managed care organizations have entered managed care markets in several Latin American countries at the same time as they were withdrawing from managed care activities in Medicaid and Medicare within the United States. Corporate strategies have culminated in a marked expansion of corporations’ access to social security and related public sector funds for the support of privatized health services. International financial institutions and multinational corporations have influenced reforms that, while favorable to corporate interests, have worsened access to needed services and have strained the remaining public sector institutions. A theoretical approach to these problems emphasizes the falling rate of profit as an economic motivation of corporate actions, silent reform, and the subordination of polity to economy. Praxis to address these problems involves opposition to policies that enhance corporate interests while reducing public sector services, as well as alternative models that emphasize a strengthened public sector. PMID:15779471

JASSO-AGUILAR, REBECA; WAITZKIN, HOWARD; LANDWEHR, ANGELA

2010-01-01

141

Income and beyond: Multidimensional Poverty in Six Latin American Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper studies multidimensional poverty for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, El Salvador, Mexico and Uruguay for the period 1992-2006. The approach overcomes the limitations of the two traditional methods of poverty analysis in Latin America (income-based and unmet basic needs) by combining income with five other dimensions: school attendance for…

Battiston, Diego; Cruces, Guillermo; Lopez-Calva, Luis Felipe; Lugo, Maria Ana; Santos, Maria Emma

2013-01-01

142

Legislatures in presidential systems: The Latin American experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The failure of democracy in Latin America has been a major obstacle to studying legislatures in presidential systems. A sensitive analysis of the functions and legislative capacity of parliaments in the region would require a significant level of institutional continuity and in turn the possibility of examining relations with the head of state over an extended period and under different

Carlos Huneeus; Fabiola Berríos; Rodrigo Cordero

2006-01-01

143

Is There a Latin American Model of the University?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently, Latin America has seen the advent of research activities to meet the call for research that long preceded them and of the full-time research faculty who engage in them. These developments have taken place as the region partakes in contemporary worldwide trends that have affected universities elsewhere: the consequences of the increased…

Bernasconi, Andres

2008-01-01

144

Four arguments about the Latin American Left(s) 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article offers some pointers for studying the Left in Latin America. It begins by looking at a set of commonplace observations meant to position the discussion about its current resurgence. I then introduce the performative dimension of politics to argue that winning elections is not the only factor that explains the exercise of power and the agenda setting capacity

Benjamin Arditi

145

Managing human resources in the Latin American context: the case of Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article several aspects of human resource management (HRM) in Chile will be examined. Initially Chile will be analysed in the context of Latin American culture and history, as it shares a number of common features with the rest of the countries of the region. Secondly, the arrival of HRM to Chile is explored, as well as how it

Gregorio Perez Arrau; Elaine Eades; John Wilson

2012-01-01

146

The Educated Citizen: Cultural and Gender Capital in the Schooling of Latin American Children in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An ethnographic study on a Japanese language tutoring programme for foreign children was conducted from 2003 to 2006. The investigation attempted to shed light on issues of language acquisition among Latin American children who attended three public primary schools in Japan. This article combines extensive participant observation and in-depth…

Castro-Vazquez, Genaro

2011-01-01

147

The Importance of Negotiation for Policy Dialogue: Latin American Training Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past several decades, Latin American countries have supported processes of bringing public policy decisions on education closer to the people concerned. Participation at all levels of decision-making processes has generally been highly valued. Nonetheless, these decentralization efforts came about without governments taking the necessary…

Jaramillo, Maria Clara

2004-01-01

148

Linguistic Reception of Latin American Students in Catalonia and Their Responses to Educational Language Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the connections between language policy implementation in three Barcelona-area secondary schools and the language attitudes and behaviors of Spanish-speaking Latin American newcomers. Data were collected through interviews and ethnographic participant observation document indexes of different forms of language socialization…

Newman, Michael; Patino-Santos, Adriana; Trenchs-Parera, Mireia

2013-01-01

149

PREDICTING PERFORMANCE AND QUANTIFYING CORPORATE GOVERNANCE RISK FOR LATIN AMERICAN ADRS AND BANKS  

E-print Network

par as a function of the main corporate governance factors and of selected accounting ra- tiosPREDICTING PERFORMANCE AND QUANTIFYING CORPORATE GOVERNANCE RISK FOR LATIN AMERICAN ADRS AND BANKS for Computational Learning Systems 500 West 120th. Street Rm. 529 New York, NY 10027 freund@cs.columbia.edu ABSTRACT

Freund, Yoav

150

Teacher Perceptions Regarding the Status of Environmental Education in Latin American Elementary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research, commissioned by the U.S. Department of State, Office of Overseas Schools, was designed to determine the status of environmental education in private U.S. and international elementary schools throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. The study population consisted of all 50 dues-paying member schools in the Association of American

Penwell, Rebecca; Cronin-Jones, Linda; Hakverdi, Meral; Cline, Shannon; Johnson, Courtney

151

Altering Masculinities: The Spanish Conquest and the Evolution of the Latin American Machismo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machismo, a stereotype that emphasizes hypermasculinity and associated with the Latin American male, was a legacy of the Conquest of the Spanish conquistadores and their interpretation of and reaction to the indigenous two-spirit. It was the product of the rape of indigenous women, the response to indigenous imperial ritual, and the sublimation of indigenous male sexuality. It was a response

Michael Hardin

2002-01-01

152

BERKELEY REVIEW OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 48 People, Palm Trees, and Survival  

E-print Network

BERKELEY REVIEW OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 48 People, Palm Trees, and Survival P alm oil, which. As a case in point, Milleron noted that in Colombia, the expansion of African palm tree plantations has led, the Amazon's indigenous peoples have a long history of sustainably managing wild palm trees, which they use

Kammen, Daniel M.

153

Women Academic Leaders in a Latin American University: Reconciling the Paradoxes of Professional Lives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 18 female academic leaders at the University of Costa Rica investigated factors in the women's professional success, career paths and obstacles, and the role of Latin American and institutional culture in their professional choices and lives. Results suggest an alternative to traditional Western theory of women's careers, focusing on…

Twombly, Susan B.

1998-01-01

154

FIRST PRICE AND SECOND PRICE AUCTION MODELLING FOR ENERGY CONTRACTS IN LATIN AMERICAN ELECTRICITY MARKETS  

E-print Network

FIRST PRICE AND SECOND PRICE AUCTION MODELLING FOR ENERGY CONTRACTS IN LATIN AMERICAN ELECTRICITY object first-price auction and single object second- price auction. These formats are analyzed under of the program- ming models and to compute the price market, numerical and sampling methods are used as Monte

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

155

No Tours beyond This Point: From Service to Civic Learning in Latin American Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the design and implementation of a new course in Latin American Studies that sought to integrate traditional elements of undergraduate education with a more progressive pedagogical approach stressing experiential applications of classroom education. Civic engagement seemed particularly well suited to the course because of…

Bromberg, Shelly Jarrett

2008-01-01

156

Latin American debt, the IMF, and Adam Smith: A proposal for ethical reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the role of the IMF orthodox paradigm, and the value system upon which it rests, in the Latin American debt crisis. We conclude that the IMF orthodoxy is an inappropriate basis for international transactions because of the a priori utilitarian value assumptions on which it is based. Furthermore, those value premises have hardened into a narrow and inflexible

Gary M. Woller; David Kirkwood Hart

1995-01-01

157

Comparing Work-Life Balance in Spanish and Latin-American Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to determine the level of awareness and implementation of family-responsible parameters: policies, enablers, practices, and culture, in Spanish and Latin-American companies, and how they impact work-life balance. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses data from different national IESE's Family-Responsible Employer…

Carlier, Sandra Idrovo; Llorente, Consuelo Leon; Grau, Marc Grau

2012-01-01

158

Do Artificial Neural Networks Provide Better Forecasts? Evidence from Latin American Stock Indexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forecasting is a key activity for academics and investors in the fields of finance and economics. This paper explores the usefulness of the non-linear artificial neural network (ANN) for forecasting Latin American stock indexes. Our goal is to estimate and compare the forecast accuracy of the ANN with three traditional models: random walk, ARMA, and GARCH. Our results provide strong

André Carvalhal; Tulio Ribeiro

2008-01-01

159

Transparency laws and interactive public relations: An analysis of Latin American government Web sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A content analysis of 50 Latin American government Web sites was conducted to assess whether new transparency laws in the hemisphere impacted the interactivity, usability, technological expertise, and national symbolism manifest on the sites. Web sites were found to be generally usable but limited in interactivity. There was no difference in Web site interactivity between countries with transparency laws and

Eileen M. Searson; Melissa A. Johnson

2010-01-01

160

BERKELEY REVIEW OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 56 A Magical Cactus Trip  

E-print Network

BERKELEY REVIEW OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 56 A Magical Cactus Trip Michael Cera clutches a San director and the winner of two Sundance Film Festival awards, one for his 2009 film "La Nana Chilean traveling companions or the other people he meets along the way. Jamie's refusal to eat home

Kammen, Daniel M.

161

CILA: A New Approach to Problems in the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to provide a contextual study of CILA--Centro Interamericano de Libros Academicos--a new scheme for the distribution of scholarly books in the Americas. Because of the scheme's peculiar relevance to the needs of Canadian academic libraries, the status of Latin American studies and relevant library collections in Canada are…

Clouston, John Samuel

162

Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Public Places in Guatemala: Comparison with other Latin American Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To measure secondhand smoke levels in workplaces in Guatemala and to compare exposure to levels in other Latin American cities. Methods: Exposure was estimated by passive sampling of vapor phase nicotine using a filter badge. Filters were placed in 1 hospital, 1 school, 2 universities, 1 government building, the airport, and 10 restaurants\\/ bars. In total, 103 filters were

Joaquin Barnoya; Carlos Mendoza-Montano; Ana Navas-Acien

163

Film as Revolutionary Weapon: A Pedagogical Analysis. Latin American Studies Program, Film Series No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a university course designed to examine the use of film as a revolutionary medium in Latin American countries. Objectives of the course were to illustrate the complexity of studying a film genre, develop an analytical framework for comparing revolutionary films, and encourage students to reach their own conclusions about the…

California Univ., Riverside. Latin American Studies Program.

164

Status of Proposed Repository for Latin-American Spent Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report compiles preliminary information that supports the premise that a repository is needed in Latin America and analyzes the nuclear situation (mainly in Argentina and Brazil) in terms of nuclear capabilities, inventories, and regional spent-fuel repositories. The report is based on several sources and summarizes (1) the nuclear capabilities in Latin America and establishes the framework for the need of a permanent repository, (2) the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) approach for a regional spent-fuel repository and describes the support that international institutions are lending to this issue, (3) the current situation in Argentina in order to analyze the Argentinean willingness to find a location for a deep geological repository, and (4) the issues involved in selecting a location for the repository and identifies a potential location. This report then draws conclusions based on an analysis of this information. The focus of this report is mainly on spent fuel and does not elaborate on other radiological waste sources.

Ferrada, J.J.

2004-10-04

165

Latin American Consensus: Children Born Small for Gestational Age  

PubMed Central

Background Children born small for gestational age (SGA) experience higher rates of morbidity and mortality than those born appropriate for gestational age. In Latin America, identification and optimal management of children born SGA is a critical issue. Leading experts in pediatric endocrinology throughout Latin America established working groups in order to discuss key challenges regarding the evaluation and management of children born SGA and ultimately develop a consensus statement. Discussion SGA is defined as a birth weight and/or birth length greater than 2 standard deviations (SD) below the population reference mean for gestational age. SGA refers to body size and implies length-weight reference data in a geographical population whose ethnicity is known and specific to this group. Ideally, each country/region within Latin America should establish its own standards and make relevant updates. SGA children should be evaluated with standardized measures by trained personnel every 3 months during year 1 and every 6 months during year 2. Those without catch-up growth within the first 6 months of life need further evaluation, as do children whose weight is ? -2 SD at age 2 years. Growth hormone treatment can begin in SGA children > 2 years with short stature (< -2.0 SD) and a growth velocity < 25th percentile for their age, and should continue until final height (a growth velocity below 2 cm/year or a bone age of > 14 years for girls and > 16 years for boys) is reached. Blood glucose, thyroid function, HbA1c, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) should be monitored once a year. Monitoring insulin changes from baseline and surrogates of insulin sensitivity is essential. Reduced fetal growth followed by excessive postnatal catch-up in height, and particularly in weight, should be closely monitored. In both sexes, gonadal function should be monitored especially during puberty. Summary Children born SGA should be carefully followed by a multidisciplinary group that includes perinatologists, pediatricians, nutritionists, and pediatric endocrinologists since 10% to 15% will continue to have weight and height deficiency through development and may benefit from growth hormone treatment. Standards/guidelines should be developed on a country/region basis throughout Latin America. PMID:21771322

2011-01-01

166

The Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region: Summary. Bulletin 20.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This UNESCO bulletin includes reports that focus on diagnoses and strategies that ratify the validity of the goals set by the Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. Four articles are featured: "Literacy, Human Rights and Democracy" (Jose Rivero H.); "Primary Schooling and Illiteracy in Latin America and…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and Caribbean.

167

Zebrafish invade Valparaiso: third meeting and symposium of the latin american zebrafish network.  

PubMed

Zebrafish are an excellent model system for research and teaching. Because of their relatively low maintenance costs, beautiful and bountiful embryos, and tool box of molecular genetic technique, zebrafish are ideal for countries with smaller research budgets and less well-developed science infrastructure. For these reasons, zebrafish are growing in popularity as a model system for research in Latin America. In response to this growing need, we held the Third Latin American Zebrafish Network (LAZEN) Course and Symposium in Valparaiso, Chile, in April 4-13, 2014. The course covered a wide variety of topics from fish husbandry to outreach and ended with a symposium hosting excellent scientists from Latin America and beyond. PMID:25470532

Whitlock, Kathleen E

2014-12-01

168

Zebrafish Invade Valparaiso: Third Meeting and Symposium of the Latin American Zebrafish Network.  

PubMed

Abstract Zebrafish are an excellent model system for research and teaching. Because of their relatively low maintenance costs, beautiful and bountiful embryos, and tool box of molecular genetic technique, zebrafish are ideal for countries with smaller research budgets and less well-developed science infrastructure. For these reasons, zebrafish are growing in popularity as a model system for research in Latin America. In response to this growing need, we held the Third Latin American Zebrafish Network (LAZEN) Course and Symposium in Valparaiso, Chile, in April 4-13, 2014. The course covered a wide variety of topics from fish husbandry to outreach and ended with a symposium hosting excellent scientists from Latin America and beyond. PMID:25372497

Whitlock, Kathleen E

2014-11-01

169

Antibiotic Prescriptions in Critically-Ill Patients: A Latin American Experience  

PubMed Central

Background: It is widely acknowledged that the presence of infection is an important outcome determinant for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. In fact, antibiotics are one of the most common therapies administered in the ICU settings. Aim: To evaluate the current usage of antibiotics in Latin American ICUs. Subjects and Methods: A one-day p-oint prevalence study to investigate the patterns of antibiotic was undertaken in 72 Latin American (LA) ICUs. Data was analyzed using the Statistix 8 statistical software, version 2.0 (USA). Results were expressed as proportions. When applicable, two tailed hypothesis testing for difference in proportions was used (Proportion Test); a P value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of 704 patients admitted, 359 received antibiotic treatment on the day of the study (51%), of which 167/359 cases (46.5%) were due to hospital-acquired infections. The most frequent infection reorted was nosocomial pneumonia (74/359, 21%). Only in 264/359 patients (73.5%), cultures before starting antibiotic treatment were performed. Thirty-eight percent of the isolated microorganisms were Enterobacteriaceae extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing, 11% methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and 10% carbapenems-resistant non-fermentative Gram-negatives. The antibiotics most frequently prescribed were carbapenems (125/359, 35%), alone or in combination with vancomycin or other antibiotic. There were no significant differences in the “restricted” antibiotic prescription (carbapenems, vancomycin, piperacillin–tazobactam, broad-spectrum cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, tigecycline and linezolid) between patients with APACHE II score at the beginning of the antibiotic treatment <15 [83/114 (72.5%)] and ?15 [179/245 (73%)] (P = 0.96). Only 29% of the antibiotic treatments were cultured directed (104/359). Conclusion: Carbapenems (alone or in combination) were the most frequently prescribed antibiotics in LA ICUs. However, the problem of carbapenem resistance in LA requires that physicians improve the use of this class of antibiotics. Our findings show that our web-based method for collection of one-day point prevalence was implemented successfully. However, based on the limitations of the model used, the results of this study must be taken with caution. PMID:23919194

Curcio, D

2013-01-01

170

U.S. Tax Laws and Capital Flight From Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interplay between the tax laws of the United States and those of the countries of Latin America creates inducements for capital flight. Most Latin American countries tax only income originating within their boundaries. If other countries tax income of foreigners originating within their boundaries as heavily, there is no tax advantage to capital flight. Latin American countries thus depend

Charles E. McLure Jr.

1988-01-01

171

Transport and health: a look at three Latin American cities.  

PubMed

Transport is associated with environmental problems, economic losses, health and social inequalities. A number of European and US cities have implemented initiatives to promote multimodal modes of transport. In Latin America changes are occurring in public transport systems and a number of projects aimed at stimulating non-motorized modes of transport (walking and cycling) have already been implemented. Based on articles from peer-reviewed academic journals, this paper examines experiences in Bogotá (Colombia), Curitiba (Brazil), and Santiago (Chile), and identifies how changes to the transport system contribute to encourage active transportation. Bus rapid transit, ciclovias, bike paths/lanes, and car use restriction are initiatives that contribute to promoting active transportation in these cities. Few studies have been carried out on the relationship between transport and physical activity. Car ownership continues to increase. The public health sector needs to be a stronger activist in the transport policy decision-making process to incorporate health issues into the transport agenda in Latin America. PMID:23568296

Becerra, Janeth Mosquera; Reis, Rodrigo S; Frank, Lawrence D; Ramirez-Marrero, Farah A; Welle, Benjamin; Arriaga Cordero, Eugenio; Mendez Paz, Fabian; Crespo, Carlos; Dujon, Veronica; Jacoby, Enrique; Dill, Jennifer; Weigand, Lynn; Padin, Carlos M

2013-04-01

172

PREFACE: 21st Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XXI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES) started in Caracas-Venezuela, and over time the symposia have taken place in 9 different Latin American countries. The last five events took place in Mérida-Venezuela (2002), Havana-Cuba (2004), Puebla-Mexico (2006), Puerto Iguazú-Argentina (2008) and Maragogi-Brazil (2011). During the last years, in the different SLAFES editions, the aim has been to bring together researches from Latina America and invite renowned scientists from around the world to a unique forum to discuss the latest developments regarding Solid state Physics. The 21st Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XXI) was held in Villa de Leyva-Colombia, from September 30 to October 04, 2013. The 21st SLAFES version featured the participation of experts in various areas of Solid State Physics from countries such as Belgium, Germany, United States, Spain, Ireland, Chile, Argentina and Brazil, had 270 submitted works and was attended by 140 researchers. The development of this event was made possible by financial support from the Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Universidad del Norte-CO, Universidad de Magdalena-CO, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco-BR and the Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exatas, Naturales y Física. Editors Professor J Albino Aguiar Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: albino@df.ufpe.br Professor Jairo Roa-Rojas Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales Departamento de Física Universidad Nacional de Colombia A.A. 5997 Bogotá DC, Colombia e-mail: jroar@unal.edu.co Professor Carlos Arturo Parra Vargas Grupo Física de Materiales Escuela de Física Universidad Padagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia Tunja Colombia e-mail: carlos.parra@uptc.edu.co Professor David A Land\\'i nez Téllez Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales Departamento de Física Universidad Nacional de Colombia A.A. 5997 Bogotá DC Colombia e-mail: dalandinezt@unal.edu.co Professor Laura T Corredor Bohórquez Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: ltcorredorb@df.ufpe.br Professor Arkady Shanenko Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: arkadyshanenko@df.ufpe.br Professor Renato F Jardim Instituto de Física Universidade de S\\~ao Paulo CP 66318 S\\~ao Paulo SP Brazil e-mail: rjardim@if.usp.br Professor Francois Peeters Department Fysica Universiteit Antwerpen Groneneborgerlann 171 B-2020, Antwerpen Belgium e-mail: francois.peeters@uantwerpen.be Organizing committee ChairmanCarlos Arturo Parra Vargas Proceedings EditorJosé Albino Aguiar Program ChairJairo Roa-Rojas SecretaryAura Janeth Barón González TreasurerArmando Sarmiento Santos Speaker ChairRafael González Hernández Fernando Naranjo Mayorga David A Landínez Téllez Jesús Oswaldo Morán José Sierra Ortega

Aguiar, J. Albino

2014-04-01

173

Capital flows to Latin American countries: effects of foreign direct investment and remittances on growth and development  

E-print Network

The significant restructuring of international capital flows to developing countries – in particular to Latin American countries – observed in the last quarter century has generated significant research in the area to examine its potential impact...

Vacaflores Rivero, Diego Eduardo

2009-05-15

174

21F.084J / 21A.224J / 17.55 Introduction to Latin American Studies, Spring 2002  

E-print Network

This HASS-D/CI course is designed as an introduction to Latin American politics and society for undergraduates at MIT. No background on the region is required. Overall workload (reading, writing, class participation, and ...

Lawson, Chappell H., 1967-

175

The prevalence of radiographic vertebral fractures in Latin American countries: the Latin American Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (LAVOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In the first population-based study of vertebral fractures in Latin America, we found a 11.18 (95% CI 9.23–13.4) prevalence\\u000a of radiographically ascertained vertebral fractures in a random sample of 1,922 women from cities within five different countries.\\u000a These figures are similar to findings from studies in Beijing, China, some regions of Europe, and slightly lower than those\\u000a found in the

P. Clark; F. Cons-Molina; M. Deleze; S. Ragi; L. Haddock; J. R. Zanchetta; J. J. Jaller; L. Palermo; J. O. Talavera; D. O. Messina; J. Morales-Torres; J. Salmeron; A. Navarrete; E. Suarez; C. M. Pérez; S. R. Cummings

2009-01-01

176

A study of the composition, yield, texture, and sensory characteristics of Mexican and Latin American white cheese varieties  

E-print Network

A STUDY OF THE COMPOSITION, YIELD, TEXTURE, AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF MEXICAN AND LATIN AMERICAN NHITE CHEESE VARIETIES A Thesis PATRICIA LOGAN MOORE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University. in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1984 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology A STUDY OF THE COMPOSITION, YIELD, TEXTURE, AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF MEXICAN AND LATIN AMERICAN HHITE CHEESE VARIETIES A Thesis by PATRICIA...

Moore, Patricia Logan

1984-01-01

177

Ayurveda in Argentina and other Latin American countries  

PubMed Central

Over the past 20 years the Fundacion Salud de Ayurved Prema Argentina has spread the knowledge of Ayurveda throughout Latin America. The Fundacion is based in Buenos Aires in the Argentine Republic, where it now runs courses in two of the country’s major medical schools - at the School of Medicine of the University of Buenos Aires, and the National University of Cordoba’s School of Medicine. Based on an MoU with Gujarat Ayurveda University, at Jamnagar, Gujarat, the Fundacion has been accredited as a Collaborating Center for teaching, assistance and research in the field of Ayurvedic Medicine in Argentina. This has led to successful missions to other countries in the region where the Fundacion and its associates have been able to start dialogues with governments, and in places hold sizeable courses. The knowledge of Ayurveda is now spreading throughout South and Central America and hardly a country remains untouched by it. PMID:21547054

Berra, Jorge Luis; Molho, Rosana

2010-01-01

178

Gender Differences in Psychological Distress Among Latin American Immigrants to the Canary Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared gender differences in rates and correlates of psychological distress among Latin American immigrants to the Canary\\u000a Islands, Spain. Immigrant men (n?=?150) and women (n?=?150) completed questionnaires about demographic and migration characteristics, immigration demands, and psychological distress.\\u000a Women reported more distress and immigration demands related to loss and occupation than men. For women, not being employed\\u000a full time and

Karen J. Aroian; Anne E. Norris; María Asunción González de Chávez Fernández; Lourdes M. García Averasturi

2008-01-01

179

Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 22, Number 1: Recent Publications, Materials Received and Current Bibliography  

E-print Network

LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Catania, Alfredo y Samuel Rovinski. "El teatro contemporáneo en Costa Rica." Cuadernos de investigación teatral (CELCIT) 24 (sep-oct 1987). 20 p. CELCIT Informa (Argentina) 17. Edición especial que documenta las... Francisco Garzón Céspedes. Cupido Juglar, el niño más travieso. La Habana: Ediciones Gente Nueva, 1987. 89 p. (Cuento para niños.) Potenze, Jaime. Lunes a la mañana, ms. 44p. El Público (Madrid) 49 (oct 1987). Incluye: Roger Mirza, "Canadá: Festival de...

1988-10-01

180

Bergen South: The Americanization of the Meteorology Profession in Latin America during World War II  

E-print Network

From Beaufort to Bjerknes and beyond Critical perspectives on observing, analyzing, and predicting weather and climate Algorismus, Heft 52, Miinchen 2005, S. 197-213. Bergen South: The Americanization of the Meteorology Profession in Latin... Ameriea during World War II Gregory T. Cushman University o f Kansas, Department of History, gcushman@ku.edu 1 Introduction World War n represented a watershed for the meteorological profession, both in terms of its geographical expansion...

Cushman, Gregory T.

2005-01-01

181

Effects of socioeconomic status on the obesity knowledge of adolescents from six Latin American cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on the obesity knowledge of adolescents in six Latin American cities.DESIGN: Data were collected using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire consisting of demographic questions and a 25-item multiple-choice obesity knowledge test. Test items were clustered under five topics: the fat and calorie content of foods and beverages; weight loss methods; energy expenditure;

L McArthur; M Peña; D Holbert

2001-01-01

182

Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 13, Number 1: Recent Publications, Materials Received and Current Bibliography  

E-print Network

de Educación y Extensión Cultural, 1976. . Teatro infantil: Juan el salvador; Locutandia. Barquisimeto: Instituto Universitario Pedagógico Experimental, 1979. Cabrujas, José Ignacio. El día que me quieras. Caracas: Fundarte y Ediciones Amón, 1979... (enero-mar 1979), 50-66. Sosnowski, Saúl. "Contemporary Jewish-Argentine Writers: Tradition and Poli tics," Latin American Literary Review, VI, No. 12 (Spring-Summer 1978), 1-14. Includes Germán Rozenmacher's Requiem for a Friday Evening. Steinberg...

1979-10-01

183

Adult education as a human right: The Latin American context and the ecopedagogic perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the concept and practice of adult education as a key issue for Brazil and other Latin American countries,\\u000a both for formal and non-formal education in the public and private sectors. It includes citizen education focused on democratisation\\u000a of society and sustainable development. The concept is pluralist and ideological as well as technical. All along the history\\u000a of

Moacir Gadotti

2011-01-01

184

Global child survival initiatives and their relevance to the Latin American and Caribbean Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Inthis commentary, we review two widely-publicized series ,of articles that appeared,in The Lancet in 2003 (the Child Survival Series) and ,2005 (the Neonatal Survival Series). We also,re- view,existing information ,on child mortality levels and trends in the Latin American,and Caribbean Region. Be- cause there may ,be major ,differences between,the latter Region and ,other parts of the developing world, it

Cesar G. Victora; Fernando C. Barros

2005-01-01

185

A Bibliography of Latin American Plays in English Translation.  

E-print Network

THEATRE REVIEW . The House of the Setting Sun (Los soles truncos). Trans, by W. K. Jones in Poet Lore, 59 (1965), 99-131. . The Ox-Cart (IM carreta). Trans, by Charles Pilditch. New York: Scribner's, 1969. URUGUAY Herrera, Ernesto. The Blind Lion (El...., 1971, pp. 119-179. . Stories to be Told (Historias para ser contadas). Trans, by Staff of the Center for Inter-American Relations. MS at the Pan American Society of New England. . The Story of the Man Who Turned into a Dog (El hombre que se...

Christensen, George K.

1973-04-01

186

Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.  

PubMed

Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. PMID:25458716

de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Filho, Alberto Pellegrini; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

2014-10-15

187

[From passive to active: policies for Latin American emigrants].  

PubMed

The conventional view of emigration holds that it represents a loss of resources from a country and that the only possible policy response is to discourage new emigration while promoting return of those who have left. A new policy is needed based on a fuller understanding of the potential benefits of emigration for the country of origin. The cost of emigration is usually counted as the loss of educational investment, the loss of labor force, and the loss of the contributions to development that would have been made by talented emigrants. But such views usually do not include a serious treatment of the economic problems of labor supply and demand in general or of skilled labor in particular. Underemployment or unemployment of highly educated persons and overproduction of educated persons are problems throughout Latin America and much of the developing world. A truer evaluation of the costs of education which considered decreasing marginal costs rather than average costs per student, nominally variable costs that actually behave as fixed costs, and an adequate assignment of costs for students leaving school before graduating would lead to much lower estimates of average cost per university student in Latin America. Significant emigration may actually result indirectly in an increase in national income by reducing pressure on the labor market and allowing wages to rise for remaining workers. Remittances for emigrants and repatriation of savings may contribute significantly to national income and balance of payments, and may compensate for or even exceed the economic losses of emigration. National policy for emigrants should aim at maximizing the economic benefits of emigration by providing incentives for the accumulation of capital obtained abroad and its transfer to the country of origin. The 1st major goal of emigration policy should be to maintain affective and social ties between the emigrant and the country of origin as a necessary condition for channeling benefits to the country. Such factors as inclusive citizenship policies for spouses and children born abroad, provisions for absentee voting, communication and information programs, and recognition of education and professional title conferred abroad would help motivate a continuing interest in the country of origin. The 2nd policy goal should be to create concrete channels for different types of emigrant activities that would benefit the country of origin. This operational side of emigration policy would provide channels for the return to the country of capital and goods accumulated by the emigrant and would provide for cooperation in scientific endeavors, business and investment, and for social and humanitarian projects. PMID:12282249

Maletta, H

1988-12-01

188

Gram-Negative Infections in Adult Intensive Care Units of Latin America and the Caribbean  

PubMed Central

This review summarizes recent epidemiology of Gram-negative infections in selected countries from Latin American and Caribbean adult intensive care units (ICUs). A systematic search of the biomedical literature (PubMed) was performed to identify articles published over the last decade. Where appropriate, data also were collected from the reference list of published articles, health departments of specific countries, and registries. Independent cohort data from all countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela) signified a high rate of ICU infections (prevalence: Argentina, 24%; Brazil, 57%). Gram-negative pathogens, predominantly Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli, accounted for >50% of ICU infections, which were often complicated by the presence of multidrug-resistant strains and clonal outbreaks. Empirical use of antimicrobial agents was identified as a strong risk factor for resistance development and excessive mortality. Infection control strategies utilizing hygiene measures and antimicrobial stewardship programs reduced the rate of device-associated infections. To mitigate the poor health outcomes associated with infections by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, urgent focus must be placed on infection control strategies and local surveillance programs. PMID:25525515

Luna, Carlos M.; Rodriguez-Noriega, Eduardo; Bavestrello, Luis; Guzmán-Blanco, Manuel

2014-01-01

189

Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 11, Number 2: Front Matter  

E-print Network

. DOUDOROFF JON S. VINCENT Editorial Assistant JACQUELINE EYRING BIXLER JOSÉ JUAN ARROM PEDRO BRAVO-ELIZONDO SANDRA M. CYPESS FRANK N. DAUSTER Editorial Board MERLIN H. FORSTER TÁMARA HOLZAPFEL ALYCE DE KUEHNE FREDRIC M. LITTO GERARDO LUZURIAGA.... While we are on the subject, it was Texas A&I University in Kingsville, Texas that was invited to perform Dragún's play, Historias para ser contadas, in Spanish and in English to open the American College Theatre Festival at the Kennedy Center...

1977-04-01

190

Cuban-Americans in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A statistical profile of Cuban Americans was provided by the 1980 Census and by a comprehensive telephone survey. Major findings include the following: (1) In most Cuban American households, Spanish is the language most spoken, but 85 percent of the Cuban American surveyed felt that residents of the United States should use English in their public…

Goonen, Norma, Comp.

191

Genealogical information and the structure of rural Latin-American populations: reality and fantasy.  

PubMed

Genetic data organized in the form of genealogies can provide much information regarding the history and genetic structure of human populations. A large proportion of the population of Latin America is organized in small rural semi-isolated communities, with little immigration, and until the last 50-100 years, little emigration. These communities have a strong sense of their genealogical history, and this "genealogical conscience' is a frequent leitmotif in modern Latin-American literature. In this communication, we compare the characteristics of fictitious genealogies described in two masterpieces of Latin-American literature, García Márquez' Cien Años de Soledad (A Hundred Years of Solitude), and Verissimo's O Tempo e o Vento (Time and the Wind), with one existing well-studied population in Argentina, Aicuña. All three populations exhibit a number of common characteristics, such as histories of long periods of civil war, and large pedigrees with complex paths of inheritance resulting in complex patterns of inbreeding. Genetic themes common to all three are: (1) the use of genealogical records to substantiate the property of the land or the political power of a kinship; (2) the genealogical registry of biological descendants, independent of their legal or marital status in the clan; (3) the existence of pedigrees of the aristocratic branches in the same kindreds, which illustrate the legal principle of primogeniture; (4) the value of last names as indicators of kinships and the extent of genetic isolation, and (5) the awareness of the deleterious consequences of consanguinity. PMID:8854140

Castilla, E E; Adams, J

1996-01-01

192

United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in Santiago, Chile, The United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America was founded in 1948 to promote economic and social development throughout Latin America and to collect, study, and disseminate economic research in the region. ECLAC's Website offers a wealth of information about the commission and its work and research. The main page features the newest publications, activities, and news. Users should be aware, however, that many of the publications are available only in Spanish. The library provides three searchable databases consisting of ECLAC documentation, external publications of ECLAC authors, and ECLAC Projects publications.

193

Columbia University Libraries Call Number Ranges for Latin American Studies  

E-print Network

1601-1629 West Indies F1630-1640 Bermudas F1650-1660 Bahamas F1741-1991 Greater Antilles F1751 allegiance F2131-2133 British West Indies F2136 Virgin Islands of the United States F2141 Netherlands West Indies. Dutch West Indies F2151 French West Indies F2155-2191 Caribbean area. Caribbean Sea F2201

Salzman, Daniel

194

High Energy Physics: Proceedings of the Fifth Latin American Symposium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface -- Series editorial board and other committees -- Local organizing committee -- Foreword by the editors -- Gallery -- Homages. In Memoriam Luis Masperi. Round table: collaborations in physics in Latin America -- Lectures. An introduction to strings and some of its phenomenological aspects / G. Aldazabal. Neutrino phenomenology / E. Roulet. An introduction to cosmology / D. J. H. Chung. Innovative experimental particle physics through technological advances-past, present and future / H. W. K. Cheung -- Seminars. Grand unification and physics beyond the standard model / E. Ma. QCD evolution in dense medium / M. B. Gay Ducati. Future experiments-GRID and LHC / A. Santoro. BTeV: using heavy quark decays to test the standard model / M. Sheaff. Recent results from CDF and DO experiments / C. Avila. Matter under extreme conditions the ALICE experiment / G. Herrera Corral and ALICE-Mexico. Recent results from PHOBOS at RHIC / E. Garcia -- Contributions. SO(10) as the minimal supersymmetric GUT / A. Melfo. A supersymmetric three-family model without Higgsinos / W. A. Ponce and L. A. Sánchez. Area-preserving diffeomorphisms groups, the Majorana representation of spins, and SU(N) / J. D. Swain. On the magnetized Kerr-Newman black hole electrodynamics / E. P. Esteban. Supernova neutrinos and the absolute scale of neutrino masses-a Bayesian approach / E. Nardi. Loop quantum gravity and ultra high energy cosmic rays / J. Alfaro and G. A. Palma. QQ¯ bound states in an extended QCD2 model / P. Labraña, J. Alfaro and A. A. Andrianov. Observational constraints on Lorentz symmetry deformation / J. Alfaro and M. Cambiaso. Variable-mass dark matter and the age of the universe / U. Franca and R. Rosenfeld. Dynamical study of spinodal decomposition in heavy ion collisions / A. Barra?n and J. A. López. Predictions for single spin asymmetries in inclusive reactions involving photons / V. Gupta, C. J. Solano Salinas and H. S. Mani. Bosonization and the generalized Mandelstam-Halpern operators / H. Blas. Is there really an entangled state for far away twin photons? / H. G. Valqui. Use of neural networks to classify cosmic-ray showers according to their Muon/EM ratio / H. Salazar and L. Villaseñor. [symbol] polarization in pp-->p[symbol]K+[symbol] at 27.5 GeV / J. Félix ... [et al.]. Definition of the polarization vector / V. M. Castillo-Vallejo and J. Félix. The MINOS experiment / M. Sanchez. Study of scintillating counters and their application to VO detector of ALICE / J. E. Ruiz and Tabasco. Data selection of [symbol] muon semileptonic decay in KTeV / R. A. Gomes. Chaotic properties of high energy cosmic rays / A. Ticona ... [et al.]. Energy spectrum of surviving protons / R. Calle ... [et al.]. Calculus of the ratio [symbol] in the K meson decay through the 331 model / J. C. Montero ... [et al.]. Use of a scintillator detector for luminosity measurements / G. Contreras, C. J. Solano Salinas and A. M. Gago. Simplified forms of a linear and exact set of equations for the gravitational field in the very early universe / E. Salinas -- Posters. Determination of the b-Mass using Renormalon Cancellation / C. Contreras. CP violation in B-->?K* decays: amplitudes, factorization and new physics / D. Gómez Dumm and A. Szynkman. Degeneracies in the measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters: problem and solution in neutrino factories / J. Jones and A. M. Gago. Revision of the neutrino oscillation probability in the supernovae / L. Aliaga and A. M. Gago. Consequences on the neutrino mixing matrix from two zero textures in the neutrino mass matrix / L. Stucchi, A. M. Gago and V. Gupta. Expected flux of high energy neutrinos from observed active galactic nuclei / J. L. Bazo and A. M. Gago. Masperi's Quasispin model of the scalar field [symbol] theory with soliton solutions / M. Agüero, G. Frias and F. Ongay. Nonstandard CP violation in B-->[symbol] decays / A. Szynkman. Spinor realization of the Skyrme Model / R. Ochoa Jimenez and Yu. P. Rybakov.

Solano Salinas, C. J.; Pereyra Ravinez, O.; Ochoa Jiménez, R.; Masperi, Luis

2006-04-01

195

[Challenges to Latin-American health systems: what can be learned from the European experience?].  

PubMed

This article compares the challenges of health systems in Latin America and the experience in Europe. The framework is the analysis of four functions: a) to generate resources; b) to produce activities; c) to finance, and d) to exercise stewardship. It is at this level where actors can influence health system responsiveness. Five challenges are identified in Latin America: a) to extend (prepayment and solidarity) financial protection; b) to stabilise that protection for crisis times; c) to equilibrate resources in accordance to capacity for financing services; d) to increase efficiency (technical and of placement) to produce services, and e) to improve the stewardship function in public and private sectors (the most important and difficult challenge Latin-American systems have nowadays). The experience of reform in Europe is analysed, showing: a) experiences about financial protection in Beveridge and Bismarck systems; b) stability in crisis times, recently confirm (West) and with important obstacles (East); c) efforts to equilibrate hospital beds and health care professionals, combining regulation and incentives; d) increase of efficiency in services production, with more express prioritisation, empowering patients, decentralising management and with market incentives, and e) improvement of stewardship with better (not less, sometimes even more) regulation. Three areas of European experience stand out: a) to combine solidarity with financial sustainability; b) to introduce market incentives in a measured way, but maintaining a clear stewardship role for the state, and c) to adopt innovations in organising and producing services. In spite of methodological difficulties, convergence of challenges and adopted solutions justify this analysis, but learning must be seen in each national context. A future article will analyse lessons offered by reform in Latin-American systems for European reforms. PMID:11841751

Figueras, J; Musgrove, P; Carrin, G; Durán, A

2002-01-01

196

[Equal rights for women and the United Nations convention in Latin America].  

PubMed

Although Latin American institutions have, directly or indirectly, established the juridical equality of the sexes, institutional power continues to be concentrated in the hands of men. It is necessary that Latin American governments seek ways to eliminate the legal, cultural, economic, political and social discrimination that persists against women in these patriarchal societies if men and women are to enjoy equality of rights. Today, instruments such as the Convention of Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women approved by the UN in 1979 and ratified by all Latin American countries, have succeeded in establishing the concept of improvement of the status of women as a legislative right supported by international juridical principles. International recognition of human rights has meant that all restrictions against women in the public and private realms are to be regarded as discrimination. Previously, family law was based on traditional customs which accepted that the roles and obligations of men and women were different. Although most Latin American countries now have laws recognizing the equality of rights and obligations of men and women, women continue to be in a secondary position. Poverty, scarcity of resources, and the economic crisis not only impede improvement in the status of women but have led to increases in female unemployment. Another obstacle is the lack of a true political will to improve the status of women. The UN convention on elimination of discrimination obliges each ratifying nation to strive not just for equality or rights but for equality of enjoyment of these rights. Each government should adopt measures to overcome discrimination. Among measures adopted by governments to achieve equality have been incorporation of the principle of equality into the national constitution and creation of offices or ministries for women that are distinct from those for the family or youth. The Committee for Elimination of Discrimination Against Women established by the convention and composed of 23 expert members has had great difficulty in carrying out its mission due largely to the lack of acceptance of the goals of the convention. It will not be easy to modify a culture, acquire economic resources, and create political will. But almost all Latin American and Caribbean countries have used government programs to improve the status of women as smokescreens to hide their inaction. New strategies will be required that combine legal negotiation, political pressure, popular organization, and use of the mass media. PMID:12284754

Plata, M I

1991-12-01

197

Latin America Regional Security Studies Department of National Security Affairs  

E-print Network

Latin America Regional Security Studies Department of National Security Affairs Naval Postgraduate/Political Economy/History Specialization: Latin American Politics/Latin American History/Latin American Political

198

The impact of Converso Jews on the genomes of modern Latin Americans.  

PubMed

Modern day Latin America resulted from the encounter of Europeans with the indigenous peoples of the Americas in 1492, followed by waves of migration from Europe and Africa. As a result, the genomic structure of present day Latin Americans was determined both by the genetic structure of the founding populations and the numbers of migrants from these different populations. Here, we analyzed DNA collected from two well-established communities in Colorado (33 unrelated individuals) and Ecuador (20 unrelated individuals) with a measurable prevalence of the BRCA1 c.185delAG and the GHR c.E180 mutations, respectively, using Affymetrix Genome-wide Human SNP 6.0 arrays to identify their ancestry. These mutations are thought to have been brought to these communities by Sephardic Jewish progenitors. Principal component analysis and clustering methods were employed to determine the genome-wide patterns of continental ancestry within both populations using single nucleotide polymorphisms, complemented by determination of Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. When examining the presumed European component of these two communities, we demonstrate enrichment for Sephardic Jewish ancestry not only for these mutations, but also for other segments as well. Although comparison of both groups to a reference Hispanic/Latino population of Mexicans demonstrated proximity and similarity to other modern day communities derived from a European and Native American two-way admixture, identity-by-descent and Y-chromosome mapping demonstrated signatures of Sephardim in both communities. These findings are consistent with historical accounts of Jewish migration from the realms that comprise modern Spain and Portugal during the Age of Discovery. More importantly, they provide a rationale for the occurrence of mutations typically associated with the Jewish Diaspora in Latin American communities. PMID:21789512

Velez, C; Palamara, P F; Guevara-Aguirre, J; Hao, L; Karafet, T; Guevara-Aguirre, M; Pearlman, A; Oddoux, C; Hammer, M; Burns, E; Pe'er, I; Atzmon, G; Ostrer, H

2012-02-01

199

Latin American immigrants have limited access to health insurance in Japan: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Japan provides universal health insurance to all legal residents. Prior research has suggested that immigrants to Japan disproportionately lack health insurance coverage, but no prior study has used rigorous methodology to examine this issue among Latin American immigrants in Japan. The aim of our study, therefore, was to assess the pattern of health insurance coverage and predictors of uninsurance among documented Latin American immigrants in Japan. Methods We used a cross sectional, mixed method approach using a probability proportional to estimated size sampling procedure. Of 1052 eligible Latin American residents mapped through extensive fieldwork in selected clusters, 400 immigrant residents living in Nagahama City, Japan were randomly selected for our study. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire developed from qualitative interviews. Results Our response rate was 70.5% (n = 282). Respondents were mainly from Brazil (69.9%), under 40 years of age (64.5%) and had lived in Japan for 9.45 years (SE 0.44; median, 8.00). We found a high prevalence of uninsurance (19.8%) among our sample compared with the estimated national average of 1.3% in the general population. Among the insured full time workers (n = 209), 55.5% were not covered by the Employee's Health Insurance. Many immigrants cited financial trade-offs as the main reasons for uninsurance. Lacking of knowledge that health insurance is mandatory in Japan, not having a chronic disease, and having one or no children were strong predictors of uninsurance. Conclusions Lack of health insurance for immigrants in Japan is a serious concern for this population as well as for the Japanese health care system. Appropriate measures should be taken to facilitate access to health insurance for this vulnerable population. PMID:22443284

2012-01-01

200

The glans penes and bacula in Latin American taxa of the Peromyscus boylii group  

E-print Network

of Committee) John W. Bickham (Member) Ira ee baum (M be Fred S. Hendr icks (Member) Davi J Schmidly (Head f Department May 1986 ABSTRACT The Glans Penes and Bacula in Latin American Taxa of th ~9~bi'' 8 p. (11 y 1986) Robert Dean Bradley, B. S... assistance on this manuscript. I am indebted to T. W. Houseal, S. A. Smith, K. M. Davis, J. Ensink, M. W. Allard, D. Werbitsky, P. D. Rennert, C. W. Kilpatrick, I. F. Greenbaum, and D. W. Hale for their aid in obtaining specimens. I am also indebted to Dr...

Bradley, Robert Dean

1986-01-01

201

Teaching Afro-Latin American Culture through Film: "Raices de mi corazon" and Cuba's "Guerrita de los Negros"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies have shown an absence of Afro-Latin American culture at all levels of Spanish instruction. In this essay, I propose the use of film to expand the undergraduate curriculum. Film provides both a visual and cultural narrative for the understanding of Latin American history, culture, and literature, and is an invaluable resource for teaching…

Watson, Sonja

2013-01-01

202

UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA. The Department of Sociology and the Latin American and Caribbean Studies Institute (LACSI) invite applications for a tenure-track assistant  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA. The Department of Sociology and the Latin American and Caribbean Studies. Candidates must have a Ph.D. in Sociology or have completed all the requirements for this degree by August 10 to teach courses not only in sociology but also in Latin American and Caribbean studies. Preference

Arnold, Jonathan

203

El Que No Tiene Dingo, Tiene Mandingo: The Inadequacy of the "Mestizo" as a Theoretical Construct in the Field of Latin American Studies--The Problem and Solution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the "mestizo" paradigm as a theoretical construct used in Latin American studies denies the historical and cultural contributions of Africans to Latin American society and that it is fundamentally inaccurate and racist. Discusses ways of correcting these misconceptions. (GR)

Rosa, Andrew Juan

1996-01-01

204

Abroad with Translators: Annotated Bibliographies with Introductory Essays on Latin American Literature and Society for the English Language Reader and Student; Bibliographical Essay on Puerto Rico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides an introduction to selected works of Latin American literature that are available in English. Following an introduction that presents an overview of Latin American literature, a brief section lists and annotates relevant works of description, analysis, and criticism. The major section of the publication provides annotated…

Seidel, Robert N.; MacCameron, Robert

205

Buruli Ulcer in United Kingdom Tourist Returning from Latin America  

PubMed Central

We report a case of Buruli ulcer in a tourist from the United Kingdom. The disease was almost certainly acquired in Brazil, where only 1 case had previously been reported. The delay in diagnosis highlights the need for physicians to be aware of the disease and its epidemiology. PMID:19891876

Stragier, Pieter; Portaels, Françoise; Gascoyne-Binzi, Deborah; Collyns, Timothy; Lucas, Sebastian; Mawer, Damian

2009-01-01

206

A Risk Assessment Tool (OsteoRisk) for Identifying Latin American Women with Osteoporosis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To develop a simple and easy-to-use tool for identifying osteoporotic women (femoral neck bone mineral density [BMD] T-scores??2.5) in Latin America. DESIGN Retrospective study involving review of medical records. SETTING Osteoporosis clinics in 6 Latin American countries. PATIENTS Postmenopausal women ages ?50 in Latin America who had femoral neck BMD measurements. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS A risk index was developed from 1,547 patients based on least square regression using age, weight, history of fractures, and other variables as predictors for BMD T-score. The final model was simplified by reducing the number of predictors; sensitivity and specificity were evaluated before and after reducing the number of predictors to assess performance of the index. The final model included age, weight, country, estrogen use, and history of fractures as significant predictors for T-score. The resulting scoring index achieved 91% sensitivity and 47% specificity. Simplifying the index by using only age and weight yielded similar performance (sensitivity, 92%; specificity, 45%). Three risk categories were identified based on OsteoRisk, the index using only age and body weight: high-risk patients (index <=?2; 65.6% were osteoporotic), moderate-risk patients (?2< index <=1; 26.7% were osteoporotic), and low-risk patients (index>1; 8% were osteoporotic). Similar results were seen in a validation sample of 279 women in Brazil. CONCLUSION Age and weight alone performed well for predicting the risk of osteoporosis among postmenopausal women. The OsteoRisk is an easy-to-use tool that effectively targets the vast majority of osteoporotic patients in Latin America for evaluation with BMD. PMID:15836528

Sen, Shuvayu S; Rives, Vincent P; Messina, Osvaldo D; Morales-Torres, Jorge; Riera, Gregorio; Angulo-Solimano, Juan M; Neto, João FM; Frisoli, Alberto; Sáenz, Ricardo C; Geling, Olga; Ross, Philip D

2005-01-01

207

Latin American special project: kidney health cooperation project between Uruguay and Bolivia.  

PubMed

Uruguay and Bolivia are two countries that show heterogenicity of the Latin American region, including the national income, the expenditure on health and the services for renal care. In Bolivia, there is manpower shortage for renal care with only 5 nephrologists per million people (pmp) and the prevalence of patients on dialysis is only 200 pmp. This is much lower than the mean prevalence rate of renal replacement therapy for Latin America as a whole. Uruguay on the other hand has more dedicated renal resources with 50 nephrologists pmp, and renal replacement therapy is provided to ~ 1,000 dialysis patients pmp. In November 2012, a collaborative project financed by the Uruguayan International Cooperation Agency was signed by both the Uruguay and Bolivia Ministries of Health, and the goal was to develop a comprehensive program for the prevention and management of all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Bolivia. The specific objectives were to: a) promote renal healthcare in the primary healthcare setting, b) identify kidney disease in populations at risk, and c) optimize patient care at all stages of CKD, including dialysis and transplantation supported with a national ESRD registry in Bolivia. As a first step, delegates from the Bolivian Health Ministry, visited Uruguay in April 2014, primarily to strengthen the development of tools required for developing and maintaining a national registry. In addition, during this visit, a meeting with the president of the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH) culminated in designing a training program for peritoneal dialysis. This highly cooperative relationship is advancing the prevention and care of CKD in Bolivia and may serve as a model for international approaches to advance system level CKD care in countries with limited healthcare resources. PMID:25725237

Sola, Laura; Plata-Cornejo, Raúl; Fernández-Cean, Juan

2015-01-01

208

The First Two Years of the Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education (relea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present and discuss in this work the motivations, goals and strategies adopted for its creation and launch of the e-journal LATIN-AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ASTRONOMY EDUCATION (RELEA). The RELEA "first light" was in August, 2004 with the appearance of No. 1 and it is now completing two years of existence. The creation of the new journal was prompted by: a) the noteworthy absence of a specific publication in the field in Latin-America; b) the lack of classroom material in Spanish/Portuguese that could be directly used without too many adaptations; and c) the need of a regional forum to discuss and suggest public policies concerning the teaching of Sciences in general and Astronomy in particular. We identify and present the difficulties encountered for the achievement of the proposed objectives and operational issues in this period, together with the adopted solutions (refereeing procedure, periodicity, etc.). Finally, we attempt to evaluate the long-run impact of such initiatives on the scientific education as a tool for effective citizenship decision making, so critical for Third-World countries. References Bretones, P.S., Jafelice, L.C. & Horvath, J.E. , 2004, Editorial of the RELEA No.1, available at (http://www.iscafaculdades.com.br/relea/). Bretones, P.S., Jafelice, L.C. & Horvath, J.E. , 2005, Editorial of the RELEA No.2, available at (http://www.iscafaculdades.com.br/relea/). Bretones, P.S., Jafelice, L.C. & Horvath, J.E., A Revista Latino-Americana de Educação em Astronomia: objetivos e estratégias. In: Encontro Brasileiro de Ensino de Astronomia, 8, 2004, São Paulo. Proceedings. (In press). [The Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education: Objectives and Strategies. In: 8th Brazilian Meeting on Astronomy Teaching.

Bretones, P. S.; Jafelice, L. C.; Horvath, J. E.

2006-08-01

209

Human pegivirus molecular epidemiology in Argentina: potential contribution of Latin American migration to genotype 3 circulation.  

PubMed

In order to determine the human pegivirus (HPgV) genotypic diversity in Argentina taking into account the potential contribution of human migration from neighboring countries, samples from 130 Argentine injecting drug users, 116 Argentine- and 50 immigrant-pregnant women were analyzed. HPgV RNA prevalence among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive injecting drug users was similar to HIV-positive pregnant women, as was the case when comparing HIV-negative injecting drug users and HIV-negative pregnant women (P?>?0.05). HPgV genotype 2 (HPgV/2) was prevalent among both Argentine injecting drug users and pregnant women, in contrast to HPgV/3 observed among pregnant women from Latin American countries with predominant indigenous populations and who had experienced their initial sexual intercourses--and possibly their source of infection--in those countries (P?Latin American countries with predominant indigenous populations might contribute to HPgV/3 circulation in Argentina. PMID:24615742

Trinks, Julieta; Maestri, Miriam; Oliveto, Fabián; Del Pino, Noemí; Weissenbacher, Mercedes; Torres, Oscar Walter; Oubiña, José Raúl

2014-12-01

210

Challenges and Solutions for Latin American-Trained International Medical Graduates in Psychiatry Residency  

PubMed Central

Objective Latin American-trained IMGs in psychiatry face multiple challenges that go beyond their medical training. These challenges call for innovative problem-solving. Although the professional development of IMGs has been discussed in the professional literature, little is written about their experiences. In this case study report, a group of IMGs reflect on their experiences and describe how they solved challenges. Method Using cogenerative ethnography, four IMGs trained in Colombia, Dominican Republic and Mexico provided insights on their challenges and solutions while adapting to psychiatric residency training. Individual interviews, focused discussion, focus groups, and written reports were analyzed using data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing techniques. Results We illustrate the challenges of IMG training in psychiatry using their reflections and stories. We categorized these challenges into three domains: immigration and acculturation; social adjustment; and medical training. Quotes were selected to illustrate IMGs’ challenges and coping strategies. Conclusion Some of the combined cultural, social and academic challenges of Latin American-trained IMGs in psychiatry are described. Recognizing and planning for the personal challenges of IMGs in psychiatry can enhance the transition into psychiatric training. Ultimately, improvements in IMG training converts into improved healthcare for all patients. PMID:25673899

Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Hauser, David; Carvajal, Carlos; Mejia, Carlina; Nieves, Delia

2014-01-01

211

Does natural resource abundance increase Latin American income inequality? 1 This paper explores in detail one of the main themes of our larger and ongoing inquiry into the factors affecting Latin American income inequality. The dataset used throughout this paper is available at http:\\/\\/www.personal.anderson.ucla.edu\\/?peter.schott\\/. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why is income inequality higher in Latin America than in East Asia? Is this phenomenon related to the region's natural resource abundance? Is it a contributor to Latin America's slow and narrowly focused human capital accumulation? If so, can anything be done to reverse the Latin American trends, or should we think of the region's fate as unalterable? To help

Edward E. Leamer; Hugo Maul; Sergio Rodriguez; Peter K. Schott

1999-01-01

212

Social security reform in Central and Eastern Europe: variations on a Latin American theme.  

PubMed

After Chile reformed its social security system in 1981, several other Latin American countries and certain Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either a single- or multitier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems retain some form of public program and add mandatory individual accounts. Most of the CEE countries did not want to incur the high transition costs associated with the Chilean model. The switch to a market economy had already strained their economies. Also, the countries' desire to adopt the European Union's Euro as their currency--a move that required a specific debt ceiling--limited the amount of additional debt they could incur. This article describes the CEE reforms and makes some comparisons with the Latin American experience. Most of the CEE countries have chosen a mixed system and have restructured the pay-as-you-go (PAYGO) tier, while the Latin American countries have both single- and multi-tier systems. Some CEE countries have set up notional defined contribution (NDC) schemes for the PAYGO tier in which each insured person has a hypothetical account made up of all contributions during his or her working life. Survivors and disability programs in CEE have remained in the public tier, but in most of the Latin American programs the insured must purchase a separate insurance policy. Issues common to both regions include: Administrative costs are high and competition is keen, which has led to consolidation and mergers among the companies and a large market share controlled by a few companies. Benefits are proportionately lower for women than for men. A large, informal sector is not covered by social security. This sector is apparently much larger in Latin America than in the CEE countries. Issues that are unique to some of the CEE countries include: Individual accounts in Hungary and Poland have proved more attractive than originally anticipated. As a result, contributions to the public PAYGO system in Hungary and Poland fell short of expectations. In several countries, laws setting up the programs were enacted without all the details of providing benefits. For example, in some countries laws must now be drawn up for establishment of annuities because they do not yet exist. Setting up a coherent pension policy has been difficult in some countries because of frequent and significant changes in government. This situation has affected the progress of reform in various stages of development. In general, a definitive assessment of individual accounts in these countries will not be possible until a cohort of retirees has spent most of its career under the new system. PMID:12822190

Kritzer, B E

213

Report from the First Latin American Urological Oncology Symposium (SLAURO) 19–21 June 2014, Viña del Mar, Chile  

PubMed Central

Cancer is one of the most important diseases in Chile, with alarming incidence and mortality rates that are among the highest in Latin America. Economic growth in South America has led to demographic change, with an aging population typical of developed countries, but also a growing population with cancer. The incidence and mortality of urological cancers in Chile is significant, and has led to the formulation of health laws and policies promoting the early treatment of urological cancers. It is also well known that there are regions of Chile with extremely high incidence and mortality of bladder cancer caused by arsenic exposure. SLAURO (Simposio Latinoamericano de Urología Oncológica [Latin American Oncological Urology Symposium]) is a new Latin American forum for discussing and promoting knowledge of urological cancers across the region. PMID:25525468

Caglevic, Christian; Pinto, Ivàn; Altamirano, Jaime; Vilches, Roberto; Martìn, Eu Marìa Eliana San; Gallardo, Jorge

2014-01-01

214

A Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Patterns of Learning and Academic Performance of Spanish and Latin-American Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to analyse and compare the learning patterns of higher education students from Spain and three Latin-American countries (Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela). For this purpose Vermunt's Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS) was translated into Spanish and tested. The participants were 456 undergraduates enrolled in a teacher…

Martínez-Fernández, J. Reinaldo; Vermunt, Jan D.

2015-01-01

215

Educating Bárbaros: educational policies on the Latin American frontiers between colonies and independent republics (Araucania, Southern Chile\\/Sonora, Mexico)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares the methods and means employed by the state to enforce the education of (semi?)autonomous indigenous groups in southern Chile and northwestern Mexico (Sonora), border regions in the Latin American periphery, covering the transition from colonial times to the consolidation of independent republics until the middle of the nineteenth century. Parting from a theoretical interest in education as

Lasse Hölck; Mónika Contreras Saiz

2010-01-01

216

Educating "Barbaros": Educational Policies on the Latin American Frontiers between Colonies and Independent Republics (Araucania, Southern Chile/Sonora, Mexico)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares the methods and means employed by the state to enforce the education of (semi-)autonomous indigenous groups in southern Chile and northwestern Mexico (Sonora), border regions in the Latin American periphery, covering the transition from colonial times to the consolidation of independent republics until the middle of the…

Holck, Lasse; Saiz, Monika Contreras

2010-01-01

217

The impact of privatization on the performance of the infrastructure sector : the case of electricity distribution in Latin American countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors analyze the impact of privatization on the performance of 116 electric utilities in 10 Latin American countries. The analysis makes a number of contributions to the literature on changes in infrastructure ownership. First, this is the first systemic analysis of the impact of privatization on the distribution of the electricity sector. Second, it constructs an unbalanced panel data

Luis Andres; Vivien Foster; Jose Luis Guasch

2006-01-01

218

International Minor in Engineering: Latin American/Caribbean Studies Language: maximum of 12 semester hours # of sem hours  

E-print Network

American Cultures 4 (NW, S) 359 Adv Topics in Latina-o US (same as LLS 359) 3 475 The Archaeology of Mexico 3 476 Mayan and Aztec Archaeology 3 ARTH 442 Arts of Colonial Latin America (same as LAST 442) 3-Brazilian Culture (Brazil residency only) 3 406 Brazilian Film (Brazil residency only) 3 410 Studies in Brazilian

Lee, Tonghun

219

Planning, Re-Bordering and Setting Times: A Comparative Analysis of European and Latin American "Education Spaces"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article compares educational regionalisation in Europe and Latin America. This analysis unveils the influence of three social phenomena in the two case studies, namely power, fields of activity and knowledge. Mostly, it focuses on the initiatives led by the European Union and the Organisation of Ibero-American States in order to implement…

Rambla, Xavier

2013-01-01

220

Pitt's Center for Latin American Studies to Cosponsor Sixth Annual "The Americas--In Concert" Oct. 5  

E-print Network

Pitt's Center for Latin American Studies to Cosponsor Sixth Annual "The Americas--In Concert" Oct "The Americas--In Concert" event, Oct. 5. Together, they will present an evening of "Rediscovery composers. The free public concert will take place at 7:30 p.m. Oct. 5 in the Richard E. Rauh Theater

Sibille, Etienne

221

Change in Ethnic Identity across the High School Years among Adolescents with Latin American, Asian, and European Backgrounds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes in adolescents' ethnic identity (e.g., exploration, belonging) were examined over the 4 years of high school. Results from 541 adolescents (51% female) with Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds suggest that, as a group, adolescents do not report developmental changes in their ethnic exploration and belonging over time. Yet,…

Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R.; Baldelomar, Oscar A.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

2010-01-01

222

The Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. Bulletin 10-11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Major Project in the Field of Education stresses renewed and intensive efforts by Latin American and Caribbean Island countries to provide the resources and training necessary to meet basic education needs by the year 2000. This document examines project achievements, innovations, and problems through 1986 in the areas of rural education,…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

223

Women's Theologies, Women's Pedagogies: Liberating Praxes of Latin American Women Educators in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the women…

Jones, Lauren Ila

2009-01-01

224

Indigenous People and Development in Latin America: A Literature Survey and Recommendations. Latin American Monograph & Document Series 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents findings and conclusions gleaned from a review of 42 cases of indigenous development in Latin America. Findings indicate that the lack of a legal framework for indigenous rights presents a basic obstacle to indigenous self-development; the most common aspect of successful indigenous development was involvement of indigenous…

Roper, J. Montgomery; Frechione, John; DeWalt, Billie R.

225

Dyslipidemia in a Cohort of HIV-infected Latin American Children Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy*  

PubMed Central

In order to describe the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in a cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents in Latin America and to determine associations with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we performed this cross-sectional analysis within the NICHD International Site Development Initiative pediatric cohort study. Eligible children had to be at least 2 years of age and be on HAART. Among the 477 eligible HIV-infected youth, 98 (20.5%) had hypercholesterolemia and 140 (29.4%) had hypertriglyceridemia. In multivariable analyses, children receiving protease inhibitor (PI)-containing HAART were at increased risk for hypercholesterolemia [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)?=?2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3–5.6] and hypertriglyceridemia (AOR?=?3.5, 95% CI 1.9–6.4) compared with children receiving non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-containing HAART. In conclusion, HIV-infected youth receiving PI-containing HAART in this Latin American cohort were at increased risk for hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia compared with those receiving NNRTI-containing HAART. PMID:20889625

Brewinski, Margaret; Megazzini, Karen; Freimanis Hance, Laura; Cruz, Miguel Cashat; Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Della Negra, Marinella; Ferreira, Flavia Gomes Faleiro; Marques, Heloisa

2011-01-01

226

The First Two Years of the Latin-American Journal of Astronomy Education (RELEA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present and discuss in this work the motivations, goals and strategies adopted for its creation and launch of the e-journal LATIN-AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ASTRONOMY EDUCATION (RELEA). The RELEA "first light" was in August, 2004 with the appearance of No. 1 and it is now completing two years of existence. The creation of the new journal was prompted by: a) the noteworthy absence of a specific publication in the field in Latin-America; b) the lack of classroom material in spanish/portuguese that could be directly used without too many adaptations; and c) the need of a regional forum to discuss and suggest public policies concerning the teaching of Sciences in general and Astronomy in particular. We identify and present the difficulties encountered for the achievement of the proposed objectives and operational issues in this period, together with the adopted solutions (refereeing procedure, periodicity, etc.). Finally, we attempt to evaluate the long-run impact of such initiatives on the scientific education as a tool for effective citizenship decision making, so critical for Third-World countries.

Bretones, P. S.; Jafelice, L. C.; Horvath, J. E.

2006-08-01

227

Screening of Latin American plants for antiparasitic activities against malaria, Chagas disease, and leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

In order to explore rationally the medical potential of the plant biodiversity of the Central and South American region as a source of novel antiparasitic molecules, a multinational Organization of American States (OAS) project, which included the participation of multidisciplinary research centers from Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Panama, was carried out during the period 2001-2004. This project aimed at screening organic plant extracts for antitrypanosomal, antileishmanial and antimalarial activities and subsequently isolating and characterizing bioactive molecules. Plants for antiparasitic screening were selected from a database of ethnomedical uses of Latin American plants (PlanMedia) based on the amount of biological and chemical information available in the literature. We report here the evaluation of 452 extracts from 311 plant species in vitro screens against Plasmodium falciparum, Leishmania mexicana, and Trypanosoma cruzi. Out of 311 species tested, 17 plants (5.4%) showed antiparasitic activities at IC(50) values < or = 10 microg/mL. The most active plants were Acnistus arborescens (L.) Schltdl. (Solanaceae) (leaf, EtOH, IC(50): 4 microg/mL) Monochaetum myrtoideum Naudin (Melastomataceae) (leaf, MeOH, IC(50): 5 microg/mL) and Bourreria huanita (Lex.) Hemsl. (Boraginaceae) (branch, EtOH, IC(50): 6 microg/mL). These were selectively active against P. falciparum, L. mexicana and T. cruzi, respectively. PMID:20645798

Calderón, Angela I; Romero, Luz I; Ortega-Barría, Eduardo; Solís, Pablo N; Zacchino, Susana; Gimenez, Alberto; Pinzón, Roberto; Cáceres, Armando; Tamayo, Giselle; Guerra, Carlos; Espinosa, Alex; Correa, Mireya; Gupta, Mahabir P

2010-05-01

228

Energy profiles of selected Latin American and Caribbean countries. Report series No. 2  

SciTech Connect

Countries in this report include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. These ten countries are the most important oil and gas producers in the Latin American and the Caribbean region. In the following sections, the primary energy supply (oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power whenever they are applicable), primary energy consumption, downstream oil sector development, gas utilization are discussed for each of the ten countries. The report also presents our latest forecasts of petroleum product consumption in each country toward 2000, which form the basis of the outlook for regional energy production and consumption outlined in Report No 1. Since the bulk of primary energy supply and demand is hydrocarbons for many countries, brief descriptions of the important hydrocarbons policy issues are provided at the end of the each country sections.

Wu, K.

1994-07-01

229

[Gaucher disease in Latin America. A report from the Gaucher Disease International Registry and the Latin American Group for Gaucher Disease].  

PubMed

Gaucher disease -due to its low frequency- is considered an orphan disease. In 1991 the International Gaucher Registry was created and in 1992 the first patients from Latin America were enrolled. In 2008 the Latin American Group for Gaucher Disease was initiated. Its main objectives are to promote regional consensus, to stimulate the enrollment of patients into the International Gaucher Registry and the enhancement of knowledge on this disease, and to achieve better care and quality of life of patients in our Region. Until April 2010, 5828 patients have been enrolled all around the world, 911 (15.6%) from Latin America. This is the first comprehensive report of the disease in the Region. In our population there is a predominance of females, the most common clinical form is the type I (95%) and the age at diagnosis is before 20 years in 68% of patients. The most frequent clinical manifestations at diagnosis are splenomegaly (96%) and anemia (49%). Eighty percent of patients had radiographic findings of bone involvement. In our Region, the vast majority of patients (89%) had received enzyme replacement therapy with imiglucerase; with a long follow-up (up to 10 years) they have achieved the therapeutic goals, showing the great effectiveness of therapy. While the percentage of patients with therapy is high, discontinuations are common. The main deficiencies in our Region are: the lack of visceral volumetric evaluations and densitometries as well as molecular analysis for some patients. The main problem is the under-diagnosis of patients. PMID:22892077

Drelichman, Guillermo; Linares, Adriana; Villalobos, Jacobo; Cabello, Juan Francisco; Kerstenetzky, Marcelo; Kohan, Regina M; Martins, Ana María

2012-01-01

230

Screening of imported infectious diseases among asymptomatic sub-saharan african and latin american immigrants: a public health challenge.  

PubMed

Migrants from developing countries are usually young and healthy but several studies report they may harbor asymptomatic infections for prolonged periods. Prevalence of infections were determined for asymptomatic immigrants from Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa who ettended to a European Tropical Medicine Referral Center from 2000 to 2009. A systematic screening protocol for selected infections was used. Data from 317 sub-Saharan Africans and 383 Latin Americans were analyzed. Patients were mostly young (mean age 29 years); there were significantly more males among sub-Saharan Africans (83% versus 31.6%) and pre-consultation period was longer for Latin Americans (5 versus 42 months). Diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), chronic hepatitis B and C virus infection, and latent tuberculosis were significantly more frequent in sub-Saharan Africans (2.3% versus 0.3%; 14% versus 1.6%; 1.3 versus 0%; 71% versus 32.1%). There were no significant differences in prevalence for syphilis and intestinal parasites. Malaria and schistosomiasis prevalence in sub-Saharan Africans was 4.6% and 5.9%, respectively, and prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin Americans was 48.5%. Identifying and treating asymptomatic imported infectious diseases may have an impact both for the individual concerned and for public health. Based on these results, a systematic screening protocol for asymptomatic immigrants is proposed. PMID:25646257

Monge-Maillo, Begoña; López-Vélez, Rogelio; Norman, Francesca F; Ferrere-González, Federico; Martínez-Pérez, Ángela; Pérez-Molina, José Antonio

2015-04-01

231

PREFACE: XIX Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XIX)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume contains selected papers which have been presented at the XIX Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XIX) held at Puerto Iguazú, Argentina, from 5--10 October 2008. The conference, covering all areas of Solid State Physics, is one of the most important and traditional meetings in Physics in our region. The Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics is a forum where researchers and students from Latin America as well as leading scientists from other parts of the world get together to exchange information, strengthen collaborations and identify new challenges in Solid State Physics. This successful series of meetings has been organised in eight different countries, the last three held in Mérida, Venezuela (2002), La Habana, Cuba (2004) and Puebla, México (2006). Following the trends of previous events, SLAFES XIX included seven plenary talks, eighteen invited talks and contributions, and 28 oral and 255 poster presentations, covering mostly the latest experimental and theoretical advances in Nanophysics, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Spintronics, Magnetism, New Materials, Superconductivity, Surfaces and Interfaces, Low-Dimensional Systems, Materials Preparation and Characterization, Theory and Computing Simulations of Materials among other topics. The group of scientists participating had come from Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Brazil, France, Spain, Switzerland and the USA We are indebted to all participants for their enthusiasm and contributions and to the members of the International Advisory Commitees. We also wish to thank to the rest of the Organizing Committee: Gustavo Lozano, Ana María Llois, Laura Steren and Edith Goldberg and very specially to Javier Schmidt, Gustavo Ruano, Marcelo Romero, Lucila Cristina and Juan Carlos Moreno for their invaluable assistance during the event. Finally we gratefully aknowledge the financial support the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina, Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (ANPCyT), Argentina, Secretaría de Estado de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación, Provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina, Centro Latinoamericano de Física (CLAF), Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina, Institute of Physics (IOP) Publishing, The European Physical Journal (EPJ), EDP Science, Societa Italiana di Fisica and Springer. Adriana Serquis, Carlos Balseiro and Pablo Bolcatto

Serquis, Adriana; Balseiro, Carlos; Bolcatto, Pablo

2009-07-01

232

Renal replacement therapy in Latin American end-stage renal disease  

PubMed Central

The Latin American Dialysis and Renal Transplant Registry (RLADTR) was founded in 1991; it collects data from 20 countries which are members of Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nefrología e Hipertension. This paper presents the results corresponding to the year 2010. This study is an annual survey requesting data on incident and prevalent patients undergoing renal replacement treatment (RRT) in all modalities: hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) and living with a functioning graft (LFG), etc. Prevalence and incidence were compared with previous years. The type of renal replacement therapy was analyzed, with special emphasis on PD and transplant (Tx). These variables were correlated with the gross national income (GNI) and the life expectancy at birth. Twenty countries participed in the surveys, covering 99% of the Latin American. The prevalence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) under RRT in Latin America (LA) increased from 119 patients per million population (pmp) in 1991 to 660 pmp in 2010 (HD 413 pmp, PD 135 pmp and LFG 111 pmp). HD proportionally increased more than PD, and Tx HD continues to be the treatment of choice in the region (75%). The kidney Tx rate increased from 3.7 pmp in 1987 to 6.9 pmp in 1991 and to 19.1 in 2010. The total number of Tx's in 2010 was 10 397, with 58% deceased donors. The total RRT prevalence correlated positively with GNI (r2 0.86; P < 0.05) and life expectancy at birth (r2 0.58; P < 0.05). The HD prevalence and the kidney Tx rate correlated significantly with the same indexes, whereas the PD rate showed no correlation with these variables. A tendency to rate stabilization/little growth was reported in the most regional countries. As in previous reports, the global incidence rate correlated significantly only with GNI (r2 0.63; P < 0.05). Diabetes remained the leading cause of ESRD. The most frequent causes of death were cardiovascular (45%) and infections (22%). Neoplasms accounted for 10% of the causes of death. The prevalence of RRT continues to increase, particularly in countries with 100% public health or insurance coverage for RRT, where it approaches rates comparable to those displayed by developed countries with a better GNI. The incidence also continues to increase in both countries that have not yet extended its coverage to 100% of the population as well as in those that have an adequate program for timely detection and treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its associated risk factors. PD is still an underutilized strategy for RRT in the region. Even though renal Tx is feasible, its growth rate is still not as fast as it should be in order to compensate for the increased prevalence of patients on waiting lists. Diagnostic and prevention programs for hypertension and diabetes, appropriate policies promoting the expansion of PD and organ procurement as well as transplantation as cost-effective forms of RRT are needed in the region. Regional cooperation among Latin American countries, allowing the more developed to guide and train others in starting registries and CKD programs, may be one of the key initiatives to address this deficit. PMID:25349696

Rosa-Diez, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Bedat, Maria; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Marinovich, Sergio; Fernandez, Sdenka; Lugon, Jocemir; Poblete-Badal, Hugo; Elgueta-Miranda, Susana; Gomez, Rafael; Cerdas-Calderon, Manuel; Almaguer-Lopez, Miguel; Freire, Nelly; Leiva-Merino, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Gaspar; Luna-Guerra, Jorge; Bochicchio, Tomasso; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Cano, Nuria; Iron, Norman; Cuero, Cesar; Cuevas, Dario; Tapia, Carlos; Cangiano, Jose; Rodriguez, Sandra; Gonzalez, Haydee; Duro-Garcia, Valter

2014-01-01

233

Renal replacement therapy in Latin American end-stage renal disease.  

PubMed

The Latin American Dialysis and Renal Transplant Registry (RLADTR) was founded in 1991; it collects data from 20 countries which are members of Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nefrología e Hipertension. This paper presents the results corresponding to the year 2010. This study is an annual survey requesting data on incident and prevalent patients undergoing renal replacement treatment (RRT) in all modalities: hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) and living with a functioning graft (LFG), etc. Prevalence and incidence were compared with previous years. The type of renal replacement therapy was analyzed, with special emphasis on PD and transplant (Tx). These variables were correlated with the gross national income (GNI) and the life expectancy at birth. Twenty countries participed in the surveys, covering 99% of the Latin American. The prevalence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) under RRT in Latin America (LA) increased from 119 patients per million population (pmp) in 1991 to 660 pmp in 2010 (HD 413 pmp, PD 135 pmp and LFG 111 pmp). HD proportionally increased more than PD, and Tx HD continues to be the treatment of choice in the region (75%). The kidney Tx rate increased from 3.7 pmp in 1987 to 6.9 pmp in 1991 and to 19.1 in 2010. The total number of Tx's in 2010 was 10 397, with 58% deceased donors. The total RRT prevalence correlated positively with GNI (r (2) 0.86; P < 0.05) and life expectancy at birth (r (2) 0.58; P < 0.05). The HD prevalence and the kidney Tx rate correlated significantly with the same indexes, whereas the PD rate showed no correlation with these variables. A tendency to rate stabilization/little growth was reported in the most regional countries. As in previous reports, the global incidence rate correlated significantly only with GNI (r (2) 0.63; P < 0.05). Diabetes remained the leading cause of ESRD. The most frequent causes of death were cardiovascular (45%) and infections (22%). Neoplasms accounted for 10% of the causes of death. The prevalence of RRT continues to increase, particularly in countries with 100% public health or insurance coverage for RRT, where it approaches rates comparable to those displayed by developed countries with a better GNI. The incidence also continues to increase in both countries that have not yet extended its coverage to 100% of the population as well as in those that have an adequate program for timely detection and treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its associated risk factors. PD is still an underutilized strategy for RRT in the region. Even though renal Tx is feasible, its growth rate is still not as fast as it should be in order to compensate for the increased prevalence of patients on waiting lists. Diagnostic and prevention programs for hypertension and diabetes, appropriate policies promoting the expansion of PD and organ procurement as well as transplantation as cost-effective forms of RRT are needed in the region. Regional cooperation among Latin American countries, allowing the more developed to guide and train others in starting registries and CKD programs, may be one of the key initiatives to address this deficit. PMID:25349696

Rosa-Diez, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Bedat, Maria; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Marinovich, Sergio; Fernandez, Sdenka; Lugon, Jocemir; Poblete-Badal, Hugo; Elgueta-Miranda, Susana; Gomez, Rafael; Cerdas-Calderon, Manuel; Almaguer-Lopez, Miguel; Freire, Nelly; Leiva-Merino, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Gaspar; Luna-Guerra, Jorge; Bochicchio, Tomasso; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Cano, Nuria; Iron, Norman; Cuero, Cesar; Cuevas, Dario; Tapia, Carlos; Cangiano, Jose; Rodriguez, Sandra; Gonzalez, Haydee; Duro-Garcia, Valter

2014-08-01

234

Latin American Marketing Project. Grade 10 Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this lesson, students work as marketing teams hired by a U.S. fast food company to study the feasibility of selling fast food in Latin America. Teams are composed of cultural, production, marketing, and advertising experts. Each marketing team will investigate a product and a Latin American country. Teams will present their research and…

Antilla, Madeline; DeMonet, J.

235

Review of regulation of biological and biotechnological products in Latin American and Caribbean countries.  

PubMed

The regulation of the biological and biotechnological products constitutes a significant challenge, since they are part of a sector of the pharmaceutical industry that is currently experiencing rapid growth. Unlike conventional medicines, the manufacture of these products involves the use of living organisms and processes that impede manufacturing consistency. Even though there are numerous international reference documents related to biotechnological product regulation, there is no consensus by official entities that are considered reference institutions, with regard to the most important definitions used and the mechanisms for product regulation. The Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO), through the Technology, Health Care and Research Area, has developed a series of activities that are described in this document. The objective of this publication is to present the current picture of biotechnological and biological product regulation in the Latin American and Caribbean Region, in order to offer guidance that will facilitate the regulation of these products in a harmonized manner among the countries of the Member States, as well as responding to the request from some regulatory agencies to address the growing demand for licensing applications of these products. PMID:19664935

Pombo, María L; Di Fabio, José L; Cortés, María de Los A

2009-10-01

236

PREFACE: XII Latin American workshop on plasma physics (17-21 September 2007, Caracas, Venezuela)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some years ago a group of Latin American physicists took the initiative to consult about the viability of organizing a meeting on plasma physics for researchers and students of the region. The result was that it was not only a good idea, but a necessity in order to show and share everyone's work, and to keep updated on latest advances and technologies on plasma physics. It was decided that for new researchers as well as students of Physics, it would prove to be the best way to keep them posted on such matters. This was the birth of a series of meetings known as Latin American workshops on plasma physics that take place every two years in a different Latin American country. In Venezuela we have had the opportunity to organize two editions of this interesting and important reunion of physicists. The first of these Latin American workshops on plasma physics was held in Cambuquira (Brazil) in 1982. After organizing the first six editions of the workshop, the VII LAWPP meeting was realized in Caracas in January 1997. It was designed with a structure similar to the first edition. It developed in two stages, a first week devoted to short courses with lecturers in different fields of plasma physics and a second week for contributed and invited presentations. Participants from sixteen different countries were present, half of them from this continent and the other half from overseas, demonstrating the international character of this meeting. There have been four more editions of the workshop and once again, we have had the opportunity to organize this latest edition of the series: the XII Latin American workshop on plasma physics, which took place in Caracas, Venezuela from the 17th to the 21st of September 2007. The structure was modified, because contributed and review papers were together during the first stage, with short courses realized during the second one, called mini-courses, and given by several high level contributors such as José Boedo, Leopoldo Soto, Claude Deutsch, Ricardo Galvao, Carlos Hidalgo, Paulo Sakanaka, Konosuke Sato, Malcom Haines and Maher Boulos. The general feeling is that these mini-courses were very successful. As an original idea of Professor Ricardo Magnus Osorio Galvão, Director of Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, we saluted the creation of The Vladimir Tsypin Award to the best Poster in the meeting. This prize was presented by Professor Galvão in memoriam of Vladimir Semenovich Tsypin. It was suggested that the granting of this award be made in every meeting from now on. We think that it is very important to emphasise the mini-courses due to the necessity of increasing in the near future a better formation for our young scientists. The contributions of all the lecturers are greatly appreciated. We had the typical fields in plasma physics as in past meetings. We also appreciated very much the lectures of Professor Malcolm Haines, Professor Sergey Popel, Professor Claude Deutsch, and Professor Antony Peratt for their very interesting talks on the Z-Pinch recorded to prehistory. Special thanks again to these lecturers since they have joined and honoured our meetings in the past as well. As in the VII LAWPP, all the sessions of the workshop were held at the Universidad Simon Bolivar campus, located in the nice green Valley of Sartenejas near Caracas. We also appreciate the stimulus and the financial support that we have always had for the preparation of these workshops from our institution by means of its authorities: Professor Benjamin Sharifker (Rector), Professor Aura Lopez (Dean of Academic Activities), (Professor Jose Luis Paz (Dean of Research and Development), Professor Pedro Berrisbeitia (Dean of Postgraduate Studies) and Professor William Colmenares (Dean of Extended Activities). We must also mention and appreciate the collaboration of architect Alejandro Chataing Roncajolo as Secretary and Coordinator of the Congress, as well as the daily important collaborations of our students Anais Möller, Laura Beiras, Juan Contreras, Gabriel Torrente, Aimée Guerrero, Francisco Jose Blanco

Puerta, Julio

2008-10-01

237

Human rights and mental health among Latin American women in situations of state-sponsored violence. Bibliographic resources.  

PubMed

The Task Force of the American Psychological Association Division 35, Psychology of Women, conducted a literature review of resources from Latin America to examine the social dimensions of state-sponsored violence in Latin America, their effects on socialization and community, and some responses of women surviving these experiences. It limited its review to works of women's groups, progressive organizations, and individual women exploring the effects of war and state-sponsored violence on women's mental health. Recurring emergent themes included the false dichotomy of violence committed against women in public versus that committed in private, silencing of women accompanies state imposed terror, collective resistance to such terror. The resources addressed 3 types of women's experiences of violence: exile within and beyond one's national borders; torture--an extreme form of state-sponsored violence; and nontraditional, culturally appropriate interventions--alternatives to Western models. This review motivated the Task Force to call on their colleagues to contribute to the on-going documentation of state-sponsored violence. Task Force members identified several areas for collaborative research and/or theory development. Psychologists should question the validity of clinical neutrality and examine the particular meanings of non-neutrality within different cultures. For example, some Latin American psychologists reject diagnoses of intrapsychic syndromes (e.g., post-traumatic stress syndrome) and propose concepts that center on the nexus of individuals and social life. The Task Force sees great opportunities for US psychologists to network and to form solidarity-based relationships with Latin American women. It has identified many women's groups working in Latin America. Human rights organizations (e.g., Americas Watch) have formed women's projects. Further work should be done to improve resource exchanges. PMID:12288466

Lykes, M B; Brabeck, M M; Ferns, T; Radan, A

1993-12-01

238

Regional overview of Latin American and Caribbean energy production, consumption, and future growth. Report series No. 1  

SciTech Connect

The Latin American and Caribbean region - comprising Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean - is relatively well endowed with energy resources, although the distribution of these resources is uneven across countries. The region produces more energy than it consumes, and the surplus energy, which amounts to 3.6 million barrels of oil equivalent per day (boe/d), is mostly oil. While the region`s total oil (crude and products) exports decreased from 4.4 million barrels per day (b/d) in 1981 to 3.8 million b/d in 1992, its net oil exports increased from about 1.6 million b/d in 1981 to 2.8 million b/d in 1992. In 1993, the surplus oil in Latin America and the Caribbean remained at 2.8 million b/d. This report analyzes the key issues of the Latin American and Caribbean energy industry and presents the future outlook for oil, gas, coal, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power developments in the region. In addition, the status of biomass energy, geothermal, and other noncommercial energy in the region will be briefly discussed in the context of overall energy development. The rest of the report is organized as follows: Section II assesses the current situation of Latin American and Caribbean energy production and consumption, covering primary energy supply, primary energy consumption, downstream petroleum sector development, and natural gas utilization. Section III presents the results of our study of future energy growth in Latin America. Important hydrocarbons policy issues in the region are discussed in Section IV, and a summary and concluding remarks are provided in Section V.

Wu, K.

1994-07-01

239

Latin American women's experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted.  

PubMed

Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA) refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used.Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades.This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women's experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal.Women's personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1) a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2) complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support.Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it might not be effective, and the fact that some women eventually need to seek medical care at a hospital where they might be sanctioned for having an abortion and even reported to the police. PMID:23259660

Zamberlin, Nina; Romero, Mariana; Ramos, Silvina

2012-01-01

240

Latin American women’s experiences with medical abortion in settings where abortion is legally restricted  

PubMed Central

Abortion is legally restricted in most of Latin America where 95% of the 4.4 million abortions performed annually are unsafe. Medical abortion (MA) refers to the use of a drug or a combination of drugs to terminate pregnancy. Mifepristone followed by misoprostol is the most effective and recommended regime. In settings where mifepristone is not available, misoprostol alone is used. Medical abortion has radically changed abortion practices worldwide, and particularly in legally restricted contexts. In Latin America women have been using misoprostol for self-induced home abortions for over two decades. This article summarizes the findings of a literature review on women’s experiences with medical abortion in Latin American countries where voluntary abortion is illegal. Women’s personal experiences with medical abortion are diverse and vary according to context, age, reproductive history, social and educational level, knowledge about medical abortion, and the physical, emotional, and social circumstances linked to the pregnancy. But most importantly, experiences are determined by whether or not women have the chance to access: 1) a medically supervised abortion in a clandestine clinic or 2) complete and accurate information on medical abortion. Other key factors are access to economic resources and emotional support. Women value the safety and effectiveness of MA as well as the privacy that it allows and the possibility of having their partner, a friend or a person of their choice nearby during the process. Women perceive MA as less painful, easier, safer, more practical, less expensive, more natural and less traumatic than other abortion methods. The fact that it is self-induced and that it avoids surgery are also pointed out as advantages. Main disadvantages identified by women are that MA is painful and takes time to complete. Other negatively evaluated aspects have to do with side effects, prolonged bleeding, the possibility that it might not be effective, and the fact that some women eventually need to seek medical care at a hospital where they might be sanctioned for having an abortion and even reported to the police. PMID:23259660

2012-01-01

241

Critical Histories of Archaeological Practice: Latin American and North American Interpretations in a Honduran Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

The editors of this volume cite Bruce Trigger’s “Alternative archaeologies” paper as the beginning point of a reconsideration\\u000a of contemporary Anglo-American calls for increased multivocality in archaeology, situating multivocality as (potentially)\\u000a yet another imperialist move on the part of a powerful global archaeological elite, and as (again, potentially) leading to\\u000a an inability on the part of archaeologists to argue against

Rosemary A. Joyce

242

15th International Congress on Plasma Physics & 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010), together agreed to carry out this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, on occasion of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. The ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of the official program within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial. The event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project ''Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4'', supported by National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya, in 1980, and followed by the Congresses: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006), and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss the recent progress and future views in plasma science, including fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, and plasma applications, and so forth. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by the Workshops: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005), and Caracas (2007). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is a communication forum of the achievements of the plasma-physics regional community, fostering collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The program of the ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included the topics: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics, Fusion Plasmas, Plasmas in Astrophysics and Space Physics, Plasma Applications and Technologies, Complex Plasmas, High Energy Density Plasmas, Quantum Plasmas, Laser-Plasma Interaction and among others. A total of 180 delegates from 34 different countries took part in the ICPP-LAWPP-2010. Sixty delegates received economical assistance from the local organized committee, thanks to the support of the International Union for Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) and the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN). The ICPP-LAWPP-2010 Program was elaborated by the following Program Committee: Carlos Alejaldre, ITER Maria Virginia Alves, Brazil Julio Herrera, Mexico Günter Mank, IAEA George Morales, USA Padma Kant Shukla, Germany Guido Van Oost, Belgium Leopoldo Soto, Chile (Chairman) This Program Committee was formed by selected members from the International Advisory Committee of the ICPP and by selected members from the International Advisory Committee of the LAWPP. In particular, Plenary Lectures and Invited Topical Lectures were selected by the Program Committee from a list of nominated presentations by the International Advisory Committees of both ICPP and LAWPP. Also, the classification of oral and poster presentations was elaborated by the Program Committee. The congress included: 15 invited plenary talks, 33 invited topical talks, 45 oral contributions, and 160 poster contributions. A major part of the plenary and topical lectures were published in a special issue of the Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, IOP Publishing (Plasma Phys. Control Fusion Volume 53, Number 7, July 2011: http://iopscience.iop.org/0741-3335/53/7). The papers were refereed according to the standards of the journal Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. An large number of the participants sent their contributions articles to this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series, IOP Publishing. The articles received were reviewed by the local organizing committee and by invited peers. The criteria for review focused on the demand for a consistent research and the c

Soto, Leopoldo

2014-05-01

243

Insulin Resistance and Glucose and Lipid Concentrations in a Cohort of Perinatally HIV-Infected Latin American Children  

PubMed Central

We measured glucose, insulin, and lipids in 249 perinatally HIV-infected Latin American children. Only one subject had impaired fasting glucose; 6.8% had insulin resistance. Abnormalities in total, LDL and HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were reported for 13%, 13%, 21%, and 34%, respectively. Continued follow up of this populationis necessary to characterize the evolution and clinical consequences of these findings. PMID:23360832

Hazra, Rohan; Hance, Laura Freimanis; Monteiro, Jacqueline Pontes; Ruz, Noris Pavia; Machado, Daisy Maria; Saavedra, Mariza; Motta, Fabrizio; Harris, D. Robert

2013-01-01

244

PREFACE: 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2011)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These proceedings present the written contributions from participants of the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP), which was held in Mar del Plata, Argentina, on 20-25 November 2011. This was the 14th session of the series of LAWPP biennial meetings, which started in 1982. The five-day scientific program of LAWPP 2011 consisted of 32 talks and various poster sessions, with the participation of 135 researchers from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Puerto Rico, USA, Venezuela, as well as others from Europe and Asia. In addition, a School on Plasma Physics and a Workshop on Industrial Applications of Plasma Technology (AITP) were organized together with the main meeting. The five-day School held in the week previous to the meeting was intended for young scientists starting their research in Plasma Physics. On the other hand, the objective of the AITP Workshop was to enhance regional academic and industrial cooperation in the field of plasma assisted surface technology. Topics addressed at LAWPP 2011 included space plasmas, dusty plasmas, nuclear fusion, non-thermal plasmas, basic plasma processes, plasma simulation and industrial plasma applications. This variety of subjects is reflected in these proceedings, which the editors hope will result in enjoyable and fruitful reading for those interested in Plasma Physics. It is a pleasure to thank the Institutions that sponsored the meeting, as well as all the participants and collaborators for making this meeting possible. The Editors Luis Bilbao, Fernando Minotti and Hector Kelly LAWPP participants Participants of the 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics, 20-25 November 2011, Mar del Plata, Argentina International Scientific Committee Carlos Alejaldre, Spain María Virginia Alves, Brazil Ibere Caldas, Brazil Luis Felipe Delgado-Aparicio, Peru Mayo Villagrán, Mexico Kohnosuke Sato, Japan Héctor Kelly, Argentina Edberto Leal-Quirós, Puerto Rico George Morales, USA Julio Puerta, Venezuela Leopoldo Soto, Chile Michael Tendler, Sweden Carlos Varandas, Portugal Henry Riascos, Colombia Ivan Vargas-Blanco, Costa Rica Local Organizing Committee Luis Bilbao (Chairman) Fernando Minotti (Vice-Chairman) Luis Bernal, UNMDP Alejandro Clausse, PLADEMA-CNEA Graciela Gnavi, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Fausto Gratton, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Diana Grondona, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Héctor Kelly, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Adriana Márquez, INFIP, CONICET-UBA María Milanese, UNCPBA César Moreno, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Sponsors Instituto de Física del Plasma (INFIP) Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA) Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (ANPCyT) Centro Latino-Americano de Física (CLAF) Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMP) Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (UNICEN) Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Buenos Aires (ANCBA) Conference poster

Bilbao, Luis; Minotti, Fernando; Kelly, Hector

2012-06-01

245

Articles by Latin American Authors in Prestigious Journals Have Fewer Citations  

PubMed Central

Background The journal Impact factor (IF) is generally accepted to be a good measurement of the relevance/quality of articles that a journal publishes. In spite of an, apparently, homogenous peer-review process for a given journal, we hypothesize that the country affiliation of authors from developing Latin American (LA) countries affects the IF of a journal detrimentally. Methodology/Principal Findings Seven prestigious international journals, one multidisciplinary journal and six serving specific branches of science, were examined in terms of their IF in the Web of Science. Two subsets of each journal were then selected to evaluate the influence of author's affiliation on the IF. They comprised contributions (i) with authorship from four Latin American (LA) countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico) and (ii) with authorship from five developed countries (England, France, Germany, Japan and USA). Both subsets were further subdivided into two groups: articles with authorship from one country only and collaborative articles with authorship from other countries. Articles from the five developed countries had IF close to the overall IF of the journals and the influence of collaboration on this value was minor. In the case of LA articles the effect of collaboration (virtually all with developed countries) was significant. The IFs for non-collaborative articles averaged 66% of the overall IF of the journals whereas the articles in collaboration raised the IFs to values close to the overall IF. Conclusion/Significance The study shows a significantly lower IF in the group of the subsets of non-collaborative LA articles and thus that country affiliation of authors from non-developed LA countries does affect the IF of a journal detrimentally. There are no data to indicate whether the lower IFs of LA articles were due to their inherent inferior quality/relevance or psycho-social trend towards under-citation of articles from these countries. However, further study is required since there are foreseeable consequences of this trend as it may stimulate strategies by editors to turn down articles that tend to be under-cited. PMID:19030227

Meneghini, Rogerio; Packer, Abel L.; Nassi-Calò, Lilian

2008-01-01

246

Characterization of bovine MHC DRB3 diversity in Latin American Creole cattle breeds.  

PubMed

In cattle, bovine leukocyte antigens (BoLAs) have been extensively used as markers for diseases and immunological traits. However, none of the highly adapted Latin American Creole breeds have been characterized for BoLA gene polymorphism by high resolution typing methods. In this work, we sequenced exon 2 of the BoLA class II DRB3 gene from 179 cattle (113 Bolivian Yacumeño cattle and 66 Colombian Hartón del Valle cattle breeds) using a polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) method. We identified 36 previously reported alleles and three novel alleles. Thirty-five (32 reported and three new) and 24 alleles (22 reported and two new) were detected in Yacumeño and Hartón del Valle breeds, respectively. Interestingly, Latin American Creole cattle showed a high degree of gene diversity despite their small population sizes, and 10 alleles including three new alleles were found only in these two Creole breeds. We next compared the degree of genetic variability at the population and sequence levels and the genetic distance in the two breeds with those previously reported in five other breeds: Holstein, Japanese Shorthorn, Japanese Black, Jersey, and Hanwoo. Both Creole breeds presented gene diversity higher than 0.90, a nucleotide diversity higher than 0.07, and mean number of pairwise differences higher than 19, indicating that Creole cattle had similar genetic diversity at BoLA-DRB3 to the other breeds. A neutrality test showed that the high degree of genetic variability may be maintained by balancing selection. The FST index and the exact G test showed significant differences across all cattle populations (FST=0.0478; p<0.001). Results from the principal components analysis and the phylogenetic tree showed that Yacumeño and Hartón del Valle breeds were closely related to each other. Collectively, our results suggest that the high level of genetic diversity could be explained by the multiple origins of the Creole germplasm (European, African and Indicus), and this diversity might be maintained by balancing selection. PMID:23333729

Giovambattista, Guillermo; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Ripoli, Maria Veronica; Matsumoto, Yuki; Franco, Luz Angela Alvarez; Saito, Hideki; Onuma, Misao; Aida, Yoko

2013-04-25

247

Admixture and genetic relationships of Mexican Mestizos regarding Latin American and Caribbean populations based on 13 CODIS-STRs.  

PubMed

Short tandem repeats (STRs) of the combined DNA index system (CODIS) are probably the most employed markers for human identification purposes. STR databases generated to interpret DNA profiles are also helpful for anthropological purposes. In this work, we report admixture, population structure, and genetic relationships of Mexican Mestizos with respect to Latin American and Caribbean populations based on 13 CODIS-STRs. In addition, new STR population data were included from Tijuana, Baja California (Northwest, Mexico), which represents an interesting case of elevated genetic flow as a bordering city with the USA. Inter-population analyses included CODIS-STR data from 11 Mexican Mestizo, 12 Latin American and four Caribbean populations, in addition to European, Amerindian, and African genetic pools as ancestral references. We report allele frequencies and statistical parameters of forensic interest (PD, PE, Het, PIC, typical PI), for 15 STRs in Tijuana, Baja California. This Mexican border city was peculiar by the increase of African ancestry, and by presenting three STRs in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium, probably explained by recurrent gene flow. The Amerindian ancestry in Central and Southeast of Mexico was the greatest in Latin America (50.9-68.6%), only comparable with the North of Central America and Ecuador (48.8-56.4%), whereas the European ancestry was prevalent in South America (66.7-75%). The African ancestry in Mexico was the smallest (2.2-6.3%) in Latin America (?2.6%), particularly regarding Brazil (21%), Honduras (62%), and the Caribbean (43.2-65.2%). CODIS-STRs allowed detecting significant population structure in Latin America based on greater presence of European, Amerindian, and African ancestries in Central/South America, Mexican Mestizos, and the Caribbean, respectively. PMID:25435058

Salazar-Flores, J; Zuñiga-Chiquette, F; Rubi-Castellanos, R; Álvarez-Miranda, J L; Zetina-Hérnandez, A; Martínez-Sevilla, V M; González-Andrade, F; Corach, D; Vullo, C; Álvarez, J C; Lorente, J A; Sánchez-Diz, P; Herrera, R J; Cerda-Flores, R M; Muñoz-Valle, J F; Rangel-Villalobos, H

2015-02-01

248

North American wood markets hit by United States housing crash North American wood markets hit by United States housing crash  

E-print Network

North American wood markets hit by United States housing crash North American wood markets hit by United States housing crash North American wood markets hit by United States housing crash 19 Columbia, Canada. Currently about 80% of pellet production from North America is exported to Europe. Recent

249

Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities.  

PubMed

This paper explores whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards. PMID:23434119

Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Qin, Hua; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy

2013-04-01

250

Do Latin American Scientific Journals Follow Dual-Use Review Policies?  

PubMed Central

During the past decade, a number of journals have implemented dual-use policies in order to analyze whether the papers submitted for publication could raise concern because of the potential for misuse of their content. In this context, an analysis was performed on Latin American scientific journals to examine whether they apply formal written dual-use review policies and whether they inform their authors and reviewers about potentially sensitive issues in this area, as other international journals do. Peer-reviewed life sciences journals indexed in Latindex from Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, and Chile were analyzed. The Guide for Authors and the Instructions to Referees of 216 journals included in the Latindex catalogue (which means that they meet the best quality standards of the Latindex system) were screened for biosecurity-related information using the keywords biosecurity, biological weapons, and dual-use research of concern. Results showed that the screened publications had a total lack of dual-use review policies, even though some of them pointed out ethical behaviors to be followed related to authorship, plagiarism, simultaneous submission, research results misappropriation, ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, guiding principles for the care and use of animals in research, research standard violations, and reviewer bias, among others. PMID:24693885

Valles, Edith Gladys

2014-01-01

251

Do Latin American scientific journals follow dual-use review policies?  

PubMed

During the past decade, a number of journals have implemented dual-use policies in order to analyze whether the papers submitted for publication could raise concern because of the potential for misuse of their content. In this context, an analysis was performed on Latin American scientific journals to examine whether they apply formal written dual-use review policies and whether they inform their authors and reviewers about potentially sensitive issues in this area, as other international journals do. Peer-reviewed life sciences journals indexed in Latindex from Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, and Chile were analyzed. The Guide for Authors and the Instructions to Referees of 216 journals included in the Latindex catalogue (which means that they meet the best quality standards of the Latindex system) were screened for biosecurity-related information using the keywords biosecurity, biological weapons, and dual-use research of concern. Results showed that the screened publications had a total lack of dual-use review policies, even though some of them pointed out ethical behaviors to be followed related to authorship, plagiarism, simultaneous submission, research results misappropriation, ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, guiding principles for the care and use of animals in research, research standard violations, and reviewer bias, among others. PMID:24693885

Valles, Edith Gladys; Bernacchi, Adriana Silvina

2014-01-01

252

Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

Romero-Lankao, P.; Borbor Cordova, M.; Qin, H.

2013-12-01

253

Public vaccine manufacturing capacity in the Latin American and Caribbean region: current status and perspectives.  

PubMed

The vaccine global market is currently growing at a rate of 16.52%. Nowadays the vaccine manufacturing industry is limited in the sense that not all vaccine manufacturers have the capacity to execute all the steps necessary to produce a successful product. The biological variation inherent to vaccine manufacturing and the initial investment required to bring a vaccine to the market are some of the factors that discourage vaccine manufacturing initiatives. Given the current global context in vaccine innovation and production, and the increasing participation of vaccine manufacturers from developing countries in global markets, this paper aims to review vaccine manufacturing capacity in Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries with specific focus on trends in national or public sector manufacturing, presenting current challenges and future opportunities for the sector in meeting national and regional (LAC) needs. Despite the overall low vaccine manufacturing capacity reported within the LAC region within this paper, it is considered that the relatively high and concentrated capacity that exists within a number of countries, combined with political commitment of all countries within the Region, can provide the necessary platform for the continued development of capacity in vaccine development and manufacture within LAC. PMID:22033155

Cortes, Maria de los Angeles; Cardoso, Daniel; Fitzgerald, James; DiFabio, Jose Luis

2012-01-01

254

[Vitamin D intoxication in infants born from Latin-American immigrants. Series of 3 cases].  

PubMed

Vitamin D intoxication is a well-known cause of hypercalcemia in children and can have serious consequences (renal, cardiac and neurologic mainly). The use of the so-called over-the-counter (OTC) supplements involves a high risk in this taking place. The clinical expression of hypercalcaemia is unspecific, and, together with the fact that the administration of such supplements is frequently denied, the diagnosis of vitamin D intoxication is often delayed and the number of complementary tests performed is high. We here-for expose a series of 3 cases all of which are infants born from Latin-American immigrants who were receiving supplements that came from their parents originary countries. All 3 cases were admitted in our hospital within a period of 5 months. After the first preceding case, the diagnosis of the 2 latter ones was performed promptly and so was the instauration of the treatment for hypercalcemia. The initial levels of serum calcium and of 25-hydroxy vitamin D where, respectively for each case: 17.9 mg/dl and 504 ng/ml; 14.46 mg/dl and 505 ng/ml; 14.2mg/dl and 530 ng/ml. All 3 patients received intravenous treatment with serum, furosemide and corticoids and in one case with subcutaneous calcitonine as well. The clinical outcome was optimal for them all, with normalization of the calcium levels and of the renal function. PMID:21414853

Alonso Canal, L; Ruiz Herrero, J; Villalobos Reales, J; Gaitero Tristán, J; Pérez Rodríguez, T; Cañedo Villaroya, E

2011-06-01

255

Higher Education and Economic Growth in the Latin American Higher Education and Economic Growth in the Latin American Emerging Markets Emerging Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to shed light on the connection between higher education and economic development in three emerging economies in Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, and Chile). The Granger pairwise causality test was used to determine the relationship between the two variables of GDP growth and higher education enrollment. Using the 1960-1996 period, weak relationships were found between

Robert Boldin; Elsa-Sofia Morote; Matthew McMullen

256

Prevalence, Clinical Staging and Risk for Blood-Borne Transmission of Chagas Disease among Latin American Migrants in Geneva, Switzerland  

PubMed Central

Background Migration of Latin Americans to the USA, Canada and Europe has modified Chagas disease distribution, but data on imported cases and on risks of local transmission remain scarce. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors for Chagas disease, staged the disease and evaluated attitudes towards blood transfusion and organ transplant among Latin American migrants in Geneva, Switzerland. Methodology/Principal Findings This cross-sectional study included all consecutive Latin American migrants seeking medical care at a primary care facility or attending two Latino churches. After completing a questionnaire, they were screened for Chagas disease with two serological tests (Biomérieux ELISA cruzi; Biokit Bioelisa Chagas). Infected subjects underwent a complete medical work-up. Predictive factors for infection were assessed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis.1012 persons (females: 83%; mean age: 37.2 [SD 11.3] years, Bolivians: 48% [n?=?485]) were recruited. 96% had no residency permit. Chagas disease was diagnosed with two positive serological tests in 130 patients (12.8%; 95%CI 10.8%–14.9%), including 127 Bolivians (26.2%; 95%CI 22.3%–30.1%). All patients were in the chronic phase, including 11.3% with cardiac and 0.8% with digestive complications. Predictive factors for infection were Bolivian origin (OR 33.2; 95%CI 7.5–147.5), reported maternal infection with T. cruzi (OR 6.9; 95%CI 1.9–24.3), and age older than 35 years (OR 6.7; 95%CI 2.4–18.8). While 22 (16.9%) infected subjects had already donated blood, 24 (18.5%) and 34 (26.2%) considered donating blood and organs outside Latin America, respectively. Conclusions Chagas disease is highly prevalent among Bolivian migrants in Switzerland. Chronic cardiac and digestive complications were substantial. Screening of individuals at risk should be implemented in nonendemic countries and must include undocumented migrants. PMID:20126397

Jackson, Yves; Gétaz, Laurent; Wolff, Hans; Holst, Marylise; Mauris, Anne; Tardin, Aglaé; Sztajzel, Juan; Besse, Valérie; Loutan, Louis; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Jannin, Jean; Albajar Vinas, Pedro; Luquetti, Alejandro; Chappuis, François

2010-01-01

257

[Production of scientific articles about health in six Latin American countries, 1973-1992].  

PubMed

The production of articles resulting from biomedical, clinical, and public health studies that originated in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, and Venezuela from 1973 through 1992 was analyzed to discover trends in health research in Latin America. From the database of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), 41,238 articles with first authors who resided in those countries were extracted. These articles were analyzed by subject area, type of study, country, number of authors and institutions that participated in the investigation, and citations received by each article. Also analyzed were 95 articles in epidemiology selected from a pool of 570 published by authors from the six countries in 11 public health journals that enjoy international prestige. The results showed that the number of published works increased by 117% between the first and last five-year periods within the study period. Clinical research was distributed the most evenly among the countries, and public health research was the most concentrated (60.7% originated in Brazil). The numbers of biomedical and public health research articles showed relatively more growth than those reporting on clinical research throughout the period. A relative decrease was found in articles by only one author, which suggests a greater frequency of team efforts, and an increase was seen in articles with authors tied to two or more national or foreign institutions, which indicates greater cooperation between institutions and countries. The average number of citations received by each article was 3, which was less than half the number received by the articles in the ISI database (7.78). Regarding the subset of 95 articles in epidemiology, the great majority (96%) dealt with infectious diseases or maternal and child health, while in the international literature 78% of such articles were about chronic diseases. This group of articles gave evidence of more cooperation with international institutions and had a citation index of 4.36 per article. It is concluded that, despite the inherent limitations, this type of study reveals some general trends in the development of research in the six Latin American countries with the greatest scientific production and makes it possible to formulate hypotheses on the factors that influence these trends. Taken with the paper caution, the results of studies like this one can be of great value in defining health science and technology policies. PMID:9162579

Pellegrini Filho, A; Goldbaum, M; Silvi, J

1997-01-01

258

Atrophic gastritis: Risk factor for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a Latin-American population  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the association between atrophic gastritis (AG) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a Latin-America population. METHODS: A case-control study was performed at two reference Brazilian hospitals including patients diagnosed with advanced ESCC and dyspeptic patients who had been subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with biopsies of the gastric antrum and body. All cases with ESCC were reviewed by a single pathologist, who applied standard criteria for the diagnosis of mucosal atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia, all classified as AG. The data on the patients’ age, sex, smoking status, and alcohol consumption were collected from clinical records, and any missing information was completed by telephone interview. The association between AG and ESCC was assessed by means of univariate and multiple conditional logistic regressions. RESULTS: Most patients were male, and the median age was 59 years (range: 37-79 years) in both the ESCC and control groups. Univariate analysis showed that an intake of ethanol greater than 32 g/d was an independent risk factor that increased the odds of ESCC 7.57 times (P = 0.014); upon multiple analysis, alcohol intake of ethanol greater than 32 g/d exhibited a risk of 4.54 (P = 0.081), as adjusted for AG and smoking. Smoking was shown to be an independent risk factor that increased the odds of ESCC 14.55 times (P = 0.011) for individuals who smoked 0 to 51 packs/year and 21.40 times (P = 0.006) for those who smoked more than 51 packs/year. Upon multiple analyses, those who smoked up to 51 packs/year exhibited a risk of 7.85 (P = 0.058), and those who smoked more than 51 packs/ year had a risk 11.57 times higher (P = 0.04), as adjusted for AG and alcohol consumption. AG proved to be a risk factor that increased the odds of ESCC 5.33 times (95%CI: 1.55-18.30, P = 0.008) according to the results of univariate conditional logistic regression. CONCLUSION: There was an association by univariate conditional logistic regression between AG and ECSS in this sample of Latin-American population. PMID:23599625

Almodova, Emiliano de Carvalho; de Oliveira, Walmar Kerche; Machado, Lucas Faria Abrahão; Grejo, Juliana Rigotto; da Cunha, Thiago Rabelo; Colaiacovo, Wagner; Ortolan, Erika Veruska Paiva

2013-01-01

259

Latin-American initiatives in library and information science education: three models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three programs of the Graduate School of Library and Information Science (GSLIS) at The University of Texas at Austin support education in library and information science in Latin America and present contrasts in goals, participants, and outcomes. We describe briefly the history and development of these programs, discuss obstacles faced by residents in Latin America, and suggest possible future directions.

Julie Hallmark; Maria Gonzalez

2002-01-01

260

The Planning of Latin American Universities: In Search of Its Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College planning in Latin America is discussed, with attention to underdevelopment, political instability, and the economic crisis of the 1980s. Alternative planning approaches used in U.S. higher education institutions are considered. Latin America refers to 18 Spanish-speaking republics of the Western Hemisphere, along with Brazil and Haiti. The…

Escala, Miguel J.

261

The relationship between body mass index and cancer screening utilization among older women in Latin American and Caribbean cities.  

PubMed

To examine the relationship between body mass index and cancer screening utilization, we analyzed data from six cities of the Health, Well-Being and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study on 5,230 women aged 60 and older, from 1999 to 2000. We found that underweight women were less likely to have had a mammogram, a breast self-exam, and a Pap smear, relative to normal-weight women. However, overweight or obese women were more likely to have a breast self-exam and a Pap smear. Thus, being underweight had a role for decreased cancer screening utilization among older women in Latin American cities, but not being overweight or obese, which was associated with decreased cancer screening in most previous studies. PMID:25551260

Miller, Stephen; Rafanan, Leslie; Keihany, Sarah; Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A

2015-01-01

262

Putting indicators to work. A summary of roundtable presentations on the Latin American and Caribbean experience with environmental health indicators.  

PubMed

A roundtable was held at the conclusion of the formal conference presentations to present and discuss experiences in Latin America and the Caribbean with indicator selection, implementation and use. Four presentations were given covering the following topics: the Pan American Health Organization's (PAHO) implementation of a core indicators program in the Americas; Latin America's use and application of the WHO developed Driving forces, Pressure, State, Exposure, Effect, Action framework (DPSEEA) for indicators; the Chilean experience in identifying, selecting and implementing indicators for use throughout the country; and finally, the use and application of the WHO DPSEEA framework to the issue of water quality monitoring in Brazil. Each paper presented a summary of knowledge gained to date from their experience and some of the strengths and challenges identified from the various approaches taken. The summary presented here provides a brief overview of the presentations given at the workshop. PMID:12425179

Furgal, Chris

2002-01-01

263

Efficacy of HIV Prevention Interventions in Latin American and Caribbean Nations, 1995–2008: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

This meta-analysis synthesized 34 HIV prevention interventions (from 27 studies) that were evaluated in Latin American and Caribbean nations. These studies were obtained through systematic searches of English, Spanish, and Portuguese-language databases available as of January 2009. Overall, interventions significantly increased knowledge (d = 0.51) and condom use (d = 0.28) but the effects varied widely. Interventions produced more condom use when they focused on high-risk individuals, distributed condoms, and explicitly addressed socio-cultural components. The best-fitting models utilized factors related to geography, especially indices of a nations’ human development index (HDI) and income inequality (i.e., Gini index). Interventions that provided at least three hours of content succeeded better when HDI and income inequality were lower, suggesting that intensive HIV prevention activities succeed best where the need is greatest. Implications for HIV intervention development in Latin America and the Caribbean are discussed. PMID:20661768

Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Boynton, Marcella H.; Warren, Michelle R.; LaCroix, Jessica M.; Carey, Michael P.; Johnson, Blair T.

2014-01-01

264

Twelve Years of Scientific Production on Medline by Latin American Spine Surgeons  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the small contribution of LA in the Science Citation Index (SCI), a growing contribution by LA research to international literature has been observed in recent years. Study Design Systematic review. Purpose To evaluate the scientific contribution of Latin American (LA) Spine Surgeons in the last decade. Methods A literature search of publications by LA spinal surgeons on topics concerning the spine or spinal cord was performed using an online database; Pubmed.gov. The results were limited to articles published from January 2000 to December 2011. The quality of the publication was evaluated with the journal impact factor (IF), Oxford classification and number of citations. Results This study comprised 320 articles published in the Medline database by LA spine surgeons from 2000 to 2011. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of publications by LA spine surgeons. It was observed that 38.4% of LA papers were published in LA journals. 46.6% of the articles were published in journals with an IF lower than 1, and there was no statistically significant difference in the number of articles published in journals with a higher IF during the period. Linear-by-linear association analysis demonstrated an improvement in the level of evidence provided by LA articles published in recent years. Conclusions This study showed a growth in the number of publications in last 12 years by LA spinal surgeons. It is necessary to discuss a way to increase quantity and quality of scientific publications, mainly through a better education in research. PMID:24505336

Falavigna, Asdrubal; Botelho, Ricardo Vieira; Teles, Alisson Roberto; Guarise da Silva, Pedro; Martins, Delio; Guyot, Juan Pablo; Gonzalez, Alvaro Silva; Avila, José Maria Jiménez; Defino, Helton Luiz Aparecido

2014-01-01

265

Current cariology education in dental schools in Spanish-speaking Latin American countries.  

PubMed

This study sought to provide an overview of current cariology education in Spanish-speaking Latin American dental schools. Data collection was via an eighteen-item survey with questions about curriculum, methods of diagnosis and treatment, and instructors' perceptions about cariology teaching. The response rate was 62.1 percent (n=54), and distribution of participating schools by country was as follows: Bolivia (four), Chile (four), Colombia (twenty-four), Costa Rica (one), Cuba (one), Dominican Republic (two), El Salvador (two), Mexico (six), Panama (two), Peru (four), Puerto Rico (one), Uruguay (two), and Venezuela (one). Forty percent of the responding schools considered cariology the key axis of a course, with a cariology department in 16.7 percent. All schools reported teaching cariology, but with varying hours and at varying times in the curriculum, and 77.8 percent reported having preclinical practices. The majority reported teaching most main teaching topics, except for behavioral sciences, microbiology, saliva and systemic diseases, caries-risk factors, root caries, erosion, and early caries management strategies. The most frequently taught caries detection methods were visual-tactile (96.3 percent), radiographic (92.6 percent), and the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) (61.1 percent). Respondents said their schools' clinics make an operative treatment decision when radiolucency is in the inner half of enamel (42.3 percent) for radiographic criteria and when the lesion is visually non-cavitated (5.8 percent). All respondents reported that their schools teach preventive strategies, but only 43.4 percent said they tie it to risk assessment and 40.7 percent said they implement nonsurgical management regularly. PMID:24098037

Martignon, Stefania; Gomez, Juliana; Tellez, Marisol; Ruiz, Jaime A; Marin, Lina M; Rangel, Maria C

2013-10-01

266

Levels of insecticide resistance and resistance mechanisms in Aedes aegypti from some Latin American countries.  

PubMed

Eight Latin American strains of Aedes aegypti were evaluated for resistance to 6 organophosphates (temephos, malathion, fenthion, pirimiphos-methyl, fenitrothion, and chlorpirifos) and 4 pyrethroids (deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, betacypermethrin, and cyfluthrin) under laboratory conditions. In larval bioassays, temephos resistance was high (resistance ratio [RR50], > or =10X) in the majority of the strains, except for the Nicaragua and Venezuela strains, which showed moderate resistance (RR50, between 5 and 10X). The majority of the strains were susceptible to malathion, fenthion, and fenitrothion. However, resistance to pirimiphos-methyl ranged from moderate to high in most of the strains. Larvae from Havana City were resistant to 3 of the pyrethroids tested and moderately resistant to cyfluthrin. The Santiago de Cuba strain showed high resistance to deltamethrin and moderate resistance to the other pyrethroids (lambdacyhalothrin, betacypermethrin, and cyfluthrin). The rest of the strains were susceptible to pyrethroids, except for the Jamaica and Costa Rica strains, which showed moderate resistance to cyfluthrin, and Peru and Venezuela, which showed resistance to deltamethrin. Adult bioassays showed that all the strains were resistant to dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane and to the majority of pyrethroids evaluated. The use of the synergists S,S,S,-tributyl phosphorotrithioate and piperonil butoxide showed that esterase and monooxygenases played an important role in the temephos, pirimiphos-methyl, and chlorpirifos resistance in some strains. Biochemical tests showed high frequencies of esterase and glutathione-S-transferase activity; however, the frequency of altered acetylcholinesterase mechanism was low. The polyacrylamide electrophoresis gel detected the presence of a strong band called Est-A4. Insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti is a serious problem facing control operations, and integrated control strategies are recommended to help prevent or delay the temephos resistance in larvae and pyrethroids resistance in adults. PMID:18240518

Rodríguez, María M; Bisset, Juan A; Fernández, Ditter

2007-12-01

267

Meaning in Life as a Mediator of Ethnic Identity and Adjustment Among Adolescents from Latin, Asian, and European American Backgrounds  

PubMed Central

Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining associations between ethnic identity and adjustment were examined. Although no generational or gender differences were found, Asian Americans reported higher search for meaning than Latin and European Americans. Presence of meaning was positively associated with self-esteem, academic adjustment, daily well-being, and ethnic belonging and exploration, whereas search for meaning was related to lower self-esteem and less stability in daily well-being. Presence of meaning mediated associations between ethnic identity and adjustment, explaining 28–52% of ethnic identity’s protective effect on development. Ethnic identity thus appears to affect adjustment, in part, through its role in fostering a positive sense of meaning in adolescents’ lives. PMID:19915965

Fuligni, Andrew J.

2009-01-01

268

Educational Building in Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents articles describing recent developments in three Latin American countries (Chile, Brazil, and Venezuela) to expand public education facilities, along with a report on UNESCO's recent seminar in Latin America on architecture for an inclusive education. (EV)

Baza, Jadille; Vaz, Rita de Cassia Alves; Millan, Eduardo; Almeida, Rodolfo

2002-01-01

269

`Home Away From Home:' Migrant Organizations and Transnational Politics Among Latin American Migrants in Spain  

E-print Network

Mass immigration into Spain is a relatively new phenomenon. Additionally, the country's recent economic boom and ties to Latin America put it in the unique position of being home to millions of Spanish-speaking migrants. ...

Freudenburg, Kevin Michael

2011-04-27

270

Capital Inflows and Real Exchange Rate Appreciation in Latin AmericaThe Role of External Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of recent capital inflows into Latin America are discussed. It is argued that these inflows are partly explained by conditions outside the region, like recession in the United States and lower international interest rates. This suggests the possibility that a reversal of those conditions may lead to a future capital outflow, increasing the macroeconomic vulnerability of Latin American

Leonardo Leiderman; Carmen Reinhart

1992-01-01

271

?AL Proyecto Azimut-La Industria Aeron??utica en el ??mbito de la Comunidad Econ??mica de Am??rica Latina ?AL Azimuth Project-Aeronautical Industry for the Latin-American Conmmon Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to promote the establishment of standards and basic requirements to direct development of preliminary orientational studies for the organic and financial structure, in the incipient period, of a Latin-American Aeronautical Industry, which is urgently needed to be incorporated into the integration plans of the Latin-American Common Market. Immediate action is recommended in view of

Xavier Olivo-Amoros

1968-01-01

272

La Capacitacion de Docentes Como Prioridad de los Sistemas Educativos de America Latino y al Caribe (In-Service Teacher Training as a Priority of Latin American and Caribbean Educational Systems).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whenever top-level officials in Latin American and Caribbean educational systems are approached, the topic of inservice teacher training is presented as a major priority. This paper outlines some ideas about the subject of inservice teacher training as a priority of educational systems in Latin American and Caribbean countries. The most frequent…

Valle, Victor M.

273

Role of gene polymorphisms in gastric cancer and its precursor lesions: Current knowledge and perspectives in Latin American countries  

PubMed Central

Latin America shows one of the highest incidence rates of gastric cancer in the world, with variations in mortality rates among nations or even within countries belonging to this region. Gastric cancer is the result of a multifactorial complex process, for which a multistep model of carcinogenesis is currently accepted. Additionally to the infection with Helicobacter pylori, that plays a major role, environmental factors as well as genetic susceptibility factors are significant players at different stages in the gastric cancer process. The differences in population origin, demographic structure, socio-economic development, and the impact of globalization lifestyles experienced in Latin America in the last decades, all together offer opportunities for studying in this context the influence of genetic polymorphisms in the susceptibility to gastric cancer. The aim of this article is to discuss current trends on gastric cancer in Latin American countries and to review the available published information about studies of association of gene polymorphisms involved in gastric cancer susceptibility from this region of the world. A total of 40 genes or genomic regions and 69 genetic variants, 58% representing markers involved in inflammatory response, have been used in a number of studies in which predominates a low number of individuals (cases and controls) included. Polymorphisms of IL-1B (-511 C/T, 14 studies; -31 T/C, 10 studies) and IL-1RN (variable number of tandem repeats, 17 studies) are the most represented ones in the reviewed studies. Other genetic variants recently evaluated in large meta-analyses and associated with gastric cancer risk were also analyzed in a few studies [e.g., prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), CDH1, Survivin]. Further and better analysis centered in gene polymorphisms linked to other covariates, epidemiological studies and the information provided by meta-analyses and genome-wide association studies should help to improve our understanding of gastric cancer etiology in order to develop appropriate health programs in Latin America. PMID:24782603

Chiurillo, Miguel Angel

2014-01-01

274

Life Expectancy with and without Cognitive Impairment in Seven Latin American and Caribbean Countries  

PubMed Central

Background The rising prevalence of cognitive impairment is an increasing challenge with the ageing of our populations but little is known about the burden in low- and middle- income Latin American and Caribbean countries (LAC) that are aging more rapidly than their developed counterparts. We examined life expectancies with cognitive impairment (CILE) and free of cognitive impairment (CIFLE) in seven developing LAC countries. Methods Data from The Survey on Health, Well-being and Ageing in LAC (N = 10,597) was utilised and cognitive status was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The Sullivan Method was applied to estimate CILE and CIFLE. Logistic regression was used to determine the effect of age, gender and education on cognitive outcome. Meta-regression models were fitted for all 7 countries together to investigate the relationship between CIFLE and education in men and women at age 60. Results The prevalence of CI increased with age in all countries except Uruguay and with a significant gender effect observed only in Mexico where men had lower odds of CI compared to women [OR = 0.464 95% CInt (0.268 – 0.806)]. Low education was associated with increased prevalence of CI in Brazil [OR = 4.848 (1.173–20.044)], Chile [OR = 3.107 (1.098–8.793), Cuba [OR = 2.295 (1.247–4.225)] and Mexico [OR = 3.838 (1.368–10.765). For males, total life expectancy (TLE) at age 60 was highest in Cuba (19.7 years) and lowest in Brazil and Uruguay (17.6 years). TLE for females at age 60 was highest for Chileans (22.8 years) and lowest for Brazilians (20.2 years). CIFLE for men was greatest in Cuba (19.0 years) and least in Brazil (16.7 years). These differences did not appear to be explained by educational level (Men: p = 0.408, women: p = 0.695). Conclusion Increasing age, female sex and low education were associated with higher CI in LAC reflecting patterns found in other countries. PMID:25799186

Ashby-Mitchell, Kimberly; Jagger, Carol; Fouweather, Tony; Anstey, Kaarin J.

2015-01-01

275

Chagas Disease among the Latin American Adult Population Attending in a Primary Care Center in Barcelona, Spain  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims The epidemiology of Chagas disease, until recently confined to areas of continental Latin America, has undergone considerable changes in recent decades due to migration to other parts of the world, including Spain. We studied the prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin American patients treated at a health center in Barcelona and evaluated its clinical phase. We make some recommendations for screening for the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed an observational, cross-sectional prevalence study by means of an immunochromatographic test screening of all continental Latin American patients over the age of 14 years visiting the health centre from October 2007 to October 2009. The diagnosis was confirmed by serological methods: conventional in-house ELISA (cELISA), a commercial kit (rELISA) and ELISA using T cruzi lysate (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics) (oELISA). Of 766 patients studied, 22 were diagnosed with T. cruzi infection, showing a prevalence of 2.87% (95% CI, 1.6–4.12%). Of the infected patients, 45.45% men and 54.55% women, 21 were from Bolivia, showing a prevalence in the Bolivian subgroup (n?=?127) of 16.53% (95% CI, 9.6–23.39%). All the infected patients were in a chronic phase of Chagas disease: 81% with the indeterminate form, 9.5% with the cardiac form and 9.5% with the cardiodigestive form. All patients infected with T. cruzi had heard of Chagas disease in their country of origin, 82% knew someone affected, and 77% had a significant history of living in adobe houses in rural areas. Conclusions We found a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in immigrants from Bolivia. Detection of T. cruzi–infected persons by screening programs in non-endemic countries would control non-vectorial transmission and would benefit the persons affected, public health and national health systems. PMID:21572511

Roca, Carme; Pinazo, María Jesús; López-Chejade, Paolo; Bayó, Joan; Posada, Elizabeth; López-Solana, Jordi; Gállego, Montserrat; Portús, Montserrat; Gascón, Joaquim

2011-01-01

276

Lead exposure in Latin America and the Caribbean. Lead Research Group of the Pan-American Health Organization.  

PubMed Central

As a result of the rapid industrialization of Latin America and the Caribbean during the second half of this century, exposure to lead has become an increasingly important problem. To obtain an estimate of the magnitude of lead exposure in the region, we carried out a survey and a literature search on potential sources of lead exposure and on blood lead concentrations. Sixteen out of 18 Latin American and 2 out of 10 Caribbean countries responded to the survey. Lead in gasoline remains a major problem, although the lead content has decreased in many countries in the last few years. The impact of leaded fuel is more important in urban settings, given their high vehicular density. Seventy-five percent of the population of the region lives in urban areas, and children younger than 15 years of age, the most susceptible group, comprise 30% of the population. Other sources of lead exposure identified in the region included industrial emissions, battery recycling, paint and varnishes, and contaminated food and water. Lead is recognized as a priority problem by national authorities in 72% of the countries that responded to the survey, and in 50% of the countries some legislation exists to regulate the lead content in certain products. However, compliance is low. There is an urgent need for a broad-based coalition between policy makers, industry, workers, unions, health care providers, and the community to take actions to reduce environmental and occupational lead exposures in all the Latin American and Caribbean countries. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9189704

Romieu, I; Lacasana, M; McConnell, R

1997-01-01

277

Challenges to reduce the ‘10/90 gap’: mental health research in Latin American and Caribbean countries  

PubMed Central

Razzouk D, Gallo C, Olifson S, Zorzetto R, Fiestas F, Poletti G, Mazzotti G, Levav I, Mari JJ. Challenges to reduce the ‘10/90 gap’: mental health research in Latin American and Caribbean countries. Objective: To analyze the status of mental health research in 30 Latin American and Caribbean countries (LAC). Method: Medline and PsycInfo databases were searched to identify the LAC authors. Their publications were classified according to the topic, type of research and target population studied. Scientific indicators of these countries were assessed in other two different databases: Essential Scientific Information and Atlas of Science Project, both from Institute for Scientific Information. Results: Indexed-publications were concentrated in six countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela. Most studies dealt with the burdensome mental disorders but neglected important topics such as violence and other mental health priorities. Conclusion: Mental health research is mostly concentrated in a few LAC countries, but these countries would contribute to reduce the research gap, if they provide research training to their neighbors and engage in bi- or multi-lateral research collaboration on common region priorities. PMID:18759812

Razzouk, D; Gallo, C; Olifson, S; Zorzetto, R; Fiestas, F; Poletti, G; Mazzotti, G; Levav, I; Mari, J J

2008-01-01

278

Educational Inequalities among Latin American Adolescents: Continuities and Changes over the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s  

PubMed Central

The goal of this paper is to examine recent trends in educational stratification for Latin American adolescents growing up in three distinct periods: the 1980s, during severe recession; the 1990s, a period of structural adjustments imposed by international organizations; and the late 2000s, when most countries in the region experienced positive and stable growth. In addition to school enrollment and educational transitions, we examine the quality of education through enrollment in private schools, an important aspect of inequality in education that most studies have neglected. We use nationally representative household survey data for the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s in Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Uruguay. Our overall findings confirm the importance of macroeconomic conditions for inequalities in educational opportunity, suggesting important benefits brought up by the favorable conditions of the 2000s. However, our findings also call attention to increasing disadvantages associated with the quality of the education adolescents receive, suggesting the significance of the EMI framework—Effectively Maintained Inequality—and highlighting the value of examining the quality in addition to the quantity of education in order to fully understand educational stratification in the Latin American context. PMID:22962512

Marteleto, Letícia; Gelber, Denisse; Hubert, Celia; Salinas, Viviana

2012-01-01

279

Closing the Gap in Education and Technology. World Bank Latin American and Caribbean Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document examines the gap between the Latin America and Caribbean region and the world's developed nations in the areas of education and technology. It also examines policies and strategies to close the gap. The following are among the specific topics discussed: (1) skills upgrading and innovation policies (the major actors; the role of…

de Ferranti, David; Perry, Guillermo E.; Gill, Indermit; Guasch, J. Luis; Maloney, William F.; Sanchez-Paramo, Carolina; Schady, Norbert

280

THE LATIN AMERICAN PERSPECTIVE ON THE IMPACTS OF THE GLOBAL FOOD ECONOMY: THE CASE OF BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Important institutional and economic changes in Latin America have resulted in a rapid consolidation and multinationalization of food processing and distribution. This paper focuses the supermarket sector in Brazil over the past decade and the impacts on processing sector. The dairy system is analysed as a case study that illustrates the changing competition rules in the food markets, the concentration

Elizabeth M. M. Q. Farina

281

Advances in Pharmaceutical Market Integration in MERCOSUR and other Latin American Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the developments in the pharmaceutical sector in the MERCOSUR countries which have resulted from the renewed efforts of economic integration in Latin America. MERCOSUR refers to the “Mercado Común del Sur,” the common market that has been under development since 1991 by Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. In MERCOSUR the underlying principles for harmonization of pharmaceutical legislation

Marcelo J. Vernengo; Kees de Joncheere; Enrique Fefer

1998-01-01

282

Grading the Performance of the Latin American Regimes 1970-1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

For most of Latin America the 1970s were a decade of growth, though with political upheaval in Argentina and Chile. The 1980s were a disaster. The 1990s have seen economic reform, liberalization, a return to democracy and financial turmoil. This study attempts to explain the three decades as one piece, through an analysis of the evolution of earnings inequality from

James K. Galbraith; Vidal Garza Cantú

2000-01-01

283

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ DEPARTMENT OF LATIN AMERICAN AND LATINO STUDIES  

E-print Network

, with an emphasis on how economic structures enable and constrain different pathways of change in Latin America and: cultural flows/cultural politics, collective action/social movements, social inequalities, or transnational candidate must be able to work with students, faculty and staff from a wide range of social and cultural

California at Santa Cruz, University of

284

The Effects of Tougher Enforcement on the Job Prospects of Recent Latin American Immigrants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to enforce immigration laws in the U.S. interior have proliferated in recent years, yet the effects of these laws on immigrants are largely unknown. This paper examines whether increases in immigration-related law enforcement since 2001 have adversely affected the labor market outcomes of low-education male immigrants from Latin America,…

Orrenius, Pia M.; Zavodny, Madeline

2009-01-01

285

Brandeis University Latin American and Latino Studies current number of majors  

E-print Network

; social move- ments; U.S.­Latin America relations Popular second majors: anthropology; health: science on to pursue a variety of career paths, including business, health, academia, social activism, law and jobs grant to do research on urban youth movements, or "tribes," in Chile. Based on this fieldwork, she wrote

Fraden, Seth

286

THE LATIN AMERICAN ORGANIC COFFEE INDUSTRY: U.S. MARKET INROADS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certified organic coffee is a minuscule but important portion of coffee production and trade and is the fastest growing sector in sales revenue. Organic coffee has its roots in sustainable crop production and economic development policy. Latin America has become the center of the organic coffee movement, representing a change from the old market structure of the coffee trade. The

Danilo Rodriguez; James E. Epperson

2001-01-01

287

Latin American Universities, Academic Freedom and Autonomy: A Long-Term Myth?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores issues of academic freedom and autonomy in various systems of higher education in Latin America, with emphasis on the Brazilian case. Analyzes the issues of financial and administrative autonomy and tensions between the universities and the state during three historical periods: 1920s-50s, 1960s-70s, and 1980s-90s. (Contains 28…

de Figueiredo-Cowen, Maria

2002-01-01

288

The space transportation system and its impact on Latin American development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The three components of the Space Transportation System: the space shuttle, the permanent orbital space station and the transorbital vehicle are described. The stages of completion of the various plans are discussed and the impact of the project's implementation is discussed with particular reference to Latin America and with special emphasis on the telecommunications sector.

Diaz, F. R. C.

1985-01-01

289

Latin American Literatures and Cultures: Self and Society. Papers from the National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute (La Jolla, California, August 1996).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special issue contains the following articles: (1) "Critiquing the Center: Rigoberta Menchu and Enrique Dussel" (Joseph R. Hoff); (2) "Caroline Maria De Jesus: A Testimonial Voice in the Wilderness" (Eva Bueno); (3) "Latin American Women's Voices: La Malinche to Rigoberta Menchu" (Ana Maria Romo de Mease); (4) "China in Borges''The Garden of…

Seabrook, John H., Ed.

1996-01-01

290

Latin American Youth Entrepreneurs: Differences between Coached and Laissez-Faire Entrepreneurial Experiences in Their Employability Skills and Their Entrepreneurial Innovative Attitude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between the development of employability skills and entrepreneurial innovative attitude in Latin American youth entrepreneurs 18-29 years of age after participating in at least 1 year of an entrepreneurship experience. The design involved analyzing two groups. The first was a coached group…

Roman Maqueira, Juana

2011-01-01

291

1969 MLA International Bibliography of Books and Articles on the Modern Languages and Literatures. Volume I: General, English, American, Medieval and Neo-Latin, and Celtic Literatures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volume 1 of the 4-volume, international bibliography contains some 9,000 entries referring to books and articles which focus on general, English, American, medieval and neo-Latin, and Celtic literatures. The master list of the nearly 1,500 periodicals from which entries are derived is furnished at the beginning of the volume with a table of…

Meserole, Harrison T., Comp.

292

This major offers courses in ancient, medieval, and modern European history, including Russian history; in both North and Latin American history; in the  

E-print Network

This major offers courses in ancient, medieval, and modern European history, including Russian history; in both North and Latin American history; in the history of Eurasia and East Asia; in world Angeles. Notable Courses HIST 255: The Evolution Debates -- Historical perspective for current debates

Rohs, Remo

293

The Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region: Its Objectives, Characteristics, and Methods of Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major project intended to improve education in the Latin American and the Caribbean countries is described. Representatives from the various countries participated in intergovernmental meetings and reached an agreement that there was a need for a project to meet unsatisfied basic educational needs by the year 2000. The specific project…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and Caribbean.

294

The need and viability of a mediation index in Latin American scientific production and publication : The case of the Redalyc System of Scientific Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce the online information system Redalyc as an intermediary tool that provides Latin American scientific articles with international standards (mostly related to natural sciences and developed countries) as well as with specific areas to host local research. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Redalyc is based on a semantic intersection model proposed by Russian semiologist

Eduardo Aguado-López; Gustavo Adolfo Garduño-Oropeza; Rosario Rogel-Salazar; María Fernanda Zúñiga-Roca

2012-01-01

295

Urban Primacy in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The urban system of most Latin American countries is dominated by a primate city which overwhelms the cultural, economic, political, and social life of the nation. This paper reviews the concept of primacy, the pattern of primacy in Latin America, and the changes in primacy over time in selected countries. It confirms that Latin America, among the world's regions, is

Clyde E. Browning

296

Physical activity promotion in Latin American populations: a systematic review on issues of internal and external validity.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review was to determine the degree to which physical activity interventions for Latin American populations reported on internal and external validity factors using the RE-AIM framework (reach & representativeness, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance). We systematically identified English (PubMed; EbscoHost) and Spanish (SCIELO; Biblioteca Virtual en Salud) language studies published between 2001 and 2012 that tested physical activity, exercise, or fitness promotion interventions in Latin American populations. Cross-sectional/descriptive studies, conducted in Brazil or Spain, published in Portuguese, not including a physical activity/fitness/exercise outcome, and with one time point assessment were excluded. We reviewed 192 abstracts and identified 46 studies that met the eligibility criteria (34 in English, 12 in Spanish). A validated 21-item RE-AIM abstraction tool was used to determine the quality of reporting across studies (0-7?=?low, 8-14?=?moderate, and 15-21?=?high). The number of indicators reported ranged from 3-14 (mean?=?8.1?±?2.6), with the majority of studies falling in the moderate quality reporting category. English and Spanish language articles did not differ on the number of indicators reported (8.1 vs. 8.3, respectively). However, Spanish articles reported more across reach indicators (62% vs. 43% of indicators), while English articles reported more across effectiveness indicators (69% vs 62%). Across RE-AIM dimensions, indicators for reach (48%), efficacy/effectiveness (67%), and implementation (41%) were reported more often than indicators of adoption (25%) and maintenance (10%). Few studies reported on the representativeness of participants, staff that delivered interventions, or the settings where interventions were adopted. Only 13% of the studies reported on quality of life and/or potential negative outcomes, 20% reported on intervention fidelity, and 11% on cost of implementation. Outcomes measured after six months of intervention, information on continued delivery and institutionalization of interventions, were also seldom reported. Regardless of language of publication, physical activity intervention research for Latin Americans should increase attention to and measurement of external validity and cost factors that are critical in the decision making process in practice settings and can increase the likelihood of translation into community or clinical practice. PMID:24938641

Galaviz, Karla I; Harden, Samantha M; Smith, Erin; Blackman, Kacie Ca; Berrey, Leanna M; Mama, Scherezade K; Almeida, Fabio A; Lee, Rebecca E; Estabrooks, Paul A

2014-01-01

297

Physical activity promotion in Latin American populations: a systematic review on issues of internal and external validity  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this review was to determine the degree to which physical activity interventions for Latin American populations reported on internal and external validity factors using the RE-AIM framework (reach & representativeness, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance). We systematically identified English (PubMed; EbscoHost) and Spanish (SCIELO; Biblioteca Virtual en Salud) language studies published between 2001 and 2012 that tested physical activity, exercise, or fitness promotion interventions in Latin American populations. Cross-sectional/descriptive studies, conducted in Brazil or Spain, published in Portuguese, not including a physical activity/fitness/exercise outcome, and with one time point assessment were excluded. We reviewed 192 abstracts and identified 46 studies that met the eligibility criteria (34 in English, 12 in Spanish). A validated 21-item RE-AIM abstraction tool was used to determine the quality of reporting across studies (0-7?=?low, 8-14?=?moderate, and 15-21?=?high). The number of indicators reported ranged from 3–14 (mean?=?8.1?±?2.6), with the majority of studies falling in the moderate quality reporting category. English and Spanish language articles did not differ on the number of indicators reported (8.1 vs. 8.3, respectively). However, Spanish articles reported more across reach indicators (62% vs. 43% of indicators), while English articles reported more across effectiveness indicators (69% vs 62%). Across RE-AIM dimensions, indicators for reach (48%), efficacy/effectiveness (67%), and implementation (41%) were reported more often than indicators of adoption (25%) and maintenance (10%). Few studies reported on the representativeness of participants, staff that delivered interventions, or the settings where interventions were adopted. Only 13% of the studies reported on quality of life and/or potential negative outcomes, 20% reported on intervention fidelity, and 11% on cost of implementation. Outcomes measured after six months of intervention, information on continued delivery and institutionalization of interventions, were also seldom reported. Regardless of language of publication, physical activity intervention research for Latin Americans should increase attention to and measurement of external validity and cost factors that are critical in the decision making process in practice settings and can increase the likelihood of translation into community or clinical practice. PMID:24938641

2014-01-01

298

Change in ethnic identity across the high school years among adolescents with Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds.  

PubMed

Changes in adolescents' ethnic identity (e.g., exploration, belonging) were examined over the 4 years of high school. Results from 541 adolescents (51% female) with Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds suggest that, as a group, adolescents do not report developmental changes in their ethnic exploration and belonging over time. Yet, within-person analyses of change reveal that individual adolescents exhibited substantial fluctuation in ethnic identity across the years, and this fluctuation was associated with concurrent changes in family cohesion, proportion of same-ethnic peers, and ethnic centrality. The discussion focuses on the value of examining intraindividual change over at least several years in order to more fully understand processes of ethnic identity development during adolescence. PMID:20422353

Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R; Baldelomar, Oscar A; Fuligni, Andrew J

2010-06-01

299

The "New Cooperativism" in Latin America: Worker-Recuperated Enterprises and Socialist Production Units  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the first decade of the 21st century, efforts to create alternatives to neoliberalism emerged in many parts of Latin America. Social movements across the region took to the streets, occupied abandoned factories, and started to create new democratic spaces, solidarity networks, and social economy initiatives. In one country after another,…

Larrabure, Manuel; Vieta, Marcelo; Schugurensky, Daniel

2011-01-01

300

United States-Latin America Cancer Research Network (US-LA CRN)  

Cancer.gov

The US–LA CRN was established in 2009 to increase cancer research capacity in Latin America. NCI formalized bilateral agreements with the governments of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico, and Uruguay, to facilitate interactions at the government, institution, and investigator levels.

301

Validation of a Rapid Immunochromatographic Assay for Diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection among Latin-American Migrants in Geneva, Switzerland?  

PubMed Central

Chagas' disease is a global public health problem due to the recent exchange of population between Latin America and other regions, including Europe. The recent development of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for Trypanosoma cruzi infection may improve patient access to diagnosis and care worldwide. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the Chagas Stat-Pak RDT in a cohort of undocumented Latin-American migrants living in Geneva, Switzerland. Study participants were enrolled in a primary health care center. The Chagas Stat-Pak test was performed independently on blood and serum samples. A combination of two commercialized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based serological tests was used for comparison (reference standard). A total of 999 adults (median age, 36 years) were included in the study; the majority were women (83%) and originally from Bolivia (47%) or Brazil (25%). A total of 125 participants (12.5%) were diagnosed with T. cruzi infection; with the exception of three individuals, all individuals diagnosed with T. cruzi were originally from Bolivia. The sensitivity and specificity of the Chagas Stat-Pak test on blood samples were 95.2% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 89.2% to 97.9%) and 99.9% (95% CI, 99.3% to 100%), respectively. When the test was performed on serum samples, the sensitivity was 96% (95% CI, 91% to 98.3%), and the specificity was 99.8% (95% CI, 99.2% to 99.9%). The concordance of test results for blood and serum samples was 99.7%. Both negative and positive predictive values were above 98%. The Chagas Stat-Pak is an accurate diagnostic test for T. cruzi infection among Latin-American migrants living in Europe. The mild deficit in sensitivity should be interpreted in light of its ease of use and capacity to provide immediate results, which allow more people at risk to have access to diagnosis and care both in countries where Chagas' disease is endemic and in countries where this disease is not endemic. PMID:20554821

Chappuis, François; Mauris, Anne; Holst, Marylise; Albajar-Vinas, Pedro; Jannin, Jean; Luquetti, Alejandro O.; Jackson, Yves

2010-01-01

302

Validation of a rapid immunochromatographic assay for diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among Latin-American Migrants in Geneva, Switzerland.  

PubMed

Chagas' disease is a global public health problem due to the recent exchange of population between Latin America and other regions, including Europe. The recent development of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for Trypanosoma cruzi infection may improve patient access to diagnosis and care worldwide. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the Chagas Stat-Pak RDT in a cohort of undocumented Latin-American migrants living in Geneva, Switzerland. Study participants were enrolled in a primary health care center. The Chagas Stat-Pak test was performed independently on blood and serum samples. A combination of two commercialized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based serological tests was used for comparison (reference standard). A total of 999 adults (median age, 36 years) were included in the study; the majority were women (83%) and originally from Bolivia (47%) or Brazil (25%). A total of 125 participants (12.5%) were diagnosed with T. cruzi infection; with the exception of three individuals, all individuals diagnosed with T. cruzi were originally from Bolivia. The sensitivity and specificity of the Chagas Stat-Pak test on blood samples were 95.2% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 89.2% to 97.9%) and 99.9% (95% CI, 99.3% to 100%), respectively. When the test was performed on serum samples, the sensitivity was 96% (95% CI, 91% to 98.3%), and the specificity was 99.8% (95% CI, 99.2% to 99.9%). The concordance of test results for blood and serum samples was 99.7%. Both negative and positive predictive values were above 98%. The Chagas Stat-Pak is an accurate diagnostic test for T. cruzi infection among Latin-American migrants living in Europe. The mild deficit in sensitivity should be interpreted in light of its ease of use and capacity to provide immediate results, which allow more people at risk to have access to diagnosis and care both in countries where Chagas' disease is endemic and in countries where this disease is not endemic. PMID:20554821

Chappuis, François; Mauris, Anne; Holst, Marylise; Albajar-Vinas, Pedro; Jannin, Jean; Luquetti, Alejandro O; Jackson, Yves

2010-08-01

303

Opinion Toward Living Liver Donation of Hospital Personnel From Units Related to Organ Donation and Transplantation: A Multicenter Study From Spain and Latin-America  

PubMed Central

Background: Hospital personnel of services related to donation and transplantation process play a fundamental role in the development of transplantation. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the attitude toward living liver donation (LLD) among hospital personnel from services related to donation and transplantation in hospital centers in Spain and Latin America. Materials and Methods: Eight hospitals within the “International Donor Collaborative Project” were selected, three in Spain, three in Mexico and two in Cuba. The study was performed in transplant-related services, using a randomized sample, which was stratified by the type of service and job category. Results: In total, 878 workers were surveyed of which 82% (n = 720) were in favor of related LLD, 10% (n = 90) were against and 8% (n = 68) undecided. Attitudes toward related LLD were more favorable in the following groups: the Latin Americans (86% in favor vs. 77% among the Spanish; P = 0.007); younger people (37 vs. 40 years, P = 0.002); those in favor of either deceased donation (P < 0.001) or living kidney donation (P < 0.001); those who believed that they might need a transplant in the future (P < 0.001); those who would accept a liver from a living donor (P < 0.001); those who discussed the subject of donation and transplantation with their families (P = 0.040); and those whose partner was in favor of donation and transplantation (P = 0.044). Conclusions: Personnel from donation and transplantation-related units had a favorable attitude toward LLD. This attitude was not affected by psychosocial factors, although it was influenced by factors directly and indirectly related to the donation and transplantation process. PMID:25737727

Rios, Antonio; Lopez Navas, Ana; Ayala Garcia, Marco Antonio; Sebastian, Jose; Abdo Cuza, Anselmo; Martinez Alarcon, Laura; Ramirez, Ector Jaime; Munoz, Gerardo; Palacios, Gerardo; Suarez Lopez, Juliette; Castellanos, Ricardo; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Martinez, Miguel Angel; Diaz, Ernesto; Ramirez, Pablo; Parrilla, Pascual

2014-01-01

304

Higher Education in Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an analysis of, and proposals for, international cooperation in higher education. Focuses on Latin American higher education, its current situation, and the expected transformation of the goals of higher education in the context of international cooperation. Describes the challenges that globalization poses to Latin American higher…

Romeao, Jose Raymundo Martins

2003-01-01

305

Projected refined product balances in key Latin American countries: A preliminary examination  

SciTech Connect

Over the years, the East-West Center (EWC) has developed considerable expertise in refinery modeling, especially in the area of forecasting product balances for countries, given planned capacity changes, changes in product demand, changes in crude slates, and changes in product specifications. This expertise has been applied on an ongoing basis to the major refiners in the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region, along with the US West Coast as region in its own right. Refinery modeling in these three areas has been ongoing for nearly 15 years at the Center, and the tools and information sources are now well developed. To date, the EWC has not applied these tools to Latin America. Although research on Latin America has been an ongoing area of concern at the Center in recent years, the information gathered to date is still not of the level of detail nor quality available for other areas. The modeling efforts undertaken in this report are of a ``baseline`` nature, designed to outline the major issues, attempt a first cut at emerging product balances, and, above all, to elicit commentary from those directly involved in the oil industry in the key countries modeled. Our experience in other regions has shown that it takes a few years dialogue with refiners and government planner in individual countries to develop a reliable database, as well as the insights into operational constraints and practices that make accurate modeling possible. This report is no more than a first step down the road.

NONE

1996-06-01

306

[Programs destined to decrease the chronic malnutrition. A review in Latin American].  

PubMed

Stunting affects 16% of children under 5 years old, in Latin America. This is a cumulative effect of poor diets and repeated episodes of infectious diseases. Our aim was to analyze the impact of nutrition programs oriented to increase food availability at the family level on the growth of under fives in Latin America. We included all evaluated and published interventions on food availability. An electronic and manual search of papers published between 1995-2005 in PUBMED, LILACS, SCIELO and international organizations, was performed. Three type of programs were identified: Conditioned Economical Transference Programs (CETP) (n= ), Complementary Feeding Programs (CFP) (n= ), and Food Security Programs (FSP) (n=). Operational deficiencies were reported, some of them being participants attrition, non acceptance of the food supplement or its dilution among other members of the family. Beneficiaries of CETP (<36 months) gained up to 1 cm while the CFP registered impact but only in the low socioeconomic children. Conversely, the (FSP) did not show the expected effects on growth. This reduced impact is understandable because in order to permit the development of the children's growth potential interventions should be directed to strike on poverty as the main mechanism of the children's hampered growth. Hence, the best results are obtained by coordinated programs that combat poverty optimizing the intervention's continuity and management and give priority to the most vulnerable groups. PMID:18524315

Galván, Marcos; Amigo, Hugo

2007-12-01

307

Economic evaluation of Chagas disease screening of pregnant Latin American women and of their infants in a non endemic area.  

PubMed

Migration is a channel through which Chagas disease is imported, and vertical transmission is a channel through which the disease is spread in non-endemic countries. This study presents the economic evaluation of Chagas disease screening in pregnant women from Latin America and in their newborns in a non endemic area such as Spain. The economic impact of Chagas disease screening is tested through two decision models, one for the newborn and one for the mother, against the alternative hypothesis of no screening for either the newborn or the mother. Results show that the option "no test" is dominated by the option "test". The cost effectiveness ratio in the "newborn model" was 22€/QALYs gained in the case of screening and 125€/QALYs gained in the case of no screening. The cost effectiveness ratio in the "mother model" was 96€/QALYs gained in the case of screening and 1675€/QALYs gained in the case of no screening. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis highlighted the reduction of uncertainty in the screening option. Threshold analysis assessed that even with a drop in Chagas prevalence from 3.4% to 0.9%, a drop in the probability of vertical transmission from 7.3% to 2.24% and with an increase of screening costs up to €37.5, "test" option would still be preferred to "no test". The current study proved Chagas screening of all Latin American women giving birth in Spain and of their infants to be the best strategy compared to the non-screening option and provides useful information for health policy makers in their decision making process. PMID:21396345

Sicuri, Elisa; Muñoz, José; Pinazo, Maria Jesús; Posada, Elizabeth; Sanchez, Joan; Alonso, Pedro L; Gascon, Joaquim

2011-05-01

308

[Control of Chagas disease in pregnant Latin-American women and her children].  

PubMed

Chagas disease is a chronic and systemic infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. According to estimates from WHO, 10 million people are affected by this parasite. In the last years, birthrate among the immigrant women from Latin America settled in the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid has been increasing, and as T. cruzi can be transmitted from mother to child, in fact 11 cases of congenital Chagas disease have been confirmed. Therefore, the aim of this paper is encouraging improvements in the coverage of the anti-T. cruzi antibodies detection in pregnant women from endemic areas. By this strategy, an active search for infected pregnant women and early detection of her infected newborns could be conducted, and then an early specific treatment could be administrated. Thus, there could be an important contribution to the control of Chagas disease in non-endemic area. PMID:24080893

Merino, Francisco J; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Olabarrieta, Iciar; Merino, Paloma; García-Bujalance, Silvia; Gastañaga, Teresa; Flores-Chavez, María

2013-09-01

309

Join us on Tuesday, October 14, 2014 as we bring Latin American Cuisine to Mizzou. Latin America is a very diverse area consisting of several nations. However, no matter where you are in Latin America you  

E-print Network

such as Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, the Caribbean and more. It would not be a true Latin dining experience without Served with a trio of sauces: Spicy Chocolate, Mango, and Dulce de Leche Berry Tequila Sorbet Four

Noble, James S.

310

Globalization, competitive advantages and the evolution of production systems: rural food processing and localized agri-food systems in Latin-American countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the rise of geographic concentrations of small food-processing units in rural areas of Latin America, in order to show that, drawing on the literature on the development of clusters, they may represent a type of local productive system, namely Local Agri-food Systems. Furthermore it assesses whether they might compete efficiently in global food commodity chains. In this

Denis Requier-Desjardins; FranÇOis Boucher; Claire Cerdan

2003-01-01

311

Association of the duration of residence with obesity-related eating habits and dietary patterns among Latin-American immigrants in Spain.  

PubMed

The dietary patterns of immigrants usually change with the duration of residence and progressively resemble those of the host country. However, very few studies have investigated individuals migrating to countries with a high-quality diet, such as the Mediterranean diet (MD), and none has yet focused on Latin-American immigrants. The present study examined the association of the duration of residence with obesity-related eating habits and dietary patterns among Latin-American immigrants residing in Spain. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008-10 in a representative sample of the adult population residing in Spain. Adherence to the MD was defined as a MD Adherence Screener score ? 9. Analyses were conducted by including 419 individuals aged 18-64 years born in Latin-American countries. Compared with immigrants residing in Spain for < 5 years, those residing for ? 10 years accounted for a lower percentage of individuals who habitually ate at fast-food restaurants and never trimmed visible fat from meat. Moreover, these immigrants were found to have a lower intake of sugary beverages and a higher intake of Na, saturated fat, fibre, olive oil, vegetables and fish and to more frequently strictly adhere to the MD. A longer duration of residence in Spain was found to be associated with both healthy and unhealthy changes in some eating habits and dietary patterns among Latin-American immigrants. Some of the healthy changes observed contrasted the 'Westernisation' of the diet reported in studies conducted in other Western countries. The results of the present study support the role of the food environment of the host country in the modification of the dietary patterns of immigrants. PMID:25418887

Marín-Guerrero, A C; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Guallar-Castillón, P; López-García, Esther; Gutiérrez-Fisac, Juan L

2014-11-24

312

CROSS CULTURAL ANALYSIS OF DETERMINANTS OF HOT FLASHES AND NIGHT SWEATS: LATIN-AMERICAN IMMIGRANTS TO MADRID AND THEIR SPANISH NEIGHBORS  

PubMed Central

Objective This study applies a biocultural perspective to better understand the determinants of hot flashes and night sweats within immigrant and local populations in Madrid, Spain. Methods A combined sample of 575 women from Madrid, aged 45 to 55, was drawn from two studies. The Spanish sample (n=274) participated in the Decisions at Menopause Study (DAMES) in 2000–2002. The Latin-American sample (n=301) was drawn from immigrants to Madrid in 2010–2011. Chi square analyses and logistic regression models were carried out among the combined controlling by origin of provenance. Results Forty four percent of the women reported hot flashes, 36% reported night sweats and 26% both symptoms. Compared to Spanish women, Latin-American women were less likely to report hot flashes (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4–0.9) after controlling for demographic variables and menopausal status. The same was not found for night sweats and for both symptoms combined. Determinants of hot flashes differed from determinants of night sweats. Conclusions Because determinants differed, hot flashes and night sweats should be queried and analyzed separately. Latin-American women were less likely to report hot flashes, but not night sweats or both symptoms combined. More research is needed to clarify the differences in reported hot flashes as the lesser report among immigrants could have been a cultural rather than a biological phenomenon. PMID:23571525

Pérez-Alcalá, Irene; Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Reher, David Sven

2013-01-01

313

How OECD policies affected Latin America in the 1980s  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors assess the effects of OECD monetary and fiscal policies on Latin America by means of simulation studies using the LBS\\/NIESR Global Econometric Model and a new empirical model of Latin America. The Latin American model pays special attention to the supply-side determination of natural rate of output and to the effects of asset accumulation. The Latin American model

Chris Allen; David Currie; T. G. Srinivasan; David Vines

1992-01-01

314

Shifting Turkish American Identity Formations in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation examines Turkish-American identity formations in the United States. Through a case study based in the New York metropolitan area, this study explores how the contestation and negotiation of Turkish ethnicity and Turkish-American identity is grounded in place and across space. It examines Turkish-Americaness in relation to Westerness, Muslimness, Arabness, Americaness, and Turkishness. The study problematizes ethnic and racial

Ilhan Kaya

2003-01-01

315

BERKELEY REVIEW OF LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES 52 Wandering Players in an Imagined Land  

E-print Network

ambling around life, sees this as a golden opportunity: the big break that will finally begin the rest to This American Life) are not. Those are in Spanish, and so are some of the articles that he writes for the Lima of his life, his first legitimate acting gig and the first time he steps out of his home city's limiting

Kammen, Daniel M.

316

Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 09, Number 2: Plays in Performance  

E-print Network

56 LÁTIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Plays in Performance La nueva obra de Maruxa Vilalta, Nada como el piso 16, se estrenó el 7 de noviembre de 1975 en el Teatro de la Universidad, México, D.F. La pieza fue presentada bajo la dirección de la misma...

1976-04-01

317

Chinese Dragons in an American Science Unit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Can art and science find a happy home in the same unit? We think the answer is yes, if the central problem interests the students and allows them to try out multiple abilities. The sixth-grade unit described in this article, which we called "The Dragon Project," grew mainly from two roots, a study of ancient China and a later probe into anatomy…

Lew, Lee Yuen; McLure, John W.

2005-01-01

318

77 FR 22181 - Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...announced the 100,000 Strong in the Americas initiative to encourage more of our students to study abroad in Latin America and more Latin American students to study here in the United States, fostering lifelong connections between our nations that...

2012-04-12

319

Is the present cut-point to define type 2 diabetes appropriate in Latin-Americans?  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) is based either on increased plasma glucose or Glycated hemoglobin levels. Since these measures are the only means for diagnosis of DM2, they must be well adapted to each population according to their metabolic characteristics, given that these may vary in each population. The World Health Organization (WHO) determined the cut-points of plasma glucose levels for the diagnosis of DM2 by associating hyperglycemia with the risk of a specific microvascular complication-retinopathy. Cardiovascular diseases are however the principal causes of mortality in patients with DM2 and we reported that in the Colombo-Ecuadorian population impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance are both risk markers for myocardial infarction. We propose that the current cut-points accepted by the WHO need to be revaluated in populations such as Latin America and that there should be lower cut points for glycaemia in this population, to reduce the prevalence of cardiovascular complications associated with DM2. PMID:25512777

López-Jaramillo, Patricio; Velandia-Carrillo, Carlos; Gómez-Arbeláez, Diego; Aldana-Campos, Martin

2014-01-01

320

HIV Drug Resistance-Associated Mutations in Antiretroviral Naïve HIV-1-Infected Latin American Children  

PubMed Central

Our goal was to describe the presence of HIV drug resistance among HIV-1-infected, antiretroviral (ARV) naïve children and adolescents in Latin America and to examine resistance in these children in relation to drug exposure in the mother. Genotyping was performed on plasma samples obtained at baseline from HIV-1-infected participants in a prospective cohort study in Brazil, Argentina, and Mexico (NISDI Pediatric Study). Of 713 HIV-infected children enrolled, 69 were ARV naïve and eligible for the analysis. At enrollment, mean age was 7.3 years; 81.2% were infected with HIV perinatally. Drug resistance mutations (DRMs) were detected in 6 (8.7%; 95% confidence interval 3.1–18.2%) ARV-naïve subjects; none of the mothers of these 6 received ARVs during their pregnancies and none of the children received ARV prophylaxis. Reverse transcriptase mutations K70R and K70E were detected in 3 and 2 subjects, respectively; protease mutation I50?V was detected in 1 subject. Three of the 6 children with DRMs initiated ARV therapy during followup, with a good response in 2. The overall rate of primary drug resistance in this pediatric HIV-infected population was low, and no subjects had more than 1 DRM. Mutations associated with resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were the most prevalent. PMID:22331986

Soto-Ramirez, Luis E.; Rodriguez-Diaz, Roberto; Harris, D. Robert; Hazra, Rohan

2010-01-01

321

Is the present cut-point to define type 2 diabetes appropriate in Latin-Americans?  

PubMed

The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) is based either on increased plasma glucose or Glycated hemoglobin levels. Since these measures are the only means for diagnosis of DM2, they must be well adapted to each population according to their metabolic characteristics, given that these may vary in each population. The World Health Organization (WHO) determined the cut-points of plasma glucose levels for the diagnosis of DM2 by associating hyperglycemia with the risk of a specific microvascular complication-retinopathy. Cardiovascular diseases are however the principal causes of mortality in patients with DM2 and we reported that in the Colombo-Ecuadorian population impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance are both risk markers for myocardial infarction. We propose that the current cut-points accepted by the WHO need to be revaluated in populations such as Latin America and that there should be lower cut points for glycaemia in this population, to reduce the prevalence of cardiovascular complications associated with DM2. PMID:25512777

López-Jaramillo, Patricio; Velandia-Carrillo, Carlos; Gómez-Arbeláez, Diego; Aldana-Campos, Martin

2014-12-15

322

Cardiovascular Disease in Latin American Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Cross-Sectional Study and a Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objective. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of and associated risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Latin American (LA) patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods. First, a cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 310 Colombian patients with SLE in whom CVD was assessed. Associated factors were examined by multivariate regression analyses. Second, a systematic review of the literature on CVD in SLE in LA was performed. Results. There were 133 (36.5%) Colombian SLE patients with CVD. Dyslipidemia, smoking, coffee consumption, and pleural effusion were positively associated with CVD. An independent effect of coffee consumption and cigarette on CVD was found regardless of gender and duration of disease. In the systematic review, 60 articles fulfilling the eligibility criteria were included. A wide range of CVD prevalence was found (4%–79.5%). Several studies reported ancestry, genetic factors, and polyautoimmunity as novel risk factors for such a condition. Conclusions. A high rate of CVD is observed in LA patients with SLE. Awareness of the observed risk factors should encourage preventive population strategies for CVD in patients with SLE aimed at facilitating the suppression of cigarette smoking and coffee consumption as well as at the tight control of dyslipidemia and other modifiable risk factors. PMID:24294522

Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Caro-Moreno, Julián; Molano-González, Nicolás; Mantilla, Rubén D.; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

2013-01-01

323

[Malaria and social health determinants: a new heuristic framework from the perspective of Latin American social medicine].  

PubMed

Traditionally, malaria research and study have followed the positivist scientific paradigm and its biomedical conception of disease. From this perspective, diverse control actions and strategies have been designed. However, despite a century of scientific experience and the depth and thoroughness achieved in the knowledge of malaria, this has not been translated into a constant and progressive decrease of its epidemiological burden. This essay argues for the need for a change in malaria conception, reconfiguring it as a process of biological and social character, where the geno-phenotypical possibilities of the host-parasite relationship and of the diseases clinical expression are articulated with the historic and social dynamics of the spaces in which they occur. In addition, it proposes rethinking the epidemiological research of this entity on the basis of the visualization of the dynamic, heterogeneous, dialectic and complex character of biosocial organizations that constitute the reality of malaria (from the social structure to the genetic and phenotypic level of parasite individuals, vectors and humans). To achieve this, it is suggested that: 1) the Latin American perspective on the social determinants of health be adopted; 2) new analytical categories (for instance, malaria social territory) and new investigation tools (matrices of critical processes of social determination) be incorporated, and 3) the conventional epidemiological categories of infectious diseases such as the transmission and infectiousness be reinterpreted. PMID:20890565

Piñeros, Juan Gabriel

2010-01-01

324

Ability of six Latin American antivenoms to neutralize the venom of mapaná equis (Bothrops atrox) from Antioquia and Chocó (Colombia).  

PubMed

This investigation compared the ability of six Latin American antivenoms (monovalent antibothropic INS, Santafé de Bogotá; polyvalent INS; polyvalent probiol, Santafé de Bogotá; antibothropic Instituto Butantan, IB, São Paulo, Brazil; polyvalent Instituto Clodomiro Picado, ICP, San José, Costa Rica; polyvalent MYN, Mexico) to neutralize various pharmacological and enzymatic effects of Bothrops atrox venom from Antioquia and Chocó, north-west of Colombia. Our results demonstrated conspicuous differences in the ability of the six antivenoms. In terms of neutralization of lethality, the highest efficacy was observed in the polyvalent INS and the lowest in the polyvalent MYN antivenom. All antivenoms were highly effective in the neutralization of hemorrhage, polyvalent INS and probiol being the highest. In the neutralization of edema-forming activity, the most effective antivenom was the polyvalent (ICP); monovalent (INS) and polyvalent (MYN) were the least effective. All antivenoms were effective in the neutralization of the myotoxic activity of B. atrox venom, the most effective being the polyvalent (INS) and antibothropic (IB). Defibrinating activity was neutralized by all antivenoms; polyvalent (MYN) showed the lowest efficiency. Polyvalent (ICP) antivenom had the highest neutralizing ability against the indirect hemolytic effect of B. atrox venom; polyvalent (MYN) did not neutralize this enzymatic activity. Overall, the polyvalent antivenom (INS) showed the highest neutralizing ability. PMID:7676472

Otero, R; Nuñez, V; Osorio, R G; Gutiérrez, J M; Giraldo, C A; Posada, L E

1995-06-01

325

Latin American and Caribbean Women's Health Network Women and Population Policies meeting. Women in decision-making.  

PubMed

In July 1993, the Latin American and Caribbean Women's Health Network hosted a meeting on Women and Population Policies in preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). Among the nearly 70 women participants were representatives of women's health groups, development agencies, universities, and governments. The presentations at the meeting covered such topics as the need for sexual and reproductive rights to be explicitly addressed in legal instruments, the work of nongovernmental organizations in promoting the right to health, efforts to open debate about abortion and restore legal therapeutic abortion, antinatalist policies which have been adopted without the inclusion of the views of women, ways in which women have participated in preparing for the ICPD, and "North versus South" demographic policies. Participants reached consensus on the need to 1) base population policies on principles of social justice and equity, 2) clearly define reproductive and sexual rights, 3) achieve guarantees of reproductive and sexual rights, 4) empower women, and 5) build alliances with those involved in formulating population policies. Participants also agreed to ask the Secretary General of the ICPD to allow the women's health movement to have the broadest participation possible in the ICPD. PMID:12179725

Gomez, A

1993-01-01

326

Latin II--Advanced.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructional materials for independent learning include two sample units taken from a full-year, 12-unit, Latin 2 course. The units direct the student in the study of irregular adjectives and adverbs, the passive tenses of regular verbs, indefinite pronouns, indirect commands, and descriptive clauses. The unit description lists the forms,…

Clark, Thomas W.; Lenczewski, Leo

327

Health-Related Quality of Life of Latin-American Immigrants and Spanish-Born Attended in Spanish Primary Health Care: Socio-Demographic and Psychosocial Factors  

PubMed Central

Background This study compares the health-related quality of life of Spanish-born and Latin American-born individuals settled in Spain. Socio-demographic and psychosocial factors associated with health-related quality of life are analyzed. Methods A cross-sectional Primary Health Care multi center-based study of Latin American-born (n = 691) and Spanish-born (n = 903) outpatients from 15 Primary Health Care Centers (Madrid, Spain). The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess health-related quality of life. Socio-demographic, psychosocial, and specific migration data were also collected. Results Compared to Spanish-born participants, Latin American-born participants reported higher health-related quality of life in the physical functioning and vitality dimensions. Across the entire sample, Latin American-born participants, younger participants, men and those with high social support reported significantly higher levels of physical health. Men with higher social support and a higher income reported significantly higher mental health. When stratified by gender, data show that for men physical health was only positively associated with younger age. For women, in addition to age, social support and marital status were significantly related. Both men and women with higher social support and income had significantly better mental health. Finally, for immigrants, the physical and mental health components of health-related quality of life were not found to be significantly associated with any of the pre-migration factors or conditions of migration. Only the variable “exposure to political violence” was significantly associated with the mental health component (p = 0.014). Conclusions The key factors to understanding HRQoL among Latin American-born immigrants settled in Spain are age, sex and social support. Therefore, strategies to maintain optimal health outcomes in these immigrant communities should include public policies on social inclusion in the host society and focus on improving social support networks in order to foster and maintain the health and HRQoL of this group. PMID:25835714

Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Bragado-Alvárez, Carmen; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen

2015-01-01

328

Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 12, Number 2: Recent Publications, Materials Received and Current Bibliography  

E-print Network

L. "Spanish American Literary Bibliography—1974," His panófila, Num. 64 (1978), 93-99. Johnson, Harvey L. "Bibliografía literaria hispanoamericana 1976," Revista Iberoamericana, Nos. 102-103 (enero-jun 1978), 221-229. Lorenzo, Ana María y Orbit E...), 39-47. Matas, Julio. Penelope Inside, Out [El cambio], Trans. Sylvia J. Brann. Ms. Melchinger, Siegfried. El teatro en la actualidad. Buenos Aires: Ediciones SPRING 1979 101 Galatea Nueva Visión S.R.L., 1958. Traducción por José María Coco...

1979-04-01

329

American Housing Survey for the United States: 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Last Friday, the US Census released their annual American Housing Survey for the United States, which provides up-to-date housing statistics for the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Conducted by field representatives who obtain information from occupants of homes, the survey provides data on "apartments; single-family homes; mobile homes; vacant housing units; age, sex, and race of householders; income; housing and neighborhood quality; housing costs; equipment and fuels; and size of the housing units. The survey also presents data on mortgages, rent control, rent subsidies, previous unit of recent movers, and reasons for moving."

330

A cost-effectiveness analysis of a 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children in six Latin American countries  

PubMed Central

Background A recently developed 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable H influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) is expected to afford protection against more than two thirds of isolates causing IPD in children in Latin America, and also against acute otitis media caused by both Spn and NTHi. The objective of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of PHiD-CV in comparison to non-vaccination in children under 10 years of age in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. Methods We used a static, deterministic, compartmental simulation model. The dosing regimen considered included three vaccine doses (at 2 months, 4 months and 6 months) and a booster dose (at 13 months) (3?+?1 schedule). Model outcomes included number of cases prevented, deaths averted, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained and costs. Discount for costs and benefits of long term sequelae was done at 3.5%, and currency reported in 2008-2009 U$S varying between countries. Results The largest effect in case prevention was observed in pneumococcal meningitis (from 27% in Peru to 47% in Colombia), neurologic sequelae after meningitis (from 38% in Peru to 65% in Brazil) and bacteremia (from 42% in Argentina to 49% in Colombia). The proportion of predicted deaths averted annually ranged from 18% in Peru to 33% in Brazil. Overall, the health benefits achieved with PHiD-CV vaccination resulted in a lower QALY loss (from 15% lower in Peru to 26% in Brazil). At a cost of USD 20 per vaccine dose, vaccination was cost-effective in all countries, from being cost saving in Chile to a maximum Incremental Cost-effectiveness Ratio of 7,088 US$ Dollars per QALY gained. Results were robust in the sensitivity analysis, and scenarios with indirect costs affected results more than those with herd immunity. Conclusions The incorporation of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into routine infant immunization programs in Latin American countries could be a cost-effective strategy to improve infant population health in the region. PMID:24004943

2013-01-01

331

Latin American dose survey results in mammography studies under IAEA programme: radiological protection of patients in medical exposures (TSA3).  

PubMed

Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela) working under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Cooperation Programme: TSA3 Radiological Protection of Patients in Medical Exposures have joined efforts in the optimisation of radiation protection in mammography practice. Through surveys of patient doses, the region has a unique database of diagnostic reference levels for analogue and digital equipment that will direct future optimisation activities towards the early detection of breast cancer among asymptomatic women. During RLA9/057 (2007-09) 24 institutions participated with analogue equipment in a dose survey. Regional training on methodology and measurement equipment was addressed in May 2007. The mean glandular dose (DG) was estimated using the incident kerma in air and relevant conversion coefficients for both projections craneo caudal and mediolateral oblique (CC and MLO). For Phase 2, RLA9/067 (2010-11), it was decided to include also digital systems in order to see their impact in future dose optimisation activities. Any new country that joined the project received training in the activities through IAEA expert missions. Twenty-nine new institutions participated (9 analogue and 20 digital equipment). A total of 2262 patient doses were collected during this study and from them DG (mGy) for both projections were estimated for each institution and country. Regional results (75 percentile in mGy) show for CC and MLO views, respectively: RLA9/057 (analogue) 2.63 and 3.17; RLA/067: 2.57 and 3.15 (analogue) and 2.69 and 2.90 (digital). Regarding only digital equipment for CC and MLO, respectively, computed radiography systems showed 2.59 and 2.78 and direct digital radiography (DDR) systems 2.78 and 3.04. Based on the IAEA Basic Safety Standard (BSS) reference dose (3 mGy), it can be observed that there is enough room to start optimisation processes in Latin America (LA); several countries or even particular institutions have values much higher than the 3 mGy. The main issues to address are lack of well-established quality assurance programmes for mammography, not enough medical physicists with training in mammography, an increase in patient doses with the introduction of digital equipment and to create awareness on radiation risk and optimisation strategies. PMID:24993012

Mora, Patricia; Blanco, Susana; Khoury, Helen; Leyton, Fernando; Cárdenas, Juan; Defaz, María Yolanda; Garay, Fernando; Telón, Flaviano; Aguilar, Juan Garcia; Roas, Norma; Gamarra, Mirtha; Blanco, Daniel; Quintero, Ana Rosa; Nader, Alejandro

2015-03-01

332

Fermilab-Latin America collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fermilab`s program of collaboration with Latin America was initiated by then-Director Leon Lederman about 1980. His goal was to aid Latin American physics, and particularly its particle physics; this latter aim is in keeping with the Laboratory`s particle physics mission. The reasons for collaboration between institutions in the US and Latin America are many, including geographic and cultural, together with

Rubinstein

1994-01-01

333

Access to Finance and Composition of Funding during the Crisis: A firm-level analysis for Latin American countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2009, Latin America was sucked into the financial crisis which, following the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers, echoed around the globe and shook and shocked the entire global financial system. As a consequence, Latin America experienced a slump in real GDP growth, a drop in exports and a collapse in inward FDI flows. Against that backdrop, the paper sheds light

Sandra Leitner; Robert Stehrer

2012-01-01

334

American Physiological Society: Women Life Scientists Units  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Crafted by educators at the American Physiological Society, this set of twenty life sciences modules is designed "to increase students' exposure both to female science role models and to hands-on, inquiry approach activities." Each module includes a brief biography of a female science role model and a set of problem-solving life sciences with a multidisciplinary focus. The scientists profiled here include Barbara McClintock, Alice Huang, Deborah Gordon, Dian Fossey, and Betsy Dresser. The activities include suggestions for teachers, assessment ideas, and handouts for students. The site also contains additional inks to educational activities designed for K-12 educators and students, and visitors can sign up to receive updates about new materials via RSS feed or email.

335

United States History in the Secondary School. American People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of the series described in SO 000 378. When the student of American History seeks beneath the surface of the Dream of the Golden Door, the story he unearths is often one of prejudice, bigotry, and quiet tragedy. For the sake of relevance, the specific objectives of this unit y are: 1) to study the student's ancestors and their struggle…

Point Pleasant Beach Board of Education, NJ.

336

Latin-American Regional Developments in Space Technology and International Cooperation - Columbian Space Policy: An Approach to Create a National Space Agency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space exploration is a great human adventure: culturally, scientifically, technologically and industrially. Since the earliest of times, civilizations have been united in their awe of, and inspiration by, the cosmos, as testified in particularly by the peoples and cultures of the Central and South American continent in pre-Columbian times. Today, space systems have become an essential tool for the scientific disciplines related to the knowledge of the universe, including our own planet and its close or its remote environment. The main objective of this research is to explain the way in which Colombia, rich in myths and secular legends connecting mankind to the universe, must in the present tackle the issue of its development of space activities. The context in which it could be carried out is also described, along with a perspective of the current state of science and technology in the space sector on a global scale. Any modern nation is concerned with its independence, whether political, economic, or intellectual. That is why we support the concept of countries in the process of development becoming actively involved in the international space scene. Indeed, having limitations in industrial and technological exchange, we feel excluded today from key fields for our tomorrow. This research thus proposes to demonstrate how in a time that can be regarded as one of the most serious crises in its history, Colombia could, in an atmosphere free from fratricidal conflicts, exploit its space matter capabilities. We do not limit our focus to the scientific field, but also consider the social, economic and cultural aspects. The results of this research delineate how Colombia could start a new optimistic phase of its development, joining the international space programs within the framework of agreements among the regional governments in Latin America.

Arenales-Vergara, Oscar A.

2002-01-01

337

Lectura y Vida: Revista Latinoamericana de Lectura. (Reading and Life: Latin American Reading Magazine). 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The four 1998 issues of the journal on literacy education, entirely in Spanish, include these articles: "The Inevitable Radical Weakness of Language: Some Reflections about Forming Readers and Citizens" (Daniel Goldin); "Relationships among Reading and Writing, Thematic Units, Learning Through Research...In Search of Effective Instruction for…

Lectura y Vida: Revista Latinoamericana de Lectura, 1998

1998-01-01

338

Principals' Role and Public Primary Schools' Effectiveness in Four Latin American Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the effectiveness of observable and quantifiable traits in and approaches of school principals in enhancing student achievement. Data were gathered on 2,048 fourth-grade students in 96 public primary schools in Leon, Mexico; Belo Horizonte, Brazil; Buenos Aires, Argentina; and Santiago, Chile. The UNESCO/ORELAC (United

Anderson, Joan B.

2008-01-01

339

On the regional approach to accounting principles harmonization: A time for Latin American integration?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the majority of countries outside of the United States, accounting principles are issued by a professional accounting organization vested with official authority—granted or recognized by the government—to promulgate accounting standards. The accounting standards might have developed from within the country or been adopted from foreign standards and adapted to the specific circumstances of the country's economy. Examples of both

Juan M. Rivera; Antonio Socías Salvá

1995-01-01

340

TESTCROSS PERFORMANCE OF SEMIEXOTIC INBRED LINES DERIVED FROM LATIN AMERICAN MAIZE ACCESSIONS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genetic diversity of commercial maize (Zea mays L.) in the United States is limited. Tropical maize represents the most diverse readily available source of germplasm with which to broaden the genetic base of temperate maize. One hundred sisty-four inbred lines were developed from crosses between t...

341

Considerations for Integrating Technology in Developing Communities in Latin America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses issues related to introducing new information and communication technologies (ICT) into Latin American countries. Latin American countries are gaining world focus with political changes such as the death of Hugo Chavez in Venezuela and the election of the first Latin American Pope. This region will host the World Cup,…

Ponte, Daniela Núñez; Cullen, Theresa A.

2013-01-01

342

Trends and heterogeneity of cardiovascular disease and risk factors across Latin American and Caribbean countries.  

PubMed

Aging, globalization and urbanization in Latina America and the Caribbean (LAC) have made cardiovascular disease (CVD) the number one cause of death and disability, while communicable diseases have decreased. This epidemiological transition has been more heterogeneous than in other areas of the world. While countries like Argentina, Chile, Brazil and Colombia have seen a significant decrease in CVD mortality, the rest of the countries have seen an increase, particularly Central American and Caribbean countries. These latter countries have now coexisting high prevalence of communicable and non-communicable diseases, threatening the socioeconomic development. Recent multinational cross sectional studies have provided a better perspective of the prevalence and distribution of cardiovascular risk factors in the region. While there has been a decrease in prevalence of smoking in the region, obesity, diabetes and physical inactivity continue to increase the CVD disease burden in LAC. PMID:25218566

Rivera-Andrade, Alvaro; Luna, Max A

2014-01-01

343

Prevalence of Chagas Disease in Latin-American Migrants Living in Europe: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have assessed the burden of Chagas disease in non-endemic countries and most of them are based on prevalence estimates from Latin American (LA) countries that likely differ from the prevalence in migrants living in Europe. The aim of this study was to systematically review the existing data informing current understanding of the prevalence of Chagas disease in LA migrants living in European countries. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting prevalence of Chagas disease in European countries belonging to the European Union (EU) before 2004 in accordance with the MOOSE guidelines and based on the database sources MEDLINE and Global Health. No restrictions were placed on study date, study design or language of publication. The pooled prevalence was estimated using random effect models based on DerSimonian & Laird method. Results We identified 18 studies conducted in five European countries. The random effect pooled prevalence was 4.2% (95%CI:2.2-6.7%); and the heterogeneity of Chagas disease prevalence among studies was high (I2 = 97%,p<0.001). Migrants from Bolivia had the highest prevalence of Chagas disease (18.1%, 95%CI:13.9–22.7%). Conclusions Prevalence of Chagas in LA migrants living in Europe is high, particularly in migrants from Bolivia and Paraguay. Data are highly heterogeneous dependent upon country of origin and within studies of migrants from the same country of origin. Country-specific prevalence differs from the estimates available from LA countries. Our meta-analysis provides prevalence estimates of Chagas disease that should be used to estimate the burden of disease in European countries. PMID:25680190

Requena-Méndez, Ana; Aldasoro, Edelweiss; de Lazzari, Elisa; Sicuri, Elisa; Brown, Michael; Moore, David A. J.; Gascon, Joaquim; Muñoz, Jose

2015-01-01

344

Prevalence and Predictors of Elevated Aspartate Aminotransferase-to-Platelet Ratio Index in Latin American Perinatally HIV-infected Children  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic liver disease has emerged as an important problem in adults with longstanding HIV infection, but data are lacking for children. We characterized elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-platelet ratio index (APRI ), a marker of possible liver fibrosis, in perinatally HIV-infected children. Methods NISDI [NICHD (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) International Site Development Initiative] enrolled HIV-infected children (ages 0.1-20.1 years) from five Latin American countries in an observational cohort from 2002–2009. Twice yearly visits included medical history, physical examination and laboratory evaluations. The prevalence (95% confidence interval [CI]) of APRI>1.5 was calculated and associations with demographic, HIV-related and liver-related variables were investigated in bivariate analyses. Results APRI was available for 1012 of 1032 children. APRI was >1.5 in 32 (3.2%, 95% CI: 2.2%-4.4%) including 2 of 4 participants with hepatitis B (HBV) infection. Factors significantly associated with APRI>1.5 (p<0.01 compared to APRI?1.5) included country, younger age, past or current HBV, higher alanine aminotransferase, lower total cholesterol, higher log10 current viral load, lower current CD4 count, lower nadir CD4 count, use of hepatotoxic non-antiretroviral (ARV) medications, and no prior ARV use. Rates of APRI>1.5 varied significantly by current ARV regimen (p=0.0002), from 8.0% for no ARV to 3.2% for non-protease inhibitor (PI) regimens to 1.5% for PI-based regimens. Conclusions Elevated APRI occurred in approximately 3% of perinatally HIV-infected children. PI-based ARVs appeared protective while inadequate HIV control appeared to increase risk of elevated APRI. Additional investigations are needed to better assess potential subclinical, chronic liver disease in HIV-infected children. PMID:23799515

Siberry, George K.; Cohen, Rachel A.; Harris, D. Robert; Cruz, Maria Leticia Santos; Oliveira, Ricardo; Peixoto, Mario F.; Cervi, Maria Celia; Hazra, Rohan; Pinto, Jorge A.

2013-01-01

345

Efalizumab in the Treatment of Scalp, Palmoplantar and Nail Psoriasis: Results of a 24-Week Latin American Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Plaque-type psoriasis affecting the nails, scalp, hands or feet can often be difficult to treat; for example, topical treatments and phototherapy may not penetrate the nail plate or scalp. The objective of this large, international, multicentre study was to investigate the efficacy of efalizumab in a Latin American population of adult patients with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis who were candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy. Methods Eligible patients were enrolled in a 24-week, open-label, single-arm, Phase IIIb/IV study of continuous treatment with subcutaneous efalizumab, 1.0 mg/kg/wk. Involvement of the nails, scalp, or hands or feet was assessed using the Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI), the Psoriasis Scalp Severity Index (PSSI), or the Palmoplantar Pustulosis Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PPPASI), respectively. Missing data were handled using a last observation carried forward or nonresponder imputation approach. Results Of the 189 patients who received treatment, 112 patients had nail involvement, 172 had scalp involvement, and 19 had palmoplantar disease at baseline. At Week 24, ?50% improvement on the NAPSI, PSSI and PPPASI was observed in 31%, 71% and 68% of patients, respectively, whereas ?75% improvement on these scores was observed in 17%, 52% and 63%, respectively. Descriptive statistics showed lower NAPSI-75 and higher PSSI-75 and -50 response rates among patients with higher baseline scores. Conclusions This open-label, uncontrolled study provides supportive evidence of the potential of efalizumab as a treatment for nail, scalp and palmoplantar psoriasis. PMID:20428227

Takahashi, María Denise; Chouela, Edgardo Néstor; Dorantes, Gladys Leon; Roselino, Ana Maria; Santamaria, Jesùs; Allevato, Miguel Angel; Cestari, Tania; de Aillaud, Maria Eugenia Manzanera; Stengel, Fernando Miguel; Licu, Daiana

2010-01-01

346

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Latin American-Mediterranean Family and Its Sublineages in the Light of Robust Evolutionary Markers  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a clonal population structure, and the Latin American-Mediterranean (LAM) family is one of the largest and most widespread within this species, showing evidence for remarkable pathobiology and a confusing phylogeny. Here, we applied robust phylogenetic markers to study the evolution of the LAM family and its major sublineages circulating in Russia and neighboring countries. A total of 250 M. tuberculosis isolates were confirmed to belong to the LAM family based on the analysis of the LAM-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Rv3062 and Rv0129c genes. At this stage, the family status was rectified for 121 isolates misleadingly assigned by CRISPR spoligotyping to non-LAM families (T1- or T5-RUS1). Consequently, the reestimated LAM prevalence rate increased 2-fold in Russia and Kazakhstan and 4-fold in Belarus. The majority (91.8 to 98.7%) of the LAM isolates from all three countries belonged to the LAM-RUS sublineage. In contrast, the Ibero-American LAM RD-Rio sublineage was identified in only 7 Russian isolates. Taken together, our findings and further analyses suggest a monophyletic origin of LAM-RUS: at a historically distant time, in Russia, in a small founding bacterial/human population. Its dissemination pattern and high prevalence rate in Northern Eurasia may indicate a long-term coexistence of the LAM-RUS sublineage and local human populations hypothetically leading to coadaptation and reduced pathogenicity of the relatively more ancient clones, such as spoligotype international type 254 (SIT254), compared to the more recent SIT252 and SIT266 clones. In contrast, rare LAM RD-Rio isolates were likely brought to Russia through occasional human contact. The spread of RD-Rio strains is not as global as commonly claimed and is determined largely by human migration flows (rather than by pathobiological properties of these strains). Consequently, a host population factor appears to play a major role in shaping the in situ dissemination pattern of the imported strains in an autochthonous population. PMID:24584500

Vyazovaya, Anna; Narvskaya, Olga

2014-01-01

347

Chagas disease: don't forget it in Latin American patients with heart block!  

PubMed

Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, and mostly affects poor rural populations of central and south America. It is mainly acquired by bugs (triatoma) but also by ingestion of the parasite (fresh fruit juices) or by foetal-maternal blood passing. Despite an important decrease in transmission during the last decades in several countries, millions of patients are still chronically infected and most of them are asymptomatic. In 2012-2013, two cases were admitted in our cardiac intensive care unit (ICU) with heart block due to Chagas cardiomyopathy. Diagnosis was established by echocardiography and positive serological results for Trypanosoma cruzi. This report underlines that in cases of heart failure and conduction abnormalities of unclear aetiology, Chagas disease should be taken into consideration, even in patients originating from non-endemic countries. PMID:24783476

Bimbi, Baby Jean-Marc Bantu; Unger, Philippe; Vandenbossche, Jean-Luc; Silance, Paul-Gaël; Van Laethem, Yves

2014-04-01

348

Food security in Latin America.  

PubMed

Although the nutrition situation in most Latin American countries is improving and malnutrition is easing, worrisome factors are emerging. Huge rural-to-urban migrations have been accompanied by a worsening nutrition situation in rural populations, especially in Mexico, Colombia, and Brazil, a phenomenon not readily apparent from average food availability and malnutrition data. Average figures can also mask the severe nutrition problems that persist in four densely populated areas: the Caribbean Islands, Central America, the Andean region, and parts of Brazil. Although globalization is improving the nutritional status of many population groups in Latin America, it is also creating new pressures. Latin American countries dependent on agriculture are especially vulnerable. PMID:16619737

Chávez, Adolfo; Muñoz, Miriam

2002-12-01

349

Encouraging and Attracting Underrepresented Racial Minorities to the Field of Geosciences-A Latin American Graduate Student Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have shown that interactions between same-race and same-gender faculty and graduate students are reported to have a greater impact on the future success of those students. In the same manner, I believe graduate students can play a pivotal role in training and attracting underrepresented racial minorities (URMs) at the high school and undergraduate level to pursue a career in geosciences. Working at Brown University for the last couple of years, I have been involved in a number of initiatives aimed at solidifying ties with the community. Most of my social work has revolved around mentoring underrepresented local minorities, as I feel that this area is where I can contribute the most. This year I began participating in the NSF funded Brown GK-12: "Physical Processes in the Environment" program. As a Latin American female graduate student in the geological sciences, I hope to teach the students-by example-that being a minority is not necessarily an obstacle, but rather an advantage that can offer a different, valuable point of view when pursuing their professional goals. I think that sharing part of my experiences and knowledge as a researcher with young minds contributes to the way they imagine themselves in the future, allowing them to believe that a career in science is within their reach and that higher education is a realistic option worth pursuing if they have the interest in doing so. From my short time as a graduate student, to have a greater impact in attracting URMs, it is critical to have the support of advisors and committee members. One must keep in mind that a graduate career is a time consuming commitment; therefore, it is necessary to undertake activities that will have the most impact on minority students in the short time available. The experience becomes even more effective if advisors are actively involved, particularly financially. Faculty advisors who can allocate funds to, for example support summer activities designed to involve URMs, are essentially leveraging funds because the overall return will be much greater than the initial investment.

Caballero Gill, R. P.; Herbert, T.

2010-12-01

350

The genetic ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States.  

PubMed

Over the past 500 years, North America has been the site of ongoing mixing of Native Americans, European settlers, and Africans (brought largely by the trans-Atlantic slave trade), shaping the early history of what became the United States. We studied the genetic ancestry of 5,269 self-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans who are 23andMe customers and show that the legacy of these historical interactions is visible in the genetic ancestry of present-day Americans. We document pervasive mixed ancestry and asymmetrical male and female ancestry contributions in all groups studied. We show that regional ancestry differences reflect historical events, such as early Spanish colonization, waves of immigration from many regions of Europe, and forced relocation of Native Americans within the US. This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry. PMID:25529636

Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y; Macpherson, J Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L

2015-01-01

351

Entrepreneurship and competitiveness dynamics in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyses the relationship between entrepreneurial dynamics and the level of competitiveness in Latin American countries.\\u000a Based on a stage of economic development model, we demonstrate that Latin American countries under the model followed different\\u000a paths related to competitiveness. These different paths can explain the effect of specific competitiveness conditions on entrepreneurial\\u000a dynamics in Latin America.

Zoltan J. Acs; José Ernesto Amorós

2008-01-01

352

Latin America: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning aid is intended to help Americans become more effective in understanding and communicating with Latin Americans. The book consists of the following: (1) a map of Latin America, with area and population statistics for the various countries; (2) a brief description of the land, the people, the economy, diet, religion, government,…

Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

353

PREFACE: 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Written contributions from participants of the Joint 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) – 21st IAEA Technical Meeting on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (21st IAEA TM RUSFD). The International Advisory Committees of the 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and the 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD), agreed to carry out together this Joint LAWPP 2014 – 21st RUSFD in San José, Costa Rica, on 27-31 January 2014. The Joint LAWPP 2014 – 21st RUSFD meeting, organized by the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, and Ad Astra Rocket Company in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP) is a series of events which has been held periodically since 1982, with the purpose of providing a forum in which the research of the Latin American plasma physics community can be displayed, as well as fostering collaborations among plasma scientists within the region and with researchers from the rest of the world. Recognized plasma scientists from developed countries are specially invited to the meeting to present the state of the art on several "hot" topics related to plasma physics. It is an open meeting, with an International Advisory Committee, in which the working language is English. It was firstly held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by workshops in Medellín, Colombia (1985), Santiago de Chile, Chile (1988), Buenos Aires, Argentina (1990), Mexico City, Mexico (1992), Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil (1994, combined with the International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP)), Caracas, Venezuela (1997), Tandil, Argentina (1998), La Serena, Chile (2000), Sao Pedro, Brazil (2003), Mexico City, Mexico (2005), Caracas, Venezuela (2007), Santiago de Chile, Chile (2010, combined with the ICPP) and Mar de Plata, Argentina (2011). The 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices is an ideal forum for small laboratory size fusion experiments, as compared to those of the larger laboratories, to report about their latest achievements working with medium size and small scale tokamaks, stellarators, compact tori, dense plasma focus, reversed field pinches, helical devices, linear machines, and other small plasma devices. The Technical Meeting aims at stimulating new synergies which can contribute to better streamline the research outputs to the mainstream fusion research. Previous meetings in the series were held in Budapest, Hungary (1985), Nagoya, Japan (1986), Nice, France (1988), Washington DC, USA (1990), Hefei, China (1991), Wuerzburg, Germany (1992), Campinas, Brazil (1993), Madrid, Spain (1994), Ahmedabad, India (1995), Prague, Czech Republic (1996), Cairo, Egypt (1997), Tokyo, Japan (1998) in Chengdu, China (1999), São Paulo, Brazil (2002), Vienna, Austria (2003) in Mexico City, Mexico (2005), Lisbon, Portugal (2007), in Alushta, Ukraine (2008), Kurchatov, Kazakhstan (2009) and Vienna, Austria (2011). The 1st Costa Rican Summer School on Plasma Physics was held a week before the Joint LAWPP 2014 – 21st IAEA TM RUSFD, and the 2nd Latin American Workshop on Industrial Applications of Plasma Technology (AITP) was organized in parallel with the it. The objective of the AITP Workshop is to enhance the regional academic and industrial cooperation in the field of plasma assisted surface technology. The Joint LAWPP 2014 – 21st IAEA TM RUSFD was held at the Crowne Plaza Corobici Hotel in San José from 27 to 31 January 2014. The LAWPP scientific programme, which was spread along the whole week, had 15 invited speakers, 126 participants from 20 countries around the world. It included 7 plenary talks, 8 invited talks and 12 oral contributed papers were chosen out of 92 submissions. 82 contributions in 25 topics were presented in poster sessions on Monday 27, Tuesday 28 and Thursday 30 January 2014. The 21st IAEA TM RUSFD was held along the LAWPP 2014 from 27 to 29 January 2014 and was attended by 37 participants formally registered with the I

Iván Vargas-Blanco, V.; Herrera-Velázquez, J. Julio E.

2015-03-01

354

Africa, Roots and Pride for Afro-Americans. An Instructional Unit for High School Anthropology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This three to four-week high school anthropology unit examines the African heritage of black Americans. The unit was written for students in an inner city all black public high school. Objectives are to foster a sense of pride in black Americans' heritage, learn how black Americans can discover their roots, examine causes and consequences of the…

Campbell, Margaret H.

355

Internationalizing Business Education in Latin America: Issues and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the extent of internationalization of business education in Latin America and identifies the key challenges facing the Latin American business schools. Based on a survey of the business schools that are members of CLADEA (Consejo Latinoamericano de Escuelas de Administracion--Latin American Council of Management Schools), and…

Elahee, Mohammad; Norbis, Mario

2009-01-01

356

Price Caps, Efficiency Payoffs and Infrastructure Contract Renegotiation in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty years ago, as the United Kingdom was getting ready to launch the privatization of its public services, Professor Littlechild developed and operationalized the concept of price caps as a regulatory regime to control for residual monopoly conditions in those services. Ten years later, Latin American countries, as they embarked into their own infrastructure reforms, also adopted the price cap

Antonio Estache; Jose-Luis Guasch; Lourdes Trujillo

2003-01-01

357

Psychological Testing as a Diagnostic and Therapeutic Tool in the Treatment of Traumatized Latin American and African Refugees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of psychological assessment, an underutilized tool, in connection with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is presented. Identification of PTSD in refugees from Latin America and Africa is usually difficult because it is compounded by the trauma of migration. Issues regarding diagnosis and treatment are discussed, and case examples are provided to illustrate specific clinical concerns. Disclosure of historical information

Sara Nieves-Grafals

1995-01-01

358

Environmental Health in the Latin American and Caribbean Region: Use of Water Storage Containers, Water Quality, and Community Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water quality and availability are important issues in many developing countries where portions of populations still lack access to potable water. Throughout the English-speaking Caribbean and parts of Latin America, households and businesses invest in water supply systems even when they are connected to and pay for water services from a private or state owned provider. Inconsistent supplies of water

Erlande Omisca

2011-01-01

359

The SeroPrevalence of Antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi in Latin American Refugees and Immigrants to Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Chagas’ disease is caused by infection with the protozoan agent Trypanosoma cruzi. An estimated sixteen to eighteen million people are infected in Latin America. Outside of endemic regions, Chagas’ disease may be transmitted through the transfusion of infected blood components, congenital infection and organ transplantation. We sought to determine the sero-prevalence of antibodies to T. cruzi in a community

L. S. Steele; D. W. MacPherson; J. Kim; J. S. Keystone; B. D. Gushulak

2007-01-01

360

The Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. Bulletin #13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document addresses several of the problems of educational planning in Latin America. Emilia Ferreiro, in "Alternatives to Understanding Illiteracy in the Region," suggests that illiteracy in this region is preventing the attainment of democracy. As social inequality increases, so does the percentage of illiterate adults. Revolutionary social…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

361

School Infrastructure and Resources Do Matter: Analysis of the Incidence of School Resources on the Performance of Latin American Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation is to determine the incidence of school infrastructure and resources and its impact on the academic performance of primary education students in Latin America. A 4-level multilevel model was applied to the data of the Second Regional Comparative and Explanatory Study (SERCE) conducted by UNESCO, which researched…

Murillo, F. Javier; Roman, Marcela

2011-01-01

362

The Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. Bulletin 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The initiative and activities carried out by 29 countries in Latin and South America and the Caribbean in the UNESCO Major Project in the Field of Education to correct deficiencies and meet unsatisfied basic educational needs are summarized. Many summaries reflect revisions made during 1983 in National Plans of Action with respect to enhancing…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and Caribbean.

363

[International migration in Latin America].  

PubMed

Trends in international migration in Latin America are reviewed using data from published sources. Aspects considered include historical views; migration according to occupational status and educational level; migration to the United States; migration characteristics in different regions of Latin America; and the crisis of the 1980s and its impact on population distribution. PMID:12320807

Pellegrino, A

1995-12-01

364

Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1948, the Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA) is part of the United Nationsâ?? broader initiative to foster coordinated economic development schemes and relationships among Latin American nations. Their web presence is quite formidable, and for persons interested in these types of policy endeavors, this site warrants several visits. First-time visitors can get an accurate sense of ECLAâ??s overall mission by reading the headlines on the homepage, which draw attention to their economic analyses and monitoring of the UNâ??s Millennium Development Goals. Visitors looking for reports and publications can take a look at some of their more recent works, such as the economic survey of Latin America and the Caribbean as well as papers on foreign investment in the region. The site is rounded out by a very helpful interactive database which provides information on trade for 33 of the regionâ??s countries, along with 15 members of the European Union.

2000-01-01

365

The Hispanicization of the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two strikingly contrasting culture groups, Latin Americans and Anglo Americans, overlap in a Borderlands that straddles the international boundary between the United States and Mexico. This overlap began with the Aztec conquest by Cortes which triggered the intermixing and miscegenation between Spaniards and Indians that produced a mestizo people…

Nostrand, Richard L.

366

Tuberculosis among American Indians of the contiguous United States.  

PubMed Central

Paleopathologic findings provide strong evidence for the existence of tuberculosis in Andean populations of pre-Columbian America. Indirect evidence is available also to suggest its possible endemicity among some American Indian tribes who lived within the present-day contiguous United States before the arrival of Europeans. The available data suggest that tuberculosis became a major health problem in some tribes with increased population density and cultural changes after increased contact with European civilization, paralleling the deterioration in living conditions after relocation of the tribes to reservations. By 1900, tuberculosis had become one of the most serious health problems among North American Indians. Tuberculosis control was hampered by the lack of a specific treatment, and only the advent of specific chemotherapy in an ambulatory setting brought a breakthrough. Mortality, morbidity, and risk of infection have all sharply decreased over the past three decades. However, tuberculosis incidence rates among American Indians remain well above rates in the white population. An intensified effort to identify those with tuberculosis and those at risk of tuberculosis as well as to develop compliance-enhancing strategies with treatment regimens will be necessary to eliminate tuberculosis from Indian reservations. PMID:2511601

Rieder, H L

1989-01-01

367

Addressing Gender-Based Violence in the Latin American and Caribbean Region: A Critical Review of Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morrison, Ellsberg, and Bott present an overview of gender-based violence (GBV) in Latin America, with special emphasis on good practice interventions to prevent GBV or offer services to its survivors or perpetrators. Intimate partner violence and sexual coercion are the most common forms of GBV, and these are the types of GBV that they analyze.GBV has serious consequences for women?s

Andrew Morrison; Mary Ellsberg; Sarah Bott

2004-01-01

368

Latin and Cross Latin Squares  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latin squares were first introduced and studied by the famous mathematician Leonhard Euler in the 1700s. Through the years, Latin squares have been used in areas such as statistics, graph theory, coding theory, the generation of random numbers as well as in the design and analysis of experiments. Recently, with the international popularity of…

Emanouilidis, Emanuel

2008-01-01

369

Immigrating to the US: what Brazilian, Latin American and Haitian women have to say about changes to their lifestyle that may be associated with obesity.  

PubMed

Our goal was to explore the perceived determinants of obesity in Brazilian, Latin American and Haitian women. This is part of an ongoing community-based participatory intervention. Focus groups by immigrant group were conducted and themes extracted. Women expressed differences in beliefs, attitudes, and barriers regarding diet and physical activity in the US versus their home country. Participants thought food in the US is "less natural," there is less time for preparation, and there is more variety. The weather is a barrier to physical activity in the US and work is more physically demanding. Job-related efforts were not considered physical activity. They reported higher levels of stress, less control of their time and less social support in the US. Providing immigrants with appropriate support and education early in the acculturation process has the potential to help prevent obesity. PMID:22736266

Tovar, Alison; Must, Aviva; Metayer, Nesly; Gute, David M; Pirie, Alex; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D

2013-04-01

370

Immigrating to the US: What Brazilian, Latin American and Haitian Women Have to Say About Changes to Their Lifestyle That May be Associated with Obesity  

PubMed Central

Our goal was to explore the perceived determinants of obesity in Brazilian, Latin American and Haitian women. This is part of an ongoing community-based participatory intervention. Focus groups by immigrant group were conducted and themes extracted. Women expressed differences in beliefs, attitudes, and barriers regarding diet and physical activity in the US versus their home country. Participants thought food in the US is “less natural,” there is less time for preparation, and there is more variety. The weather is a barrier to physical activity in the US and work is more physically demanding. Job-related efforts were not considered physical activity. They reported higher levels of stress, less control of their time and less social support in the US. Providing immigrants with appropriate support and education early in the acculturation process has the potential to help prevent obesity. PMID:22736266

Tovar, Alison; Must, Aviva; Metayer, Nesly; Gute, David M.; Pirie, Alex; Hyatt, Raymond R.; Economos, Christina D.

2012-01-01

371

Translating Latin American/US Latina frameworks and methods in gender and health equity: linking women's health education and participatory social change.  

PubMed

This article applies transdisciplinary approaches to critical health education for gender equity by analyzing textual and political strategies translating/culturally adapting the U.S. feminist health text, Our Bodies Ourselves (OBOS), for Latin American/Caribbean and U.S. Latina women. The resulting text, Nuestros Cuerpos, Nuestras Vidas (NCNV), was revised at multiple levels to reflect different cultural\\sociopolitical assumptions connecting individual knowledge, community-based and transnational activist organizations, and strategic social change. Translation/cultural adaptation decisions were designed to ensure that gender-equitable health promotion education crossed cultural borders, conveying personal knowledge and motivating individual actions while also inspiring participation in partnerships for change. Transdisciplinary approaches integrating critical ecosystemic frameworks and participatory methods can help design health promotion education mobilizing engaged, gender-equitable health citizenship supporting both personal and societal change. PMID:24366020

Shapiro, Ester R

372

The Impact of Rural Residency on the Expression and Outcome of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Data From a Multiethnic Latin American Cohort  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the role of place of residency in the expression and outcomes of SLE in a multi-ethnic Latin American cohort. Patients and Methods SLE patients (<2 years of diagnosis) from 34 centers constitute this cohort. Residency was dichotomized into rural and urban, cut-off: 10,000 inhabitants. Socio-demographic, clinical/laboratory, and mortality rates were compared between them using descriptive tests. The influence of place of residency on disease activity at diagnosis and renal disease was examined by multivariable regression analyses. Results 122 (8.6%) of 1426 patients were rural residents. Their median age (onset, diagnosis) were 23.5 and 25.5 years; 85 (69.7%) patients were Mestizos, 28 (22.9%) Caucasians and 9 (7.4%) African-Latin Americans. Rural residents were more frequently younger at diagnosis, Mestizo and uninsured; they also had fewer years of education and a lower socioeconomic status, exhibited hypertension and renal disease more frequently, and had higher levels of disease activity at diagnosis; they used methotrexate, cyclophosphamide pulses, and hemodialysis more frequently than urban patients. Disease activity over time, renal damage, overall damage and the proportion of deceased patients were comparable in both, rural and urban patients.. In multivariable analyses, rural residency was associated with high levels of disease activity at diagnosis (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.06–2.57) and renal disease occurrence (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.00–3.11). Conclusions Rural residency associates with Mestizo ethnicity, lower socioeconomic status, and renal disease occurrence. It also plays a role on disease activity at diagnosis and kidney involvement but not on the other end-points examined. PMID:22941567

Pons-Estel, Guillermo J.; Saurit, Verónica; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Hachuel, Leticia; Boggio, Gabriela; Wojdyla, Daniel; Alfaro-Lozano, José L.; de la Torre, Ignacio García; Massardo, Loreto; Esteva-Spinetti, Maria H.; Guibert-Toledano, Marlene; Ramirez Gómez, Luis A.; Lavras Costallat, Lilian T.; Sauza del Pozo, María J.; Silveira, Luis H.; Cavalcanti, Fernando; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.

2013-01-01

373

University Requirements Writing, Rhetoric & American Culture (WRA) -http://www.msu.edu/unit/wrac/  

E-print Network

Thought WRA 195H: Writing: Major Topics in American Thought WRA 135: Writing: Public Life in America9 University Requirements Writing, Rhetoric & American Culture (WRA) - http://www.msu.edu/unit/wrac/ WRA stands for Writing, Rhetoric & American Culture. Courses in WRA satisfies the Tier One writing

374

Spain, The United States, and The American Frontier: Historias Paralelas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Partnering with The National Library of Spain, The Biblioteca Columbina y Capitular of Seville, the Library of Congress has developed this fine collection of primary and secondary historical documents that explore the complex and multifaceted history of Spanish expansion into North America from Florida, Georgia, the Carolinas, and across most of what is now the modern-day American Southwest all the way north to Alaska. The site contains digital versions of numerous texts, maps, manuscripts, and first-hand accounts composed by different individuals. Some of the highlights include "La Florida del Inca," which is an account of the Hernando de Soto expedition through Florida and the southeastern part of North America, along with the "Notes of a Military Reconnoissance from Fort Leavenworth to San Diego," published in 1848 as a special report to the United States Congress. Appropriately enough, many of the documents are available in both English and Spanish, and are searchable by page number.

375

EDITORIAL: Invited papers from the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics combined with the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics Invited papers from the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics combined with the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Advisory Committee of the 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2010) and the International Advisory Committee of the 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2010) both agreed to hold this combined meeting ICPP-LAWPP-2010 in Santiago de Chile, 8-13 August 2010, considering the celebration of the Bicentennial of Chilean Independence. ICPP-LAWPP-2010 was organized by the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) as part of its official program, within the framework of the Chilean Bicentennial activities. This event was also a scientific and academic activity of the project `Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4', supported by the National Scientific and Technological Commission, CONICYT-Chile, under grant ACT-26. The International Congress on Plasma Physics was first held in Nagoya in 1980, and was followed by: Gothenburg (1982), Lausanne (1984), Kiev (1987), New Delhi (1989), Innsbruck (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994), Nagoya (1996), Prague (1998), Quebec City (2000), Sydney (2002), Nice (2004), Kiev (2006) and Fukuoka (2008). The purpose of the Congress is to discuss recent progress and outlooks in plasma science, covering fundamental plasma physics, fusion plasmas, astrophysical plasmas, plasma applications, etc. The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics was first held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by: Medellín (1985), Santiago (1988), Buenos Aires (1990), Mexico City (1992), Foz do Iguacu (1994, also combined with ICPP), Caracas (1997), Tandil (1998), La Serena (2000), Sao Pedro (2003), Mexico City (2005) and Caracas (2007). The purpose of the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics is to provide a forum in which the achievements of the Latin American plasma physics communities can be displayed, as well as to foster collaboration between plasma scientists within the region and elsewhere. The Program of ICPP-LAWPP-2010 included, amongst others, the following topics: fundamentals of plasma physics, fusion plasmas, plasmas in astrophysics and space physics, plasma applications and technologies, complex plasmas, high energy density plasmas, quantum plasmas and laser-plasma interaction. A total of 180 delegates from 34 different countries took part in ICPP-LAWPP-2010, and 60 delegates received financial assistance from the Local Organizing Committee, thanks to the support granted by the International Union for Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) and by CCHEN. The ICPP-LAWPP-2010 Program was established by the following Program Committee: • Carlos Alejaldre, ITER • Maria Virginia Alves, Brazil • Julio Herrera, Mexico • Günter Mank, IAEA • George Morales, USA • Padma Kant Shukla, Germany • Guido Van Oost, Belgium • Leopoldo Soto, Chile (Chairman) This Program Committee was formed of selected members from the International Advisory Committee of the ICPP and from the International Advisory Committee of the LAWPP (http://www.icpp-lawpp-2010.cl/page/committees.php). In particular, plenary lectures and invited topical lectures were selected by the Program Committee from a list of nominated lectures presented by the International Advisory Committees of both ICPP and LAWPP. Also, the classification of oral and poster presentations was established by the Program Committee. The Congress included 15 invited plenary talks, 33 invited topical talks, 45 oral contributions, and 160 poster contributions. Most of the plenary and topical lectures are published in this special issue of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. The papers were refereed according to the usual standards of the journal. Prior to ICPP-LAWPP 2010, an important activity usually associated with the Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics took place. This activity was the LAWPP School on Plasma Physics, which was open to participants from all over the world, providing basic training to students and young researchers. The School was attended by 44 participants and 7 lecturers from 11 different countries. All participants rec

Soto, Leopoldo

2011-07-01

376

Internationalizing the United States Survey Course: American History for a Global Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been an unmistakably more cosmopolitan approach to American history among scholars of the past two decades. This essay addresses the issue concerning the future of United States survey course as American history moves toward internationalization. Proponents of internationalization themselves disagree about the future of the United States…

Guarneri, Carl J.

2002-01-01

377

A Teaching Guide and Experience Units K-12. Social Studies. Grade Six.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The unit experiences for the K-12 curriculum, including these for grade 6, are outlined in SO 001 139. These units include the study of the culture, history, geography, and economics of regions of Latin American and Canada. Again, the emphasis for both grade 5 and grade 6 is twofold: 1) to know his American heritage, as well as to become aware of…

Arapahoe County School District 6, Littleton, CO.

378

Women in Political Power in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter provides an overview of women's participation in parliament in Latin America. It analyses the reasons for and obstacles to women's gains in power, including socio-economic factors, public attitudes to women in leadership and the role of political parties and electoral systems. Taking these into account, it examines the affirmative action strategies adopted by Latin American countries to expand

Mala N. Htun

379

Human propionyl-CoA carboxylase beta subunit gene: exon-intron definition and mutation spectrum in Spanish and Latin American propionic acidemia patients.  

PubMed Central

Propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) is a mitochondrial biotin-dependent enzyme composed of an equal number of alpha and beta subunits. Mutations in the PCCA (alpha subunit) or PCCB (beta subunit) gene can cause the inherited metabolic disease propionic acidemia (PA), which can be life threatening in the neonatal period. Lack of data on the genomic structure of PCCB has been a significant impediment to full characterization of PCCB mutant chromosomes. In this study, we describe the genomic organization of the coding sequence of the human PCCB gene and the characterization of mutations causing PA in a total of 29 unrelated patients-21 from Spain and 8 from Latin America. The implementation of long-distance PCR has allowed us to amplify the regions encompassing the exon/intron boundaries and all the exons. The gene consists of 15 exons of 57-183 bp in size. All splice sites are consistent with the gt/ag rule. The availability of the intron sequences flanking each exon has provided the basis for implementation of screening for mutations in the PCCB gene. A total of 56/58 mutant chromosomes studied have been defined, with a total of 16 different mutations detected. The mutation spectrum includes one insertion/deletion, two insertions, 10 missense mutations, one nonsense mutation, and two splicing defects. Thirteen of these mutations correspond to those not described yet in other populations. The mutation profile found in the chromosomes from the Latin American patients basically resembles that of the Spanish patients. PMID:9683601

Rodríguez-Pombo, P; Hoenicka, J; Muro, S; Pérez, B; Pérez-Cerdá, C; Richard, E; Desviat, L R; Ugarte, M

1998-01-01

380

Laboratory-Based Surveillance of Neisseria meningitidis Isolates from Disease Cases in Latin American and Caribbean Countries, SIREVA II 2006–2010  

PubMed Central

Background Published data on the epidemiology of meningococcal disease in Latin America and the Caribbean region is scarce and, when available, it is often published in Spanish and/or in non-peer-reviewed journals, making it difficult for the international scientific community to have access. Methods Laboratory data on 4,735 Neisseria meningitidis strains was collected and reported by the National Reference Laboratories in 19 Latin American countries and the Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (CAREC) between 2006 and 2010 as part of the work carried out by the SIREVA II network. Serogroup and MIC to penicillin, rifampin and chloramphenicol were determined. Results Isolates were mainly obtained from patients <5 years, but each year around 25% of isolates came from adult patients. Serogroup distribution was highly variable among countries. Serogroup C was the main cause of disease in Brazil; the majority of disease seen in the Southern cone was caused by serogroup B, but serogroup W135 strains have increased in recent years. In the Andean and Mexico, Central America and Caribbean regions, serogroups B and C were equally present, and serogroup Y was frequently isolated. Isolates were generally susceptible to chloramphenicol, penicillin and rifampin, but almost 60% of isolates characterized in Southern cone countries presented intermediate resistance to penicillin. Five rifampin-resistant isolates have been isolated in Uruguay and Brazil. Conclusions Serogroup distribution is highly variable among countries, but some geographic structuring can be inferred from these data. Epidemiological and laboratory data are scarce among Andean and Mexico, Central America and Caribbean countries. Evaluation and implementation of corrective measures on disease surveillance and reporting systems and the implementation of molecular diagnostic techniques and molecular characterization on meningococcal isolates are advised. PMID:22952888

Ibarz-Pavón, Ana Belén; Lemos, Ana Paula; Gorla, Maria Cecilia; Regueira, Mabel; Gabastou, Jean-Marc

2012-01-01

381

Socioeconomic and Nutritional Factors Account for the Association of Gastric Cancer with Amerindian Ancestry in a Latin American Admixed Population  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer and its incidence varies worldwide, with the Andean region of South America showing high incidence rates. We evaluated the genetic structure of the population from Lima (Peru) and performed a case-control genetic association study to test the contribution of African, European, or Native American ancestry to risk for gastric cancer, controlling for the effect of non-genetic factors. A wide set of socioeconomic, dietary, and clinic information was collected for each participant in the study and ancestry was estimated based on 103 ancestry informative markers. Although the urban population from Lima is usually considered as mestizo (i.e., admixed from Africans, Europeans, and Native Americans), we observed a high fraction of Native American ancestry (78.4% for the cases and 74.6% for the controls) and a very low African ancestry (<5%). We determined that higher Native American individual ancestry is associated with gastric cancer, but socioeconomic factors associated both with gastric cancer and Native American ethnicity account for this association. Therefore, the high incidence of gastric cancer in Peru does not seem to be related to susceptibility alleles common in this population. Instead, our result suggests a predominant role for ethnic-associated socioeconomic factors and disparities in access to health services. Since Native Americans are a neglected group in genomic studies, we suggest that the population from Lima and other large cities from Western South America with high Native American ancestry background may be convenient targets for epidemiological studies focused on this ethnic group. PMID:22870209

Pereira, Latife; Zamudio, Roxana; Soares-Souza, Giordano; Herrera, Phabiola; Cabrera, Lilia; Hooper, Catherine C.; Cok, Jaime; Combe, Juan M.; Vargas, Gloria; Prado, William A.; Schneider, Silvana; Kehdy, Fernanda; Rodrigues, Maira R.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Berg, Douglas E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo

2012-01-01

382

Evolution of Framingham cardiovascular risk score in HIV-infected patients initiating EFV- and LPV/r-based HAART in a Latin American cohort  

PubMed Central

Introduction Epidemiological studies suggest that some antiretroviral drugs may contribute to increase cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients. However, data from Latin American countries are limited, as impact of HAART on cardiovascular risk remains understudied. In this context, we aimed to evaluate if 10-year Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Score (FCRS) increases in patients following exposure to EFV- and LPV/r-based HAART in a Latin American cohort. Materials and Methods Retrospective 48-week cohort study. We reviewed clinical charts of randomly selected samples of patients initiating (according to national guidelines) EFV first-line HAART and LPV/r first- or second-line (but first PI-based) HAART assisted at a reference HIV centre in Buenos Aires, Argentina (period 2004–2012). Each patient could only be included in one arm. FCRS was calculated according to National Institutes of Health risk assessment tool (http://cvdrisk.nhlbi.nih.gov/). Results A total of 357 patients were included: 249 in EFV arm and 108 in LPV/r arm (80 as first line and 28 as second line, but first PI-based HAART). Baseline characteristics (median, interquartile range): age, 38 (33–45) years; male, 247 (69%); viral load, 98200 (20550–306000) copies/mL; CD4 T-cell count, 115 (60–175) cel/µL; total cholesterol, 159 (135–194) mg/dL; HDL: 39 (31–41) mg/dL; LDL: 94 (72–123) mg/dL; current smoker, 29%; on antihypertensive drugs: 14 (4%), diabetic: 4 (1%). Most frequent accompanying nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) were 3TC (92%) and zidovudine (AZT; 76%). Baseline FCRS was low, moderate and high for 93%, 7% and 0% of patients on EFV arm and 96.7%, 1.7% and 1.7% on LPV/r arm. On EFV arm, an increase in FCRS category (low to moderate or moderate to high) was observed in 1 patient (0.9%) at 24 weeks and 6 (5,6%) at 48 weeks; 5 (4.7%) decreased category. On LPV/r arm no one varied FCRS category at 24 weeks and 2 (3.4%) increased from low to moderate at 48 weeks (no patient decreased FCRS category). Cumulative incidence of overall cardiovascular events was 1.6% on EFV and 1.8% on LPV/r arms respectively. Probability of increasing FCRS category or having a cardiovascular event did not differ between arms at a significance level of 5%. Conclusions Probability of increasing FCRS category and cardiovascular events was low and similar in patients exposed to EFV versus LPV/r-based HAART in a Latin American cohort. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01705873. PMID:25394054

Cecchini, Diego; Ines Mattioli, Maria; Cassetti, Julia; Chan, Debora; Cassetti, Isabel

2014-01-01

383

American racism and African diplomats: race and American Cold War policy in West Africa  

E-print Network

in the First World followed by the communist bloc of the Second World. Although part of the Third World, Asians and Latin Americans still ranked higher than black Africans who were at the very bottom of this world hierarchy. ' This ranking of the world... that many non-white nations felt toward former colonial powers and toward a segregated United States to promote its own ideology. Communist rhetoric during the Cold War emphasized the problems of American racism and accused the United States...

Oriabure, Stephannie Ebhota

2001-01-01

384

A mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene associated with pyrethroid resistance in Latin American Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Pyrethroids are commonly used as mosquito adulticides and evolution of resistance to these compounds is a major threat to public health. 'Knockdown resistance' to pyrethroids (kdr) is frequently caused by nonsynonymous mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel transmembrane protein (para) that reduce pyrethroid binding. Early detection of kdr is critical to the development of resistance management strategies in mosquitoes including Aedes aegypti, the most prevalent vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses. Brengues et al. described seven novel mutations in hydrophobic segment 6 of domain II of para in Ae. aegypti. Assays on larvae from strains bearing these mutations indicated reduced nerve sensitivity to permethrin inhibition. Two of these occurred in codons Iso1011 and Val1016 in exons 20 and 21 respectively. A transition in the third position of Iso1011 encoded a Met1011 replacement and a transversion in the second position of Val1016 encoded a Gly1016 replacement. We have screened this same region in 1318 mosquitoes in 32 additional strains; 30 from throughout Latin America. While the Gly1016 allele was never detected in Latin America, we found two new mutations in these same codons. A transition in the first position of codon 1011 encodes a Val replacement while a transition in the first position of codon 1016 encodes an Iso replacement. We developed PCR assays for these four mutations that can be read either on an agarose gel or as a melting curve. Selection experiments, one with deltamethrin on a field strain from Santiago de Cuba and another with permethrin on a strain from Isla Mujeres, Mexico rapidly increased the frequency of the Iso1016 allele. Bioassays of F(3) offspring arising from permethrin susceptible Val1016 homozygous parents and permethrin resistant Iso1016 homozygous parents show that Iso1016 segregates as a recessive allele in conferring kdr. Analysis of segregation between alleles at the 1011 and 1016 codons in the F(3) showed a high rate of recombination even though the two codons are only separated by a ~250 bp intron. The tools and information presented provide a means for early detection and characterization of kdr that is critical to the development of strategies for resistance management. PMID:18093007

Saavedra-Rodriguez, K; Urdaneta-Marquez, L; Rajatileka, S; Moulton, M; Flores, A E; Fernandez-Salas, I; Bisset, J; Rodriguez, M; McCall, P J; Donnelly, M J; Ranson, H; Hemingway, J; Black, W C

2007-12-01

385

Gender & Politics in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Description: This course examines the role of gender and women in Latin American politics. The course is organized around particular political and economic regime types: revolutionary, authoritarian, neoliberal and democratic. We will analyze the ways that gender is used by particular regimes and how it shapes transitions between regimes. Of special interest will be the political mobilization of women (Left

Christina Ewig

386

International migration within Latin America  

E-print Network

Europeans to S Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Costa Rica #12;International to and from Latin America's total tourism income > two-thirds of the value of petroleum exports ~ 180% of the country's agricultural American · From densely settled NE Brazil to Amazonia · From Brazilian cities to Amazonia · Also temporary

Lopez-Carr, David

387

Educational Building in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following pages include articles describing recent developments in three Latin American countries to expand public education facilities. They are followed by a report on UNESCO’s recent seminar on architecture for an inclusive education. Chile, Brazil and Venezuela have undertaken various efforts related to building new schools. Chile, as part of its educational reform, is designing new learning spaces. In

Jadille Baza; Rita de Cassia Alves Vaz; Eduardo Millán; Rodolfo Almeida

2002-01-01

388

Veterinary epidemiology in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Veterinary epidemiology began in different Latin American countries during the 1960s and the 1970s in different universities and state-run institutes of animal health. The discipline evolved as a continuation of the activities veterinarians carried out in the areas of public health, infectious diseases, biostatistics, and the planning and administration of animal health programs. From the outset, the concepts were oriented

Santiago P. Urcelay

2009-01-01

389

Control of Moderate-to-Severe Plaque Psoriasis with Efalizumab: 24-Week, Open-Label, Phase IIIb/IV Latin American Study Results  

PubMed Central

Introduction Psoriasis is a debilitating, chronic inflammatory systemic disease affecting around 2% of the South American population. Biological therapies offer the possibility of long-term therapy with improved safety and efficacy. Methods We conducted a multicentre, open-label, single-arm, Phase IIIb/IV study of adult patients (18–75 years) with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis who were candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy. Patients received efalizumab subcutaneously (1.0 mg/kg/wk). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving a Physician Global Assessment (PGA) rating of “excellent” or “cleared” at Week 24. Safety outcomes were adverse events (AEs), serious AEs (SAEs) and abnormalities on laboratory tests. Results Of 189 patients included in the intent-to-treat and safety populations, 104 (55.0%) were of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. At Week 24, 92/189 (48.7%) patients achieved or maintained a PGA rating of “excellent” or “cleared”. AEs were reported by 161/189 (85.2%) patients, SAEs by 21/189 (11.1%). One patient died during the study (meningoencephalitis). Laboratory findings were consistent with previous experience. Conclusions Efalizumab demonstrated sustained control of psoriasis up to 24 weeks in patients from Latin America, confirming results seen in Phase III studies conducted in North America and Europe. PMID:20098510

Stengel, Fernando M; Petri, Valeria; Campbell, Gladys AM; Dorantes, Gladys Leon; López, Magdalina; Galimberti, Ricardo L; Valdez, Raúl P; de Arruda, Lucia F; Guerra, Mario Amaya; Chouela, Edgardo N; Licu, Daiana

2009-01-01

390

Collaboration Networks for Innovation and Socio-economic Development: European and Latin American Perspectives on Digital Ecosystems Research, Local Readiness, Deployment Strategies and Their Policy Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International cooperation and knowledge transfer among countries has become increasingly important in the last decades, giving opportunity to a set of multiple interaction programs particularly amongst developed and developing regions. This paper discusses the feasibility of the adoption of Digital Ecosystems (DEs) in the Latin American context, based on the experience of deployment of DEs in the European Union. Different deployment experiences in the European context revealed the need of a methodology for planning and implementing DEs that resulted in a set of tools for measuring the maturity grade of localities related to the deployment of DEs and the need of an impact index for understanding its long-term implications of the dynamics of their implementation. This paper proposes a new methodological framework that integrates concepts related to ICT adoption, connectivity and absorption capacities and recognises the strong influence of social capital over these. The paper concludes with the description of a methodological tool oriented towards the mapping, evaluation and modification of scenarios related to ICT adoption process among multiple agents.

Rivera León, Lorena; Kataishi, Rodrigo

391

The Asian American market for publishers in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

sian American fiction and non-fiction have slowly emerged as a prominent art of multicultural publishing. Scholarly and popular interest in Asian American work has led to an influx of literature and non-fiction in recent years. Programs in Asian American studies are today common throughout U.S. higher education. Despite the growing interest and popularity in this body of work, however, publishers

Mindy Okura; Jill Su

2003-01-01

392

A historical overview of African American veterinarians in the United States, 1889- 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annals of veterinary medical history rarely mention the presence of African American veterinarians and other minorities. Between 1889 and 1948, records show, a meager 70 African Americans graduated from veterinary schools in the United States and Canada. It was not until the veterinary school at Tuskegee (Institute) University was established in 1945 that a significant increase in the number

Eugene W. Adams

2004-01-01

393

Mental Health Services for Native Americans in the 21st Century United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the population of American Indians and Alaska Natives continues to expand in the 21st century United States, an increasing number of professional psychologists will be called upon to provide culturally appropriate mental health services for Native American people and their communities. This article provides a general overview of contemporary tribal America before describing the legal, political, and institutional contexts

Joseph P. Gone

2004-01-01

394

Perception of tobacco use prevention and cessation among faculty members in Latin American and Caribbean dental schools.  

PubMed

Rates of tobacco use are increasing in the regions of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Unfortunately, tobacco cessation education is not a standard component of the dental curriculum in LAC dental schools. The objective of this study was to identify the perceptions of LAC dental faculty members regarding the tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC) competencies that should be addressed in the dental curricula. Dental deans and faculty completed a web-based questionnaire in Spanish, Portuguese, French, or English. The questionnaire contained 32 competencies grouped into the five A's (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange) of tobacco cessation and six supplementary questions for identifying barriers to providing TUPAC education to dental students. Respondents indicated the degree to which they believed each competency should be incorporated into the dental curricula using a five-point Likert scale ("1"?=?strongly disagree to "5"?=?strongly agree). Responses were obtained from 390 faculty members (66 % South America, 18 % Mexico/Central America, 16 % the Caribbean). Of the respondents, 2, 12, and 83 % reported that smoking was allowed in clinical environments, other indoor environments, and outdoor environments of their dental schools, respectively. Mean importance ratings for each of the competencies were as follows: Ask (4.71), Advise (4.54), Assess (4.41), Assist (4.07), and Arrange (4.01). Overall, LAC dental educators agree that TUPAC training should be incorporated into the dental curricula. Assist and Arrange competencies were rated lower, relative to other competencies. Tobacco use among dental educators and high rates of on-campus smoking could potentially pose barriers to promoting cessation interventions in the LAC dental schools. PMID:24385339

Tamí-Maury, Irene; Aigner, Carrie J; Hong, Judy; Strom, Sara; Chambers, Mark S; Gritz, Ellen R

2014-12-01

395

Survival and Clinical Behavior of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in a Latin American Cohort in Contrast to Cohorts from the Developed World  

PubMed Central

Background Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common hereditary heart disease with diverse phenotipyc, genetic expession and clinical presentations. The evolution of patients with HCM in Latin America has not been properly described being the frequency, the long-term prognosis as well as the predominant phenotypic expression still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the survival rate of HCM patients having different phenotypes in a Mexican cohort of patients. Methods Clinical and echocardiographic data obtained from 77 Mexican patients with recently diagnosed HCM were analyzed. The follow-up was of 12.5 years. Results 96.1% of patients were in functional class I/II according to the New York Heart Association, 2.6% in class III and 1.3% in class IV. Only 3.9% of them went to surgery for myectomy. During the follow-up, 17 patients (22%) died: 4/9 (44%) had apical HCM, 5/20 (25%) had obstructive septal asymmetric HCM, 6/35 (17%) had nonobstructive septal asymmetric HCM and 2/3 (15%) had concentric HCM. The survival rate was worse for patients with apical HCM, followed by those with obstructive and nonobstructive septal asymmetric HCM and patients showing concentric HCM had the best survival rates. There is significant difference in survival rates which declined in 65% in a 9 years-period. Log rank test showed significant differences (p < 0.002). Conclusion The survival rate of patients with HCM was worse in those with apical variety. The majority of patients received medical treatment. The indication for myectomy was below that observed in other international centers.

Espinola-Zavaleta, Nilda; Vega, Antonio; Basto, Diego Martínez; Alcantar-Fernández, Ana Cecilia; Guarner Lans, Veronica

2015-01-01

396

Native American Higher Education in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents a comprehensive history of higher education for American Indians. Following an introduction, chapter 2 covers the Colonial Period, from European contact to the establishment of the U.S. Government. Some of the earliest universities, most notably Harvard, Dartmouth, and William and Mary, specifically claimed to have had American

Carney, Cary Michael

397

Latin-Focus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Launched in 1998, Latin-Focus "enables executives and research analysts alike to find the latest available data from government sources, economic forecasts, market analysis covering economic performance, political risk assessments and financial market developments" in Latin American countries. The front page of the site offers current data as well as daily news and commentary. In the News and Commentary section, the title and source of the article are given, along with the subject country and language. Past articles are archived by date, although the site does note that news briefs may have expired. News may also be searched by country. Along the left side of the screen, eight countries, including Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela, are highlighted. Clicking on one of these countries will bring up a menu consisting of Economic Indicators, Economic Forecasts, Release Calendar, Economic Briefing, Fact Sheet, and Web Directory. Each of these topics links to further subtopics or a variety of short online reports and graphs. This well-designed site offers clear, basic information for those studying economic issues in Latin America.

398

Taking the China Challenge: China and the Future of Latin  

E-print Network

Taking the China Challenge: China and the Future of Latin American Economic Development Kevin P-author of the new book, The Dragon in the Room: China and the Future of Latin American Industrialization, Stanford University Press. The author would like to thank Elen Shrethsa for research as- sistance #12;Taking the China

Tufts University

399

A Randomised Trial of empiric 14-day Triple, five-day Concomitant, and ten-day Sequential Therapies for Helicobacter pylori in Seven Latin American Sites  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Evidence from Europe, Asia, and North America suggests that standard three-drug regimens of a proton pump inhibitor plus amoxicillin and clarithromycin are significantly less effective for eradicating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection than five-day concomitant and ten-day sequential four-drug regimens that include a nitroimidazole. These four-drug regimens also entail fewer antibiotic doses and thus may be suitable for eradication programs in low-resource settings. Studies are limited from Latin America, however, where the burden of H. pylori-associated diseases is high. Methods We randomised 1463 men and women ages 21–65 selected from general populations in Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Mexico (two sites) who tested positive for H. pylori by a urea breath test (UBT) to: 14 days of lansoprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin (standard therapy); five days of lansoprazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (concomitant therapy); or five days of lansoprazole and amoxicillin followed by five of lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and metronidazole (sequential therapy). Eradication was assessed by UBT six–eight weeks after randomisation. Findings In intention-to-treat analyses, the probability of eradication with standard therapy was 82·2%, which was 8·6% higher (95% adjusted CI: 2·6%, 14·5%) than with concomitant therapy (73·6%) and 5·6% higher (95% adjusted CI: ?0·04%, 11·6%) than with sequential therapy (76·5%). In analyses limited to the 1314 participants who adhered to their assigned therapy, the probabilities of eradication were 87·1%, 78·7%, and 81·1% with standard, concomitant, and sequential therapies, respectively. Neither four-drug regimen was significantly better than standard triple therapy in any of the seven sites. Interpretation Standard 14-day triple-drug therapy is preferable to five-day concomitant or ten-day sequential four-drug regimens as empiric therapy for H. pylori among diverse Latin American populations. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and US National Institutes of Health. PMID:21777974

Greenberg, E. Robert; Anderson, Garnet L.; Morgan, Douglas R.; Torres, Javier; Chey, William D.; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Dominguez, Ricardo L.; Ferreccio, Catterina; Herrero, Rolando; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo C.; Meza-Montenegro, Mercedes María; Peña, Rodolfo; Peña, Edgar M.; Salazar-Martínez, Eduardo; Correa, Pelayo; Martínez, María Elena; Valdivieso, Manuel; Goodman, Gary E.; Crowley, John J.; Baker, Laurence H.

2011-01-01

400

Current trends in Latin America and the Argentine perspective  

SciTech Connect

The authors discusses the changes that are taking place in Argentina as well as in all of Latin America today -- privatization, deregulation, and the modernization of the economy, changes which will serve to strengthen the governments and provide a better quality of life for all of them. He gives an insight into the factors which helped bring about these changes, the support they are receiving, the problems which persist, and the measures that still must be taken so that these positive changes remain in place. He offers some useful information that will perhaps contribute to their understanding of the vast area which he refers to as Latin America, and more specifically, gives a thumbnail sketch of what is happening today in the Republic of Argentina. For many years now, Latin American leaders have travelled to other parts of the world and spoken about the plans and expectations for the region`s future. When these well-intentioned projects and plans never materialized, partners and supporters in the United States and other countries were frustrated and disappointed by the failure to make things work. The author`s intention here today is to describe things as they are, not as they might be, to tell about what is already happening in the sphere of business and growth of the economies in Latin America.

Laredo, V.G. [SOCMA Americana, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

1992-12-31

401

PREVENTION OF WATERBORNE CHOLERA IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Since the outbreak of cholera in Peru in January 1991, the disease has spread to other Latin-American countries and on several occasions has been imported into the United States. n order to assess the risk of transmission of cholera by water in the United States, an ad hoc commit...

402

An Ethnic Dimension in American History: A Unit on Immigration, Industrialization, Urbanization, and Imperialism, 1880-1920. Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource guide provides a model unit in American history with ethnic content and a multiethnic perspective. The main focus is on the experience of blacks, Jews, Chicanos, Puerto Ricans, Italian Americans, Asian Americans, and native Americans from 1880 to 1920. Four themes characteristic of the period are studied: immigration and minority…

B'nai B'rith, New York, NY. Anti-Defamation League.

403

Opportunistic and Other Infections in HIV-Infected Children in Latin America Compared to a Similar Cohort in the United States  

PubMed Central

Abstract Opportunistic and other infections have declined since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in developed countries but few studies have addressed the impact of HAART in HIV-infected children from developing countries. This study examines the prevalence and incidence of opportunistic and other infections in Latin America during the HAART era. Vertically HIV-infected children enrolled in a cohort study between 2002 and 2007 were followed for the occurrence of 29 targeted infections. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were performed to calculate the prevalence of infections before enrollment and the incidence rates of opportunistic and other infections after enrollment. Comparisons were made with data from a U.S. cohort (PACTG 219C). Of the 731 vertically HIV-infected children 568 (78%) had at least one opportunistic or other infection prior to enrollment. The most prevalent infections were bacterial pneumonia, oral candidiasis, varicella, tuberculosis, herpes zoster, and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. After enrollment, the overall incidence was 23.5 per 100 person-years; the most common infections (per 100 person-years) were bacterial pneumonia (7.8), varicella (3.0), dermatophyte infections (2.9), herpes simplex (2.5), and herpes zoster (1.8). All of these incidence rates were higher than those reported in PACTG 219C. The types and relative distribution of infections among HIV-infected children in Latin America in this study are similar to those seen in the United States but the incidence rates are higher. Further research is necessary to determine the reasons for these higher rates. PMID:21902581

Alarcón, Jorge O.; Freimanis-Hance, Laura; Krauss, Margot; Reyes, Mary F.; Cardoso, Claudete Aparecida Araújo; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Cardoso, Edmundo

2012-01-01

404

21H.802 Modern Latin America, 1808-Present: Revolution, Dictatorship, Democracy, Fall 2002  

E-print Network

Selective survey of Latin American history from the wars of independence at the start of the nineteenth century to the present. Issues studied include: independence and its aftermath, slavery and its abolition, Latin America ...

Ravel, Jeffrey S.

405

An Examination of the Relationship between Acculturation Level and PTSD among Central American Immigrants in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between acculturation level and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence in Central American immigrants in the United States. Central American immigrants represent a population that is a part of the Latino/Hispanic Diaspora in the United States. By the year 2050 the United States…

Sankey, Sarita Marie

2010-01-01

406

AMERICAN STUDIES &AMERICAN STUDIES &AMERICAN STUDIES & ETHNICITYETHNICITYETHNICITY  

E-print Network

AMERICAN STUDIES &AMERICAN STUDIES &AMERICAN STUDIES & ETHNICITYETHNICITYETHNICITY This major, and social issues of the Western United States. It covers critical perspectives on regional, ethnic, class: Introduction to American Studies and Ethnicity -- Introduction to American studies and ethnic studies. Provides

Krylov, Anna I.

407

Teaching United States History with the Great American History Machine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Great American History Machine (GAHM) software, stating that it is a powerful tool for interactively accessing and exploring county-level census and election data. Outlines a course at Carnegie Mellon University (Pittsburgh) in which GAHM was used and concludes that the software enables students to approach historical problems…

Miller, David W.; Modell, John

1988-01-01

408

Hispanic-Americans in the Eastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eastern part of the United States contains a large and growing Hispanic minority. If present trends con tinue, all Hispanics will constitute the largest minority in the United States by the year 2000. Their influence is already felt in the social and political life of the nation. The largest con centration of Hispanics, mainly Puerto Ricans, in the East

Joseph P. Fitzpatrick; Lourdes Travieso Parker

1981-01-01

409

Korean Americans in the United States: Problems and Alternatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problems faced by Koreans in the United States are identified and analyzed in this paper, and some pragmatic remedies are offered. First, the acculturation process is slow--the mean of the Koreans' sojourn in the United States is only 6.5 years, whereas complete acculturation takes several generations. Second, although most Korean emigres learned…

Kim, Eugene C.

410

Latin and Magic Squares  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latin squares have existed for hundreds of years but it wasn't until rather recently that Latin squares were used in other areas such as statistics, graph theory, coding theory and the generation of random numbers as well as in the design and analysis of experiments. This note describes Latin and diagonal Latin squares, a method of constructing…

Emanouilidis, Emanuel

2005-01-01

411

Anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders in United States African-American public housing residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  African-Americans experience considerable mental healthcare disparities in the United States, but little is known about sensitive\\u000a subgroups within this population. To better understand healthcare disparities within African-Americans communities, we characterized\\u000a anxiety, mood, and substance use disorder prevalence and associated service utilization among public and non-public housing\\u000a residents.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We used data from a nationally representative sample of African-Americans recruited as part

Adam Simning; Edwin van Wijngaarden; Yeates Conwell

412

Curriculum as Colonizer: (Asian) American Education in the Current U.S. Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: The United States is currently undergoing a period of unprecedented immigration, with the majority of new arrivals coming from Asia and Latin America, not Europe. Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (APIs) represent the fastest growing racial group in the United States, and schools are again being asked to socialize newcomer…

Goodwin, A. Lin

2010-01-01

413

American Holidays for Spanish Students in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three handouts give the history of three holidays celebrated in the United States: Christmas, Halloween, and St. Valentine's Day. Each holiday is described in Spanish and in English for use in bilingual classrooms. (CFM)

Lancaster County School Board, PA.

414

The 2014 FIFA World Cup: communicable disease risks and advice for visitors to Brazil--a review from the Latin American Society for Travel Medicine (SLAMVI).  

PubMed

The next FIFA World Cup will be held in Brazil in June-July 2014. Around 600,000 international visitors and participants (as well over 3 million domestic travelers) are expected. This event will take place in twelve cities. This event poses specific challenges, given its size and the diversity of attendees, including the potential for the transmission of imported or endemic communicable diseases, especially those that have an increased transmission rate as a result of close human proximity, eg, seasonal influenza, measles but also tropical endemic diseases. In anticipation of increased travel, a panel of experts from the Latin American Society for Travel Medicine (SLAMVI) developed the current recommendations regarding the epidemiology and risks of the main communicable diseases in the major potential destinations, recommended immunizations and other preventives measures to be used as a basis for advice for travelers and travel medicine practitioners. Mosquito-borne infections also pose a challenge. Dengue poses a significant risk in all states, including the host cities. Vaccination against yellow fever is recommended except for travelers who will only visit coastal areas. Travelers visiting high-risk areas for malaria (Amazon) should be assessed regarding the need for chemoprophylaxis. Chikunguya fever may be a threat for Brazil, given the presence of Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue, and the possibility of travelers bringing the virus with them when attending the event. Advice on the correct timing and use of repellents and other personal protection measures is key to preventing these vector-borne infections. Other important recommendations for travelers should focus on preventing water and food-borne diseases such as hepatitis A, typhoid fever, giardiasis and traveler's diarrhea. Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) should be also mentioned and the use of condoms advocated. This review addresses pre-travel, preventive strategies to reduce the risk of acquiring communicable diseases during a mass gathering such as the World Cup and also reviews the spectrum of endemic infections in Brazil to facilitate the recognition and management of infectious diseases in travelers returning to their countries of origin. PMID:24821081

Gallego, Viviana; Berberian, Griselda; Lloveras, Susana; Verbanaz, Sergio; Chaves, Tania S S; Orduna, Tomas; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

2014-01-01

415

This major offers courses in ancient, medieval, and modern European history, including Russian history; in both North and Latin American history; in the  

E-print Network

(1) HIST course elective Upper Division Courses** HIST 312: The Age of the French Revolution: Urbanization in the American Experience HIST 351: The American Revolution HIST 352: The American Civil War

Rohs, Remo

416

75 FR 2933 - Notification of Pricing for United States Mint 2010 Native American $1 Coin 25-Coin Rolls, 2010...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Pricing for United States Mint 2010 Native American $1 Coin 25-Coin Rolls, 2010...announcing the prices of the 2010 Native American $1 Coin 25-Coin Rolls, the...Coin 25-Coin Rolls. The 2010 Native American $1 Coin 25-Coin Rolls...

2010-01-19

417

POL 247 / Latin American Politics 1 LATIN AMERICAN POLITICS  

E-print Network

the Revolutions in Cuba and Mexico; study the relationships between social development and regime types in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile; consider U.S. involvement in Colombia, Guatemala, and Nicaragua; and discuss, political, social, and moral ­ about the Americas and about issues of politics and human society generally

Marsh, David

418

Between the national and the universal: natural history networks in Latin America in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.  

PubMed

This essay examines contemporary Latin American historical writing about natural history from the nineteenth through the twentieth centuries. Natural history is a "network science," woven out of connections and communications between diverse people and centers of scholarship, all against a backdrop of complex political and economic changes. Latin American naturalists navigated a tension between promoting national science and participating in "universal" science. These tensions between the national and the universal have also been reflected in historical writing on Latin America. Since the 1980s, narratives that recognize Latin Americans' active role have become more notable within the renewal of the history of Latin American science. However, the nationalist slant of these approaches has kept Latin American historiography on the margins. The networked nature of natural history and Latin America's active role in it afford an opportunity to end the historiographic isolation of Latin America and situate it within world history. PMID:24783494

Duarte, Regina Horta

2013-12-01

419

Prevalence and Burden of Migraine in the United States: Data From the American Migraine Study II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective.—To describe the prevalence, sociodemographic profile, and the burden of migraine in the United States in 1999 and to compare results with the original American Migraine Study, a 1989 population-based study employing identical methods. Methods.—A validated, self-administered questionnaire was mailed to a sample of 20 000 households in the United States. Each household member with severe headache was asked to

Richard B. Lipton; Walter F. Stewart; Seymour Diamond; Merle L. Diamond; Michael Reed

2001-01-01

420

77 FR 12102 - In the Matter of: American United Gold Corporation, AMS Homecare Inc., Aucxis Corp., and CYOP...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] In the Matter of: American United Gold Corporation, AMS Homecare Inc., Aucxis Corp., and CYOP Systems...accurate information concerning the securities of American United Gold Corporation because it has not filed any periodic reports...

2012-02-28

421

The American Government Information Unit: Curriculum Alternatives for Secondary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The laboratory has created this information unit to help answer curriculum planning questions for secondary school curriculum decision makers. It tells about the products and activities of nine selected curriculum development programs by organizing the following information in chart, summary, then complete report form for quick and easy review and…

Adelson, Nancy C.; Crosby, Sandra G.

422

Teaching Units for ESL: American Holidays. A 310 Project for the State of New Mexico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of teaching suggestions and reading passages is intended primarily to teach students of English as a second language (ESL) about American holidays. An attempt was made to make the units useful for speakers of many languages, rather than primarily one language group. Some foreign holidays the students will encounter in New Mexico (such as…

Shipp, Jackie V.; And Others

423

Educational Transitions in the United States: Reflections on the American Dream  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education involves socialization so that individuals become productive members of society. At present, in the United States, educational transitions are primarily viewed in terms of their location in an outcomes-oriented process and framed as helping people achieve the American Dream, but in terms of the status quo national economic interest. But…

Crawford, Paul T.

2012-01-01

424

North American Higher Education Cooperation: Findings from Recent Research in Mexico, Canada, and the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study examined the North American Higher Education Cooperation (NAHEC) initiative from its launch in 1992 by educators and the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States through 1996, focusing on organizational, process, and actor preference "zones of influence" in international collaboration. Interviews were conducted with 13…

Oliva, Maricela

425

Field of Bachelor's Degree in the United States: 2009. American Community Survey Reports. ACS-18  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides information on fields of bachelor's degrees in the United States using data from the 2009 American Community Survey (ACS). It includes estimates of fields of bachelor's degree by demographic characteristics including age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, nativity, and educational attainment. This report also looks at geographic and…

Siebens, Julie; Ryan, Camille L.

2012-01-01

426

The United States and Gun Violence Americans owned between 220 and 280 million guns in  

E-print Network

1 Gun Shows in Context The United States and Gun Violence Americans owned between 220 and 280 20099 suggest a downward trend, which would be very good news, but rates of gun-related violence remain% to 50% of all firearms in civilian hands.10 Not surprisingly, death rates from gun violence are far

Leistikow, Bruce N.

427

E. Latunde Odeku: the first African-American neurosurgeon trained in the United States.  

PubMed

The advances of the Civil Rights movement in the mid-20th century and the success of the first African-American neurosurgeons trained at the Montreal Neurological Institute have led to a number of African-Americans receiving neurosurgery training within the United States. Unfortunately, the details regarding the first African-American neurosurgeon trained in the United States, E. Latunde Odeku, have largely remained in obscurity. Born on June 29, 1927 in Lagos, Nigeria, Dr. Odeku received his M.D. from the Howard University College of Medicine in 1954. He spent the next year at the University of Michigan under the tutelage of Edgar A. Kahn, chief of neurosurgery, and was impressive enough to be offered a residency position. From 1956 to 1960, he trained under Dr. Kahn at the University of Michigan. In 1961, he returned to Howard as a member of the neurosurgery faculty, during which time he became the second African-American to be certified by the American Board of Neurological Surgery. Although he received multiple job offers in the United States, he chose to return to Nigeria where he worked tirelessly, providing excellent neurosurgical care and discipleship until his death in 1974. The diligence and intelligence of E. Latunde Odeku, M.D., F.A.C.S., enabled him to become the first African-American neurosurgeon trained in the United States. A truly global pioneer, his selfless service in America and Nigeria opened the door for people from each country to enhance the field of neurosurgery. PMID:17415215

McClelland, Shearwood; Harris, Kimbra S

2007-04-01

428

The impact of spatial interdependence on FDI in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This analysis considers whether spatial interdependence is an important determinant of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Latin America. Two types of spatial interdependence are explored: 1) surrounding market potential and 2) spatial autocorrelation of FDI. Using a sample of 17 Latin American countries, with observations from 1986 to 2006, we find that spatial interdependence matters for world net FDI in

Luisa Blanco

2011-01-01

429

Population Declines and Priorities for Amphibian Conservation in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although dramatic amphibian population declines have been reported worldwide, our under- standing of the extent of the declines in Latin America, where amphibian diversity is high, is limited to a few well-documented studies. To better understand the geographic extent of declines, their possible causes, and the measures needed to improve Latin American scientists' ability to research the phenomenon and make

Bruce E. Young; Karen R. Lips; Jamie K. Reaser; Roberto Ibanez; Antonio W. Salas; J. Rogelio Cedeno; Luis A. Coloma; Santiago Ron; Enrique La Marca; John R. Meyer; Antonio Munoz; Federico Bolanos; Gerardo Chaves; David Romo

2001-01-01

430

Children in the Streets: Latin America's Lost Generation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of the situation of street children and youth in urban Latin America. Findings from numerous studies throughout the region are synthesized. Suggests that economic factors underlie the marginalization of vast numbers of Latin American children. The result is the exclusion of many of the region's children from meaningful…

Rizzini, Irene; Lusk, Mark W.

1995-01-01

431

Children in the streets: Latin America's lost generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents an overview of the situation of street children and youth in urban Latin America. Findings from numerous studies throughout the region, including original studies by the authors, are synthesized. The authors suggest that economic factors underlie the marginalization of vast numbers of Latin American children. The result is the exclusion of many of the region's children from

Mark W. Lusk

1995-01-01

432

Income Inequality and Political Instability in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

I analyze the impact of income inequality on political instability, and how political instability affects investment in Latin America. I use a sample of 20 Latin American countries from 1960 to 2000. To determine which dimension of political instability affects physical capital accumulation, I use four different events of political instability: adverse regime change, ethnic war, genocide, and revolutionary war.

Luisa Blanco Raynal

2008-01-01

433

Amphibian Population Declines in Latin America: A Synthesis1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of global amphibian biodiversity has been well documented in recent years. The greatest information from Latin America came from countries such as Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador, and Puerto Rico. The five papers in this special section illustrate the critical status of Latin American amphibians and further demonstrate certain commonalities of amphibian population declines within the region. These studies

Karen R. Lips; Patricia A. Burrowes; Joseph R. Mendelson; Gabriela Parra-Olea

2005-01-01

434

International News in United States Media: Myths, Stereotypes and Realities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research conducted during the past 20 years reveals that, except for the "New York Times,""Christian Science Monitor," and "Wall Street Journal," United States daily newspapers are not known for outstanding international news coverage; that European, English, Canadian, Latin American, and Asian newspapers use disproportionately larger amounts of…

Lent, John A.

435

Is Social Change Fundable? NGOS and Theories and Practices of Social Change Paper presented to LASA Panel on Funding Social Change: Latin American Movements and International Donor Agencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on experience over three decades of observing, advising and challenging northern NGOs who claim commitment to progressive social change in Latin America. International and national NGOs have come under critical scrutiny over the last decade, often with negative conclusions. I have frequently contributed to the critiques (Pearce, 1993, 1997, 1999), particularly as I have watched organizations

Jenny Pearce

436

Assimilation or Consciousness: Perceptions of U.S. Society among Recent Latin American Immigrants to the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recently arrived Cuban and Mexican immigrants were interviewed concerning their perceptions of discrimination against them in U.S. society. Results were consistent with a conflict theory of social relations. (GC)

Portes, Alejandro; And Others

1980-01-01

437

Contemporary American Success Stories: Famous People of Hispanic Heritage. Volume I. A Mitchell Lane Multicultural Biography Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series presents biographical sketches of famous Americans of Hispanic descent. The biographies in the projected eight volume series for elementary school children represent the diversity of Hispanic heritage in the United States. Those featured are contemporary figures with national origins in the United States or Latin America, with careers…

Marvis, Barbara J.

438

[Body dissatisfaction in Latin and Spanish adolescents].  

PubMed

The present paper has two aims: firstly to analyse and compare body dissatisfaction of Spanish and Latin adolescents, and secondly to determine the impact of sociocultural factors and Body Mass Index (BMI) on dissatisfaction. The sample is made up of 403 adolescents, 191 Spaniards and 212 Latin-Americans, all of them students in Basque Country high schools. They were assessed by the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), the CIMEC-26 (a questionnaire designed to assess the influence of the aesthetic body model), and the BMI. The results show that the Latin adolescents have a higher level of body dissatisfaction than the Spanish. This is due to the greater influence in the Latin adolescents of sociocultural factors. PMID:18206075

Rodríguez, Susana; Cruz, Soledad

2008-02-01

439

The Role of Disordered-Eating Cognitions and Psychological Flexibility on Distress in Asian American and European American College Females in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated whether different forms of disordered-eating-related cognitions and psychological flexibility were associated with psychological distress among female Asian American and European American college students in the United States. Disordered-eating-related cognitions examined in the present study included thoughts (a)…

Masuda, Akihiko; Le, Jane; Cohen, Lindsey L.

2014-01-01

440

Is Latin America an Optimum Currency Area? Evidence from a Structural Vector Autoregression Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the advisability of a monetary union in Latin America applying the theory of optimum currency areas (OCA). The analysis is based on the traditional OCA criteria and it suggests that there is no evidence for any monetary integration in Latin America even at a sub-regional level. Latin American countries have evidenced a low degree of trade integration

Foresti Pasquale

2011-01-01

441

"Manana Is Soon Enough for Me": Latin America through Tin Pan Alley's Prism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to examine the vision of Latin America transmitted to the American public in Tin Pan Alley's popular songs in the first half of the twentieth century, a study analyzed nearly 50 songs. The songs were grouped into five categories: (1) songs which describe Latin locales; (2) songs which are constructed around a Latin woman's name; (3) songs…

Aiex, Nola Kortner

442

The Demography of Urban Poverty: North and Latin America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The similar structure of present-day North American cities makes it impossible to study urban poverty as anything other than a concomitant of the possession of certain demographic characteristics the penalty for which is imposed on a society-wide level. By shifting our focus, however, to incorporate both Latin American cities and North American

Farkas, George

443

Distribution strategies in emerging markets : case studies in Latin America  

E-print Network

Defining sales and distribution schemes to serve a Latin American country is more of an art than science. The process of designing and selecting distribution channels is quite challenging and it demands an in-depth ...

Garza Ramírez, Jaime

2011-01-01

444

Princeton in Latin America Fellows (20132014) Argemira Florez  

E-print Network

on criminal justice, immigration law, racial profiling, and national security in U.S. and Latin American populations in São Paulo, and interning at criminal justice and immigration NGOs and firms. This year, Deena

445

Latin Curriculum Standards. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Delaware's state standards for the Latin curriculum in the public schools are presented. An introductory section outlines the goals of the Latin program for reading, cultural awareness, grammar, writing, and oral language and briefly discusses the philosophy of and approaches to Latin instruction in elementary and middle schools. Three subsequent…

Delaware State Dept. of Public Instruction, Dover.

446

Constitutionalism Through the Looking Glass of Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article explores the following question: why did constitutionalism in Latin America take a different path than in the United States? Constitutions were adopted throughout the New World in the wake of independence movements in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries to effectuate republican government. Yet constitutionalism in Latin America led to dictatorship whereas constitutionalism in the United States

Miguel Schor

2005-01-01

447

Mental health policy developments in Latin America.  

PubMed Central

New assessment guidelines for measuring the overall impact of mental health problems in Latin America have served as a catalyst for countries to review their mental health policies. Latin American countries have taken various steps to address long-standing problems such as structural difficulties, scarce financial and human resources, and social, political, and cultural obstacles in the implementation of mental health policies and legislation. These policy developments, however, have had uneven results. Policies must reflect the desire, determination, and commitment of policy-makers to take mental health seriously and look after people's mental health needs. This paper describes the development of mental health policies in Latin American countries, focusing on published data in peer-reviewed journals, and legislative change and its implementation. It presents a brief history of mental health policy developments, and analyzes the basis and practicalities of current practice. PMID:10885167

Alarcón, R. D.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. A.

2000-01-01

448

Overall evaluation of Skylab imagery for mapping of Latin America  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Skylab imagery is both desired and needed by the Latin American catographic agencies. The imagery is cost beneficial for the production of new mapping and maintenance of existing maps at national topographic series scales. If this information was available on a near time routine coverage basis, it would provide an excellent additional data base to the Latin American cartographic community, specifically Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Paraguay, and Venezuela.

Staples, J. E.; Eoldan, J. J. M.; Fernandez, O. W.; Alves, M.; Mutis, J.; Fletcher, A. G.; Ferrero, M. B.; Morell, J. J. H.; Romero, L. E.; Garcia, J. A. G. (principal investigators)

1975-01-01

449

Fermilab-Latin America collaboration  

SciTech Connect

Fermilab`s program of collaboration with Latin America was initiated by then-Director Leon Lederman about 1980. His goal was to aid Latin American physics, and particularly its particle physics; this latter aim is in keeping with the Laboratory`s particle physics mission. The reasons for collaboration between institutions in the US and Latin America are many, including geographic and cultural, together with the existence of many talented scientists and many centers of excellence in the region. There are also broader reasons; for example, it has been stated frequently that physics is the basis of much technology, and advanced technology is a necessity for a country`s development. There is nothing unique about Fermilab`s program; other US institutions can carry out similar activities, and some have carried out individual items in the past. On the Latin American side, such collaboration enables institutions there to carry out forefront physics research, and also to have the advantages of particle physics spin-offs, both in expertise in related technologies and in scientist training. In addition to particle physics, collaboration is possible in many other related areas. Although particle physics is frequently viewed as {open_quotes}big science{close_quotes}, all of the large research groups in the field are composed of many small university groups, each of which contributes to the experiment, the analysis and the physics. Fermilab is an international laboratory, open to all users; a research proposal is accepted on scientific merit and technical competence, not on the country of origin of the scientists making the proposal. Currently, of Fermilab`s approximately 1400 users, about 30% are from non-US institutions. It should be noted here that Fermilab`s funds, which come from the US government, are for particle physics only; however, there is some flexibility in interpretation of this.

Rubinstein, R.

1994-12-31

450

[Peasant women and agrarian life in Latin America].  

PubMed

The great agrarian transformation in favor of capitalist agriculture that has occurred over the past few decades in the dependent countries of Latin America has modified the traditional production of foodstuffs, the mode of work, and the social reproduction of peasant women belonging to the social groups with the lowest levels of income. Policies of centralized industrialization which have excluded agricultural manpower have affected Latin American women, accounting for their greater tendency to migrate to cities. Migrant peasant women participate in 3 principal characteristics of the dependent development of Latin America: the rural exodus, the burgeoning of the tertiary sector, and marginality. The consequences of unequal capitalist agrarian development in the formation of a female rural proletariat have not been well studies, resulting in a tendency to disregard the heterogeneity of situations in which peasant women find themselves and to confuse 3 aspects of their condition as members of rural families, as workers, and as women. As family members, peasant women find family income declining, leading to increases in their unpaid labor time and declining standards of nutrition and health. The agrarian economies of Latin America and the Caribbean show a certain homogeneity in the sexual division of labor. Their historical development after their insertion as colonial regions in the world economy produced 3 well-defined forms of agricultural economy: haciendas, plantations, and peasant communities, each with its own forms of family and kinship relationships which reflected adjustments between sexual division of labor and production or manpower needs. Concerning the participation of women, there are curerntly 3 specific types of agricultural production characteristic of Latin America and the Caribbean: peasant family units usually belonging to communities in which women primarily perform the tasks of "reproduction", rural family units which rely on the external labor market for a large part of their consumption, and family units or independent women who rely entirely on the labor market for survival. Recent studies have shown that the subordination of women antedates capitalism, even in situations such as indigenous communities where women have more favorable positions than in fully capitalist societies. In all cases, women are responsible for the unpaid work, but their participation in production activities depends on the patterns of manpower recruitment and the social position of the household. Women replace men when shortages of male workers occur, but men never replace women when shortages of female workers occur. Census figures demonstrate that there is no linear and homogeneous process of proletarianization of displaced peasant women. The most usual forms are working as agricultural laborers, seasonsl or temporaty migration for agricultural work, irregular or temporary salaried work, or petty commerce. PMID:12267243

Arizpe, L

1985-01-01

451

Managed care in Latin America: the new common sense in health policy reform.  

PubMed

This article presents the results of the comparative research project, "Managed Care in Latin America: Its Role in Health System Reform." Conducted by teams in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, and the United States, the study focused on the exportation of managed care, especially from the United States, and its adoption in Latin American countries. Our research methods included qualitative and quantitative techniques. The adoption of managed care reflects the process of transnationalization in the health sector. Our findings demonstrate the entrance of the main multinational corporations of finance capital into the private sector of insurance and health services, and these corporations' intention to assume administrative responsibilities for state institutions and to secure access to medical social security funds. International lending agencies, especially the World Bank, support the corporatization and privatization of health care services, as a condition of further loans to Latin American countries. We conclude that this process of change, which involves the gradual adoption of managed care as an officially favored policy, reflects ideologically based discourses that accept the inexorable nature of managed care reforms. PMID:11281407

Iriart, C; Merhy, E E; Waitzkin, H

2001-04-01

452

The Avalon Project at Yale Law School: Treaties Between the United States and Native Americans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since 1996, the Avalon Project at the Yale Law School has provided a number of thematic collections of various important legal documents such as those dealing with German-American diplomatic relations, the Federalist Papers, and Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws of England. This particular new collection is dedicated to providing the full text (in the HTML format) of approximately 30 treaties signed between various Native American groups and the United States government between 1778 and 1868. Here visitors can peruse the text of such treaties as the 1784 treaty with the Six Nations, the 1791 treaty with the Cherokee, and the 1852 treaty signed with the Apache. Along with browsing a list of the treaties, users also have the option of using the site's search engine to search all of the Native American treaties available here.

453

School Facility Projects in Latin America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many Latin American countries are undertaking projects, in line with practices disseminated by PEB, to share school facilities with the local community, to adapt traditional schools for students with disabilities, and to collaborate with private companies to finance educational buildings. The articles below describe current initiatives in five…

Berk, Jeffrey; de Cassia Alves Vaz, Rita; Honorio, Joao; Baza, Jadille; Origel, Ricardo; Gomez, Fredys

2004-01-01

454

Rethinking the University in Latin America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts are being made to break away from the old structural pattern of the Latin American university which has become distorted and dysfunctional from the point of view of the interest of the people. Some recent attempts at restructuring provide guidelines for future action and planning. (Author/JH)

Ribeiro, Darcy

1974-01-01

455

OCLC in Latin America and the Caribbean.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on academic and research library networking in Latin American and Caribbean countries (LAC), where a high level of library service has been achieved. Discusses the information challenges of the 1980s and 1990s to LAC countries; networking in LAC; Brazilian information services; the University of Sao Paulo integrated library system…

Krzyzanowski, Rosaly Favero; Imperatriz, Ines Maria de Morais

1998-01-01

456

Peggy A. Lovell - Race, Gender, and Work in São Paulo, Brazil, 1960-2000 - Latin American Research Review 41:3  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study relies on Brazilian census data from 1960–2000 to analyze long-term trends in racial and gender wage disparities in the urban labor market of São Paulo, one of Latin America's most dynamic economies. Afro-Brazilians and women have made remarkable progress over the past four decades in securing hard-won legal rights and in gaining access to the highest levels of

Peggy A. Lovell

457

Unlocking the development potential of community forest enterprises: findings from a comparative study in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past years, community forestry and the development of community forest enterprises (CFEs) have been advocated as means to achieve the dual goal of poverty reduction and forest conservation. However, there is little evidence that CFEs are living up to their expectations. We carried out 10 case studies in Asia (India), Africa (Gambia), Latin America (Bolivia, Guatemala, and Mexico),

Dietmar Stoian; Jason Donovan; Nigel Pooler

2009-01-01

458

The meanings of universal health care in latin america.  

PubMed

In Latin America, competing definitions of universal health care are found. Variants include traditional universalism, basic universalism, and minimal or residual universalism. These definitions are informed by European traditions, a renewed emphasis on equity among Latin American social policy experts, and World Bank strategy. This essay explores these definitions as well as areas of overlap and points of difference between and among them using examples from several Latin American countries. The most important difference concerns the preventive and curative services not covered by the benefits packages of minimal universal programs, a gap expected to grow increasingly costly for patients. PMID:25480852

Clark, Mary A

2015-02-01

459

Repatriation in the United States: The Current State of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Repatriation in the United States today is synonymous with the passage of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Although repatriations of Native American ancestral remains and cultural objects certainly occurred--and continue to occur--outside of the purview of NAGPRA, this law remains the centerpiece of repatriation…

Daehnke, Jon; Lonetree, Amy

2011-01-01

460

‘The Right to Enter Every Other State’ – The Supreme Court and African American Mobility in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1857, U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger B. Taney stated in the Dred Scott case that if one African American was free to move unhindered throughout the United States, then all African Americans, enslaved or otherwise, would have ‘the right to enter every other State’. Such a situation, he argued, was untenable. The Supreme Court thus suggested that if

Euan Hague

2010-01-01

461

Tobacco industry success in preventing regulation of secondhand smoke in Latin America: the "Latin Project"  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine the tobacco industry's strategy to avoid regulations on secondhand smoke exposure in Latin America. Methods: Systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet. All available materials, including confidential reports regarding research, lobbying, and internal memoranda exchanged between the tobacco industry representatives, tobacco industry lawyers, and key players in Latin America. Results: In Latin America, Philip Morris International and British American Tobacco, working through the law firm Covington & Burling, developed a network of well placed physicians and scientists through their "Latin Project" to generate scientific arguments minimising secondhand smoke as a health hazard, produce low estimates of exposure, and to lobby against smoke-free workplaces and public places. The tobacco industry's role was not disclosed. Conclusions: The strategies used by the industry have been successful in hindering development of public health programmes on secondhand smoke. Latin American health professionals need to be aware of this industry involvement and must take steps to counter it to halt the tobacco epidemic in Latin America. PMID:12432156

Barnoya, J; Glantz, S

2002-01-01

462

19 CFR 148.88 - Certain representatives to and officers of the United Nations and the Organization of American...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...government of the member state concerned, the Secretary-General of the Organization of American States, and the Government of the United States of America. (b) Absence of special request. In the absence of a special request from the...

2010-04-01

463

19 CFR 148.88 - Certain representatives to and officers of the United Nations and the Organization of American...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...government of the member state concerned, the Secretary-General of the Organization of American States, and the Government of the United States of America. (b) Absence of special request. In the absence of a special request from the...

2012-04-01

464

19 CFR 148.88 - Certain representatives to and officers of the United Nations and the Organization of American...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...government of the member state concerned, the Secretary-General of the Organization of American States, and the Government of the United States of America. (b) Absence of special request. In the absence of a special request from the...

2014-04-01

465

19 CFR 148.88 - Certain representatives to and officers of the United Nations and the Organization of American...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...government of the member state concerned, the Secretary-General of the Organization of American States, and the Government of the United States of America. (b) Absence of special request. In the absence of a special request from the...

2013-04-01

466

19 CFR 148.88 - Certain representatives to and officers of the United Nations and the Organization of American...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...government of the member state concerned, the Secretary-General of the Organization of American States, and the Government of the United States of America. (b) Absence of special request. In the absence of a special request from the...

2011-04-01

467

Public–private wage differential and gender gap in Latin America: Spoiled bureaucrats and exploited women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a rich collection of household surveys to investigate the wage differential between the public and private sectors in 13 Latin American countries. It also studies how the sector of employment affects the gender wage gap. Contrary to what is commonly thought, it is found that, in the majority of Latin American countries, there is a premium associated

Ugo Panizza; Christine Zhen-Wei Qiang

2005-01-01

468

Educational Research in Latin America: A Response to Akkari and Perez.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The general analysis of Latin American educational research by A. Akkari and S. Perez seems to describe a homogeneity among Latin American countries without specifying factors peculiar to each country. A more rigorous approach is needed to describe research in more than 20 independent countries. (SLD)

Narodowski, Mariano

1999-01-01

469

The Cocaine Connection: Drug Trafficking and Inter-American Relations. Headline Series No. 290.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally U.S. drug policy and antidrug action has been focused on blaming traffickers and fighting suppliers. Only recently have people in the United States begun to acknowledge the part played by U.S. demand for illegal drugs. Past antidrug policy emphasized the foreign origin of the drugs, and tended to blame Latin American producers and…

Collett, Merrill

470

Confronting the chronic disease burden in Latin America and the Caribbean.  

PubMed

The United States is not alone in facing increasing incidence and prevalence of chronic conditions as a contributor to poorer health and growing health care spending. Latin America and the Caribbean face similar burdens, but they have fewer resources with which to respond. Much remains to be done to cope with the emerging public health and fiscal threat posed by increases in chronic conditions. However, a set of studies sponsored by the Inter-American Development Bank bring good news on potentially cost-effective strategies to improve coverage and outcomes. They should help move the growing epidemic of chronic diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean to the forefront of health policy in the region. PMID:21134914

Glassman, Amanda; Gaziano, Thomas A; Bouillon Buendia, César Patricio; Guanais de Aguiar, Frederico C

2010-12-01

471

Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, 18) L1 virus-like-particle vaccine in Latin American women.  

PubMed

The prevalence of HPV infection in Latin America is among the highest in the world. A quadrivalent (types 6/11/16/18) human papillomavirus L1 virus-like-particle vaccine has been shown to be 95-100% effective in preventing HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical and genital disease in women naive to vaccine HPV types. A total of 6,004 female subjects aged 9-24 were recruited from Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala and Peru. Subjects were randomized to immunization with intramuscular (deltoid) injections of HPV vaccine or placebo at enrollment (day 1), month 2 and month 6. Among vaccinated subjects in the per-protocol population from Latin America, quadrivalent HPV vaccine was 92.8 and 100% effective in preventing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and external genital lesions related to vaccine HPV types, respectively. These data support vaccination of adolescents and young adults in the region, which is expected to greatly reduce the burden of cervical and genital cancers, precancers and genital warts. PMID:18000825

Perez, Gonzalo; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; García, Patricia J; Muñoz, Nubia; Villa, Luisa L; Bryan, Janine; Taddeo, Frank J; Lu, Shuang; Esser, Mark T; Vuocolo, Scott; Sattler, Carlos; Barr, Eliav

2008-03-15

472

Current status and future perspectives of immunotherapy in Latin America and Cuba.  

PubMed

Most Latin-American countries use subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) extracts from the United States and Europe and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) from Europe, with the exception of Argentina, Brazil, Cuba and Mexico. The number of researches on immunotherapy (IT) in Latin America has increased extensively in the last years. Only few Latin American countries have their own guidelines on IT, and, in general, the economic resources for medical research on IT are still low in the area. A global approach for the future of IT in Latin America includes to improve standardization, quality control and the production of allergen products, to develop IT guidelines and clinical investigation by the highest number of countries, to improve the regulatory status for allergens products in the area, and to expand IT accessibility for low-income patients. In Cuba, the first registered allergen vaccines were developed and registered in 2006: a standardized (in biologic units) and freeze dried product for SCIT, with a sublingual version developed in 2009. As much as 23.000 IT treatments were applied in 2011, all provided to patients free of charge. In 2012, Cuban researchers developed an IT vaccine with adjuvant for subcutaneous route, which uses Neisseria meningitidis proteoliposome as an adjuvant, added to the purified Dermatophagoides siboney major allergens: Der s1 and Der s2. Since December 2012, this vaccine is in Phase I clinical trial, evaluating its safety, tolerability and immunogenicity in asthmati